These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

The effect of ovariectomy on biomarkers of urogenital ageing in old versus young adult rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of ageing and ovariectomy on biomarkers of urogenital ageing in old and young-adult rats. Fisher 344 rats (18- and 3-months-old, n = 6 x 2) underwent ovariectomy. Age-matched sham animals received no intervention (n = 6 x 2). One month later, biomarkers of urogenital ageing were evaluated (light microscopic count of urethral and anal canal submucosal blood vessels, Western blot analysis of urethral, and anal canal submucosal collagen I and III and cytoplasmic p27(kip1) expression in the striated urethral and anal sphincters and levator ani and gel electrophoresis of isomyosin I proportion in these muscles) and compared in all groups (n = 24). All biomarkers of urogenital ageing studied were significantly increased in old compared to young-adult sham rats. Ovariectomy significantly increased these changes further in old versus young-adult rats with either smaller or larger differential effect than ageing compared to young-adult sham animals. Ovariectomy significantly exacerbates normative urogenital ageing changes in rats. PMID:17205219

Rizk, Diaa E E; Fahim, Mohamed A; Hassan, Hazem A; Al-Marzouqi, Ahmed H; Ramadan, Gaber A; Al-Kedrah, Soha S; Al-Ghafri, Layla S

2007-09-01

2

Carbamazepine pharmacokinetics in young, adult and pregnant rats. Relation to pharmacological effects.  

PubMed

Adult, male, female and pregnant rats were treated with single and repeated doses of carbamazepine (CBZ). The time course of the drug concentrations in plasma and tissues was followed. In all cases, data on plasma levels were subjected to pharmacokinetic analyses. Attempts were made to relate pharmacokinetic properties of carbamazepine to its effect on pentobarbital sleeping time and on protection against electroshock, after acute and repeated administration: --it was found that male rats eliminate carbamazepine faster than females: the total body clearance (TBC) was 16 ml/min/kg and 9.4 ml/min/kg, respectively. Two dose levels (25 and 50 mg/kg) had the same pharmacokinetic properties in young rats. Pregnant rats clear CBZ to a lesser extent than controls. --CBZ was found to accelerate its own elimination after repeated administration in both adult and young rats as revealed by the shortening of its half-life and an increase of 50% in clearance. Moreover, the protection against electroshock was significantly reduced after repeated administration, compared with a single-dose administration. Repeated administration of CBZ in rats shortens pentobarbital sleeping time and decreases the pentobarbital brain level significantly. PMID:952573

Farghali-Hassan; Assael, B M; Bossi, L; Garattini, S; Gerna, M; Gomeni, R; Morselli, P L

1976-03-01

3

Adolescents and Young Adults  

Cancer.gov

Kent EE, Wilder Smith A, Keegan THM, Lynch CF, Kato I, Wu X, Schwartz S, Hamilton A. (in press). Social information needs of adolescent and young adults with cancer in the Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experiences (AYA-HOPE) Study. Jounral of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology.

4

Effects of dimethylarsinic and dimethylarsinous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of young and adult rats  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the effects of pentavalent dimethylarsinic acid ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}AsO(OH); DMA{sup V}) and trivalent dimethylarsinous acid ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}As(OH); DMA{sup III}) on synaptic transmission generated by the excitatory Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse were tested in hippocampal slices of young (14-21 day-old) and adult (2-4 month-old) rats. Both compounds were applied in concentrations of 1 to 100 {mu}mol/l. DMA{sup V} had no effect on the amplitudes of evoked fEPSPs or the induction of LTP recorded from the CA1 dendritic region either in adult or in young rats. However, application of DMA{sup III} significantly reduced the amplitudes of evoked fEPSPs in a concentration-dependent manner with a total depression following application of 100 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} in adult and 10 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} in young rats. Moreover, DMA{sup III} significantly affected the LTP-induction. Application of 10 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} resulted in a complete failure of the postsynaptic potentiation of the fEPSP amplitudes in slices taken both from adult and young rats. The depressant effect was not reversible after a 30-min washout of the DMA{sup III}. In slices of young rats, the depressant effects of DMA{sup III} were more pronounced than in those taken from adult ones. Compared to the (absent) effect of DMA{sup V} on synaptic transmission, the trivalent compound possesses a considerably higher neurotoxic potential.

Krueger, Katharina [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)], E-mail: katharina.krueger@uni-muenster.de; Repges, Hendrik [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Hippler, Joerg; Hartmann, Louise M.; Hirner, Alfred V. [Institut fuer Umweltanalytik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 3-5, D-45141 Essen (Germany); Straub, Heidrun [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Binding, Norbert [Institut fuer Arbeitsmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 51, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Musshoff, Ulrich [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

2007-11-15

5

Differences in amygdala cell proliferation between adolescent and young adult rats.  

PubMed

Adolescence is characterized by changes in both behavior and neural organization. During this period, the amygdala, a structure that mediates social and emotional behaviors, is changing in terms of neural and glia density. We examined cell proliferation within the amygdala of adolescent (post natal day (PND) 31) and adult (PND 70) male Sprague-Dawley rats using BrdU (bromodeoxyuridine) to label dividing cells. BrdU-labeled cells were distributed throughout the amygdala, often found in fibers surrounding major nuclei. Using two independent cell counting strategies under light and confocal microcopy, respectively, we found significantly more labeled cells in the amygdala in adolescent compared to adult animals (239.3 ± 87.18 vs. 44.75 ± 13.68; n=4/group; p<.05). BrdU/doublecortin (DCX) positive cells constitute approximately 30% of all dividing cells in the amygdala in both adolescents and adults. These data suggest that compared to young adulthood, adolescence is a relatively active period of cell proliferation in the amygdala. Moreover, the normal decline in dividing cells with age does not preferentially affect cells co-containing DCX-immunoreactivity. PMID:23775606

Saul, Michele L; Helmreich, Dana L; Callahan, Linda M; Fudge, Julie L

2014-04-01

6

Erythrocyte ion transport and membrane lipid composition in young and adult rats with NO-deficient hypertension.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to search for abnormalities of sodium and potassium transport in erythrocytes of male Wistar rats subjected to chronic L-NAME treatment (40 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks either from weaning (4-week-old) or in adulthood (12-week-old). Sodium content, Na(+),K(+)-pump and Na(+),K(+)-cotransport activity, cation leaks as well as membrane cholesterol and phospholipid contents were determined in fresh erythrocytes. Chronic inhibition of NO synthase elicited similar blood pressure rise in both age groups which did not differ in the degree of NO synthase inhibition. No significant ion transport abnormalities were disclosed in erythrocytes of young NO-deficient rats, whereas erythrocyte Na(+) content, outward Na(+),K(+)-cotransport and inward Na(+) leak were significantly reduced in adult hypertensive animals compared to age-matched controls. It should be noted that the erythrocytes of adult control rats were characterized by higher activity of Na(+),K(+)-pump and Na(+),K(+)-cotransport, increased Na(+) and Rb(+) leaks and elevated membrane cholesterol content compared to those of young normotensive controls. Increased Na(+) leak and elevated membrane cholesterol content but reduced membrane phospholipid content were revealed in erythrocytes of adult hypertensive rats when compared to young hypertensive rats. It can be concluded that young and adult Wistar rats did not differ in the extent of NO synthase inhibition and blood pressure rise elicited by chronic L-NAME treatment. Our results exclude the important participation of classical sodium transport abnormalities in the pathogenesis of this NO-deficient form of experimental hypertension. PMID:12875896

Vokurková, Martina; Dobesová, Zdena; Pechánová, Olga; Kunes, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

2003-08-15

7

Effects of monomethylarsonic and monomethylarsonous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of adult and young rats  

SciTech Connect

Arsenite and its metabolites, dimethylarsinic or dimethylarsinous acid, have previously been shown to disturb synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices of rats (Krueger, K., Gruner, J., Madeja, M., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2006a. Blockade and enhancement of glutamate receptor responses in Xenopus oocytes by methylated arsenicals. Arch. Toxicol. 80, 492-501, Krueger, K., Straub, H., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2006b. Effects of arsenite on long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices from adult and young rats. Toxicol. Lett. 165, 167-173, Krueger, K., Repges, H., Hippler, J., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Straub, H., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2007. Effects of dimethylarsinic and dimethylarsinous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of young and adult rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 225, 40-46). The present experiments investigate, whether the important arsenic metabolites monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}) and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}) also influence the synaptic functions of the hippocampus. In hippocampal slices of young (14-21 days-old) and adult (2-4 months-old) rats, evoked synaptic field potentials from the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse were measured under control conditions and during and after 30 and 60 min of application of the arsenic compounds. MMA{sup V} had no effect on the synapse functions neither in slices of adult nor in those from young rats. However, MMA{sup III} strongly influenced the synaptic transmission: it totally depressed the amplitudes of fEPSPs at concentrations of 50 {mu}mol/l (adult rats) and 25 {mu}mol/l (young rats) and LTP amplitudes at concentrations of 25 {mu}mol/l (adult rats) and 10 {mu}mol/l (young rats), respectively. In contrast, application of 1 {mu}mol/l MMA{sup III} led to an enhancement of the LTP amplitude in young rats, which is interpretable by an enhancing effect on NMDA receptors and a lack of the blocking effect on AMPA receptors at this concentration (Krueger, K., Gruner, J., Madeja, M., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2006a. Blockade and enhancement of glutamate receptor responses in Xenopus oocytes by methylated arsenicals. Arch. Toxicol. 80, 492-501). These effects are probably not mediated by changes in cell excitability or in presynaptic glutamate release rates, since antidromically induced population spikes and paired-pulse facilitation failed to show any MMA{sup III} effect. The impairment of the excitatory CA1 synapse is more likely caused by the action of MMA{sup III} on postsynaptic glutamatergic receptors and may be jointly responsible for dysfunctions of cognitive effects in arsenic toxicity.

Krueger, Katharina [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)], E-mail: katharina.krueger@uni-muenster.de; Straub, Heidrun [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Hirner, Alfred V.; Hippler, Joerg [Institut fuer Umweltanalytik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 3-5, D-45141 Essen (Germany); Binding, Norbert [Institut fuer Arbeitsmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 51, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Musshoff, Ulrich [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

2009-04-01

8

Long-term behavioral consequences of stress exposure in adolescent versus young adult rats.  

PubMed

Adolescence is a developmental time period marked by rapid changes in behavior and brain structure. Stress during adolescence has been shown to cause long-lasting behavioral changes, including increased anxiety- and depression-like behavior, in both rats and humans. These findings have led to the hypothesis that adolescence may be a particularly vulnerable or sensitive period for stress exposure. To investigate this hypothesis, we directly compared the effects of a 3-day stress exposure during either an adolescent (post natal day (PND) 27-29) or adult (PND 72-74) time window on exploratory behavior in male rats, measured 6 weeks post-stress (PND 72 or PND 117). Exploratory behavior was tested in both 'anxiogenic' and 'anxiolytic' environments, using the open field and novel object tests, respectively. We hypothesized that rats stressed as adolescents would show greater behavioral changes than rats stressed as adults. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found a decrease in exploratory behavior in the open-field test in both age groups. Furthermore, the magnitude of difference between stress and age-matched control animals was similar between age groups. In contrast, stress had no effect at either age in the novel object test, a more anxiolytic environment. Older adults showed decreased exploration in the novel object test compared to the younger adults, regardless of stress experience. These results suggest that adolescence is not a sensitive period for the effects of repeated variable stress on exploratory behavior in an anxiogenic environment. PMID:22281462

Saul, Michele L; Tylee, Daniel; Becoats, Kyeesha T; Guerrero, Beatriz G; Sweeney, Patrick; Helmreich, Dana L; Fudge, Julie L

2012-04-01

9

Effects of chronic isoproterenol administration of. beta. /sub 1/-adrenoceptors and growth of pancreas of young and adult rats  

SciTech Connect

(/sup 3/H)Dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding of membranes of adult pancreas differed from that of pancreas of young rats, and the DHA binding in the presence of atenolol or butoxamine also was different in the two age groups. The adult pancreas had 93% ..beta../sub 2/- and 7% ..beta../sub 1/-adrenoceptors and did not exhibit an increased incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) following 2 days of DL-isoproterenol (ISO) administration; in contrast, pancreas of the 20-day-old rat had 71% ..beta../sub 2/-adrenoceptors and 27% ..beta../sub 1/-adrenoceptors and exhibited a 34-fold increase over that of adult, and a 6-fold increase over that of the control 20-day-old pancreas. Acinar cell differentiation was also accelerated by a 7-day regimen of ISO administration from 13 to 20 days of age. These growth responses to ISO appear to be ..beta../sub 1/ mediated. The lack of ..beta../sub 1/-adrenoceptors in the adult may account for the failure of the adult pancreas to exhibit a growth response to ISO.

Schneyer, C.A.; Humphreys-Beher, M.

1988-06-01

10

Ketogenic Diet Prevents Alterations in Brain Metabolism in Young but not Adult Rats after Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Previous studies have shown that the change of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) in response to traumatic brain injury (TBI) is different in young (PND35) and adult rats (PND70), and that prolonged ketogenic diet treatment results in histological and behavioral neuroprotection only in younger rat brains. However, the mechanism(s) through which ketones act in the injured brain and the biochemical markers of their action remain unknown. Therefore, the current study was initiated to: 1) determine the effect of injury on the neurochemical profile in PND35 compared to PND70 rats; and 2) test the effect of early post-injury administration of ketogenic diet on brain metabolism in PND35 versus PND70 rats. The data show that alterations in energy metabolites, amino acid, and membrane metabolites were not evident in PND35 rats on standard diet until 24?h after injury, when the concentration of most metabolites was reduced from sham-injured values. In contrast, acute, but transient deficits in energy metabolism were measured at 6?h in PND70 rats, together with deficits in N-acetylaspartate that endured until 24?h. Administration of a ketogenic diet resulted in significant increases in plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate (?OHB) levels. Similarly, brain ?OHB levels were significantly elevated in all injured rats, but were elevated by 43% more in PND35 rats compared to PND70 rats. As a result, ATP, creatine, and phosphocreatine levels at 24?h after injury were significantly improved in the ketogenic PND35 rats, but not in the PND70 group. The improvement in energy metabolism in the PND35 brains was accompanied by the recovery of NAA and reduction of lactate levels, as well as amelioration of the deficits of other amino acids and membrane metabolites. These results indicate that the PND35 brains are more resistant to the injury, indicated by a delayed deficit in energy metabolism. Moreover, the younger brains revert to ketones metabolism more quickly than do the adult brains, resulting in better neurochemical and cerebral metabolic recovery after injury. PMID:21635175

Prins, Mayumi L.; Hovda, David A.; Harris, Neil G.

2011-01-01

11

Methylphenidate potentiates morphine-induced antinociception, hyperthermia, and locomotor activity in young adult rats  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to determine if the exaggerated morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) response seen in adult rats after preweanling methylphenidate exposure is unique to reward-mediated behaviors or is indicative of generalized changes in opioid-mediated behaviors. Rats were exposed to saline or methylphenidate (2.0 or 5.0 mg/kg) for 10 consecutive days starting on postnatal (PD) 11 with testing beginning on PD 60. In Experiment 1, morphine-induced (0, 2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 mg/kg) antinociception was assessed using the tail immersion and hot plate tasks. In Experiment 2, morphine-induced (0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg) hyperthermia and locomotor activity were measured. Morphine caused an increase in antinociception, with early methylphenidate (5.0 mg/kg) exposure potentiating the effects of 5.0 mg/kg morphine. Rectal temperatures were elevated after morphine, with the greatest increase occurring in male rats. Methylphenidate potentiated the hyperthermic effects of morphine (10.0 mg/kg) but only in males. Moderate doses (2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg) of morphine increased the locomotor activity of adult rats, while a higher dose (10.0 mg/kg) decreased locomotion. Interestingly, methylphenidate-pretreated females showed increased locomotor activity relative to controls. These results suggest that early methylphenidate exposure induces general changes in opioid system functioning that are not specific to reward-mediated behaviors. PMID:19100281

Halladay, Lindsay R.; Iñiguez, Sergio D.; Furqan, Faiza; Previte, Matt C.; Chisum, Ashley M.; Crawford, Cynthia A.

2008-01-01

12

Chronic Cellular Hyperexcitability in Elderly Epileptic Rats with Spontaneous Seizures Induced by Kainic Acid Status Epilepticus while Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Emerging data indicate that age-related brain changes alter seizure susceptibility, seizure-associated neurodegeneration, and responsiveness to AEDs. The present study assessed long-term animal survival in the Kainic Acid (KA) model along with in-vivo spontaneous seizure frequency, cellular hyperexcitability in CA1 in-vitro and in-vivo in subiculum, and responsiveness of in-vitro CA1 hyperexcitability to topiramate. Sprague-Dawley male rats were given KA to induce convulsive status epilepticus (KA-SE) at 2–3 months of age. The one-month mortality after KA-SE was 27%. One-month survivor rats had 37% sudden unexplained late mortality after KA-SE as compared to none in saline controls during their second year of life. In-vivo seizure frequency was examined prior to terminal experiments. The diurnal average seizure frequency in the KA-SE group at age 2 years was 1.06 ± 0.24 seizures/hour while no seizures were observed in the saline age-matched controls (p<0.001). In-vitro recordings of CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed that depolarizing current injection from ?60 mV evoked an increased number of action potentials in the aged KA-SE group compared to controls (p<0.002). Topiramate exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of action potential firing evoked by current injections into CA1 pyramidal neurons of KA-SE rats. In subiculum, KA-SE rats had frequent interictal spikes associated with high frequency oscillations while only rare spontaneous EPSPs were recorded in saline controls. Our experiments revealed that the hippocampal formation of aged epileptic rats shares features of hyperexcitability previously described in young adult epileptic rats using the KA model. PMID:22396885

Zhang, Kun; Tolstykh, Gleb P.; Sanchez, Russell M.; Cavazos, Jose E.

