Sample records for young adult rat

  1. Micro-CT analysis of myocardial blood supply in young and adult rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Heather M.; Beighley, Patricia E.; Eaker, Diane R.; Vercnocke, Andrew J.; Ritman, Erik L.

    2009-02-01

    This study addresses whether the vasculature grows in proportion to the myocardium as the rat heart develops. The volume of myocardium and coronary vessels were estimated from micro-CT images of the hearts injected with Microfil(R) contrast agent. Young (n=5) and adult (n=5) hearts were scanned, resulting in 3D images comprised of 20?m on-a-side cubic voxels. The myocardial muscle and vessel lumen volumes were measured for all vessels 40 to 320?m in diameter by an erosion and dilation method applied to the binary images in which the contrast in the vessels were assigned "1" and all non-opacified entities were assigned "0". The average total muscle volume increases by 50%, 129.4 to 237.4mm3, from young to adult rats, while the luminal volume increases by 10%, 16.6 to 18.6mm3. The vessel volume is 12% of the total muscle volume in young and 8% in adults. For a given vessel volume, the muscle volume in the young is 82% of the muscle volume in adults. We conclude that as the heart matures, the myocardium grows more rapidly than the vasculature. This may result in greater angles of separation between vessel branches, and the increase in myocardial coronary volume. The ratio suggests either higher blood flow velocity or a lower metabolic rate in adults.

  2. Adaptations of young adult rat cortical bone to 14 days of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vailas, A. C.; Vanderby, R., Jr.; Martinez, D. A.; Ashman, R. B.; Ulm, M. J.; Grindeland, R. E.; Durnova, G. N.; Kaplanskii, A.

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether mature humeral cortical bone would be modified significantly by an acute exposure to weightlessness, adult rats (110 days old) were subjected to 14 days of microgravity on the COSMOS 2044 biosatellite. There were no significant changes in peak force, stiffness, energy to failure, and displacement at failure in the flight rats compared with ground-based controls. Concentrations and contents of hydroxyproline, calcium, and mature stable hydroxylysylpyridinoline and lysylpyridinoline collagen cross-links remained unchanged after spaceflight. Bone lengths, cortical and endosteal areas, and regionl thicknesses showed no significant differences between flight animals and ground controls. The findings suggest that responsiveness of cortical bone to microgravity is less pronounced in adult rats than in previous spaceflight experiments in which young growing animals were used. It is hypothesized that 14 days of spaceflight may not be sufficient to impact the biochemical and biomechanical properties of cortical bone in the mature rat skeleton.

  3. Adrenalectomy Decreases Nerve Growth Factor in Young Adult Rat Hippocampus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Aloe

    1989-01-01

    The effect of adrenalectomy on the level of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the hippocampus and on the distribution of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in forebrain cholinergic neurons of developing rats was studied. Biological and immunohistochemical determinations indicated that in 40-day-old rats, adrenalectomy reduced the NGF level in the hippocampus and the choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the septal lateral bands. Furthermore,

  4. Chronic nicotine treatment prevents neuronal loss in neocortex resulting from nucleus basalis lesions in young adult and aged rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra J. Socci; Gary W. Arendash

    1996-01-01

    In both young adult and aged rats, we tested the ability of chronically administered nicotine to rescue neocortical neurons\\u000a from transneuronal degeneration resulting 5 mo after ibotenic acid (IBO) lesioning of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis\\u000a (NBM). Young adult (2–3 mo-old) and aged (20–22-mo-old) rats were given unilateral infusions of IBO (5 ?g\\/1 ?L) at two sites\\u000a within the NBM. Following

  5. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp ®) improves recognition memory in adult rats that have sustained bilateral ventral hippocampal lesions as neonates or young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Hori; K. J. Powell; G. S. Robertson

    2007-01-01

    Recognition memory was assessed in adult rats that received bilateral injections of saline (sham lesions) or ibotenic acid (lesioned) in the ventral hippocampus as neonates (postnatal day 7, PD7) or young adult (42 days of age, PD42) using the Novel Object Recognition Test (NORT). Normal or sham-lesioned rats were able to distinguish novel from familiar objects over a 0.5 and

  6. Trypanosoma cruzi: Populations bearing opposite virulence induce differential expansion of circulating CD3 +CD4 ?CD8 ? T cells and cytokine serum levels in young and adult rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrícia R. A. Nagib; Walderez O. Dutra; Egler Chiari; Conceição R. S. Machado

    2007-01-01

    The JG strain is the least virulent while the CL-Brener clone is one of the most virulent Trypanosoma cruzi populations in young rats. In this study, we determined that the parasitemia peak values in CL-Brener clone-infected adult rats were 50-fold lower than in young rats and that mortality was null as compared to 45% death in young rats. Low parasitemia,

  7. Comparison of the penetration of 14 pesticides through the skin of young and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Shah, P V; Fisher, H L; Sumler, M R; Monroe, R J; Chernoff, N; Hall, L L

    1987-01-01

    In vivo percutaneous absorption of 14 pesticides was studied in young (33-d-old) and adult (82-d-old) female Fischer 344 rats, at three different dose levels. Carbon-14-labeled pesticides in acetone were applied to previously clipped middorsal skin. The treatment area was 2-3% of the body surface area. Penetration of the pesticides during a 72-h period ranged from approximately 1%-90%, depending on compound, dose, and age of animal. No clear age-related pattern of dermal absorption among compounds was found. Only chlordecone, folpet, and permethrin did not show significant age-dependent differences in skin penetration. Atrazine, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and hexachloro-biphenyl had greater absorption in the young, while carbofuran, captan, dinoseb, DSMA, MSMA nicotine, and parathion displayed greater absorption in the adult. The majority of the compounds showed dose-dependent penetration. The dose-response curves for penetration were not parallel for 8 of the 14 compounds studied. PMID:3586065

  8. Effects of thyroid hormones on the antioxidative status in the uterus of young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingfa; Wei, Quanwei; Fedail, Jaafar Sulieman; Shi, Fangxiong; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Watanabe, Gen

    2015-06-20

    Thyroid hormones and oxidative stress play significant roles in the normal functioning of the female reproductive system. Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical synthesized by nitric oxide synthases (NOS), participates in the regulation of thyroid function and is also a good biomarker for assessment of the oxidative stress status. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate effects of thyroid hormones on uterine antioxidative status in young adult rats. Thirty immature female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, hypothyroid (hypo-T) and hyperthyroid (hyper-T). The results showed the body weights decreased significantly in both the hypo-T and hyper-T groups and that uterine weights were decreased significantly in the hypo-T group. The serum concentrations of total triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), as well as estradiol (E2), were significantly decreased in the hypo-T group, but increased in the hyper-T group. The progesterone (P4) concentrations in the hypo- and hyperthyroid rats markedly decreased. Immunohistochemistry results provided evidence that thyroid hormone nuclear receptor ?/? (TR?/?) and three NOS isoforms were located in different cell types of rat uteri. The NO content and total NOS and inducible NOS (iNOS) activities were markedly diminished in the hypo-T group but increased in the hyper-T group. Moreover, the activities of both glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) exhibited significant decreases and increases in the hypo-T and hyper-T groups, respectively. The malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in both the hypo-T and hyper-T groups showed a significant increase. Total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity in the hypo- and hyper-T rats markedly decreased. In conclusion, these results indicated that thyroid hormones have an important influence on the modulation of uterine antioxidative status. PMID:25797533

  9. Effects of thyroid hormones on the antioxidative status in the uterus of young adult rats

    PubMed Central

    KONG, Lingfa; WEI, Quanwei; FEDAIL, Jaafar Sulieman; SHI, Fangxiong; NAGAOKA, Kentaro; WATANABE, Gen

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones and oxidative stress play significant roles in the normal functioning of the female reproductive system. Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical synthesized by nitric oxide synthases (NOS), participates in the regulation of thyroid function and is also a good biomarker for assessment of the oxidative stress status. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate effects of thyroid hormones on uterine antioxidative status in young adult rats. Thirty immature female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, hypothyroid (hypo-T) and hyperthyroid (hyper-T). The results showed the body weights decreased significantly in both the hypo-T and hyper-T groups and that uterine weights were decreased significantly in the hypo-T group. The serum concentrations of total triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), as well as estradiol (E2), were significantly decreased in the hypo-T group, but increased in the hyper-T group. The progesterone (P4) concentrations in the hypo- and hyperthyroid rats markedly decreased. Immunohistochemistry results provided evidence that thyroid hormone nuclear receptor ?/? (TR?/?) and three NOS isoforms were located in different cell types of rat uteri. The NO content and total NOS and inducible NOS (iNOS) activities were markedly diminished in the hypo-T group but increased in the hyper-T group. Moreover, the activities of both glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) exhibited significant decreases and increases in the hypo-T and hyper-T groups, respectively. The malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in both the hypo-T and hyper-T groups showed a significant increase. Total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity in the hypo- and hyper-T rats markedly decreased. In conclusion, these results indicated that thyroid hormones have an important influence on the modulation of uterine antioxidative status. PMID:25797533

  10. Effects of dimethylarsinic and dimethylarsinous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of young and adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, Katharina [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)], E-mail: katharina.krueger@uni-muenster.de; Repges, Hendrik [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Hippler, Joerg; Hartmann, Louise M.; Hirner, Alfred V. [Institut fuer Umweltanalytik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 3-5, D-45141 Essen (Germany); Straub, Heidrun [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Binding, Norbert [Institut fuer Arbeitsmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 51, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Musshoff, Ulrich [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    In this study, the effects of pentavalent dimethylarsinic acid ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}AsO(OH); DMA{sup V}) and trivalent dimethylarsinous acid ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}As(OH); DMA{sup III}) on synaptic transmission generated by the excitatory Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse were tested in hippocampal slices of young (14-21 day-old) and adult (2-4 month-old) rats. Both compounds were applied in concentrations of 1 to 100 {mu}mol/l. DMA{sup V} had no effect on the amplitudes of evoked fEPSPs or the induction of LTP recorded from the CA1 dendritic region either in adult or in young rats. However, application of DMA{sup III} significantly reduced the amplitudes of evoked fEPSPs in a concentration-dependent manner with a total depression following application of 100 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} in adult and 10 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} in young rats. Moreover, DMA{sup III} significantly affected the LTP-induction. Application of 10 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} resulted in a complete failure of the postsynaptic potentiation of the fEPSP amplitudes in slices taken both from adult and young rats. The depressant effect was not reversible after a 30-min washout of the DMA{sup III}. In slices of young rats, the depressant effects of DMA{sup III} were more pronounced than in those taken from adult ones. Compared to the (absent) effect of DMA{sup V} on synaptic transmission, the trivalent compound possesses a considerably higher neurotoxic potential.

  11. Quantitation and localization of 204thallium in the central and peripheral nervous system of adult and young rats.

    PubMed

    Ducket, S; Hiller, D; Ballas, S K

    1983-01-01

    A single dose of 204Tl, representing about 2-3 ng 204Tl per gm/wt was injected into young and adult rats. Rats were killed daily over a period of 10 days and the levels of Tl were estimated in nervous and other tissues. The greatest concentrations of Tl (peak concentration time - PCT) in all tissues in the adult rat occurred 24 hours after injection. In the young rat PCT in the sciatic nerve and spinal cord were 48 hours after injection whereas it occurred 24 hours after injection in the brain and somatic organs. There were differences in biological half-lives of the organs in the young as compared to the adult rats. Tl level in all organs except the kidney, were about 2 pg/mg of tissue. It was concentrated in the cytoplasm of most cells examined. Tl levels then fell rapidly during the few days following the injection, and slowly afterwards. Thirty days after the injection, tracts of 204Tl were present in the cytoplasm of nervous and somatic cells. PMID:6685262

  12. Assessment of methyl methanesulfonate using the repeated-dose liver micronucleus assay in young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Muto, Shigeharu; Yamada, Katsuya; Kato, Tatsuya; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Iwase, Yumiko; Uno, Yoshifumi

    2015-03-01

    A repeated-dose liver micronucleus assay using young adult rats was conducted with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) as a part of a collaborative study supported by the Collaborative Study Group for the Micronucleus Test/the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society-Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group. MMS is a classical DNA-reactive carcinogen, but it is not a liver carcinogen. In the first experiment (14-day study), MMS was administered per os to 6-week-old male Crl:CD (SD) rats every day for 14 days at a dose of 12.5, 25, or 50mg/kg/day. In the second experiment (28-day study), 6-week-old male SD rats were treated with MMS at 7.5, 15, or 30mg/kg/day for 28 days, because the highest dose used in the 14-day study (50mg/kg/day) caused mortality. Hepatocyte and bone marrow cell specimens were prepared on the day after the final dose. The frequency of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) in the liver and that of micronucleated immature erythrocytes (MNIMEs) in the bone marrow were evaluated. Exposure to 50mg/kg/day MMS for 14 days resulted in an increased frequency of MNHEPs, but MMS had no effect on the frequency of MNHEPs in the rats exposed to the chemical for 28 days at doses up to 30mg/kg/day. MMS induced MNIMEs production at doses of 25 and 50mg/kg/day in the 14-day study and at doses of 15 and 30mg/kg/day in the 28-day study. Overall, the effect of MMS on the frequency of MNHEPs was considered to be equivocal. PMID:25892629

  13. In vivo and in vitro dermal penetration of 2,4,5,2 prime ,4 prime , 5 prime -hexachlorobiphenyl in young and adult rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. V. Shah; M. R. Sumler; H. L. Fisher; L. L. Hall

    1989-01-01

    Penetration of 2,4,5,2â²,4â²,5â²-(¹⁴C)hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB) through skin of young (33 days) and adult (82 days) female Fischer 344 rats was determined in vivo and by two in vitro methods. In vivo dermal penetration at 120 hr was 45% in young and 43% in adults. At 72 hr in vivo dermal penetration was 35% in young and 26% in adults compared to

  14. Young Adult Library Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Bookmark, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Eight articles in this Spring 1985 issue of The Bookmark focus on young adult library services. In addition to these thematic articles, an introduction and three reports are presented. The issue contains: (1) "In Perspective" (E. J. Josey); (2) "Young Adult Literature in the 1980's--Awesome!" (Ellin Chu); (3) "Young Adult Services' Public…

  15. Effects of monomethylarsonic and monomethylarsonous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of adult and young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, Katharina [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)], E-mail: katharina.krueger@uni-muenster.de; Straub, Heidrun [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Hirner, Alfred V.; Hippler, Joerg [Institut fuer Umweltanalytik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 3-5, D-45141 Essen (Germany); Binding, Norbert [Institut fuer Arbeitsmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 51, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Musshoff, Ulrich [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2009-04-01

    Arsenite and its metabolites, dimethylarsinic or dimethylarsinous acid, have previously been shown to disturb synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices of rats (Krueger, K., Gruner, J., Madeja, M., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2006a. Blockade and enhancement of glutamate receptor responses in Xenopus oocytes by methylated arsenicals. Arch. Toxicol. 80, 492-501, Krueger, K., Straub, H., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2006b. Effects of arsenite on long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices from adult and young rats. Toxicol. Lett. 165, 167-173, Krueger, K., Repges, H., Hippler, J., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Straub, H., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2007. Effects of dimethylarsinic and dimethylarsinous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of young and adult rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 225, 40-46). The present experiments investigate, whether the important arsenic metabolites monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}) and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}) also influence the synaptic functions of the hippocampus. In hippocampal slices of young (14-21 days-old) and adult (2-4 months-old) rats, evoked synaptic field potentials from the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse were measured under control conditions and during and after 30 and 60 min of application of the arsenic compounds. MMA{sup V} had no effect on the synapse functions neither in slices of adult nor in those from young rats. However, MMA{sup III} strongly influenced the synaptic transmission: it totally depressed the amplitudes of fEPSPs at concentrations of 50 {mu}mol/l (adult rats) and 25 {mu}mol/l (young rats) and LTP amplitudes at concentrations of 25 {mu}mol/l (adult rats) and 10 {mu}mol/l (young rats), respectively. In contrast, application of 1 {mu}mol/l MMA{sup III} led to an enhancement of the LTP amplitude in young rats, which is interpretable by an enhancing effect on NMDA receptors and a lack of the blocking effect on AMPA receptors at this concentration (Krueger, K., Gruner, J., Madeja, M., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2006a. Blockade and enhancement of glutamate receptor responses in Xenopus oocytes by methylated arsenicals. Arch. Toxicol. 80, 492-501). These effects are probably not mediated by changes in cell excitability or in presynaptic glutamate release rates, since antidromically induced population spikes and paired-pulse facilitation failed to show any MMA{sup III} effect. The impairment of the excitatory CA1 synapse is more likely caused by the action of MMA{sup III} on postsynaptic glutamatergic receptors and may be jointly responsible for dysfunctions of cognitive effects in arsenic toxicity.

  16. Repeated dose liver micronucleus assay using clofibrate in young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Tomomi; Takashima, Rie; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Hori, Hisako; Fujii, Wataru

    2015-03-01

    The repeated-dose liver micronucleus (MN) assay is a newly established in vivo genotoxicity test for evaluation of liver carcinogens. It may be integrated into general toxicity studies, thereby reducing the numbers of animals required for assessment of chemical safety. A collaborative study by the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study (MMS) Group further evaluated this assay using a wide range of chemicals, including carcinogens and non-carcinogens in young adult rats. In this study, we administered clofibrate (125, 250, or 500mg/kg/day) for 14 or 28 days, and examined the micronucleated (MNed) cell frequencies in the liver and bone marrow. Clofibrate is a known liver carcinogen specific to rodents and has been shown to yield negative results in many in vitro genotoxicity and carcinogenicity tests in monkeys. Clofibrate is categorized as a Group 3 chemical by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and is considered a non-genotoxic carcinogen. After treatment with clofibrate for 14 or 28 days, frequencies of hepatic MNed cells were significantly increased, but there were no differences in the ratios of hepatic M-phase cells. Clofibrate did not increase the frequency of MNed cells in the bone marrow in the 14-day study, whereas a slight increase was observed at the highest dose in the 28-day study. These results suggested that the repeated-dose liver MN assay is more sensitive to clofibrate, an indirect liver carcinogen in rodents, than the conventional bone marrow MN assay. PMID:25892631

  17. Oral vanadium enhances the catabolic effects of central leptin in young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Wilsey, Jared; Matheny, Michael K; Scarpace, Philip J

    2006-01-01

    Recently, vanadium has been shown to enhance leptin signal transduction in vitro. We hypothesized that chronic oral administration of an organic vanadium complex would enhance both leptin signaling and physiological responsiveness in vivo. Three-month-old F344 x Brown Norway male rats were provided a solution containing escalating doses of vanadyl acetoacetonate (V), peaking at 60 mg/liter elemental vanadium in drinking water on the 11th d of V treatment. Although V treatment tended to suppress weight gain, absolute body weights did not significantly differ between groups after 62 d of treatment. At this point, a permanent cannula was placed into the left lateral ventricle of all animals. The cannula was connected to a sc minipump providing either 5 microg/d leptin or artificial cerebral spinal fluid (ACSF) control solution. This yielded four groups: C-ACSF, C-leptin, V-ACSF, and V-leptin. During the ensuing 26 d, weight gain was similar in C-ACSF and V-ACSF. As expected, leptin caused dramatic weight loss in C-leptin, but leptin-induced weight loss was 43% greater in V-leptin. V enhanced leptin-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 phosphorylation in the hypothalamus, whereas V alone had no effect. V also augmented the leptin-induced increase in brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein-1. The effects of vanadium on responsiveness to a submaximal dose of leptin (0.25 microg/d) were also evaluated, yielding qualitatively similar results. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that chronic V administration enhances the weight-reducing effects of centrally administered leptin in young adult animals, and the mechanism appears to involve enhanced leptin signal transduction. PMID:16195403

  18. Repeated-dose liver and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus assays with CI Solvent Yellow 14 (Sudan I) using young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Shoji; Ikeda, Naohiro; Hamada, Shuichi; Ohyama, Wakako; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Kasamatsu, Toshio; Nishiyama, Naohiro

    2015-03-01

    The in vivo genotoxicity of CI Solvent Yellow 14 (Sudan I) was examined using repeated-dose liver and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus (MN) assays in young adult rats. Sudan I is a mono-azo dye based on aniline and 1-amino-2-hydroxynaphthalene. This dye was demonstrated as a rat liver carcinogen in a National Toxicology Program (NTP) bioassay, and genotoxicity was noted in a rat bone marrow micronucleus (BMMN) assay. In the present study, Sudan I was administered orally to rats for 14-days, and the MN frequency in the liver, stomach, colon, and bone marrow were analyzed. The frequency of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) was not significantly increased by the administration of the Sudan I. Gastrointestinal tract MNs were also not induced. However, in the BMMN assay, a significant increase in micronucleated immature erythrocytes (MNIMEs) was observed in a dose-dependent manner. While Sudan I has been reported to lack hepatic genotoxicity, it has also exhibited tumor-promoting activities. These results are consistent with the lack of induction of MN in the hepatocytes. The lack of MN induction in cells of the gastrointestinal tract was also logical because azo-compounds are reported to be unlikely to induce DNA damage in the rat gut. The repeated-dose rat liver and gastrointestinal tract MN assays have the potential to be used in the evaluation of the genotoxicity of a chemical in each organ in accordance with its mode of action. PMID:25892626

  19. Ketogenic Diet Prevents Alterations in Brain Metabolism in Young but not Adult Rats after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Mayumi L.; Hovda, David A.; Harris, Neil G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have shown that the change of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) in response to traumatic brain injury (TBI) is different in young (PND35) and adult rats (PND70), and that prolonged ketogenic diet treatment results in histological and behavioral neuroprotection only in younger rat brains. However, the mechanism(s) through which ketones act in the injured brain and the biochemical markers of their action remain unknown. Therefore, the current study was initiated to: 1) determine the effect of injury on the neurochemical profile in PND35 compared to PND70 rats; and 2) test the effect of early post-injury administration of ketogenic diet on brain metabolism in PND35 versus PND70 rats. The data show that alterations in energy metabolites, amino acid, and membrane metabolites were not evident in PND35 rats on standard diet until 24?h after injury, when the concentration of most metabolites was reduced from sham-injured values. In contrast, acute, but transient deficits in energy metabolism were measured at 6?h in PND70 rats, together with deficits in N-acetylaspartate that endured until 24?h. Administration of a ketogenic diet resulted in significant increases in plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate (?OHB) levels. Similarly, brain ?OHB levels were significantly elevated in all injured rats, but were elevated by 43% more in PND35 rats compared to PND70 rats. As a result, ATP, creatine, and phosphocreatine levels at 24?h after injury were significantly improved in the ketogenic PND35 rats, but not in the PND70 group. The improvement in energy metabolism in the PND35 brains was accompanied by the recovery of NAA and reduction of lactate levels, as well as amelioration of the deficits of other amino acids and membrane metabolites. These results indicate that the PND35 brains are more resistant to the injury, indicated by a delayed deficit in energy metabolism. Moreover, the younger brains revert to ketones metabolism more quickly than do the adult brains, resulting in better neurochemical and cerebral metabolic recovery after injury. PMID:21635175

  20. Effects of glyoxal or methylglyoxal on the metabolism of amino acids, lactate, glucose and acetate in the cerebral cortex of young and adult rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Betina Schmidt; Adriano Martimbianco de Assis; Cíntia Eickhoff Battu; Débora Kurle Rieger; Fernanda Hansen; Fernanda Sordi; Aline Longoni; Ana Lúcia Hoefel; Marcelo Farina; Carlos Alberto Gonçalves; Diogo Onofre Souza; Marcos Luiz Santos Perry

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro effects of glyoxal and methylglyoxal on the metabolism of glycine, alanine, leucine, glutamate, glutamine, glucose, lactate and acetate were evaluated in cortico-cerebral slices from young (10-day-old) or adult (3-month-old) rats. In a first set of experiments with cortico-cerebral slices from young animals, the compounds glyoxal or methylglyoxal at 400 ?M, increased the oxidation of alanine, leucine and glycine

  1. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have...

  2. Repeated dose liver and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus assays using N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Tomomi; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Hori, Hisako; Fujii, Wataru; Ohyama, Wakako

    2015-03-01

    N-Methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) is a direct-acting mutagen that induces tumors in the glandular stomach, but not in the liver or colon, of rats after oral administration. To evaluate the performance of repeated dose liver and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus (MN) assays in young adult rats, MNNG was administered by oral gavage to male CD (SD) rats aged 6 weeks at doses of 0 (vehicle; 2.5% DMSO aqueous solution), 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, and 25mg/kg/day once daily for 14 and 28 days, and the MN frequencies were examined in the hepatocytes, glandular stomach cells, and colonic cells. The MN induction in immature erythrocytes in the bone marrow of these animals was also simultaneously evaluated. The frequencies of micronucleated (MNed) glandular stomach cells were significantly increased in all MNNG treatment groups in a dose-dependent manner in both repeated dose studies. In contrast, the frequencies of MNed hepatocytes and colonic cells were not significantly increased compared to the vehicle control. In the bone marrow, a small but significant increase in the frequency of MNed immature erythrocytes was observed only at the highest dose in the 28-day study. Since a clear positive result in the glandular stomach agrees with the tissue specificity of tumor induction by this chemical, the MN assay with the glandular stomach, which is a direct contact site with high concentrations of test substances administered by oral gavage, may be useful for detecting genotoxic compounds that are short-lived in vivo, such as MNNG. PMID:25892628

  3. Temporal and spatial differences of PSA-NCAM expression between young-adult and aged rats in normal and ischemic brains.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Hayashi, T; Sasaki, C; Iwai, M; Li, F; Manabe, Y; Seki, T; Abe, K

    2001-12-13

    Highly polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) is transiently expressed specifically in newly generated cells, and is important for migration and neurite outgrowth. To investigate the effect of aging on the migration of neural stem cell (NSC) after brain ischemia, the spatiotemporal expressions of immunoreactive PSA-NCAM were examined at 4 h or 1, 3 or 7 days after 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in the young-adult or aged rats. In the sham control brain, PSA-NCAM staining was slightly observed both in dorsal and ventral parts of subventricular zone (SVZ) in the aged brain, but only in the dorsal part of SVZ in the young brain. After transient MCAO, immunoreactivity for PSA-NCAM increased in the number and the intensity in SVZ ipsilateral to MCAO in the young-adult brains and became the peak at 1 day, while that was at 3 days in the aged brains. These findings suggest that PSA-NCAM was located in different spatial distribution in normal condition between young and old rats. PSA-NCAM was induced after ischemia, and the temporal expression was also different after transient MCAO between young and older rats. PMID:11730711

  4. Indoxyl sulfate exacerbates low bone turnover induced by parathyroidectomy in young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Junya; Hirai, Kazuya; Asai, Hirobumi; Matsumoto, Chiho; Inada, Masaki; Miyaura, Chisato; Yamato, Hideyuki; Watanabe-Akanuma, Mie

    2015-10-01

    Low-turnover bone disease is one of the bone abnormalities observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is recognized to be associated with low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level and skeletal resistance to PTH. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a representative uremic toxin that accumulates in the blood as renal dysfunction progresses in CKD patients. A recent in vitro study using an osteoblastic cell culture system suggests that IS has an important role in the pathogenesis of low bone turnover through induction of skeletal resistance to PTH. However, the effects of IS on the progression of low bone turnover have not been elucidated. In the present study, we produced rats with low bone turnover by performing parathyroidectomy (PTX) and fed these rats a diet containing indole, a precursor of IS, to elevate blood IS level from indole metabolism. Bone metabolism was evaluated by measuring histomorphometric parameters of secondary spongiosa of the femur. Histomorphometric analyses revealed significant decreases in both bone formation-related parameters and bone resorption-related parameters in PTX rats. In indole-treated PTX rats, further decreases in bone formation-related parameters were observed. In addition, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, a bone formation marker, and bone mineral density of the tibia tended to decrease in indole-treated PTX rats. These findings strongly suggest that IS exacerbates low bone turnover through inhibition of bone formation by mechanisms unrelated to skeletal resistance to PTH. PMID:26112820

  5. Sexting among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Methods Using an adapted web version of Respondent-Driven Sampling (webRDS) we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (ages 18 to 24; N=3447). We examined participant sexting behavior using 4 categories of sexting: 1) Non-Sexters, 2) Receivers, 3) Senders, and 4) Two-way Sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Results Over half (57%) of respondents were Non-Sexters, 28.2% of the sample were Two-way Sexters, 12.6% were Receivers, and 2% were Senders. Males were more likely to be Receivers than females. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be Two-way Sexters than non-sexually active respondents. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in number of sexual partners, or number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Conclusions Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting. PMID:23299018

  6. Serum biomarkers in young adult and aged Brown Norway (BN) rats following episodic (weekly) ozone exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone (03) is an air pollutant that is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Older adults are considered to be particularly susceptible to oxidant air pollutants such as 03. Serum biomarkers are being sought that would lead to better predictions of susceptibili...

  7. Bone formation in vitro by stromal cells obtained from bone marrow of young adult rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Maniatopoulos; J. Sodek; A. H. Melcher

    1988-01-01

    Cells from fetal or neonatal skeleton can synthesize bone-like tissue in vitro. In contrast, formation of bone-like tissue in vitro by cells derived from adult animals has rarely been reported and has not been achieved using cells from bone marrow. We have explored development of bone-like tissue in vitro by bone marrow stromal cells. Marrow stromal cells obtained from 40–43-day-old

  8. Long-term effects of neonatal MK-801 treatment on prepulse inhibition in young adult rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Uehara; Tomiki Sumiyoshi; Tomonori Seo; Hiroko Itoh; Tadasu Matsuoka; Michio Suzuki; Masayoshi Kurachi

    2009-01-01

    Rationale  Blockade of N-methyl-d-asparate (NMDA) receptors has been shown to produce some of the abnormal behaviors related to symptoms of schizophrenia in\\u000a rodents and human. Neonatal treatment of rats with non-competitive NMDA antagonists has been shown to induce behavioral abnormality\\u000a in a later period.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The aim of this study was to determine whether brief disruption of NMDA receptor function during a

  9. Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer ON THIS PAGE Types of Cancers in Young Adults Finding a ... Ulman Cancer Fund for Young Adults Vital Options Teens and Adolescents CureSearch Starlight Children's Foundation Teens Living ...

  10. Testosterone and estradiol differentially affect cell proliferation in the subventricular zone of young adult gonadectomized male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Farinetti, A; Tomasi, S; Foglio, B; Ferraris, A; Ponti, G; Gotti, S; Peretto, P; Panzica, G C

    2015-02-12

    Steroid hormones are important players to regulate adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, but their involvement in the regulation of the same phenomenon in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles is not completely understood. Here, in male rats, we tested the existence of activational effects of testosterone (T) on cell proliferation in the adult SVZ. To this aim, three groups of male rats: castrated, castrated and treated with T, and controls were treated with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and killed after 24h. The density of BrdU-labeled cells was significantly lower in castrated animals in comparison to the other two groups, thus supporting a direct correlation between SVZ proliferation and levels of circulating T. To clarify whether this effect is purely androgen-dependent, or mediated by the T metabolites, estradiol (E2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), we evaluated SVZ proliferation in castrated males treated with E2, DHT and E2+DHT, in comparison to T- and vehicle-treated animals, and sham-operated controls. The stereological analysis demonstrated that E2 and T, but not DHT, increase proliferation in the SVZ of adult male rats. Quantitative evaluation of cells expressing the endogenous marker of cell proliferation phosphorylated form of Histone H3 (PHH3), or the marker of highly dividing SVZ progenitors Mash1, indicated the effect of T/E2 is mostly restricted to SVZ proliferating progenitors. The same experimental protocol was repeated on ovariectomized female rats treated with E2 or T. In this case, no statistically significant difference was found among groups. Overall, our results clearly show that the gonadal hormones T and E2 represent important mediators of cell proliferation in the adult SVZ. Moreover, we show that such an effect is restricted to males, supporting adult neurogenesis in rats is a process differentially modulated in the two sexes. PMID:25481234

  11. Responding to Young Adult Literature. Young Adult Literature Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monseau, Virginia R.

    This book focuses on how readers respond to the power of young adult literature--negating the assumption that because such literature appeals to adolescents it cannot possibly be worthy of a place in the language arts curriculum. The book serves two purposes: it describes and discusses the oral and written response of adolescents and adults to…

  12. Research access to adolescents and young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eileen Savage; Sinead McCarron

    2009-01-01

    Gaining research access to adolescents and young adults is not straightforward and involves layers of negotiation and administration. Experiences of accessing adolescents and young adults aged 13–21 years are described in this article. Issues raised for consideration are: identifying clinical gatekeepers; seeking ethical approval; making direct contact with adolescents and young adults (hereafter referred to as young people); and dealing

  13. Research access to adolescents and young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sinead McCarron; Catherine McAuley

    Gaining research access to adolescents and young adults is not straightforward and involves layers of negotiation and administration. Experiences of accessing adolescents and young adults aged 13-21 years are described in this article. Issues raised for consideration are: identifying clinical gatekeepers; seeking ethical approval; making direct contact with adolescents and young adults (hereafter referred to as young people); and dealing

  14. Picture Books for Young Adult Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Sunya

    2001-01-01

    Notes that picture books for young adults are a great asset to reading and a useful tool for teachers. Considers how dramatic changes in children's and Young Adult publishing over the last decade have blurred the lines between children's and adult books. Discusses implications for teachers of young adults. Notes that picture books help students be…

  15. Young adults’ experiences with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miedema, Baukje (Bo); Easley, Julie; Hamilton, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the experiences with cancer of adults diagnosed when between 20 and 35 years old. DESIGN Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. SETTING Largest health care region in the province of New Brunswick. PARTICIPANTS Six men and 9 women cancer patients and survivors. METHOD Fifteen adults interviewed when between the ages of 20 and 43 representing a variety of cancers and stages of disease were recruited for this study. Interviews were guided by a set of open-ended questions and explored participants’ experiences with cancer from initial presentation of symptoms through to survivorship issues. MAIN FINDINGS The most important clinical issue that emerged from the analysis was that participants’ youth appeared to contribute to delays in diagnosis of cancer. These delays were attributed to either patients’ or physicians’ inaction. Some patients attributed their initial cancer symptoms to the adverse effects of alcohol or excessive partying; others feared a bad diagnosis and delayed seeking help. Family physicians frequently interpreted nonspecific symptoms as resulting from patients’ lifestyle choices and were reluctant to consider a diagnosis of cancer. Several family physicians reportedly believed that persistent symptoms could not be the result of cancer because patients were too young. CONCLUSION Although cancer is relatively rare in young adults, family physicians need to include it in differential diagnoses. Both patients and physicians tend to minimize cancer symptoms in young adults. Delays in diagnosis might not affect health outcomes, but can cause distress to young adults with cancer. PMID:17279205

  16. Chronic restricted access to 10% sucrose solution in adolescent and young adult rats impairs spatial memory and alters sensitivity to outcome devaluation.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Michael D; Boakes, Robert A; Rooney, Kieron B; Corbit, Laura H

    2013-08-15

    Although increasing consumption of sugar drinks is recognized as a significant public health concern, little is known about (a) the cognitive effects resulting from sucrose consumption; and (b) whether the long-term effects of sucrose consumption are more pronounced for adolescents. This experiment directly compared performance on a task of spatial learning and memory (the Morris Water Maze) and sensitivity to outcome devaluation following 28 days of 2-h/day access to a 10% sucrose solution in adolescent and young-adult Wistar rats. Sucrose groups developed elevated fasting blood glucose levels after the diet intervention, despite drawing <15% of calories from sucrose and gaining no more weight than controls. In subsequent behavioral testing, sucrose groups were impaired on the Morris Water Maze, with some residual deficits in spatial memory observed more than 6 weeks after the end of sucrose exposure. Further, results from outcome devaluation testing indicated that in the older cohort of rats, those fed sucrose showed reduced sensitivity to devaluation of the outcome, suggestive of differences in instrumental learning following sucrose exposure. Data provide strong evidence that sucrose consumption can induce deficits in spatial cognition and reward-oriented behavior at levels that resemble patterns of sugar drink consumption in young people, and which can remain long after exposure. PMID:23954407

  17. Counseling the Young Adult Lesbian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rhoda

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on problems faced by young adult lesbians. Suggests counselors should: (1) encourage the counselee to "dump"; (2) guide her in a decision on coming out; (3) explain the legal rights and restrictions; (4) provide ongoing support for those who socialize openly; and (5) publicly promote gay rights. (Author)

  18. Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in 2011. You can learn more about incidence, mortality, and survival for young adults with cancer in the Snapshot of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers . Finding a Doctor and Hospital View this video on YouTube. Experts in the ...

  19. 78 FR 32116 - TRICARE Young Adult

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ...DOD-2011-HA-0029] TRICARE Young Adult AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD...FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult (TYA) program to provide an extended...purchase worldwide. TYA is similar to young adult coverage under the Patient Protection...

  20. Raising "Hot Topics" through Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenke, Susan; Maples, Joellen; Henderson, Jill

    2010-01-01

    While young adult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read young adult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching young adult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their…

  1. Myocardial infarction in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Egred, M; Viswanathan, G; Davis, G

    2005-01-01

    Although myocardial infarction (MI) mainly occurs in patients older than 45, young men or women can suffer MI. Fortunately, its incidence is not common in patients younger than 45 years. However, the disease carries a significant morbidity, psychological effects, and financial constraints for the person and the family when it occurs at a young age. The causes of MI among patients aged less than 45 can be divided into four groups: (1) atheromatous coronary artery disease; (2) non-atheromatous coronary artery disease; (2) hyper-coagulable states; (4) MI related to substance misuse. There is a considerable overlap between all the groups. This article reviews the literature and highlights the practical issues involved in the management of young adults with MI. PMID:16344295

  2. Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Cancers Quiz

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatment options for cancers found in pediatric and adult patients. Learn more about treatment options for adolescent patients with ... to 39 who have cancer. Where can I learn more about National Young Adult Cancer Awareness Week®? National Young Adult Cancer Awareness ...

  3. Neonatal-age treatment with vitamin A delays postweaning vitamin A deficiency and increases the antibody response to T-cell dependent antigens in young adult rats fed a vitamin A-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Sandhya; Ma, Yifan; Bryson, Mary C; Li, Nan-qian; Ross, A Catharine

    2007-05-01

    Vitamin A supplementation for infants and young children is recommended by WHO/UNICEF for countries with a high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency, and vitamin A is often administered at immunization contacts. Using a rat model, we tested whether supplementation with vitamin A or other retinoids at the time of neonatal immunization has prospective benefit in terms of preventing postweaning vitamin A deficiency and promoting antibody responses to T-cell dependent (TD) antigens administered at the neonatal stage and at the young adult stage. Rats were treated orally on postnatal d 6-8 with oil (placebo control), vitamin A, retinoic acid, or a combination of both (VARA) (n > or = 12/group), and immunized with tetanus toxoid (TT) on d 7. The primary anti-TT response was measured on d 21, after which weanling rats were fed the vitamin A-deficient diet until approximately 10 wk. At 8 wk, rats were immunized again with TT to determine the recall response, and with a novel TD antigen, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), to assess the adult primary response. None of the supplements affected the plasma titer of anti-TT immunoglobulin G (IgG) on d 21 (P = 0.25). However, neonatal-age supplementation with vitamin A or VARA at the young adult stage resulted in: >5 times higher anti-TT IgG recall response (P < 0.01); 5- and 9-times higher anti-KLH primary IgM and IgG responses, respectively (P < 0.05), and plasma retinol in the normal range (approximately 1.0 micromol/L vs. approximately 0.35 micromol/L in retinoic acid-treated and control groups, P < 0.0001). We conclude that early-life supplementation with vitamin A or VARA can prospectively benefit the primary and recall antibody responses to TD antigens administered at the young adult stage, which may involve the maintenance of normal plasma retinol levels. PMID:17449586

  4. Neonatal-Age Treatment with Vitamin A Delays Postweaning Vitamin A Deficiency and Increases the Antibody Response to T-cell Dependent Antigens in Young Adult Rats Fed a Vitamin A-Deficient Diet1,2

    PubMed Central

    Sankaranarayanan, Sandhya; Ma, Yifan; Bryson, Mary C.; Li, Nan-qian; Ross, A. Catharine

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A supplementation for infants and young children is recommended by WHO/UNICEF for countries with a high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency, and vitamin A is often administered at immunization contacts. Using a rat model, we tested whether supplementation with vitamin A or other retinoids at the time of neonatal immunization has prospective benefit in terms of preventing postweaning vitamin A deficiency and promoting antibody responses to T-cell dependent (TD) antigens administered at the neonatal stage and at the young adult stage. Rats were treated orally on postnatal d 6–8 with oil (placebo control), vitamin A, retinoic acid, or a combination of both (VARA) (n ? 12/group), and immunized with tetanus toxoid (TT) on d 7. The primary anti-TT response was measured on d 21, after which weanling rats were fed the vitamin A-deficient diet until ~ 10 wk. At 8 wk, rats were immunized again with TT to determine the recall response, and with a novel TD antigen, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), to assess the adult primary response. None of the supplements affected the plasma titer of anti-TT immunoglobulinG (IgG) on d 21 (P = 0.25). However, neonatal-age supplementation with vitamin A or VARA at the young adult stage resulted in: >5 times higher anti-TT IgG recall response (P < 0.01); 5- and 9-times higher anti-KLH primary IgM and IgG responses, respectively (P < 0.05), and plasma retinol in the normal range (~1.0 µmol/L vs. ~0.35 µmol/L in retinoic acid-treated and control groups, P < 0.0001). We conclude that early-life supplementation with vitamin A or VARA can prospectively benefit the primary and recall antibody responses to TD antigens administered at the young adult stage, which may involve the maintenance of normal plasma retinol levels. PMID:17449586

  5. Relation between renal and hepatic excretion of drugs. XIV. Elimination of ioglycamic acid after nephrectomy, bile duct ligation, and after treatment with hormones or xenobiotics in young and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Fleck, C; Kabath, P; Linstedt, A; Linstedt, U; Scharke, U; Bräunlich, H

    1991-01-01

    Ioglycamic acid (IGA) is effectively eliminated in young and adult rats via urine and bile. After administration of low doses hepatic excretion dominates whereas following high supply renal elimination surpasses biliary excretion. Hepatic transport of IGA is active, indicated by the occurrence of a transport maximum in vivo and by a distinct accumulation of this drug within liver slices in vitro. Renal removal of IGA is preferentially caused by glomerular filtration. A tubular reabsorption obviously does not occur because forced diuresis (mannitol, furosemide) does not increase renal excretion of this substance. As calculated from our clearance data and as a result of accumulation experiments in vitro on renal cortical slices the active tubular secretion of this organic anion can be excluded. In principle there are no qualitative changes in IGA elimination between the 20th and 55th day of life, but active hepatic transport of the drug is significantly lower in young, immature rats. After bile duct ligation, renal excretion of IGA increases distinctly in both age groups, whereas in adult rats bilateral nephrectomy (NX) is followed by a significant decrease in its hepatic excretion in dependence on time after kidney removal. In young rats NX is without consequences on hepatic excretion of IGA. It is possible to stimulate renal and/or hepatic excretion of IGA by repeated administration of T3, dexamethasone, or phenobarbital. The effect of stimulation is different in kidney and liver and depends on age, too. PMID:1783049

  6. Evaluation of the repeated dose liver micronucleus assay using young adult rats with cyclophosphamide monohydrate: a report of a collaborative study by CSGMT/JEMS.MMS.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazumi; Zaizen, Kazuyo; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Ishida, Hisao

    2015-03-01

    The repeated dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats has the potential to detect liver carcinogens, and this assay could be integrated into general toxicological studies. In this study, in order to assess the performance of the assay, cyclophosphamide monohydrate (CP) was tested in a 14-day RDLMN assay. Based on the results of the 4-day repeated dose-finding study, 10 mg/kg/day of CP was selected as the highest dose and the lower doses were set at 5, 2.5, 1.25, and 0.625 mg/kg/day for the 14-day RDLMN assay. On the day after the completion of the dosing period, specimens of hepatocytes and bone marrow cells were prepared and the induction of micronuclei was assessed. No changes were observed in the incidences of micronucleated hepatocytes. Nevertheless, the incidences of micronucleated immature erythrocytes in the bone marrow were increased significantly at CP doses of 1.25 mg/kg/day or more. These findings are consistent with reports that CP induces tumors in various tissues but it does not induce liver tumors. PMID:26065310

  7. Early methylphenidate exposure enhances cocaine self-administration but not cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in young adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Cynthia A.; Baella, Shelley A.; Farley, Cristal M.; Herbert, Matthew S.; Horn, Leslie R.; Campbell, Rachel H.; Zavala, Arturo R.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Previous studies in rodents show that early exposure to methylphenidate alters later responsiveness to drugs of abuse. An interesting feature of these studies is that early methylphenidate treatment decreases the rewarding value of cocaine when measured by conditioned place preference (CPP), but the same treatment increases cocaine self-administration. Objective The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of early methylphenidate exposure on cocaine-induced responding using both reward paradigms. Methods Rats were treated with methylphenidate (0, 2, or 5 mg/kg) from postnatal day (PD) 11 to PD 20 and then cocaine-induced CPP or cocaine self-administration was measured in separate groups of rats in adulthood. The CPP procedure included eight days of acquisition training, eight days of extinction training, and a reinstatement test. Rats were conditioned with 0, 10 or 20 mg/kg cocaine. Reinstatement was assessed after a priming dose of cocaine (10 mg/kg). For the self-administration experiment, a jugular catheter was implanted and rats were trained to press a lever reinforced with cocaine (0.25 or 0.75 mg/kg/infusion) on a fixed ratio (FR) 1 schedule. Rats were gradually moved from an FR1 to an FR10 schedule and, after criterion was reached, rats were placed on a progressive ratio schedule for five days. Results Cocaine produced robust rewarding effects as determined by both the CPP and self-administration experiments; however, early methylphenidate exposure only enhanced the reinforcing effects of cocaine on the self-administration paradigm. Interestingly, this methylphenidate enhancement was only seen in male rats. Conclusions These data suggest that in males methylphenidate enhances the reinforcing value of cocaine, but not cocaine-associated cues. PMID:20848087

  8. The Relevance of Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallworth, B. Joyce

    2006-01-01

    Although young adult literature is often recommended as a reading bridge to the classics, Stallworth insists that the genre deserves a prominent place in the middle school canon in its own right. She describes several examples from middle school classrooms of how young adult novels can enhance tweens' "life literacy" by both helping them develop…

  9. Young and Older Adults' Reading of Distracters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Susan; Mcdowd, Joan; Metcalf, Kim; Liu, Chiung-Ju

    2008-01-01

    Eye-tracking technology was employed to examine young and older adults' performance in the reading with distraction paradigm. Distracters of 1, 2, and 4 words that formed meaningful phrases were used. There were marked age differences in fixation patterns. Young adults' fixations to the distracters and targets increased with distracter length.…

  10. Hirschsprung's disease in young adults.

    PubMed

    Starling, J R; Croom, R D; Thomas, C G

    1986-01-01

    Hirschsprung's disease is rarely seen in the young adult, and presents unique problems in management because of the massive dilatation and hypertrophy that occur proximal to the aganglionic rectum or the rectosigmoid colon. The diagnosis, which may be suspected by barium enema, is confirmed by suction or full-thickness biopsy of the rectum that may be complemented by anal manometry. Based on our experience with eight patients, a two-stage surgical reconstruction is recommended, with a preliminary sigmoid colostomy through the normally innervated colon and an associated defunctionalized stoma constituting the initial operation. The distal colonic stoma permits cleansing of the caudal colon while the normally innervated proximal colon reverts to near normal caliber, usually within 2 to 6 months. This approach is in accord with the recommendation of Fairgrieve. Reconstruction using a Duhamel or Soave procedure has given good results. The Duhamel procedure seems preferable when a considerable discrepancy remains between the ganglionic and aganglionic segments of rectum. PMID:3946741

  11. 32 CFR 199.26 - TRICARE Young Adult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false TRICARE Young Adult. 199.26 Section 199.26 National...SERVICES (CHAMPUS) § 199.26 TRICARE Young Adult. (a) Establishment. The TRICARE Young Adult (TYA) program offers the medical...