2011-01-01

13

Postnatal early overnutrition changes the leptin signalling pathway in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis of young and adult rats.  

PubMed

Postnatal early overnutrition (EO) is a risk factor for obesity in adult life. Rats raised in a small litter can develop hyperinsulinaemia, hyperphagia, hyperleptinaemia and hypertension as adults. Since leptin regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and the metabolism of thyroid hormones, we studied the leptin signalling pathway in pituitary and thyroid glands of the postnatal EO model. To induce EO, at the third day of lactation the litter size was reduced to three pups per litter (SL group). In control litters (NL group), the litter size was adjusted to 10 pups per litter. Body weight and food intake were monitored. Rat offspring were killed at 21 (weaning) and 180 days old (adulthood). Plasma thyroid hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and leptin were measured by radioimmunoassay. Proteins of the leptin signalling pathway were analysed by Western blotting. Body weight of offspring in the SL group was higher from the seventh day of lactation (+33%, P < 0.05) until 180 days old (+18%, P < 0.05). Offspring in the SL group showed higher visceral fat mass at 21 and 180 days old (+176 and +52%, respectively, P < 0.05), but plasma leptin was higher only at 21 days (+88%, P < 0.05). The SL offspring showed higher plasma TSH, 3,5,3'-triiodothronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) at 21 days (+60, +91 and +68%, respectively, P < 0.05), while the opposite was observed at 180 days regarding thyroid hormones (T(3), -10%; and T(4), -30%, P < 0.05), with no difference in TSH levels. In hypothalamus, no change was observed in the leptin signalling pathway at 21 days. However, lower janus thyrosine kinase 2 (JAK2) and phosphorilated-signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (p-STAT3) content were detected in adulthood. In pituitary, the SL group presented higher leptin receptors (Ob-R), JAK2 and p-STAT3 content at 21 days and lower JAK2 and STAT3 content at 180 days old. In contrast, in thyroid, the Ob-R expression was lower in young SL rats, while the adult SL group presented higher Ob-R and JAK2 content. We showed that postnatal EO induces short- and long-term effects upon the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. These changes may help to explain future development of metabolic and endocrine dysfunctions, such as metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism. PMID:19403617

Rodrigues, Ananda Lages; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Passos, Magna Cottini Fonseca; Dutra, Sheila Cristina Potente; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina

2009-06-01

14

Sexting among young adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Methods Using an adapted web version of Respondent-Driven Sampling (webRDS) we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (ages 18 to 24; N=3447). We examined participant sexting behavior using 4 categories of sexting: 1) Non-Sexters, 2) Receivers, 3) Senders, and 4) Two-way Sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Results Over half (57%) of respondents were Non-Sexters, 28.2% of the sample were Two-way Sexters, 12.6% were Receivers, and 2% were Senders. Males were more likely to be Receivers than females. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be Two-way Sexters than non-sexually active respondents. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in number of sexual partners, or number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Conclusions Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting. PMID:23299018

Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc

2012-01-01

15

An analysis of the differential effects of ECS on memory in young and adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

For learning and for retention trials 2-choice brightness discrimination was used in 4 experiments: I. When ECS followed learning, errors on retention trials decreased with age, for rats 30, 40, and 50 days old. II. ECS had no different memory effect on rats raised in darkness (from their 8th to 65th day) than on light-reared controls. III. ECS after bilateral

Robert Thompson; Francois Haravey; Dempsey F. Pennington; James Smith; Donald Gannon; Frederick Stockwell

1958-01-01

16

Serum biomarkers in young adult and aged Brown Norway (BN) rats following episodic (weekly) ozone exposure  

EPA Science Inventory

Ozone (03) is an air pollutant that is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Older adults are considered to be particularly susceptible to oxidant air pollutants such as 03. Serum biomarkers are being sought that would lead to better predictions of susceptibili...

17

Biochemical modifications and neuronal damage in brain of young and adult rats after long-term exposure to mobile phone radiations.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of exposure to mobile phone radiations on oxidative stress and apoptosis in brain of rats. Rats were allocated into six groups (three young and three adult). Groups 1 and 4 were not subjected to the radiation source and served as control groups. In groups 2 and 5, the mobile phones were only connected to the global system for mobile communication, while in groups 3 and 6, the option of calling was in use. Microwaves were generated by a mobile test phone (SAR = 1.13 W/kg) during 60 days (2 h/day). Significant increments in conjugated dienes, protein carbonyls, total oxidant status, and oxidative stress index along with a significant reduction of total antioxidant capacity levels were evident after exposure. Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase-3 activity, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha level were enhanced, whereas no DNA fragmentation was detected. The relative brain weight of young rats was greatly affected, and histopathological examination reinforced the neuronal damage. The study highlights the detrimental effects of mobile phone radiations on brain during young and adult ages. The interaction of these radiations with brain is via dissipating its antioxidant status and/or triggering apoptotic cell death. PMID:24801773

Motawi, Tarek K; Darwish, Hebatallah A; Moustafa, Yasser M; Labib, Mohammed M

2014-11-01

18

Chronic neonatal nicotine exposure increases excitation in the young adult rat hippocampus in a sex-dependent manner  

PubMed Central

Smoking during pregnancy exposes the fetus to nicotine, resulting in nicotine-stimulated neurotransmitter release. Recent evidence suggests that the hippocampus develops differently in males and females with delayed maturation in males. We show that chronic nicotine exposure during the first postnatal week has sex-specific long-term effects. Neonatal rat pups were chronically treated with nicotine (6 mg/kg/day) (CNN) from postnatal day 1 to 7 or milk only (Controls), and hippocampal slices were prepared from Control- and CNN-treated young adults. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) or population spikes (PSs) were recorded from the CA1 hippocampus following CA1 s. radiatum stimulation. Input/Output curves constructed from fEPSP data indicated that CNN-males, but not females, had significantly increased excitatory responses compared to Controls (p<0.05, n=10 Con, n=11 CNN). Long-term potentiation (LTP) was not significantly changed by CNN. In the presence of bicuculline, which blocks inhibitory GABAA receptors, an epileptiform burst consisting of a series of PSs was evoked. The amplitude of the first PS was significantly larger in CNN-males and females compared to Controls (males: p<0.01, n=8 Con, n=8 CNN; females: p<0.05, n=9 Con, n=7 CNN). Only CNN-males also had significantly larger second PSs (p<0.05, n=8 con, n=8 CNN). Epileptiform activity evoked by zero Mg2+ incubation did not differ in amplitude or duration of bursts in CNN-males or females compared to Controls. These data indicate that neonatal nicotine exposure has long lasting effects and results in increased excitation within the CA1 hippocampus in adulthood, with males showing increased sensitivity to nicotine's effects. PMID:22119395

Damborsky, Joanne C.; Griffith, William H.; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H.

2012-01-01

19

Testosterone and estradiol differentially affect cell proliferation in the subventricular zone of young adult gonadectomized male and female rats.  

PubMed

Steroid hormones are important players to regulate adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, but their involvement in the regulation of the same phenomenon in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles is not completely understood. Here, in male rats, we tested the existence of activational effects of testosterone (T) on cell proliferation in the adult SVZ. To this aim, three groups of male rats: castrated, castrated and treated with T, and controls were treated with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and killed after 24h. The density of BrdU-labeled cells was significantly lower in castrated animals in comparison to the other two groups, thus supporting a direct correlation between SVZ proliferation and levels of circulating T. To clarify whether this effect is purely androgen-dependent, or mediated by the T metabolites, estradiol (E2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), we evaluated SVZ proliferation in castrated males treated with E2, DHT and E2+DHT, in comparison to T- and vehicle-treated animals, and sham-operated controls. The stereological analysis demonstrated that E2 and T, but not DHT, increase proliferation in the SVZ of adult male rats. Quantitative evaluation of cells expressing the endogenous marker of cell proliferation phosphorylated form of Histone H3 (PHH3), or the marker of highly dividing SVZ progenitors Mash1, indicated the effect of T/E2 is mostly restricted to SVZ proliferating progenitors. The same experimental protocol was repeated on ovariectomized female rats treated with E2 or T. In this case, no statistically significant difference was found among groups. Overall, our results clearly show that the gonadal hormones T and E2 represent important mediators of cell proliferation in the adult SVZ. Moreover, we show that such an effect is restricted to males, supporting adult neurogenesis in rats is a process differentially modulated in the two sexes. PMID:25481234

Farinetti, A; Tomasi, S; Foglio, B; Ferraris, A; Ponti, G; Gotti, S; Peretto, P; Panzica, G C

2015-02-12

20

Young Adults' Choices for 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents annotations of 30 works of adolescent literature (published in 1999) chosen as the result of voting by students in five different regions of the United States. Notes that the goals of the project are to encourage young people to read and to make teens, teachers, librarians, and parents aware of new literature for young adults. (SG)

Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 2001

2001-01-01

21

Effects of repeated and acute aripiprazole or haloperidol treatment on dopamine synthesis in the dorsal striatum of young rats: comparison to adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether repeated treatment with the D2 partial agonist aripiprazole or the\\u000a D2 antagonist haloperidol alters dopamine (DA) synthesis characteristics in the dorsal striatum of young rats. To this end,\\u000a rats received a daily pretreatment regimen of aripiprazole or haloperidol on postnatal days (PD) 10–20 and were tested 24\\u000a or 72 h later

Taleen Der-Ghazarian; Sergios Charntikov; Fausto A. Varela; Cynthia A. Crawford; Sanders A. McDougall

2010-01-01

22

Young Adult Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applies the idea of the theme booktalk to "Wuthering Heights," which serves as a springboard for talking about themes of family rage, confrontation, quarrel and rebellion in other works of literature with relevance to contemporary young people. (JK)

Rochman, Hazel

1986-01-01

23

Different types of soluble fermentable dietary fibre decrease food intake, body weight gain and adiposity in young adult male rats  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary fibre-induced satiety offers a physiological approach to body weight regulation, yet there is lack of scientific evidence. This experiment quantified food intake, body weight and body composition responses to three different soluble fermentable dietary fibres in an animal model and explored underlying mechanisms of satiety signalling and hindgut fermentation. Methods Young adult male rats were fed ad libitum purified control diet (CONT) containing 5% w/w cellulose (insoluble fibre), or diet containing 10% w/w cellulose (CELL), fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), oat beta-glucan (GLUC) or apple pectin (PECT) (4 weeks; n = 10/group). Food intake, body weight, and body composition (MRI) were recorded, final blood samples analysed for gut satiety hormones, hindgut contents for fermentation products (including short-chain fatty acids, SCFA) and intestinal tissues for SCFA receptor gene expression. Results GLUC, FOS and PECT groups had, respectively, 10% (P < 0.05), 17% (P < 0.001) and 19% (P < 0.001) lower food intake and 37% (P < 0.01), 37% (P < 0.01) and 45% (P < 0.001) lower body weight gain than CONT during the four-week experiment. At the end they had 26% (P < 0.05), 35% (P < 0.01) and 42% (P < 0.001) less total body fat, respectively, while plasma total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was 2.2-, 3.2- and 2.6-fold higher (P < 0.001) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) was 2.3-, 3.1- and 3.0-fold higher (P < 0.001). There were no differences in these parameters between CONT and CELL. Compared with CONT and CELL, caecal concentrations of fermentation products increased 1.4- to 2.2-fold in GLUC, FOS and PECT (P < 0.05) and colonic concentrations increased 1.9- to 2.5-fold in GLUC and FOS (P < 0.05), with no consistent changes in SCFA receptor gene expression detected. Conclusions This provides animal model evidence that sustained intake of three different soluble dietary fibres decreases food intake, weight gain and adiposity, increases circulating satiety hormones GLP-1 and PYY, and increases hindgut fermentation. The presence of soluble fermentable fibre appears to be more important than its source. The results suggest that dietary fibre-induced satiety is worthy of further investigation towards natural body weight regulation in humans. PMID:25152765

2014-01-01

24

Prayer practices among young adults.  

PubMed

Prayer is the most common complementary and alternative intervention used by most Americans. Yet, little is known about the prayer practices of young adults. In this exploratory study, 4 types of prayer practices of 62 young adults (21-30 years old) are described. The 4 different categories of prayer were: contemplative-meditative, ritualistic, petitionary, and colloquial. Participants most often used colloquial prayer practice, that is, asking God to provide guidance or talking to God in their own words. Recommendations for future research are included. PMID:21037458

Nance, Jennifer G; Quinn Griffin, Mary T; McNulty, Sister Rita; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

2010-01-01

25

Young adults’ experiences with cancer  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine the experiences with cancer of adults diagnosed when between 20 and 35 years old. DESIGN Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. SETTING Largest health care region in the province of New Brunswick. PARTICIPANTS Six men and 9 women cancer patients and survivors. METHOD Fifteen adults interviewed when between the ages of 20 and 43 representing a variety of cancers and stages of disease were recruited for this study. Interviews were guided by a set of open-ended questions and explored participants’ experiences with cancer from initial presentation of symptoms through to survivorship issues. MAIN FINDINGS The most important clinical issue that emerged from the analysis was that participants’ youth appeared to contribute to delays in diagnosis of cancer. These delays were attributed to either patients’ or physicians’ inaction. Some patients attributed their initial cancer symptoms to the adverse effects of alcohol or excessive partying; others feared a bad diagnosis and delayed seeking help. Family physicians frequently interpreted nonspecific symptoms as resulting from patients’ lifestyle choices and were reluctant to consider a diagnosis of cancer. Several family physicians reportedly believed that persistent symptoms could not be the result of cancer because patients were too young. CONCLUSION Although cancer is relatively rare in young adults, family physicians need to include it in differential diagnoses. Both patients and physicians tend to minimize cancer symptoms in young adults. Delays in diagnosis might not affect health outcomes, but can cause distress to young adults with cancer. PMID:17279205

Miedema, Baukje (Bo); Easley, Julie; Hamilton, Ryan

2006-01-01

26

Identifying Metacognitive Social Skills in Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines research on social skills instruction for learning disabled young adults. It is suggested that learning disabled young adults must develop methods of analyzing their social inadequacies. Such analyses may come from the young adults, when they are able to apply metacognition skills to social situations. Parents, teachers, and/or…

Clary, Linda M.

27

Raising "Hot Topics" through Young Adult Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While young adult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read young adult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching young adult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their…

Groenke, Susan; Maples, Joellen; Henderson, Jill

2010-01-01

28

Qualitative study of young, adult, and aged Wistar rats temporomandibular synovial membrane employing light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze the rat temporomandibular joint (TMJ) synovial membrane at different ages using light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Under light microscopic analysis, the TMJ structures were observed such as condyle, capsule, disk, the synovial membrane collagen type, and cells distribution. In the scanning electron microscopy, the synovial membrane surface exhibited a smooth aspect in young animals and there was an increase with ageing in the number of folds. The transmission electron microscopic analysis showed more synoviocytes in the synovial layer in the young group and still a great number of vesicles and cisterns dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum in the aged group. In the three groups, a dense layer of collagen fibers in the synovial layer and cytoplasmic extensions were clearly seen. It was possible to conclude that synovial membrane structures in aged group showed alterations contributing to the decrease in joint lubrication and in the sliding between disk and joint surfaces. These characteristic will reflect in biomechanics of chewing, and may cause the TMJ disorders, currently observed in clinical processes. PMID:22791633

Duro, Christiano Cony; Ciena, Adriano Polican; De Almeida, Sonia Regina Yokomizo; Righetti, Marta Maria Da Silva; Grisolia, Débora De Freitas; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira; Watanabe, Ii-Sei

2012-11-01

29

Myocardial infarction in young adults  

PubMed Central

Although myocardial infarction (MI) mainly occurs in patients older than 45, young men or women can suffer MI. Fortunately, its incidence is not common in patients younger than 45 years. However, the disease carries a significant morbidity, psychological effects, and financial constraints for the person and the family when it occurs at a young age. The causes of MI among patients aged less than 45 can be divided into four groups: (1) atheromatous coronary artery disease; (2) non-atheromatous coronary artery disease; (2) hyper-coagulable states; (4) MI related to substance misuse. There is a considerable overlap between all the groups. This article reviews the literature and highlights the practical issues involved in the management of young adults with MI. PMID:16344295

Egred, M; Viswanathan, G; Davis, G

2005-01-01

30

Just How Adult Is This Young Adult Book: Young Adult Books for the Junior High Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses young adult novels and presents a bibliography to acquaint librarians with titles and authors that are suitable for emerging young adult readers in grades five through nine. Subject categories include realistic fiction, in the news, historical fiction, short stories, legendary characters, mysteries, science fiction/fantasy/horror, and…

Decker, Charlotte

1999-01-01

31

Multiple Voices in Young Adult Novels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A stylistic device that has been used by many authors over the years is to alternate the point of view between two or more characters. Authors of young adult novels choose this technique of multiple narrative voices for a variety of reasons. Multiple voices offer a challenge to many young adult readers because the point of view is much more…

Capan, Mary Ann

32

Early methylphenidate exposure enhances cocaine self-administration but not cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in young adult rats  

PubMed Central

Rationale Previous studies in rodents show that early exposure to methylphenidate alters later responsiveness to drugs of abuse. An interesting feature of these studies is that early methylphenidate treatment decreases the rewarding value of cocaine when measured by conditioned place preference (CPP), but the same treatment increases cocaine self-administration. Objective The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of early methylphenidate exposure on cocaine-induced responding using both reward paradigms. Methods Rats were treated with methylphenidate (0, 2, or 5 mg/kg) from postnatal day (PD) 11 to PD 20 and then cocaine-induced CPP or cocaine self-administration was measured in separate groups of rats in adulthood. The CPP procedure included eight days of acquisition training, eight days of extinction training, and a reinstatement test. Rats were conditioned with 0, 10 or 20 mg/kg cocaine. Reinstatement was assessed after a priming dose of cocaine (10 mg/kg). For the self-administration experiment, a jugular catheter was implanted and rats were trained to press a lever reinforced with cocaine (0.25 or 0.75 mg/kg/infusion) on a fixed ratio (FR) 1 schedule. Rats were gradually moved from an FR1 to an FR10 schedule and, after criterion was reached, rats were placed on a progressive ratio schedule for five days. Results Cocaine produced robust rewarding effects as determined by both the CPP and self-administration experiments; however, early methylphenidate exposure only enhanced the reinforcing effects of cocaine on the self-administration paradigm. Interestingly, this methylphenidate enhancement was only seen in male rats. Conclusions These data suggest that in males methylphenidate enhances the reinforcing value of cocaine, but not cocaine-associated cues. PMID:20848087

Crawford, Cynthia A.; Baella, Shelley A.; Farley, Cristal M.; Herbert, Matthew S.; Horn, Leslie R.; Campbell, Rachel H.; Zavala, Arturo R.

2010-01-01

33

Young adult palliative care: challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

Young adulthood is a time of immense growth and possibilities. As a result, it is also a time when serious illness can have profound effects. This review examines the current data pertinent to young adult palliative care and discusses the challenges and opportunities where palliative medicine can enhance the care provided to this growing and vulnerable population. From the data, 2 primary themes emerged (1) ongoing young adult development not only generates unique biologic disease burdens and clinical treatment options but also requires frequent assessment and promotion and (2) binary health care systems often leave young adults without access to developmentally appropriate health care. Given its interdisciplinary approach, palliative care is uniquely poised to address the challenges known to caring for the seriously ill young adult. PMID:24198063

Clark, Jennifer K; Fasciano, Karen

2015-02-01

34

Toluene effects on Oxidative Stress in Brain regions of Young-adult, Middleage,and Senescent Brown Norway Rats  

EPA Science Inventory

The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress plays a role in the adver...

35

Toluene effects on oxidative stress in brain regions of young-adult, middle-age, and senescent Brown Norway rats  

SciTech Connect

The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound, toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in the adverse effects caused by toluene exposure, and if so, if effects are age-dependent. OS parameters were selected to measure the production of reactive oxygen species (NADPH Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), NADH Ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD)), antioxidant homeostasis (total antioxidant substances (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase ({gamma}-GCS), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD)), and oxidative damage (total aconitase and protein carbonyls). In this study, Brown Norway rats (4, 12, and 24 months) were dosed orally with toluene (0, 0.65 or 1 g/kg) in corn oil. Four hours later, frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus were dissected, quick frozen on dry ice, and stored at - 80 Degree-Sign C until analysis. Some parameters of OS were found to increase with age in select brain regions. Toluene exposure also resulted in increased OS in select brain regions. For example, an increase in NQO1 activity was seen in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 4 and 12 month old rats following toluene exposure, but only in the hippocampus of 24 month old rats. Similarly, age and toluene effects on glutathione enzymes were varied and brain-region specific. Markers of oxidative damage reflected changes in oxidative stress. Total aconitase activity was increased by toluene in frontal cortex and cerebellum at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Protein carbonyls in both brain regions and in all age groups were increased by toluene, but step-down analyses indicated toluene effects were statistically significant only in 12 month old rats. These results indicate changes in OS parameters with age and toluene exposure resulted in oxidative damage in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 12 month old rats. Although increases in oxidative damage are associated with increases in horizontal motor activity in older rats, further research is warranted to determine if these changes in OS parameters are related to neurobehavioral and neurophysiological effects of toluene in animal models of aging.

Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S., E-mail: kodavanti.prasada@epa.gov [Neurotoxicology Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Royland, Joyce E. [Genetic and Cellular Toxicology Branch, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)] [Genetic and Cellular Toxicology Branch, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Richards, Judy E. [Research Core Unit, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)] [Research Core Unit, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Besas, Jonathan; MacPhail, Robert C. [Neurotoxicology Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)] [Neurotoxicology Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

2011-11-15

36

?2-adrenoceptor stimulation restores frontal cortex plasticity and improves visuospatial performance in hidden-prenatally-malnourished young-adult rats.  

PubMed

Moderate reduction in dietary protein composition of pregnant rats from 25 to 8% casein, calorically compensated by carbohydrates, has been described as a "hidden malnutrition" because it does not alter body and brain weights of pups at birth. However, this dietary treatment leads to altered central noradrenergic systems, impaired cortical long-term potentiation (LTP) and worsened visuo-spatial memory performance. Given the increasing interest on the role played by ?2-adrenoceptors (?2-ARs) on brain plasticity, the present study aimed to address the following in hidden-malnourished and eutrophic control rats: (i) the expression levels of ?2-ARs in the frontal cortex determined by immunohistochemistry, and (ii) the effect of the ?2 selective agonist clenbuterol on both LTP elicited in vivo in the prefrontal cortex and visuospatial performance measured in an eight-arm radial maze. Our results showed that, prenatally malnourished rats exhibited a significant reduction of neocortical ?2-AR expression in adulthood. Concomitantly, they were unable to elicit and maintain prefrontal cortex LTP and exhibited lower visuospatial learning performance. Administration of clenbuterol (0.019, 0.038 and 0.075 mg/kg i.p.) enhanced LTP in malnourished and control animals and restored visuospatial learning performance in malnourished but not in normal rats, in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest that decreased density of neocortical ?2-ARs during postnatal life, subsequent to hidden prenatal malnutrition might affect some synaptic networks required to elicit neocortical LTP and form visuospatial memory, since those neuroplastic deficits were counteracted by ?2-AR stimulation. PMID:25464009

Sáez-Briones, Patricio; Soto-Moyano, Rubén; Burgos, Héctor; Castillo, Amparo; Valladares, Luis; Morgan, Carlos; Pérez, Hernán; Barra, Rafael; Constandil, Luis; Laurido, Claudio; Hernández, Alejandro

2014-11-20

37

Minimally invasive aesthetic procedures in young adults  

PubMed Central

Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asymmetries, correction after body modifying procedures, and facial sculpturing are important issues for young adults. The implication of aesthetic medicine as part of preventive medicine is a major ethical challenge that differentiates aesthetic medicine from fashion. PMID:21673871

Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto

2011-01-01

38

Literature for Today's Young Adults. Fourth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to help teachers open young minds to literature, this book presents criteria for evaluating books in all genres and their suggested classroom uses, an examination of hotly debated topics, and an overview of the significance of young adult literature. The fourth edition of the book features 30 boxed inserts containing essays by some of the…

Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Donelson, Kenneth L.

39

Role Playing: Young Adults as Independent Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides 26 strategies for libraries that have chosen the independent learner role and are committed to meeting the needs of young adults. A self-evaluation form on access and a list of the developmental needs of young adolescents are included. (Contains 12 references.) (EAM)

Jones, Patrick

1993-01-01

40

Sleep in Young Adults with Asperger Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asperger syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder belonging to autism spectrum disorders. Both children and adults with AS have subjective impairment in the initiation and continuity of sleep, and studies using objective assessment are sparse. Twenty young AS adults with frequent complaints of low sleep quality were compared to 10 age-, gender- and education-matched controls without sleep complaints using polysomnography

Pekka Tani; Nina Lindberg; Taina Nieminen-von Wendt; Lennart von Wendt; Jussi Virkkala; Björn Appelberg; Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen

2004-01-01

41

Hippocampal protein expression is differentially affected by chronic paroxetine treatment in adolescent and adult rats: a possible mechanism of “paradoxical” antidepressant responses in young persons  

PubMed Central

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly recognized as the pharmacological treatment of choice for patients with depressive disorders, yet their use in adolescent populations has come under scrutiny following reports of minimal efficacy and an increased risk of suicidal ideation and behavior in this age group. The biological mechanisms underlying these effects are largely unknown. Accordingly, the current study examined changes in hippocampal protein expression following chronic administration of paroxetine in drinking water (target dose = 10 mg/kg for 22 days) to adult and adolescent rats. Results indicated age-specific changes in protein expression, with paroxetine significantly altering expression of 8 proteins in adolescents only and 10 proteins solely in adults. A further 12 proteins were significantly altered in both adolescents and adults. In adults, protein changes were generally suggestive of a neurotrophic and neuroprotective effect of paroxetine, with significant downregulation of apoptotic proteins Galectin 7 and Cathepsin B, and upregulation of the neurotrophic factor Neurogenin 1 and the antioxidant proteins Aldose reductase and Carbonyl reductase 3. Phosphodiesterase 10A, a signaling protein associated with major depressive disorder, was also downregulated (-6.5-fold) in adult rats. Adolescent rats failed to show the neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects observed in adults, instead displaying upregulation of the proapoptotic protein BH3-interacting domain death agonist (4.3-fold). Adolescent protein expression profiles also suggested impaired phosphoinositide signaling (Protein kinase C: -3.1-fold) and altered neurotransmitter transport and release (Syntaxin 7: 5.7-fold; Dynamin 1: -6.9-fold). The results of the present study provide clues as to possible mechanisms underlying the atypical response of human adolescents to paroxetine treatment. PMID:23847536

Karanges, Emily A.; Kashem, Mohammed A.; Sarker, Ranjana; Ahmed, Eakhlas U.; Ahmed, Selina; Van Nieuwenhuijzen, Petra S.; Kemp, Andrew H.; McGregor, Iain S.

2013-01-01

42

Nutrition support programs for young adult athletes.  

PubMed

After graduating from college and entering the work force, young adult athletes often struggle with the task of fueling themselves optimally for top performance and weight control. The stresses and time constraints of work, family, and social responsibilities often result in eating fast foods on the run. These young adults can benefit from nutrition education programs in the worksite, at health clubs, in the community, and via the media. Dietitians who specialize in sport nutrition have particular appeal to these athletes, who are struggling to each well, exercise well, and stay lean yet put little time or effort into their food program. This article includes two case studies of young adults and the dietary recommendations that taught them how to make wise food choices, fuel themselves well for high energy, and control their weight. PMID:9841961

Clark, N

1998-12-01

43

Young Adults and Colon Cancer  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the decline in older Americans, but a new study finds incidence of the disease in younger adults may be on the rise. Researchers analyzed more than 230,000 cases of colon cancer covering a period of more ...

44

Aplastic Anemia in Adolescents and Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Adolescent and young adult patient presentations of aplastic anemia require a particular perspective on both diagnosis and treatment. This unique age group necessitates a thorough diagnostic evaluation to ensure the etiology, acquired or inherited, is sufficiently determined. The treatment options include human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling hematopoietic cell transplantation or immunosuppressive therapy, and both require attention to the specific medical and social needs of these adolescents and young adults. Longitudinal surveillance throughout life for the development of late complications of the disease and treatment is mandatory. PMID:25228559

DeZern, Amy E.; Guinan, Eva C.

2014-01-01

45

Iron Deficiency in Adolescents and Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the prevalence, natural history, causes, impact on performance, diagnosis, and treatment of iron deficiency in adolescent and young adult athletes. All athletes should be screened and treated. The best diagnosis involves determining serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. Treatment requires therapeutic doses of oral ferrous iron for several…

Risser, William L.; Risser, Jan M. H.

1990-01-01

46

Predicting Condom Use among Young Lithuanian Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Until recently, the countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union appeared to have escaped the worst of the AIDS epidemic. In 1994 there were 30,000 reported HIV infections, but by the end of 1997 the number had climbed to 190,000. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) for explanatory utility among young adults and their use of condoms…

Zagumny, Matthew J.; Dolzycki, Jadwiga; Bedkowska-Heine, Viola; Hammonds, Paul; Salyer, Elizabeth L.

47

Cultural Orientation. Young Adult Curriculum: Introduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cultural orientation curriculum for young adults in the International Catholic Migration Commission's Philippine Refugee Processing Center is discussed and outlined. The program's goals for emotional and character development (self-awareness and self-esteem, cultural awareness, pro-activity, personal responsibility), knowledge of cultural…

Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.

48

Challenging Perspectives on Young Adult Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As proponents of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) publish lists of "Exemplar Texts" that are said to represent the degree of textual complexity appropriate for the different grade levels, and that are overwhelmingly canonical, those who value young adult literature and recognize a place for it in the high school literature…

Conners, Sean P.

2013-01-01

49

Reducing Underage and Young Adult Drinking  

PubMed Central

Forty years ago, when the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded, alcoholism was considered an adult disease driven principally by physiological determinants. As NIAAA expanded its research portfolio, new data and insights were obtained that led to an increased focus on underage and young adult drinking. Fostered by interdisciplinary research, etiologic models were developed that recognized the multiplicity of relevant genetic and environmental influences. This shift in conceptualizing alcohol use disorders also was based on findings from large-scale, national studies indicating that late adolescence and early young adulthood were peak periods for the development of alcohol dependence and that early initiation of alcohol use (i.e., before age 15) was associated with a fourfold increase in the probability of subsequently developing alcohol dependence. In recent years, developmental studies and models of the initiation, escalation, and adverse consequences of underage and early young adult drinking have helped us to understand how alcohol use may influence, and be influenced by, developmental transitions or turning points. Major risk and protective factors are being identified and integrated into screening, prevention, and treatment programs to optimize interventions designed to reduce drinking problems among adolescents and young adults. In addition, regulatory policies, such as the minimum drinking age and zero-tolerance laws, are being implemented and evaluated for their impact on public health. PMID:23579934

Windle, Michael; Zucker, Robert A.

2010-01-01

50

Young Adult Literature: From Romance to Realism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's young adult (YA) literature is every bit as complex as the audience it's written for, unflinchingly addressing such topics as homosexuality, mental illness, AIDS and drug abuse. In this much expanded revision of his 1996 book, veteran author Michael Cart shows how the best of contemporary YA lit has evolved to tackle such daunting subjects…

Cart, Michael

2010-01-01

51

The Silver Anniversary of Young Adult Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an expanded version of a speech given at the 1992 American Library Association conference reflecting on 25 years of young adult literature. Issues and trends in American society and their relationship to the emerging literature written for adolescents are discussed. (EAM)

Peck, Richard

1993-01-01

52

Classic Readers Theatre for Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents 16 original scripts that have been adapted from classic works of literature for use for readers theatre with young adults and ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Adaptations of the following works are included: "Little Women" (Louisa May Alcott); episodes from "Don Quixote" (Miguel de Cervantes; "The Necklace" (Guy de…

Barchers, Suzanne I.; Kroll, Jennifer L.

53

Young Adults Deserve the Best: YALSA's Competencies in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As high school enrollment continues to rise, the need for effective librarianship serving young adults is greater than ever before. "Young Adults Deserve the Best: Competencies for Librarians Serving Youth," developed by Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), is a document outlining areas of focus for providing quality library service…

Flowers, Sarah

2010-01-01

54

2009 YALSA Fabulous Films & Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2009 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the titles that were released in January 2009 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Denver,…

School Library Journal, 2009

2009-01-01

55

Young Adult Outcome of Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

To learn about the lives of young adults with ASD, families with children born 1974–1984, diagnosed as preschoolers and followed\\u000a into adolescence were contacted by mail. Of 76 eligible, 48 (63%) participated in a telephone interview. Global outcome scores\\u000a were assigned based on work, friendships and independence. At mean age 24, half had good to fair outcome and 46% poor.

Linda C. Eaves; Helena H. Ho

2008-01-01

56

Methamphetamine use and violence among young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research analyzed the relationship between methamphetamine use and violence among young adults eighteen to twenty-five years old. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 106 respondents. The research was based primarily on in-depth, life-history interviews with individuals who used methamphetamine for a minimum of three months and who resided in Los Angeles County.Of the 106 respondents, 37 (34.9

Arielle Baskin-Sommers; Ira Sommers

2006-01-01

57

Young Adult Reactions to Death in Literature and Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seeks to understand young adult reactions to death by looking at their literature. Examines typical behaviors, such as resistance to authority, withdrawal, and hiding feelings, as represented in young adult fiction and nonfiction. Suggests healing responses and argues that adults can use books to make bereavement a therapeutic exercise. (RJM)

DeMinco, Sandrea

1995-01-01

58

Neural Processes Supporting Young and Older Adults' Emotional Memories  

E-print Network

are associated with self-referential processing, these results suggest that older adults' mnemonic boostNeural Processes Supporting Young and Older Adults' Emotional Memories Elizabeth A. Kensinger1 the neural processes supporting young (ages 18­35) and older (ages 62­79) adults' successful encoding

Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

59

Young Adults' Support Strategies when Peers Disclose Suicidal Intent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the growing suicide rate among adolescents and young adults, researchers have noted the importance of peer responses to suicidal disclosures in this population. The most adaptive response is to inform a responsible adult about the suicidal peer, but existing data indicate that most adolescents and young adults choose to talk to the…

Dunham, Katherine

2004-01-01

60

Risky Driving in Adolescents and Young Adults with Childhood ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine risky driving behaviors and negative driving outcomes in a large sample of adolescents and adults diagnosed in childhood with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) compared with demographically similar controls without ADHD. Methods 355 adolescents and young adults of the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) (n ¼203 probands; n ¼152 controls) were administered the Young Adult Driving Questionnaire.