  12. Effects of amphetamine exposure in adolescence or young adulthood on inhibitory control in adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Hammerslag, Lindsey R; Waldman, Alex J; Gulley, Joshua M

    2014-04-15

    Heightened impulsivity is a feature of some psychiatric disorders, including addiction, that also have sex-specific patterns of expression. The relationship between addiction and impulsivity may be driven by drug-induced changes in behavior caused by long term adaptations in signaling within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Here, we used a response inhibition task that is sensitive to changes in mPFC function to examine the effects of sex and exposure to amphetamine (AMPH) on impulsive action and vigilance. We also examined drug-induced alterations in glutamatergic and dopaminergic signaling through challenge injections with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine) and AMPH. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were injected (i.p.) with saline or 3 mg/kg AMPH every other day during adolescence (postnatal day (P) 27-45) or adulthood (P85-103). Starting on P125-135, rats were tested for their ability to lever press for a food reward during periods of signaled availability and withhold responding during a "premature response" phase. In experiment 1, rats received challenge injections (i.p.) of MK-801 and AMPH followed by tests of task performance and locomotor activity. In experiment 2, rats received intra-mPFC infusion of MK-801. We found that females had better inhibitory control and poorer vigilance than males and that AMPH exposure had both sex- and age-of-exposure dependent effects on impulsivity. Systemic drug challenges disrupted task performance, particularly in females, and increased impulsivity while intra-mPFC infusions had modest effects. AMPH exposure did not affect responses to drug challenges. Together, these results suggest that sex mediates both trait and drug-induced impulsivity. PMID:24462963

  13. Early developmental exposure to benzodiazepine ligands alters brain levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive products in young adult rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh C. Miranda; Joseph P. Wagner; Carol K. Kellogg

    1989-01-01

    Levels of thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactive material were measured in brain regions of 3–4 monthold rats following prenatal exposure to several benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor ligands over gestational days 14–20. Prenatal exposure to diazepam (DZ) at 1.0 mg\\/kg\\/day markedly elevated levels of brain TBA-reactive material while exposure to a higher dose (2.5 mg\\/kg) induced a significant increase only in the hippocampus. Early

  14. Effects of amphetamine exposure in adolescence or young adulthood on inhibitory control in adult male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Hammerslag, Lindsey R.; Waldman, Alex J.; Gulley, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    Heightened impulsivity is a feature of some psychiatric disorders, including addiction, that also have sex-specific patterns of expression. The relationship between addiction and impulsivity may be driven by drug-induced changes in behavior caused by long term adaptations in signaling within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Here, we used a response inhibition task that is sensitive to changes in mPFC function to examine the effects of sex and exposure to amphetamine (AMPH) on impulsive action and vigilance. We also examined drug-induced alterations in glutamatergic and dopaminergic signaling through challenge injections with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine) and AMPH. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were injected (i.p.) with saline or 3 mg/kg AMPH every other day during adolescence (postnatal day (P) 27–45) or adulthood (P85–103). Starting on P125–135, rats were tested for their ability to lever press for a food reward during periods of signaled availability and withhold responding during a “premature response” phase. In experiment 1, rats received challenge injections (i.p.) of MK-801 and AMPH followed by tests of task performance and locomotor activity. In experiment 2, rats received intra-mPFC infusion of MK-801. We found that females had better inhibitory control and poorer vigilance than males and that AMPH exposure had both sex- and age-of-exposure dependent effects on impulsivity. Systemic drug challenges disrupted task performance, particularly in females, and increased impulsivity while intra-mPFC infusions had modest effects. AMPH exposure did not affect responses to drug challenges. Together, these results suggest that sex mediates both trait and drug-induced impulsivity. PMID:24462963

  15. ?2-adrenoceptor stimulation restores frontal cortex plasticity and improves visuospatial performance in hidden-prenatally-malnourished young-adult rats.

    PubMed

    Sáez-Briones, Patricio; Soto-Moyano, Rubén; Burgos, Héctor; Castillo, Amparo; Valladares, Luis; Morgan, Carlos; Pérez, Hernán; Barra, Rafael; Constandil, Luis; Laurido, Claudio; Hernández, Alejandro

    2015-03-01

    Moderate reduction in dietary protein composition of pregnant rats from 25% to 8% casein, calorically compensated by carbohydrates, has been described as a "hidden malnutrition" because it does not alter body and brain weights of pups at birth. However, this dietary treatment leads to altered central noradrenergic systems, impaired cortical long-term potentiation (LTP) and worsened visuo-spatial memory performance. Given the increasing interest on the role played by ?2-adrenoceptors (?2-ARs) on brain plasticity, the present study aimed to address the following in hidden-malnourished and eutrophic control rats: (i) the expression levels of ?2-ARs in the frontal cortex determined by immunohistochemistry, and (ii) the effect of the ?2 selective agonist clenbuterol on both LTP elicited in vivo in the prefrontal cortex and visuospatial performance measured in an eight-arm radial maze. Our results showed that, prenatally malnourished rats exhibited a significant reduction of neocortical ?2-AR expression in adulthood. Concomitantly, they were unable to elicit and maintain prefrontal cortex LTP and exhibited lower visuospatial learning performance. Administration of clenbuterol (0.019, 0.038 and 0.075 mg/kg i.p.) enhanced LTP in malnourished and control animals and restored visuospatial learning performance in malnourished but not in normal rats, in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest that decreased density of neocortical ?2-ARs during postnatal life, subsequent to hidden prenatal malnutrition might affect some synaptic networks required to elicit neocortical LTP and form visuospatial memory, since those neuroplastic deficits were counteracted by ?2-AR stimulation. PMID:25464009

  16. Strokes in young adults: epidemiology and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Smajlovi?, Dževdet

    2015-01-01

    Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%–15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of stroke in young adults. This is important given the fact that younger stroke patients have a clearly increased risk of death compared with the general population. The prevalence of standard modifiable vascular risk factors in young stroke patients is different from that in older patients. Modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension, are highly prevalent in the young stroke population, with no significant difference in geographic, climatic, nutritional, lifestyle, or genetic diversity. The list of potential stroke etiologies among young adults is extensive. Strokes of undetermined and of other determined etiology are the most common types among young patients according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) criteria. Prevention is the primary treatment strategy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to stroke. Therefore, primary prevention is very important with regard to stroke in young adults, and aggressive treatment of risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, is essential. The best form of secondary stroke prevention is directed toward stroke etiology as well as treatment of additional risk factors. However, there is a lack of specific recommendations and guidelines for stroke management in young adults. In conclusion, strokes in young adults are a major public health problem and further research, with standardized methodology, is needed in order to give us more precise epidemiologic data. Given the increasing incidence of stroke in the young, there is an objective need for more research in order to reduce this burden. PMID:25750539

  17. Remembering of Sentences by Schizophrenic Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Soon D.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The study investigated sentence memory of 15 young adult schizophrenics as compared to that of 15 nonschizophrenic patients and 15 normals. The schizophrenics' incidental recall was comparable to that of normals. (Author/SBH)

  18. Effects of Estrogen Receptor Agonists on Regulation of the Inflammatory Response in Astrocytes from Young Adult and Middle-Aged Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Danielle K; Johnson, Adam B.; Stohlgren, Shannon; Simpson, Ashley; Sohrabji, Farida

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen has been shown to attenuate the inflammatory response following injury or lipopolysaccharide treatment in several organ systems. Estrogen's actions are transduced through two estrogen receptor sub-types, estrogen receptor (ER) -alpha and estrogen receptor-beta, whose actions may be overlapping or independent of each other. The present study examined the effects of ER?- and ER?-specific ligands in regulating the inflammatory response in primary astrocyte cultures. Pre-treatment with 17?-estradiol (ER?/ER? agonist), HPTE (ER? agonist/ER? antagonist) and DPN (ER? agonist) led to attenuation of IL-1?, TNF?, and MMP-9 in astrocyte media derived from young adult (3-4 mos.) and reproductive senescent female (9-11 mos., acyclic) astrocyte cultures, while pretreatment with PPT (ER? agonist) attenuated IL-1? (but not TNF? or MMP-9) in both young and senescent-derived astrocyte cultures. Our previous work determined that 17?-estradiol was unable to attenuate the LPS-induced increase in IL-1? in olfactory bulb primary microglial cultures derived from either young adult or reproductive senescent females. In young adult-derived microglial cultures, the LPS-induced increase in IL-1? was not attenuated by pre-treatment with 17?-estradiol, PPT or HPTE. Interestingly, the ER? agonist, DPN significantly decreased IL-1? following LPS treatment in young adult-derived microglia. Thus while both microglia and astrocytes synthesize and release inflammatory mediators, the present data shows that compounds which bind ER? are more effective in attenuating proinflammatory cytokines in both cell types and may therefore be a more effective agent for future therapeutic use. PMID:18328572

  19. Minimally invasive aesthetic procedures in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asymmetries, correction after body modifying procedures, and facial sculpturing are important issues for young adults. The implication of aesthetic medicine as part of preventive medicine is a major ethical challenge that differentiates aesthetic medicine from fashion. PMID:21673871

  20. Health care of physically handicapped young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin C O Bax; Diane P L Smyth; Andrew P Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Little is known about the health needs of physically handicapped young adults after they become too old for the paediatric service. To assess these needs 104 young people with physical handicaps were given a medical examination and interviewed. They had diverse physical handicaps, many of which were rare (41 subjects); 45 had cerebral palsy and 18 spina bifida. Mental handicap

  1. Use of Mental Health Counseling as Adolescents Become Young Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer W. Yu; Sally H. Adams; Jane Burns; Claire D. Brindis; Charles E. Irwin

    2008-01-01

    PurposeDespite parallels in mental health needs among adolescents and young adults, there is a paucity of evidence regarding use of mental health services in young adulthood. Using a longitudinal sample, this study compares rates of mental health counseling use between adolescents and young adults, examines characteristics and predictors of counseling use for young adults, and identifies reasons for foregone care

  2. Adolescent social isolation influences cognitive function in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Shao, Feng; Han, Xiao; Shao, Shuang; Wang, Weiwen

    2013-04-15

    Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment. Evidence from animal studies suggests that isolated rearing can exert negative effects on behavioral and brain development. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social isolation on latent inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the forebrain of adult rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into adolescent isolation (isolated housing, 38-51 days of age) and social groups. Latent inhibition was tested at adulthood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adolescent social isolation impaired latent inhibition and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of young adult rats. These data suggest that adolescent social isolation has a profound effect on cognitive function and neurotrophin levels in adult rats and may be used as an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:25206396

  3. The effect of supplemental food on the growth rates of neonatal, young, and adult cotton rats ( Sigmodon hispidus) in northeastern Kansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eifler, Maria A.; Slade, Norman A.; Doonan, Terry J.

    2003-09-01

    In food-limited populations, the presence of extra food resources can influence the way individuals allocate energy to growth and reproduction. We experimentally increased food available to cotton rats ( Sigmodon hispidus) near the northern limit of their range over a 2-year period and tested the hypothesis that seasonal growth rates would be enhanced by supplemental food during winter and spring when natural food levels are low. We also examined whether additional food resources were allocated to somatic growth or reproductive effort by pregnant and lactating females. The effect of supplemental food on growth varied with mass and season, but did not influence the growth rates of most cotton rats during spring and winter. In winter, small animals on supplemented grids had higher growth rates than small animals on control grids, but females in spring had lower growth rates under supplemented conditions. Growth rates of supplemented cotton rats were enhanced in summer. Northern cotton rat populations may use season-specific foraging strategies, maximizing energy intake during the reproductive season and minimizing time spent foraging in winter. Adult females invest extra resources in reproduction rather than in somatic growth. Pregnant females receiving supplemental food had higher growth rates than control females, and dependent pups (? 1 month of age) born to supplemented mothers had higher growth rates than those born to control mothers. Increased body size seems to confer an advantage during the reproductive season, but has no concomitant advantage to overwinter survival.

  4. A specialized NMDA receptor function in layer 5 recurrent microcircuitry of the adult rat

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xiao-Jing

    in the adult, but not young, rats exhibit a twofold longer decay time-constant and temporally summate a trainA specialized NMDA receptor function in layer 5 recurrent microcircuitry of the adult rat of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Little is known, however, about the synaptic properties of NMDA

  5. Young Adults and the Affordable Care Act: Protecting Young Adults and Eliminating Burdens on Businesses and Families

    E-print Network

    1 Young Adults and the Affordable Care Act: Protecting Young Adults and Eliminating Burdens on Businesses and Families Q: How does the Affordable Care Act help young adults? A: Before the President signed the Affordable Care Act into law, many health plans and issuers could remove adult children from their parents

  6. Suggested Interventions for Young Adults' Relationship Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terneus, Sandra K.; Martin, H. Dan

    2005-01-01

    Professionals in the social psychology field concur that teenagers and young adults may not have the appropriate skills and ego strength to affirm healthy relationship decisions. This article reviews current research regarding partner selection from adolescence through early adulthood. It also provides appendices of interventions used in clinical…

  7. Classic Readers Theatre for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barchers, Suzanne I.; Kroll, Jennifer L.

    This book presents 16 original scripts that have been adapted from classic works of literature for use for readers theatre with young adults and ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Adaptations of the following works are included: "Little Women" (Louisa May Alcott); episodes from "Don Quixote" (Miguel de Cervantes; "The Necklace" (Guy de…

  8. Post-School Training of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aliaga, Oscar A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study the training of young adults after their high school experience is analyzed. Using data from a national longitudinal survey, the amount of training and the type of training they receive are reviewed. Different family background characteristics and school outcome information are also used in the analysis. (Contains 2 tables.)

  9. Young Adult Outcome of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Linda C.; Ho, Helena H.

    2008-01-01

    To learn about the lives of young adults with ASD, families with children born 1974-1984, diagnosed as preschoolers and followed into adolescence were contacted by mail. Of 76 eligible, 48 (63%) participated in a telephone interview. Global outcome scores were assigned based on work, friendships and independence. At mean age 24, half had good to…

  10. Young Adult Literature and Alternative Assessment Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The principal purpose of assessment, regardless of teaching level, should be to guide instruction. Unlike evaluation, the goal of assessment is not to arrive at a grade for students. Rather, it is to inform the educator as to what needs to be addressed in the classroom. Assessment in a young adult literature (YAL) curriculum is no different. Its…

  11. Lesson Plans for Teaching Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    Intended for teachers, this book is a collection of lesson plans created by 28 teachers in North Carolina to provide opportunities that support integrated learning. Using recommended young adult literature, the book presents activities which promote the integration of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and viewing. The book provides two or…

  12. Suicide in children, adolescents and young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Schmidt; R Müller; R Dettmeyer; B Madea

    2002-01-01

    As suicides of children, adolescents and young adults occur very seldom and only few case reports and more comprehensive studies are available in forensic literature, the autopsy records of the Bonn Institute of Forensic Medicine and the database of the Bonn police authorities from 1989 to 1998 were retrospectively analysed for this phenomenon. This search revealed 37 respective suicides involving

  13. Literary Maps for Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Mary Ellen

    The activities presented in this handbook are designed to help students envision the locations and landmarks of sites along journeys described in popular young adult literature (e.g., "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,""Born Free,""The Call of the Wild,""Catcher in the Rye,""I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings,""The Island of the Blue…

  14. Visuomotor Tracking Ability of Young Adult Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Jerald B.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-five normal young adult speakers tracked sinusoidal and unpredictable target signals using lower lip and jaw movement and fundamental frequency modulation. Tracking accuracy varied as a function of target frequency and articulator used to track. Results show the potential of visuomotor tracking tasks in the assessment of speech articulatory…

  15. Gender Representation in Poetry for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Angela Beumer; McClanahan, Lauren G.; Mertz, Maia Pank

    1999-01-01

    Considers how poetry for adolescents depicts female and male roles and examines portrayals of gender in young adult poetry. Finds volumes that both upheld and challenged traditional gender roles. Discusses five anthologies that provide a balance of poetry considered rich and some anthologies challenged for their assumptions regarding gender roles.…

  16. It's Not Just for Kids Anymore: TSA's Young Adult Newsletter

    MedlinePLUS

    "IT'S NOT JUST FOR KIDS ANYMORE" The Tourette Association'S Young Adult Newsletter Archive Page The Tourette Association's online newsletter, "It's Not Just for Kids Anymore", was geared to young adults, ages ...

  17. Research in Young Adult Literature: Four Recent Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John Noell; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a study of young adult literature in light of contemporary literary theories; family relationships in selected young adult novels by Cynthia Vogt and Sue Ellen Bridgers; teaching young adult literature, moral inquiry, and the personal journey toward meaning; and using recorded books in a high school classroom. (RS)

  18. Value Preferences Predicting Narcissistic Personality Traits in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungor, Ibrahim Halil; Eksi, Halil; Aricak, Osman Tolga

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at showing how the value preferences of young adults could predict the narcissistic characteristics of young adults according to structural equation modeling. 133 female (59.6%) and 90 male (40.4%), total 223 young adults participated the study (average age: 25.66, ranging from 20 to 38). Ratio group sampling method was used while…

  19. Defining Success in Young Adults with Emotional Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrescia, Susanne G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a definition of success by constructing a portrait of successful young adults with emotional disabilities. Nine young adults with emotional disabilities were interviewed individually after graduating from high school. The research questions that guided the study centered on the young adults

  20. Patterns of Rumination by Young and Older Adults

    E-print Network

    Schmalzried, RaLynn Cheri

    2012-05-31

    adults. This study examined the pattern of rumination by both young and older adults and compared rumination to working memory, inhibition, and mood. Based on findings from a small pilot study, it was hypothesized that older adults would ruminate less...

  1. Demographic Demise: The Declining Young Adult Population in New England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittell, Ross

    2007-01-01

    Young adult workers provide businesses with the dynamic labor force and fresh ideas they need to innovate and grow. With their contributions to cultural, intellectual and social life, young adults also make New England a vibrant and interesting place to live. Young families support local schools and demand a strong educational system. Yet New…

  2. Reading Newspapers: The Practices of America's Young Adults. A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Irwin S.; And Others

    Using the data base provided by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) through its literacy assessment of young adults, researchers probed the newspaper reading practices of 21-25 year olds. The 1985 survey used home interviews of 3,600 young adults in the 48 contiguous states, representative of the 21 million adults in this age…

  3. Risky Driving in Adolescents and Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda L. Thompson; Brooke S. G. Molina; William Pelham Jr; Elizabeth M. Gnagy

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine risky driving behaviors and negative driving outcomes in a large sample of adolescents and adults diagnosed in childhood with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) compared with demographically similar controls without ADHD. Methods 355 adolescents and young adults of the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) (n ¼203 probands; n ¼152 controls) were administered the Young Adult Driving Questionnaire.

  4. Sexual Prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos

    2014-01-01

    Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195

  5. Obesity and dissociable forms of impulsivity in young adults.

    E-print Network

    Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Derbyshire, Katherine L.; Leppink, Eric; Grant, Jon E.

    2015-02-25

    . Family doctors should screen for gambling problems in obese young adults. Successful treatment of nicotine dependence in young obese people is likely to require intensive weight management support. Neuropsychological deficits relating to impulsivity occur...

  6. Anaphylaxis in the young adult population.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ruchi S

    2014-01-01

    It is critical that clinicians treating young adults understand the presentation and management of anaphylaxis. The most common trigger for anaphylaxis in this population is food. The prevalence of food allergy is growing, with 8% of US children and adolescents affected. All patients at risk for anaphylaxis should be prescribed epinephrine autoinjectors, as epinephrine is the only life-saving medication for a severe anaphylactic reaction. The presentation of anaphylaxis can involve multiple organ systems (eg, mucocutaneous, respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal) and, as such, patient education is needed to assist in prompt recognition. Appropriate training of patients and caregivers about how to identify anaphylaxis and what to do in an emergency is critical. Training of school and college staff also is essential, as 1 in 4 first-time reactions occurs outside the home. Additional counseling for adolescents at risk for anaphylactic reactions should address increased risk-taking behavior, decreased adult supervision, dating, and the transition of disease management from an adult to the patient. PMID:24384134

  7. Nociceptive Behavior following Hindpaw Burn Injury in Young Rats: Response to Systemic Morphine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuxing; Zhang, Lin; Ma, Yuxin; Chen, Lucy; Tian, Yinghong

    2010-01-01

    Objective Develop a burn injury model in young age rats. Background Management of pain after burn injury in pediatric patients is an unresolved clinical issue. Methods A burn injury model in young rats of 3–4 weeks old was developed by briefly immersing the dorsal part of the right hindpaw in a hot water bath (85°C) for 12 seconds under pentobarbital anesthesia. Results Burn injury, but not sham control, induced nociceptive behaviors (mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia) when examined on post-injury day 2, 4 and 7. In burn-injured rats, there was the upregulated expression of the NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-d- aspartate (NMDA) receptor, Akt1, Akt2, and protein kinase C ? (PKC ?), but downregulated expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?), within the spinal cord dorsal horn ipsilateral to burn injury. Moreover, intraperitoneal administration of a clinically available NMDA receptor antagonist dextromethorphan (30 mg/kg, once daily × 7 days beginning on day 7 after burn injury) attenuated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in burn-injured rats. Different from our previous finding in adult burn-injured rats, however, burn injury in young rats of this age did not spontaneously shift the morphine antinociceptive response curve to the right within the dose range used in the study when exposed to morphine for the first time, suggesting that the development of intrinsic tolerance to morphine antinociception may be different from adult rats following burn injury. Conclusions Our data suggest that this model may be used to explore the mechanisms of burn injury-induced nociception in young rats and to differentiate the sequelae from burn injury between adult and young rats under certain experimental conditions. PMID:21143761

  8. Sexual Behaviors and AIDS Concerns among Young Adult Heterosexual Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Sherry C.; Vergare, Michael J.

    As the human immunodeficiency virus spreads beyond homosexuals and intravenous drug users into the heterosexual community, there is heightened interest in the sexual behavior of sexually active young adults. There is little information on young adult black males, who may be at increased risk, since blacks in this country are contracting Acquired…

  9. Identifying Correlates of Young Adults' Weight Behavior: Survey Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…

  10. Young Adults in Alcohol-Other Drug Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Mason; Bill Luckey

    2003-01-01

    A sample of 98 young adults, ages 18-25, was drawn from an alcohol treatment sample of 1,022 from two large metropolitan urban settings and was compared with the remainder of the sample to describe differences and compare outcomes. The findings indicate that the young adults are a unique substance abuse age group with characteristics and needs that differ from the

  11. List Memory in Young Adults with Language Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method: Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list…

  12. Intergenerational Relationships and Affectual Solidarity between Grandparents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monserud, Maria A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether both parents' relationships with their offspring, parents, and parents-in-law matter for young adults' perceptions of closeness to grandparents. This study focuses on two groups of grandchildren (ages 18-23) in Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households: young adults with married biological parents (N =…

  13. Pioneers in Public Library Service to Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Joan

    1986-01-01

    Presents biographies of four leaders in public library service to young adults: Mabel Williams, Margaret Scoggin, Jean Roos, and Margaret Edwards. They are described as pioneers who worked to obtain recognition for and establish young adult work and who can serve as inspirations for librarians today. (EM)

  14. The Literary Value of the Young Adult Novel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Robert C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the history and literary value of young adult novels written mainly for adolescents. Topics covered include measures of quality; literary criticism and reviews; specific characteristics of young adult novels related to the elements of plot, characterization, dialogue, setting, point of view, and style; and critical standards. (nine…

  15. Examining Work Delay in Young Adults with Schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DEBORAH GIOIA

    2006-01-01

    Work delay as a dimension of work restoration in young adults with schizophrenia has not been explored with much frequency in the vocational rehabilitation literature; and it has never been explored and analyzed from the subjective experience of the person with the disorder. In this exploratory, mixed-method study of 20 first-episode young adults diagnosed with schizophrenia who returned to work,

  16. Social Cognitive Correlates of Young Adult Sport Competitors' Sunscreen Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Nadine C.; O'Riordan, David L.; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville

    2011-01-01

    Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis…

  17. Prescription drug misuse among club drug-using young adults.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brian C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2007-01-01

    Nonmedical prescription (Rx) drug use has recently increased, particularly among young adults. Using time-space sampling to generate a probability-based sample of club-going young adults (18-29), 400 subjects provided data on Rx drug misuse. Club-going young adults misuse Rx drugs at high rates. An overwhelming majority of the sample indicated lifetime use of pain killers, sedatives, and stimulants. A majority indicated recent pain killer use. Variations by gender and sexuality exist in this population. Young lesbian/bisexual women emerged as the group most likely to abuse Rx drugs. Research into the contexts influencing these patterns is imperative. PMID:17994483

  18. Weight status misperception among Mexican young adults.

    PubMed

    Drumond Andrade, Flavia Cristina; Raffaelli, Marcela; Teran-Garcia, Margarita; Jerman, Jilber A; Aradillas Garcia, Celia

    2012-01-01

    Individuals who misperceive their body size are at risk for eating disorders, unhealthy weight control practices, and obesity-related diseases. This study assessed the prevalence and demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial correlates of agreement between perceived (self-reported) and actual (measured) body mass index categories in a sample of Mexican college applicants aged 18-20 years (N=3622; 52% female). Under two thirds (63.1%) accurately reported their weight status categories. Reporting accuracy was lower among overweight and obese participants. In multivariate analyses, overestimating was associated with female gender, younger age, lower level of parent education, and more hours of daily TV viewing; underestimating was associated with male gender and older age. In within-gender analyses, overestimating was associated with hours of TV among men and underestimating was positively associated with depressive symptoms among women. This study adds to a growing international literature on body weight status misperception among adolescents and young adults. PMID:22104126

  19. Quality Books about Bullying in the Young Adult Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Joanne; Hoover, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Anti-bullying experts employ trade books in dealing with contemporary issues facing young people, including bullying. At least three conceptual strands underpin the application of young adult literature (YAL) in such enterprises: (1) reliance on tested voices appealing to young readers; (2) the potential effect of quality YAL on literacy…

  20. 76 FR 56263 - Titles II and XVI: Documenting and Evaluating Disability in Young Adults

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ...Documenting and Evaluating Disability in Young Adults AGENCY: Social Security Administration...documenting and evaluating disability in young adults. DATES: Effective Date: September 12...Documenting and Evaluating Disability in Young Adults Purpose: This SSR consolidates...

  1. 78 FR 58290 - TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE Young Adult Program Premium Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ...TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE Young Adult Program Premium Update AGENCY: Office...ACTION: Notice of Updated TRICARE Young Adult Premiums for Calendar Year 2014...notice provides the updated TRICARE Young Adult program premiums for Calendar Year...

  2. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of the composition of hyaline articular and non-articular cartilage in young and aged rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James F. S. Middleton; Stephen Hunt; Kenneth Oates

    1988-01-01

    Blocks of articular cartilage were taken from tibiae of young adult (8 week) and aged adult (50–60 week) rats; xiphisternal cartilage was obtained from young adult rats. Specimens were quench-frozen in nitrogen slush, freeze-fractured and examined by low-temperature scanning electron microscopy. The results of X-ray microanalysis of frozen-hydrated bulk cartilage are semi-quantitative. The composition of chondrocyte nuclei and cytoplasm are

  3. Neurological abnormalities in young adults born preterm

    PubMed Central

    Allin, M; Rooney, M; Griffiths, T; Cuddy, M; Wyatt, J; Rifkin, L; Murray, R

    2006-01-01

    Objective Individuals born before 33?weeks' gestation (very preterm, VPT) have an increased likelihood of neurological abnormality, impaired cognitive function, and reduced academic performance in childhood. It is currently not known whether neurological signs detected in VPT children persist into adulthood or become attenuated by maturation of the CNS. Method We assessed 153 VPT individuals and 71 term?born controls at 17–18?years old, using a comprehensive neurological examination. This examination divides neurological signs into primary and integrative domains, the former representing the localising signs of classical neurology, and the latter representing signs requiring integration between different neural networks or systems. Integrative signs are sub?divided into three groups: sensory integration, motor confusion, and sequencing. The VPT individuals have been followed up since birth, and neonatal information is available on them, along with the results of neurological assessment at 4 and 8?years of age and neuropsychological assessment at 18?years of age. Results The total neurology score and primary and integrative scores were significantly increased in VPT young adults compared to term?born controls. Within the integrative domain, sensory integration and motor confusion scores were significantly increased in the VPT group, but sequencing was not significantly different between the VPT and term groups. Integrative neurological abnormalities at 18 were strongly associated with reduced IQ but primary abnormalities were not. Conclusions Neurological signs are increased in VPT adults compared to term?born controls, and are strongly associated with reduced neuropsychological function. PMID:16543529

  4. Expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms in regenerated muscle spindle fibres after muscle grafting in young and adult rats – plasticity of intrafusal satellite cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TomᚠSoukup; Lars-Eric Thornell

    1998-01-01

    Satellite cells are the myogenic precursor cells of postnatal skeletal muscles. After muscle injury they can proliferate, differentiate, fuse and form myofibres. We have analysed regeneration of distinctly different types of intrafusal fibres in rat muscle spindles. We have introduced the new technique of heterochronous allotransplantation and compared it with the previously used standard autografting method. The allotransplantation method enables

  5. Birth weight, body mass index and asthma in young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seif O Shaheen; Jonathan A C Sterne; Scott M Montgomery; Hossain Azima

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUNDImpaired fetal growth may be a risk factor for asthma although evidence in children is conflicting and there are few data in adults. Little is known about risk factors which may influence asthma in late childhood or early adult life. Whilst there are clues that fatness may be important, this has been little studied in young adults. The relations between

  6. Social Participation Among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in social activities among young adults who received special education services for autism (ASD group), compared to young adults who received special education for intellectual disability, emotional/behavioral disability, or a learning disability. Young adults with an ASD were significantly more likely to never see friends, never get called by friends, never be invited to activities, and be socially isolated. Among those with an ASD, lower conversation ability, lower functional skills, and living with parent were predictors of less social participation. PMID:23615687

  7. Exploring the experiences of young people nursed on adult wards.

    PubMed

    Dean, Linda; Black, Sharon

    2015-02-26

    This paper reports on a study of experiences of young people aged 14 to 18 years who were nursed on acute adult hospital wards in NHS hospitals in England. In spite of British government guidelines, young people from 14 years of age continue to be admitted to adult wards in the UK. Although much has been written about the transition of the young person to adult services, there is little research about the experiences of young people who are nursed on adult wards. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to explore the lived experiences of eight young people who had been nursed on adult wards between 2004 and 2010. Data were collected in 2010. In-depth interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Colaizzi's framework ( Colaizzi, 1978 ). Themes explored included expectations of what the experience may be like, young people's first impressions of the ward environment, the feelings of the young person while in hospital, the attitudes of people towards them including, both staff and other patients, and future admissions and how they would cope with readmissions. Better provision needs to be made for young people including appropriately trained staff, adolescent-friendly environments and areas in adult wards that are dedicated to adolescents. PMID:25723268

  8. The neurotrophin receptor p75NTR mediates early anti-inflammatory effects of estrogen in the forebrain of young adult rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa L Nordell; Danielle K Lewis; Shameena Bake; Farida Sohrabji

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estrogen suppresses microglial activation and extravasation of circulating monocytes in young animals, supporting an anti-inflammatory role for this hormone. However, the mechanisms underlying estrogen's anti-inflammatory effects, especially in vivo, are not well understood. The present study tests the hypothesis that anti-inflammatory effects of estrogen are mediated by the pan-neurotrophin receptor p75NTR. Previously, we reported that estrogen attenuated local increases

  9. Reactivity to novelty in cognitively-impaired and cognitively-unimpaired aged rats and young rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. B Rowe; E Spreekmeester; M. J Meaney; J Rochford

    1998-01-01

    Two distinct populations of aged, Long–Evans rats can be identified on the basis of performance in the Morris water maze task. Aged (24 month) unimpaired rats perform similarly to young (six month) animals. Aged, impaired rats display latencies to find the submerged platform greater than two standard deviations from the mean of the young animals. A hallmark of efficient cognitive

  10. Chronic cannabinoid treatment during young adulthood induces sex-specific behavioural deficits in maternally separated rats.

    PubMed

    Klug, Maren; van den Buuse, Maarten

    2012-08-01

    A combination of early neurodevelopmental disruptions and young-adult cannabis use may lead to the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate in adult Wistar rats (12-14 weeks of age) the long-term 'two hit' behavioural effects of chronic young-adult treatment with the cannabinoid receptor agonist, CP55,940 (0.2 mg/kg, 8-10 weeks of age) in combination with maternal separation (MS) (3 h every day from postnatal days 2-14). Two weeks after chronic CP55,940 treatment had ceased, baseline locomotor activity was reduced in male, but not female rats and irrespective of MS. In male rats only, the combination of MS and cannabinoid exposure, but not either 'hit' alone, induced a significant decrease in sucrose preference. In contrast, in male rats both MS and CP55,940 treatment reduced time spent on the open arms of the plus maze or centre time in the open field and this was most pronounced after a combination of these 'hits'. Prepulse inhibition was reduced by MS in both sexes but there was no additional effect of CP55,940 treatment. Memory performance in the Y-maze and novel object recognition test was not affected by either of the two 'hits'. These results indicate that early developmental disruptions and young-adult cannabis use on their own or in combination can differentially and sex-specifically affect behaviours related to neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22610052

  11. Role Markers of Adulthood and Young Adults’ Ties to Grandparents

    PubMed Central

    Monserud, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the implications of residential independence, enrollment in postsecondary education, employment, marital status, and parenthood for contact with, and closeness to, grandparents. Data come from 1,507 young adults interviewed in Wave 3 of the National Survey of Families and Households. Findings suggest that adult roles can be either negatively or positively associated with grandparent-grandchild ties, depending on specific configurations among such factors as the adult role in question, a particular dimension of intergenerational solidarity, lineage, and grandchild’s and grandparent’s gender. Young adults’ ties to parents can mediate the adverse consequences of residential independence for contact with grandparents. PMID:20725597

  12. Initiating factors of Chinese intergenerational conflict: Young adults' written accounts

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yan Bing

    2004-01-01

    This study examined young adults’ written accounts of intergenerational communication in conflict situations in the People's Republic of China. Using a content analysis approach, this study identified five major types of ...

  13. Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2015-01-01

    Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer young adults with ID (45%) visited a dentist at least once per year, compared with those without ID (58%). ID severity and the presence of co-occurring developmental disabilities predicted dental care use. Sociodemographics, daily functioning, societal participation, dental services, and dental health factors were examined as predictors of dental care frequency. Our findings can help focus efforts toward improving the frequency of dental care visits among young adults with ID. PMID:23501584

  14. Hearing loss and tinnitus in adolescents and young adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Alice

    2001-05-01

    Little attention has been paid to hearing abilities and the effects of noise on the normal adolescent and young adult population. A series of studies will be presented on the prevalence of hearing loss and reported effects of hearing loss and tinnitus in adolescents and young adults from different cultural backgrounds. Adolescents and young adults from different backgrounds may tend to seek or avoid various noise environments that could be detrimental to their hearing and cause tinnitus. Attitudes and exposures to noise environments were evaluated to see if these may be correlated with their hearing losses and/or tinnitus. In addition, these adolescent and young adult subjects reported how often they used hearing protection in various noise environments. Finally, the issues of quality of life and the need for hearing conservation programs with these populations will be presented.

  15. Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most

    MedlinePLUS

    ... combined—and many more needed emergency treatment. Top Graph: The nonmedical use of prescription drugs is highest ... prescription drugs nonmedically in the past year. Middle Graph: Three thousand young adults died from Rx drug ...

  16. A Bilingual Advantage in Young Adults: Unfounded or Undetectable 

    E-print Network

    Clarkson, Harriet

    Research has shown that a bilingual cognitive advantage in young adults manifests inconsistently. The objective of the present study was to investigate the existence of a bilingual advantage in this age group, whilst looking at factors which may...

  17. The Trouble With Teen and Young Adult Cancer Care.

    PubMed

    Katz, Anne

    2015-07-01

    For the past two years, I have been immersed in the writing of two books-This Should Not Be Happening: Young Adults With Cancer and Meeting the Need for Psychosocial Care in Young Adults With Cancer (Katz, 2014, 2015). In the preparation of these two manuscripts, I read everything ever written about cancer in these populations. The experience proved to be a somewhat frustrating endeavor, with more information and evidence missing than available.?. PMID:26148312

  18. Neuromuscular fatigue during repetitive stimulation in elderly and young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia M. Cupido; Audrey L. Hicks; Joan Martin

    1992-01-01

    Summary  The purpose of this investigation was to examine the integrity of neuromuscular transmission and impulse propagation during fatigue by examining the muscle compound action potential (M wave) in elderly and young adults. The tibialis anterior muscle of nine elderly [{ie567-1}=67.7 (SE 1.7) years] and nine young [{ie567-2}=26.7 (SE 1.2) years] adults was maximally stimulated repetitively at frequencies of 20, 30

  19. Substance Use in Young Adults With Schizophrenic Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn S. Wallisch; Deborah J. Allness; Kathryn Ripp

    1989-01-01

    Use of nonprescribed mood altering substances is pervasive and problematic in young adults with serious mental illnesses in community care. Fifty-eight percent of young adult clients with clearly defined schizophrenia or schizophrenia-related disorders participating in a long-term community treatment study were rated by staff or themselves as using alcohol, cannabis, or other street drugs several times a week or more.

  20. Life Course Status and Exchanges of Support between Young Adults and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…

  1. Five Invaluable Resources for Young Adult Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winings, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    More than a decade ago, the popular topic of discussion in higher education and in pop culture concerned the character traits of what was then called "Generation X" or "GenX" for short. One lasting impact of this focus has been a renewed effort on the part of higher education to define young adulthood and to reassess young adult education. In the…

  2. Multiple Voices, Multiple Genres: Fiction for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida

    2002-01-01

    Notes that with so many multivoice novels accessible to teens, there is a great opportunity to expand students' reading repertoire. Proposes that young adult novels are an excellent transition to classic literature that may seem remote or difficult. Offers advice on teaching multivoice novels. Concludes that multivoice novels show young readers…

  3. Social Participation among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in…

  4. SeatBelt Use and Related Behaviors Among Young Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothy J. Begg; John D. Langley

    2000-01-01

    Seat-belt use among young adults was examined to identify factors associated with nonuse. This research was part of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, which is a study of the health, development, and behavior of a birth cohort of young New Zealanders (n = 1037). At age 21 years, 948 (93%) members of this cohort were administered a face-to-face

  5. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, David S.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Brereton, Avril V.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study investigating rates and types of comorbid mental disorder evident in adolescents and young adults with autism. A sample of 84 young people (M = 19.5 years, SD = 4.6) with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association,…

  6. Environmental sustainability: Understanding young adults' learning, thinking, and actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kola-Olusanya, Anthony O.

    This thesis explores the ways in which young-adults' environmental learning and experiences influence their decision to live sustainably. In particular, this thesis focuses on young adults' environmental and sustainability learning. It elaborates on young peoples' views about environmental and sustainability issues, such as climate change, the sources for their learning about these issues, and how young adults' learning encounters, in turn, affect their actions toward environmental protection and decision-making. Through a series of in-depth individual interviews with 18 young adults from three universities in southeastern Ontario, this qualitative study provides in-depth insight into young adults' understanding, learning experiences, and actions in relation to environmental and sustainability issues. Employing a Contextual Model of Learning framework the narratives of the young adults in this study are analyzed and discussed within three overlapping environmental learning contexts: personal, sociocultural, and physical settings. This framework allows for an examination of the complex interactions and relationships that shape how and where environmental learning occurs. The findings in this study suggest that the three overlapping learning contexts, that is the personal, sociocultural, and physical play an important role in shaping young adults' learning about environmental and sustainability issues. The data reveal that despite the unavailability or near-absence of environmental studies and education within the formal school curriculum (particularly at the elementary and high school levels), the young adults rely on other locations for learning, such as the internet, environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs), television, and family. In light of this, the research participants suggest the re-introduction of environmental programs and content in the school curriculum. Finally, the results of this study demonstrate the centrality of knowledge and experience in relation to environmental and sustainability issues in the actions and thoughts of the young adult research participants. This study makes an important contribution to the field of environmental and sustainability education by demonstrating the critical role of learning in a knowledge society. It illuminates the implications of various learning contexts for a sustainable global environment and future. Furthermore, it provides insight into the views of young adults regarding the future of the global environment and current sustainability initiatives in a world that faces ever-greater challenges.

  7. THE GEOTROPIC CONDUCT OF YOUNG RATS

    PubMed Central

    Crozier, W. J.; Pincus, G.

    1926-01-01

    Young rats, old enough to creep well but before the eyelids are open, orient and move upward upon an inclined surface. The angle of geotropic orientation on such a surface (?) is proportional to the logarithm of the component of gravity parallel to the inclined plane. This result is compared with the scanty information available for other animals; there is indication that it may be generally valid. The precision of the orientation, measured by the percentage dispersion of the individual measurements, also increases in proportion to the logarithm of this component. The cosine of the angle of orientation decreases very nearly in proportion to the sine of the angle of inclination. A possible interpretation of this is given as involving the idea that upward orientation ceases when the differential pull of the body weight upon the opposed legs reaches a threshold value. Attaching weights (W) to the tail causes ? to increase, and in proportion to log W. PMID:19872320

  8. Differential effectiveness of low-intensity exercise in young and old rats.

    PubMed

    Brown, Marybeth; Taylor, Jennifer; Gabriel, Rob

    2003-10-01

    Low-intensity exercise increases strength and function in old adults, but it is unclear if change occurs secondary to "neural adaptation" or to intrinsic muscle adaptation. Whether function and strength change concomitantly is also unclear. We examined effects of a modest intensity, 10-session exercise program on muscle mass, contractile force, and function (gait) in 6-month-old and 30-month-old rats. Animals underwent 45 minutes of activity (e.g., ramp walking, balancing) 5 days/week. In old animals, a significant increase in muscle mass and peak contractile force occurred with exercise in soleus, plantaris, extensor digitorum longus, and peroneus longus compared with controls, but did not restore values to those for young controls. The increase in muscle force in old rats was accompanied by a significant lengthening of stride (90 +/- 9 to 103 +/- 15 mm), which was still 23% less than stride values for young rats. Changes in muscle function and gait with exercise were not apparent in young rats. Results suggest that (a). rapid and significant changes in muscle mass and strength in an aged organism can occur with a modest activity program, (b). the threshold for muscle adaptation may differ in young versus old rats, and (c). changes in strength and function in old rats may occur concomitantly. PMID:14570854

  9. The neurotrophin receptor p75NTR mediates early anti-inflammatory effects of estrogen in the forebrain of young adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Nordell, Vanessa L; Lewis, Danielle K; Bake, Shameena; Sohrabji, Farida

    2005-01-01

    Background Estrogen suppresses microglial activation and extravasation of circulating monocytes in young animals, supporting an anti-inflammatory role for this hormone. However, the mechanisms underlying estrogen's anti-inflammatory effects, especially in vivo, are not well understood. The present study tests the hypothesis that anti-inflammatory effects of estrogen are mediated by the pan-neurotrophin receptor p75NTR. Previously, we reported that estrogen attenuated local increases of interleukin(IL)-1? in the NMDA-lesioned olfactory bulb, while further increasing NGF expression. Results The present studies show that this lesion enhances expression of the neurotrophin receptor p75NTR at the lesion site, and p75NTR expression is further enhanced by estrogen treatment to lesioned animals. Specifically, estrogen stimulates p75NTR expression in cells of microvessels adjacent to the lesion site. To determine the role of this receptor in mediating estrogen's anti-inflammatory effects, a p75NTR neutralizing antibody was administered at the same time the lesion was created (by stereotaxic injections of NMDA) and specific markers of the inflammatory cascade were measured. Olfactory bulb injections of NMDA+vehicle (preimmune serum) increased IL-1? and activated the signaling molecule c-jun terminal kinase (JNK)-2 at 6 h. At 24 h, the lesion significantly increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and prostaglandin (PG)E2, a COX-2 mediated metabolite of arachadonic acid. All of these markers were significantly attenuated by estrogen in a time-dependent manner. However, estrogen's effects on all these markers were abolished in animals that received anti-p75NTR. Conclusion These data support the hypothesis that estrogen's anti-inflammatory effects may be, in part, mediated by this neurotrophin receptor. In view of the novel estrogen-dependent expression of p75NTR in cells associated with microvessels, these data also suggest that the blood brain barrier is a critical locus of estrogen's neuro-immune effects. PMID:16156894

  10. Differences in correlates of condom use between young adults and adults attending sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Amanda R; Blood, Emily A; Crosby, Richard A; Shrier, Lydia A

    2015-07-01

    Despite developmental differences between young adults and adults, studies of condom use have not typically considered young adults as a distinct age group. This study sought to examine how condom use and its correlates differed between high-risk young adults and adults. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients (n?=?763) reported STI history, contraception, negative condom attitudes, fear of partner reaction to condom use and risky behaviours. Past 3-month condom use was examined as unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) acts, proportional condom use and consistent condom use. Regression models tested associations of age group and potential correlates with each condom use outcome. Interaction models tested whether associations differed by age group. Proportional condom use was greater in young adults than adults (mean 0.55 vs. 0.47); UVS and consistent condom use were similar between age groups. Young adults with a recent STI reported less condom use, whereas for older adults, a distant STI was associated with less condom use, compared to others in their age groups. Negative condom attitudes were more strongly linked to UVS acts for younger versus older adults. STI prevention efforts for younger adults may be improved by intensifying counselling about condom use immediately following STI diagnosis and targeting negative condom attitudes. PMID:25070945

  11. Complex experience promotes capillary formation in young rat visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Black, J E; Sirevaag, A M; Greenough, W T

    1987-12-29

    The metabolic support of neural plasticity was examined by comparing cerebral vasculature of weanling rats reared in complex environments (EC) to littermates reared individually (IC) or socially in pairs (SC). EC rats have a thicker occipital cortex, more synaptic contacts per neuron and larger dendritic arbors compared to SC or IC rats, potentially increasing local metabolic demands on microvasculature. Capillaries of EC rats were closer together than those of SC or IC rats and potentially filled a greater fraction of cortex with blood. The closer capillary spacing in young EC rats suggests compensatory angiogenesis in response to increased metabolic demand. PMID:2450317

  12. Young Children's Attributions: Pink and Blue Are for Adults Only.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotten-Huston, Annie L.; Lunney, G. Sparks

    The present study compares the attributions of young children 5 to 6.5 years of age with those of adult subjects 20 to 30 years of age, who were engaged in the same competitive situation. It was hypothesized that sex differences would occur in the sample of adults but not in the sample of children. Believing outcomes to be determined by either…

  13. Mature Young Adult Books Are Given a Bad Reputation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Julia

    1998-01-01

    Presents the viewpoints of a tenth grader on novels for young adults that portray troubled teens dealing with alcoholism, drugs, depression, suicide, sexual abuse, and violence. Suggests that contrary to adult opinions that these novels are not always age-appropriate, they in fact broaden teens' outlooks and prepare them for the real world. (LRW)

  14. The Structure of Verbal Abilities in Young and Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Kemper; Aaron Sumner

    2001-01-01

    Four language sample measures as well as measures of vocabulary, verbal fluency, and memory span were obtained from a sample of young adults and a sample of older adults. Factor analysis was used to analyze the structure of the vocabulary, fluency, and span measures for each age group. Then an \\

  15. Radial Maze Proficiency of Adult Wistar Rats Given Prenatal

    E-print Network

    Turner, Ray

    Radial Maze Proficiency of Adult Wistar Rats Given Prenatal Complex Magnetic Field Treatments B. E or a sham condition. As adults, rats were trained in an acquisition/reversal radial maze task. All rats in working memory and motivation to complete the maze task were specific to the type of prenatal CMF

  16. Vagal afferent activity and body temperature in 3 to 10-day-old and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Trippenbach, T

    2001-04-01

    This study examined the possible contribution of vagal stretch receptor activity to the increased power of the Hering-Breuer reflex in hyperthermia in rats during the early postnatal period. Experiments were performed on 10 anesthetized (pentobarbital 40 mg/kg, i.p.) 3 to 10-day-old (body weight of 16 +/- 1 g; SE) and, for comparison, 18 adult Sprague-Dawley rats (body weight of 336 +/- 35 g). Animals were tracheostomized and artificially ventilated with oxygen. The left vagus nerve was cut. In adult animals, single receptor fibers or a bundle of a few fibers were recorded using a bipolar stainless-steel electrode under mineral oil. In the young rats, a suction electrode filled with normal saline was used. Positive pressure of either 5 or 10 cmH2O was applied to the trachea when the respirator was turned off. The vagal activity was amplified and monitored on a storage oscilloscope for calculation of the frequency of vagal afferent activity during a given pressure application at different rectal temperatures (T(R); range 28 to 42 degrees C). In total, 30 and 31 sets of vagal activity in the young and adult rats, respectively, were analyzed. In all cases, an increase in tracheal pressure (P(TR)) from 5 to 10 cmH2O increased the frequency of vagal firing. The increase was greater in the adult versus the young animals; at 36 degrees C the increase was 49 +/- 11% and 16 +/- 3% in the adult and young rats, respectively (P < 0.01). In all animals, vagal receptors showed temperature-sensitivity, but less so in the young than in the adult rats (P < 0.0004 and P < 0.003; for P(TR) of 5 and 10 cmH2O, respectively). In addition, the relationship between temperature-sensitivity and T(R) had significant slopes (P < 0.001 for both inflation pressures) in the adults but not in the young rats, indicating that in the latter the temperature-sensitivity of vagal receptors is independent of TR. These results imply that temperature-sensitivity of vagal receptors could have contributed to the increased power of the Hering-Breuer reflex in rats during the early postnatal period in the warmer environment. PMID:11332507

  17. Older Adults Expend More Listening Effort than Young Adults Recognizing Speech in Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Penny Anderson; Gagne, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Listening in noisy situations is a challenging experience for many older adults. The authors hypothesized that older adults exert more listening effort compared with young adults. Listening effort involves the attention and cognitive resources required to understand speech. The purpose was (a) to quantify the amount of listening effort…

  18. Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer, CSR 1975-2007

    Cancer.gov

    Tumors affecting adolescents and young adults often differ from those affecting pediatric and older adult populations1. For this reason, a classification scheme has been proposed for tumors diagnosed in adolescents and young adults2. This classification scheme was updated based on site and histology codes of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition3. Effective 2001, all cases reported to SEER were required to have an ICD-O-3 histology and behavior code and all previous cases were converted to ICD-O-34.

  19. Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer, CSR 1975-2012

    Cancer.gov

    Tumors affecting adolescents and young adults often differ from those affecting pediatric and older adult populations1. For this reason, a classification scheme has been proposed for tumors diagnosed in adolescents and young adults2. This classification scheme was updated based on site and histology codes of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition3. Effective 2001, all cases reported to SEER were required to have an ICD-O-3 histology and behavior code and all previous cases were converted to ICD-O-34.

  20. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Young Adults: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tran, Dieu-My T; Zimmerman, Lani M

    2015-01-01

    This extensive literature review focuses on cardiovascular risk factors in young adults, with an emphasis on hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Multiple studies have confirmed that hyperlipidemia and hypertension during young adulthood are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in later decades, and CHD is one type of cardiovascular disease. The primary risk factors identified in the literature that are predictive of CHD are age; gender; race/ethnicity; smoking status; high blood pressure; and elevated lipid levels, especially low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The current guidelines are insufficient to address screening and treatment in young adults with cardiovascular risk factors. Future studies are warranted to confirm the extent of cardiovascular risks in young adults, which can then be targeted to this population for prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:24743652

  1. Adolescent Ego-Development Trajectories and Young Adult Relationship Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hennighausen, Katherine H.; Hauser, Stuart T.; Billings, Rebecca L.; Schultz, Lynn Hickey; Allen, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent ego-development trajectories were related to close-relationship outcomes in young adulthood. An adolescent sample completed annual measures of ego development from ages 14 through 17. The authors theoretically determined and empirically traced five ego-development trajectories reflecting stability or change. At age 25, the sample completed a close-relationship interview and consented for two peers to rate the participants’ego resiliency and hostility. Participants who followed the profound-arrest trajectory in adolescence reported more mundane sharing of experiences, more impulsive or egocentric conflict-resolution tactics, and less mature interpersonal understanding in their young adult relationships, and their young adult peers described these participants as more hostile. Participants who attained or maintained higher levels of ego development in adolescence reported more complex sharing of experiences, more collaborative conflict-resolution strategies, and greater interpersonal understanding, and their young adult peers rated them as less hostile and as more flexible. PMID:17404603

  2. Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species

    PubMed Central

    Amrein, Irmgard; Becker, Anton S.; Engler, Stefanie; Huang, Shih-hui; Müller, Julian; Slomianka, Lutz; Oosthuizen, Maria K.

    2014-01-01

    African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) are small to medium sized, long-lived, and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN) correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of 1 year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin). Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis), social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae), and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean rodents. PMID:24904308

  3. Timing of Reflexive Visuospatial Orienting in Young, Young-Old, and Old-Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Langley, Linda K.; Friesen, Chris Kelland; Saville, Alyson L.; Ciernia, Annie T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined adult age differences in reflexive orienting to two types of uninformative spatial cues: central arrows and peripheral onsets. In two experiments using a Posner cuing task, young adults (ages 18 – 28 yrs), young-old adults (ages 60 – 74 yrs), and old-old adults (ages 75 – 92 yrs) responded to targets that were preceded 100–1,000 ms earlier by a central arrow or a peripheral abrupt onset. In Experiment 1, the cue remained present upon target onset. Facilitation effects at early cue-target stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) were prolonged in duration for the two older groups relative to the young adults. At later cue-target SOAs, inhibition of return (IOR) that was initiated by peripheral onset cues was observed in the performance of young adults but not in that of the two older groups. In Experiment 2, the cue was presented briefly and removed prior to target onset. The change in cue duration minimized age differences (particularly for young-old adults) in facilitation effects and led to IOR for all three age groups. The findings are consistent with the idea that attentional control settings change with age, with higher settings for older adults leading to delayed disengagement from spatial cues. PMID:21394555

  4. Study of Sexuality-Related Characteristics in Young Adults With Schizophrenia Treated With Novel Neuroleptics and in a Comparison Group of Young Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Fortier; Jean-Pierre Mottard; Gilles Trudel; Sandrine Even

    2003-01-01

    This study compared characteristics related to sexual history, sexual activities, sexual functioning, and psychological tendencies associated with sexuality in 45 young adults with schizophrenia treated with novel neuroleptics and in 61 young adults from a comparison group. A smaller proportion of young adults with schizophrenia currently had a sexual partner or had ever engaged in sexual relations. They also had

  5. Stimulus-specific adaptation in auditory thalamus of young and aged awake rats

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Ben D.; Hancock, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    Novel stimulus detection by single neurons in the auditory system, known as stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA), appears to function as a real-time filtering/gating mechanism in processing acoustic information. Particular stimulus paradigms allowing for quantification of a neuron's ability to detect novel or deviant stimuli have been used to examine SSA in the inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body (MGB), and auditory cortex of anesthetized rodents. However, the study of SSA in awake animals is limited to auditory cortex. The present study used individually advanceable tetrodes to record single-unit responses from auditory thalamus (MGB) of awake young adult and aged Fischer Brown Norway (FBN) rats to 1) examine the presence of SSA in the MGB of awake rats and 2) determine whether SSA is altered by aging in MGB. MGB single units in awake FBN rats displayed SSA in response to two stimulus paradigms: the oddball paradigm and a random blocked/interleaved presentation of a set of frequencies. SSA levels were modestly, but nonsignificantly, increased in the nonlemniscal regions of the MGB and at lower stimulus intensities, where 27 of 57 (47%) young adult MGB units displayed SSA. The present findings provide the initial description of SSA in the MGB of awake rats and support SSA as being qualitatively independent of arousal level or anesthetized state. Finally, contrary to previous studies in auditory cortex of anesthetized rats, MGB units in aged rats showed SSA levels indistinguishable from SSA levels in young adult rats, suggesting that SSA in MGB was not impacted by aging in an awake preparation. PMID:23904489

  6. Stimulus-specific adaptation in auditory thalamus of young and aged awake rats.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Ben D; Hancock, Kenneth E; Caspary, Donald M

    2013-10-01

    Novel stimulus detection by single neurons in the auditory system, known as stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA), appears to function as a real-time filtering/gating mechanism in processing acoustic information. Particular stimulus paradigms allowing for quantification of a neuron's ability to detect novel or deviant stimuli have been used to examine SSA in the inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body (MGB), and auditory cortex of anesthetized rodents. However, the study of SSA in awake animals is limited to auditory cortex. The present study used individually advanceable tetrodes to record single-unit responses from auditory thalamus (MGB) of awake young adult and aged Fischer Brown Norway (FBN) rats to 1) examine the presence of SSA in the MGB of awake rats and 2) determine whether SSA is altered by aging in MGB. MGB single units in awake FBN rats displayed SSA in response to two stimulus paradigms: the oddball paradigm and a random blocked/interleaved presentation of a set of frequencies. SSA levels were modestly, but nonsignificantly, increased in the nonlemniscal regions of the MGB and at lower stimulus intensities, where 27 of 57 (47%) young adult MGB units displayed SSA. The present findings provide the initial description of SSA in the MGB of awake rats and support SSA as being qualitatively independent of arousal level or anesthetized state. Finally, contrary to previous studies in auditory cortex of anesthetized rats, MGB units in aged rats showed SSA levels indistinguishable from SSA levels in young adult rats, suggesting that SSA in MGB was not impacted by aging in an awake preparation. PMID:23904489

  7. A Complementary Alternative Medicine Questionnaire for Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Christine; Arthur, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Limited information exists on how adolescents decide to use complementary/alternative medicine (CAM). There are also no instruments specific to CAM, for the young adult population, which makes it difficult to explore knowledge in this area. The purpose of this study was to develop and examine the psychometric properties of the CAM Questionnaire for Young Adults which measures young adults’ attitudes about CAM. Participants for this cross-sectional survey were selected from enrolled undergraduate students at an urban university. Factor analysis identified three subscales: 1) positive beliefs about CAM; 2) environmental influence; and 3) psychological comfort. The scale has good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.79) and shows beginning demonstration of validity. Its use in this sample revealed that young adults who are female and have used CAM in the past for preventing or treating illness have the most positive attitude towards CAM and the greatest likelihood for continued use. The implication that prevention may play a role in young adults’ attitudes about CAM is a potential focus for future research. PMID:21614159

  8. Cigarillo use among High-Risk Urban Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Milam, Adam J.; Bone, Lee R.; Byron, M. Justin; Hoke, Kathleen; Williams, Carla D.; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Stillman, Frances A.

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S., cigar use doubled from 5.0 to 10.6 billion cigars consumed annually between 1997 and 2007, driven in large part by increased sales of cigarette-sized “little cigars” and narrow, mid-sized “cigarillos.” The present study examined prevalence of cigarillo use as well as attitudes, knowledge and behaviors related to cigarillo use among a sample of predominantly urban African American young adults 18–24 not in school and not employed. Survey data were collected from 131 young adults attending education and job training centers in Baltimore, Maryland and from 78 young adults attending education, job training, or recreational programs in Washington, D.C. In Baltimore, 22% of young adults had smoked a cigarillo in the past 30 days, compared with nearly 63% in D.C. Both populations were heavily exposed to cigarillo advertising and marketing. Cigarillo use in this urban young adult population is a growing public health problem and undermines the progress made in decreasing cigarette use. PMID:24185161

  9. Doublecortin expression in the adult rat telencephalon.

    PubMed

    Nacher, J; Crespo, C; McEwen, B S

    2001-08-01

    Doublecortin (DCX) is a protein required for normal neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex, where it is widely expressed in both radially and tangentially migrating neuroblasts. Moreover, it has been observed in the adult rostral migratory stream, which contains the neuronal precursors traveling to the olfactory bulb. We have performed DCX immunocytochemistry in the adult rat brain to identify precisely the neuronal populations expressing this protein. Our observations confirm the presence of DCX immunoreactive cells with the characteristic morphology of migrating neuroblasts in the subventricular zone, rostral migratory stream and the main and accessory olfactory bulbs. We have also found putative migratory cells expressing DCX in regions were no adult neuronal migration has been described, as the corpus callosum, the piriform cortex layer III/endopiriform nucleus and the striatum. Surprisingly, many cells with the phenotype of differentiated neurons were DCX immunoreactive; e.g. certain granule neurons in the hilar border of the granular layer of the dentate gyrus, some neuronal types in the piriform cortex layer II, granule and periglomerular neurons in the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, and isolated cells in the striatum. Almost all DCX immunoreactive cells also express the polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule and have a similar distribution to rat collapsin receptor-mediated protein-4, two molecules involved in neuronal structural plasticity. Given these results, we hypothesize that DCX expression in differentiated neurons could be related to its capacity for microtubule reorganization and that this fact could be linked to axonal outgrowth or synaptogenesis. PMID:11556888

  10. Pulmonary function in healthy young adult Indians in Madras.

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, V K; Kuppurao, K V; Venkatesan, P; Sankaran, K; Prabhakar, R

    1990-01-01

    Forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, functional residual capacity, residual volume, total lung capacity, and single breath diffusing capacity measurements (effective alveolar volume, carbon monoxide transfer factor, and transfer coefficient) were measured in 247 young healthy adults (130 male, 117 female) aged 15-40 years living in Madras. Subjects were of Dravidian stock, living at sea level with rice as their staple diet. Regression equations were derived for men and women for predicting normal pulmonary function for young adults in South India. The values were similar to those reported for subjects from Western India and lower than those reported for North Indians and caucasians. PMID:2402724

  11. Nephropathy in youth and young adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Solis-Herrera, Carolina; Triplitt, Curtis L; Lynch, Jane L

    2014-02-01

    The occurrence and progression of nephropathy associated with early onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a consequence of the ongoing epidemic of childhood obesity. Minimal evidence regarding treatment effectiveness of renovascular comorbidities in youth with early onset T2D is available, due to the relatively recent emergence of T2D in youth and young adults. Extrapolation of adult therapy guidelines is not an ideal approach to making therapeutic decisions in this population. Evolving management and intervention strategies are based on accumulating longitudinal data from cohorts of well characterized youth and young adults with T2D. The degree of similarity in histologic findings and disease specific characteristics of kidney disease in patients with early onset T2D and albuminuria compared with affected adults is not well characterized. Early aggressive therapies to minimize the impact of nephropathy are indicated as the evidence for best therapies in youth with T2D are further explored. PMID:24398660

  12. Developmental Antecedents of Young Adult Civic Engagement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jelena Obradovi?; Ann S. Masten

    2007-01-01

    Civic engagement was studied in relation to overall development in adolescence, emerging adulthood, and young adulthood to examine how earlier activity involvement and success in prior and concurrent age-salient domains of competence may contribute to 2 forms of civic engagement in adulthood (citizenship and volunteering). Data on 163 youth were drawn from a longitudinal study of competence in a normative,

  13. Intimacy and identity status in young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie A. Tesch; Susan K. Whitbourne

    1982-01-01

    Intimacy status in 48 men and 44 women (aged 21–35 yrs) was investigated in relation to ego-identity status in occupation, religion, politics, and sex role. All Ss were college educated, and most were employed in professional or skilled occupations. An intimacy status measure developed by J. L. Orlofsky et al (1973) was modified for use with adults and expanded by

  14. Functional Literacy of Young Guyanese Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Zellyne

    2000-01-01

    Describes the rationale, development, and administration of the test used for measuring levels of achievement in functional literacy in Guyana. Draws attention to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate that is reported for Guyana in international…

  15. THE YOUNG ADULT--A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK. SUMMARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHICKERING, ARTHUR W.

    THE DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE SPANNING THE YEARS FROM 18 TO 25 MUST BE STUDIED SEPARATELY FROM OTHER DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES. THE DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS OF THIS PERIOD ARE RELATED TO, BUT SUBSTANTIALLY DIFFERENT FROM, THOSE OF BOTH ADOLESCENCE AND ADULTHOOD. THE SEVEN MAJOR DEVELOPMENTAL VECTORS FOR THE YOUNG ADULT INCLUDE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPETENCE,…

  16. Recognition of Emotion by Mentally Retarded Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, R. P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study found that mildly mentally retarded adolescents and young adults (N=21) were not able to correctly match photographs of faces to emotionally expressive voices. Results suggest that mentally retarded individuals may have specific deficits in recognizing how bodily expressions of emotion are coordinated with each other. (Author/DB)

  17. 100 More Popular Young Adult Authors: Biographical Sketches and Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Bernard A.

    Intended as a ready reference for teenagers looking for information about their favorite writers, this book features 100 biographical sketches and biographies of popular young adult authors. The book includes many authors who are prize winners, many who have shown strength and consistency in writing, and some who have pioneered new directions or…

  18. Nutritional attributes of traditional flaxseed in healthy young adults13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen C Cunnane; Mazen J Hamadeh; Andrea C Liede; Lilian U Thompson; David JA Jenkins

    The objective was to determine the influence of consuming 50 g flaxseed\\/d for 4 wk on several indexes of nutrition in young healthy adults. During flaxseed consump- tion, ct-linolenate was increased significantly in adipose tissue, and n - 3 polyunsaturates were increased in plasma lipids. Plasma LDL cholesterol was also reduced by up to 8%, and total urinary lignan excretion

  19. External and Internal Sport Motivations of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollok, Sandor; Takacs, Johanna; Kalmar, Zsuzsanna; Dobay, Beata

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To determine and evaluate the spectrum of sport motivation of young adults. Material and methods: A group of 600 subjects, aged 17-19 years, participated in the study. An "ad hoc" questionnaire was applied to assess the 4 motivational factors: competition and success-oriented motivation, external accommodation, physical fitness and…

  20. Hit List: Frequently Challenged Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monks, Merri M.; Pistolis, Donna Reidy

    This book presents descriptions of 26 young adult titles that have been frequent targets of censorship attempts. Each entry provides an annotation for the book in question; examples of recent challenges; citations to reviews of the book and background articles; a list of awards garnered by the book or its author; references about the author;…

  1. A Comparison of Young Adult Novels: Developmental Tasks and Readability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Linda K.

    Young adults read not only to experience real-life problems, but also to "escape" from those problems. The two most popular types of novels available to teens are the contemporary realistic problem novel and the formula romance novel. A study examined the incidence of specific adolescent developmental tasks (adolescent problems/concerns) in 15…

  2. Suicidal Behavior among Urban African American Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ialongo, Nicholas; McCreary, Beth K.; Pearson, Jane L.; Koenig, Amy L.; Wagner, Barry M.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Poduska, Jeanne; Kellam, Sheppard G.

    2002-01-01

    Study examines the prevalence and demographic correlates of suicidal behavior in a defined population of urban, African American young adults and the degree of mental health service utilization among attempters. Results reveal that despite the severity of most attempts, few attempters received mental health services in their lifetime or at the…

  3. Young Adults Do Not Think World Knowledge Is Vital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2006-01-01

    A new survey has found that most young adults in the United States have difficulty identifying Iraq on an unlabeled map of the Middle East, or are unaware that the population of China is more than four times that of the United States. This lack of geographic literacy goes beyond simple gaps in knowledge and skills for most of these people do not…

  4. Cancer mortality in young adults: Italy 1955–1985

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriano Decarli; Carlo La Vecchia; Eva Negri; Cesare Cislaghi

    1990-01-01

    Summary Although cancer mortality in young adults accounts for only a small proportion of all cancer deaths, it is important since it provides useful indications of the most likely future trends, and relevant information on the role of exposure to specific, or newer, carcinogens. We, therefore, analysed trends in cancer mortality between 1955 and 1985 among Italian men and women

  5. Aesthetic Learning Theory and the Faith Formation of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Katherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Participation in the arts is a form of practical reason and as such has the potential to form and transform the faith of individuals. The findings from Katherine M. Douglass's 2011 study on the role of the arts in the faith lives of young adults provides examples of the transformative potential of the arts as they foster expression,…

  6. Young Adults with Gambling Problems: The Impact of Childhood Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsher, Jennifer R.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina

    2010-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been thought to be a significant risk factor in the development of gambling problems. Incorporating a developmental psychopathology perspective, 1,324 adolescents and young adults, age 17-22 years completed self-report measures on gambling behaviors, gambling severity, and childhood maltreatment. Problem gamblers…

  7. Parental Divorce and Union Disruption among Young Adults in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gahler, Michael; Hong, Ying; Bernhardt, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of parental divorce on the disruption of marital and nonmarital unions among young adults in Sweden, using longitudinal data from repeated mail questionnaire surveys (1999 and 2003) with 1,321 respondents (aged 26, 30, and 34 in 2003). The study takes into account several possible mechanisms governing the…

  8. Smoking in Movies and Increased Smoking Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Song, Anna V.; Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study assessed whether smoking in the movies was associated with smoking in young adults. Methods A national web-enabled cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults, aged 18–25, was performed between September and November 2005. Logistic regression and path analysis using probit regression were used to assess relationships between exposure to smoking in the movies and smoking behavior. Analysis was completed in December 2006. Results Exposure to smoking in the movies predicted current smoking. The adjusted odds of current smoking increased by a factor of 1.21 for each quartile increase in exposure to smoking (p<0.01) in the movies, reaching 1.77 for the top exposure quartile. The unadjusted odds of established smoking (100+ cigarettes with current smoking) increased by 1.23 per quartile (p<0.001) of exposure, reaching 1.86 for the top quartile. This effect on established smoking was mediated by two factors related to smoking in the movies: positive expectations about smoking and exposure to friends and relatives who smoked, with positive expectations accounting for about two thirds of the effect. Conclusions The association between smoking in the movies and young adult smoking behavior exhibited a dose–response relationship; the more a young adult was exposed to smoking in the movies, the more likely he or she would have smoked in the past 30 days or have become an established smoker. PMID:17950405

  9. Engagement with Young Adult Literature: Outcomes and Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Gay; Johnston, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines students' perceptions of the outcomes and processes of engaged reading in classrooms prioritizing engagement through self-selected, self-paced reading of compelling young adult literature. The primary data were 71 end-of-year student interviews, supported by end-of-year teacher interviews, biweekly observational data,…

  10. Day in the Life of Young Adults: Substance Use Facts

    MedlinePLUS

    June 10, 2014 A Day in the Life of Young Adults: Substance Use Facts In Brief This issue of The CBHSQ Report presents facts about ... for substance use "on an average or typical day." 9 Data in this report are for persons ...

  11. Cerebral Specialization in Young Adults with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Digby; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Two groups of right-handed young adults with and without Down Syndrome (N=24) performed a rapid unimanual finger-tapping task under two conditions: alone and while sound-shadowing (repeating) single-syllable, high frequency words. Results provided no evidence for reverse (right hemisphere) lateralization of speech in individuals with Down…

  12. Correlates of the contraceptive behavior of adolescents\\/young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald L. Strassberg; John M. Mahoney

    1988-01-01

    Pregnancy among adolescents\\/young adults continues at epidemic levels despite widespread concern regarding its social and psychological consequences. Cognitive psychologists point out that active decisions and behaviors such as those involved in effective contraception are facilitated or inhibited by any of a number of relevant attitudes and beliefs. The present investigation examined several such cognitive variables. Specifically, the following hypotheses were

  13. Sex Differences in Relationship Aggression Among Young Adults in Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Krahé; Anja Berger

    2005-01-01

    The study examined the prevalence of physical aggression in the relationships of young adults in Germany. A convenience sample of 248 women and 400 men aged between 17 and 29 years provided reports of physical aggression shown toward and experienced by a partner using the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2). Sex differences were found for several physically aggressive behaviors measured

  14. Living with Cystic Fibrosis: A Guide for the Young Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Atlanta, GA.

    Intended for the young adult with cystic fibrosis, the booklet provides information on dealing with problems and on advances in treatment and detection related to the disease. Addressed are the following topics: description of cystic fibrosis; inheritance of cystic fibrosis; early diagnosis; friends, careers, and other matters; treatment;…

  15. Using Young Adult Literature To End Discrimination against Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Kathy

    In an effort to inform junior and senior high school students about mental illness, this document provides educators with an annotated bibliography of young adult fiction and a set of supporting activities. Included in the bibliography are nearly 100 current fiction titles, grouped according to the following topics: anorexia, drugs and alcohol,…

  16. Aerobic endurance exercise benefits memory and affect in young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanna Stroth; Katrin Hille; Manfred Spitzer; Ralf Reinhardt

    2009-01-01

    Exercise seems a simple and widely practised behaviour that activates molecular and cellular signalling cascades involved in various central nervous system processes. Despite impressive results obtained in animal studies, fitness interventions have produced less reliable effects in humans, particularly in young adults. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that an individually adapted exercise training consisting of three running

  17. Recognize the Signs: Reading Young Adult Literature to Address Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pytash, Kristine E.; Morgan, Denise N.; Batchelor, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes preservice teachers' experiences in a book club that read young adult literature focused on issues related to bullying. Preservice teachers learned to recognize various incidents of bullying in the books. They also began to consider how they might handle incidents of bullying in their future classrooms. (Contains 2 figures.)

  18. Monstrous Acts: Problematizing Violence in Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzak, Judith; Noll, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Despite a growing body of work that draws attention to the presence of violence in the mass media and its effects on youth, little critical attention has been paid to the role of violence in young adult literature. The authors believe that by bringing violence to the foreground in the study of texts, they can enrich and deepen what these stories…

  19. Quality of life in young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. E. Langeveld; H. Stam; M. A. Grootenhuis; B. F. Last

    2002-01-01

    In recent years the necessity of measuring quality of life in childhood cancer survivors has been stressed. This paper gives an overview of the results of studies into the quality of life (QL) of young adult survivors of childhood cancer and suggest areas for future research. The review located 30 empirical studies published up to 2001. The results are described

  20. Dermatoglyphic anomalies in psychometrically identified schizotypic young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James T. Chok; Thomas R. Kwapil; Angela Scheuermann

    2005-01-01

    Dermatoglyphic anomalies are hypothesized to indicate disruptions in the second trimester of prenatal development, a time period that appears to be critical in the etiology of schizophrenia. The present study examined the presence of dermatoglyphic anomalies in psychometrically identified schizotypic young adults (n=51) and control participants (n=63) selected based upon their scores on the Perceptual Aberration [J. Abnorm. Psychology 87

  1. Parentification, Parental Alcoholism, and Academic Status among Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Nancy D.; Wells, Marolyn C.; Deming, Mary P.

    1998-01-01

    Examines young adults (N=360) in terms of their perceptions of having assumed a parentified role in their family of origin as a function of academic status and classification as children of alcoholics or nonalcoholics. Low academic status participants reported having greater caretaking responsibilities and worries in their families. Children of…

  2. Investigating the News Seeking Behavior of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qayyum, M. Asim; Williamson, Kirsty; Liu, Ying-Hsang; Hider, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the news-seeking and browsing behaviours of young adults, partly in the context of everyday life information seeking (ELIS), in order to explore their perceptions of and attitudes towards print and online news media. The study is significant because traditional print newspapers face a steady decline in their readership with…

  3. YOUNG ADULTS TEN TO FIFTEEN YEARS AFTER SEVERE READING DISABILITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BALOW, BRUCE; BLOMQUIST, MARLYS

    THE PRESENT STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO OBTAIN AN OVERVIEW OF THE SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL STATUS OF YOUNG ADULTS WHO HAD BEEN DIAGNOSED AS SEVERLY DISABLED READERS IN THEIR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL YEARS. OCCUPATIONAL POSITION, LEVEL OF EDUCATION, LEVEL OF READING SKILL, EDUCATIONAL STATUS, ATTITUDES TOWARD READING AND REMEDIAL HELP, AND MARITAL STATUS WERE…

  4. Attitudes and self-efficacy in young adults' computing autobiographies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Ko

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the formation of people's first perceptions about computers and computer code, yet it is likely that these impressions have a lasting effect on peoples' use of technology in their lives and careers. Brief autobiographical essays about these first impressions were solicited from a diverse population of young adults and these essays were analyzed for factors that

  5. A Qualitative Survey Examining the Moral Identities of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onat Kocabiyik, Oya; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Moral identity can orient one's behaviors when exhibiting any kind of moral behavior. In this study, the moral identities of young adults are analyzed to a certain extent. For this purpose, the "interpretative phenomenological pattern" and "grounded theory" models are used as qualitative survey models. The study group for…

  6. Microglial K+ Channel Expression in Young Adult and Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Tom; Eder, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The K+ channel expression pattern of microglia strongly depends on the cells' microenvironment and has been recognized as a sensitive marker of the cells' functional state. While numerous studies have been performed on microglia in vitro, our knowledge about microglial K+ channels and their regulation in vivo is limited. Here, we have investigated K+ currents of microglia in striatum, neocortex and entorhinal cortex of young adult and aged mice. Although almost all microglial cells exhibited inward rectifier K+ currents upon membrane hyperpolarization, their mean current density was significantly enhanced in aged mice compared with that determined in young adult mice. Some microglial cells additionally exhibited outward rectifier K+ currents in response to depolarizing voltage pulses. In aged mice, microglial outward rectifier K+ current density was significantly larger than in young adult mice due to the increased number of aged microglial cells expressing these channels. Aged dystrophic microglia exhibited outward rectifier K+ currents more frequently than aged ramified microglia. The majority of microglial cells expressed functional BK-type, but not IK- or SK-type, Ca2+-activated K+ channels, while no differences were found in their expression levels between microglia of young adult and aged mice. Neither microglial K+ channel pattern nor K+ channel expression levels differed markedly between the three brain regions investigated. It is concluded that age-related changes in microglial phenotype are accompanied by changes in the expression of microglial voltage-activated, but not Ca2+-activated, K+ channels. PMID:25472417

  7. Infectious Mononucleosis Hepatitis in Young Adults: Two Case Reports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min-Jung Kang; Tae-Hun Kim; Ki-Nam Shim; Sung-Ae Jung; Min-Sun Cho; Kwon Yoo; Kyu Won Chung

    2009-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection sometimes causes acute hepatitis, which is usually self-limiting with mildly elevated transaminases, but rarely with jaundice. Primary EBV infection in children is usually asymptomatic, but in a small number of healthy individuals, typically young adults, EBV infection results in a clinical syndrome of infectious mononucleosis with hepatitis, with typical symptoms of fever,

  8. Tsunami Summer! 2003 Young Adult Summer Library Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Public Library Service, Montgomery.

    This manual is designed to assist public libraries in Alabama with setting up "Tsunami Summer!," a summer program for young adults, i.e., students in grades 6 through 12. The manual contains the following sections: (1) Publicity and Promotion; (2) Working with Schools; (3) Involving the Students, including teen volunteers, teen advisory councils,…

  9. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…

  10. Student Sex: More or Less Risky than Other Young Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lorraine; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Young, Honor

    2015-01-01

    Sexually active young adults are at an increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or experiencing an unplanned pregnancy. Sexual behaviours such as inconsistent condom use, multiple partners and casual sex are known risk factors for negative sexual health outcomes. Sexually active higher education students are classified as…

  11. Developing the Social Skills of Young Adult Special Olympics Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Melissa G. F.; Dummer, Gail M.; Smeltzer, Ashley; Denton, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if young adult Special Olympics participants could develop, generalize, and maintain target social skills (eye contact, contributing relevant information, and turn taking) as a result of a 14-week Social Skills and Sports (S[superscript 3]) Program that combined classroom instruction with soccer…

  12. Assessing Decision Making in Young Adult Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vennum, Amber; Fincham, Frank D.

    2011-01-01

    Romantic relationships among young adults are rich with ambiguity and without a clear, universal progression emphasizing the need for active decision making. Lack of active decision making in romantic relationships can lead to increases in constraints (e.g. pregnancy, shared living space or finances) that promote the continuation of relationships…

  13. Exposure to Interparental Conflict and Psychological Disorder among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Heather A.; Kopiec, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the effect of exposure to interparental conflict on the mental health of young adults. Based on a diverse sample of 649 students from three New England colleges, the authors investigate the association between nonviolent interparental conflict during childhood, subsequent distress and disorder, and identified factors that…

  14. Development of Food Safety Psychosocial Questionnaires for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, C.; Wheatley, V.; Schaffner, D.; Bruhn, C.; Blalock, L.; Maurer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Food mishandling is thought to be more acute among young adults; yet little is known about why they may engage in risky food handling behaviors. The purpose of this study was to create valid, reliable instruments for assessing key food safety psychosocial measures. Development of the measures began by examining published studies and behavior…

  15. Gait Analysis of Adult Paraplegic Rats after Spinal Cord Repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrich Cheng; Susanne Almström; Lydia Giménez-Llort; Robert Chang; Sven Ove Ögren; Barry Hoffer; Lars Olson

    1997-01-01

    This study presents a novel detailed method of analysis of rat gait and uses this method to demonstrate recovery of forward locomotion patterns in adult rats made paraplegic by surgical spinal cord transection and subjected to a novel strategy for spinal cord repair. Six normal rats were compared to five animals in which the cord was transected at T8–T9, and

  16. Coming to terms with coming of age: Constructions of female adolescence in contemporary fiction for adults and young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy Ann Nashel

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the constructions of female adolescence in late twentieth-century American novels by women, written for both adult and young adult readers. It analyzes theories of adolescence by examining sociological and psychological studies of girlhood, literary discussions of the female bildungsroman, and current debates about the genre of young adult fiction. This project examines several young adult coming-of-age novels

  17. Use of affective prosody by young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Kate; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen

    2010-03-01

    Emotion is conveyed in speech by semantic content (what is said) and by prosody (how it is said). Prior research suggests that older adults benefit from linguistic prosody when comprehending language but that they have difficulty understanding affective prosody. In a series of 3 experiments, young and older adults listened to sentences in which the emotional cues conveyed by semantic content and affective prosody were either congruent or incongruent and then indicated whether the talker sounded happy or sad. When judging the emotion of the talker, young adults were more attentive to the affective prosodic cues than to the semantic cues, whereas older adults performed less consistently when these cues conflicted. Participants' reading and repetition of the sentences were recorded so that age- and emotion-related changes in the production of emotional speech cues could be examined. Both young and older adults were able to produce affective prosody. The age-related difference in perceiving emotion was eliminated when listeners repeated the sentences before responding, consistent with previous findings regarding the beneficial role of repetition in conversation. The results of these experiments suggest that there are age-related differences in interpreting affective prosody but that repeating may be a compensatory strategy that could minimize the everyday consequences of these differences. PMID:20230124

  18. Recognition and management of stroke in young adults and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Biller, José; Elkind, Mitchell S.; Fullerton, Heather J.; Jauch, Edward C.; Kittner, Steven J.; Levine, Deborah A.; Levine, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 15% of all ischemic strokes (IS) occur in young adults and adolescents. To date, only limited prior public health and research efforts have specifically addressed stroke in the young. Early diagnosis remains challenging because of the lack of awareness and the relative infrequency of stroke compared with stroke mimics. Moreover, the causes of IS in the young are heterogeneous and can be relatively uncommon, resulting in uncertainties about diagnostic evaluation and cause-specific management. Emerging data have raised public health concerns about the increasing prevalence of traditional vascular risk factors in young individuals, and their potential role in increasing the risk of IS, stroke recurrence, and poststroke mortality. These issues make it important to formulate and enact strategies to increase both awareness and access to resources for young stroke patients, their caregivers and families, and health care professionals. The American Academy of Neurology recently convened an expert panel to develop a consensus document concerning the recognition, evaluation, and management of IS in young adults and adolescents. The report of the consensus panel is presented herein. PMID:23946297

  19. Young Adults’ Behavioral Intentions Surrounding a Potential Menthol Cigarette Ban

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Menthol cigarette smoking is more prevalent among young adults, who are a known target of tobacco industry marketing. This study explores young adults’ menthol use and behavioral intentions in the event of a ban on menthol cigarettes. Methods: Data from 2,871 respondents of the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey were examined to estimate young adults’ current smoking, current menthol smoking, and behavioral intentions in the event of a menthol cigarette ban. Results: Of all respondents, 23.8% were current smokers, and 40.3% of the current smokers were menthol smokers. Menthol use was significantly higher among 18- to 24-year-olds versus 25- to 34-year-olds (51% vs. 34.3%, p = .02) and was significantly associated with race/ethnicity (p < .0001), with prevalence highest among Black smokers (82.0%). Among menthol smokers, 65.7% indicated they would quit tobacco use altogether if menthol cigarettes were no longer sold, while 18.4% said they would switch to nonmenthol cigarettes, and 16.0% said they would switch to some other tobacco product (OTP). Behavioral intention was significantly associated with race/ethnicity (p = .02), where intention to quit tobacco was most prevalent among Black menthol smokers (79.3%), and concurrent use of OTPs (p = .03), where intention to switch to an OTP was more prevalent among menthol smokers who indicated concurrent OTP use (35.3% vs. 5.5%). Conclusions: A majority of young adult menthol smokers stated they would quit smoking if menthol cigarettes were no longer sold, which builds on research finding public support for such a policy and on work modeling the public health impact such a ban could have. PMID:24514070

  20. Olfactory threshold to bourgeonal and sexual desire1 in young adult males.2

    E-print Network

    Cesare, Bernardo

    1 Olfactory threshold to bourgeonal and sexual desire1 in young adult males.2 3 Giancarlo Ottaviano; Bourgeonal; Young adult; Male sexual desire; OR1D2 SNPs22 #12;2 Abstract Olfactory receptors have been found of5 normosmic young adult males. We have hypothesized, in fact, that a lower sexual desire could be6

  1. The effects of framing vocational choices on young adults' sets of career options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel C. Feldman; Kathleen M. Whitcomb

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The present paper examines the effects of two decision-framing inductions on young adults' set of career options: first, whether young adults use abilities or interests as the grounds for their vocational choices and, second, whether young adults approach the decision-making task by including all career options to which they feel positively or by eliminating all career options to

  2. THE SPRING 2015 ELLEN LIBRETTO AND ADAM CONRAD SCHOLARSHIP IN YOUNG ADULT LITERACY RESEARCH

    E-print Network

    Johnson Jr.,, Ray

    THE SPRING 2015 ELLEN LIBRETTO AND ADAM CONRAD SCHOLARSHIP IN YOUNG ADULT LITERACY RESEARCH be committed to advancing research in Young Adult literacy. The scholarship fund has been created in memory literacy among young adults. Scholarships covering tuition and fees in the amount of up to $10

  3. Addiction Treatment Experience among a Cohort of Street-Involved Youths and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Jellena; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Kerr, Thomas; Lai, Calvin; Wood, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about the accessibility and potential barriers to addiction treatment among street youths and young adults. We sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of enrollment in addiction treatment among a cohort of street-involved youths and young adults in Vancouver, Canada. Street-involved youths and young adults who use…

  4. The Musical Culture of Young Adults and Its Relevance to Education for Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Gordon

    Because of the important role music plays in the lives of young adults, the graduate education of young adult librarians should include a study of the music and the musical behavior of young adults. A formal course might include reviews of research in these areas: (1) the sound recording industry and the economic factors which determine what is…

  5. Direct Effects of Assets and Savings on the College Progress of Black Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William; Nam, Ilsung

    2012-01-01

    Descriptive data indicate that 62% of White young adults between the ages of 17 and 23 years were on course (i.e., either in college or have graduated from college) in 2007, compared with only 37% of Black young adults. Given this, finding novel and promising ways to promote college progress among Black young adults, in particular, is a growing…

  6. Young Adult Children of Divorced Parents: Depression and the Perception of Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drill, Rebecca L.

    1986-01-01

    Examined long-term effects of divorce in young adult children by comparing young adults of divorce (N=104) and those of intact families (N=172). When non-custodial parent was perceived as "lost" the young adult was more depressed. After-divorce perception of non-custodial father changed negatively, while perception of mother remained stable.…

  7. Dietary Iron Concentration May Influence Aging Process by Altering Oxidative Stress in Tissues of Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Lorena Fernandes; Arruda, Sandra Fernandes; Campos, Natália Aboudib; de Valencia, Fernando Fortes; Siqueira, Egle Machado de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential element. However, in its free form, iron participates in redox-reactions, leading to the production of free radicals that increase oxidative stress and the risk of damaging processes. Living organisms have an efficient mechanism that regulates iron absorption according to their iron content to protect against oxidative damage. The effects of restricted and enriched-iron diets on oxidative stress and aging biomarkers were investigated. Adult Wistar rats were fed diets containing 10, 35 or 350 mg/kg iron (adult restricted-iron, adult control-iron and adult enriched-iron groups, respectively) for 78 days. Rats aged two months were included as a young control group. Young control group showed higher hemoglobin and hematocrit values, lower levels of iron and lower levels of MDA or carbonyl in the major studied tissues than the adult control group. Restricted-iron diet reduced iron concentrations in skeletal muscle and oxidative damage in the majority of tissues and also increased weight loss. Enriched-iron diet increased hematocrit values, serum iron, gamma-glutamyl transferase, iron concentrations and oxidative stress in the majority of tissues. As expected, young rats showed higher mRNA levels of heart and hepatic L-Ferritin (Ftl) and kidneys SMP30 as well as lower mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and interleukin-1 beta (Il1b) and also lower levels of liver protein ferritin. Restricted-iron adult rats showed an increase in heart Ftl mRNA and the enriched-iron adult rats showed an increase in liver nuclear factor erythroid derived 2 like 2 (Nfe2l2) and Il1b mRNAs and in gut divalent metal transporter-1 mRNA (Slc11a2) relative to the control adult group. These results suggest that iron supplementation in adult rats may accelerate aging process by increasing oxidative stress while iron restriction may retards it. However, iron restriction may also impair other physiological processes that are not associated with aging. PMID:23593390

  8. Motorsports Involvement among Adolescents and Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, JeeWon; McGinley, James S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Though children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined non-substance use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent engagement in motorsports, a collection of risky driving-related activities associated with elevated rates of physical injury. Path analyses tested whether persistent impulsivity, comorbid conduct disorder or antisocial personality disorder (CD/ASP), and heavy alcohol use mediated this association. Analyses also explored whether frequent motorsporting was associated with unsafe and alcohol-influenced driving. Method Two-hundred and twenty-one adolescent and young adult males (16–25 years-old) diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 139 demographically-similar males without ADHD histories reported their motorsports involvement. Persistent impulsivity, CD/ASP, heavy drinking, and hazardous driving were also measured in adolescence/young adulthood1 Results Adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely to report frequent motorsports involvement than those without childhood ADHD. Impulsivity, CD/ASP and heavy drinking partially mediated this association, such that individuals with ADHD histories, who had persistent impulsivity or CD/ASP diagnoses, were more likely to engage in heavy drinking, which was positively associated with frequent motorsporting. Motorsports involvement was associated with more unsafe and alcohol-influenced driving, and this association was more often found among those with, than without, ADHD histories. Conclusions Adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories, especially those with persisting impulsivity, comorbid CD/ASP and heavy drinking tendencies, are more likely to engage in motorsports, which may heighten risk of injury. PMID:23347139

  9. I'm Too Young for This: Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivorship 

    E-print Network

    Vollmer Dahlke, Deborah

    2014-07-25

    As of January 1, 2012, an estimated 13.7 million cancer survivors were alive in the United States. The number of cancer survivors is expected to reach 18 million by the year 2022. Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) cancer survivors, ages 15-39, are a...