Amanda L. Thompson; Brooke S. G. Molina; William Pelham Jr; Elizabeth M. Gnagy

2007-01-01

61

Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer, CSR 1975-2005  

Cancer.gov

Tumors affecting adolescents and young adults often differ from those affecting pediatric and older adult populations (1). For this reason, a classification scheme has been proposed for tumors diagnosed in adolescents and young adults (2). This classification scheme was updated based on site and histology codes of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition (3).

62

Sexual Prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults  

PubMed Central

Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195

Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos

2014-01-01

63

Young Adults' Implicit and Explicit Attitudes towards the Sexuality of Older Adults.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Sexual interest and capacity can extend far into later life and result in many positive health outcomes. Yet there is little support for sexual expression in later life, particularly among young adults. This study assessed and compared young adults' explicit and implicit attitudes towards older adult sexuality. A sample of 120 participants (18-24 years; 58% female) completed a self-report (explicit) measure and a series of Implicit Association Tests capturing attitudes towards sexuality among older adults. Despite reporting positive explicit attitudes, young people revealed an implicit bias against the sexual lives of older adults. In particular, young adults demonstrated implicit biases favouring general, as compared to sexual, activities and young adults as compared to older adults. Moreover, the bias favouring general activities was amplified with regard to older adults as compared to younger adults. Our findings challenge the validity of research relying on self-reports of attitudes about older adult sexuality. PMID:25050559

Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Byers, E Sandra; Shaughnessy, Krystelle

2014-07-22

64

The Affordable Care Act and implications for young adult health.  

PubMed

In the USA, young adults are most likely to be uninsured and least likely to report a usual source of medical care than any age group. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) recognizes the critical need for expanded insurance coverage for this age group, and multiple provisions of the ACA address insurance coverage and health care utilization in young adults. This paper presents a brief overview of the challenges of maintaining health insurance coverage and accessing health care in young adults, provisions of the ACA relevant to young adults, and early impact of the ACA on young adult health insurance status and health care access and utilization. We offer policy suggestions for behavioral health providers to address continued challenges related to health care for young adults. PMID:24904700

Monaghan, Maureen

2014-06-01

65

Young adult smoking cessation: predictors of quit attempts and abstinence.  

PubMed

We examined young adult smoking cessation behaviors, coding cessation behavior as no attempt, quit attempt (< 30 days), or abstinence (? 30 days) during follow-up from July 2005 through December 2008, observed in 592 young adult smokers from the Ontario Tobacco Survey. One in 4 young adults made an attempt; 14% obtained 30-day abstinence. Cessation resources, prior attempts, and intention predicted quit attempts, whereas high self-efficacy, using resources, having support, and low addiction predicted abstinence, indicating that young adult smokers require effective and appropriate cessation resources. PMID:23327264

Diemert, Lori M; Bondy, Susan J; Brown, K Stephen; Manske, Steve

2013-03-01

66

Stroke in young adults: about 128 cases  

PubMed Central

Ischemic stroke is rare in young adults, but it is genuinely a serious situation giving the fact that it touch a very active part of our society. We report a series of 128 cases. The purpose is to analyze the risk factors, etiologies and outcomes of ischemic stroke in young adults in Marrakesh. Retrospective study performed at the Neurology department Mohammed VI universitary hospital in Marrakesh interesting 128 patients. The diagnosis of ischemic stroke was assessed through clinical and radiological confrontation. Results: The age of our patients varied from 18 to 45 years old, 76 males and 52 females giving a male: female ratio of 1:46. Hypertension was the first risk factor involved with 63 (49.2%) cases, followed by smoking with 52 (40.6%) patients. The causes of ischemic stroke were characterized by the predominance of the cardio embolic origin with 43 (33.5%) cases, the existence of 14 (11%) cases of syphilitic arthritis, and the 52 (40.6%) cases of unknown etiologies. The authors stress the difficulties faced on supporting ischemic stroke in southern Morocco in particular when concerned by the etiological finding and the rehabilitation after the acute phase of the stroke. Our study points out the high incidence of embolic heart disease in our context. The lack of neurologists, low coverage of the population and the underestimation by physicians are factors that can explain why ischemic stroke remain undiagnosed. PMID:24932348

Chraa, Mohamed; Louhab, Nesrine; Kissani, Najib

2014-01-01

67

Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most  

MedlinePLUS

... Adults Most Email Facebook Twitter Text Description of Infographic Young adults (age 18 to 25) are the ... 2014 Monitoring the Future Survey ( December 2014 ) Tags Infographics Prescription Drugs Trends and Statistics This page was ...

68

Involvement of high plasma corticosterone status and activation of brain regional serotonin metabolism in long-term erythrosine-induced rearing motor hyper activity in young adult male rats.  

PubMed

Long-term consumption of artificial food color(s) can induce behavioral hyperactivity in human and experimental animals, but no neurobiochemical mechanism is defined. This study investigates the role of brain regional serotonin metabolism including its turnover, MAO-A activity, and plasma corticosterone status in relation to behavioral disturbances due to an artificial food color, erythrosine. Long-term (15 or 30 consecutive days) erythrosine administration with higher dosage (10 or 100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) produced optimal hyperactive state in exploratory behavior (rearing motor activity) after 2 h of last erythrosine administration, in young adult male albino rats. Erythrosine-induced stimulation in brain regional (medulla-pons, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and corpus striatum) serotonin metabolism (measuring steady state levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA, MAO-A activity), including its turnover (pargyline-induced 5-HT accumulation and 5-HIAA declination rate), as well as plasma corticosterone were also observed depending on dosage(s) and duration(s) of erythrosine administration under similar experimental conditions. The lower dosage of erythrosine (1 mg/kg/day, p.o.) under similar conditions did not affect either of the above. These findings suggests (a) the induction as well as optimal effect of long-term erythrosine (artificial food color) on behavioral hyperactivity in parallel with increase in 5-HT level in brain regions, (b) the activation of brain regional serotonin biosynthesis in accordance with plasma corticosterone status under such behavioral hyperactivity, and (c) a possible inhibitory influence of the enhanced glucocorticoids-serotonin interaction on erythrosine-induced rearing motor hyperactivity in young adult mammals. PMID:20465369

Dalal, Arindam; Poddar, Mrinal K

2010-07-01

69

Anaphylaxis in the young adult population.  

PubMed

It is critical that clinicians treating young adults understand the presentation and management of anaphylaxis. The most common trigger for anaphylaxis in this population is food. The prevalence of food allergy is growing, with 8% of US children and adolescents affected. All patients at risk for anaphylaxis should be prescribed epinephrine autoinjectors, as epinephrine is the only life-saving medication for a severe anaphylactic reaction. The presentation of anaphylaxis can involve multiple organ systems (eg, mucocutaneous, respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal) and, as such, patient education is needed to assist in prompt recognition. Appropriate training of patients and caregivers about how to identify anaphylaxis and what to do in an emergency is critical. Training of school and college staff also is essential, as 1 in 4 first-time reactions occurs outside the home. Additional counseling for adolescents at risk for anaphylactic reactions should address increased risk-taking behavior, decreased adult supervision, dating, and the transition of disease management from an adult to the patient. PMID:24384134

Gupta, Ruchi S

2014-01-01

70

The respiratory effects of cannabis dependence in young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim. To evaluate the relationship between cannabis dependence and respiratory symptoms and lung function in young adults, while controlling for the effects of tobacco smoking. Setting and participants. Nine hundred and forty-three young adults from a birth cohort of 1037 subjects born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972\\/1973 were studied at age 21. Measurements. Standardized respiratory symptom questionnaires were administered.

D. Robin Taylor; Richie Poulton; Terrie E. Moffitt; Padmaja Ramankutty; Malcolm R. Sears

2000-01-01

71

Teens' Favorite Books: Young Adults' Choices 1987-1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to make the job of encouraging adolescents to read less of a challenge, this book provides descriptions of all of the approximately 150 examples of young adult literature that were selected "Young Adults' Choices" in the yearly voting by teenagers conducted from 1987 to 1992. Each entry in the book includes bibliographic information, an…

International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

72

Psychological adjustment and adaptive impairments in young adults with ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compared a group of 25 young adults with ADHD to 23 young adults drawn from the community equated for age (Mean = 25 yrs.) and educational level (Mean 13 yrs.) using a structured psychiatric interview (non-blinded), self-report ratings of psychological distress, and psychological tests of inattention, impulsive responding, working memory, verbal fluency, sense of time, and creativity.

R. A. Barkley; K. Murphy; D. Kwasnik

1996-01-01

73

Pioneers in Public Library Service to Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents biographies of four leaders in public library service to young adults: Mabel Williams, Margaret Scoggin, Jean Roos, and Margaret Edwards. They are described as pioneers who worked to obtain recognition for and establish young adult work and who can serve as inspirations for librarians today. (EM)

Atkinson, Joan

1986-01-01

74

Reading Interests of Young Adults in Medina County, Ohio.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the reading interests of the young adult participants in the summer reading program at Medina County District Library (Ohio). Findings were compared to research done in other locations and to current bibliographies of recommended reading for young adults. The study looked at a systematic sample of reader…

Fronius, Sandra K.

75

Intergenerational Relationships and Affectual Solidarity between Grandparents and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines whether both parents' relationships with their offspring, parents, and parents-in-law matter for young adults' perceptions of closeness to grandparents. This study focuses on two groups of grandchildren (ages 18-23) in Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households: young adults with married biological parents (N =…

Monserud, Maria A.

2008-01-01

76

Identifying Correlates of Young Adults' Weight Behavior: Survey Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…

Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.

2011-01-01

77

Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…

Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2012-01-01

78

Spatial navigation in young versus older adults  

PubMed Central

Older age is associated with changes in the brain, including the medial temporal lobe, which may result in mild spatial navigation deficits, especially in allocentric navigation. The aim of the study was to characterize the profile of real-space allocentric (world-centered, hippocampus-dependent) and egocentric (body-centered, parietal lobe dependent) navigation and learning in young vs. older adults, and to assess a possible influence of gender. We recruited healthy participants without cognitive deficits on standard neuropsychological testing, white matter lesions or pronounced hippocampal atrophy: 24 young participants (18–26 years old) and 44 older participants stratified as participants 60–70 years old (n = 24) and participants 71–84 years old (n = 20). All underwent spatial navigation testing in the real-space human analog of the Morris Water Maze, which has the advantage of assessing separately allocentric and egocentric navigation and learning. Of the eight consecutive trials, trials 2–8 were used to reduce bias by a rebound effect (more dramatic changes in performance between trials 1 and 2 relative to subsequent trials). The participants who were 71–84 years old (p < 0.001), but not those 60–70 years old, showed deficits in allocentric navigation compared to the young participants. There were no differences in egocentric navigation. All three groups showed spatial learning effect (p’ s ? 0.01). There were no gender differences in spatial navigation and learning. Linear regression limited to older participants showed linear (? = 0.30, p = 0.045) and quadratic (? = 0.30, p = 0.046) effect of age on allocentric navigation. There was no effect of age on egocentric navigation. These results demonstrate that navigation deficits in older age may be limited to allocentric navigation, whereas egocentric navigation and learning may remain preserved. This specific pattern of spatial navigation impairment may help differentiate normal aging from prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24391585

Gazova, Ivana; Laczó, Jan; Rubinova, Eva; Mokrisova, Ivana; Hyncicova, Eva; Andel, Ross; Vyhnalek, Martin; Sheardova, Katerina; Coulson, Elizabeth J.; Hort, Jakub

2013-01-01

79

78 FR 58290 - TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE Young Adult Program Premium Update  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEFENSE Office of the Secretary TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE Young Adult Program...Updated TRICARE Young Adult Premiums for Calendar Year 2014...TRICARE Young Adult program premiums for Calendar Year (CY) 2014. DATES: The CY...

2013-09-23

80

Using Young Adult Realistic Literature to Help Troubled Teenagers: Something New, Tried and True, and Recommended Nonfiction (Young Adult Literature).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a seven-step process that uses young adult literature to help teenagers understand and deal with their troubles. Offers brief annotations of five young adult titles in each of nine areas: alienation and identity; divorce; dropouts, delinquency, and gangs; poverty; teenage pregnancy; abused children; alcohol and drugs; homosexuality; and…

Kaywell, Joan F.

1997-01-01

81

Perinatal taurine exposure alters renal potassium excretion mechanisms in adult conscious rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perinatal taurine exposure has long-term effects on the arterial pressure and renal function. This study tests its influence on renal potassium excretion in young adult, conscious rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow and given water alone (C), 3% beta-alanine in water (taurine depletion, TD) or 3% taurine in water (taurine supplementation, TS), either from conception until delivery

Sanya Roysommuti; Pisamai Malila; Wichaporn Lerdweeraphon; Dusit Jirakulsomchok; J Michael Wyss

2010-01-01

82

Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of the composition of hyaline articular and non-articular cartilage in young and aged rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blocks of articular cartilage were taken from tibiae of young adult (8 week) and aged adult (50–60 week) rats; xiphisternal cartilage was obtained from young adult rats. Specimens were quench-frozen in nitrogen slush, freeze-fractured and examined by low-temperature scanning electron microscopy. The results of X-ray microanalysis of frozen-hydrated bulk cartilage are semi-quantitative. The composition of chondrocyte nuclei and cytoplasm are

James F. S. Middleton; Stephen Hunt; Kenneth Oates

1988-01-01

83

Patterns of Rumination by Young and Older Adults  

E-print Network

A lot of attention has been given to the negative effects of both inhibitory deficits and rumination but little work has compared both: research on inhibitory deficits has focused on older adults whereas research on rumination has focused on young...

Schmalzried, RaLynn Cheri

2012-05-31

84

Adolescent & Young Adult Health Outcomes & Patient Experience Study  

Cancer.gov

Compared to younger and older aged cancer populations, the adolescent and young adult (AYA) population between the ages of 15 and 39 years has seen little or no improvement in cancer survival rates for decades.

85

Adult Female Walruses on Ice Floe with Young  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Adult female walruses on ice floe with young.  Notice the radio tag borne on her her upper mid back.  This tag will monitor resting and foraging behavior and convey the information back to USGS scientists....

86

Eye movements of young and older adults during reading  

E-print Network

The eye movements of young and older adults were tracked as they read sentences varying in syntactic complexity. In Experiment 1, cleft object and object relative clause sentences were more difficult to process than cleft subject and subject...

Kemper, Susan; Liu, Chiung-Ju

2007-03-01

87

More Young Adults Getting Preventive Care After Obamacare, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... More Young Adults Getting Preventive Care After Obamacare, Study Finds More people in early 20s getting blood ... in the United States, according to a new study. Significant increases were seen in the numbers of ...

88

Uncovering the Biology of Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults  

Cancer.gov

Evidence suggests that some adolescent and young adult cancers may have unique genetic and biological features. Researchers are trying to better understand the biology of these cancers in order to identify potential therapeutic targets.

89

Initiating factors of Chinese intergenerational conflict: Young adults' written accounts  

E-print Network

This study examined young adults’ written accounts of intergenerational communication in conflict situations in the People's Republic of China. Using a content analysis approach, this study identified five major types of initiating factors...

Zhang, Yan Bing

2004-01-01

90

Motion Sensor Reactivity in Physically Active Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine whether young adults changed their physical activity (PA) behavior when wearing motion sensors. PA patterns of 119 young adults (M age = 20.82 years, SD = 1.50, M body mass index = 23.93 kg/m[superscript 2] , SD = 4.05) were assessed during 2 consecutive weeks. In Week 1, participants wore an accelerometer.…

Behrens, Timothy K.; Dinger, Mary K.

2007-01-01

91

[The segregation of young adult migrants in Indonesia].  

PubMed

"The purpose of this paper is to [describe] the segregation of young adult migrants in Indonesia using the index of dissimilarity method. The paper argues that the existence of urban bias has created migration to urban areas." The author suggests that urban areas attract young people with more education and better occupational qualifications and skills. (summary in ENG) PMID:12280276

Bandiyono, S

1985-06-01

92

Social Participation among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in…

Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.

2013-01-01

93

A Moral Question: Literature and the Young Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines presence of moral viewpoints in young adult literature, suggesting that while literature can raise questions and acknowledge contradictions implicit in any moral decision, young people can only look inward for conclusions. Explicit didacticism (instructive qualities concerning moral, ethical, or religious matters) and examples of…

Kaye, Marilyn

1984-01-01

94

Multiple Voices, Multiple Genres: Fiction for Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that with so many multivoice novels accessible to teens, there is a great opportunity to expand students' reading repertoire. Proposes that young adult novels are an excellent transition to classic literature that may seem remote or difficult. Offers advice on teaching multivoice novels. Concludes that multivoice novels show young readers…

Gillis, Candida

2002-01-01

95

Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head in young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head (SIF) is generally observed in elderly women. In addition, SIF has been reported to occur in young military trainees, which are considered to be due to a fatigue stress fracture. This report reviewed five cases of SIF in young adults without any history of overexertion or antecedent trauma. The clinical findings, time

Kenyu Iwasaki; Takuaki Yamamoto; Goro Motomura; Taro Mawatari; Yasuharu Nakashima; Yukihide Iwamoto

2011-01-01

96

Environmental sustainability: Understanding young adults' learning, thinking, and actions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis explores the ways in which young-adults' environmental learning and experiences influence their decision to live sustainably. In particular, this thesis focuses on young adults' environmental and sustainability learning. It elaborates on young peoples' views about environmental and sustainability issues, such as climate change, the sources for their learning about these issues, and how young adults' learning encounters, in turn, affect their actions toward environmental protection and decision-making. Through a series of in-depth individual interviews with 18 young adults from three universities in southeastern Ontario, this qualitative study provides in-depth insight into young adults' understanding, learning experiences, and actions in relation to environmental and sustainability issues. Employing a Contextual Model of Learning framework the narratives of the young adults in this study are analyzed and discussed within three overlapping environmental learning contexts: personal, sociocultural, and physical settings. This framework allows for an examination of the complex interactions and relationships that shape how and where environmental learning occurs. The findings in this study suggest that the three overlapping learning contexts, that is the personal, sociocultural, and physical play an important role in shaping young adults' learning about environmental and sustainability issues. The data reveal that despite the unavailability or near-absence of environmental studies and education within the formal school curriculum (particularly at the elementary and high school levels), the young adults rely on other locations for learning, such as the internet, environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs), television, and family. In light of this, the research participants suggest the re-introduction of environmental programs and content in the school curriculum. Finally, the results of this study demonstrate the centrality of knowledge and experience in relation to environmental and sustainability issues in the actions and thoughts of the young adult research participants. This study makes an important contribution to the field of environmental and sustainability education by demonstrating the critical role of learning in a knowledge society. It illuminates the implications of various learning contexts for a sustainable global environment and future. Furthermore, it provides insight into the views of young adults regarding the future of the global environment and current sustainability initiatives in a world that faces ever-greater challenges.