  10. Channeled scaffolds implanted in adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ramos, Cristina; Vallés-Lluch, Ana; Verdugo, José Manuel García; Ribelles, José Luis Gómez; Barcia Albacar, Juan Antonio; Orts, Amparo Baiget; Soria López, José Miguel; Pradas, Manuel Monleón

    2012-12-01

    Scaffolds with aligned channels based on acrylate copolymers, which had previously demonstrated good compatibility with neural progenitor cells were studied as colonizable structures both in vitro with neural progenitor cells and in vivo, implanted without cells in two different locations, in the cortical plate of adult rat brains and close to the subventricular zone. In vitro, neuroprogenitors colonize the scaffold and differentiate into neurons and glia within its channels. When implanted in vivo immunohistochemical analysis by confocal microscopy for neural and endothelial cells markers demonstrated that the scaffolds maintained continuity with the surrounding neural tissue and were colonized by GFAP-positive cells and, in the case of scaffolds implanted in contact with the subventricular zone, by neurons. Local angiogenesis was evidenced in the interior of the scaffolds' pores. New axons and neural cells from the adult neural niche abundantly colonized the biomaterial's inner structure after 2 months, and minimal scar formation was manifest around the implant. These findings indicate the biocompatibility of the polymeric material with the brain tissue and open possibilities to further studies on the relevance of factors such as scaffold structure, scaffold seeding and scaffold placement for their possible use in regenerative strategies in the central nervous system. The development of neural interfaces with minimized glial scar and improved tissue compatibility of the implants may also benefit from these results. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 100A:3276-3286, 2012. PMID:22733596

  11. Body piercings and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in young adults.

    PubMed

    Bui, Eric; Rodgers, Rachel; Simon, Naomi M; Jehel, Louis; Metcalf, Christina A; Birmes, Philippe; Schmitt, Laurent

    2013-02-01

    Body piercing, which is prevalent in young adults, has been suggested to be associated with features usually related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) such as high-risk behaviours and psychopathological symptoms and might be motivated by a wish to deal with prior traumatic experiences. However, to date, no research has investigated the relationship between this practice and PTSD symptoms. The present research aims to investigate the possible relationship between body piercing and PTSD symptoms in French-speaking young adults. According to our results, having two or more body piercings was associated with a twofold increased risk for scoring above the cut-off score for PTSD on the PTSD checklist. Our findings suggest that two or more body piercings might serve as an identifiable marker for PTSD symptoms and may have important implications for clinical screening. PMID:22499241

  12. Brief report: driving and young adults with ASD: parents' experiences.

    PubMed

    Cox, Neill Broderick; Reeve, Ronald E; Cox, Stephany M; Cox, Daniel J

    2012-10-01

    A paucity of research exists regarding driving skills and individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The current study sought to gain a better understanding of driving and ASD by surveying parents/caregivers of adolescents/young adults with ASD who were currently attempting, or had previously attempted, to learn to drive. Respondents included 123 parents/caregivers of adolescents/young adults with ASD. The results indicate that learning to drive presents a substantial challenge for individuals with ASD; complex driving demands (e.g., multi-tasking) may be particularly problematic. Respondents provided suggestions that may be useful to others who seek to teach these skills. The survey results offer guidance for next steps in the study of driving with ASD. PMID:22359179

  13. Dissociative symptoms and mother's marital status in young adult population.

    PubMed

    Bob, Petr; Selesova, Petra; Raboch, Jiri; Kukla, Lubomir

    2015-01-01

    Current findings suggest that mother's marital status indicating father's absence or conflicting relationship to father may be specifically related to dissociation and other stress-related symptoms. We have assessed relationships of mother's marital status, dissociative symptoms, and other psychopathological manifestations in a sample of 19 years' old young adults (N = 364) participating in European longitudinal study (European Longitudinal Study of Parenthood and Childhood). The results show clinically significant manifestations of dissociative symptoms in young adult men whose mothers were fatherless and in women whose mothers were re-married. Other psychopathological symptoms did not reach clinically significant manifestations. The results suggest that significant factor related to high level of dissociative symptoms in men growing in fatherless families might be linked with disturbed and conflicting attachment to a father's figure and pathological dependent attachment to mother. In women dissociative symptoms likely are linked to conflicting relationship between mother and daughter associated with stepfather' presence in the family. PMID:25590849

  14. Contextual profiles of young adult Ecstasy users: a multisite study

    PubMed Central

    Ramtekkar, Ujjwal P.; Striley, Catherine W; Cottler, Linda B

    2010-01-01

    These analyses assess contextual profiles of 612 young adult Ecstasy users, 18–30 years of age, from St. Louis (USA), Miami (USA) and Sydney (Australia). Bivariate analyses revealed different contextual factors influencing Ecstasy use. Friends were the most common sources of Ecstasy at all sites and most used with friends. St. Louis and Miami use mostly occurred in residences, whereas in Sydney use was mostly at clubs, bars or restaurants. Ecstasy consumption at public places and in cars, trains or ferries was significantly higher in Miami (89% and 77%) than in St. Louis (67% and 65%) and Sydney (67% and 61%). At all sites, simultaneous use of LSD/mushroom and nitrous oxide with Ecstasy was common; concurrent amphetamines predominated in Sydney and heroin/opiates in St. Louis Contextual factors influencing Ecstasy use among young adults vary by geographic region. Their inclusion may help tailor effective prevention programs to reduce or ameliorate Ecstasy use. PMID:21094585

  15. A simplified metabolism cage and tail cup for young rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Frape; J. Wilkinson; L. G. Chubb

    1970-01-01

    SUMMARY A description is given of an inexpensive metabolism cage, in which powdered diets can be fed without measurable loss. Coprophagy is completely eliminated in rats fitted with a new design of tail cup, and in this way total collections of faeces and urine are readily achieved. Cups of a similar design have been fitted both to young male and

  16. [The professional and educational orientation choices of young adults.].

    PubMed

    St-Louis, S; Vigneault, M

    1984-01-01

    The observation of the behaviours of young adults in their process of professional orientation led the authors to undertake a series of studies to explain the observed behaviours.They suggest first a model of professional orientation situated within a phenomenological and developmental approach. Next, they analyze the perceptions of self and of the environment which influence the orientation process. Lastly, they suggest a framework of interventions appropriate to the orientation model proposed. PMID:17093815

  17. Asymptomatic bronchial hyperresponsiveness in adolescents and young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. G. M. Kolnaar; H. T. M. Folgering; C. van Weel

    1997-01-01

    Asymptomatic bronchial hyperresponsiveness in adolescents and young adults. B.G.M. Kolnaar, H. Folgering, H.J.M. van den Hoogen, C. van Weel. ?ERS Journals Ltd 1997. ABSTRACT: The clinical significance of asymptomatic bronchial hyperrespon- siveness (BHR) is not well-known. The aim of this study was to explore, in a cross- sectional analysis, the characteristics of adolescent subjects with asymptomatic BHR, as compared to

  18. Young adult schizophrenics: Prediction of outcome and antecedent childhood factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. Roff; Raymond A. Knight

    1978-01-01

    Followed a young adult sample of 45 male acute schizophrenics through record sources into middle age. Antecedent childhood information was also obtained. Thus, information was available for all Ss at the following 3 mean age levels: 10.9 yrs, 21.7 yrs, and 43.7 yrs. Three aspects of schizophrenia (psychotic thinking, affectivity, and social competence) were assessed in terms of long-term stability

  19. Gene-Environment Contributions to Young Adult Sexual Partnering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn T. Halpern; Christine E. Kaestle; Guang Guo; Denise D. Hallfors

    2007-01-01

    To date, there has been relatively little work on gene-environment contributions to human sexuality, especially molecular\\u000a analyses examining the potential contributions of specific polymorphisms in conjunction with life experiences. Using Wave\\u000a III data from 717 heterozygous young adult sibling pairs included in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health,\\u000a this article examined the combined contributions of attendance at religious services

  20. [Epidemiology and prognosis of stroke in young adults].

    PubMed

    Béjot, Yannick; Daubail, Benoit; Giroud, Maurice

    2013-09-01

    Stroke in young adults is not rare since one in ten stroke patients are less than 55 years old, and incidence is 20 to 35/100000 per year at this age. This incidence increased over the last past years because of the rise in the prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and marijuana abuse, and still a high prevalence of smoking. This latter risk factor is the most frequent and accounts for more than one half of young stroke patients. Even though both survival and functional outcome of young stroke patients are better than those observed in older patients, socioeconomic and quality of life consequences make this disease a main objective for practitioners who should identify individuals at risk and apply preventive strategies. PMID:24167892

  1. Correlates of social support in young adults with advanced cancer

    PubMed Central

    Trevino, K. M.; Fasciano, K.; Block, S.; Prigerson, H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the relationship between perceived social support, quality of life (QoL), and grief in young adults with advanced cancer. Methods Seventy-one young adults (20–40 years) with advanced cancer were administered measures of social support, QoL, and grief. Regression analyses examined the relationship between social support and QoL and grief. Results Higher levels of total social support were associated with better psychological and existential QoL and less severe grief. Availability of someone to talk to about problems was also associated with better psychological and existential QoL and less severe grief. Tangible support was associated with better psychological and existential QoL. Availability of someone to engage in activities with was only associated with better existential QoL. Conclusions These results suggest that enhancing social support may improve psychological well-being in this population. In addition, specific types of social support may be particularly relevant to the psychological well-being of young adults with advanced cancer. PMID:22790223

  2. Pubertal isolation alters latent inhibition and DA in nucleus accumbens of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Shao, Feng; Jin, Jian; Meng, Qingxuan; Liu, Mei; Xie, Xi; Lin, Wenjuan; Wang, Weiwen

    2009-09-01

    Puberty is a critical period for neurodevelopment of schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of peri-pubertal social isolation on psychotic behaviors in rats and its relationship to dopamine expression. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into pubertal isolation (ISO; isolate housing, 38-51 days of age) and social (SOC) groups. Latent inhibition (LI) and behavior in open field were tested during adolescence and adulthood. After the behavioral test, dopamine (DA) levels were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), nucleus accumbens (NAC), caudate-putamen (CPU), and the hippocampus (HIP). Pubertal social isolation impaired LI and increased the DA level in the NAC of young adult rats, but not adolescent rats, and enhanced open field locomotor activity in both adolescent and young adult rats. These data suggest that development of an LI deficit can be induced by social isolation during puberty after a developmental delay, and that NAC DA maybe involved in this process, which may mirror some aspects of the ontogency of schizophrenic symptoms. PMID:19527740

  3. Birth weight, body mass index and asthma in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, S.; Sterne, J.; Montgomery, S.; Azima, H.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Impaired fetal growth may be a risk factor for asthma although evidence in children is conflicting and there are few data in adults. Little is known about risk factors which may influence asthma in late childhood or early adult life. Whilst there are clues that fatness may be important, this has been little studied in young adults. The relations between birth weight and childhood and adult anthropometry and asthma, wheeze, hayfever, and eczema were investigated in a nationally representative sample of young British adults.?METHODS—A total of 8960 individuals from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) were studied. They had recently responded to a questionnaire at 26 years of age in which they were asked whether they had suffered from asthma, wheeze, hayfever, and eczema in the previous 12 months. Adult body mass index (BMI) was calculated from reported height and weight.?RESULTS—The prevalence of asthma at 26 years fell with increasing birth weight. After controlling for potential confounding factors, the odds ratio comparing the lowest birth weight group (<2 kg) with the modal group (3-3.5 kg) was 1.99 (95% CI 0.96 to 4.12). The prevalence of asthma increased with increasing adult BMI. After controlling for birth weight and other confounders, the odds ratio comparing highest with lowest quintile was 1.72 (95% CI 1.29 to 2.29). The association between fatness and asthma was stronger in women; odds ratios comparing overweight women (BMI 25-29.99) and obese women (BMI ?30) with those of normal weight (BMI <25) were 1.51 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.06) and 1.84 (95% CI 1.19to 2.84), respectively. The BMI at 10 years was not related to adult asthma. Similar associations with birth weight and adult BMI were present for wheeze but not for hayfever or eczema.?CONCLUSIONS—Impaired fetal growth and adult fatness are risk factors for adult asthma.?? PMID:10212102

  4. Effects of chronic overload on muscle hypertrophy and mTOR signaling in adult and aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the effect of 28 days of overload on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in young adult (Y; 6 mo old) and aged (O; 30 mo old) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats subjected to bilateral synergist ablation (SA) of two-thirds of the gas...

  5. Glutathione system in young spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, S K; Arunkumar, Sundaram; Sirajudeen, K N S; Singh, H J

    2010-12-01

    Glutathione (GSH) forms a part of the antioxidant system that plays a vital role in preventing oxidative stress, and an imbalance in the oxidant/antioxidant system has been linked to the pathogenesis of hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of the GSH system in the kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Components of the GSH system, including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and total GSH content, were measured in the kidneys of 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 weeks old SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Systolic blood pressure of SHR was significantly higher from the age of 6 weeks onwards compared with age-matched WKY rats. GPx activity in the SHR was significantly lower from the age of 8 weeks onwards when compared to that in age-matched WKY rats. No significant differences were evident in the GPx-1 protein abundance, and its relative mRNA levels, GR, GST activity, and total GSH content between SHR and age-matched WKY rats. The lower GPx activity suggests of an impairment of the GSH system in the SHR, which might be due to an abnormality in its protein rather than non-availability of a cofactor. Its role in the development of hypertension in SHR however remains unclear. PMID:20680541

  6. Anatomical gradients of adult neurogenesis and activity: young neurons in the ventral dentate gyrus are activated by water maze training.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jason S; Radik, Ruvim; Wojtowicz, J Martin; Cameron, Heather A

    2009-04-01

    Hippocampal function varies in a subregion-specific fashion: spatial processing is thought to rely on the dorsal hippocampus, whereas anxiety-related behavior relies more on the ventral hippocampus. During development, neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) proceeds along ventral to dorsal as well as suprapyramidal to infrapyramidal gradients, but it is unclear whether regional differences in neurogenesis are maintained in adulthood. Moreover, it is unknown whether young neurons in the adult exhibit subregion-specific patterns of activation. We therefore examined the magnitude of neurogenesis and the activation of young and mature granule cells in DG subregions in adult rats that learned a spatial water maze task, swam with no platform, or were left untouched. We found that both adult neurogenesis and granule cell activation, as defined by c-fos expression in the granule cell population as a whole, were higher in the dorsal than the ventral DG. In contrast, c-fos expression in adult-born granule cells, identified by PSA-NCAM or location in the subgranular zone, occurred at a higher rate in the opposite subregion, the ventral DG. Interestingly, c-fos expression in the entire granule cell population was equivalent in water maze-trained rats and swim control rats, but was increased in the young granule cells only in the learning condition. These results provide new evidence that hippocampally-relevant experience activates young and mature neurons in different DG subregions and with different experiential specificity, and suggest that adult-born neurons may play a specific role in anxiety-related behavior or other nonspatial aspects of hippocampal function. PMID:19004012

  7. Young Adult Substance Use and Depression as a Consequence of Delinquency Trajectories during Middle Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study extended work from Wiesner and Windle (2004) by examining young adult outcomes (i.e., alcohol and illicit drug use, depression) of middle-adolescent trajectories of delinquent behavior for a community sample of 724 young women and men (at average ages 23.8 years). Each domain of young adult adjustment problems was assessed…

  8. Canon Fodder: Young Adult Literature as a Tool for Critiquing Canonicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hateley, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Young adult literature is a tool of socialisation and acculturation for young readers. This extends to endowing "reading" with particular significance in terms of what literature should be read and why. This paper considers some recent young adult fiction with an eye to its engagement with canonical literature and its representations of…

  9. In vitro effects of chlorpyrifos, parathion, methyl parathion and their oxons on cardiac muscarinic receptor binding in neonatal and adult rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcia D. Howard; Carey N. Pope

    2002-01-01

    Organophosphorus insecticides elicit toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase. Young animals are generally more sensitive than adults to these toxicants. A number of studies reported that some organophosphorus agents also bind directly to muscarinic receptors, in particular the m2 subtype, in tissues from adult rats. As both the density and agonist affinity states of cardiac muscarinic receptors (primarily m2) have been reported

  10. Neurogenesis in the adult rat brain after intermittent hypoxia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling-ling Zhu; Tong Zhao; Hai-sheng Li; Huiqing Zhao; Li-ying Wu; Ai-shi Ding; Wen-hong Fan; Ming Fan

    2005-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia has been found to prevent brain injury and to have a protective role in the CNS. To address the possible causes of this phenomenon, we made investigative effort to find out whether intermittent hypoxia affects neurogenesis in the adult rat brain by examining the newly divided cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and dentate gyrus (DG). The adult

  11. Vowel perception by noise masked normal-hearing young adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richie, Carolyn; Kewley-Port, Diane; Coughlin, Maureen

    2005-08-01

    This study examined vowel perception by young normal-hearing (YNH) adults, in various listening conditions designed to simulate mild-to-moderate sloping sensorineural hearing loss. YNH listeners were individually age- and gender-matched to young hearing-impaired (YHI) listeners tested in a previous study [Richie et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2923-2933 (2003)]. YNH listeners were tested in three conditions designed to create equal audibility with the YHI listeners; a low signal level with and without a simulated hearing loss, and a high signal level with a simulated hearing loss. Listeners discriminated changes in synthetic vowel tokens /smcapi e ? invv æ/ when F1 or F2 varied in frequency. Comparison of YNH with YHI results failed to reveal significant differences between groups in terms of performance on vowel discrimination, in conditions of similar audibility by using both noise masking to elevate the hearing thresholds of the YNH and applying frequency-specific gain to the YHI listeners. Further, analysis of learning curves suggests that while the YHI listeners completed an average of 46% more test blocks than YNH listeners, the YHI achieved a level of discrimination similar to that of the YNH within the same number of blocks. Apparently, when age and gender are closely matched between young hearing-impaired and normal-hearing adults, performance on vowel tasks may be explained by audibility alone.

  12. Face age modulates gaze following in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Ciardo, Francesca; Marino, Barbara F. M.; Actis-Grosso, Rossana; Rossetti, Angela; Ricciardelli, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Gaze-following behaviour is considered crucial for social interactions which are influenced by social similarity. We investigated whether the degree of similarity, as indicated by the perceived age of another person, can modulate gaze following. Participants of three different age-groups (18–25; 35–45; over 65) performed an eye movement (a saccade) towards an instructed target while ignoring the gaze-shift of distracters of different age-ranges (6–10; 18–25; 35–45; over 70). The results show that gaze following was modulated by the distracter face age only for young adults. Particularly, the over 70 year-old distracters exerted the least interference effect. The distracters of a similar age-range as the young adults (18–25; 35–45) had the most effect, indicating a blurred own-age bias (OAB) only for the young age group. These findings suggest that face age can modulate gaze following, but this modulation could be due to factors other than just OAB (e.g., familiarity). PMID:24752250

  13. Face age modulates gaze following in young adults.

    PubMed

    Ciardo, Francesca; Marino, Barbara F M; Actis-Grosso, Rossana; Rossetti, Angela; Ricciardelli, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Gaze-following behaviour is considered crucial for social interactions which are influenced by social similarity. We investigated whether the degree of similarity, as indicated by the perceived age of another person, can modulate gaze following. Participants of three different age-groups (18-25; 35-45; over 65) performed an eye movement (a saccade) towards an instructed target while ignoring the gaze-shift of distracters of different age-ranges (6-10; 18-25; 35-45; over 70). The results show that gaze following was modulated by the distracter face age only for young adults. Particularly, the over 70 year-old distracters exerted the least interference effect. The distracters of a similar age-range as the young adults (18-25; 35-45) had the most effect, indicating a blurred own-age bias (OAB) only for the young age group. These findings suggest that face age can modulate gaze following, but this modulation could be due to factors other than just OAB (e.g., familiarity). PMID:24752250

  14. Ovariectomy ameliorates dextromethorphan - induced memory impairment in young female rats

    PubMed Central

    Jahng, Jeong Won; Cho, Hee Jeong; Kim, Jae Goo; Kim, Nam Youl; Lee, Seoul; Lee, Yil Seob

    2006-01-01

    We have previously found that dextromethorphan (DM), over-the-counter cough suppressant, impairs memory retention in water maze task, when it is repeatedly administrated to adolescent female rats at high doses. In this study we examined first if ovariectomy ameliorates the DM-induced memory impairment in female rats, and then whether or not the DM effect is revived by estrogen replacement in ovariectomized female rats. Female rat pups received bilateral ovariectomy or sham operation on postnatal day (PND) 21, and then intraperitoneal DM (40 mg/kg) daily during PND 28–37. Rats were subjected to the Morris water maze task from PND 38, approximately 24 h after the last DM injection. In probe trial, goal quadrant dwell time was significantly reduced by DM in the sham operated group, however, the reduction by DM did not occur in the ovariectomy group. When 17?-estradiol was supplied to ovariectomized females during DM treatment, the goal quadrant dwell time was significantly decreased, compared to the vehicle control group. Furthermore, a major effect of estrogen replacement was found in the escape latency during the last 3 days of initial learning trials. These results suggest that ovariectomy may ameliorate the adverse effect of DM treatment on memory retention in young female rats, and that estrogen replacement may revive it, i.e. estrogen may take a major role in DM-induced memory impairment in female rats. PMID:16563229

  15. Emotional memory for musical excerpts in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Irene; Dellacherie, Delphine; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24 h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24 h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and dementia. PMID:25814950

  16. Physical Activity is Independently Associated with Multiple Measures of Arterial Stiffness in Adolescents and Young Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas M. Edwards; Stephen R. Daniels; Randall P. Claytor; Philip R. Khoury; Lawrence M. Dolan; Thomas R. Kimball; Elaine M. Urbina

    Objective: Physical activity (PA) is associated with decreased levels of arterial stiffness in adults, but the relationship between PA and multiple measures of arterial stiffness in adolescents and young adults is not clear. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that PA is an independent predictor of multiple measures of arterial stiffness in adolescents and young adults.Materials\\/Methods:

  17. Young Adults' Suicide Related Knowledge and Attitudes: Implications for suicide awareness education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaime Thornhill; Robyn Gillies

    ,,,,,Abstract This study investigated the effects of gender, personal experience with suicidal others and exposure to suicide ,awareness ,education upon suicide related knowledge ,and attitudes of 190 young adults and 52 older adults. Results showed,that both the young and older adults indicated a substantial degree of personal ,experience with suicidal others, and despite displaying inadequate knowledge, possessed reasonable attitudes to

  18. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R.; Smale, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development. PMID:26147648

  19. Family Planning Services for Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Minkowski, William L.; Weiss, Robert C.; Lowther, Laura; Shonick, Helen; Heidbreder, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    If we are to influence the numerical trends of venereal disease and of unwanted pregnancies in the young, family planning services should be made easily available to them. To encourage the widest possible and most effective use of such services requires that health professionals openly endorse their ready availability. They must foster non-judgmental attitudes, however unorthodox patient life styles may be, and provide the young with opportunities to explore their own sexual behavior. The Youth Clinics of the Department of Community Health Services in Los Angeles are designed to meet both the immediate therapeutic and preventive health needs of our patients. Contraceptive services, abortion counseling and referrals as well as individual, group and community education are the primary pillars of our program. There is an enormous task for all of us who are concerned with adolescents to press for sex education programs, in or out of the school system, that will include adults as well as our children. PMID:4813794

  20. Management of Total Cancer Pain: A Case of Young Adult

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Aanchal; Singh, Suraj Pal; Kashyap, Komal; Bhatnagar, Sushma

    2014-01-01

    Pain due to cancer is one of the most distressing symptoms experienced by the patients at some or the other time during the course of treatment or disease progression. The multidimensional nature of cancer pain is characterized by various dimensions including physical, social, psychological, and spiritual; which together constitute the term “total pain”. Young cancer patients illustrate their unique psychological and developmental needs. This case report highlights the concept of “total cancer pain” in a young adult and demonstrates his distinctive social, spiritual, and psychological sufferings. The report emphasizes that addressing all these concerns is considerably significant in order to provide optimal pain relief to the patient. In the present scenario, it has been done by a skillful multiprofessional team communicating effectively with both the patient and the carer. PMID:25125874

  1. Entry into labour: The experience of young adults in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Candido A.

    1990-12-01

    This study focuses on the experience of young adults employed in the tertiary sector in Brasília. The results show that young people are prepared for work by on-the-job training and nonformal education; schooling is mainly an indicator of trainability. Entry into the labour force reinforces social differences in family background and schooling. The results tend to support the moderate version of classical theory with regard to the nature of school/work relationships. In the context of the conflict paradigm, the data run contrary to both reproductionism and the radical critique of this view. From the comparative standpoint youth is an underprivileged group in the labour market, regardless of sex, socioeconomic status and country of residence. Despite these variations, societies are stratified by age groups.

  2. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Cardiovascular Biomarkers Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Kate A.; Slopen, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence from general population studies suggests that lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adults are more likely to experience adverse cardiovascular outcomes relative to heterosexuals. No studies have examined whether sexual orientation disparities exist in biomarkers of early cardiovascular disease risk. Purpose To determine whether sexual orientation disparities in biomarkers of early cardiovascular risk are present among young adults. Methods Data come from Wave IV (2008–2009) of the National Longitudinal Study for Adolescent Health (N=12,451), a prospective nationally representative study of U.S. adolescents followed into young adulthood (mean age: 28.9 years). A total of 520 respondents identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Biomarkers included C-reactive protein, glycosylated hemoglobin, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Results In gender-stratified models adjusted for demographics (age, race/ethnicity); SES (income, education); health behaviors (smoking, regular physical activity, alcohol consumption); and BMI, gay and bisexual men had significant elevations in C-reactive protein, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate, compared to heterosexual men. Despite having more risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, and higher BMI, lesbians and bisexual women had lower levels of C-reactive protein than heterosexual women in fully adjusted models. Conclusions Evidence was found for sexual orientation disparities in biomarkers of cardiovascular risk among young adults, particularly in gay and bisexual men. These findings, if confirmed in other studies, suggest that disruptions in core physiologic processes that ultimately confer risk for cardiovascular disease may occur early in the life course for sexual minority men. PMID:23683979

  3. Complicated Grief & Depression in Young Adults: Personality & Relationship Quality

    PubMed Central

    Herberman Mash, Holly B.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Shear, M. Katherine; Ursano, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Young adults experience problematic responses to loss more often than is commonly recognized. Few empirical studies have examined the contribution of intra- and interpersonal characteristics to grief and depression in bereaved young adults. This study investigated the association of dependency and quality of the relationship with the deceased (i.e., depth and conflict) with complicated grief (CG) and depression. Participants were 157 young adults aged 17–29 who experienced loss of a family member or close friend within the past three years (M = 1.74 years). Participants completed the Inventory of Complicated Grief, Beck Depression Inventory, Depth and Conflict subscales of the Quality of Relationships Inventory, and the Dependency subscale of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire. Relationships among dependency and interpersonal depth and conflict and CG and depression were examined through analyses of covariance. Sixteen percent of participants met criteria for CG and 34% had mild to severe depression. Dependency and depth were independently related to CG and dependency was related to depression, but the pattern of associations was somewhat different for each outcome. Greater depth was associated with CG, at both high and low levels of dependency. High levels of dependency were related to more depressive symptoms. Interpretation of the findings is limited by the relatively small sample size and cross-sectional design. CG and depression are related but distinct responses to loss. Although dependency is associated with both CG and depression following loss, relationships between the bereaved and deceased that are characterized by high levels of depth are particularly related to the development of CG symptoms. PMID:24921421

  4. Food safety hazards lurk in the kitchens of young adults.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Maurer, Jaclyn; Wheatley, Virginia; Cottone, Ellen; Clancy, Michele

    2007-04-01

    Food mishandling in home kitchens likely causes a significant amount of foodborne disease; however, little is known about the food safety hazards lurking in home kitchens. The purposes of this study were to audit the kitchens of young adults with education beyond high school to identify food safety problems and develop recommendations for education efforts. Researchers developed a criterion-referenced home kitchen observation instrument to assess compliance of home food storage and rotation practices (e.g., temperature), sanitation and chemical storage, and general kitchen condition (e.g., infestation) with recommended practices. The instrument contained seven scales: Kitchen Cleanliness (eight items), Appliance Cleanliness (three items), Cleaning Supplies Availability (eight items), Temperatures (Food Thermometer Access & Refrigerator/Freezer Temperatures) (five items), Cold Food Storage (seven items), Dry Food Storage (eight items), and Poisons Storage (two items). Descriptive statistics were conducted to describe the study population, as a whole, and by gender. A total of 154 young adults (mean age, 20.7+/- 1.3 SD) enrolled in a northeastern university participated. Participants scored 70% or higher on Poisons Storage, Dry Food Storage, Kitchen Cleanliness, and Cleaning Supplies Availability scales but less than 60% on the Appliance Cleanliness and Cold Food Storage scales. Performance was lowest on the Temperatures scale. Females scored significantly higher than males on the Kitchen Cleanliness and Cleaning Supply Availability scales. Average refrigerator and freezer temperatures were higher than recommendations. Food safety education targeted at this young adult population needs to evolve into focused messages pertaining to the key food safety violations in this population. PMID:17477272

  5. Paratesticular Rhabdomyosarcoma in Young Adult- A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Para testicular rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare malignant tumour, which usually presents as a painless mass in the scrotum or groin. A case of para testicular rhabdomyosarcoma in a 17-year-old male is being reported here who presented with chronic scrotal pain. Paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare non germ cell tumour of scrotal sac in children and young adult/teens which can invade testis at presentation. Embryonal variant is the most common type. 40% cases can have metastasis to retroperitoneal lymph node. Diagnosis can be done on high degree of clinical suspicion coupled with biopsy and immunohistochemistry. Multimodality approach of treatment is often beneficial for patients. PMID:26023555

  6. Paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma in young adult- a case report.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Navin Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Para testicular rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare malignant tumour, which usually presents as a painless mass in the scrotum or groin. A case of para testicular rhabdomyosarcoma in a 17-year-old male is being reported here who presented with chronic scrotal pain. Paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare non germ cell tumour of scrotal sac in children and young adult/teens which can invade testis at presentation. Embryonal variant is the most common type. 40% cases can have metastasis to retroperitoneal lymph node. Diagnosis can be done on high degree of clinical suspicion coupled with biopsy and immunohistochemistry. Multimodality approach of treatment is often beneficial for patients. PMID:26023555

  7. Evening alcohol suppresses salivary melatonin in young adults.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Tracy L; Acebo, Christine; Carskadon, Mary A

    2007-01-01

    The study objective was to determine the acute effects of a moderate evening dose of alcohol on salivary melatonin levels in humans with stable prior sleep-wake histories and in a controlled environment. Twenty-nine adults (nine males) ages 21 to 25 (M=22.6, SD=1.2) yrs adhered to a 10-day at-home stabilized sleep schedule followed by three in-lab adaptation, placebo, and alcohol (order counterbalanced) study nights. Alcohol (vodka: 0.54 g/kg for men and 0.49 g/kg for women) or placebo beverage was consumed over 30 min, ending 1 h before stabilized bedtime. At 140 and 190 min after alcohol administration, melatonin level was reduced by 15% and 19%, respectively, in comparison to placebo. The findings indicate that a moderate dose of alcohol in the evening suppressed melatonin in young adults. PMID:17612945

  8. Young adult stimulant users' increased striatal activation during uncertainty is related to impulsivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Leland; Estibaliz Arce; Justin S. Feinstein; Martin P. Paulus

    2006-01-01

    Background: Young adults who use stimulants (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines) are at particular risk of transitioning to dependence. Previously, we demonstrated increased risk-taking in young adults who had used stimulants (Leland, D.S., Paulus, M.P., 2005. Increased risk-taking decision-making but not altered response to punishment in stimulant-using young adults. Drug. Alcohol Depend. 78, 83-90). Since outcome uncertainty is a critical element of

  9. Friends, lovers and spouses: intimacy in young adults.

    PubMed

    Eshel, Y; Sharabany, R; Friedman, U

    1998-03-01

    Intimacy in young heterosexual adults was studied as a function of their familial roles. The 168 males and females employed represented four familial role groups: late adolescents, single adults, married people and parents. Participants were administered two forms of an Intimacy Scale (Sharabany, 1994) in which they described their desired and their obtained intimacy with a same-sex and an opposite-sex best friend. Results indicated that (a) intimacy of adults with opposite-sex partner was higher than intimacy with same-sex friend. (b) Although no direct effect of familial role on intimacy was found, the married and parent groups displayed greater intimacy towards their spouses than late adolescents and single adults towards their opposite-sex partners. (c) Women who were late adolescents and women who were married scored significantly higher than men in intimacy. However, single women expressed significantly lower intimacy than single men. (d) Higher intimacy with opposite-sex partner was associated with a concurrent lower same-sex intimacy. (e) Satisfaction with other-sex partner was higher in the married group than in the other groups. PMID:9554086

  10. Quality of Life Concerns in Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Qualitative Research Investigation 

    E-print Network

    Puckett, Stevie

    2013-06-13

    Although young adult (YA) survivors of child cancer comprise a unique group from a developmental standpoint, in most treatment and research settings either child or general adult measures of quality of life (QL) are used to measure adjustment...

  11. The Experiences of Mothers of Young Adults with an Intellectual Disability Transitioning from Secondary School to Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyke, Paula; Bourke, Jenny; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Leonard, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The transition from school to adulthood for young adults with an intellectual disability involves movement from a generally secure and supported school environment to an emerging adult life that may be characterised by a wide variation in adoption of adult roles related to employment, independent living, friendships, and day…

  12. Community matters: intimate partner violence among rural young adults.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katie M; Mattingly, Marybeth J; Dixon, Kristiana J; Banyard, Victoria L

    2014-03-01

    Drawing on social disorganization theory, the current study examined the extent to which community-level poverty rates and collective efficacy influenced individual reports of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, victimization, and bystander intervention among a sample of 178 young adults (18-24; 67.4% women) from 16 rural counties across the eastern US who completed an online survey that assessed demographic information, IPV perpetration, victimization, bystander intervention, and collective efficacy. We computed each county's poverty rate from the 2007-2011 American Community Survey. Generalized estimating equations demonstrated that after controlling for individual-level income status, community-level poverty positively predicted IPV victimization and perpetration for both men and women. Collective efficacy was inversely related to IPV victimization and perpetration for men; however, collective efficacy was unrelated to IPV victimization and perpetration for women. Whereas IPV bystander intervention was positively related to collective efficacy and inversely related to individual-level income status for both men and women, community-level poverty was unrelated to IPV bystander intervention for both men and women. Overall, these findings provide some support for social disorganization theory in explaining IPV among rural young adults, and underscore the importance of multi-level IPV prevention and intervention efforts focused around community-capacity building and enhancement of collective efficacy. PMID:24473923

  13. Pathogenic Responses among Young Adults during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Brundage, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Of the unexplained characteristics of the 1918–19 influenza pandemic, the extreme mortality rate among young adults (W-shaped mortality curve) is the foremost. Lack of a coherent explanation of this and other epidemiologic and clinical manifestations of the pandemic contributes to uncertainty in preparing for future pandemics. Contemporaneous records suggest that immunopathologic responses were a critical determinant of the high mortality rate among young adults and other high-risk subgroups. Historical records and findings from laboratory animal studies suggest that persons who were exposed to influenza once before 1918 (e.g., A/H3Nx 1890 pandemic strain) were likely to have dysregulated, pathologic cellular immune responses to infections with the A/H1N1 1918 pandemic strain. The immunopathologic effects transiently increased susceptibility to ultimately lethal secondary bacterial pneumonia. The extreme mortality rate associated with the 1918–19 pandemic is unlikely to recur naturally. However, T-cell–mediated immunopathologic effects should be carefully monitored in developing and using universal influenza vaccines. PMID:22306191

  14. Tobacco Industry Lifestyle Magazines Targeted to Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Daniel K.; Lewis, M. Jane; Ling, Pamela M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This is the first study describing the tobacco industry’s objectives developing and publishing lifestyle magazines, linking them to tobacco marketing strategies, and how these magazines may encourage smoking. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and content analysis of 31 lifestyle magazines to understand the motives behind producing these magazines and the role they played in tobacco marketing strategies. Results Philip Morris (PM) debuted Unlimited in 1996 to nearly 2 million readers and RJ Reynolds (RJR) debuted CML in 1999 targeting young adults with their interests. Both magazines were developed as the tobacco companies faced increased advertising restrictions Unlimited contained few images of smoking, but frequently featured elements of the Marlboro brand identity in both advertising and article content. CML featured more smoking imagery and fewer Camel brand identity elements. Conclusions Lifestyle promotions that lack images of smoking may still promote tobacco use through brand imagery. The tobacco industry still uses the “under the radar” strategies used in development of lifestyle magazines in branded websites. Prohibiting lifestyle advertising including print and electronic media that associate tobacco with recreation, action, pleasures, and risky behaviors or that reinforces tobacco brand identity may be an effective strategy to curb young adult smoking. PMID:19699423

  15. Clues of subjective social status among young adults.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, François; Roos, J Micah; Combs, R M

    2015-07-01

    We investigate determinants of subjective social status (SSS) as measured by respondents placing themselves on a ten-rung ladder from least to most "money", "education" and "respected job", in a large sample of young adults. The most potent clues of SSS are proximate in the life course, reflecting educational attainment and current socioeconomic and job situation, rather than distal characteristics such as family background, although relatively distal High school GPA has a lingering effect. Additional analyses reveal that College selectivity has a substantial impact on SSS, net of other variables in the model; Currently married does not significantly contribute to SSS, but contrary to some expectations Number of children significantly lowers SSS. We find no evidence of greater "status borrowing" by women as associations of SSS with shared household characteristics (Household income, Household assets, Home ownership) do not differ by gender. Our findings for these young adults support the conclusion of earlier research that SSS reflects a "cognitive averaging" of standard dimensions of socioeconomic status. PMID:26004468

  16. Aortic Dissection in Young Adults Who Abuse Amphetamines

    PubMed Central

    Westover, Arthur N.; Nakonezny, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Case reports suggest a relationship between amphetamine abuse/dependence and aortic dissection, but no population-based epidemiologic studies have examined this link. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that young adults with a diagnosis of amphetamine abuse or dependence would be at higher risk for aortic dissection, after accounting for known risk factors. Methods In this population-based case control study of 30,922,098 discharges from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 1995 to 2007, among persons aged 18 to 49 years, we identified 3,116 thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic dissections using ICD-9-CM codes 441.01 and 441.03. The SURVEYLOGISTIC procedure in SAS 9.2 was used to account for the NIS sampling methodology. Results In a multiple logistic regression analysis, while controlling for known risk factors, amphetamine abuse/dependence was significantly associated with aortic dissection (adjusted odds ratio = 3.33; 95% CI=2.37—4.69, p < 0.0001). Conclusions This statistically significant association suggests that amphetamine abuse/dependence may play a role in aortic dissection in young adults in the United States. PMID:20691838

  17. The Role of Personality Characteristics in Young Adult Driving

    PubMed Central

    PATIL, SUJATA M.; SHOPE, JEAN THATCHER; RAGHUNATHAN, TRIVELLORE E.; BINGHAM, C. RAYMOND

    2007-01-01

    Background Motor vehicle injury is the major cause of mortality among young adults. Information about the individual characteristics of those who drive dangerously could enhance traffic safety programs. The goal of this research was to examine the association between various personality-related characteristics and risky driving behaviors. Methods Young adults in Michigan, USA (n = 5,362) were surveyed by telephone regarding several personality factors (risk-taking, hostility, aggression, tolerance of deviance, achievement expectations) and driving behaviors (competitive driving, risk-taking driving, high-risk driving, aggressive driving, and drink/driving). Michigan driver records were obtained to examine offenses, serious offenses, driving offense points, crashes and serious crashes in the three pre-interview years. Multivariate regression analyses, adjusting for age, race, and marital status were conducted separately by sex to identify personality factors related to driving. Results For men and women, greater risk-taking propensity, physical/verbal hostility, aggression, and tolerance of deviance were significant predictors of a competitive attitude toward driving, risk-taking driving, high-risk driving, driving aggression, and drink/driving. Greater risk-taking propensity, physical/verbal hostility, aggression, and to a small degree, expectations for achievement predicted higher numbers of offenses, serious offenses, and points. Conclusion Traffic safety policies and programs could be enhanced through recognition of the role personality factors play in driving behavior and the incorporation of this knowledge into the design and implementation of interventions that modify the behaviors associated with them. PMID:17114089

  18. Arthroplasty in young adults: options, techniques, trends, and results.

    PubMed

    Mody, Bharat S; Mody, Kshitij

    2014-06-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been established as a very successful and commonly performed procedure for primary and secondary osteoarthritis, and also for inflammatory arthropathies of the knee in all age groups and both genders. It has predominantly been used as a procedure in the age group of patients 65 years and above. Consequently, the literature is replete with data relevant to various issues associated with TKA in the above 65 years age group population. Although there is reasonable clarity and consensus on the broad parameters of the use of TKA in the above 65 years age group (older), this cannot be said for the same issue as relevant to the below 65 years age group (young adults). Over the last 2 decades there has been an increasing tendency toward the use of TKA in young adults, with some countries reporting a 5-fold increase in the last 10 years [1]. The present article is designed to review the most recent literature specific to this subject and assess it vis-à-vis various issues as listed in the subsequent text, with the aim of highlighting evolving thoughts and trends, which could be useful for decision making by clinicians practicing in the community. PMID:24677185

  19. A dietary procedure for preventing dental caries in young adults.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, K K

    1993-01-01

    Significant improvement in the dental caries status of children in the United States has been seen in recent decades. The percentage of children who are free from dental caries, however, rapidly decreases with age. By the time young people enter colleges or universities, only a few are caries free. Colleges and universities are places where the young are simultaneously, and perhaps for the last time, reachable as large cohorts before their lives undergo further "individualization." This makes college age a time that is crucial for channeling information about proper oral health practices by organizing mass-directed strategies for prevention of dental caries. It is now clear that dental caries can effectively be prevented. This calls for placing strong emphasis on dietary behavior and on the use of sugar substitutes as part of the strategy. Scientific evidence also suggests that the addition of small daily quantities of xylitol, a natural carbohydrate sweetener, to the diet of children and young adults causes significant reduction in the incidence of dental caries. On the basis of detailed long-term clinical trials carried out during the past 20 years, it appears that a reduction ranging from 30% to more than 85% in dental caries can be achieved simply by using a few xylitol chewing gums daily over a period of 1 to 3 years. In individual cases, virtually total, long-term protection against caries has been observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8436732

  20. Patterns of Tobacco Use and Dual Use in US Young Adults: The Missing Link between Youth Prevention and Adult Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Jessica M.; Villanti, Andrea C.; Abrams, David B.; Vallone, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies address the developmental transition from youth tobacco use uptake to regular adulthood use, especially for noncigarette tobacco products. The current study uses online panel data from the Legacy Young Adult Cohort Study to describe the prevalence of cigarette, other tobacco product, and dual use in a nationally representative sample of young adults aged 18–34 (N = 4,201). Of the 23% of young adults who were current tobacco users, 30% reported dual use. Ever use, first product used, and current use were highest for cigarettes, cigars, little cigars, and hookah. Thirty-two percent of ever tobacco users reported tobacco product initiation after the age of 18 and 39% of regular users reported progressing to regular use during young adulthood. This study highlights the need for improved monitoring of polytobacco use across the life course and developing tailored efforts for young adults to prevent progression and further reduce overall population prevalence. PMID:22666279

  1. Localization of pan-cadherin immunoreactivity in adult rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Filiz, Serdar; Dalcik, Hakki; Yardimoglu, Melda; Gonca, Suheyla; Ceylan, Sureyya

    2002-01-01

    Cadherins, being responsible for selective cell recognition and normal tissue integrity in adults, regulate morphogenesis in a variety of organs during development. In this study, anti-rat pan-cadherin antibody, specific to all subgroups of the cadherin family, was used to map the distribution of the pan-cadherin immunoreactivity in adult rat organs. Pan-cadherin immunoreactivity positive tissues were: secretory cells of the adenohypophysis, autonomic nerve, corneal epithelium, oesophageal nerve plexus, stomach and pyloric glandular cells, epithelium of the ileum and its nerve plexus, alveolar cells of the lung, proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney, islet cells of Langerhans, and the acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas. For the first time, positive pan-cadherin immunoreactivity was demonstrated in the epithelial cells of the corpus ciliaris and in the nerve plexus of corpus cavernosum of the penis. In conclusion, our results suggest that cells in many tissues and organs of the adult rat synthesize cadherins. PMID:12468390

  2. Palliative care in adolescents and young adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Sheila; Cuvelier, Geoff; Harlos, Mike; Barr, Ronald

    2011-05-15

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with advanced or terminal cancer have distinctive medical and psychosocial needs that may not have been adequately provided by either pediatric or adult palliative care services. A discussion group, as part of a larger workshop on AYA with cancer, was held in Toronto on March 11-13, 2010;117:-. Recommendations were as follows: Develop a specific AYA screening tool designed to detect increased anxiety or new symptoms and to initiate discussion about palliative or symptom care; Set Canadian standards for palliative care in AYA patients. These standards should be included in hospital accreditation; Involve the palliative/symptom care team early in the disease trajectory to help manage clinically important symptoms that may not be associated with imminent death; Establish specific AYA multidisciplinary palliative care teams throughout Canada that are flexible and can work in both pediatric and adult facilities, and are able to work in a "virtual" environment to support patients being cared for at home; Improve physical facilities in hospices and hospitals to meet the distinctive needs of terminally ill AYA patients; Enhance support for palliative care at home by: changing legislation to improve Compassionate Care Benefits and developing "virtual palliative care support teams". Adequate provision of AYA palliative care and symptom management services will likely confer notable benefits to AYA patients and their families, and is likely to be cost saving to the tax payer by avoiding prolonged hospitalization and promoting easier return to work for the families and caregivers. PMID:21523753

  3. Acoustic characteristics of vowels by normal Malaysian Malay young adults.

    PubMed

    Ting, Hua Nong; Chia, See Yan; Abdul Hamid, Badrulzaman; Mukari, Siti Zamratol-Mai Sarah

    2011-11-01

    The acoustic characteristics of sustained vowel have been widely investigated across various languages and ethnic groups. These acoustic measures, including fundamental frequency (F(0)), jitter (Jitt), relative average perturbation (RAP), five-point period perturbation quotient (PPQ5), shimmer (Shim), and 11-point amplitude perturbation quotient (APQ11) are not well established for Malaysian Malay young adults. This article studies the acoustic measures of Malaysian Malay adults using acoustical analysis. The study analyzed six sustained Malay vowels of 60 normal native Malaysian Malay adults with a mean of 21.19 years. The F(0) values of Malaysian Malay males and females were reported as 134.85±18.54 and 238.27±24.06Hz, respectively. Malaysian Malay females had significantly higher F(0) than that of males for all the vowels. However, no significant differences were observed between the genders for the perturbation measures in all the vowels, except RAP in /e/. No significant F(0) differences between the vowels were observed. Significant differences between the vowels were reported for all perturbation measures in Malaysian Malay males. As for Malaysian Malay females, significant differences between the vowels were reported for Shim and APQ11. Multiethnic comparisons indicate that F(0) varies between Malaysian Malay and other ethnic groups. However, the perturbation measures cannot be directly compared, where the measures vary significantly across different speech analysis softwares. PMID:21429707

  4. Physiological responses during whole body suspension of adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize responses of adult rats to one and two weeks of whole body suspension. Body weights and food and water intakes were initially reduced during suspension, but, while intake of food and water returned to presuspension levels, body weight remained depressed. Diuresis was evident, but only during week two. Hindlimb muscle responses were differential, with the soleus exhibiting the greatest atrophy and the EDL a relative hypertrophy. These findings suggest that adult rats respond qualitatively in a manner similar to juveniles during suspension.

  5. Covering young adults under the Affordable Care Act: the importance of outreach and Medicaid expansion: findings from the Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Tracking Survey of Young Adults, 2013.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara R; Rasmussen, Petra W; Garber, Tracy; Doty, Michelle M

    2013-08-01

    There is concern that many young adults (ages 19--29) will remain without health insurance in 2014 despite the Affordable Care Act's reforms, including subsidized private coverage offered in new state marketplaces and expanded Medicaid eligibility. How things turn out will likely depend on outreach efforts and states' decisions on expanding Medicaid. Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Tracking Survey data from 2011 and 2013 show increasing awareness among young adults of the 2010 requirement that health plans cover children under age 26. Of the estimated 15 million young adults enrolled in a parent's plan in the prior 12 months, 7.8 million would not likely have been eligible to enroll prior to the law. Still, only 27 percent of 19-to-29-year-olds are aware of the marketplaces. Meanwhile, most uninsured young adults living below poverty will not have access to subsidized public or private insurance in states opting out of the Medicaid expansion. PMID:24044138

  6. Attractiveness judgments and discrimination of mommies and grandmas: perceptual tuning for young adult faces.

    PubMed

    Short, Lindsey A; Mondloch, Catherine J; Hackland, Anne T

    2015-01-01

    Adults are more accurate in detecting deviations from normality in young adult faces than in older adult faces despite exhibiting comparable accuracy in discriminating both face ages. This deficit in judging the normality of older faces may be due to reliance on a face space optimized for the dimensions of young adult faces, perhaps because of early and continuous experience with young adult faces. Here we examined the emergence of this young adult face bias by testing 3- and 7-year-old children on a child-friendly version of the task used to test adults. In an attractiveness judgment task, children viewed young and older adult face pairs; each pair consisted of an unaltered face and a distorted face of the same identity. Children pointed to the prettiest face, which served as a measure of their sensitivity to the dimensions on which faces vary relative to a norm. To examine whether biases in the attractiveness task were specific to deficits in referencing a norm or extended to impaired discrimination, we tested children on a simultaneous match-to-sample task with the same stimuli. Both age groups were more accurate in judging the attractiveness of young faces relative to older faces; however, unlike adults, the young adult face bias extended to the match-to-sample task. These results suggest that by 3 years of age, children's perceptual system is more finely tuned for young adult faces than for older adult faces, which may support past findings of superior recognition for young adult faces. PMID:25222629

  7. Self-Evaluated Dental Appearance Satisfaction among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, CC; Ogbomo, AC

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental appearance satisfaction is important among young adults because judgment concerning the personal characteristics of individuals is influenced by their dental appearance in the absence of other information. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction among young adults. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional survey of financial industry prone undergraduates of University of Benin was conducted between July and September, 2010. The self-administered questionnaire which assessed information on demographic characteristics, smoking habit, alcohol use, previous dental visit, dental appearance satisfaction, tooth shape, size, arrangement and strength was the tool of data collection. The data was subjected to descriptive, Chi-square and regression statistics using statistical package for the social sciences version 17.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). (P < 0.05) was considered to be significant. Results: A total of 399 undergraduates which are made up of 179 (44.9%) males and 220 (55.1%) females with mean age of 24.66 (4.20) years participated in this study. Self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction was expressed by 79.4% (317/399) of the participants. The significant predictors of self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction were skin color (P = 0.03, odds ratio [OR] =2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.09-6.09) and perceived tooth strength (P = 0.02, OR = 5.83, 95% CI = 1.40-24.28) among males and alcohol consumption (P = 0.04, OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.21-0.95] and perceived size of tooth (P = 0.02, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.15-4.89) among females. The significant predictors of self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction among the participants were ethnicity (P = 0.04, OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.32-0.96), skin color (P = 0.04, OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.03-2.93), perceived tooth size (P = 0.03, OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.07-3.09) and strength (P = 0.01, OR = 3.42, 95% CI = 1.58-7.41). Conclusion: Ethnicity, tooth arrangement, size and strength need to be given detailed consideration in tooth replacement as they emerged as the significant predictors of self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction among young adults. PMID:25221713

  8. Changes in markers of oxidative status in brain, liver and kidney of young and aged rats following exposure to aromatic white spirit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Bondy; H. R. Lam; G. Østergaard; S. X. Guo; Ø. Ladefoged

    1995-01-01

    Levels of glutathione and activity of glutamine synthetase were assayed in organs of rats following inhalation of a heterogeneous\\u000a solvent mixture containing both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. This mixture was administered for 3 weeks (6 h daily)\\u000a at two levels in the inhaled air (400 and 800 ppm) to young adult (5-month-old) and aged (14-month-old) rats. Depression of\\u000a levels of

  9. Perception of Young Adults on Online Games: Implications for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Liwen; Chen, Tung-Liang; Liu, Hsu-Kuan Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and categorize the perceptions of young adults before we allocate the resources to design, develop, and implement digital game-based learning in higher education institutions in Taiwan. Q-methodology was conducted for this study because it is a quantitative analysis of subjective data. Thirty young adults…

  10. The Vietnam War in Young Adult Literature: Practical Approaches That Foster Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    Suggesting that literature dealing with the Vietnam War can have a dramatic impact on students, this paper assists teachers in selecting young adult literature on the war, discusses a variety of assignments, and presents student responses to the literature. The paper begins with a discussion of the three main types of young adult literature:…

  11. Exploring the Psychosocial and Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes of Multi-Type Abuse among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the psychosocial and behavioral adjustment outcomes associated with verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse among homeless young adults as well as the associations among abuse types. Convenience sampling was used to select 28 homeless young adults (ages 18 to 24) from one drop-in center. Overall, subjects experienced…

  12. Demographic differences and food patterns associated with metabolic syndrome in young adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MS) in young adults. Intake was collected on 1,012 young adults (20-38 years) (61% female; 26% black) using a food-frequency questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometrics, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profiles were quantifi...

  13. Education, Employment, and Independent Living of Young Adults Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelman, Karen I.; Callahan, Judy Ottren; Mayer, Margaret H.; Luetke, Barbara S.; Stryker, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    Little information is available on the education, employment, and independent living status of young deaf and hard of hearing adults who have transitioned from high school. The present article reports post-secondary outcomes of 46 young adults who had attended for at least 4 years a non-public agency school in the northwestern United States…

  14. Factors Related to Smoking in College and Not in College Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koval, John; Pederson, Linda; Zhang, Xiaohe

    2006-01-01

    This study sought variables associated with current smoking for young adult males and females in college compared with those not in college. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by a cohort of 1,270 young adults (ages 20-24) who have been followed from grade 6 for 10 years. Both bivariate and multivariable analyses of demographic…

  15. Parental Divorce and Family Functioning: Effects on Differentiation Levels of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patrick; Throngren, Jill M.; Smith, Adina J.

    2001-01-01

    Study examines the effect of parental divorce and various dimensions of functioning in the family of origin on young adult development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning significantly affect differentiation levels of young adults. Implications of the results for counselors and future researchers are provided. (Contains…

  16. Identifying Clinically Distinct Subgroups of Self-Injurers among Young Adults: A Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klonsky, E. David; Olino, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    High rates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI; 14%-17%) in adolescents and young adults suggest that some self-injurers may exhibit more or different psychiatric problems than others. In the present study, the authors utilized a latent class analysis to identify clinically distinct subgroups of self-injurers. Participants were 205 young adults with…

  17. Technique, muscle activity and kinematic differences in young adults texting on mobile phones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ewa Gustafsson; Peter W. Johnson; Agneta Lindegård; Mats Hagberg

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are differences in technique between young adults with and without musculoskeletal symptoms when using a mobile phone for texting and whether there are differences in muscle activity and kinematics between different texting techniques. A total of 56 young adults performed a standardised texting task on a mobile phone. Their texting

  18. Disparities in Debt: Parents' Socioeconomic Resources and Young Adult Student Loan Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Jason N.

    2014-01-01

    In an era of rising college costs and stagnant grant-based student aid, many young adults rely on their parents' resources and student loans to pay for their postsecondary education. In this study I ask how parents' income and education are linked to young adults' student loan debt. I develop and test two perspectives regarding the…

  19. Prospective predictors of suicidal ideation during depressive episodes among older adolescents and young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Vrshek-Schallhorn; Jennifer Czarlinski; Susan Mineka; Richard E. Zinbarg; Michelle Craske

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among older adolescents and young adults; however, few studies have prospectively examined risk for suicidal ideation. The present study in older adolescents and young adults investigated whether two personality traits previously implicated in risk for suicidal ideation, neuroticism and extraversion, as well as certain aspects of interpersonal functioning, prospectively predicted endorsement of suicidal

  20. Foster Care Experiences and Educational Outcomes of Young Adults Formerly Placed in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havalchak, Anne; White, Catherine Roller; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Sepulveda, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to the body of research on the educational outcomes of young adults who were formerly placed in foster care. Telephone interviews were conducted with 359 young adults (a 54.6% response rate). Participants must have been served for at least one year by one private foster care agency in one of its twenty-two offices. Results…

  1. Cannabis and Anxiety and Depression in Young Adults: A Large Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad R.; Najman, Jake M.; Jamrozik, Konrad; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Alati, Rosa; Bor, William

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether age of first use or frequency of use of cannabis is associated with anxiety and depression (AD) in young adults, independent of known potential confounders, including the use of other illicit drugs. Method: A cohort of 3,239 Australian young adults was followed from birth to the age of 21 when data on AD were obtained…

  2. Voices of Young Adults with Autism and Their Perspective on Life Choices after Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galler, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative research study was to explore how young adults who have an autism spectrum disorder perceive their life choices after secondary education. The focus participants in the sample were young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). For the purpose of this research, ASD includes autism and…

  3. Healthy Behaviors and Lifestyles in Young Adults with a History of Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Schendel, Diana; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Measure select Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators in young adults with and without a history of developmental disabilities (DD) using a population-based cohort. Methods: Young adults were interviewed to assess the prevalence of seven Leading Health Indicators: physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance…

  4. Stuttering, attractiveness and romantic relationships: The perception of adolescents and young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Van Borsel; Marie Brepoels; Janne De Coene

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible negative impact of stuttering on romantic opportunities for adolescents and young adults who stutter. The first part of the study investigated if being a person who stutters affects the attractiveness of adolescents and young adults to their peers. To this end, 343 males and 393 females were shown age-matched pictures

  5. The Parental Bond and the Well-Being of Adolescents and Young Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frits van Wel; Hub Linssen; Ruud Abma

    2000-01-01

    In this work, changes in the parental bond and the well-being of adolescents and young adults in the Netherlands are investigated. It concerns a longitudinal study among youngsters in the age of 12 to 24 (their ages varying between 15 and 27 when assessed for the second time 3 years later). In total, 1688 adolescents\\/young adults (730 boys and 958

  6. Coping in adolescents and young adults with chronic digestive disorders: Impact on school and leisure activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiske Calsbeek; Mieke Rijken; Marc J. T. M. Bekkers; Gerard P. Van Berge Henegouwen; Joost Dekker

    2006-01-01

    Coping strategies were compared across adolescents and young adults with several chronic digestive disorders and healthy peers, and across age groups. Subsequently, the impact of coping on performance in school and leisure activities was investigated. Participants were adolescents and young adults (age 12 to 25 years) suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), chronic liver diseases, congenital diseases, coeliac disease or

  7. A longitudinal study of moral and ego development in young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Strohm Kitchenerfl; Patricia M. Kingfl; Mark L. Davison; Clyde A. Parker; Phillip K. Wood

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal changes in moral judgment and ego development in a young adult sample when a concurrent measure of verbal ability was used as a statistical control. Sixty-one late adolescents and young adults, representing three educational groups, were tested in 1977 and 1979 on the Defining Issues Tests, a measure of moral

  8. Trends in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease–related Hospitalizations in US Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinna Koebnick; Darios Getahun; Kristi Reynolds; Karen J. Coleman; Amy H. Porter; Jean M. Lawrence; Mark Punyanitya; Virginia P. Quinn; Steven J Jacobsen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate temporal trends of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obesity among hospitalized US children, adolescents, and young adults over the past 2 decades and to examine potential sex disparities in NAFLD hospitalizations. Methods: Hospitalization discharges with NAFLD or obesity were identified among children and young adults (6-25 years, weighted n ¼ 91,687,413) from the 1986 to 2006

  9. Sexual Activity of Young Adults Who Are Visually Impaired and the Need for Effective Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Stacy M.; Kapperman, Gaylen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Little research has been reported on all aspects of sexuality as it pertains to individuals with visual impairments. This article analyzes data on the sexual experiences of young adults who are visually impaired and young adults without disabilities. Methods: The authors conducted a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal…

  10. Risk perceptions and behavioral intentions for Hepatitis B: how do young adults fare?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Gonzales; D. C. Glik; M. Prelip; L. Bourque; J. Yuen; A. Ang; M. C. Jones

    2006-01-01

    Young adults are at risk for Hepatitis B in- fection. Little is known about their attitudes and beliefs concerning Hepatitis B, which are determinants of getting immunized. This inves- tigation examined risk perceptions and behav- ioral intentions concerning Hepatitis B among a convenience sample of 1070 young adults, 18-24 years old who participated in a Hepati- tis B campaign that

  11. Attracting Young Adults to Public Libraries: Frances Henne/YALSA/VOYA Research Grant Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kay; Bauer, Pat

    2002-01-01

    By identifying effective young adult strategies, programs, and services, this research study adds to the knowledge of the role of libraries and librarians as community partners in providing for the needs of young adults. Two tables provide a comparison of strategies and a program and services comparison. (Contains 24 references.) (AEF)

  12. Determinants of body fatness in young adults living in a Dutch community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. H. Baecke

    1982-01-01

    In 1979, the Department of Human Nutrition of the Agricultural University at Wageningen began a research project on obesity in young adults. The main objectives of this project are the investigation of aetiological aspects and health consequences of obesity. It is a prospective study and is being carried out in a young adult population of three age groups (19-21, 24-26

  13. On Altered Patterns of Brain Activation in At-Risk Adolescents and Young Adults

    E-print Network

    Editorial On Altered Patterns of Brain Activation in At-Risk Adolescents and Young Adults activity in 60 adolescents and young adults at risk for psychosis and 38 healthy comparison subjects, using in individuals diagnosed with or at risk for schizophrenia. Thus, we focus our comments on the findings

  14. Macrostructural Narrative Language of Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome or Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Palmer, Meghan; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To gain a better understanding of language abilities, the expressive macrostructural narrative language abilities of verbally expressive adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) and those with fragile X syndrome (FXS) were examined. Method: The authors evaluated 24 adolescents and young adults with DS, 12 male adolescents and…

  15. Gay and lesbian fiction for young adults: a survey of holdings in Canadian public libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulette M. Rothbauer; Lynne E. F. McKechnie

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if young adults, or others interested in literature for teens, have access through public libraries to novels with homosexual content. A random sample of 40 English language young adult novels with gay\\/lesbian content was checked against the holdings of 40 medium and large Canadian public libraries having remotely accessible catalogs. The average

  16. Expanding Services to Young Disadvantaged Adults. Public Library Training Institutes Library Service Guide No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Barbara

    After descriptions of some problems encountered by disadvantaged youths and some general services libraries can provide, specific guidelines for library services to young disadvantaged adults are given. These include services both inside and outside the library: the selection of staff to work with the young adults, cooperation between the library…

  17. The Longitudinal Relationships between Rural Adolescents' Prosocial Behaviors and Young Adult Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Beal, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    While many adolescents and young adults experiment with substances (e.g., alcohol, cigarette smoking, marijuana), recent research suggests that rural youth and young adults may be more at risk for substance use than their urban counterparts. This study was designed to examine the longitudinal relationships between rural adolescents' prosocial…

  18. Gender Differences in the Suicide-Related Behaviors of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lewinsohn, Peter; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John; Monson, Candice M.; Meyer, Kathryn A.; Langford, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Examines sex differences in suicide-related behaviors in older adolescents and young adults. Males reported more risk-taking, more injury-producing, and more negative health-related behaviors than did females. Females reported more depression symptoms than did males. Hopelessness scores differed among male and female young adults. (MMU)

  19. Young Adult Identities and Their Pathways: A Developmental and Life Course Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Janel E.; Elder, Glen H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental and life course studies of young adult identities have focused on 2 dimensions: subjective age and psychosocial maturity. This study examines the developmental synchrony of these 2 processes. In a longitudinal sample of young adults from Add Health (ages 18-22), a person-centered analysis of indicators of these dimensions identified…

  20. Becoming Stronger at Broken Places: A Model for Group Work with Young Adult from Divorced Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hage, Sally M.; Nosanow, Mia

    2000-01-01

    Describes a model for group work with young adults from divorced families using an 8-session psychoeducational group intervention. Goals include reducing isolation, establishing connectedness, and building a stronger sense of identify. By educating young adults on topics such as assertiveness, communication skills, and self-esteem, it will give…

  1. The Social Inclusion of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Phenomenology of Their Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    Social inclusion enhances the quality of life of young adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Young adults with ID continue to face prejudice and discrimination that limit their social inclusion. They experience limited social inclusion because there are not enough appropriate activities available and they have limited opportunities to…

  2. DISC1-mediated dysregulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heekyung; Kang, Eunchai; GoodSmith, Douglas; Yoon, Do Yeon; Song, Hongjun; Knierim, James J.; Ming, Guo-li; Christian, Kimberly M.

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the constitutive generation of new granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the mature brain, is a robust model of neural development and its dysregulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Previous studies in mice have shown that altered expression of Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (Disc1), the mouse homolog of a risk gene for major psychiatric disorders, results in several distinct morphological phenotypes during neuronal development. Although there are advantages to using rats over mice for neurophysiological studies, genetic manipulations have not been widely utilized in rat models. Here, we used a retroviral-mediated approach to knockdown DISC1 expression in dividing cells in the rat dentate gyrus and characterized the morphological development of adult-born granule neurons. Consistent with earlier findings in mice, we show that DISC1 knockdown in adult-born dentate granule cells in rats resulted in accelerated dendritic growth, soma hypertrophy, ectopic dendrites, and mispositioning of new granule cells due to overextended migration. Our study thus demonstrates that the Disc1 genetic manipulation approach used in prior mouse studies is feasible in rats and that there is a conserved biological function of this gene across species. Extending gene-based studies of adult hippocampal neurogenesis from mice to rats will allow for the development of additional models that may be more amenable to behavioral and in vivo electrophysiological investigations. These models, in turn, can generate additional insight into the systems-level mechanisms of how risk genes for complex psychiatric disorders may impact adult neurogenesis and hippocampal function.

  3. Miranda Rights Comprehension in Young Adults With Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Rost, Gwyneth C.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 young adults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language impairment (SLI). A correlational analysis of the relationship between language scores and Miranda rights comprehension was conducted, as were tests of differences between individuals with SLI (n = 17) and individuals without SLI. Results Language ability was positively correlated with overall performance on the Miranda measure. As a group, individuals with SLI were significantly poorer than their peers with normal language at defining Miranda vocabulary and applying Miranda rights in hypothetical situations. The group with SLI was also marginally less able to paraphrase Miranda sentences. Conclusion Language impairment limits comprehension of Miranda warnings. As a result, citizens with language impairment are at risk of being denied their constitutional rights. PMID:22230180

  4. Perceived fraudulence in young adults: is there an "imposter syndrome"?

    PubMed

    Kolligian, J; Sternberg, R J

    1991-04-01

    This investigation consists of two studies designed to examine perceived fraudulence, its measurement, and the personality traits associated with the experience in young adults. For Study 1, the Perceived Fraudulence Scale (PFS), a new measure constructed for this study, was administered to a sample of 50 college undergraduates, along with several other self-report measures; a semistructured interview and thought-listing exercise were added to provide convergent assessments of perceived fraudulence. Correlational patterns and regression analyses supported the investigators' conceptualization of perceived fraudulence as involving a combination of fraudulent ideation, depressive tendencies, self-criticism, social anxiety, achievement pressures, and self-monitoring skills. Study 2, in which 100 college undergraduates completed several personality questionnaires, replicated the factor structure of the PFS and provided some evidence for the discriminant validity of the construct of perceived fraudulence. PMID:2056424

  5. The impact of elder abuse education on young adults.

    PubMed

    Hayslip, Bert; Reinberg, Julie; Williams, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of educational interventions in altering tolerance for and behavioral intentions of elder abuse among college student young adults. Participants were 225 undergraduates who were assigned to one of four educational groups: Elder Abuse Education, Aging Education, Family Education, and a Pre- and Posttest only condition. While the Elder Abuse Education group reported less tolerance and intentions for elder abuse compared to the other groups at the immediate posttest, a decrement in such positive changes at 1-month follow-up was observed in such persons. These mixed findings suggest that while specific interventions may reduce elder abuse tolerance, supplemental educational efforts over time may be necessary to maintain intervention-specific gains in intentions and behaviors particular to elder abuse. PMID:25909496

  6. Quantifying light exposure patterns in young adult students.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Amanda A; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to bright light appears to be protective against myopia in both animals (chicks, monkeys) and children, but quantitative data on human light exposure are limited. In this study, we report on a technique for quantifying light exposure using wearable sensors. Twenty-seven young adult subjects wore a light sensor continuously for two weeks during one of three seasons, and also completed questionnaires about their visual activities. Light data were analyzed with respect to refractive error and season, and the objective sensor data were compared with subjects' estimates of time spent indoors and outdoors. Subjects' estimates of time spent indoors and outdoors were in poor agreement with durations reported by the sensor data. The results of questionnaire-based studies of light exposure should thus be interpreted with caution. The role of light in refractive error development should be investigated using multiple methods such as sensors to complement questionnaires. PMID:25342873

  7. Sex differences in coping and depression among young adults.

    PubMed

    Hänninen, V; Aro, H

    1996-11-01

    The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the notion that the association between sex and depression is partly mediated by differences in coping styles. The study is based on questionnaire data from 890 female and 766 male Finnish 22-year-old young adults. Of the 12 ways of coping presented, self-blame, venting anger on others, seeking comfort in sweets and drinking beer were positively, and the others negatively, associated with depression; these were called dysfunctional and functional ways of coping, respectively. Women resorted much more often than men to dysfunctional ways of coping, except drinking. They also scored lower on personal resilience and showed more depressive symptoms. The sex difference in depressiveness was eliminated when dysfunctional coping was taken into account. PMID:8923617

  8. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability Among Young Adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high prevalence setting of South Africa—where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. In 2007, we conducted six focus groups (n=42) with South Africans aged 18-24 years old. We used a deductive framework approach to identify key motivators and barriers to future HIV vaccine uptake. Participants identified HIV testing, HIV stigma, mistrust of the health care system, and concerns about sexual disinhibition as barriers to vaccine uptake. For women, family members and friends were strong motivators for vaccine uptake, while men were more likely to see vaccines as an opportunity to stop using HIV prevention strategies such as condoms and partner reductions. Implications of these findings for developing HIV vaccine dissemination strategies and policy in South Africa are discussed. PMID:19509123

  9. Adenocarcinoma of the large intestine in young adults.

    PubMed

    Vezzoni, P; Clemente, C; Gennari, L

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-eight cases of adenocarcinoma of the large intestine in patients under 30 years of age, admitted to the National Cancer Institute of Milan from 1955 to 1975, are reported. Fourteen patients underwent radical surgery: of these, 8 are alive, and the survival times range from 8 months to 17 years. The 14 patients who received pallative therapy only all died within 15 months. The degree of infiltration of the intestinal wall seemed to be the most significant prognostic factor. The worse prognosis for the neoplasia in young adults with respect to older people, already reported in the literature and confirmed by our data, seems to be correlated, more than with the histologic type or biologic behavior of the tumor, with the diagnostic delay, which results in more advanced forms, with respect to those seen in older patients, being observed at clinical examination. PMID:601884

  10. Dermatoglyphic anomalies in psychometrically identified schizotypic young adults.

    PubMed

    Chok, James T; Kwapil, Thomas R; Scheuermann, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Dermatoglyphic anomalies are hypothesized to indicate disruptions in the second trimester of prenatal development, a time period that appears to be critical in the etiology of schizophrenia. The present study examined the presence of dermatoglyphic anomalies in psychometrically identified schizotypic young adults (n = 51) and control participants (n = 63) selected based upon their scores on the Perceptual Aberration [J. Abnorm. Psychology 87 (1978) 399] and Magical Ideation Scales [J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 51 (1983) 215]. It was hypothesized that schizotypic participants would exhibit higher rates of dermatoglyphic anomalies than control participants. The Perceptual Aberration-Magical Ideation group exhibited lower total and absolute finger ridge counts and less complex pattern types than control participants--findings consistent with anomalies reported in patients with schizophrenia. These findings encourage future examination of these anomalies in individuals at-risk for schizophrenia and related disorders. PMID:15560965

  11. Quantifying light exposure patterns in young adult students

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Amanda A.; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to bright light appears to be protective against myopia in both animals (chicks, monkeys) and children, but quantitative data on human light exposure are limited. In this study, we report on a technique for quantifying light exposure using wearable sensors. Twenty-seven young adult subjects wore a light sensor continuously for two weeks during one of three seasons, and also completed questionnaires about their visual activities. Light data were analyzed with respect to refractive error and season, and the objective sensor data were compared with subjects’ estimates of time spent indoors and outdoors. Subjects’ estimates of time spent indoors and outdoors were in poor agreement with durations reported by the sensor data. The results of questionnaire-based studies of light exposure should thus be interpreted with caution. The role of light in refractive error development should be investigated using multiple methods such as sensors to complement questionnaires. PMID:25342873

  12. Disgust and Sexual Arousal in Young Adult Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Grauvogl, Andrea; de Jong, Peter; Peters, Madelon; Evers, Silvia; van Overveld, Mark; van Lankveld, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    Previous research suggested that disgust may interfere with healthy sexual functioning by demonstrating that women with sexual pain disorders are characterized by heightened disgust propensity, relatively strong (physiological and subjective) disgust responses when exposed to sexual stimuli, and relatively strong automatic sex-disgust memory associations. To broaden the understanding of the relationship between sex and disgust, Study 1 tested the relationship between trait disgust and sexual functioning in both men (N = 109) and women (N = 187), and showed that specifically for women both relatively high disgust propensity and high sensitivity were related to lower sexual functioning. Study 2 focused on healthy young adults (N = 19 men and N = 24 women), and tested the relationship between trait disgust and automatic sex-disgust associations as well as the predictive value of trait disgust propensity for participants' level of sexual arousal while watching an erotic video. Participants completed a single-target Implicit Association Task and self-report measures of trait disgust propensity, disgust sensitivity, and sexual functioning. Furthermore, genital and subjective sexual arousal was measured, while participants were watching neutral and erotic video clips. Women showed stronger sex-disgust associations and reported higher disgust propensity than men. Overall, indices of trait disgust and sex-disgust associations were not strongly associated with sexual functioning or sexual arousability. Unexpectedly, specifically in men, high levels of trait disgust sensitivity predicted higher levels of genital and subjective sexual arousal. Overall, no strong evidence was found to support the view that, among young adults without sexual difficulties, high trait disgust or relatively strong automatic sex-disgust associations are associated with low sexual functioning and low sexual arousal. PMID:25231820

  13. Genetic research participation in a young adult community sample.

    PubMed

    Storr, Carla L; Or, Flora; Eaton, William W; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2014-10-01

    Opposed to large nationally sponsored health initiatives or biobanks, little is known about gathering genetic samples from young adults participating in academic community-based epidemiologic studies of mental health and substance use, especially samples with a large number of minority participants. This study describes our experience of establishing a genetic arm within a longitudinal study of a cohort of young adults (mean age 29, 75 % African American, 58 % female). In total, 75 % of those interviewed in the most recent wave donated a DNA sample (31.6 % blood and 68.4 % saliva) and over 90 % provided consent for storage and sharing. Current smokers were more likely to donate a sample than nonsmokers (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)?=?1.59, 95 % confidence interval (CI)?=?1.14, 2.22). The odds of obtaining a saliva sample were increased for those who were former cannabis smokers and who drank more regularly, but decreased among participants with less education and a history with drug use. Fewer minorities (aOR?=?0.37, 95 % CI?=?0.18, 0.75; p?=?0.006) and cannabis users (aOR?=?0.46, 95 % CI?=?0.27, 0.77) consented to sharing their sample with other investigators. Findings also illustrate there are many study parameters that are important in planning biologic collection efforts. Building strong rapport and trust with subjects, minimizing the burden involved by the respondent to obtain a biological sample, offering a choice to provide blood or saliva, and offering an incentive will increase the likelihood of obtaining a sample and, importantly, increase the opportunity to store and share the sample for the future. PMID:24948529

  14. Text messaging intervention for teens and young adults with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Jessica T; Cousineau, Tara; Franko, Debra L; Schultz, Alan T; Trant, Meredith; Rodgers, Rachel; Laffel, Lori M B

    2014-09-01

    Adolescents and young adults use text messaging as their primary mode of communication, thus providing an opportunity to use this mode of communication for mobile health (mHealth) interventions. Youth with diabetes are an important group for these mHealth initiatives, as diabetes management requires an enormous amount of daily effort and this population has difficulty achieving optimal diabetes management. Goal setting and self-efficacy are 2 factors in the management of diabetes. We examined the feasibility of a healthy lifestyle text messaging program targeting self-efficacy and goal setting among adolescents and young adults with diabetes. Participants, ages 16-21, were assigned to either a text messaging group, which received daily motivational messages about nutrition and physical activity, or a control group, which received paper-based information about healthy lifestyle. Both groups set goals for nutrition and physical activity and completed a measure of self-efficacy. Participants' mean age was 18.7 ± 1.6 years old, with diabetes duration of 10.0 ± 4.6 years, and A1c of 8.7 ± 1.7%. The text messaging intervention was rated highly and proved to be acceptable to participants. Self-efficacy, glycemic control, and body mass index did not change over the course of the short, 1-month pilot study. Positive, daily, motivational text messages may be effective in increasing motivation for small goal changes in the areas of nutrition and physical activity. These interventions may be used in the future in youth with diabetes to improve diabetes care. Utilizing more targeted text messages is an area for future research. PMID:25172879

  15. The Role of Young Adults' Pleasure Attitudes in Shaping Condom Use.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Jenny A; Wang, Yu

    2015-07-01

    Condoms can help young adults protect themselves from sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy. We examined young people's attitudes about whether condoms reduced pleasure and how these attitudes shape condom practices. We used a nationally representative sample of 2328 heterosexually active, unmarried 15- to 24-year-old young adults to document multivariate associations with condom nonuse at the last sexual episode. For both young men and women, pleasure-related attitudes were more strongly associated with lack of condom use than all sociodemographic or sexual history factors. Research and interventions should consistently assess and address young people's attitudes about how condoms affect pleasure. PMID:25973832

  16. Metabolism of DDT in Different Tissues of Young Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OLFA TEBOURBI; MOHAMMED RIDHA DRISS; MOHSEN SAKLY; KHÉMAIS BEN RHOUMA

    2006-01-01

    The bioconcentration and distribution pattern of p,p?-DDT 1,1,1-1trichloro-2,2-bis(2-chlorophenyl-4-chlorophenyl)-ethane] and its main metabolites (p,p?-DDD [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane] and p,p?-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) in adipose tissue, liver, brain, kidney, thymus, and testis were examined in young rats after 10 days of intraperitoneal injection of 50 and 100 mg of p,p?-DDT\\/kg of body weight. Analyses were performed by high-resolution gas chromatography. p,p?-DDT was found

  17. Health risk behaviors among young adults with spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Soe, Minn M; Swanson, Mark E; Bolen, Julie C; Thibadeau, Judy K; Johnson, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    AIM Persons with spina bifida who adopt unhealthy lifestyles could be at increased risk of adverse health outcomes because the presence of spina bifida may magnify this risk. We estimated overall and age-specific prevalence of selected health risk behaviors (HRBs) in young people with spina bifida and examined the association between HRBs and depression. METHOD We performed analyses on data obtained from individuals with spina bifida (n=130; mean age 23y SD 4y 5mo; 64 males, 66 females; 64% lumbosacral lesion; 77% with shunt) who participated in a population-based survey conducted by the Arkansas Spinal Cord Commission in 2005. RESULTS Compared with national estimates, young people with spina bifida tend to eat less healthy diets, do less exercise, and engage inmore sedentary activities. Respondents were less likely to use substances (alcohol, tobacco, illegal drugs), which peaked among 25 to 31 year olds. About 90% saw a doctor in the previous year. Nearly one half reported mild or major depressive symptoms. In the logistic regression analysis after controlling for potential confounders (age, sex, ethnic group, education, employment, marital status, living arrangement, level of lesion, presence of shunt, mobility, self-rated health and healthcare utilization), major depressive symptoms were associated with current alcohol drinking (adjusted odds ratio: 4.74; 95% CI 1.18–19.04). INTERPRETATION Young adults with spina bifida exhibit unhealthy behaviors that continue into their late 20s. The findings highlight the need to increase awareness of their health risk profiles in the spina bifida community and show opportunities for mental health and health risk screening and counseling by healthcare providers. PMID:22937873

  18. Sexuality of Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy: Experienced Limitations and Needs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana WiegerinkMarij; Marij Roebroeck; Jim Bender; Henk Stam; Peggy Cohen-Kettenis

    2011-01-01

    Objective of this study is to describe the problems young adults with Cerebral Palsy (CP) experience in the various stages\\u000a of the sexual response cycle, and the physical and emotional obstacles they experience with sexuality. In this prospective\\u000a cohort study 74 young adults (46 men; 28 women) with CP and average intelligence participated, aged 20–24 years. Twenty percent\\u000a of these young

  19. HIV\\/AIDS-Related Knowledge Among Malaysian Young Adults: Findings From a Nationwide Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Ping Wong; Caroline-Kwong Leng Chin; Wah-Yun Low; Nasruddin Jaafar

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: HIV\\/AIDS poses a serious threat to young people, both in Malaysia and throughout the world. A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HIV\\/AIDS among the Malaysian public. This article reports the findings of knowledge about HIV\\/AIDS among young adults. METHODS: A total of 1075 young adult respondents aged 15–24 years participated in

  20. Why and How the Tobacco Industry Sells Cigarettes to Young Adults: Evidence From Industry Documents

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. To improve tobacco control campaigns, we analyzed tobacco industry strategies that encourage young adults (aged 18 to 24) to smoke. Methods. Initial searches of tobacco industry documents with keywords (e.g., “young adult”) were extended by using names, locations, and dates. Results. Approximately 200 relevant documents were found. Transitions from experimentation to addiction, with adult levels of cigarette consumption, may take years. Tobacco marketing solidifies addiction among young adults. Cigarette advertisements encourage regular smoking and increased consumption by integrating smoking into activities and places where young adults' lives change (e.g., leaving home, college, jobs, the military, bars). Conclusions. Tobacco control efforts should include both adults and youths. Life changes are also opportunities to stop occasional smokers' progress to addiction. Clean air policies in workplaces, the military, bars, colleges, and homes can combat tobacco marketing. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:908–916) PMID:12036776

  1. ACUTE TOXICITY OF PESTICIDES IN ADULT AND WEANLING RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    LD sub 50 values were determined for 57 pesticides administered by the oral or dermal route to adult male and female Sherman rats. Nine pesticides tested by the oral route (bufencarb, cacodylic acid, dialifor, deltamethrin, dicamba, diquat, quintozene, phoxim, pyrazon) and 4 test...

  2. NEONATAL TRIETHYLTIN EXPOSURE ALTERS ADULT ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In adults, triethyltin (TET) produces degeneration of white mater, edema, vacuolization of myelin and histoxic hypoxia. To determine the functional consequences of perinatal exposure to TET, albino rats were administered either 0,3,6, or 9 mg/kg TET on postnatal day 5. Upon reach...

  3. Sexual adaptation among single young adults with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Coffman, C B; Levine, S B; Althof, S E; Stern, R C

    1984-09-01

    The sexual adaptation of 48 single young adults with cystic fibrosis and a comparably aged single group without chronic disease was assessed using interviews and questionnaires. The patients were also compared to a previously studied group of married patients with cystic fibrosis. Single female patients with cystic fibrosis began dating later, dated less often, felt less attractive, had less sexual desire, and had more sexual problems than did physically healthy female subjects. Single male patients with cystic fibrosis seemed to fare far better than their female counterparts and approximated the healthy male group in all parameters studied. For both the single and married groups with cystic fibrosis, no significant relationship between the severity of disease and sexual health was evident. The single patients were diagnosed at a significantly earlier age and their general health scores were poorer than the married patients. The vulnerability of female patients with cystic fibrosis to psychosexual disruption suggests that attention be focused on the differential effects of other chronic illnesses upon male and female adult sexual adaptation. PMID:6468001

  4. Executive function and bilingualism in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Lemieux, Maude; Monetta, Laura; Taler, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that being bilingual results in advantages on executive control processes and disadvantages on language tasks relative to monolinguals. Furthermore, the executive function advantage is thought to be larger in older than younger adults, suggesting that bilingualism may buffer against age-related changes in executive function. However, there are potential confounds in some of the previous research, as well as inconsistencies in the literature. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the presence of a bilingual advantage in executive control and a bilingual disadvantage on language tasks in the same sample of young and older monolingual anglophones, monolingual francophones, and French/English bilinguals. Participants completed a series of executive function tasks, including a Stroop task, a Simon task, a sustained attention to response task (SART), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), and the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and language tasks, including the Boston Naming Test (BNT), and category and letter fluency. The results do not demonstrate an unequivocal advantage for bilinguals on executive function tasks and raise questions about the reliability, robustness and/or specificity of previous findings. The results also did not demonstrate a disadvantage for bilinguals on language tasks. Rather, they suggest that there may be an influence of the language environment. It is concluded that additional research is required to fully characterize any language group differences in both executive function and language tasks. PMID:25120442

  5. Executive function and bilingualism in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Lemieux, Maude; Monetta, Laura; Taler, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that being bilingual results in advantages on executive control processes and disadvantages on language tasks relative to monolinguals. Furthermore, the executive function advantage is thought to be larger in older than younger adults, suggesting that bilingualism may buffer against age-related changes in executive function. However, there are potential confounds in some of the previous research, as well as inconsistencies in the literature. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the presence of a bilingual advantage in executive control and a bilingual disadvantage on language tasks in the same sample of young and older monolingual anglophones, monolingual francophones, and French/English bilinguals. Participants completed a series of executive function tasks, including a Stroop task, a Simon task, a sustained attention to response task (SART), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), and the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and language tasks, including the Boston Naming Test (BNT), and category and letter fluency. The results do not demonstrate an unequivocal advantage for bilinguals on executive function tasks and raise questions about the reliability, robustness and/or specificity of previous findings. The results also did not demonstrate a disadvantage for bilinguals on language tasks. Rather, they suggest that there may be an influence of the language environment. It is concluded that additional research is required to fully characterize any language group differences in both executive function and language tasks. PMID:25120442

  6. Young, uninsured, and in debt: why young adults lack health insurance and how the Affordable Care Act is helping: findings from the Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Tracking Survey of Young Adults, 2011.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara R; Robertson, Ruth; Garber, Tracy; Doty, Michelle M

    2012-06-01

    The Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Tracking Survey of Young Adults finds that between November 2010 and November 2011, an estimated 13.7 million young adults ages 19-25 stayed on or joined their parents' health plans, including 6.6 million who likely would not have been able to do so prior to the passage of the Affordable Care Act. The findings of the survey underscore the need for policymakers to implement the remaining coverage expansions in the law. Nearly two of five young adults ages 19-29 were without health insurance for all or part of 2011, with young adults in low- and moderate-income households the most at risk. The lack of insurance had significant health and financial implications for young adults: 60 percent said they did not get needed health care because of cost and half reported problems paying medical bills or said they were paying off medical debt over time. PMID:22679639

  7. Adolescent Predictors and Environmental Correlates of Young Adult Alcohol Use Problems

    PubMed Central

    Toumbourou, John W.; Evans-Whipp, Tracy J.; Smith, Rachel; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Catalano, Richard F

    2013-01-01

    Aims To examine: rates of young adult alcohol and drug use and alcohol problems; adolescent predictors of young adult alcohol problems; and correlations with young adult social, work, and recreational environments. Design Adolescents were longitudinally followed into young adulthood. Predictors were measured in grade 9 (av., age 15), and environmental correlates and outcomes in young adulthood (av., age 21). Setting Students recruited in Victoria, Australia in 2002, were resurveyed in 2010/11. Participants Analytic N = 2,309, 80% retention. Measurements Adolescent self-report predictors included past-month alcohol use. Young adults completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) together with reports of environmental influences. Findings Comparisons to United States of America (U.S.) national school graduate samples revealed higher rates of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use (other than cannabis) in Victoria. For example rates of past month use at age 21–22 were: alcohol 69.3% U.S. vs 84.9% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]) 81.3 – 88.6% Victoria; illicit drugs (other than cannabis) 8.8% vs 12.7%, CI 9.7 – 15.7%. AUDIT alcohol problems (scored 8+) were identified for 41.2%, CI 38.8 – 43.6% of young adults in Victoria. The likelihood of young adult alcohol problems was higher for frequent adolescent alcohol users, and those exposed to environments characterised by high alcohol use and problems in young adulthood. Conclusions High rates of alcohol problems are evident in over two in five Australian young adults and these problems appear to be influenced both by earlier patterns of adolescent alcohol use and by young adult social work, and recreational environments. PMID:24321051

  8. Trust, negotiation, and communication: young adults’ experiences of primary care services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Young adulthood is an important transitional period during which there is a higher risk of individuals engaging in behaviours which could have a lasting impact on their health. Research has shown that young adults are the lowest responders to surveys about healthcare experiences and are also the least satisfied with the care they receive. However, the factors contributing to this reduced satisfaction are not clear. The focus of our research was to explore the needs and experiences of young adults around healthcare services with an aim of finding out possible reasons for lower satisfaction. Methods Twenty young adults were interviewed at GP surgeries and at a local young adult advice agency, exploring their experiences and use of primary care services. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Results The use of primary care services varied amongst the young adult interviewees. Many interviewees reported positive experiences; those who did not linked their negative experiences to difficulties in negotiating their care with the health care system, and reported issues with trust, and communication difficulties. Most of the interviewees were unaware of the use of patient surveys to inform healthcare planning and delivery and were not inclined to take part, mainly because of the length of surveys and lack of interest in the topic area. Conclusions In order to effectively address the health needs of young adults, young adults need to be educated about their rights as patients, and how to most efficiently use primary care services. GPs should be alert to effective means of approaching and handling the healthcare needs of young adults. A flexible, varied approach is needed to gathering high quality data from this group in order to provide services with information on the changes necessary for making primary care services more accessible for young adults. PMID:24373254

  9. Adult neurogenesis in the African giant rat (Cricetomysgambianus, waterhouse).

    PubMed

    Olude, Ayo Mathew; Olopade, James Olukayode; Ihunwo, Amadi Ogonda

    2014-09-01

    African giant rats (AGR) are large nocturnal rodents with well-developed olfactory abilities uniquely linked to cognition. The post natal proliferation of neurons (adult neurogenesis), is thought to play an important role in spatial memory and learning. Eighteen brains of the African giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse) belonging to three age groups (neonates n?=?6, juveniles n?=?6 and adults n?=?6) were examined by immunohistochemistry, using antibodies for proliferating cells (Ki-67), and immature neurons (Doublecortin, DCX). Mean brain weights were 0.40?±?0.00 g; 4.48?±?0.43 g and 5.48?±?0.56 g for neonate, juvenile and adult brains respectively. Our results show positive cell proliferation in the subventricular (SVZ) zone of the lateral ventricle and in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus but at low levels in adults compared to juveniles. Estimate of the mean total proliferative Ki-67 positive cells in the SVZ and DG in the neonates was 21145?±?8395, and 11800?±?1230; brains from juvenile AGRs, 45530?±?13950 and 12480?±?7860 and from adult brains, (6880?±?340 and 1130?±?150) respectively. Juvenile AGR in particular, stained positively in potential sites such as the piriform and somatosensory cortices, striatum and cerebellum. This intensity of the proliferating cells within the dentate gyrus in the juvenile and adult brains could be associated with a role in the cognitive functions of landmine detection and tuberculosis diagnosis after olfactory training of the African giant rat. The juvenile rats are proposed as the most suited for experimental research and olfactory training. PMID:24577632

  10. Comparative study of the blinking time between young adult and adult video display terminal users in indoor environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur Rubens; Cunha Schaefer; Fernando Cesar Abib; Newton Kara José

    Objective: Investigate the average blinking time in conversation and in Video Display Terminal use of young adults and adults in the pres- byopic age group. Methods: A transversal analytical study in a readily accessible sample consisting of Volkswagen do Brasil - Curitiba, Paraná employees was performed. The cohort group consisted of 108 subjects divided into two age groups: Group 1,

  11. Depression Treatment Non-adherence and its Psychosocial Predictors: Differences between Young and Older Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Stein-Shvachman, Ifat; Karpas, Dikla Segel; Werner, Perla

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a common disease among young and older adults. Although it can be treated, non-adherence is very common among individuals of different ages. The aim of the present paper is to review and summarize research findings regarding depression among young and older adults, with a special focus on the phenomenon of treatment non-adherence among young and older adults with depression. The first section of the review focuses on describing the characteristics of depression in young and older adults. The second section focuses on treatment non-adherence of young and older adults, the prevalence of this phenomenon, and its consequences. The third section focuses on several factors (illness beliefs, treatment beliefs, self-stigma, and self-esteem) that were identified as having a significant association with treatment non-adherence of individuals with depression, with special attention focused on age differences. Results of the review of the literature reveal that research in the area of depression treatment non-adherence and its predictors among young and older adults has received, to date, very minor and limited attention. Thus, there is a need to expand the current body of knowledge and promote future interventions geared towards the unique characteristics of depression among young and older adults, in order to increase their treatment adherence. PMID:24307966