Kola-Olusanya, Anthony O.

97

Neighborhood environment and marijuana use in urban young adults.  

PubMed

Risk factors for marijuana use in older adolescents and young adults have focused primarily on family environment and peer affiliation. A growing body of work has examined the relationship between environmental context and young adult substance use. This study builds on previous research linking neighborhood environment to young adult marijuana use by exploring two distinct features of neighborhoods, namely the physical (e.g., broken windows) and social environment (e.g., adults watching youth). Data were obtained from a longitudinal sample of 398 predominately African American young adults living in an urban environment. The data also included observational measures of physical and social order and disorder collected on the young adult's residential block. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was utilized to test hypothesized relationships between these two features of the neighborhood environment and past year young adult marijuana use. A two-factor model of neighborhood environment with good fit indices was selected (CFI?=?0.97, RMSEA?=?0.037). There was a positive and significant direct effect from neighborhood physical disorder to marijuana use (0.219, p?young adult marijuana use but do not provide empirical support for the neighborhood social environment as a determinant of drug taking. Better explication of the social environment is needed to understand its relationship to drug use. PMID:25005818

Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Lee, Myong Hwa; Johnson, Renee; Milam, Adam J; Duncan, Alexandra; Reboussin, Beth A; Leaf, Philip J; Ialongo, Nicholas S

2015-02-01

98

Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

2009-01-01

99

Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer, CSR 1975-2006  

Cancer.gov

Tumors affecting adolescents and young adults often differ from those affecting pediatric and older adult populations1. For this reason, a classification scheme has been proposed for tumors diagnosed in adolescents and young adults2. This classification scheme was updated based on site and histology codes of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition3. Effective 2001, all cases reported to SEER were required to have an ICD-O-3 histology and behavior code and all previous cases were converted to ICD-O-34.

100

Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer, CSR 1975-2008  

Cancer.gov

Tumors affecting adolescents and young adults often differ from those affecting pediatric and older adult populations1. For this reason, a classification scheme has been proposed for tumors diagnosed in adolescents and young adults2. This classification scheme was updated based on site and histology codes of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition3. Effective 2001, all cases reported to SEER were required to have an ICD-O-3 histology and behavior code and all previous cases were converted to ICD-O-34.

101

Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer, CSR 1975-2011  

Cancer.gov

Tumors affecting adolescents and young adults often differ from those affecting pediatric and older adult populations1. For this reason, a classification scheme has been proposed for tumors diagnosed in adolescents and young adults2. This classification scheme was updated based on site and histology codes of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition3. Effective 2001, all cases reported to SEER were required to have an ICD-O-3 histology and behavior code and all previous cases were converted to ICD-O-34.

102

Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer, CSR 1975-2010  

Cancer.gov

Tumors affecting adolescents and young adults often differ from those affecting pediatric and older adult populations1. For this reason, a classification scheme has been proposed for tumors diagnosed in adolescents and young adults2. This classification scheme was updated based on site and histology codes of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition3. Effective 2001, all cases reported to SEER were required to have an ICD-O-3 histology and behavior code and all previous cases were converted to ICD-O-34.

103

Timing of Reflexive Visuospatial Orienting in Young, Young-Old, and Old-Old Adults  

PubMed Central

This study examined adult age differences in reflexive orienting to two types of uninformative spatial cues: central arrows and peripheral onsets. In two experiments using a Posner cuing task, young adults (ages 18 – 28 yrs), young-old adults (ages 60 – 74 yrs), and old-old adults (ages 75 – 92 yrs) responded to targets that were preceded 100–1,000 ms earlier by a central arrow or a peripheral abrupt onset. In Experiment 1, the cue remained present upon target onset. Facilitation effects at early cue-target stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) were prolonged in duration for the two older groups relative to the young adults. At later cue-target SOAs, inhibition of return (IOR) that was initiated by peripheral onset cues was observed in the performance of young adults but not in that of the two older groups. In Experiment 2, the cue was presented briefly and removed prior to target onset. The change in cue duration minimized age differences (particularly for young-old adults) in facilitation effects and led to IOR for all three age groups. The findings are consistent with the idea that attentional control settings change with age, with higher settings for older adults leading to delayed disengagement from spatial cues. PMID:21394555

Langley, Linda K.; Friesen, Chris Kelland; Saville, Alyson L.; Ciernia, Annie T.

2012-01-01

104

Electrophoretic Analysis of the Sera of Young Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption of maternal antibodies by the gut of the young rat continues for 20 days after birth and then ceases abruptly. The sera of rats at different ages during and after the absorptive period were examined electrophoretically and ultracentrifugally to determine the changes in the serum proteins during this period. The serum protein of rats of all age groups

R. Halliday; R. A. Kekwick

1957-01-01

105

Cigarillo use among High-Risk Urban Young Adults  

PubMed Central

In the U.S., cigar use doubled from 5.0 to 10.6 billion cigars consumed annually between 1997 and 2007, driven in large part by increased sales of cigarette-sized “little cigars” and narrow, mid-sized “cigarillos.” The present study examined prevalence of cigarillo use as well as attitudes, knowledge and behaviors related to cigarillo use among a sample of predominantly urban African American young adults 18–24 not in school and not employed. Survey data were collected from 131 young adults attending education and job training centers in Baltimore, Maryland and from 78 young adults attending education, job training, or recreational programs in Washington, D.C. In Baltimore, 22% of young adults had smoked a cigarillo in the past 30 days, compared with nearly 63% in D.C. Both populations were heavily exposed to cigarillo advertising and marketing. Cigarillo use in this urban young adult population is a growing public health problem and undermines the progress made in decreasing cigarette use. PMID:24185161

Milam, Adam J.; Bone, Lee R.; Byron, M. Justin; Hoke, Kathleen; Williams, Carla D.; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Stillman, Frances A.

2014-01-01

106

THE GEOTROPIC CONDUCT OF YOUNG RATS  

PubMed Central

Young rats, old enough to creep well but before the eyelids are open, orient and move upward upon an inclined surface. The angle of geotropic orientation on such a surface (?) is proportional to the logarithm of the component of gravity parallel to the inclined plane. This result is compared with the scanty information available for other animals; there is indication that it may be generally valid. The precision of the orientation, measured by the percentage dispersion of the individual measurements, also increases in proportion to the logarithm of this component. The cosine of the angle of orientation decreases very nearly in proportion to the sine of the angle of inclination. A possible interpretation of this is given as involving the idea that upward orientation ceases when the differential pull of the body weight upon the opposed legs reaches a threshold value. Attaching weights (W) to the tail causes ? to increase, and in proportion to log W. PMID:19872320

Crozier, W. J.; Pincus, G.

1926-01-01

107

Cysteamine depletes prolactin in young and old hyperprolactinemic rats  

SciTech Connect

Studies were undertaken to evaluate the effects of cysteamine on serum and anterior pituitary concentrations of prolactin in hyperprolactinemic female rats. Serum prolactin was elevated in young (4 to 5 months old) rats by implantation of 17 beta-estradiol while 26- to 28-month-old rats were in constant estrus and exhibited an age-related hyperprolactinemia. At 4 h after treatment with cysteamine (90 mg/kg body wt) serum and anterior pituitary prolactin concentrations were reduced in young animals by 98 and 85%, respectively. In old constant-estrous rats, cysteamine reduced serum prolactin by 92% and anterior pituitary prolactin by 82%. In young pseudopregnant rats, cysteamine induced a prompt resumption of estrous cycles. These studies indicate that cysteamine is an effective depletor of serum and pituitary prolactin in hyperprolactinemic rats.

Simpkins, J.W.; Estes, K.S.; Millard, W.J.; Sagar, S.M.; Martin, J.B.

1983-05-01

108

Social Norms and Dietary Behaviors Among Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine associations between young adults’ dietary behaviors and perceived social norms for healthy eating. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 1000 diverse college students. Associations between perceived behaviors of family, friends, and significant other and participants’ dietary behaviors were examined using t-tests and linear regressions. Results Young adults consumed more fast food if they perceived that their family, friends, or significant other did so (p < .003). Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was associated with perceived consumption by family and friends (p < .034). Fruit and vegetable consumption and dinner preparation were associated with perceived behavior of friends only (p < .001). Conclusions Young adults’ dietary behaviors appear to reflect their perceptions of normative behavior, particularly among friends. PMID:24034689

Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Graham, Dan J.; Laska, Melissa N.

2013-01-01

109

Taiwanese older adults’ perceptions of aging and communication with peers and young adults  

E-print Network

’s achievement. Analysis also revealed some of the Taiwanese older adults’ major perceptions of young people (e.g., less respectful towards elders) and their peers (e.g., losing status in the family). The discursive strategies used in constructing...

Zhang, Yan Bing; Lin, Mei-Chen

2008-01-01

110

Dimensions of Problem Drinking among Young Adult Restaurant Workers  

PubMed Central

Background Nationwide surveys identify food service workers as heavy alcohol users. Objectives This article analyzes dimensions and correlates of problem drinking among young adult food service workers. Methods A telephone survey of national restaurant chain employees yielded 1294 completed surveys. Results Hazardous alcohol consumption patterns were seen in 80% of men and 64% of women. Multivariate analysis showed that different dimensions of problem drinking measured by the AUDIT were associated with workers' demographic characteristics, smoking behavior and job category. Conclusions & Scientific Significance These findings offer evidence of extremely high rates of alcohol misuse among young adult restaurant workers. PMID:20180660

Moore, Roland S.; Cunradi, Carol B.; Duke, Michael R.; Ames, Genevieve M.

2009-01-01

111

Acute myocardial infarction in young adults: causes and management  

PubMed Central

The case report in this review illustrates an acute myocardial infarction in a young adult probably due to arterial thrombosis that can be attributed to a hypercoagulable state resulting from the nephrotic syndrome. Although rare, acute myocardial infarction should be considered in young adults presenting with chest pain. A detailed clinical history may help to identify the aetiology, and guide subsequent management, but diagnostic coronary angiography is essential. Careful risk factor modification and treatment of the underlying cause should reduce the incidence of recurrent cardiac events. PMID:11796868

Osula, S; Bell, G; Hornung, R

2002-01-01

112

Clueless? Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the fourth annual annotated bibliography of adult mysteries to recommend to teen readers. Includes titles under the headings of private eyes, reference sources, amateur sleuths, historical sleuths, suspense and thrillers, police procedurals, and anthologies. (LRW)

Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

2000-01-01

113

Clueless: Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography includes adult mysteries that appeal to teen readers under the categories of Sherlock Holmes; reference sources; private investigators; amateur sleuths; historical sleuths; suspense and thrillers; police procedurals; mystery blends; and anthologies. (LRW)

Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

2002-01-01

114

Stroke in young adults: the role of paradoxical embolism.  

PubMed

Stroke in young adults may be devastating and frequently no cause can be found. However, there is ample literature to suggest an association between cryptogenic stroke in young people and paradoxical embolisation via a venous to arterial circulation shunt (v-aCS), commonly due to patent foramen ovale (PFO). Although paradoxical embolisation is assumed to be a rare event, this review suggests that it is an important or even dominant cause of stroke in young people and that a transcranial Doppler (TCD) technique may be the investigation of choice to identify v-aCS. PMID:11204581

Chant, H; McCollum, C

2001-01-01

115

The structure of verbal abilities in young and older adults  

E-print Network

large pool of candidate words (Bryan, Luszcz, & Crawford, 1997). Hence, verbal fluency may be limited by processing efficiency for older adults but by lexical knowledge for young adults, resulting in a different configuration of verbal abilities... version: http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/dspace/. 8 different words recalled within the time limit that met the criteria for each category. Repetitions and proper names were excluded. Bryan et al. (1997) report alternate-form reliability for initial...

Kemper, Susan; Sumner, Aaron

2001-06-01

116

Functional Literacy of Young Guyanese Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the rationale, development, and administration of the test used for measuring levels of achievement in functional literacy in Guyana. Draws attention to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate that is reported for Guyana in international…

Jennings, Zellyne

2000-01-01

117

College Selectivity and Young Adult Health Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Large literatures have shown important links between the quantity of completed education and health outcomes on one hand and the quality or selectivity of schooling on a host of adult outcomes, such as wages, on the other hand. However, little research attempts to produce evidence of the link between school quality and health. The paper presents…

Fletcher, Jason M.; Frisvold, David E.

2011-01-01

118

3-methylbutanal metabolism in the adult rat.  

PubMed

1. 3-Methylbutanal is a normal constituent of human plasma and is elevated in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Therefore these studies examined the possible source and site of synthesis of 3-methylbutanal and its effect on the central nervous system of adult rats. 2. 3-Methylbutanal was found to be a normal constituent of rat plasma and increased two to five times when leucine comprised 5% of the diet. Neomycin in the diet prevented the leucine-induced rise in plasma 3-methylbutanal. When this was injected at a dose of 120 mg/kg abnormal EEG patterns and sleep-like behaviour occurred, whereas smaller amounts (30 mg/kg) increased brain serotonin concentrations. 3. 3-Methylbutanal is a normal component of rat plasma: it may be derived in part from colonic bacterial breakdown of leucine and may influence central nervous system function. A possible relationship of 3-methylbutanal to the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy is suggested. PMID:6169478

Kubow, S; Anderson, G H; Blendis, L M; Goldberg, E

1981-10-01

119

Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species  

PubMed Central

African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) are small to medium sized, long-lived, and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN) correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of 1 year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin). Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis), social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae), and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean rodents. PMID:24904308

Amrein, Irmgard; Becker, Anton S.; Engler, Stefanie; Huang, Shih-hui; Müller, Julian; Slomianka, Lutz; Oosthuizen, Maria K.

2014-01-01

120

Aerobic endurance exercise benefits memory and affect in young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise seems a simple and widely practised behaviour that activates molecular and cellular signalling cascades involved in various central nervous system processes. Despite impressive results obtained in animal studies, fitness interventions have produced less reliable effects in humans, particularly in young adults. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that an individually adapted exercise training consisting of three running

Sanna Stroth; Katrin Hille; Manfred Spitzer; Ralf Reinhardt

2009-01-01

121

Visual Imagery Scanning in Young Adults with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen young adults with intellectual disability and 17 college students learned the locations of 5 landmarks on an island map and then scanned from one landmark to another. In the perception condition, the landmarks were visible; in the imagery condition, they were not. The rate of scanning over distance was similar for perception and imagery…

Roskos-Ewoldsen, Beverly; Conners, Frances A.; Atwell, Julie A.; Prestopnik, Jillian L.

2006-01-01

122

Critical Conversations on Whiteness with Young Adult Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author argues that whiteness remains an overwhelmingly absent dimension in literacy teaching that addresses systems of power from a critical perspective. One way literacy teachers may bring this dimension more explicitly into the classroom is by facilitating critical conversations on whiteness with young adult literature. As…

Schieble, Melissa

2012-01-01

123

Impaired Visuospatial Processing in Young Adult Female Fragile X  

E-print Network

Impaired Visuospatial Processing in Young Adult Female Fragile X Premutation Carriers and Emerging Tassone, Susan Rivera, Tony J. Simon 13th International Fragile X Conference, Miami 2012 July 26, 2012 #12 ·Prevalence of premutation: ·1 in 113-259 females ·1 in 260-813 males #12;How do female fragile X premutation

Nguyen, Danh

124

Living with Cystic Fibrosis: A Guide for the Young Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for the young adult with cystic fibrosis, the booklet provides information on dealing with problems and on advances in treatment and detection related to the disease. Addressed are the following topics: description of cystic fibrosis; inheritance of cystic fibrosis; early diagnosis; friends, careers, and other matters; treatment;…

Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Atlanta, GA.

125

Supplemental Reading for Ninth Graders: Classic or Young Adult Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The project addressed the debate over supplemental literature: young adult or classic selections to better support teaching ninth graders Tennessee's English I curriculum standards. Research supported both classical and contemporary literature for teaching ninth graders, making it difficult to determine which type of literature might produce…

Hill, Katherine Jane Roney

2012-01-01

126

HYDRATION STATUS AND COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG ADULTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adequate hydration levels are important for both mental and physical functioning. Research conducted in young adults suggests that mild levels of dehydration (2%-4%) can negatively influence cognitive performance in a variety of tasks, but these data are inconsistent. Dehydration may be relatively...

127

Internet Use, Identity Development and Social Anxiety Among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contradictory evidence exists regarding the benefit of the Internet for social and personal wellbeing, with some studies indicating deleterious effects and others possible social enrichment. The potential for increased social isolation from 'over- involvement' in online activities or, conversely, the Internet's possibilities for enhancing social relationships, may be particularly salient during young adult- hood and adolescence because of the special

Dennis Mazalin; Susan Moore

2004-01-01

128

Playing with Fire. Creative Conflict Resolution for Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A training program is presented for helping teenagers and young adults deal creatively with interpersonal conflict and violence. It explores the dynamics of anger, hurt, conflict, communication, cooperation, and assertiveness as it teaches listening, mediation, and conflict-defusing skills. The manual consists of 10 sections, 8 of which form the…

Macbeth, Fiona; Fine, Nic

129

Aesthetic Learning Theory and the Faith Formation of Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participation in the arts is a form of practical reason and as such has the potential to form and transform the faith of individuals. The findings from Katherine M. Douglass's 2011 study on the role of the arts in the faith lives of young adults provides examples of the transformative potential of the arts as they foster expression,…

Douglass, Katherine M.

2013-01-01

130

Nonfiction for Young Adults: From Delight to Wisdom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggesting that the vital element nonfiction lacks is professional attention, this book shows the literary qualities of nonfiction as well as defining its importance for young adults. The book discusses seven issues related to information books, each issue making up a single chapter. The first chapter addresses the reading interests of teenagers,…

Carter, Betty; Abrahamson, Richard F.

131

Miranda Rights Comprehension in Young Adults with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method: Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 young adults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language…

Rost, Gwyneth C.; McGregor, Karla K.

2012-01-01

132

External and Internal Sport Motivations of Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study aim: To determine and evaluate the spectrum of sport motivation of young adults. Material and methods: A group of 600 subjects, aged 17-19 years, participated in the study. An "ad hoc" questionnaire was applied to assess the 4 motivational factors: competition and success-oriented motivation, external accommodation, physical fitness and…

Bollok, Sandor; Takacs, Johanna; Kalmar, Zsuzsanna; Dobay, Beata

2011-01-01

133

Adolescent/Young Adult Literature Titles/Holocaust.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents descriptions of the 10 best young adult novels (and teaching suggestions) appropriate for studying the Holocaust in the middle school. Each description begins with a summary and "hook" that can be used with students, and then ends with discussion for the teacher about reading abilities and applications in the classroom. Several…

Jones, Darolyn Lyn

134

Student Sex: More or Less Risky than Other Young Adults?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexually active young adults are at an increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or experiencing an unplanned pregnancy. Sexual behaviours such as inconsistent condom use, multiple partners and casual sex are known risk factors for negative sexual health outcomes. Sexually active higher education students are classified as…

Burke, Lorraine; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Young, Honor

2015-01-01

135

Not so Fast: Reassessing Gender Essentialism in Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined young adults' essentialist reasoning about gender categories. Previous developmental results suggest that until age 9 or 10, children show marked essentialist reasoning about gender, but this disappears by early adulthood. In contrast, results from social cognition suggest that essentialist thinking about social categories…

Eidson, R. Cole; Coley, John D.

2014-01-01

136

Suicide Prevention in Young Adults (Age 18-30).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents some explanations for the doubling of the young adult suicide rate since 1950. Analyzes the diagnoses and population groups that contribute the most to this increase. Groups that can be readily affected by suicide reduction measures are discussed, and methods for reducing suicide are proposed. (JPS)

Lipschitz, Alan

1995-01-01

137

Parental Death in Childhood and Loneliness in Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relationship between self-esteem and reported mourning behavior as it pertains to loneliness in young adults who, as children, had experienced parental death. Subjects (N=184) aged 18 to 25 completed four questionnaires. Revealed that self-esteem was the single best predictor of loneliness; reported mourning behaviors significantly added…

Murphy, Patricia Ann

1987-01-01

138

Mapping Images to Objects by Young Adults with Cognitive Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How the type of representation (icons, photos of objects in context, photos of objects in isolation) displayed on a hand-held computer affected recognition performance in young adults with cognitive disabilities was examined. Participants were required to match an object displayed on the computer to one of three pictures projected onto a screen.…

Carmien, Stefan; Wohldman, Erica

2008-01-01

139

Cerebral Specialization in Young Adults with Down Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two groups of right-handed young adults with and without Down Syndrome (N=24) performed a rapid unimanual finger-tapping task under two conditions: alone and while sound-shadowing (repeating) single-syllable, high frequency words. Results provided no evidence for reverse (right hemisphere) lateralization of speech in individuals with Down…

Elliott, Digby; And Others

1987-01-01

140

Transglossic Language Practices of Young Adults in Bangladesh and Mongolia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper explores the use of varied semiotic resources in the linguistic, social and cultural practices of young adults in the context of Bangladesh and Mongolia. Based on a translinguistic analysis (including pre-textual history, contextual relations, sub-textual meaning, intertextual echoes and post-textual interpretation) of these practices,…

Sultana, Shaila; Dovchin, Sender; Pennycook, Alastair

2015-01-01

141

African-Asian Reading Guide for Children and Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this annotated bibliography for children and young adults, over twelve-thousand books dealing with Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, and Oceania are listed. Entries are presented by geographical area and categorized as nonfiction, biography, fiction and folklore, with a separate section on picture books from all countries. Four indices (author,…

Hotchkiss, Jeanette

142

Anthropometric and physiological factors predicting young adults' motor skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that performance of motor skills is influenced by a diversity of physiological parameters, such as weight status, aerobic capacity, endurance and muscular strength, but the scientific determinants of physical performance are very specific. The aim was to identify the anthropometric and physiological determinants of motor skills in young adults. The authors studied anthropometric and physiological factors (as

E I Iconaru; C Ciucurel; M M Ciucurel; L Georgescu; S Toma; M I Tudor

2010-01-01

143

Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David

2008-01-01

144

Motorsports Involvement among Adolescents and Young Adults with Childhood ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined nonsubstance, use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent…

Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, Jee Won; McGinley, James S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.

2013-01-01

145

Young Adults' Contraceptive Practices: An Investigation of Influences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated unmarried young adults' (N=283) contraceptive behaviors and attitudes. Results suggest that effective contraceptive behavior associated most strongly with respondents' perceiving relatively few barriers to their use of contraception, their maintenance of extensive interpersonal skills, and their regarding peer norms as consistent with…

Lowe, Candace S.; Radius, Susan M.

1987-01-01

146

Tsunami Summer! 2003 Young Adult Summer Library Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to assist public libraries in Alabama with setting up "Tsunami Summer!," a summer program for young adults, i.e., students in grades 6 through 12. The manual contains the following sections: (1) Publicity and Promotion; (2) Working with Schools; (3) Involving the Students, including teen volunteers, teen advisory councils,…

Alabama Public Library Service, Montgomery.

147

Six Postschool Case Studies of Mildly Learning Handicapped Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six mildly learning-handicapped young adults were observed for one year following graduation from high school. All six floundered from job to job and from class to class at a community college. They expressed discontent and frustration with their present situation, but were unable to plan realistically for the future. (Author/JDD)

Zetlin, Andrea G.; Hosseini, Ashraf

1989-01-01

148

Attention, Working Memory, and Grammaticality Judgment in Typical Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine resource allocation and sentence processing, this study examined the effects of auditory distraction on grammaticality judgment (GJ) of sentences varied by semantics (reversibility) and short-term memory requirements. Method: Experiment 1: Typical young adult females (N = 60) completed a whole-sentence GJ task in distraction…

Smith, Pamela A.

2011-01-01

149

Microglial K(+) channel expression in young adult and aged mice.  

PubMed

The K(+) channel expression pattern of microglia strongly depends on the cells' microenvironment and has been recognized as a sensitive marker of the cells' functional state. While numerous studies have been performed on microglia in vitro, our knowledge about microglial K(+) channels and their regulation in vivo is limited. Here, we have investigated K(+) currents of microglia in striatum, neocortex and entorhinal cortex of young adult and aged mice. Although almost all microglial cells exhibited inward rectifier K(+) currents upon membrane hyperpolarization, their mean current density was significantly enhanced in aged mice compared with that determined in young adult mice. Some microglial cells additionally exhibited outward rectifier K(+) currents in response to depolarizing voltage pulses. In aged mice, microglial outward rectifier K(+) current density was significantly larger than in young adult mice due to the increased number of aged microglial cells expressing these channels. Aged dystrophic microglia exhibited outward rectifier K(+) currents more frequently than aged ramified microglia. The majority of microglial cells expressed functional BK-type, but not IK- or SK-type, Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels, while no differences were found in their expression levels between microglia of young adult and aged mice. Neither microglial K(+) channel pattern nor K(+) channel expression levels differed markedly between the three brain regions investigated. It is concluded that age-related changes in microglial phenotype are accompanied by changes in the expression of microglial voltage-activated, but not Ca(2+) -activated, K(+) channels. GLIA 2015;63:664-672. PMID:25472417

Schilling, Tom; Eder, Claudia

2015-04-01

150

Do you know a child, adolescent, or young adult  

E-print Network

Do you know a child, adolescent, or young adult who is having difficulties in school, with peers child development and emotional and behavioral problems in youth. All assessments are low-cost and set resources in the child, family, and community to support positive development WHO PROVIDES THE SERVICES? NO

Li, X. Rong

151

Executive process training in young and old adults.  

PubMed

There is a growing body of research on the modifiability of executive functions in different stages of life. Previous studies demonstrate robust training effects but limited transfer in younger and particularly in older adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a theoretically derived intervention for executive functioning, addressing several basic processes (updating, shifting, and inhibition), can induce transfer effects in early and late adulthood. Fifty-nine healthy adults, 29 young and 30 older adults, were randomly assigned to either training or no-contact control groups. The training groups received 15 sessions of executive process training for about 45 min/session during 5 weeks. A test battery including a criterion task and near, intermediate, and far transfer tasks was administered before and after training. Results showed pronounced age-equivalent gains on the criterion task. Near transfer was seen to non-trained updating and inhibition tasks for the young and older trained participants. However, only the young adults showed intermediate transfer to two complex working memory tasks. No far transfer effects were seen for either age group. These findings provide additional evidence for age-related constraints in the ability to generalize acquired executive skills, and specifically show that training of multiple executive processes is not sufficient to foster transfer beyond the very near in older adults. PMID:24148093

Sandberg, Petra; Rönnlund, Michael; Nyberg, Lars; Stigsdotter Neely, Anna

2014-01-01

152

Extending the Five-Foot Bookshelf: More Essential Books for Librarians Serving Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an annotated bibliography of books: girls perceptions of their bodies, excellence in library services to young adults, adolescence in America, evaluating and reviewing childrens books, and connecting young adults and libraries. (PEN)

Rosenzweig, Susan

1998-01-01

153

Addiction Treatment Experience among a Cohort of Street-Involved Youths and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Very little is known about the accessibility and potential barriers to addiction treatment among street youths and young adults. We sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of enrollment in addiction treatment among a cohort of street-involved youths and young adults in Vancouver, Canada. Street-involved youths and young adults who use…

Wong, Jellena; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Kerr, Thomas; Lai, Calvin; Wood, Evan

2009-01-01

154

Long-Term Prognosis of Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

There is limited information about long-term prognosis of ischemic stroke in young adults. Giving the potentially negative impact in physical, social, and emotional aspects of an ischemic stroke in young people, providing early accurate long-term prognostic information is very important in this clinical setting. Moreover, detection of factors associated with bad outcomes (death, recurrence, moderate-to-severe disability) help physicians in optimizing secondary prevention strategies. The present paper reviews the most relevant published information concerning long-term prognosis and predictors of unfavorable outcomes of ischemic stroke affecting young adults. As a summary, we can conclude that, in the long term, stroke in the young adult increases slightly the risk of mortality, implies higher risk of future cardiovascular events, and determines functional limitations in a significant percentage of patients. Nevertheless, in every individual case the prognosis has to be considered depending on several factors (stroke subtype, initial severity, cardiovascular risk factors) that determine the long-term outcomes. PMID:21197408

Varona, Jose F.

2011-01-01

155

Visual statistical learning in children and young adults: how implicit?  

PubMed Central

Visual statistical learning (VSL) is the ability to extract the joint and conditional probabilities of shapes co-occurring during passive viewing of complex visual configurations. Evidence indicates that even infants are sensitive to these regularities (e.g., Kirkham et al., 2002). However, there is continuing debate as to whether VSL is accompanied by conscious awareness of the statistical regularities between sequence elements. Bertels et al. (2012) addressed this question in young adults. Here, we adapted their paradigm to investigate VSL and conscious awareness in children. Using the same version of the paradigm, we also tested young adults so as to directly compare results from both age groups. Fifth graders and undergraduates were exposed to a stream of visual shapes arranged in triplets. Learning of these sequences was then assessed using both direct and indirect measures. In order to assess the extent to which learning occurred explicitly, we also measured confidence through subjective measures in the direct task (i.e., binary confidence judgments). Results revealed that both children and young adults learned the statistical regularities between shapes. In both age groups, participants who performed above chance in the completion task had conscious access to their knowledge. Nevertheless, although adults performed above chance even when they claimed to guess, there was no evidence of implicit knowledge in children. These results suggest that the role of implicit and explicit influences in VSL may follow a developmental trajectory.

Bertels, Julie; Boursain, Emeline; Destrebecqz, Arnaud; Gaillard, Vinciane

2015-01-01

156

“You’re too young for this”: adolescent and young adults’ perspectives on cancer survivorship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors face unique challenges not systematically addressed by cancer clinicians. Four focus groups and two individual interviews were conducted with 19 survivors to profile experiences and identify key concerns for future interventions. The resultant themes reflect cancer care continuum challenges (such as delays in diagnosis, problems with adherence), psychosocial concerns (such as infertility and

Erin E. Kent; Carla Parry; Michael J. Montoya; Leonard S. Sender; Rebecca A. Morris; Hoda Anton-Culver

2012-01-01

157

Childhood Predictors of Young Adult Male Crime  

PubMed Central

The study sample was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children (93% Black) growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. The study sample included 733 males who were active by age 26. Adult criminal records were collected through administrative records and supplemented with self-reports. Outcome measures included incarceration, conviction, and felony conviction by age 26. Probit regression was used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that common childhood predictors were AFDC participation by child’s age 3, negative home environment, maltreatment experience, trouble making behavior, and number of school moves. Unique predictors were mother unemployed by child’s age 3 for incarceration or jail, four or more children in household by child’s age 3 for felony conviction, and mother did not complete high school by child’s age 3 and social competence for both incarceration or jail and felony conviction. Implications on crime prevention were discussed. PMID:20657803

Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

2010-01-01

158

Multisensory integration across the senses in young and old adults  

PubMed Central

Stimuli are processed concurrently and across multiple sensory inputs. Here we directly compared the effect of multisensory integration (MSI) on reaction time across three paired sensory inputs in eighteen young (M=19.17 yrs) and eighteen old (M=76.44 yrs) individuals. Participants were determined to be non-demented and without any medical or psychiatric conditions that would affect their performance. Participants responded to randomly presented unisensory (auditory, visual, somatosensory) stimuli and three paired sensory inputs consisting of auditory-somatosensory (AS) auditory-visual (AV) and visual-somatosensory (VS) stimuli. Results revealed that reaction time (RT) to all multisensory pairings was significantly faster than those elicited to the constituent unisensory conditions across age groups; findings that could not be accounted for by simple probability summation. Both young and old participants responded the fastest to multisensory pairings containing somatosensory input. Compared to younger adults, older adults demonstrated a significantly greater RT benefit when processing concurrent VS information. In terms of co-activation, older adults demonstrated a significant increase in the magnitude of visual-somatosensory co-activation (i.e., multisensory integration), while younger adults demonstrated a significant increase in the magnitude of auditory-visual and auditory-somatosensory co-activation. This study provides first evidence in support of the facilitative effect of pairing somatosensory with visual stimuli in older adults. PMID:22024545

Mahoney, Jeannette R.; Li, Po Ching Clara; Oh-Park, Mooyeon; Verghese, Joe; Holtzer, Roee

2011-01-01

159

Dissociative Symptoms and Mother's Marital Status in Young Adult Population.  

PubMed

Current findings suggest that mother's marital status indicating father's absence or conflicting relationship to father may be specifically related to dissociation and other stress-related symptoms.We have assessed relationships of mother's marital status, dissociative symptoms, and other psychopathological manifestations in a sample of 19 years' old young adults (N?=?364) participating in European longitudinal study (European Longitudinal Study of Parenthood and Childhood).The results show clinically significant manifestations of dissociative symptoms in young adult men whose mothers were fatherless and in women whose mothers were re-married. Other psychopathological symptoms did not reach clinically significant manifestations.The results suggest that significant factor related to high level of dissociative symptoms in men growing in fatherless families might be linked with disturbed and conflicting attachment to a father's figure and pathological dependent attachment to mother. In women dissociative symptoms likely are linked to conflicting relationship between mother and daughter associated with stepfather' presence in the family. PMID:25590849

Bob, Petr; Selesova, Petra; Raboch, Jiri; Kukla, Lubomir

2015-01-01

160

Adolescent & Young Adult Health Outcomes & Patient Experience Survey  

Cancer.gov

Thank you for participating in the Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experience (AYA HOPE) Survey. The survey is about your experiences with the medical care you receive in the first year following your cancer diagnosis and how your cancer has influenced different areas of your life. Survey results will be used to help improve medical care and support services for cancer patients like you. The survey should take about 15 minutes to complete.