  12. Sex and Experience Influence Behavioral Responses of Adult Rats to Potentiated and Nonpotentiated Ultrasonic Vocalizations of Pups

    PubMed Central

    Rohitsingh, Shelly-Ann; Smith, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Responsiveness of adult rodent caretakers to infant rodents is necessary for their survival and proper development. Both olfactory and auditory cues are known to influence adult behavior toward the young. In the present study, we found that adults respond differentially to a recording of potentiated vs. non-potentiated ultrasound vocalizations of a 12-day-old rat pup, either in the presence or absence of olfactory cues. The combination of olfactory and potentiated ultrasonic vocalization produced the greatest effect. Adult behavior was also affected by the adults’ sex and parental experience in an interaction. Parental experience of females made them more responsive to the type of ultrasonic vocalization; males were little affected. Female experience, of course, includes the hormonal changes due to pregnancy and lactational state. The results are consistent with a communicatory function for isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalization. PMID:21432845

  13. Labor market participation among young adults: an event history analysis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R J; Herring, C

    1989-09-01

    This study models culture of poverty explanations, earlier experiences that tend to restrict opportunities, demographic effects representing differential rates of participation by social groups, and health and marijuana use variables indicating the influence of individual life- style differences as predictors of the rate of labor market entry, promotion, and dismissal among subjects from early adolescence to young adulthood. The data are drawn from the 1st and 4th waves of a 4-wave panel of half the 1971 Houston, Texas, Independent School District 7th grade born in 1958. The findings indicate that those who believe most in the efficacy of alternatives to conventional social and economic institutions and those who expect to benefit least are most likely to have higher rates of participation. This higher rate of participation is significantly greater for earlier years and contradicts predictions of a culture of poverty theory. 1 opportunity-structure variable, poor grades, significantly increases the rate of entry into the labor market primarily because it represents the inability of individuals to pursue advanced education prior to labor market entry. Education reduces overall rates of labor market entry for a young adult cohort by delaying labor market entry. The strong relationship between drug use and unemployment may be due to motivation, impaired ability, probability of failure, or increased time to use drugs. The findings also indicate that females are more capable overall of performing their jobs and getting along with co-workers but are less likely to be promoted. Finally, those who have been sanctioned or disadvantaged within the institutions that define and enforce the norms of the economic opportunity structure are significantly more likely to enter the labor market earlier and continue to have higher rates of negative experiences, such as dismissal, within those institutions. PMID:12316383

  14. Conditioned taste avoidance induced by lactose ingestion in adult rats.

    PubMed

    DiBattista, D

    1990-02-01

    Because adult rats have very low levels of the intestinal enzyme lactase, the ingestion of appreciable quantities of the disaccharide lactose may cause gastrointestinal distress. The present experiment was designed to demonstrate that adult rats will learn to avoid previously neutral stimuli which have been paired with lactose ingestion. Adult rats ingested both a novel solution [either tap water (WA) or 0.1% saccharin (SA)] and a novel food substance (49% powdered lab chow + 50% added disaccharide + 1% saccharin) during a single conditioning session. The added disaccharide was either sucrose (group SU-SA), lactose (groups HL-SA and HL-WA), or equal amounts of these two disaccharides (group LL-SA); a fifth group (LC-SA) consumed a sucrose-containing diet to which lithium chloride was added (5 mg per 1 g of diet). Separate feeding tests and drinking tests, carried out over several weeks, were used to assess the extent of conditioned taste avoidance. In the four feeding tests, rats were allowed to ingest powdered lab chow with added saccharin (but without added disaccharide), while in the four drinking tests, rats chose between tap water and a 0.1% saccharin solution. Group HL-SA demonstrated a substantial conditioned avoidance in both feeding and drinking tests, but group HL-WA showed avoidance only in feeding tests. Conditioned avoidance was weak in group LL-SA; the strongest avoidance was observed in lithium chloride-treated rats (group LC-SA). Results are related to previous research and to the hypothesis that a learned avoidance of milk may facilitate the weaning process in mammals. PMID:2333339

  15. Determinants of Aortic Root Dilatation and Reference Values Among Young Adults Over a 20-Year Period: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    PubMed

    Teixido-Tura, Gisela; Almeida, Andre L C; Choi, Eui-Young; Gjesdal, Ola; Jacobs, David R; Dietz, Harry C; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen; Lewis, Cora E; Garcia-Dorado, David; Evangelista, Artur; Gidding, Samuel; Lima, João A C

    2015-07-01

    Aortic size increases with age, but factors related to such dilatation in healthy young adult population have not been studied. We aim to evaluate changes in aortic dimensions and its principal correlates among young adults over a 20-year time period. Reference values for aortic dimensions in young adults by echocardiography are also provided. Healthy Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study participants aged 23 to 35 years in 1990-1991 (n=3051) were included after excluding 18 individuals with significant valvular dysfunction. Aortic root diameter (ARD) by M-mode echocardiography at year-5 (43.7% men; age, 30.2±3.6 years) and year-25 CARDIA exams was obtained. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to assess associations of ARD with clinical data at years-5 and -25. ARD from year-5 was used to establish reference values of ARD in healthy young adults. ARD at year-25 was greater in men (33.3±3.7 versus 28.7±3.4 mm; P<0.001) and in whites (30.9±4.3 versus 30.5±4.1 mm; P=0.006). On multivariable analysis, ARD at year-25 was positively correlated with male sex, white ethnicity, age, height, weight, 20-year gain in weight, active smoking at baseline, and 20-year increase in diastolic, systolic, and mean arterial pressure. A figure showing the estimated 95th percentile of ARD by age and body surface area stratified by race and sex is provided. This study demonstrates that smoking, blood pressure, and increase in body weight are the main modifiable correlates of aortic root dilation during young adulthood. Our study also provides reference values for ARD in young adults. PMID:25941347

  16. Gender differences in pornography consumption among young heterosexual Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Hald, Gert Martin

    2006-10-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to investigate gender differences in pornography consumption among Danish adults aged 18-30 and (2) to examine gender differences in situational, interpersonal, and behavioral characteristics of pornography consumption. A national survey study was conducted using a representative sample of 688 young heterosexual Danish adult men and women. The study found large gender differences in prevalence rates of pornography consumption and consumption patterns. Compared to women, men were exposed to pornography at a younger age, consumed more pornography as measured by time and frequency, and used pornography more often during sexual activity on their own. Gender differences in the interpersonal context of use were also evident, with women using pornography more often with a regular sexual partner than men. In turn, men were found to use pornography more often on their own or with friends (non-sexual partners) than women. For both men and women, the usual place of use was home and no significant gender difference was found in this regard. Men and women were found to vary in their preferences in pornographic materials, with men both preferring a wider range of hardcore pornography and less softcore pornography than women. Gender differences in sexual behavioral factors were limited to masturbation patterns with men masturbating more than women. Male gender, higher frequency of masturbation, lower age at first exposure, and younger age were found to account for 48.8% of the total variance of pornography consumption. The results were discussed in relation to the sociocultural environment and evolutionary theory. It is argued that gender differences in social acceptability, adherence to gender stereotypes, traditions of gender sexuality, gender norms, and mating strategies are key factors in understanding gender differences in pornography consumption. PMID:17039402

  17. Dependence on Emergency Care among Young Adults in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Fortuna; Brett W. Robbins; Nandini Mani; Jill S. Halterman

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND  Young adults have a high prevalence of many preventable diseases and frequently lack a usual source of ambulatory care, yet\\u000a little is known about their use of the emergency department.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE  To characterize care provided to young adults in the emergency department.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS  Cross-sectional analysis of visits from young adults age 20 to 29 presenting to emergency departments (N?=?17,048)

  18. DOPAMINE RECEPTOR INACTIVATION IN THE CAUDATE-PUTAMEN DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTS THE BEHAVIOR OF PREWEANLING AND ADULT RATS

    PubMed Central

    DER-GHAZARIAN, T.; GUTIERREZ, A.; VARELA, F. A.; HERBERT, M. S.; AMODEO, L. R.; CHARNTIKOV, S.; CRAWFORD, C. A.; MCDOUGALL, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    The irreversible receptor antagonist N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) has been used to study the ontogeny of dopamine (DA) receptor functioning in the young and adult rat. Most notably, systemic administration of EEDQ blocks the DA agonist-induced behaviors of adult rats, while leaving the behavior of preweanling rats unaffected. The purpose of the present study was to: (a) determine whether the age-dependent actions of EEDQ involve receptors located in the dorsal caudate-putamen (CPu) and (b) confirm that EEDQ's behavioral effects result from the inactivation of DA receptors rather than some other receptor type. In Experiment 1, EEDQ or DMSO were bilaterally infused into the CPu on PD 17 or PD 84. After 24 h, rats were given bilateral microinjections of the full DA agonist R(–)-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) or vehicle into the dorsal CPu and behavior was assessed for 40 min. In Experiment 2, preweanling rats were treated as just described, except that DA receptors were protected from EEDQ-induced alkylation by administering systemic injections of D1 (SCH23390) and D2 (sulpiride) receptor antagonists. As predicted, microinjecting EEDQ into the dorsal CPu attenuated the NPA-induced locomotor activity and stereotypy of adult rats. In contrast, rats given bilateral EEDQ infusions on PD 17 exhibited a potentiated locomotor response when treated with NPA. Experiment 2 showed that DA receptor inactivation was responsible for NPA's actions. A likely explanation for these results is that EEDQ inactivates a sizable percentage of DA receptors on PD 17, but leaves the remaining receptors in a supersensitive state. This receptor supersensitivity, which probably involves alterations in G protein coupling, could account for NPA-induced locomotor potentiation. Either adult rats do not show a similar EEDQ-induced change in receptor dynamics or DA receptor inactivation was more complete in older animals and effectively eliminated the expression of DA agonist-induced behaviors. PMID:23000622

  19. Young Adult Identities and Their Pathways: A Developmental and Life Course Model

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Janel E.; Elder, Glen H.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental and life course studies of young adult identities have focused on two dimensions, subjective age and psychosocial maturity. This study examines the developmental synchrony of these two processes. In a longitudinal sample of young adults from Add Health (18 to 22), a person-centered analysis of indicators of these dimensions identified four identity profiles. Two depict early and late patterns of identity; the others represent contrasting types of discordance, “pseudo-adult”, subjective age more advanced than maturation level and “anticipatory”, with subjective age less advanced than maturational level. The profiles vary by gender, socioeconomic status, and race-ethnicity as well as by adolescent (ages12–16) pubertal maturation, psychosocial adjustment, and family context. These results provide support for a more holistic, interdisciplinary understanding of adult identity, and show that young adult identities in the Add Health sample follow differentiated paths into the adult years, with largely unknown consequences for the subsequent life course. PMID:21668096

  20. ADULT ATTACHMENT, PERSONALITY TRAITS, AND BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER FEATURES IN YOUNG ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Lori N.; Levy, Kenneth N.; Pincus, Aaron L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that insecure attachment patterns and a trait disposition toward negative affect and impulsivity are both associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD) features. According to attachment theory, insecure attachment patterns impart greater risk for the maladaptive personality traits underlying BPD. Hence, insecure attachment might be indirectly related to BPD through its association with these traits. The current cross-sectional study used structural equation modeling to compare two competing models of the relationship between adult attachment patterns, trait negative affect and impulsivity, and BPD features in a large nonclinical sample of young adults: (M1) attachment anxiety and avoidance are positively related to trait negative affect and impulsivity, which in turn, are directly associated with BPD features; and (M2) trait negative affect and impulsivity are positively related to attachment anxiety and avoidance, which in turn, are directly associated with BPD features. Consistent with attachment theory, M1 provided a better fit to the data than M2. However, only attachment anxiety, and not attachment avoidance, was significantly associated with negative affect and impulsivity. The results favored a model in which the relationship between adult attachment anxiety and BPD features is fully mediated by trait negative affect and impulsivity. PMID:19538081

  1. Bacteriology of severe periodontitis in young adult humans.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, W E; Holdeman, L V; Smibert, R M; Hash, D E; Burmeister, J A; Ranney, R R

    1982-01-01

    A total of 78 bacteriological samples were taken from the supragingival tooth surface after superficial cleaning with toothpicks or from the periodontal sulci of 42 affected sites in 21 adolescents or young adults with severe generalized periodontitis. Of 190 bacterial species, subspecies, or serotypes detected among 2,723 isolates, 11 species exceeded 1% of the subgingival flora and were most closely associated with the diseased sulci. Eleven others were also sufficiently frequent to be suspect agents of tissue destruction. Many of these species are known pathogens of other body sites. In addition, 10 species of Treponema were isolated. One of these and the "large treponeme" were also more closely associated with severe periodontitis than they were with healthy sites or gingivitis. There were highly significant differences between the composition of the flora of the affected sulci and the flora of (i) the adjacent supragingival tooth surface, (ii) the gingival crevice of periodontally healthy people, and (iii) sites with a gingival index score of 0 or 2 in experimental gingivitis studies. The floras of different individuals were also significantly different. There was no statistically detectable effect of sampling per se upon the composition of the flora of subsequent samples from the same sites. The composition of the supragingival flora of the patients with severe generalized periodontitis that had serum antibody to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was significantly different from the supragingival flora of patients without this serum antibody. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the composition of their subgingival floras. PMID:7152665

  2. Schizotypal traits and neurocognitive functioning among nonclinical young adults.

    PubMed

    Daly, Maureen P; Afroz, Sonia; Walder, Deborah J

    2012-12-30

    Neurocognitive deficits and their relationship with symptoms have been documented in schizophrenia and at-risk samples. Limited research has examined relationships of schizotypal traits with cognitive functioning among nonclinical samples. To expand this literature and elucidate a dimensional model of psychosis-proneness, we examined the relationship of schizotypal traits with estimated intellectual functioning, simple and complex attention/working memory, verbal fluency and visuospatial abilities in a nonclinical sample of 63 young adults. As hypothesized, aspects of neurocognition were more closely associated with negative (than positive or disorganized) schizotypal traits. For the total sample, poorer visuospatial performance was associated with more negative and overall schizotypal traits. The magnitude of the majority of findings was strengthened after controlling for depression and anxiety. No other findings were significant. Results partially support Meehl's (1962, 1990) view that processes underlying schizophrenia are expressed along a continuum. Findings suggest a relationship of schizotypal traits with neurocognition that is differentiated by trait dimensions, beyond the contribution of general psychiatric symptoms. Findings have implications for better understanding etiology and potential risk factors for psychosis. While sex distribution did not enable direct examination of sex effects, evidence in the field argues for continued exploration of differential patterns by sex. PMID:22770765

  3. Food safety knowledge and practices of young adults.

    PubMed

    Green, Eric J; Knechtges, Paul L

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study described in this article was to ascertain the food safety knowledge and practices of undergraduate students attending a major American university. The study participants were undergraduate college students (mean age 18.9 +/- 1.14 SD) enrolled in a required health course. The students were invited to take a validated food safety knowledge questionnaire as part of a health risk behavior online survey. The 786 respondents indicated their food is most often prepared at on-campus dining facilities and the majority of the students (72%) felt they were "unlikely or "very unlikely" at risk of foodborne disease. The mean food safety knowledge score of the participants was 10.23 (43%) +/- 4.13 SD (25%-60%), indicating the study population overall has poor knowledge of safe food practices. As a result, food safety educational initiatives and awareness campaigns should be developed to better inform young adults about safe food handling practices and habits. PMID:26058218

  4. Stereo-anomalous vision in a sample of young adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelmach, Lew B.; Tam, Wa James

    1996-04-01

    We estimated the proportion of people that have defective stereo vision and are unable to utilize stereo disparity information to perceive depth. Previous estimates have ranged anywhere from as high as 30% to as low as 6%. Our goal was to understand the basis for the wide range in these estimates. To do this, we administered two psychophysical tests to a sample of 100 young adults. Visual stimuli consisted of dynamic random-dot stereograms presented using a fast-decay, time-sequential display device. The stimuli covered a range of disparities between 0 and .38 degrees (both crossed and uncrossed). A forced-choice methodology was used to estimate whether subjects could perceive depth based on horizontal disparity. It was found that display duration was a key variable determining the number of viewers that were classified as stereo-anomalous. The relatively high incidence of stereo- anomalous viewers in previous research was explained by the short display durations (80 ms) used in those studies. With longer durations of about 1 sec, we found that only about 5% of viewers had defective stereo vision.

  5. Management of femoral neck fractures in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Thuan V; Swiontkowski, Marc F

    2008-01-01

    Femoral neck fractures in young adults are uncommon and often the result of high-energy trauma. They are associated with higher incidences of femoral head osteonecrosis and nonunion. Multiple factors can play a significant role in preventing these devastating complications and contribute to a good outcome. While achieving an anatomic reduction and stable internal fixation are imperative, other treatment variables, such as time to surgery, the role of capsulotomy and the fixation methods remain debatable. Open reduction and internal fixation through a Watson-Jones exposure is the recommended approach. Definitive fixation can be accomplished with three cannulated or noncannulated cancellous screws. Capsulotomy in femoral neck fractures remains a controversial issue and the practice varies by trauma program, region and country. Until there is conclusive data (i.e. prospective and controlled) we recommend performing a capsulotomy. The data available is inconclusive on whether this fracture should be operated emergently, urgently or can wait until the next day. Until there is conclusive data available, we recommend that surgery should be done on an urgent basis. The key factors in treating femoral neck fractures should include early diagnosis, early surgery, anatomic reduction, capsular decompression and stable internal fixation. PMID:19823648

  6. Influence of Forest Therapy on Cardiovascular Relaxation in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Norimasa; Park, Bum-Jin; Li, Qing; Song, Chorong; Komatsu, Misako; Ikei, Harumi; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Kagawa, Takahide

    2014-01-01

    Background. Despite increasing attention toward forest therapy as an alternative medicine, very little evidence continues to be available on its therapeutic effects. Therefore, this study was focused on elucidating the health benefits of forest walking on cardiovascular reactivity. Methods. Within-group comparisons were used to examine the cardiovascular responses to walking in forest and urban environments. Forty-eight young adult males participated in the two-day field research. Changes in heart rate variability, heart rate, and blood pressure were measured to understand cardiovascular reactivity. Four different questionnaires were used to investigate the changes in psychological states after walking activities. Results. Forest walking significantly increased the values of ln(HF) and significantly decreased the values of ln(LF/HF) compared with the urban walking. Heart rate during forest walking was significantly lower than that in the control. Questionnaire results showed that negative mood states and anxiety levels decreased significantly by forest walking compared with urban walking. Conclusion. Walking in the forest environment may promote cardiovascular relaxation by facilitating the parasympathetic nervous system and by suppressing the sympathetic nervous system. In addition, forest therapy may be effective for reducing negative psychological symptoms. PMID:24660018

  7. Health-Related Stigma as a Determinant of Functioning in Young Adults with Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kapella, Mary C.; Berger, Barbara E.; Vern, Boris A.; Vispute, Sachin; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression) and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 18–35) with narcolepsy (N = 122) and without narcolepsy (N = 93) were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Fife Stigma Scale (FSS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (p<0.01). Health-related stigma was directly and indirectly associated with lower functioning through depressed mood. Fifty-two percent of the variance in functioning was explained by the final model in the young adults with narcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy. PMID:25898361

  8. Health-related stigma as a determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Kapella, Mary C; Berger, Barbara E; Vern, Boris A; Vispute, Sachin; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression) and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 18-35) with narcolepsy (N = 122) and without narcolepsy (N = 93) were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Fife Stigma Scale (FSS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (p<0.01). Health-related stigma was directly and indirectly associated with lower functioning through depressed mood. Fifty-two percent of the variance in functioning was explained by the final model in the young adults with narcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy. PMID:25898361

  9. Perceptions of controllability and other stressor event characteristics as determinants of coping among young adolescents and young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy C. Gamble

    1994-01-01

    Young adolescents (N=146, mean age=11.35, 54% female, 81% Anglo) and young adults (N=166, mean age=20.73, 68% female, 82% Anglo) completed questionnaires assessing appraisals of and efforts to cope with three common stressful events, conflicts with mother, a friend, and a failure. For each event, participants rated appraisals of event controllability, including control over event outcomes, event predictability, and perceptions of

  10. Determining the Needs, Priorities, and Desired Rehabilitation Outcomes of Young Adults Who Have Had a Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Maggie; Kinn, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Background. Guidelines state that young adults' (aged 18–55 years) rehabilitation needs and priorities following stroke are different from older adults'. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding young adults' perspectives of their needs and priorities. Aim. To gain an understanding of young adults' experience of stroke and associated rehabilitation needs, priorities, and desired outcomes. Methods. A qualitative approach was adopted, based on the phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty. Longitudinal data were gathered using unstructured interviews and analysed using phenomenological reduction. Results. Ten young adults took part in up to four interviews over two years. An overarching theme, Embodied Disorientation, and three subthemes: Mortal Body, Situated Body, and Embodied Perception of Difference, described the young adults' experience. A subsequent iterative process enabled tabulation of patient-centred rehabilitation needs, priorities, and outcomes. Conclusion. Rehabilitation professionals can use the evidence-based outcomes table to work with young adults to develop meaningful patient-centred goals and select appropriate interventions which align with identified needs and outcomes throughout the stroke recovery trajectory. PMID:22852087

  11. Microrna profiling analysis of differences between the melanoma of young adults and older adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study represents the first attempt to perform a profiling analysis of the intergenerational differences in the microRNAs (miRNAs) of primary cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms in young adult and older age groups. The data emphasize the importance of these master regulators in the transcriptional machinery of melanocytic neoplasms and suggest that differential levels of expressions of these miRs may contribute to differences in phenotypic and pathologic presentation of melanocytic neoplasms at different ages. Methods An exploratory miRNA analysis of 666 miRs by low density microRNA arrays was conducted on formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissues (FFPE) from 10 older adults and 10 young adults including conventional melanoma and melanocytic neoplasms of uncertain biological significance. Age-matched benign melanocytic nevi were used as controls. Results Primary melanoma in patients greater than 60 years old was characterized by the increased expression of miRs regulating TLR-MyD88-NF-kappaB pathway (hsa-miR-199a), RAS/RAB22A pathway (hsa-miR-204); growth differentiation and migration (hsa-miR337), epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) (let-7b, hsa-miR-10b/10b*), invasion and metastasis (hsa-miR-10b/10b*), hsa-miR-30a/e*, hsa-miR-29c*; cellular matrix components (hsa-miR-29c*); invasion-cytokinesis (hsa-miR-99b*) compared to melanoma of younger patients. MiR-211 was dramatically downregulated compared to nevi controls, decreased with increasing age and was among the miRs linked to metastatic processes. Melanoma in young adult patients had increased expression of hsa-miR-449a and decreased expression of hsa-miR-146b, hsa-miR-214*. MiR-30a* in clinical stages I-II adult and pediatric melanoma could predict classification of melanoma tissue in the two extremes of age groups. Although the number of cases is small, positive lymph node status in the two age groups was characterized by the statistically significant expression of hsa-miR-30a* and hsa-miR-204 (F-test, p-value < 0.001). Conclusions Our findings, although preliminary, support the notion that the differential biology of melanoma at the extremes of age is driven, in part, by deregulation of microRNA expression and by fine tuning of miRs that are already known to regulate cell cycle, inflammation, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)/stroma and more specifically genes known to be altered in melanoma. Our analysis reveals that miR expression differences create unique patterns of frequently affected biological processes that clearly distinguish old age from young age melanomas. This is a novel characterization of the miRnomes of melanocytic neoplasms at two extremes of age and identifies potential diagnostic and clinico-pathologic biomarkers that may serve as novel miR-based targeted modalities in melanoma diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20302635

  12. Homeostatic regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in aging rats: long-term effects of early exercise

    PubMed Central

    Merkley, Christina M.; Jian, Charles; Mosa, Adam; Tan, Yao-Fang; Wojtowicz, J. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is highly responsive to environmental and physiological factors. The majority of studies to date have examined short-term consequences of enhancing or blocking neurogenesis but long-term changes remain less well understood. Current evidence for age-related declines in neurogenesis warrant further investigation into these long-term changes. In this report we address the hypothesis that early life experience, such as a period of voluntary running in juvenile rats, can alter properties of adult neurogenesis for the remainder of the animal's life. The results indicate that the number of proliferating and differentiating neuronal precursors is not altered in runners beyond the initial weeks post-running, suggesting homeostatic regulation of these processes. However, the rate of neuronal maturation and survival during a 4 week period after cell division was enhanced up to 11 months of age (the end of the study period). This study is the first to show that a transient period of physical activity at a young age promotes changes in neurogenesis that persist over the long-term, which is important for our understanding of the modulation of neurogenesis by exercise with age. Functional integration of adult-born neurons within the hippocampus that resist homeostatic regulation with aging, rather than the absolute number of adult-born neurons, may be an essential feature of adult neurogenesis that promotes the maintenance of neural plasticity in old age. PMID:25071426

  13. Care Seeking for Pain in Young Adults with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jenerette, Coretta M.; Brewer, Cheryl A.; Ataga, Kenneth I.

    2013-01-01

    In individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD), recognizing the cues to an acute pain episode and responding appropriately are important. The purpose of this mixed-methods pilot study is to identify preliminary factors that influence care seeking for pain in young adults with SCD. Responses were received from 69 young adults with SCD, age 18-35 years. The majority of respondents (88%) wait until the pain intensity is an average of 8.7 (± 1.2) on a scale of 1 to 10 before seeking care. Prominent themes influencing care seeking for pain include: trying to treat pain at home, avoiding the emergency department because of past treatment experiences, the desire to avoid admission to the hospital, and the importance of time in the lives of the young adults with SCD. Young adults with SCD need additional support from family and healthcare providers in order to make timely, appropriate decisions regarding care seeking. PMID:23343879

  14. Literacy through Literature: A Reading Club with Imprisoned Youth and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budweg, Peter; Schins, Marie-Therese

    1991-01-01

    A prison reading club can provide motivation to learn to read and write, reinforce conventional learning, and support individual development. The literate environment created is a tool for resocialization of incarcerated youth and young adults. (SK)

  15. Intergenerational transmission of gambling: links between young adult and perceived grandparent gambling attitudes and behavior.

    PubMed

    Lang, Andrea M; Randall, Brandy A

    2013-09-01

    This study examined associations between the gambling attitudes and behavior of 213 young adults and their perceptions of the gambling attitudes and behavior of their closest grandparent. Regression analyses showed that young adult gambling attitudes mediated the relations between perceived grandparent gambling attitudes and behavior and young adult gambling behavior. Grandparent-grandchild relationship quality experienced while growing up did not moderate the relations between young adult and perceived grandparent gambling attitudes and behavior. Men experienced gambling at a younger age and reported more positive gambling attitudes, more frequent gambling activity, higher levels of gambling pathology, and higher levels of gambling affinity than women. Implications of results and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:22628170

  16. Sexual Health of Adolescents and Young Adults in the United States

    MedlinePLUS

    ... via digital communication such as the internet or text messaging. 9 Twice as many young adults identify ... US, 2013. MMWR , 63(-4). 2014. ? Return to text Ibid. ? Return to text Ibid. ? Return to text ...

  17. Influence of Culture on Premarital Sexual Permissiveness among Nigerian and Black American Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oladunjoye, Femi

    1979-01-01

    This study examined the differences in premarital sexual permissiveness among two Black young adult populations with different cultural backgrounds, one in Nigeria and the other in the United States. (Author/JD)

  18. Queering young adult literature: examining sexual minorities in contemporary realistic fiction 

    E-print Network

    Wickens, Corrine Marie

    2009-05-15

    Fiction that incorporates gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, or questioning of heterosexuality itself (GLBTQ) themes and characters has been noted among the most widely censored novels for young adults (ALA, 2007; Finnessy, ...

  19. Assumptions and Strategies for Conducting Research with Learning Disabled Adolescents and Young Adults

    E-print Network

    Meyen, Edward L.; Schiefelbusch, Richard L.; Deshler, Donald D.; Alley, Gordon R.; Moran, Mary Ross; Clark, Frances L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper details the assumptions about learning disabled adolescents and young adults as well as assumptions about conducting research with this population held by researchers at the Kansas Institute. Strategies developed ...

  20. The effect of bovine whey protein on ectopic bone formation in young growing rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Owen Kelly; Siobhan Cusack; Kevin D. Cashman

    2003-01-01

    The beneficial effect of bovine whey protein (WP) on bone metabolism has been shown in adult human subjects and ovariectomised rats. However, its effect on bone formation in earlier life, particularly during periods of bone mineral accrual, has not been investigated. Twenty-one male rats (4 weeks old, Wistar strain) were randomised by weight into three groups of seven rats each

  1. Chronic exposure of adult rats to low doses of methylmercury induced a state of metabolic deficit in the somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hang-Kin; Wong, Ming-Hung; Chan, Hing-Man; Lo, Samuel Chun-Lap

    2013-11-01

    Because of the ever-increasing bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) in the marine food chain, human consumers are exposed to low doses of MeHg continually through seafood consumption. Epidemiological studies strongly suggest that chronic prenatal exposure to nanomolar of MeHg has immense negative impacts on neurological development in neonates. However, effects of chronic exposure to low doses (CELDs) of MeHg in adult brains on a molecular level are unknown. The current study aims to investigate the molecular effects of CELD of MeHg on adult somatosensory cortex in a rat model using proteomic techniques. Young adult rats were fed with a low dose of MeHg (40 ?g/kg body weight/day) for a maximum of 12 weeks. Whole proteome expression of the somatosensory cortex (S1 area) of normal rats and those with CELD to MeHg were compared. Levels of MeHg, total calcium, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and pyruvate were also measured. Comparative proteomic studies of the somatosensory cortexes revealed that 94 proteins involved in the various metabolic processes (including carbohydrate metabolism, generation of precursors for essential metabolites, energy, proteins, cellular components for morphogenesis, and neurotransmission) were down-regulated. Consequently, levels of important end products of active metabolism including ATP, pyruvate, and total calcium were also found to be significantly reduced concomitantly. Our results showed that CELD of MeHg induced a state of metabolic deficit in the somatosensory cortex of adult rats. PMID:23984759

  2. Psychiatric treatment seeking and psychosocial impairment among young adults with depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terhi Aalto-Setälä; Mauri Marttunen; Annamari Tuulio-Henriksson; Kari Poikolainen; Jouko Lönnqvist

    2002-01-01

    Background: We report data on 1-year prevalence and comorbidity of depression, related impairment, treatment need, and psychiatric treatment among young adults. Methods: A sample of young urban adults (n=245) mean age 21.8 years was screened from a baseline population of 706 high-school students and given a semistructured clinical interview to evaluate 12-month prevalence of depression, psychosocial functioning according to DSM-IV

  3. Gender differences in foot shape: a study of Chinese young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youlian Hong; Lin Wang; Dong Qing Xu; Jing Xian Li

    2011-01-01

    One important extrinsic factor that causes foot deformity and pain in women is footwear. Women's sports shoes are designed as smaller versions of men's shoes. Based on this, the current study aims to identify foot shape in 1,236 Chinese young adult men and 1,085 Chinese young adult women. Three-dimensional foot shape data were collected through video filming. Nineteen foot shape

  4. Young Adults' Health Care Utilization and Expenditures Prior to the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Josephine S.; Adams, Sally H.; Boscardin, W. John; Irwin, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Examine young adults' health care utilization and expenditures prior to the ACA. Methods We used 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) to 1) compare young adults' health care utilization and expenditures of a full-spectrum of health services to children and adolescents and 2) identify disparities in young adults' utilization and expenditures, based on access (insurance and usual source of care) and other socio-demographic factors, including race/ethnicity and income. Results Young adults had: 1) significantly lower rates of overall utilization (72%) than other age groups (83-88%, P<.001) and 2), the lowest rate of office-based utilization (55% vs. 67-77%, P<.001) and higher rate of ER visits compared to adolescents (15% v. 12%, P<.01). Uninsured young adults had high out-of-pocket expenses. Compared to the young adults with private insurance, the uninsured spent less than half on health care ($1,040 vs. $2,150/ person, P<.001), but essentially the same out-of-pocket expenses ($403 vs. $380/person, p =.57). Among young adults, we identified significant disparities in utilization and expenditures based on the presence/absence of a usual source of care, race/ethnicity, home language and sex. Conclusions Young adults may not be utilizing the health care system optimally by having low rates of office-based visits and high rates of ER visits. The ACA provision of insurance for those previously uninsured or under-insured will likely increase their utilization and expenditures and lower their out-of-pocket expenses. Further effort is needed to address non-insurance barriers and ensure equal access to health services. PMID:24702839

  5. How Have State Policies to Expand Dependent Coverage Affected the Health Insurance Status of Young Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Monheit, Alan C; Cantor, Joel C; DeLia, Derek; Belloff, Dina

    2011-01-01

    Research Objective Nearly one in three adults of ages 19–29 lack health insurance, representing the highest uninsured rate of any age group. To help address this gap, 38 states have enacted laws requiring insurers to permit young adults to enroll as dependents on their parents' plans. This paper evaluates their impact on coverage for young adults. Study Design/Methods/Data This study uses data for individuals ages 19–29 from the Current Population Survey's Annual Demographic Supplement for calendar years 2000–2008. Linear probability models are used to obtain difference-in-differences estimates of the impact of dependent coverage expansions in 19 early-adopting states on young adults' insurance status. The models also address possible policy endogeneity due to the nonrandom enactment of expansion policies across states. Principal Findings State young adult dependent coverage policies yielded small increases in dependent coverage ranging from 1.52 percentage points for all young adults to 3.84 percentage points for those ages 19–25 residing with parents. These increases were largely offset by declines in employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) in the young adults' own name. No significant impact on young adult uninsured rates was observed. Conclusions and Implications Adult dependent coverage expansions have had a relatively small impact on enrollment as an ESI dependent and appear to have the unintended consequence of reducing ESI policyholder coverage. This policy did not achieve a reduction in uninsured rates as policy makers had intended. Federal reform efforts to expand dependent coverage are likely to be more successful because reform will be accompanied by subsidies and enrollment mandates. PMID:21054376

  6. PMSG responsiveness during adult life after partial oogonia destruction with misulban in the rat embryo

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PMSG responsiveness during adult life after partial oogonia destruction with misulban in the rat. Summary. Pregnant rats were given one of the following doses of misulban on day 155 of pregnancy : 0.25, 0) The number of cyclic rats decreased according to the dose of misulban given to the mothers ; 2) Cyclic rats

  7. Use of the Carolina HPV Immunization Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (CHIAS) in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, Amanda F.; Fuhrel-Forbis, Andrea; Konrath, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background Validated measures that can accurate describe young adults’ HPV vaccination attitudes and how these relate to vaccination intention and receipt are needed for developing interventions to improve low HPV vaccination levels. The Carolina HPV Immunization Attitudes Scale (CHIAS) is a validated measure of these outcomes that was originally designed for parents. Objective To assess the performance of the CHIAS among young adult women using an exploratory factor analysis. Methods A convenience sample of 139 young adult women (age 18–26 years) were given the CHIAS measure at baseline. Factor analysis was used to determine attitudinal factor groupings and the association of these factors with HPV vaccination intention. A 6-month follow up assessment examined the stability of the CHIAS over time and the association of baseline vaccine factors with vaccine receipt. Results Five factors loaded on to the CHIAS in young adults - “Barriers,” “Harms,” “Effectiveness,” “Risk Denial” and “Uncertainty,” - which was similar to the factor loadings of CHIAS for parents. “Harms” was the factor most consistently associated with vaccination intention at all time points assessed. Only 5 women had received or made an appointment to receive the vaccine at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusions In terms of categorizing HPV vaccination attitudes, the CHIAS appears to have similar performance among young adults as in parents. However, additional studies are needed to assess the utility of the CHIAS for predicting HPV vaccine receipt among the young adult population. PMID:24945630

  8. Motor unit firing behavior during prolonged 50% MVC dorsiflexion contractions in young and older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Christie; Gary Kamen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in motor unit firing behavior during prolonged contractions in young and older adults. Motor unit activity was recorded from the tibialis anterior of 16 subjects (8 young and 8 older), while they performed isometric dorsiflexion at 50% MVC until task failure. Mean motor unit firing rate, the standard deviation (SD), and

  9. Personal and situational influences on drink driving and sober driving among a cohort of young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Morrison; J Langley

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine personal and situational influences on drink-drive and sober-drive incidents among young adults. This study was part of a multidisciplinary, longitudinal study of the health and development of a birth cohort of young New Zealanders. Traffic safety has been included in this study, and when the cohort was aged 26 years, 969 (95%)

  10. A Review of the Acute Cardiovascular Responses to Resistance Exercise of Healthy Young and Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JERRY J. MAYO; LEN KRAVITZ

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarize the acute car- diovascular responses of healthy young and older adults to resistance exercise and to review studies that have compared healthy younger and older populations. Intensity, duration, and active muscle mass are known to play important roles in the degree of pressor response elicited during resistance exercise in both young and

  11. Orthodox Ashkenazi Young Adults’ Knowledge, Experiences, Attitudes, and Beliefs About Genetic Carrier Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea L. Kalfoglou; Melissa Broder

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Orthodox Ashkenazi Jewish community promotes carrier testing of young adults prior to dating in order to prevent the birth of children affected with genetic diseases. It is unclear how much this young consumer group understands about carrier testing and the testing options available to them, particularly around the inclusion or exclusion of Gaucher disease carrier screening on testing

  12. Functional Changes in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakovsky, Gina; Huth, Myra Martz; Lin, Li; Levin, Ron S.

    2007-01-01

    Children with multiple handicaps, including cerebral palsy (CP), often lose or regress in their functional ability through adolescence and young adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine functional and psychosocial changes in children, adolescents, and young adults with CP. A retrospective chart review and a prospective telephone…

  13. A Feminist Analysis of the Voices for Advocacy in Young Adult Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannigan, Jane Anne

    1996-01-01

    This article is a study of six women and their contributions to young adult services in public libraries: Mabel Williams, Margaret Scoggin, Jean Carolyn Roos, Margaret A. Edwards, Dorothy M. Broderick, and Mary K. Chelton. The feminist perspective employed focuses on the voices of these women as advocates for young people. Contains 63 references.…

  14. Quality of Life of Adolescents and Young Adults Born at High Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahan-Oliel, Noemi; Majnemer, Annette; Mazer, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research on quality of life (QoL) of adolescents and young adults born preterm and those with congenital heart disease (CHD) was systematically reviewed, and factors associated with QoL were identified. Forty-five studies met the inclusion criteria for review. Although the majority of studies found that self-reported QoL of adolescents and young…

  15. Physical Appearance and Control Beliefs in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carrie Andreoletti; Leslie A. Zebrowitz; Margie E. Lachman

    2001-01-01

    The authors investigated whether general and domain-specific control beliefs were related to stigmatizing physical appearance qualities in young, middle-aged, and older adults. Being babyfaced, unattractive, or short was associated with dimin- ished control beliefs in young and middle adulthood, whereas being overweight was not. Those who were less attractive, more babyfaced, shorter, or heavier sometimes perceived more rather than less

  16. Young Adult Literature and the Common Core: A Surprisingly Good Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostenson, Jonathan; Wadham, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Advocates have long argued that an increased role for young adult literature in the classroom would help students' reading development. At first glance, the widely adopted Common Core State Standards might seem in opposition to an increased role for such literature. A closer examination of the common core documents suggests, however, that young…

  17. A Reason, a Season, or a Lifetime: "Relational Permanence among Young Adults with Foster Care Backgrounds"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Gina Miranda

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenon called "aging out" includes approximately 20,000 young people who enter adulthood directly from foster care each year (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2005). The number of youth and young adults who aged out of care in the U.S. in 2005, the year for which the most current statistics are available, increased 48 percent…

  18. Financial Success for Young Adults and Recent Graduates: Managing Money, Credit, and Your Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrowood, Janet C.

    2006-01-01

    There are numerous financial planning and money management handbooks, but few focus on the needs of young adults between 16 and 25 years of age. Colleges and some high schools are increasingly offering courses covering money management, but the materials are more "economics-focused" than "real-world" focused. Young people are huge consumers who…

  19. Evaluation of the repeated-dose liver and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus assays with 22 chemicals using young adult rats: Summary of the collaborative study by the Collaborative Study Group for the Micronucleus Test (CSGMT)/The Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society (JEMS) - Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group (MMS).

    PubMed

    Hamada, Shuichi; Ohyama, Wakako; Takashima, Rie; Shimada, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Kazumi; Kawakami, Satoru; Uno, Fuyumi; Sui, Hajime; Shimada, Yasushi; Imamura, Tadashi; Matsumura, Shoji; Sanada, Hisakazu; Inoue, Kenji; Muto, Shigeharu; Ogawa, Izumi; Hayashi, Aya; Takayanagi, Tomomi; Ogiwara, Yosuke; Maeda, Akihisa; Okada, Emiko; Terashima, Yukari; Takasawa, Hironao; Narumi, Kazunori; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Sano, Masaki; Ohashi, Nobuyuki; Morita, Takeshi; Kojima, Hajime; Honma, Masamitsu; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    The repeated-dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats has the potential to detect hepatocarcinogens. We conducted a collaborative study to assess the performance of this assay and to evaluate the possibility of integrating it into general toxicological studies. Twenty-four testing laboratories belonging to the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group, a subgroup of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society, participated in this trial. Twenty-two model chemicals, including some hepatocarcinogens, were tested in 14- and/or 28-day RDLMN assays. As a result, 14 out of the 16 hepatocarcinogens were positive, including 9 genotoxic hepatocarcinogens, which were reported negative in the bone marrow/peripheral blood micronucleus (MN) assay by a single treatment. These outcomes show the high sensitivity of the RDLMN assay to hepatocarcinogens. Regarding the specificity, 4 out of the 6 non-liver targeted genotoxic carcinogens gave negative responses. This shows the high organ specificity of the RDLMN assay. In addition to the RDLMN assay, we simultaneously conducted gastrointestinal tract MN assays using 6 of the above carcinogens as an optional trial of the collaborative study. The MN assay using the glandular stomach, which is the first contact site of the test chemical when administered by oral gavage, was able to detect chromosomal aberrations with 3 test chemicals including a stomach-targeted carcinogen. The treatment regime was the 14- and/or 28-day repeated-dose, and the regime is sufficiently promising to incorporate these methods into repeated-dose toxicological studies. The outcomes of our collaborative study indicated that the new techniques to detect chromosomal aberrations in vivo in several tissues worked successfully. PMID:25892619

  20. Conjoint Developmental Trajectories of Young Adult Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kristina M.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the prominence of comorbidity among substances and the recent attention focused on trajectory-based approaches to characterizing developmental change, little research in the substance use field has simultaneously considered both course and comorbidity. Methods Using nationally representative panel data from the Monitoring the Future Project (MTF; n = 32,087; 56% female; 82% Caucasian), we identified developmental courses of heavy drinking, smoking, and marijuana use using 4 waves of data spanning ages 18 to 26 in a multi-cohort young adult sample. Comorbidity was examined by cross-classifying group membership in substance use trajectories. Finally, the extent to which risk factors (sex, race, alcohol expectancies, delinquency, sensation seeking, depressive affect, religiosity, academic achievement, and parent education) accounted for combinations of comorbidity that occurred at a rate greater than chance was examined. Results For each substance, we identified 4 courses of substance use that were largely consistent with those found in the literature (chronic high use, late-onset use, developmentally limited use, and low-use), with a fifth moderate smoking group. Heavy drinking, smoking, and marijuana use were each highly associated, and distinct patterns of comorbidity were evident, with greatest agreement along the diagonal. All risk factors explained comorbidity to some degree, with delinquency, sensation seeking, alcohol expectancies, and religion in particular predicting combinations of comorbidity that were characterized by early onset and chronic high use. Conclusions Cross-substance trajectory concordance was high, with parallel changes in substance use over emerging adulthood. This suggests similar developmental timing of use, perhaps due to the experience of developmental transitions that have a common influence on use of different substances. Prediction of combinations of comorbidity characterized by early onset and persistently high use suggests that to some extent, individuals use multiple substances because of a common vulnerability to each, rather than directional relations among substances (e.g., cross-tolerance, cueing). PMID:18331376

  1. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Dianat, Iman; Feizi, Hossein; Hasan-khali, Kosar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for designing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population. Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females) aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis. Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively. Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population. PMID:26000246

  2. Adolescent and young adult medicine is a special and specific area of medical practice.

    PubMed

    Steinbeck, Kate; Towns, Susan; Bennett, David

    2014-06-01

    Adolescent and young adult medicine is a concept that has gained traction in the last decade or so. The medical literature has come primarily from oncology. Advances in neuroscience that document continuing brain development into the third decade, and research that shows risk behaviours associated with adolescence both remain and may increase in the third decade, have been two of the drivers in the conversation around linking these two age groups together as a medical practice group. A third driver of importance is transition care in chronic illness, where older adolescents and young adults continue to have difficulties making effective linkages with adult care. The case for specific training in adolescent and young adult medicine, including the developmental concepts behind it, the benefits of the delineation and the particular challenges in the Australian health-care system, are discussed. On balance, there is a strong case for managing the health issues of adolescents and young adults together. This scenario does not fit easily with the age demarcations that are in place in acute care facilities. However, this is less the case in community services and can work in focused private practice. Such a situation suggests that both paediatric and adult physicians might be interested in adolescent and young adult medicine training and practice. PMID:24547968

  3. Reaching young adult smokers through the Internet: Comparison of three recruitment mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sharon M.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: While young adults have the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking of any adult age group, studies of tobacco and other substance use have reported challenges in recruiting this age group. The Internet may be a useful tool for reaching young adult smokers. The present study compared three Internet-based recruitment methods for young adult smokers to complete a survey about tobacco and other substance use: Craigslist advertisements, other Internet advertisements, and E-mail invitations through a survey sampling service. Methods: Recruitment campaigns invited young adults aged 18–25 years who had smoked at least one cigarette in the past 30 days to complete an online survey. Recruitment methods were compared across recruitment numbers, costeffectiveness, and demographic and smoking characteristics of recruited participants. Results: In 6 months, 920 people gave online consent to determine eligibility to complete the survey, of which 336 (36.5%) were eligible, and 201 (59.8%) completed the survey. While Internet advertisements yielded the largest proportion of recruited participants and completed surveys overall, Craigslist and sampling strategies were more successful at targeting young adult smokers who went on to complete the survey and were more costeffective. Participants differed in demographic and substance use characteristics across the three recruitment mechanisms. Discussion: We identified success at reaching young adults who have smoked cigarettes recently through the Internet, though costs, participant eligibility, proportion of completed surveys, and respondent characteristics differed among the three methods. A multipronged approach to Internet recruitment is most likely to generate a broad diverse sample of young adult smokers. PMID:20530194

  4. Reduced bone mineral density in young adults following cure of acute lympblastic leukaemia in childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B M D Brennan; A Rahim; J A Adams; O B Eden; S M Shalet

    1999-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD), serum osteocalcin and type I collagen C-telopeptide (ICTP) were assessed in a cohort of 31 (16 males) adults who had received cranial irradiation in childhood as part of their treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Markers of bone turnover were compared with those of 35 age and body mass index (BMI) matched young adults (18 male).