161

Correlation between hypertension and hyperglycemia among young adults in India  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the correlation between blood pressure levels and fasting plasma glucose levels among young adults attending Chatrapati Shahuji Maharaj University, Kanpur, India. METHODS: The present study was cross-sectional in nature, conducted among students in the Institute of Paramedical Sciences, Chatrapati Shahuji Maharaj University, Kanpur. Study subjects included 185 young adults. Among them, 94 were males and 91 were females, in the age group 17 to 19 years. RESULTS: Mean age among males was 18.5 ± 1.5 years and among females was 17.9 ± 1.8 years. Of the total 185 study subjects, 61 (32.9%) were classified as pre-diabetic and 20 (10.8%) as pre-hypertensive. Mean waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and serum high density lipoprotein did not vary significantly between normoglycemic and pre-diabetic subjects. However, the mean diastolic blood pressure of pre-diabetics (82 ± 5 mmHg) was significantly higher than normoglycemics (79 ± 6 mmHg). Mean serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) and serum very low density lipoprotein was also higher among pre-diabetic subjects in comparison to normoglycemic subjects and the difference was statistically significant. Upon multiple linear regression analysis, it was observed that body mass index (BMI) (? = 0.149), diastolic blood pressure (? = 0.375) and serum LDL (? = 0.483) were significantly associated with fasting plasma glucose. Multiple linear regression with diastolic blood pressure as the outcome variable showed that BMI (? = 0.219), fasting blood glucose (? = 0.247) and systolic blood pressure (? = 0.510) were significantly associated. CONCLUSION: A significant prevalence of pre-diabetes and pre-hypertension in young adults is a matter of concern therefore all young adults need to be targeted for screening of diabetes and hypertension and lifestyle modification.

Midha, Tanu; Krishna, Vinay; Shukla, Rishi; Katiyar, Praveen; Kaur, Samarjeet; Martolia, Dinesh Singh; Pandey, Umeshwar; Rao, Yashwant Kumar

2015-01-01

162

Eight Years Later: Education and Careers of Young Jewish Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on response to a mailed questionnaire, the 1969 followup study of the college and career plans of Jewish youth surveys a sample of 1,125 young Jewish adults in their mid-20s who took part in a 1961 study of the same nature in which 6,600 participated. The study found that most of the respondents believe that education will enable them to…

Swerdloff, Sol; Rosen, Howard

163

Comparisons of plantar pressures between the elderly and young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loading variables were compared for 35 elderly (71–90 years) and 35 young adult (aged 18–24) participants. Plantar pressures were measured at 70 Hz with a capacitive platform with a resolution of two sensors per square centimetre. Subjects were required to walk barefoot at their ‘preferred’ gait speed down a 15-m walkway. Gait speed was determined via a photoelectric timing system.

TW Kernozek; EE LaMott

1995-01-01

164

Vegetarian and Weight-Loss Diets among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Young adults frequently experiment with vegetarian and weight-loss diets. Comparisons of their experiences on these two different diets may help in the development of approaches to improve long-term adherence to weight-loss regimens. In the current study vegetarian and weight-loss diets were compared on how long and how strictly they were followed, and reasons why they were initiated and discontinued.Research

Cheryl F. Smith; Lora E. Burke; Rena R. Wing

2000-01-01

165

Race Differences in Stress-Induced Reactivity in Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cardiovascular response to the stress of mental arithmetic was studied in young Black and White adults. Stress-induced reactivity was studied before and following 14 days of oral sodium loading (10 gm NaCl per day). Marginal hypertensives, both Black and White, had greater systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels (p< 0.001) and greater diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels (p < 0.01)

Bonita Falkner; Harvey Kushner

1989-01-01

166

Suicide Risks among Adolescents and Young Adults in Rural China  

PubMed Central

Background: In China, suicide is one of the major causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 34 years. Aim: The current study examines how risk factors vary by age groups in rural China, referring to those aged 15 to 24 years and those aged 25 to 34 years. Method: A case-control psychological autopsy (PA) study is conducted in sixteen counties from three Chinese provinces, including 392 suicide cases and 416 community living controls in the sample. Results: In China, young adults aged 25 to 34 years have a higher risk for suicide than adolescents aged 15 to 24 years, and it holds true even controlling for relevant social factors. In addition, age-related factors such as education, marital status, whether having children, status in the family, physical health, and personal income all have varying degrees of impact on suicide risks for rural youth. Conclusions: This study shows that there are some age-related risk factors for suicide at certain life stages and emphasizes that young adults in rural China aged 25 to 34 years have an increased risk of suicide as a result of experiencing more psychological strains with age. PMID:25546276

Zhao, Sibo; Zhang, Jie

2014-01-01

167

Youth and Young Adult Physical Activity and Body Composition of Young Adult Women: Findings From the Dietary Intervention Study in Children.  

PubMed

This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend=0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (?=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p=0.02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women. PMID:25387239

Hodge, Melissa G; Hovinga, Mary; Shepherd, John A; Egleston, Brian; Gabriel, Kelley; VanHorn, Linda; Robson, Alan; Snetselaar, Linda; Stevens, Victor K; Jung, Seungyoun; Dorgan, Joanne

2014-11-10

168

Age-related alterations in endothelial function of femoral artery in young SHR and WKY rats.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of vascular aging in juvenescence on endothelial function in femoral arteries and to assess differences between normotensive and hypertensive rats. The aim of the study was to determine if age affected nitric oxide- (NO-) mediated relaxations in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Juvenile (7-week-old) and young adult (22-week-old) male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were used in this study. Femoral artery (FA) reactivity was determined by wire myograph and NO synthase activity by conversion of [(3)H]-L-arginine. During juvenescence systolic blood pressure (tail-cuff) increased significantly only in SHR, while NO synthesis decreased significantly in both strains. Endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine were reduced in the FA of SHR compared to age-matched WKY at both ages, yet these parameters were unchanged in adult rats compared with juvenile animals. The NO-dependent component of vasorelaxation was markedly reduced, whereas the NO-independent component was increased in adult compared to juvenile rats in both strains. The endothelial dysfunction in SHR at both ages was associated with reduction of NO-independent mechanisms. In conclusion, aging in early periods of life was associated with reduction of vascular NO production and bioavailability in both strains investigated. This reduction was however fully compensated by accentuation of NO-independent mechanisms. PMID:24772431

Puzserova, Angelika; Ilovska, Veronika; Balis, Peter; Slezak, Peter; Bernatova, Iveta

2014-01-01

169

Normal masticatory performance in young adults and children.  

PubMed

Previous studies have paid little attention to either the development or sexual dimorphism of masticatory performance. The aim of this study was to measure and compare the masticatory performance of adults and children. Forty-seven healthy and normal individuals (15 adult men, 15 adult women, 15 young girls and 2 young boys) were selected, based on their occlusion, temporomandibular joint function, skeletal classification, and the state of their dentition. Masticatory performance was evaluated by the individual's ability to break down a standardized bolus. Cuttersil impression material was chewed for 20 strokes, spat out, dried, and passed through a series of seven sieves. The Rosin-Rammler equation was used to calculate the median particle size and broadness of particle distribution. Measurements of dentitional surface area, contact area, bite force, mandibular morphology, and body size were also taken as covariates. The results showed significant differences in masticatory performance among the three larger groups; men performed best, followed by women then girls. Multiple regression analyses showed that body size was the most important variable associated with differences in masticatory performance. Adjusting for weight eliminated the group differences. Body size, together with the occlusal contact area of the posterior teeth and the bite force, explained 60-72 percent of the variation in performance. Contact area, posterior ramus height, and bite force explained differences between men and women, but differences between adults and children remained. PMID:8833593

Julien, K C; Buschang, P H; Throckmorton, G S; Dechow, P C

1996-01-01

170

Early life tactile stimulation changes adult rat responsiveness to amphetamine  

E-print Network

Early life tactile stimulation changes adult rat responsiveness to amphetamine Vedran Lovic a amphetamine and the dopamine reuptake inhibitor methylphenidate. Rats were mother-reared or artificially reared minimal stimulation). In adulthood, rats' locomotion was measured after an injection of d-amphetamine

Sokolowski, Marla

171

Dietary Iron Concentration May Influence Aging Process by Altering Oxidative Stress in Tissues of Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

Iron is an essential element. However, in its free form, iron participates in redox-reactions, leading to the production of free radicals that increase oxidative stress and the risk of damaging processes. Living organisms have an efficient mechanism that regulates iron absorption according to their iron content to protect against oxidative damage. The effects of restricted and enriched-iron diets on oxidative stress and aging biomarkers were investigated. Adult Wistar rats were fed diets containing 10, 35 or 350 mg/kg iron (adult restricted-iron, adult control-iron and adult enriched-iron groups, respectively) for 78 days. Rats aged two months were included as a young control group. Young control group showed higher hemoglobin and hematocrit values, lower levels of iron and lower levels of MDA or carbonyl in the major studied tissues than the adult control group. Restricted-iron diet reduced iron concentrations in skeletal muscle and oxidative damage in the majority of tissues and also increased weight loss. Enriched-iron diet increased hematocrit values, serum iron, gamma-glutamyl transferase, iron concentrations and oxidative stress in the majority of tissues. As expected, young rats showed higher mRNA levels of heart and hepatic L-Ferritin (Ftl) and kidneys SMP30 as well as lower mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and interleukin-1 beta (Il1b) and also lower levels of liver protein ferritin. Restricted-iron adult rats showed an increase in heart Ftl mRNA and the enriched-iron adult rats showed an increase in liver nuclear factor erythroid derived 2 like 2 (Nfe2l2) and Il1b mRNAs and in gut divalent metal transporter-1 mRNA (Slc11a2) relative to the control adult group. These results suggest that iron supplementation in adult rats may accelerate aging process by increasing oxidative stress while iron restriction may retards it. However, iron restriction may also impair other physiological processes that are not associated with aging. PMID:23593390

Arruda, Lorena Fernandes; Arruda, Sandra Fernandes; Campos, Natália Aboudib; de Valencia, Fernando Fortes; Siqueira, Egle Machado de Almeida

2013-01-01

172

Young adult females' perceptions of high-risk social media behaviors: a focus-group approach.  

PubMed

This study describes young adult female college students' perceptions of risky social media behaviors. A sample of 14 young adult females, aged 18-22 years and residing in an urban university, participated in 1 of 3 focus groups held in campus housing. Data analysis yielded 4 themes surrounding young adults' engagement in risky behaviors associated with social media. Themes described the predominant culture, associated risk, and prevention. Important insights into young adult female college students' thoughts on risky social media behaviors can be used by advanced practice nurses to inform preventive education for young college women. PMID:25051319

Virden, Amber L; Trujillo, Angelia; Predeger, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

173

Relationship between childhood body mass index and young adult asthma  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between obesity and asthma is an area of debate. Objective To investigate the association of elevated body mass index (BMI) at a young age and young adult asthma. Methods BMI, questionnaires, and serologic tests results were analyzed in participants of a predominantly white, middle-class, population-based birth cohort from Detroit, Michigan at 6 to 8 and 18 years of age. Asthma diagnosis was based on medical record data. Allergen specific IgE was analyzed using UniCAP, with atopy defined as 1 or more allergen specific IgE levels of 0.35 kU/L or higher. Overweight was defined as a BMI in 85th percentile or higher. Results A total of 10.6% of overweight males at 6 to 8 years of age had current asthma at 18 to 20 years of age compared with 3.2% of males who were normal or underweight (relative risk [RR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–11.0; P=.048). A total of 19.6% of females who were overweight at 6 to 8 years of age had asthma compared with 10.3% of females who were normal or underweight (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.9–3.9; P=.09). After adjustment for atopy at 6 to 8 years of age, overweight males had an adjusted RR of 4.7 (95% CI, 1.4–16.2; P=.01), and overweight females had an adjusted RR of 1.7 (95% CI, 0.8–3.3; P=.15). Change in BMI between 6 to 8 years of age and 18 to 20 years of age was also examined. Patients with persistently elevated BMI exhibited increased risk of asthma as young adults (RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2–4.7) but not with an increasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2) or a decreasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2). Conclusion Overweight males 6 to 8 years of age have increased risk of asthma as young adults. Being overweight remains a predictor of asthma after adjustment for early atopy. A similar but not statistically significant trend was also seen among overweight females. Overweight body habitus throughout childhood is a risk factor for young adult asthma. PMID:23176878

Porter, Minto; Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Nageotte, Christian G.; Johnson, Christine Cole; Ownby, Dennis R.; Zoratti, Edward M.

2013-01-01

174

Investing in the health and well-being of young adults.  

PubMed

Contrary to popular perception, young adults-ages approximately 18-26 years-are surprisingly unhealthy. They are less healthy than adolescents, and they also show a worse health profile than those in their late 20s and 30s. The Affordable Care Act provisions to extend coverage for young adults are well known, and some states had already been pursuing similar efforts before the Affordable Care Act was enacted. These initiatives have resulted in important gains in young adults' heath care coverage. However, too little attention has been paid to the care that young adults receive once they are in the system. Given young adults' health problems, this is a critical omission. The Institute of Medicine and National Research Council recently released a report titled Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. The report concludes that young adulthood is a critical developmental period and recommends that young adults ages 18-26 years be treated as a distinct subpopulation in policy, planning, programming, and research. The report also recommends action in three priority areas to improve health care for young adults: improving the transition from pediatric to adult medical and behavioral health care, enhancing preventive care for young adults, and developing evidence-based practices. PMID:25620297

Stroud, Clare; Walker, Leslie R; Davis, Maryann; Irwin, Charles E

2015-02-01

175

Intermittent prenatal MDMA exposure alters physiological but not mood related parameters in adult rat offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recreational party drug “ecstasy” (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine MDMA) is particularly popular among young adults who are in the childbearing age and thus there is a substantial risk of prenatal MDMA exposure.We applied an intermittent treatment protocol with an early first injection on pregnant Wistar rats (15mg\\/kg MDMA s.c. on the E4, E11 and E18 days of gestation) to examine the potential

Csaba Ádori; Dóra Zelena; Júlia Tímár; Zsuzsa Gyarmati; Ágnes Domokos; Melinda Sobor; Zsuzsanna Fürst; Gábor Makara; György Bagdy

2010-01-01

176

Systemic inflammation and lung function in young adults  

PubMed Central

Background Impaired lung function is associated with systemic inflammation and is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in older adults. It is unknown when these associations emerge and to what extent they are mediated by smoking, chronic airways disease, and/or established atherosclerosis. We explored the association between the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the systemic inflammatory marker C?reactive protein (CRP) in young adults. Methods Associations between spirometric lung function and blood CRP were assessed in a population based birth cohort of approximately 1000 New Zealanders at ages 26 and 32?years. Analyses adjusted for height and sex to account for differences in predicted lung function and excluded pregnant women. Results There were significant inverse associations between FEV1 and CRP at both ages. Similar results were found for the forced vital capacity. These associations were similar in men and women and were independent of smoking, asthma, and body mass index. Conclusions Reduced lung function is associated with systemic inflammation in young adults. This association is not related to smoking, asthma, or obesity. The reasons for the association are unexplained, but the findings indicate that the association between lower lung function and increased inflammation predates the development of either chronic lung disease or clinically significant atherosclerosis. The association between poor lung function and cardiovascular disease may be mediated by an inflammatory mechanism. PMID:17604302

Hancox, Robert J; Poulton, Richie; Greene, Justina M; Filsell, Susan; McLachlan, Christene R; Rasmussen, Finn; Taylor, D Robin; Williams, Michael J A; Williamson, Avis; Sears, Malcolm R

2007-01-01

177

Melatonin improves glucose homeostasis in young Zucker diabetic fatty rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on glucose homeostasis in young male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, an experimental model of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ZDF rats (n=30) and lean littermates (ZL) (n=30) were used. At 6wk of age, both lean and fatty animals were subdivided into three groups, each composed of ten rats: naive (N), vehicle treated (V), and melatonin treated (M) (10mg/kg/day) for 6wk. Vehicle and melatonin were added to the drinking water. ZDF rats developed DM (fasting hyperglycemia, 460±39.8mg/dL; HbA(1) c 8.3±0.5%) with both insulin resistance (HOMA-IR 9.28±0.9 versus 1.2±0.1 in ZL) and decreased ?-cell function (HOMA1-%B) by 75%, compared with ZL rats. Melatonin reduced fasting hyperglycemia by 18.6% (P<0.05) and HbA(1) c by 11% (P<0.05) in ZDF rats. Also, melatonin lowered insulinemia by 15.9% (P<0.05) and HOMA-IR by 31% (P<0.01) and increased HOMA1-%B by 14.4% (P<0.05). In addition, melatonin decreased hyperleptinemia by 34% (P<0.001) and raised hypoadiponectinemia by 40% (P<0.001) in ZDF rats. Moreover, melatonin reduced serum free fatty acid levels by 13.5% (P<0.05). These data demonstrate that oral melatonin administration ameliorates glucose homeostasis in young ZDF rats by improving both insulin action and ?-cell function. These observations have implications on melatonin's possible use as a new pharmacologic therapy for improving glucose homeostasis and of obesity-related T2DM, in young subjects. PMID:21883445

Agil, Ahmad; Rosado, Isaac; Ruiz, Rosario; Figueroa, Adriana; Zen, Nourahouda; Fernández-Vázquez, Gumersindo

2012-03-01

178

Moderate High Fat Diet Increases Sucrose Self-Administration In Young Rats  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported that a moderately high fat diet increases motivation for sucrose in adult rats. In this study, we tested the motivational, neurochemical, and metabolic effects of the high fat diet in male rats transitioning through puberty, during 5-8 weeks of age. We observed that the high fat diet increased motivated responding for sucrose, which was independent of either metabolic changes or changes in catecholamine neurotransmitter metabolites in the nucleus accumbens. However, AGRP mRNA levels in the hypothalamus were significantly elevated. We demonstrated that increased activation of AGRP neurons is associated with motivated behavior, and that exogenous (third cerebroventricular) AGRP administration resulted in significantly increased motivation for sucrose. These observations suggest that increased expression and activity of AGRP in the medial hypothalamus may underlie the increased responding for sucrose caused by the high fat diet intervention. Finally, we compared motivation for sucrose in pubertal vs. adult rats and observed increased motivation for sucrose in the pubertal rats, which is consistent with previous reports that young animals and humans have an increased preference for sweet taste, compared with adults. Together, our studies suggest that background diet plays a strong modulatory role in motivation for sweet taste in adolescent animals. PMID:23023044

Figlewicz, Dianne P.; Jay, Jennifer L.; Acheson, Molly A.; Magrisso, Irwin J.; West, Constance H.; Zavosh, Aryana; Benoit, Stephen C.; Davis, Jon F.