  5. Young Adult Outcomes of the Abecedarian and CARE Early Childhood Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Frances A.; Wasik, Barbara H.; Pungello, Elizabeth; Burchinal, Margaret; Barbarin, Oscar; Kainz, Kirsten; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.

    2008-01-01

    Adult benefits for participants in Project CARE were compared with those of the Abecedarian Project, a closely related randomized study of early childhood educational intervention for children from low-income families who were at risk of developmental delays and school failure. CARE replicated Abecedarian's young adult treatment-related…

  6. Dividing Time: Concurrent Timing of Auditory and Visual Events by Young and Elderly Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Devin McAuley; Jonathan P. Miller; Mo Wang; Kevin C. H. Pang

    2010-01-01

    This article examines age differences in individual's ability to produce the durations of learned auditory and visual target events either in isolation (focused attention) or concurrently (divided attention). Young adults produced learned target durations equally well in focused and divided attention conditions. Older adults, in contrast, showed an age-related increase in timing variability in divided attention conditions that tended to

  7. Do alternative names block young and older adults’ retrieval of proper names?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily S. Cross; Deborah M. Burke

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluates whether tip of the tongue experiences (TOTs) are caused by a more accessible word which blocks retrieval of the target word, especially for older adults. In a “competitor priming” paradigm, young and older adults produced the name of a famous character (e.g., Eliza Doolittle) in response to a question and subsequently named a picture of a famous

  8. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Young Adults with a Clinical Diagnosis of Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugnegard, Tove; Hallerback, Maria Unenge; Gillberg, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    In children with autism spectrum disorders, previous studies have shown high rates of psychiatric comorbidity. To date, studies on adults have been scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate psychiatric comorbidity in young adults with Asperger syndrome. Participants were 26 men and 28 women (mean age 27 years) with a clinical…

  9. Investigating Adult Language Input and Young Children's Responses in Naturalistic Environments: An Observational Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinac, Julie V.; Woodyatt, Gail C.; Ozanne, Anne E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the design and trial of an original Observational Framework for quantitative investigation of young children's responses to adult language in their typical language learning environments. The Framework permits recording of both the response expectation of the adult utterances, and the degree of compliance in the child's…

  10. Selected Health Status Indicators and Behaviors of Young Adults, United States-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Okoro, Catherine A.; Collins, Janet

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of selected clinical preventive health services, health status indicators, health risk behaviors, and health-promoting behaviors among adults aged 18 to 24 years in the general U.S. population. The study analyzed data from the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Nearly 30% of young adults lacked…

  11. Determinants of daily smoking in Turkish young adults in the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Floor VA van Oort; Jan van der Ende; Alfons AM Crijnen; Frank C Verhulst; Johan P Mackenbach; Inez MA Joung

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As little is known about the determinants of smoking in large ethnic minorities in the Netherlands and other Western European countries, we studied the determinants of smoking young adult offspring of Turkish migrants to the Netherlands. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of 439 Turkish adults (18–28 y) in 2003. Smokers were compared with never smokers for five groups of determinants: demographic

  12. Postnatal Inflammation Increases Seizure Susceptibility in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Galic, Michael A.; Riazi, Kiarash; Heida, James G.; Mouihate, Abdeslam; Fournier, Neil M.; Spencer, Sarah J.; Kalynchuk, Lisa E.; Teskey, G. Campbell; Pittman, Quentin J.

    2012-01-01

    There are critical postnatal periods during which even subtle interventions can have long-lasting effects on adult physiology. We asked whether an immune challenge during early postnatal development can alter neuronal excitability and seizure susceptibility in adults. Postnatal day 14 (P14) male Sprague Dawley rats were injected with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and control animals received sterile saline. Three weeks later, extracellular recordings from hippocampal slices revealed enhanced field EPSP slopes after Schaffer collateral stimulation and increased epileptiform burst-firing activity in CA1 after 4-aminopyridine application. Six to 8 weeks after postnatal LPS injection, seizure susceptibility was assessed in response to lithium–pilocarpine, kainic acid, and pentylenetetrazol. Rats treated with LPS showed significantly greater adult seizure susceptibility to all convulsants, as well as increased cytokine release and enhanced neuronal degeneration within the hippocampus after limbic seizures. These persistent increases in seizure susceptibility occurred only when LPS was given during a critical postnatal period (P7 and P14) and not before (P1) or after (P20). This early effect of LPS on adult seizures was blocked by concurrent intracerebroventricular administration of a tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) antibody and mimicked by intracerebroventricular injection of rat recombinant TNF?. Postnatal LPS injection did not result in permanent changes in microglial (Iba1) activity or hippocampal cytokine [IL-1?(interleukin-1?) and TNF?] levels, but caused a slight increase in astrocyte (GFAP) numbers. These novel results indicate that a single LPS injection during a critical postnatal period causes a long-lasting increase in seizure susceptibility that is strongly dependent on TNF?. PMID:18596165

  13. Gambling-Related Cognitive Biases and Pathological Gambling Among Youths, Young Adults, and Mature Adults in Chinese Societies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine So-kum Tang; Anise M. S. Wu

    This study investigated the extent to which gambling-related cognitive biases would associate with various levels of gambling\\u000a pathology among 2,835 youths, 934 young adults, and 162 mature adults in Chinese societies. Results showed that gambling cognitive\\u000a biases, especially biases in perceived inability to stop gambling and positive gambling expectancy, were salient correlates\\u000a of pathological gambling across the three age cohorts.

  14. Do It Right! Best Practices for Serving Young Adults in School and Public Libraries. Teens @ the Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Patrick; Shoemaker, Joel

    This book explores how librarians can work to strengthen and improve the quality of service to young adults. The introduction is written by Mary Kay Chelton, whose dissertation, "Adult-Adolescent Service Encounters: The Library Context" (1997), inspired this book. The book has 12 chapters. Chapter 1 introduces the provision of best young adult…

  15. Age Preferences: How Old Is "Too Old" for Selected Service Providers among Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farney, Lori; Aday, Ronald H.; Breault, Kevin D.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated age preferences for 11 different service providers and the age at which workers in these occupational roles were considered to be "too old" by three age groups: young (18-24), middle-aged (35-55), and older adults (65+). Results indicate that in comparison to middle-aged and older adults, young adults continue to have…

  16. Prenatal Ethanol Exposure Increases Brain Cholesterol Content in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Barceló-Coblijn, Gwendolyn; Wold, Loren E.; Ren, Jun; Murphy, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most severe expression of the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Although alterations in fetal and neonate brain fatty acid composition and cholesterol content is known to change in animal models of FASD, the persistence of these alterations into adulthood is unknown. To address this question, we determined the effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on individual phospholipid class fatty acid composition, individual phospholipid class mass, and cholesterol mass in brains from 25-week-old rats that were exposed to ethanol during gestation beginning at gestational day 2. While total phospholipid mass was unaffected, phosphatidylinositol and cardiolipin mass was decreased 14 and 43%, respectively. Exposure to prenatal ethanol modestly altered brain phospholipid fatty acid composition, and the most consistent change was a significant 1.1-fold increase in total PUFA, in the n-3/n-6 ratio, and in the 22:6 n-3 content in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and in phosphatidylserine. In contrast, prenatal ethanol consumption significantly increased brain cholesterol mass 1.4-fold and the phospholipid to cholesterol ratio was significantly increased 1.3-fold. These results indicate that brain cholesterol mass was significantly increased in adult rats exposed prenatally to ethanol, but changes in phospholipid mass and phospholipid fatty acid composition were extremely limited. Importantly, suppression of post-natal ethanol consumption was not sufficient to reverse the large increase in cholesterol observed in the adult rats. PMID:23996454

  17. Psychological needs, purpose in life, and problem video game playing among Chinese young adults.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anise M S; Lei, Lamis L M; Ku, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    The negative impacts of excessive and problematic video game playing on both children and adults are attracting increasing concern. Based on self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000), this study hypothesized that the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness are positively associated with purpose in life, which in turn acts as a protective factor against problem video game playing among Chinese young adult players. Through a questionnaire survey with a sample of 165 Chinese adults aged between 18 and 30 years (mean age?=?22.7 years), we found that perceived autonomy, competence, relatedness, and purpose in life were all negatively correlated with problem game playing. The demographic and psychological factors explained 38% of the variances of problem game playing. Specifically, gender, perceived relatedness, and purpose in life emerged as the three most salient predictors of problem game playing among the Chinese young adults. The mediating role of purpose in life was evidenced and it was found that purpose in life mediated the influences of the psychological needs proposed by SDT on problem game playing. Moreover, young men were significantly more susceptible to problem game playing than their female counterparts. To conclude, psychological needs and purpose in life influenced Chinese young adults' vulnerability to problem game playing directly or indirectly. Intervention programs that encourage social involvement and voluntary work, as well as counseling service that helps clients to search for life purpose, are suggested for intervening in problem game playing among Chinese young adults. PMID:22506646

  18. Oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in young adults: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Majchrzak, Ewa; Szybiak, Bartosz; Wegner, Anna; Pienkowski, Piotr; Pazdrowski, Jakub; Luczewski, Lukasz; Sowka, Marcin; Golusinski, Pawel; Malicki, Julian; Golusinski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Background Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a disease of middle-aged to elderly adults. However, an increased incidence of HNSCC in young people under 45 years of age has been reported recently. In the present review, we focused on the epidemiology and aetiology of HNSCC in adults under 45 years of age. Methods We reviewed literature related to HNSCC in adult patients less than 45 years of age and discussed current treatment options and prognosis. Results HNSCC in young adults is associated with a higher incidence rate in nonsmokers, lower female-to-male ratio, a higher percentage of oral cavity and oropharynx tumours, and fewer second primary tumours. However, aside from traditional risk factors of tobacco and alcohol exposure, the causes of these cancers in young adults remain unclear. Agents that might contribute to risk include infection with high-risk human papillomavirus subtypes as well as genetic factors or immunodeficiency status. The expected increase in incidence and mortality of the young with HNSCC may become a major public health concern if current trends persist, particularly lifestyle habits that may contribute to this disease. Conclusions Given the younger age and potential long-term adverse sequelae of traditional HNSCC treatments, young adults should be treated on a case-by-case basis and post-therapy quality of life must be considered in any treatment-decision making process. PMID:24587773

  19. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Kiff, Cara J.; Cortes, Rebecca; Lengua, Lilana; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Mason, W. Alex

    2012-01-01

    Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment Abstract Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Further, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal sample (N = 808) was followed from age 10 through 27. Perceptions of neighborhood in childhood predicted depression, alcohol use disorders, and HIV risk in young adulthood. Further, the timing of adversity was important in determining the type of problem experienced in adulthood. Youth adjustment predicted adult outcomes, and in some cases, mediated the relation between adversity and outcomes. These findings support the importance of adversity in predicting adjustment and elucidate factors that affect outcomes into young adulthood. PMID:22754271

  20. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kiff, Cara J; Cortes, Rebecca; Lengua, Lilana; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Mason, W Alex

    2012-06-01

    Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment Abstract Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Further, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal sample (N = 808) was followed from age 10 through 27. Perceptions of neighborhood in childhood predicted depression, alcohol use disorders, and HIV risk in young adulthood. Further, the timing of adversity was important in determining the type of problem experienced in adulthood. Youth adjustment predicted adult outcomes, and in some cases, mediated the relation between adversity and outcomes. These findings support the importance of adversity in predicting adjustment and elucidate factors that affect outcomes into young adulthood. PMID:22754271

  1. A Dietary Procedure for Preventing Dental Caries in Young Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kauko K. Mäkinen

    1993-01-01

    Significant improvement in the dental caries status of children in the United States has been seen in recent decades. The percentage of children who are free from dental caries, however, rapidly decreases with age. By the time young people enter colleges or universities, only a few are caries free. Colleges and universities are places where the young are simultaneously, and

  2. An exploration of young adults' progress in treatment for dissociative disorder.

    PubMed

    Myrick, Amie C; Brand, Bethany L; McNary, Scot W; Classen, Catherine C; Lanius, Ruth; Loewenstein, Richard J; Pain, Clare; Putnam, Frank W

    2012-01-01

    Although treatment outcome research on dissociative disorders (DD) is increasing, an examination of treatment progress in young adults with these disorders remains noticeably absent from the literature. Many studies of DD patients report mean ages over 35. The present study examined the response to treatment of a subsample of young adults ages 18-30 with dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified who participated in a naturalistic, longitudinal study of DD treatment outcome. Over 30 months, these patients demonstrated decreases in destructive behaviors and symptomatology as well as improved adaptive capacities. Compared to the older adult participants in the study, the young adults were more impaired initially. However, these younger patients improved at a rapid pace, such that their clinical presentations were similar to or more improved than those of the older adults at the 30-month follow-up. This brief report suggests not only that young adult DD patients can benefit from a trauma-focused, phasic treatment approach but that their treatment may progress at a faster pace than that of older adults with DD. PMID:22989245

  3. Recruitment of the Sonic hedgehog signalling cascade in electroconvulsive seizure-mediated regulation of adult rat

    E-print Network

    Vaidya, Vidita

    seizure-mediated regulation of adult rat hippocampal neurogenesis Sunayana B. Banerjee, Rajeev Rajendran Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005, India Keywords: adult neuronal progenitors, cyclopamine in the adult mammalian brain, including an increase in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. The molecular mechanisms

  4. Development and Measurement through Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Young Adult Social Behavior Scale (YASB): An Assessment of Relational Aggression in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crothers, Laura M.; Schreiber, James B.; Field, Julaine E.; Kolbert, Jered B.

    2009-01-01

    The Young Adult Social Behavior Scale was developed for the purpose of measuring self-reported relational and social aggression and behaviors of interpersonal maturity in adolescents and young adults (the sample included 629 university students; 66% female; 91.6% White). Despite previous research suggesting that relational and social aggression…

  5. Variation in Young's modulus along the length of a rat vibrissa Brian W. Quist a

    E-print Network

    Hartmann, Mitra J. Z.

    's modulus. To date, Young's modulus of the rat vibrissa has not been measured in a uniaxial tensile test. We performed tensile tests on 22 vibrissae cut into two halves: a tip-segment and a base-segment. The average. The tensile test is generally the simplest and most easily interpreted method for determining Young's modulus

  6. Relocation of the site of mother–young contact: Maternal transport behavior in Norway rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JoAnne Brewster; Michael Leon

    1980-01-01

    Six experiments with 174 mother Wistar rats and their young investigated the conditions under which mothers would relocate their nests. When the nest box was not disturbed or when the litter and dam remained concealed after the nest-box cover was removed, the probability of transport was low. Exposure of the mother and young by destruction or flooding of the nest

  7. Ultimate erythropoietic repopulating abilities of fetal, young adult, and old adult cells compared using repeated irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.E.; Astle, C.M.; Lerner, C.

    1984-09-01

    Erythropoietic repopulating abilities of fetal liver cells and young and old adult marrow cells were compared as follows: Equal numbers of cells from a donor of each age were mixed with a constant portion of cells pooled from genetically distinguishable competitors. These mixtures were transplanted into stem cell-depleted recipients, and the proportions of recipient hemoglobin that were donor type measured the relative effectiveness of early erythropoietic precursor cells from the various donors. At intervals of 3-6 mo, recipients were sublethally irradiated, requiring a new round of competitive repopulation. When B6 mice were used as donors, with WBB6F1 competitors and recipients, the highest levels of stem cell activity were found using old donors. This was true even with unirradiated, immune-competent W/Wv recipients. When donors and recipients were WBB6F1 hybrids, with B6 competitors, fetal cells initially gave higher levels of repopulating ability, and they were similar to the adult and old marrow cells after 400 d and after recovery from two sublethal irradiations. These effects were mostly insignificant and probably reflect small differences in initial stem cell concentrations that are brought out by the sensitivity of the competitive repopulation assay. Repopulating abilities of 12-d fetal liver cells were not detectable. We also showed that the proportions of newly synthesized hemoglobins made by the two types of stem cells in tetraparental mice remained nearly constant when tested at 3-d intervals over 30 d. Minimum numbers of stem cells producing erythrocytes over a single 3-d period were calculated as 62 and 128, but these are too low, since variances were similar in the tetraparental mice and in the F1 hybrid control. We suggest that erythropoietic stem cells have essentially unlimited proliferative capacities and are found in approximately equal concentrations in the primary erythropoietic organs after 15 or 16 d of fetal life.

  8. Edg2 receptor distribution in adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Handford, E J; Smith, D; Hewson, L; McAllister, G; Beer, M S

    2001-03-26

    The Edg (endothelial differentiation gene) receptors are recently discovered G-protein coupled receptors which are activated by endogenous lysophospholipids. The cellular activities mediated by Edg receptors are reminiscent of those normally associated with Trk receptor activation and include modulation of cell growth, differentiation, proliferation and migration as well as apoptotic and cytoskeletal effects. In this study we have investigated immunohistochemically the distribution of one family member, the Edg2 receptor, within the adult rat brain and shown the protein expression to be most prominent in white matter tract regions. This suggests a possible role for the Edg2 receptor in nerve cell myelination. PMID:11277579

  9. Liquid diets reduce cell proliferation but not neurogenesis in the adult rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Patten, A R; Moller, D J; Graham, J; Gil-Mohapel, J; Christie, B R

    2013-12-19

    Neurogenesis continues to occur in restricted regions of the brain throughout adulthood and can be modulated by dietary factors. Liquid or "soft" diets are commonly used for the administration of drugs in experimental models of disease, making it critical to determine whether dietary composition itself can affect neurogenesis. In this study Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a liquid or a solid diet of identical composition from weaning until young adulthood. No differences in neuronal differentiation and survival of newly born cells were observed between rats that were fed a liquid diet and those that received a solid diet. However, a significant reduction in hippocampal cell proliferation was observed in the liquid diet-fed group, as assessed by the expression of two endogenous proliferation markers, Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The method of feeding did not alter the basal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in these animals, as no changes in circulating levels of corticosterone (CORT) were detected between liquid and solid diet-fed groups. There was also a significant reduction in cellular proliferation in the hypothalamus of liquid diet-fed rats, a brain region known to be involved in feeding-related behaviors. These findings indicate that liquid diets themselves can directly impact rates of cellular proliferation, but this does not seem to impact levels of overall neurogenesis in the adult brain. PMID:24060822

  10. Influence of Panax ginseng on the offspring of adult rats exposed to prenatal stress

    PubMed Central

    KIM, YOUNG OCK; LEE, HWA-YOUNG; WON, HANSOL; NAH, SEONG-SU; LEE, HWA-YOUNG; KIM, HYUNG-KI; KWON, JUN-TACK; KIM, HAK-JAE

    2015-01-01

    The exposure of pregnant females to stress during a critical period of fetal brain development is an environmental risk factor for the development of schizophrenia in adult offspring. Schizophrenia is a group of common mental disorders of unclear origin, affecting approximately 1% of the global population, showing a generally young age at onset. In the present study, a repeated variable stress paradigm was applied to pregnant rats during the final week of gestation. The effects of an extract of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (PG) on rats exposed to prenatal stress (PNS) were investigated in terms of behavioral activity and protein expression analyses. In the behavioral tests, grooming behavior in a social interaction test, line-crossing behavior in an open-field test and swimming activity in a forced-swim test were decreased in the rats exposed to PNS compared with the non-stressed offspring; the changes in behavioral activity were reversed upon oral treatment with PG (300 mg/kg). Subsequently, western blot analysis and immunohistochemical analyses of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus revealed that the downregulation of several neurodevelopmental genes which occurred following exposure to PNS was reversed upon treatment with PG. The current findings demonstrate that the downregulation of several genes following exposure to PNS may affect subsequent behavioral changes, and that these phenomena are reversed following treatment with PG during pregnancy. Our results suggest that oral treatment with PG reduces the incidence of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. PMID:25394395

  11. Do Parenting Styles Moderate the Association Between Family Conformity Orientation and Young Adults' Mental Well-Being?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jordan D. Hamon; Paul Schrodt

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated parenting styles (i.e., authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive) as moderators of the association between family conformity orientation and young adults' self-esteem and depression. Participants included 213 young adult children. Preliminary analyses revealed an inverse association between family conformity and young adults' self-esteem, a positive relationship between mothers' and fathers' authoritativeness and self-esteem, and a positive relationship between perceptions

  12. Considering quality of care for young adults with diabetes in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research on the quality of diabetes care provided to young adults with Type 1 diabetes is lacking. This study investigates perceptions of quality of care for young adults with Type 1 diabetes (23–30 years old) living in the Republic of Ireland. Methods Thirty-five young adults with Type 1 diabetes (twenty-nine women, six men) and thirteen healthcare professionals (ten diabetes nurse specialists, three consultant Endocrinologists) were recruited. All study participants completed semi-structured interviews that explored their perspectives on the quality of diabetes services in Ireland. Interviews were analyzed using standard qualitative thematic analysis techniques. Results Most interviewees identified problems with Irish diabetes services for young adults. Healthcare services were often characterised by long waiting times, inadequate continuity of care, overreliance on junior doctors and inadequate professional-patient interaction times. Many rural and non-specialist services lacked funding for diabetes education programmes, diabetes nurse specialists, insulin pumps or for psychological support, though these services are important components of quality Type 1 diabetes healthcare. Allied health services such as psychology, podiatry and dietician services appeared to be underfunded in many parts of the country. While Irish diabetes services lacked funding prior to the recession, the economic decline in Ireland, and the subsequent austerity imposed on the Irish health service as a result of that decline, appears to have additional negative consequences. Despite these difficulties, a number of specialist healthcare services for young adults with diabetes seemed to be providing excellent quality of care. Although young adults and professionals identified many of the same problems with Irish diabetes services, professionals appeared to be more critical of diabetes services than young adults. Young adults generally expressed high levels of satisfaction with services, even where they noted that aspects of those services were sub-optimal. Conclusion Good quality care appears to be unequally distributed throughout Ireland. National austerity measures appear to be negatively impacting health services for young adults with diabetes. There is a need for more Endocrinologist and diabetes nurse specialist posts to be funded in Ireland, as well as allied health professional posts. PMID:24168159

  13. Mechanically induced orientation of adult rat cardiac myocytes in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuel, J.-L.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1990-01-01

    The present study describes the spatial orientation of a population of freshly isolated adult rat cardiac myocytes using a computerized mechanical cell stimulator device for tissue cultured cells. A continuous unidirectional stretch of the substratum at 60 to 400 microns/min for 120 to 30 min, respectively, during the cell attachment period in a serum-free medium was found to induce a significant threefold increase in the number of rod-shaped myocytes oriented parallel to the direction of movement. The myocytes orient less well with unidirectional substratum stretching after their adhesion to the substratum. Adult myocytes plated onto a substratum undergoing continuous 10-percent stretch-relaxation cycling show no significant change in the myocyte orientation or cytoskeletal organization. In addition to the type of mechanical activity, orientation of rod-shaped myocytes is dependent on the speed of the substratum, the final stretch amplitude, and the timing between initiation of substratum stretching and adhesion of myocytes to the substratum.

  14. Continuity and Discontinuity of Depressed Mood from Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Mediating and Stabilizing Roles of Young Adults' Socioeconomic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Rand D.; Lorenz, Federick O.; Martin, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Using prospective, longitudinal data from 467 youth over a 13-year period (late adolescence and young adulthood), the present study investigates three research questions: (1) to what extent do elevations in depressed mood continue (homotypic continuity) from adolescence to young adulthood, (2) to what extent do young adults' socioeconomic…

  15. Influences on Tobacco Use Among Urban Hispanic Young Adults in Baltimore: Findings From a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    McCleary-Sills, Jennifer D.; Villanti, Andrea; Rosario, Evelyn; Bone, Lee; Stillman, Frances

    2011-01-01

    Background Among Hispanics, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death for men and the second leading cause of cancer death for women in the United States. Despite recent growth in Baltimore City’s Hispanic population, few data exist on tobacco use behaviors in this group. Objectives The present research sought to explore the social and environmental influences and norms that encourage or discourage tobacco use among Hispanic young adults in Baltimore. Methods In collaboration with several community stakeholders, we conducted focus groups with Hispanic young adults 18 to 24 years old. Participants were recruited from a community-based service organization and invited to take part in one of four focus groups segregated by gender. Results A total of 13 young men and 11 young women participated. Data from these focus groups indicate that cultural identity and gender norms leverage substantial influence in young adults’ decision about whether, where, and with whom to smoke. The data also suggest multiple social and familial influences on their smoking and nonsmoking behaviors. Participants identified smoking practices and clear brand preferences that they feel distinguish Hispanics from other racial and ethnic groups. Despite acknowledging the high price of cigarettes, cost was not mentioned as a factor influential in their smoking decisions. Conclusion These results provide essential guidance for the development of appropriate tobacco prevention and cessation intervention strategies and policy recommendations to eliminate tobacco use among Hispanic young adults in Baltimore. PMID:21169706

  16. The Affordable Care Act Reduces Emergency Department Use By Young Adults: Evidence From Three States

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Burns, Carson S.; Wang, N. Ewen; Baker, Laurence C.; Goldstein, Benjamin A.

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) extended eligibility for health insurance for young adults ages 19–25. This extension may have affected how young adults use emergency department (ED) care and other health services. To test the impact of the ACA on how young adults used ED services, we used 2009–11 state administrative records from California, Florida, and New York to compare changes in ED use in young adults ages 19–25 before and after the ACA provision was implemented with changes in the same period for people ages 26–31 (the control group). Following implementation of the ACA provision, the younger group had a decrease of 2.7 ED visits per 1,000 people compared to the older group—a relative change of ?2.1 percent. The largest relative decreases were found in women (?3.0 percent) and blacks (?3.4 percent). This relative decrease in ED use implies a total reduction of more than 60,000 visits from young adults ages 19–25 across the three states in 2011. When we compared the probability of ever using the ED before and after implementation of the ACA provision, we found a minimal decrease (?0.4 percent) among the younger group compared to the older group. This suggests that the change in the number of visits was driven by fewer visits among ED users, not by changes in the number of people who ever visited the ED. PMID:25201671

  17. Variable course of progression of oral cavity and oropharyngeal carcinoma in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Wa?niewska, El?bieta; Mielcarek-Kuchta, Daniela; Mi?tkiewska-Leszniewska, Dorota; Wierzbicka, Ma?gorzata; Szyfter, Witold

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study The main aim of this article is the epidemiological analysis of patients treated due to oral and oropharyngeal cancer, with a special interest in the group under the age of 40, evaluation of the differences in the clinical course of the disease as well as assessment of the treatment results, regarding the age of the affected individuals. Material and methods 523 individuals affected by oral and oropharyngeal cancer who were treated in the Otolaryngology and Laryngeal Oncology Department between 2000 and 2008. Precise analysis was performed on 360 out of 523 affected individuals, in whom full clinical status was determined; 13 patients were young adults. The retrospective analysis was created based on case histories, surgical protocols and emergency records. Results In young adults there is a markedly increased risk of organ involvement according to the Mann-Whitney U-test analysis (p = 0.044907). The probability of recurrence in the group of young adults is also much higher. Analysis of Kaplan-Meier test results indicated that the chance for the lack of recurrence within a 6-month period was 85.7%; however, the risk of recurrence increased, and after 12 months was equal to the arithmetic data (50%). Conclusions Among young adults there is an increased risk of local recurrence following 12 months after surgical intervention. According to our observations, despite rapid progression and early recurrence in young adults (4/7) the prognosis for both groups is not statistically different. PMID:24596516

  18. Do Young and Older Adults Rely on Different Processes in Source Memory Tasks? A Neuropsychological Study

    PubMed Central

    Glisky, Elizabeth L.; Kong, Lauren L.

    2008-01-01

    Source memory has consistently been associated with prefrontal function both in normal and clinical populations. Nevertheless, the exact contribution of prefrontal cortex to source memory remains uncertain, and evidence suggests that processes engaged by young and older adults may differ. We explored the extent to which composite measures of frontal and medial temporal function differentially predicted the performance of young and older adults on source memory tasks. Results indicated that the frontal composite, which has consistently been associated with source memory performance in older adults, was unrelated to source memory in young adults, although it was sensitive to a demanding working memory task. The memory composite, however, predicted performance in the young group. In addition, item and source memory were correlated in young people but not in older people. Findings are discussed in terms of age-related differences in working memory and executive functions, and differential binding processes necessary for item and source memory. The requirement to integrate item and source information at encoding appears to place greater demands on executive or working memory processes in older adults than in younger. PMID:18605870

  19. Young adults who smoke cigarettes and marijuana: Analysis of thoughts and behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Danielle E.; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Liu, Howard; Hall, Sharon M.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Smoking both cigarettes and marijuana is increasingly common among young adults, yet little is known about use patterns, motivations, or thoughts about abstinence. In a U.S. sample, this study explored young adults’ severity of cigarette and marijuana co-use, quit attempts, and thoughts about use. Methods Young adults age 18-to-25 who had smoked at least one cigarette in the past 30 days completed an anonymous online survey. Results Of 1987 completed surveys, 972 participants reported both past-month cigarette and marijuana use (68% male, 71% Caucasian, mean age 20.4 years [SD=2.0]). Frequency of use, temptations to use, measures of dependence, decisional balance, and past-year quit attempts were associated across the two substances (all p< .05), but not motivation to quit. Relative to marijuana, participants reported greater desire and a later stage of change for quitting cigarettes and were more likely to endorse a cigarette abstinence goal, yet they had lower expectancy of success with quitting cigarettes and with staying quit (all p<.001). Conclusions Cigarette and marijuana use, temptations to use, and pros/cons of using were related in this young adult sample. Differences in motivation and thoughts about abstinence, however, suggest that young adults may be more receptive to interventions for tobacco than marijuana use. Use patterns and cognitions for both substances should be considered in prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:24090626

  20. Reliability and validity of self-reported smoking in an anonymous online survey with young adults

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Danielle E.; Hall, Sharon M.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The Internet offers many potential benefits to conducting smoking and other health behavior research with young adults. Questions, however, remain regarding the psychometric properties of online self-reported smoking behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of self-reported smoking and smoking-related cognitions obtained from an online survey. Methods Young adults (N = 248) age 18 to 25 who had smoked at least 1 cigarette in the past 30 days were recruited online and completed a survey of tobacco and other substance use. Results Measures of smoking behavior (quantity and frequency) and smoking-related expectancies demonstrated high internal consistency reliability. Measures of smoking behavior and smoking stage of change demonstrated strong concurrent criterion and divergent validity. Results for convergent validity varied by specific constructs measured. Estimates of smoking quantity, but not frequency, were comparable to those obtained from a nationally representative household interview among young adults. Conclusions These findings generally support the reliability and validity of online surveys of young adult smokers. Identified limitations may reflect issues specific to the measures rather than the online data collection methodology. Strategies to maximize the psychometric properties of online surveys with young adult smokers are discussed. PMID:21574709

  1. What’s distressing about having type 1 diabetes? A qualitative study of young adults’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes distress is a general term that refers to the emotional burdens, anxieties, frustrations, stressors and worries that stem from managing a severe, complex condition like Type 1 diabetes. To date there has been limited research on diabetes-related distress in younger people with Type 1 diabetes. This qualitative study aimed to identify causes of diabetes distress in a sample of young adults with Type 1 diabetes. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 35 individuals with Type 1 diabetes (23–30 years of age). Results This study found diabetes related-distress to be common in a sample of young adults with Type 1 diabetes in the second phase of young adulthood (23–30 years of age). Diabetes distress was triggered by multiple factors, the most common of which were: self-consciousness/stigma, day-to-day diabetes management difficulties, having to fight the healthcare system, concerns about the future and apprehension about pregnancy. A number of factors appeared to moderate distress in this group, including having opportunities to talk to healthcare professionals, attending diabetes education programmes and joining peer support groups. Young adults felt that having opportunities to talk to healthcare professionals about diabetes distress should be a component of standard diabetes care. Conclusions Some aspects of living with diabetes frequently distress young adults with Type 1 diabetes who are in their twenties. Clinicians should facilitate young adults’ attendance at diabetes education programmes, provide them with opportunities to talk about their diabetes-related frustrations and difficulties and, where possible, assist in the development of peer-support networks for young adults with diabetes. PMID:23885644

  2. Introducing young dairy goats into the adult herd after parturition reduces social stress.

    PubMed

    Szabò, S; Barth, K; Graml, C; Futschik, A; Palme, R; Waiblinger, S

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this experiment was to compare social stress, as measured by social behavior and adrenocortical activity, in young dairy goats during the first week after introduction into a herd of adult goats either during the dry period of the herd (i.e., all goats in the herd being pregnant or dry: PD) or shortly after parturition (i.e., all animals lactating or with their kids: LK). Thirty-two young goats that had had no contact with adult goats from the age of 7 wk were introduced into adult goat groups. Adult goats were kept in 2 groups of 36 animals each. Young goats were introduced (in groups of 4 animals each) into each of these 2 groups either during the PD period (2 repetitions) or during LK (2 repetitions); goats with different rearing experience were balanced over introduction periods. Young goats were more often receivers of agonistic social interactions when introduced during PD than during LK. Irrespective of the period of introduction, young goats had other young goats as neighbors more frequently than expected by chance alone, although this was even more distinct during PD. Cortisol metabolite levels increased markedly from baseline during PD, but not after parturition. Rearing showed an effect only on the nearest neighbors, with mother-reared young goats staying closer together. Our results indicate that young goats experience less social stress when being introduced into a herd of adult dairy goats shortly after parturition and with kids still present rather than during the dry period. Whether this effect is due to the period and lactational stage itself or to the presence of kids needs to be tested in future studies. PMID:23849642

  3. Learning Curves: Body Image and Female Sexuality in Young Adult Literature. Scarecrow Studies in Young Adult Literature #35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younger, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of growth, change, and confusion for young women. During this transition from childhood to adulthood, sex and gender roles become more important. Meanwhile, depictions of females--from the hyper-sexualized girls of music videos to the chaste repression of Purity Balls--send mixed messages to young women about their bodies…

  4. Changes in hepatic cell mitochondria during parabiosis between old and young rats.

    PubMed

    Tauchi, H; Sato, T

    1980-01-01

    Electron-micrographic measurement studies have been made on the hepatic cell mitochondria of the long-lived parabiotic unions between old and young rats. The mitochondria of the younger partners were significantly larger in size and those of the older partners were significantly larger in number and smaller in size compared with those of young and old control rats, respectively. The mitochondrial cristae seemed to become more compactly arranged in the younger partners and more sparsely in the older ones. The influence of parabiosis between different aged rats upon age changes in mitochondria and their function is discussed. PMID:7354666

  5. Young Adults Seeking Medical Care: Do Race and Ethnicity Matter?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to medical care, National Health Interview Survey Does health insurance coverage differ by race and ethnicity for young ... having health insurance coverage. Definitions Terms related to health insurance Health insurance coverage: Health insurance is broadly defined ...

  6. Fast Mapping in Healthy Young Adults: The Influence of Metamemory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandra, Vijayachandra; Rickenbach, Bryna; Ruda, Marissa; LeCureux, Bethanie; Pope, Moira

    2010-01-01

    Several research studies suggest the significant role played by metamemory in lexical abilities of both adults and children. To our knowledge, there have been no studies to date that have explored the role of metamemory (Judgments of Learning) in fast mapping of novel words by adults. One hundred and twelve undergraduate students were given tasks…

  7. Childhood Onset Schizophrenia: Cortical Brain Abnormalities as Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Deanna; Lerch, Jason; Shaw, Philip; Clasen, Liv; Giedd, Jay; Gochman, Peter; Rapoport, Judith; Gogtay, Nitin

    2006-01-01

    Background: Childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare but severe form of the adult onset disorder. While structural brain imaging studies show robust, widespread, and progressive gray matter loss in COS during adolescence, there have been no longitudinal studies of sufficient duration to examine comparability with the more common adult onset…

  8. Pharmacokinetics of Ketamine and Xylazine in Young and Old Sprague–Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Veilleux-Lemieux, Daphnée; Castel, Aude; Carrier, Denise; Beaudry, Francis; Vachon, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    To compare the pharmacokinetics of coadministered intraperitoneal ketamine and xylazine in young (8 to 10 wk; n = 6) and old rats (2 to 2.4 y; n = 6), blood samples obtained at 15 and 30 min and 1, 2, and 4 h after drug administration were analyzed by HPLC–tandem mass spectrometry. In both groups, the withdrawal reflex was absent during anesthesia and was present at 1.1 (± 0.2) and 2.6 (± 0.7) h after drug administration in young and old rats, respectively, with the first voluntary movement at 1.5 ± 0.2 and 4.9 ± 1.0 h. Drug availability of ketamine and xylazine was 6.0 and 6.7 times greater, respectively, in old than young rats. The rate constant of elimination of both drugs was greatly decreased and the elimination half-life was significantly greater in old compared with young rats. In conclusion, age and associated factors affect the availability of ketamine and xylazine when coadministered to attain clinical anesthesia, changing the pharmacokinetics of these drugs and prolonging anesthesia duration and recovery times with aging. Compared with their young counterparts, aged rats required much higher doses to attain a similar level of anesthesia. Finally, the long half-life of both ketamine and xylazine, when coadministered to old rats, may be a factor in research protocols because residual plasma concentrations could still be present for as long as 3 and 5 d, respectively, after administration. PMID:24041212

  9. Functional and electrophysiological changes after graded traumatic spinal cord injury in adult rat

    E-print Network

    Harkema, Susan

    Functional and electrophysiological changes after graded traumatic spinal cord injury in adult rat,b,d , Christopher B. Shieldsa,b,d , Scott R. Whittemorea,b,d,* a Kentucky Spinal Cord Injury Research Center spinal cord injury (SCI) was created in the adult rat spinal cord using the Infinite Horizons (IH

  10. Comprehensive Proteome Expression Profiling of Undifferentiated versus Differentiated Neural Stem Cells from Adult Rat Hippocampus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin H. Maurer; Robert E. Feldmann Jr.; Carsten D. Fütterer; Jo Butlin; Wolfgang Kuschinsky

    2004-01-01

    Adult neural stem cells can be isolated from various regions of the rat brain and seem to have multilineage differentiation potential. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that global protein expression of adult neural stem cells isolated from rat hippocampus is changed during in vitro differentiation. After 2 days of differentiation, we separated total protein extracts by two-dimensional gel

  11. TIN DISTRIBUTION IN ADULT RAT TISSUES AFTER EXPOSURE TO TRIMETHYLTIN AND TRIETHYLTIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The time course of distribution of tin in the adult rat was determined in brain, liver kidney, heart, and blood following single ip administrations of trimethyltin hydroxide (TMT) and triethyltin bromide (TET). Adult Long-Evans rats were killed 1 hr, 4 hr, 12 hr, 24 hr, 5 days, 1...

  12. TIN DISTRIBUTION IN ADULT AND NEONATAL RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO TRIETHYLTIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The uptake, distribution and elimination of tin were determined in adult and neonatal (Postnatal Day 5) rat brain following IP administration of triethyltin bromide (TET). Groups of 5 adult CD rats were sacrificed at 10 min, 1 hr, 4 hr, 24 hr, 5 d, or 10 d following acute exposur...

  13. Temporally specific divided attention tasks in young adults reveal the temporal dynamics of episodic encoding failures in elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ray; Nessler, Doreen; Friedman, David

    2013-06-01

    Nessler, Johnson, Bersick, and Friedman (D. Nessler, R. Johnson, Jr., M. Bersick, & D. Friedman, 2006, On why the elderly have normal semantic retrieval but deficient episodic encoding: A study of left inferior frontal ERP activity, NeuroImage, Vol. 30, pp. 299-312) found that, compared with young adults, older adults show decreased event-related brain potential (ERP) activity over posterior left inferior prefrontal cortex (pLIPFC) in a 400- to 1,400-ms interval during episodic encoding. This altered brain activity was associated with significantly decreased recognition performance and reduced recollection-related brain activity at retrieval (D. Nessler, D. Friedman, R. Johnson, Jr., & M. Bersick, 2007, Does repetition engender the same retrieval processes in young and older adults? NeuroReport, Vol. 18, pp. 1837-1840). To test the hypothesis that older adults' well-documented episodic retrieval deficit is related to reduced pLIPFC activity at encoding, we used a novel divided attention task in healthy young adults that was specifically timed to disrupt encoding in either the 1st or 2nd half of a 300- to 1,400-ms interval. The results showed that diverting resources for 550 ms during either half of this interval reproduced the 4 characteristic aspects of the older participants' retrieval performance: normal semantic retrieval during encoding, reduced subsequent episodic recognition and recall, reduced recollection-related ERP activity, and the presence of "compensatory" brain activity. We conclude that part of older adults' episodic memory deficit is attributable to altered pLIPFC activity during encoding due to reduced levels of available processing resources. Moreover, the findings also provide insights into the nature and timing of the putative "compensatory" processes posited to be used by older adults in an attempt to compensate for age-related decline in cognitive function. These results support the scaffolding account of compensation, in which the recruitment of additional cognitive processes is an adaptive response across the life span. PMID:23276214

  14. Smooth Moves: Bar and Nightclub Tobacco Promotions That Target Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sepe, Edward; Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This article describes the tobacco industry's use of bars and nightclubs to encourage smoking among young adults. Methods. Previously secret tobacco industry marketing documents were analyzed. Results. Tobacco industry bar and nightclub promotions in the 1980s and 1990s included aggressive advertising, tobacco brand–sponsored activities, and distribution of samples. Financial incentives for club owners and staff were used to encourage smoking through peer influence. Increased use of these strategies occurred concurrently with an increase in smoking among persons aged 18 through 24 years. Conclusions. The tobacco industry's bar and nightclub promotions are not yet politically controversial and are not regulated by the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement between the industry and the states. Tobacco control advocates should include young adults in research and advocacy efforts and should design interventions to counter this industry strategy to solidify smoking patterns and recruit young adult smokers. PMID:11867322

  15. Young Women's Leadership Alliance: Youth-Adult Partnerships in an All-Female After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denner, Jill; Meyer, Beth; Bean, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This article describes program strategies and adult practices that can build youth-adult partnerships. In particular, it focuses on strategies to empower girls in all-female after-school programs. The Young Women's Leadership Alliance has involved 164 girl leaders and five adult women leaders over three years. To build the partnerships, adults…

  16. Neurochemical, endocrine and immunological responses to stress in young and old Fischer 344 male rats.

    PubMed

    Lorens, S A; Hata, N; Handa, R J; Van de Kar, L D; Guschwan, M; Goral, J; Lee, J M; Hamilton, M E; Bethea, C L; Clancy, J

    1990-01-01

    Two experiments were performed. In the first, a 20 min conditioned emotional response (CER) paradigm was used to compare the neurochemical, endocrine and immunological responses to stress of 7- and 22-month-old Fischer 344 (F344) male rats. In the second, corticosterone levels 20 min following ether stress, and regional brain type I and II corticosterone receptor densities were examined using 7- and 17.5-month-old F344 male rats. Dopamine (DA) metabolism in old nonstressed rats was significantly reduced in the medial frontal cortex, neostriatum, nucleus accumbens and hypothalamus, but not in the amygdala. The CER procedure, nevertheless, increased medial frontal cortical, nucleus accumbens and amygdaloid DA turnover in both the young and old rats. The young and old nonstressed rats did not evidence differences in norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) concentrations. However, stress resulted in a decrease in medial frontal cortical 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and hypothalamic 5-HT levels in old but not in young animals. These observations suggest age-related differences in the response of central NE and 5-HT systems to stress. Ether and the CER procedure led to exaggerated corticosterone responses in the old rats (17.5 and 22 month, respectively). Hippocampal type I but not type II corticosterone receptors were decreased by 47% in the 17.5-month-old rats. Thus, age-related changes in hippocampal corticosterone receptor types do not occur in unison, and the exacerbated corticosterone response to stress precedes the reported down-regulation of hippocampal type II corticosterone receptors in aged rats. Age-related changes were not observed in the concentrations of corticosterone receptors in other brain regions, or in the prolactin response to stress. The old rats, however, evidenced a reduction in the availability of the renin substrate, angiotensinogen, and in stress-induced renin secretion. Immune function was impaired in the old nonstressed rats, and further compromised by exposure to the CER procedure. In comparison to the young control rats, the old nonstressed rats showed an increased percentage of splenic large granular lymphocytes, reduced splenic natural killer cytotoxicity, and impaired Con-A-stimulated splenic T lymphocyte proliferation. Reductions in T splenic cell proliferation and natural killer cytotoxicity were observed in the young rats subjected to the CER paradigm, but not to the same extent as in the old rats. These observations indicate that aging male F344 rats evidence major alterations in basal central monoamine, endocrine and immune functions, and an increased sensitivity of these systems to stress. PMID:2348902

  17. “Friending” Teens: Systematic Review of Social Media in Adolescent and Young Adult Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Scirica, Christina V; Jethwani, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background Social media has emerged as a potentially powerful medium for communication with adolescents and young adults around their health choices. Objective The goal of this systematic review is to identify research on the use of social media for interacting with adolescents and young adults in order to achieve positive health outcomes. Methods A MEDLINE/PubMed electronic database search was performed between January 1, 2002 and October 1, 2013, using terms to identify peer-reviewed research in which social media and other Web 2.0 technologies were an important feature. We used a systematic approach to retrieve papers and extract relevant data. Results We identified 288 studies involving social media, of which 87 met criteria for inclusion; 75 studies were purely observational and 12 were interventional. The ways in which social media was leveraged by these studies included (1) observing adolescent and young adult behavior (n=77), (2) providing health information (n=13), (3) engaging the adolescent and young adult community (n=17), and (4) recruiting research participants (n=23). Common health topics addressed included high-risk sexual behaviors (n=23), alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use (n=19), Internet safety (n=8), mental health issues (n=18), medical conditions (n=11), or other specified issues (n=12). Several studies used more than one social media platform and addressed more than one health-related topic. Conclusions Social media technologies offer an exciting new means for engaging and communicating with adolescents and young adults; it has been successfully used to engage this age group, identify behaviors, and provide appropriate intervention and education. Nevertheless, the majority of studies to date have been preliminary and limited in their methodologies, and mostly center around evaluating how adolescents and young adults use social media and the resulting implications on their health. Although these explorations are essential, further exploration and development of these strategies into building effective interventions is necessary. PMID:25560751

  18. A Randomized Trial of a Facebook-based Physical Activity Intervention for Young Adult Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Carmina G.; Tate, Deborah F.; Mayer, Deborah K.; Allicock, Marlyn; Cai, Jianwen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Over half of young adult cancer survivors do not meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. PA interventions can enhance health and quality of life among young adult cancer survivors. However, few exercise interventions have been designed and tested in this population. This study evaluated the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a 12-week, Facebook-based intervention (FITNET) aimed at increasing moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA compared to a Facebook-based self-help comparison (SC) condition. Methods Young adult cancer survivors (n=86) were randomly assigned to the FITNET or SC group. All participants were asked to complete self-administered online questionnaires at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results Seventy-seven percent of participants completed post-intervention assessments, and most participants reported using intervention components as intended. Participants in both groups would recommend the program to other young adult cancer survivors (FITNET: 46.9% vs. SC: 61.8%; p=0.225). Over 12 weeks, both groups increased self-reported weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (FITNET: 67 minutes/week, p=0.009 vs. SC: 46 minutes/week, p=0.045), with no significant difference between groups. Increases in light PA were 135 minutes/week greater in the FITNET group relative to the SC group (p=0.032), and the FITNET group reported significant weight loss over time (?2.1 kg, p=0.004; p=0.083 between groups). Conclusions Facebook-based intervention approaches demonstrated potential for increasing PA in young adult cancer survivors. Implications for Cancer Survivors Social networking sites may be a feasible way for young adult cancer survivors to receive health information and support to promote PA and healthy behaviors. PMID:23532799

  19. An adult pine weevil feeding on the bark of the main stem of a young tree.

    E-print Network

    Figure 1 An adult pine weevil feeding on the bark of the main stem of a young tree. 1 P R A C T I C E N O T E Managing the Pine Weevil on Lowland Pine 231 Corstorphine Road Edinburgh EH12 7AT www.forestry.gov.uk INTRODUCTION The pine weevil Hylobius abietis is a common cause of mortality in young conifers used to restock

  20. Momentary Affective States Surrounding Sexual Intercourse in Depressed Adolescents and Young Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lydia A. ShrierHenry; Henry A. Feldman; Shimrit K. Black; Courtney Walls; Ashley D. Kendall; Christopher Lops; William R. Beardslee

    Depressed young people may have sexual intercourse (sex) to regulate their disordered affective states. This study sought\\u000a to determine how momentary positive and negative affect relate to subsequent sex events in depressed adolescents and young\\u000a adults. Fifty-four outpatients (87% female) 15–22 years who reported clinically significant depressive symptoms and having\\u000a sex at least once a week completed a baseline survey, then

  1. The ketogenic diet in children, adolescents and young adults with refractory epilepsy: an Italian multicentric experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giangennaro Coppola; Pierangelo Veggiotti; Raffaella Cusmai; Simona Bertoli; Simonetta Cardinali; Carlo Dionisi-Vici; Mirella Elia; Maria Luisa Lispi; Chiara Sarnelli; Anna Tagliabue; Caterina Toraldo; Antonio Pascotto

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This collaborative study by three Italian groups of child neuropsychiatrists was carried on to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the classic 4:1 ketogenic diet as add-on treatment in refractory partial or generalized epilepsy in children, adolescents and young adults. Methods: We performed a prospective add-on study in 56 refractory epilepsy young patients (age 1–23 years, mean 10.4 years),

  2. Music’s relevance for adolescents and young adults with cancer: a constructivist research approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clare O’Callaghan; Philippa Barry; Kate Thompson

    Purpose  Music is one of the most widely used activities amongst young people, significant in personal and group identity, motivation,\\u000a physical release, and emotional support. Adolescents and young adults with cancer (AYA) require specialized care because of\\u000a intensified challenges related to developmental vulnerability, treatment toxicity effects, and slower improvements in survival\\u000a rates compared to other age groups. To advance effective supportive

  3. A randomized controlled trial examining Iyengar yoga for young adults with rheumatoid arthritis: a study protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subhadra Evans; Laura Cousins; Jennie CI Tsao; Saskia Subramanian; Beth Sternlieb; Lonnie K Zeltzer

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, disabling disease that can compromise mobility, daily functioning, and health-related quality of life, especially in older adolescents and young adults. In this project, we will compare a standardized Iyengar yoga program for young people with rheumatoid arthritis to a standard care wait-list control condition. METHODS\\/DESIGN: Seventy rheumatoid arthritis patients aged 16-35 years will be

  4. 'See it doesn't look pretty does it?' Young adults' airbrushed drinking practices on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Niland, Patricia; Lyons, Antonia C; Goodwin, Ian; Hutton, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    A range of negative health outcomes are associated with young adults' drinking practices. One key arena where images of, and interaction about, drinking practices occurs is social networking sites, particularly Facebook. This study investigated the ways in which young adults' talked about and understood their uses of Facebook within their drinking practices. Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven New Zealand young adults as they displayed, navigated and talked about their Facebook pages and drinking behaviours. Our social constructionist thematic analysis identified three major themes, namely 'friendship group belonging', 'balanced self-display' and 'absences in positive photos'. Drinking photos reinforced friendship group relationships but time and effort was required to limit drunken photo displays to maintain an overall attractive online identity. Positive photos prompted discussion of negative drinking events which were not explicitly represented. Together these understandings of drinking photos function to delimit socially appropriate online drinking displays, effectively 'airbrushing' these visual depictions of young adults' drinking as always pleasurable and without negative consequences. We consider the implications of these findings for ways alcohol health initiatives may intervene to reframe 'airbrushed' drinking representations on Facebook and provoke a deeper awareness among young people of drinking practices and their online displays. PMID:24527709

  5. Young Adult Outcomes of Children Growing up with Chronic Illness: An analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Gary R.; Haydon, Abigail; Ford, Carol Ann; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine young adult outcomes in a nationally representative US cohort of young adults who grew up with a chronic illness. Design Secondary analysis of nationally representative data from Wave III (2001) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Setting United States Participants The analytic sample included 13,236 young adults 18–28 years old at Wave III. Main Exposure Self-report of a chronic physical illness (asthma, cancer, diabetes or epilepsy) in adolescence. Respondents with (1) asthma or (2) non-asthma chronic illness (cancer, diabetes, or epilepsy) were compared to subjects without these conditions. Main Outcome Measures Self-report of high school graduation, ever having a job, having a current job, living with parents, and ever receiving public assistance. Results Three percent of young adults had non-asthma chronic illness (cancer, diabetes, or epilepsy) and 16% had asthma. The majority of young adults with chronic illness graduated high school (81%) and were currently employed (60%). However, compared to healthy young adults, those with a non-asthma chronic illness were significantly less likely to graduate high school, ever have a job, or have a current job and were more likely to receive public assistance. When compared to young adults with asthma, young adults with non-asthma chronic illness again had significantly worse young adult outcomes on all measures. Conclusions Most young adults growing up with chronic illness graduate high school and are employed. However, these young adults are significantly less likely than their healthy peers to achieve these important educational and vocational milestones. PMID:21383274

  6. Purification and culture of adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    Delree, P; Leprince, P; Schoenen, J; Moonen, G

    1989-06-01

    To study the trophic requirements of adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons (DRG) in vitro, we developed a purification procedure that yields highly enriched neuronal cultures. Forty to fifty ganglia are dissected from the spinal column of an adult rat. After enzymatic and mechanical dissociation of the ganglia, myelin debris are eliminated by centrifugation on a Percoll gradient. The resulting cell suspension is layered onto a nylon mesh with a pore size of 10 microns. Most of the neurons, the diameter of which ranged from 17 microns to greater than 100 microns, are retained on the upper surface of the sieve; most of the non-neuronal cells with a caliber of less than 10 microns after trypsinization go through it. Recovery of neurons is achieved by reversing the mesh onto a Petri dish containing culture medium. Neurons to non-neurons ratio is 1 to 10 in the initial cell suspension and 1 to 1 after separation. When these purified neurons are seeded at a density of 3,000 neurons/cm2 in 6 mm polyornithine-laminin (PORN-LAM) coated wells, neuronal survival (assessed by the ability to extend neurites), measured after 48 hr of culture, is very low (from 0 to 16%). Addition of nerve growth factor (NGF) does not improve neuronal survival. However, when neurons are cultured in the presence of medium conditioned (CM) by astrocytes or Schwann cells, 60-80% of the seeded, dye-excluding neurons survive. So, purified adult DRG neurons require for their short-term survival and regeneration in culture, a trophic support that is present in conditioned medium from PNS or CNS glia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2754765

  7. Using social media to engage adolescents and young adults with their health

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Charlene A.; Merchant, Raina M.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the potential of social media related to the health of adolescent and young adults, who are nearly ubiquitous social media users but difficult to engage with their health and relatively low healthcare utilizers. Opportunities to better engage adolescents and young adults through social media exist in healthcare delivery, health education and health policy. However, challenges remain for harnessing social media, including making a clear value proposition and developing evidence-based frameworks for measuring the impact of social media on health. PMID:25984444

  8. Suicidal behaviour in adolescents and young adults with ASD: findings from a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Geraldine; Taylor, Emily P

    2013-12-01

    Suicide is a major problem in Western society. However we have very little understanding of suicidal behaviour among individuals with autism spectrum disorders. The purpose of this review is to synthesise primary research on suicidal behaviour among adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders in order to estimate prevalence and to identify and critically evaluate risk factors for suicidal behaviour in this population. Four primary research studies were identified for this review following a comprehensive literature search. The available research provides little empirical evidence for the processes underlying suicidal behaviour in adolescents and young adults with autism. PMID:24201088

  9. Bridges and barriers to successful transitioning as perceived by adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Giarelli, Ellen; Ruttenberg, Jean; Segal, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this thematic content analysis we examined the expectations, and perceived facilitators of (referred to as bridges) and barriers to transition to community as reported by adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome. Participants were adolescents/young adults, ages 18-23 years were from the East Coast of the United States. Seventy percent of adolescents hoped for employment (n = 10). Thirty percent desired to find a partner and raise a family. Perceived barriers were: self-assessed behavioral problems, self-assessed associated features, other personal factors, and institutional factors. Bridges to facilitate transition were: accommodations in the community, cognitive abilities, personal qualities/strengths, and mentor's qualities. PMID:23541737

  10. The context of condom use among young adults in the Philippines: Implications for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Lucea, Marguerite B.; Hindin, Michelle J.; Gultiano, Socorro; Kub, Joan; Rose, Linda

    2012-01-01

    We examine current perceptions and constraints surrounding condom use among young adults in the Philippines to garner a deeper contextual understanding of this aspect of HIV prevention within Filipino society. Through thematic analysis of focus group data, we found three broad themes, all of which included societal and individual barriers to using condoms. The findings may provide insight for similar settings that have strong religious influences on society. To strengthen HIV prevention efforts in such settings, we suggest that the development of strategies to address these constraints in the cultural setting and promote sexual health of young adults is essential. PMID:23394323

  11. Stereotype traits of older adults generated by young, middle-aged, and older Chinese participants

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yan Bing; Hummert, Mary Lee; Garstka, Teri A.

    2002-01-01

    ://dx.doi.org/10.2190/18YF-LD1R-X8NB- 4HTM 1 Citation: Zhang, Y. B., Hummert, M. L., & Garstka, T. A. (2002). Stereotype traits of older adults generated by young, middle-aged, and older Chinese participants. Hallym International Journal of Aging, 2 (4), 119...Zhang, Y. B., Hummert, M. L., & Garstka, T. A. (2002). Stereotype traits of older adults generated by young, middle-aged, and older Chinese participants. Hallym International Journal of Aging, 2 (4), 119-140. Publisher’s official version: http...

  12. Comorbid psychopathology in adolescents and young adults treated for substance use disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christianne Couwenbergh; Wim van den Brink; Kirsten Zwart; Coby Vreugdenhil; Patricia van Wijngaarden-Cremers; Rutger J. van der Gaag

    2006-01-01

    Objective  In a recent review, the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in non-treated adolescents and young adults with substance\\u000a use disorders (SUD) in the general population was summarized. This review looks into the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity\\u000a in adolescents and young adults treated for SUD.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A computerized literature search was conducted resulting in ten eligible studies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The prevalence of comorbid psychiatric

  13. Health Conditions and Their Impact among Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pikora, Terri J.; Bourke, Jenny; Bathgate, Katherine; Foley, Kitty-Rose; Lennox, Nicholas; Leonard, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of medical conditions and use of health services among young adults with Down syndrome and describe the impact of these conditions upon their lives. Methods Using questionnaire data collected in 2011 from parents of young adults with Down syndrome we investigated the medical conditions experienced by their children in the previous 12 months. Univariate, linear and logistic regression analyses were performed. Results We found that in addition to the conditions commonly experienced by children with Down syndrome, including eye and vision problems (affecting 73%), ear and hearing problems (affecting 45%), cardiac (affecting 25%) and respiratory problems (affecting 36%), conditions also found to be prevalent within our young adult cohort included musculoskeletal conditions (affecting 61%), body weight (affecting 57%), skin (affecting 56%) and mental health (affecting 32%) conditions and among young women menstrual conditions (affecting 58%). Few parents reported that these conditions had no impact, with common impacts related to restrictions in opportunities to participate in employment and community leisure activities for the young people, as well as safety concerns. Conclusion There is the need to monitor, screen and provide appropriate strategies such as through the promotion of healthy lifestyles to prevent the development of comorbidities in young people with Down syndrome and, where present, to reduce their impact. PMID:24818963

  14. Recruiting young adults into a weight loss trial: Report of protocol development and recruitment results

    PubMed Central

    Corsino, Leonor; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Batch, Bryan C.; Intille, Stephen; Grambow, Steven C.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Bennett, Gary G.; Tyson, Crystal; Svetkey, Laura P.; Voils, Corrine I.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has spread to all segments of the U.S. population. Young adults, aged 18-35, are rarely represented in clinical weight loss trials. We conducted a qualitative study to identify factors that may facilitate recruitment of young adults into a weight loss intervention trial. Participants were 33 adults aged 18-35 yrs with BMI > 25 kg/m2. Six group discussions were conducted using the nominal group technique. Health, social image, and “self”factors such as emotions, self-esteem, and confidence were reported as reasons to pursue weight loss. Physical activity, dietary intake, social support, medical intervention, and taking control (e.g. being motivated) were perceived as the best weight loss strategies. Incentives, positive outcomes, education, convenience, and social support were endorsed as reasons young adults would consider participating in a weight loss study. Incentives, advertisement, emphasizing benefits, and convenience were endorsed as ways to recruit young adults. These results informed the Cellphone Intervention for You (CITY) marketing and advertising, including message framing and advertising avenues. Implications for recruitment methods are discussed. PMID:23591327

  15. Reactivity to Exclusion Prospectively Predicts Social Anxiety Symptoms in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Cheri A.; Langer, Julia K.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Peer victimization leads to negative outcomes such as increased anxiety and depression. The prospective relationship between peer victimization and social anxiety in children and adolescents is well established, and adults with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are more likely than individuals with other anxiety disorders to report a history of teasing. However, a crucial bridge between these findings (peer victimization in young adults) is missing. We manipulated perceptions of peer exclusion in a young adult sample (N = 108) using the Cyberball Ostracism Task. Reactivity to exclusion prospectively predicted social anxiety symptoms at a 2-month follow-up, whereas self-reported teasing during high school and current relational victimization did not. This research suggests that reactions to peer victimization may be a worthwhile target for clinical interventions in young adults. Targeting how young adults react to stressful social interactions such as exclusion may help prevent the development of SAD. Future research should test if reactivity to exclusion plays a role in the relationship between other disorders (e.g., depression) and peer victimization. PMID:23768673

  16. Situation Model Updating in Young and Older Adults: Global versus Incremental Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Readers construct mental models of situations described by text. Activity in narrative text is dynamic, so readers must frequently update their situation models when dimensions of the situation change. Updating can be incremental, such that a change leads to updating just the dimension that changed, or global, such that the entire model is updated. Here, we asked whether older and young adults make differential use of incremental and global updating. Participants read narratives containing changes in characters and spatial location and responded to recognition probes throughout the texts. Responses were slower when probes followed a change, suggesting that situation models were updated at changes. When either dimension changed, responses to probes for both dimensions were slowed; this provides evidence for global updating. Moreover, older adults showed stronger evidence of global updating than did young adults. One possibility is that older adults perform more global updating to offset reduced ability to manipulate information in working memory. PMID:25938248

  17. Semantically- and Phonologically-Related Primes Improve Name Retrieval in Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Oberle, Shalyn; James, Lori E.

    2012-01-01

    Word and name retrieval failures increase with age, and this study investigated how priming impacts young and older adults’ ability to produce proper names. The transmission deficit hypothesis predicts facilitation from related prime names, whereas the blocking and inhibition deficit hypotheses predict interference from related names, especially for older adults. On half of our experimental trials, we exposed participants to a prime name that is phonologically- and semantically-related to a target name. Related names facilitated production of targets overall, with older adults’ naming ability improved at least as much as young adults’. Results are contrary to predictions of the blocking and inhibitory deficit hypotheses, and suggest that an activation-based model of memory and language better accounts for retrieval and production of well-known names. PMID:24187413

  18. Proliferation and Differentiation of Progenitor Cells Throughout the Intact Adult Rat Spinal Cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip J. Horner; Gerd Kempermann; H. Georg Kuhn; Theo D. Palmer; Jurgen Winkler; Leon J. Thal; Fred H. Gage

    2000-01-01

    The existence of multipotent progenitor populations in the adult forebrain has been widely studied. To extend this knowledge to the adult spinal cord we have examined the proliferation, dis- tribution, and phenotypic fate of dividing cells in the adult rat spinal cord. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to label di- viding cells in 13- to 14-week-old, intact Fischer rats. Single daily

  19. Recreational Exercise Motives of Adolescents and Young Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emine Caglar; Yusuf Canlan; Murat Demir

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the motives for taking part in recreational exercise\\/sporting activities based on a sample of Turkish young people. Secondly, gender and age group differences with motivational dimensions were investigated. A total of 298 members of 6 Youth Centers voluntarily participated in this study. The Recreational Exercise Moti- vation Measure (REMM) was administered to all participants. Two x two

  20. Personal Motivation, Exercise, and Smoking Behaviors among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scioli, Erica Rose; Biller, Henry; Rossi, Joseph; Riebe, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the motivational factors that influence individuals across the stages of change for exercise. The authors compared physically active nonsmokers with physically active smokers in a college student population. Half of regular exercisers identified themselves as smokers. Compared with their nonsmoking peers, young smokers have…

  1. Spatial and symbolic implicit sequence learning in young and older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin BoRachael; Rachael D. Seidler

    2010-01-01

    In three experiments, we examined the effects of age and spatial processing on implicit sequence learning. In experiment 1,\\u000a 48 older adults (OA) and 48 young adults (YA) performed the alternating serial reaction time task (ASRT) under one of four\\u000a conditions in which spatial processing demands were either present or absent from stimulus presentation (spatial vs. symbolic\\u000a cueing) and\\/or response

  2. Motor unit activity when young and old adults perform steady contractions while supporting an inertial load

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Jeffrey R.; Enoka, Roger M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the discharge characteristics of biceps brachii motor units of young and old adults when they performed steady, submaximal contractions while the arm supported different inertial loads. Young (28 ± 4 yr; n = 16) and old (75 ± 4 yr; n = 14) adults performed steady contractions with the elbow flexors at target forces set at either small (11.7 ± 4.4% maximum) or large (17.8 ± 6.5% maximum) differences below the recruitment threshold force of the motor unit (n = 40). The task was to maintain an elbow angle at 1.57 rad until the motor unit was recruited and discharged action potentials for ?120 s. Time to recruitment was longer for the larger target force difference (187 ± 227 s vs. 23 ± 46 s, P < 0.001). Once recruited, motor units discharged action potentials either repetitively or intermittently, with a greater proportion of motor units exhibiting the repetitive pattern for old adults. Discharge rate at recruitment and during the steady contraction was similar for the two target force differences for old adults but was greater for the small target force difference for young adults. Discharge variability was similar at recruitment for the two age groups but less for the old adults during the steady contraction. The greatest difference between the present results and those reported previously when the arm pulled against a rigid restraint was that old adults modulated discharge rate less than young adults across the two contraction intensities for both load types. PMID:23221403

  3. Iron states and cognitive abilities in young adults: neuropsychological and neurophysiological assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eman Khedr; Sherifa A. Hamed; Esam Elbeih; Hala El-Shereef; Yousreyia Ahmad; Safaa Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Many investigators found that iron deficiency anemia (IDA) had a great influence on cognitive functions in infants and children.\\u000a However, studies of such topic in adults are few and controversial. We prospectively assessed the possible influence of IDA\\u000a and iron supplementation (for 3 months) on cognitive function and intelligence of 28 young adults with IDA. We used group\\u000a of hematological, cognitive,

  4. Self-compassion and Psychological Resilience Among Adolescents and Young Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin D. Neff; Pittman McGehee

    2010-01-01

    Self-compassion is an adaptive way of relating to the self when considering personal inadequacies or difficult life circumstances. However, prior research has only examined self-compassion among adults. The current study examined self-compassion among adolescents (N = 235; Mage = 15.2) and included a sample of young adults as a comparison group (N = 287; Mage = 21.1). Results indicated that self-compassion was strongly associated with well-being among adolescents

  5. Planning and Control of Straight-Ahead and Angled Planar Movements in Adults and Young Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Léna Lhuisset; Luc Proteau

    2004-01-01

    In the present study we wanted to determine why straight-ahead movements performed along one's midline are directionally more accurate than movements toward eccentric targets. We also wanted to determine whether the processes underlying this difference were the same in young children as in adults. Six-to-seven-year-old children and adults practiced a video-aiming task using different starting base and target combinations without

  6. Differential behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of repeated nicotine in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Fábio C; Delucia, Roberto; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2005-03-01

    Despite the high prevalence of tobacco abuse among adolescents, the neurobiology of nicotine addiction has been studied mainly in adult animals. Repeated administration of this drug to adult rats induces behavioral sensitization. Nicotine activates the HPA axis in adult rats as measured by drug-induced increases in ACTH and corticosterone. Both behavioral sensitization and corticosterone are implicated in drug addiction. We examined the expression of behavioral sensitization induced by nicotine as well as the changes in corticosterone levels after repeated injections of nicotine in adolescent and adult animals. Adolescent and adult rats received subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of saline or 0.4 mg/kg of nicotine once daily for 7 days. Three days after the last injection animals were challenged with saline or nicotine (0.4 mg/kg; s.c.). Nicotine-induced locomotion was recorded in an activity cage. Trunk blood samples were collected in a subset of adolescent and adult rats and plasma corticosterone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. Adult, but not adolescent, rats expressed behavioral sensitization. Pretreatment with nicotine abolished corticosterone-activating effect of this drug only in adult animals, indicating the development of tolerance at this age. Our results provide evidence that adolescent rats exposed to repeated nicotine display behavioral and neuroendocrine adaptations distinct from that observed in adult animals. PMID:15740783

  7. Effect of Repetition Lag on Priming of Unfamiliar Visual Objects in Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Leamarie T.; Soldan, Anja; Thomas, Ayanna K.; Stern, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Across three experiments, we examined the effect of repetition lag on priming of unfamiliar visual objects in healthy young and older adults. Multiple levels of lag were examined, ranging from short (one to four intervening stimuli) to long (50+ intervening stimuli). In each experiment, subjects viewed a series of new and repeated line drawings of objects and decided whether they depicted structurally possible or impossible figures. Experiment 1 and 2 found similar levels of priming in young and older adults at short and medium lags. At the longer repetition lags (?20+ intervening stimuli), older adults showed less overall priming, as measured by reaction time facilitation, than young adults. This indicates that older adults can rapidly encode unfamiliar three-dimensional objects to support priming at shorter lags; however, they cannot maintain these representations over longer intervals. In addition to repetition lag, we also explored the relationship between priming and cognitive reserve, as measured by education and verbal intelligence. In the older adults, higher levels of cognitive reserve were associated with greater reaction time priming, suggesting that cognitive reserve may mediate the relationship between aging and priming. PMID:23276220

  8. Socioeconomic Status and Substance Use Among Young Adults: A Comparison Across Constructs and Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Megan E.; Wightman, Patrick; Schoeni, Robert F.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Little consensus exists regarding the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and substance use. This study examined the associations of three indicators of family SES during childhood—income, wealth, and parental education—with smoking, alcohol use, and marijuana use during young adulthood. Method: Data were obtained from the national Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a survey of U.S. families that incorporates data from parents and their children. In 2005 and 2007, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics was supplemented with two waves of Transition into Adulthood data drawn from a national sample of young adults, 18–23 years old. Data from the young adults (N = 1,203; 66.1% White; 51.5% female) on their current use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana were used as outcome variables in logistic regressions. Socioeconomic background was calculated from parental reports of education, wealth, and income during the respondent's childhood (birth through age 17 years). Results: Smoking in young adulthood was associated with lower childhood family SES, although the association was explained by demographic and social role covariates. Alcohol use and marijuana use in young adulthood were associated with higher childhood family SES, even after controlling for covariates. Conclusions: Findings based on three indicators of family background SES—income, wealth, and parental education—converged in describing unique patterns for smoking and for alcohol and marijuana use among young adults, although functional relationships across SES measures varied. Young adults with the highest family background SES were most prone to alcohol and marijuana use. PMID:22846241

  9. Serotonin Depletion in the Adult Rat Causes Loss of the Dendritic Marker MAP2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P M Whitaker-Azmitia; A Borella; N Raio

    1995-01-01

    Many trophic factors are now thought to also function in maintenance of the adult brain. We hypothesized that since serotonin plays a role in synaptogenesis, it may also function in maintenance of synapses in the adult. Adult rats were depleted of serotonin with the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) for 10 days. Fourteen days after the final treatment, immunodensitometry showed

  10. Arrested neuronal proliferation and impaired hippocampal function following fractionated brain irradiation in the adult rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M Madsen; P. E. G Kristjansen; T. G Bolwig; G Wörtwein

    2003-01-01

    The generation of new neurons in the adult mammalian brain has been documented in numerous recent reports. Studies undertaken so far indicate that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is related in a number of ways to hippocampal function.Here, we report that subjecting adult rats to fractionated brain irradiation blocked the formation of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. At

  11. Queering Sex Education: Young Adult Literature with LGBT Content as Complementary Sources of Sex and Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the nature of young adult texts as complementary sources of informal queer sex and sexuality education, along with a close reading of a sample of this young adult (YA) literature. LGBT teens are often left out of discussions in sex education classrooms in the United States because of discriminatory curricula, ignorance on the…

  12. Book Beat: A Young Adult Services Manual for Louisiana's Libraries. Face It: Read a Book: Be Somebody. [Updated Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbanks, Gretchen, Ed.; Jaques, Thomas F., Ed.

    Libraries need to reach out to teens and enhance their skills in serving the teenage population. Through the Louisiana Young Adult Services program, it is hoped that all staff working with young adults will be reached to accomplish the following: (1) promote a better understanding of the psychology of this age group; (2) increase skills in…

  13. Impact of Breakfast Consumption and RTE Cereals on Nutritional Adequacy of the Diets of Young Adults in Bogalusa, La

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Schmidt; J. Garden-Robinson; B. B. North; T. A. Nicklas

    1998-01-01

    Breakfast consumption patterns of 504 young adults (× age: 23yrs.; 58% female, 70% white) were examined using the 24-hour dietary recall. Consumption patterns were then related to mean daily nutrient intake. Analysis of variance and logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the relationship of breakfast consumption, ethnicity, and gender on dietary adequacy.Thirty-seven percent of young adults skipped breakfast. For

  14. Depressive Symptoms in Young Adults: The Influences of the Early Home Environment and Early Educational Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mclaughlin, Andrea E.; Campbell, Frances A.; Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Skinner, Martie

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between depressive symptoms in young adults, the quality of the early home environment, and early educational child care was investigated in young adults randomly assigned to receive early childhood intervention in the Abecedarian study. Of the original 111 infants enrolled (98 percent African American), 104 participated in an…

  15. Inoculation's Efficacy With Young Adults' Risky Behaviors: Can Inoculation Confer Cross-Protection Over Related but Untreated Issues?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly A. Parker; Bobi Ivanov; Josh Compton

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined the potential of inoculation to protect young adults' attitudes from pressures to engage in risky behaviors (unprotected sex and binge drinking) as well as inoculation's efficacy in conferring umbrella protection (cross-protection) over related, but experimentally untreated, attitudes. A three-phase experiment was conducted involving 120 participants. The results revealed that inoculation can protect the attitudes of young adults

  16. A comparison of life events in suicidal and nonsuicidal adolescents and young adults with major depression and borderline personality disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Netta Horesh; Tali Nachshoni; Leo Wolmer; Paz Toren

    2009-01-01

    This retrospective study assessed the correlations between various types of stressful life events (SLE) and suicidal adolescents and young adults with major depressive disorder (MDD;22), borderline personality disorder (BPD;18), and nonsuicidal adolescents and young adults with MDD (20) and BPD (20). A community control group of 40 participants was also evaluated.The measurements used were Life Events Checklist, Childhood Sexual Abuse

  17. Inoculation's Efficacy With Young Adults' Risky Behaviors: Can Inoculation Confer Cross-Protection Over Related but Untreated Issues?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly A. Parker; Bobi Ivanov; Josh Compton

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the potential of inoculation to protect young adults' attitudes from pressures to engage in risky behaviors (unprotected sex and binge drinking) as well as inoculation's efficacy in conferring umbrella protection (cross-protection) over related, but experimentally untreated, attitudes. A three-phase experiment was conducted involving 120 participants. The results revealed that inoculation can protect the attitudes of young adults

  18. Love without a home: a portrait of romantic and couple relationships among street-involved young adults in Montreal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Blais; Philippe-Benoit Côté; Hélène Manseau; Michel Martel; Marie-Andrée Provencher

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have explored love relationships among street-involved young adults. Unstructured interviews were conducted with 42 street-involved young adults, aged between 18 and 32 years (mean age = 23), about their love and sexual life. Themes were identified in the interviews with their corresponding kernels of meaning, and these kernels of meaning were then grouped into conceptual categories on the

  19. Weight-Related Health Behaviors and Body Mass: Associations between Young Adults and Their Parents, Moderated by Parental Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Hektner, Joel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors could contribute to the development of their children's weight-related health behaviors. Purpose: Relationships of young adults' (N = 151) and their parents' weight-related behaviors were examined along with parental authority styles. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by young adults and their parents.…

  20. Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Young Adults from a Biracial Community: The Bogalusa Heart Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica R. McClain; Sathanur R. Srinivasan; Wei Chen; William C. Steinmann; Gerald S. Berenson

    2000-01-01

    Background. Since type 2 diabetes has a strong familial component, characteristics of young adult offspring of type 2 diabetics were examined in a community sample to determine early abnormalities in black and white persons at risk.Methods. The sample consisted of 1,338 fasting young adults (72% white, 28% black) aged 19 to 37 years from a biracial community, including those with

  1. Anthropometric and physiologic correlates of mitral valve prolapse in a biethnic cohort of young adults: The CARDIA study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Flack; John H. Kvasnicka; Julius M. Gardin; Samuel S. Gidding; Teri A. Manolio; David R. Jacobs

    1999-01-01

    Objective To describe the epidemiology of echocardiographic mitral valve prolapse (MVP) and its anthropometric, physiologic, and psychobehavioral correlates with a cross-sectional analysis at 4 urban clinical centers. Patients A biethnic, community-based sample of 4136 young (aged 23 to 35 years) adult participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study who had echocardiograms during their third examination

  2. Perceptions of Young Adult Central Nervous System Cancer Survivors and Their Parents Regarding Career Development and Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauser, David R.; Wagner, Stacia; Chan, Fong; Wong, Alex W. K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Identify barriers to career development and employment from both the survivor and parent perspective. Method: Young adult survivors (N = 43) and their parents participated in focus groups to elicit information regarding perceptions regarding career development and employment. Results: Perceptions of both the young adults and parents…

  3. The Relation Between Brain Activity During Memory Tasks and Years of Education in Young and Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mellanie V. Springer; Anthony R. McIntosh; Gordon Winocur; Cheryl L. Grady

    2005-01-01

    Higher education is associated with less age-related decline in cognitive function, but the mechanism of this protective effect is unknown. The authors examined the effect of age on the relation between education and brain activity by correlating years of education with activity measured using functional MRI during memory tasks in young and older adults. In young adults, education was negatively

  4. “The pediatric social worker really shepherds them through the process”: Care team members’ roles in transitioning adolescents and young adults with HIV to adult care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia D. Fair; Jamie Albright; Alexandra Lawrence; Amy Gatto

    2012-01-01

    Increasing numbers of adolescents and young adults (AYA) with HIV need to transition from pediatric to adult infectious disease care. Little research has examined the roles of the care team members in the transition process. Nineteen pediatric and adult providers with experience caring for HIV-infected AYA were interviewed to explore their perspectives on the roles of care team members on

  5. The Economic Benefits of Adult Learning to Low-Qualified Young Adults: Do Participation and Qualification Decrease the Risk of Unemployment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipprath, Heidi; De Rick, Katleen

    2014-01-01

    Policymakers worldwide consider participation in adult learning beneficial for employability, in particular for specific target groups. However, still little is known about the effect of adult learning pursued by low-qualified young adults on their employment prospects. On the basis of a Flemish longitudinal database, we study the determinants and…

  6. Immigration, Transition into Adult Life and Social Adversity in Relation to Psychological Distress and Suicide Attempts among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kosidou, Kyriaki; Hellner-Gumpert, Clara; Fredlund, Peeter; Dalman, Christina; Hallqvist, Johan; Isacsson, Göran; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Background The increasing incidence of mental health problems among young people is a major concern in many Western countries. The causal mechanisms underlying these trends are not well established, but factors influenced by current societal changes ought to be implicated. Such factors include immigration and social adversity as well as the timing of taking on adult social roles (e.g. gainful employment, parenthood and own housing tenure). We therefore examined relationships between these factors and the risks of psychological distress as well as suicide attempts in young adults, with a focus on gender differences. Methods We conducted a population-based study including 10,081 individuals aged 18–29, recruited in 2002 and 2006 in Stockholm, Sweden. Data were collected by record linkage and questionnaires. Results Non-European immigrants had an increased risk of distress, and female non-European immigrants had a markedly higher risk of suicide attempts. Both early parenthood (?24 years) and not being a parent, being a student and the lack of own housing tenure were associated with distress, but only in women. In both sexes, financial strain was associated with the increased risk of distress and suicide attempts, while unemployment was only associated with distress. Conclusions Immigration from outside Europe and social adversity are associated with mental health problems in young adults, especially females. Postponed transition into adulthood is associated with poor mental health in young women. These factors are influenced by current societal changes, and may have contributed to the increasing incidence of mental health problems among young people in Western countries. PMID:23056275

  7. Parental Divorce in Childhood and Loneliness in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    Studied effects of childhood parental separation and divorce on adult loneliness among 87 college students who, when they were between the ages of 3 and 16, had experienced the divorce of their parents. Data analysis revealed that there were significant relationships between reported mourning behaviors, as well as respondents, ages at time of…

  8. Deaths among Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miodrag, Nancy; Silverberg, Sophie E.; Urbano, Richard C.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although life expectancies in Down syndrome (DS) have doubled over the past 3-4 decades, there continue to be many early deaths. Yet, most research focuses on infant mortality or later adult deaths. Materials and Methods: In this US study, hospital discharge and death records from the state of Tennessee were linked to examine 2046…

  9. Attractiveness in young children: Sex-differentiated reactions of adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Driver Leinbach; Beverly I. Fagot

    1991-01-01

    Attractiveness ratings of 50 children aged 12–38 months were investigated in relation to adult socializing agents' behavior toward the children in their homes and play groups and their attitudes toward the children. Attractiveness scores were derived from 43 judges' ratings of facial photographs of the children. The same children were observed in play groups with female care givers; 40 of

  10. Development of Sexual Orientation Among Adolescent and Young Adult Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa M. Diamond

    1998-01-01

    Although some research suggests that sexual orientation is a stable, early appearing trait, interviews with 89 young sexual-minority women revealed that a majority of women failed to report at least one of the following: childhood indicators of sexual orientation, stability in same-sex attractions, or awareness of same-sex attractions prior to the conscious process of sexual questioning. Lesbians were not more

  11. Medication Use Among Young Adults Jenna Madore and Jesse Morrell

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    9 Males 19.7 ± 0.1 32.3 ± 0.2 25.2 ± 0.2 175 2 1 6 Medication Use (%) (n=1967) Oral Contraceptive also alter a person's health profile and, in some cases, add to risk for chronic conditions and promote and Non-users of Oral Contraceptives Total Medication Use (%) (n=1967)to half (46%) of young men

  12. Haemorheological pattern in young adults with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Caimi, G; Hoffmann, E; Montana, M; Canino, B; Dispensa, F; Catania, A; Lo Presti, R

    2003-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in young people has recently received great attention. Its main characteristics include a typical risk factor profile and a good prognosis. We studied the haemorheological pattern (whole blood viscosity at high and low shear rates, plasma and serum viscosity, whole-blood filtration and erythrocyte aggregation) in 64 subjects, aged <46 years, with recent AMI. We observed marked alterations in blood, plasma and serum viscosity and whole-blood filtration. Subdividing the AMI subjects in accordance with the number of cardiovascular risk factors or the extent of coronary lesions, we did not observe any significative influence of these aspects on the haemorheological determinants, with the exception of low shear rate blood viscosity. The latter was in fact higher than in control subjects only in AMI subgroups with respectively more risk factors and more stenosed coronary vessels. Thirty-three AMI subjects were re-examined after three months and showed, on this occasion, a haemorheological pattern not significantly different from that of the first evaluation. These results demonstrate that in young subjects with AMI there is a hyperviscosity syndrome that persists during subsequent months, despite a good clinical course. Haemorheological impairment may unfavourably influence the long-term prognosis of AMI in young subjects and therefore, in our opinion, management should take into account the monitoring of the haemorheological pattern. PMID:14561899

  13. Substance abuse treatment characteristics of probation-referred young adults in a community-based outpatient program.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajita; Easton, Caroline; Kemp, Kathleen

    2003-08-01

    Although rates of substance abuse continue to rise among young adults ages 18-25, there is little information on the clinical characteristics of young adults referred to treatment, their readiness to change substance use behaviors, and treatment outcomes. These aspects were examined in young (18-25 years old) and older adult (26-45 years old) substance abusers entering treatment at a large, urban, outpatient substance abuse treatment facility. All clients were referred for outpatient treatment by the local Offices of Adult Probation during 1998-1999. The demographic and substance use characteristics, motivation level/readiness to change substance use behaviors, treatment attendance, completion, and "drug-free" status based on patient self-report and urine/breathalyzer data were assessed. Results. Substance-abusing young adult probationers were more likely to be African-American, with a significantly earlier age of onset of primary substance use. They were more likely to have a marijuana use disorder as compared with older adults, who in turn, were more likely to meet criteria for alcohol use disorders. Furthermore, as compared with older adults, young adults had significantly higher scores on precontemplation, and significantly lower scores on contemplation, determination, action, and maintenance subscales of motivation/change readiness. A significantly higher number of young adults did not complete outpatient treatment and were "drug-positive" at discharge, as compared with older adults. Conclusions. Young adult probationers referred to substance abuse treatment show significantly different substance abuse and treatment characteristics as compared with their older adult counterparts. The findings suggest that specialized treatment approaches that focus on enhancing treatment readiness and motivation to change substance use behaviors may be of particular benefit to substance abusing young adults. PMID:14510042

  14. Rhabdomyosarcoma in adolescent and young adult patients: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Egas-Bejar, Daniela; Huh, Winston W

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a malignant tumor of mesenchymal origin, is the third most common extracranial malignant solid tumor in children and adolescents. However, in adults, RMS represents <1% of all solid tumor malignancies. The embryonal and alveolar histologic variants are more commonly seen in pediatric patients, while the pleomorphic variant is rare in children and seen more often in adults. Advances in the research of the embryonal and alveolar variants have improved our understanding of certain genes and biologic pathways that are involved in RMS, but much less is known for the other variants. Multimodality therapy that includes surgery and chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy is the mainstay of treatment for RMS. Improvements in the risk stratification of the pediatric patients based on presurgical (primary tumor site, tumor size, regional lymph node involvement, presence of metastasis) and postsurgical parameters (completeness of resection or presence of residual disease or metastasis) has allowed for the treatment assignment of patients in different studies and therapeutic trials, leading to increases in 5-year survival from 25%–70% over the past 40 years. However, for adult patients, in great part due to rarity of the disease and the lack of consensus on optimal treatment, clinical outcome is still poor. Many factors have been implicated for the differing outcomes between pediatric RMS versus adult RMS, such as the lack of standardized treatment protocols for adult RMS patients and the increased prevalence of advanced presentations. Now that there are increased numbers of survivors, we can appreciate the sequelae from therapy in these patients, such as bone growth abnormalities, endocrinopathies, and infertility. Improvements in risk stratification have led to clinical trials using lower doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy with the intention of decreasing the incidence of side effects without compromising survival outcome. PMID:24966711

  15. Early Adolescent through Young Adult alcohol and marijuana use trajectories: Early predictors, young adult outcomes, and predictive utility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate Flory; Donald Lynam; Richard Milich; Carl Leukefeld; Richard Clayton

    2004-01-01

    The present study takes a developmental approach to subgrouping and examines the trajectories of substance use from early adolescence through young adulthood among a community sample of 481 individuals. The patterns of use were examined, subgroups were identified separately for men and women and for alcohol and marijuana, and psychosocial predictors and psychopathology outcomes that differentiated the groups were identified.

  16. Hyperglycemia enhances function and differentiation of adult rat cardiac fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Shamhart, Patricia E; Luther, Daniel J; Adapala, Ravi K; Bryant, Jennifer E; Petersen, Kyle A; Meszaros, J Gary; Thodeti, Charles K

    2014-07-01

    Diabetes is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease that can eventually cause cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Cardiac fibroblasts (CF) are the critical mediators of physiological and pathological cardiac remodeling; however, the effects of hyperglycemia on cardiac fibroblast function and differentiation is not well known. Here, we performed a comprehensive investigation on the effects of hyperglycemia on cardiac fibroblasts and show that hyperglycemia enhances cardiac fibroblast function and differentiation. We found that high glucose treatment increased collagen I, III, and VI gene expression in rat adult cardiac fibroblasts. Interestingly, hyperglycemia increased CF migration and proliferation that is augmented by collagen I and III. Surprisingly, we found that short term hyperglycemia transiently inhibited ERK1/2 activation but increased AKT phosphorylation. Finally, high glucose treatment increased spontaneous differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts to myofibroblasts with increasing passage compared with low glucose. Taken together, these findings suggest that hyperglycemia induces cardiac fibrosis by modulating collagen expression, migration, proliferation, and differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts. PMID:24959995

  17. Smoking re-initiation after cessation program: Comparison of associated factors between young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kukkamalla, Meena A.; Pentapati, Kalyana C.; Suresh, Gowtham; Goyal, Ruchika; Cornelio, Sonali M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the associated factors in reinitiating the smoking habit among the participants of a smoking cessation program conducted in a tobacco cessation clinic of Manipal University, Manipal. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among participants of a smoking cessation program who reinitiated smoking habit. A self-administered questionnaire was used that had information on demographic, habit history, knowledge on harmful effects of smoking behavior related to oral cavity and associated factors due to which individual was unable to quit the habit. Results: A total of 102 males (mean age = 39.91 ± 9.57) constituted the final sample. The results showed that habitual smokers were more likely to be ?40 years and occasional smokers were all reported to be <93 years (P < 0.001). Cigarette smokers were more likely to be of younger age group while majority of the Beedi and cigarette + Beedi smokers were older adults (P < 0.001). The mean duration of the habit was significantly higher for older adults than young adults (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the number of packs between the age groups (P = 0.054). A significantly higher proportion of young adults than older adults were aware about oral cancer (P < 0.001). Significantly higher proportion of older adults than young adults tend to have a closest person to be a smoker (P = 0.05). A significant higher proportion of young adults reason their habit as for pleasure (84.6%) and relaxation (68.8%), while older adults reason it to be as tension (64.1%) or combined factors (70.6%). Peer pressure was almost same in both the age groups (P = 0.006). There were no significant differences in the withdrawal symptoms among young and older adults (P = 0.41). Conclusion: Considerable differences were noticed between younger and older age groups in the factors which might play a role in re-intiating the smoking habit. A structured cessation program focused more on the above characteristics should be planned in public health programs based on the characteristics of the participants. PMID:24082748

  18. Universal Intervention Effects on Substance Use Among Young Adults Mediated by Delayed Adolescent Substance Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda; Guyll, Max; Shin, Chungyeol; Redmond, Cleve

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine whether delayed substance initiation during adolescence, achieved through universal family-focused interventions conducted in middle school, can reduce problematic substance use during young adulthood. Sixth-grade students enrolled in 33 rural midwestern schools and their families were randomly assigned to 3 experimental conditions. Self-report questionnaires provided data at 7 time points for the Iowa Strengthening Families Program (ISFP), Preparing for the Drug Free Years (PDFY), and control groups through young adulthood. Five young adult substance frequency measures (drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, cigarettes, illicit drugs, and polysubstance use) were modeled as distal outcomes affected by the average level and rate of increase in substance initiation across the adolescent years in latent growth curve analyses. Results show that the models fit the data and that they were robust across outcomes and interventions, with more robust effects found for ISFP. The addition of direct intervention effects on young adult outcomes was not supported, suggesting long-term effects were primarily indirect. Relative reduction rates were calculated to quantify intervention-control differences on the estimated proportion of young adults indicating problematic substance use; they ranged from 19% to 31% for ISFP and from 9% to 16% for PDFY. PMID:19634956

  19. Mechanism of Sequential Swallowing during Straw Drinking in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephanie K.; Corey, David M.; Hadskey, Leslie D.; Legendre, Calli; Priestly, Daniel H.; Rosenbek, John C.; Foundas, Anne L.

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has revealed differences between isolated and sequential swallowing in healthy young adults; however, the influence of normal aging on sequential swallowing has not been studied. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of normal aging on deglutition during sequential straw drinking. Videofluoroscopic…

  20. Life-Course Pathways and the Psychosocial Adjustment of Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined 7 life-course pathways from adolescence through the early adult years and their links with general health and psychosocial adjustment among 2,290 women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young women who followed a pathway involving college attendance to full-time employment with no family-formation transitions…