2012-01-01

179

Sexual communication and sexual behavior among young adult heterosexual latinos.  

PubMed

We examined verbal sexual health communication, pleasure discussions, and physical sexual communication in relation to condom use by young adult, heterosexual Latinos (ages 18-30 years). Participants (N = 220, 51% female) were recruited in a Midwestern state. Verbal sexual health communication was positively associated with consistent condom use among men (odds ratio [OR] = 2.66, p < .05) and women (OR = 3.12, p < .05). For men, pleasure discussions were negatively associated with consistent condom use (OR = 0.21, p < .05). For women, verbal sexual health communication was positively associated with condom use at last sex (OR = 2.75, p < .05), whereas physical sexual communication was negatively associated with condom use at last sex (OR = .29, p < .05). Various aspects of sexual communication may be important in HIV-prevention programs with young Latinos. Physical sexual communication and pleasure discussions, in particular, warrant further exploration given negative relationships with condom use. PMID:25305027

Alvarez, Carmen; Bauermeister, José A; Villarruel, Antonia M

2014-01-01

180

The performance of obesity screening tools among young thai adults.  

PubMed

Obesity is a worldwide medical condition that leads to physical and psychological impairment. Specific ethnicity, gender and age group are related to different performances of anthropometric indices to predict obesity. The objectives of this study were to estimate the performance of the anthropometric indices for detecting obesity based on percentage of body fat (PBF), to study the correlation among those indices, and to determine the optimal cut-off point of the indices among young Thai adults. This is a cross-sectional study of healthy urban subjects in Khon Kaen, Thailand who were aged 20-39 years. Baseline characteristics and anthropometric measures were collected. PBF was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Demographic data and anthropometric variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the performance of anthropometric measures as predictors of obesity. One-hundred men and 100 women were recruited for this study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-stature ratio (WSR) were significantly correlated to PBF. BMI demonstrated the best performance according to the area under the ROC curves in both sexes at cut-off points of 22.5 in women or 25 kg/m(2) in men. WC and WSR showed better performance than WHR to detect obesity. In conclusion, anthropometric indices in young Thai adults were correlated well with PBF to predict obesity as shown in prior reports. Different cut-off points of these indices to define obesity in young Thai adults are recommended. The global cut-off points of WSR in women regardless of ethnicity are supported. PMID:24832544

Limpawattana, Panita; Kengkijkosol, Thepkhachi; Assantachai, Prasert; Krairit, Orapitchaya; Pimporm, Jiraporn

2014-12-01

181

Gingival recession: prevalence and risk indicators among young greek adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of the current research was to assess the prevalence of gingival recession and to investigate possible associations among this condition, periodontal and epidemiological variables in a sample of young Greek adults in a general dental practice. Material and Methods: A total of 1,430 young adults was examined clinically and interviewed regarding several periodontal and epidemiological variables. Collected data included demographic variables, oral hygiene habits and smoking status. Clinical examination included the recording of dental plaque, supragingival calculus presence, gingival status and buccal gingival recession. Multivariate logistic regression analysis model was performed to access the possible association between gingival recession and several periodontal and epidemiological variables as potential risk factors. Results: The overall prevalence of gingival recession was 63.9%. The statistical analysis indicated that higher educational level [OR= 2.12, 95% CI= 0.53-8.51], cigarette smoking [OR= 1.97, 95% CI= 1.48-7.91], frequent tooth brushing [OR= 0.98, 95% CI= 0.56-1.96], presence of oral piercing [OR= 0.92, 95% CI= 0.38-1.58], presence of gingival inflammation [OR= 4.54, 95% CI= 1.68-7.16], presence of dental plaque [OR= 1.67, 95% CI= 0.68-2.83] and presence of supragingival calculus [OR=1.34, 95% CI= 0.59-1.88], were the most important associated factors of gingival recession. Conclusions: The observations of the current research supported the results from previous authors that several periodontal factors, educational level and smoking were significantly associated with the presence of gingival recession, while presence of oral piercing was a new factor that was found to be associated with gingival recession. Key words:Gingival recession, prevalence, risk factors, young adults. PMID:25136424

2014-01-01

182

Food safety hazards lurk in the kitchens of young adults.  

PubMed

Food mishandling in home kitchens likely causes a significant amount of foodborne disease; however, little is known about the food safety hazards lurking in home kitchens. The purposes of this study were to audit the kitchens of young adults with education beyond high school to identify food safety problems and develop recommendations for education efforts. Researchers developed a criterion-referenced home kitchen observation instrument to assess compliance of home food storage and rotation practices (e.g., temperature), sanitation and chemical storage, and general kitchen condition (e.g., infestation) with recommended practices. The instrument contained seven scales: Kitchen Cleanliness (eight items), Appliance Cleanliness (three items), Cleaning Supplies Availability (eight items), Temperatures (Food Thermometer Access & Refrigerator/Freezer Temperatures) (five items), Cold Food Storage (seven items), Dry Food Storage (eight items), and Poisons Storage (two items). Descriptive statistics were conducted to describe the study population, as a whole, and by gender. A total of 154 young adults (mean age, 20.7+/- 1.3 SD) enrolled in a northeastern university participated. Participants scored 70% or higher on Poisons Storage, Dry Food Storage, Kitchen Cleanliness, and Cleaning Supplies Availability scales but less than 60% on the Appliance Cleanliness and Cold Food Storage scales. Performance was lowest on the Temperatures scale. Females scored significantly higher than males on the Kitchen Cleanliness and Cleaning Supply Availability scales. Average refrigerator and freezer temperatures were higher than recommendations. Food safety education targeted at this young adult population needs to evolve into focused messages pertaining to the key food safety violations in this population. PMID:17477272

Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Maurer, Jaclyn; Wheatley, Virginia; Cottone, Ellen; Clancy, Michele

2007-04-01

183

Sexual Orientation Disparities in Cardiovascular Biomarkers Among Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Emerging evidence from general population studies suggests that lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adults are more likely to experience adverse cardiovascular outcomes relative to heterosexuals. No studies have examined whether sexual orientation disparities exist in biomarkers of early cardiovascular disease risk. Purpose To determine whether sexual orientation disparities in biomarkers of early cardiovascular risk are present among young adults. Methods Data come from Wave IV (2008–2009) of the National Longitudinal Study for Adolescent Health (N=12,451), a prospective nationally representative study of U.S. adolescents followed into young adulthood (mean age: 28.9 years). A total of 520 respondents identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Biomarkers included C-reactive protein, glycosylated hemoglobin, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Results In gender-stratified models adjusted for demographics (age, race/ethnicity); SES (income, education); health behaviors (smoking, regular physical activity, alcohol consumption); and BMI, gay and bisexual men had significant elevations in C-reactive protein, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate, compared to heterosexual men. Despite having more risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, and higher BMI, lesbians and bisexual women had lower levels of C-reactive protein than heterosexual women in fully adjusted models. Conclusions Evidence was found for sexual orientation disparities in biomarkers of cardiovascular risk among young adults, particularly in gay and bisexual men. These findings, if confirmed in other studies, suggest that disruptions in core physiologic processes that ultimately confer risk for cardiovascular disease may occur early in the life course for sexual minority men. PMID:23683979

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Kate A.; Slopen, Natalie

2013-01-01

184

Binge Drinking Impairs Vascular Function in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives The study aimed to assess whether young binge drinkers have impaired macrovascular and microvascular function and cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factors compared to age-matched alcohol abstainers. Background Binge drinking rates are highest on college campuses and among 18- to 25-year-olds; however, macrovascular and microvascular endothelial function in young adults with a history of repeated binge drinking (?5 standard drinks in 2 hrs. in men; ?4 standard drinks in 2 hrs. in women) has not been investigated Methods We evaluated the cardiovascular profile, brachial artery endothelial-dependent flow mediated vasodilation (FMD), and flow independent nitroglycerin (NTG)-mediated dilation and vasoreactivity of resistance arteries (isolated from gluteal fat biopsies) in abstainers and binge drinkers. Results Men and women (18–25 years of age, abstainers [A] n = 17, binge drinkers [BD] n = 19) were enrolled. Among the BD group, past-month average number of binge episodes was 6 ± 1, and average duration of binge drinking behavior was 4 ± 0.6 years. FMD and NTG-mediated dilations were significantly lower in the BD (FMD: 8.4% ± 0.7, P = 0.022; NTG: 19.6% ± 2, P = 0.009) than the A group (FMD: 11 ± 0.7%; NTG: 28.6 ± 2%). ACh- and SNP-induced dilation in resistance arteries was not significantly different between the A and BD groups. However, ET-1-induced constriction was significantly enhanced in the BD group compared to the A group (P = 0.032). No differences between groups were found in blood pressure, lipoproteins, and C-reactive protein. Conclusions Alterations in the macrocirculation and microcirculation may represent early clinical manifestations of CV risk in otherwise healthy young binge drinkers. This study has important clinical implications for screening young adults for a repeated history of binge drinking. PMID:23623907

Goslawski, Melissa; Piano, Mariann R.; Bian, Jing-Tan; Church, Emily; Szczurek, Mary; Phillips, Shane A.

2013-01-01

185

"Coming out" stories of gay and lesbian young adults.  

PubMed

Gay and lesbian young adults (N = 53) were interviewed about coming out to their parents. Analyses of memory content were conducted. Hypotheses related to disclosure were largely supported. Participants typically first disclosed their sexual orientation to a friend. More participants came out to their mother than their father. When disclosure was made to both parents, mothers were told prior to fathers. Mothers were often told using direct methods, whereas fathers were typically informed using indirect methods. Mothers tended to inquire about their sons' sexuality; mothers inquired less with daughters. Findings are discussed in relation to autobiographical memory, sexuality, and clinical literatures. PMID:20924929

Rossi, Nicole E

2010-01-01

186

Conservative Management of a Young Adult with Hip Arthrosis  

PubMed Central

Study Design Case report Background Clinical practice guidelines regarding the conservative management of degenerative hip conditions in older adults routinely incorporate therapeutic exercise and manual therapy. However, the application of these recommendations to young, active adults is less clear. The purpose of this case report is to describe the management of a young adult with advanced hip arthrosis using a multi-faceted rehabilitation program. Case Description A 28-year old female with severe left hip degeneration per diagnostic imaging was referred to physical therapy. Reduced hip range of motion and strength, sacroiliac joint asymmetries, and a modified Harris Hip Score of 76 were observed. She was seen for 12 visits over a 3-month period and treated with an individualized program including manual therapy, therapeutic exercise, and neuromuscular re-education. Outcome Substantial improvements were noted in pain, hip range of motion and strength and function (modified Harris Hip Score of 97). In addition, she discontinued the use of anti-inflammatory medications and returned to her prior level of activity. Improvements were maintained at a 3 month follow up, with symptom recurrence managed using a self mobilization technique to the left hip and massage to the left iliopsoas. Discussion Degenerative hip conditions are common among older adults but are relatively rare in the younger population. Although it is likely that this patient will experience a return of her symptoms and functional limitations as her hip disease progresses, the immediate improvements may delay the need for eventual surgical management. These outcomes suggest that physical therapy management should be considered in those with an early onset of degenerative hip disease and are consistent with results previously reported in the older population. Level of Evidence Therapy, Level 4 PMID:20026881

Cook, Kyle M.; Heiderscheit, Bryan

2010-01-01

187

Young Adult Gambling Behaviors and their Relationship with the Persistence of ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young adulthood is a period renowned for engagement in impulsive and risky behaviors, including gambling. There are some indications\\u000a that young adults exhibit higher gambling rates in comparison to older adults. Problem gambling has also been linked to ADHD.\\u000a This longitudinal study examines the relationship between gambling and ADHD among an epidemiological sample of young adults\\u000a (n = 235; males = 179, females = 56) aged

Jessie L. Breyer; Andria M. Botzet; Ken C. Winters; Randy D. Stinchfield; Gerald August; George Realmuto

2009-01-01

188

Effects of chronic overload on muscle hypertrophy and mTOR signaling in adult and aged rats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We examined the effect of 28 days of overload on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in young adult (Y; 6 mo old) and aged (O; 30 mo old) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats subjected to bilateral synergist ablation (SA) of two-thirds of the gas...

189

Pathogenic Responses among Young Adults during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic  

PubMed Central

Of the unexplained characteristics of the 1918–19 influenza pandemic, the extreme mortality rate among young adults (W-shaped mortality curve) is the foremost. Lack of a coherent explanation of this and other epidemiologic and clinical manifestations of the pandemic contributes to uncertainty in preparing for future pandemics. Contemporaneous records suggest that immunopathologic responses were a critical determinant of the high mortality rate among young adults and other high-risk subgroups. Historical records and findings from laboratory animal studies suggest that persons who were exposed to influenza once before 1918 (e.g., A/H3Nx 1890 pandemic strain) were likely to have dysregulated, pathologic cellular immune responses to infections with the A/H1N1 1918 pandemic strain. The immunopathologic effects transiently increased susceptibility to ultimately lethal secondary bacterial pneumonia. The extreme mortality rate associated with the 1918–19 pandemic is unlikely to recur naturally. However, T-cell–mediated immunopathologic effects should be carefully monitored in developing and using universal influenza vaccines. PMID:22306191

Brundage, John F.

2012-01-01

190

Risk factors for thrombophilia in young adults presenting with thrombosis.  

PubMed

The increased risk for thrombosis is known as hypercoagulability or thrombophilia. Here, we investigated risk factors for thrombophilia which were screened in young adult patients presenting with thrombotic events or with recurrent abortions with unknown etiology. A total of 115 patients aged between 16 and 50 years who were found to harbor thrombophilia were retrospectively evaluated. The laboratory investigations performed for the assessment of thrombophilia included protein C, protein S, antithrombin III deficiencies, activated protein C resistance, factor V Leiden (FVL), prothrombin 20210A (PT 20210) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene mutations, factor VIII elevation, lupus anticoagulant and antiphospholipid antibodies (APA). In 66% of the cases a single thrombophilic defect was identified while some of the patients had combined thrombophilic defects. The most common thrombophilic defect was mutation in the MTHFR gene, and was followed by FVL mutation, the presence of APA and PT 20210 gene mutation, respectively. The patients were divided into two different age groups, 16-35 and 36-50 years, and arterial thrombosis was more common in the older age group. Our results indicated that some important thrombophilic defects such as gene mutations may appear in young adult patients presenting with thrombotic events. PMID:19937485

Yokus, Osman; Albayrak, Murat; Balcik, Ozlem Sahin; Ceran, Funda; Dagdas, Simten; Yilmaz, Mesude; Ozet, Gulsum

2009-12-01

191

Intra- versus intermodal integration in young and older adults  

PubMed Central

The ability to integrate information across sensory channels is critical for both within- and between-modality speech processing. The present study evaluated the hypothesis that inter- and intramodal integration abilities are related, in young and older adults. Further, the investigation asked if intramodal integration (auditory+auditory), and intermodal integration (auditory+visual) resist changes as a function of either aging or the presence of hearing loss. Three groups of adults (young with normal hearing, older with normal hearing, and older with hearing loss) were asked to identify words in sentence context. Intramodal integration ability was assessed by presenting disjoint passbands of speech (550–750 and 1650–2250 Hz) to either ear. Integration was indexed by factoring monotic from dichotic scores to control for potential hearing- or age-related influences on absolute performance. Intermodal integration ability was assessed by presenting the auditory and visual signals. Integration was indexed by a measure based on probabilistic models of auditory-visual integration, termed integration enhancement. Results suggested that both types of integration ability are largely resistant to changes with age and hearing loss. In addition, intra- and intermodal integration were shown to be not correlated. As measured here, these findings suggest that there is not a common mechanism that accounts for both inter- and intramodal integration performance. PMID:18529201

Spehar, Brent P.; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Sommers, Mitchell S.

2008-01-01

192

Somatosensory mismatch response in young and elderly adults  

PubMed Central

Aging is associated with cognitive decline and alterations in early perceptual processes. Studies in the auditory and visual sensory modalities have shown that the mismatch negativity [or the mismatch response (MMR)], an event-related potential (ERP) elicited by a deviant stimulus in a background of homogenous events, diminishes with aging and cognitive decline. However, the effects of aging on the somatosensory MMR (sMMR) are not known. In the current study, we recorded ERPs to electrical pulses to different fingers of the left hand in a passive oddball experiment in young (22–36 years) and elderly (66–95 years) adults engaged in a visual task. The MMR was found to deviants as compared to standards at two latency ranges: 180–220 ms and 250–290 ms post-stimulus onset. At 180–220 ms, within the young, the MMR was found at medial electrode sites, whereas aged did not show any amplitude difference between the stimulus types at the same latency range. At 250–290 ms, the MMR was evident with attenuated amplitude and narrowed scalp distribution among aged (Fz) compared to young (fronto-centrally and lateral parietal sites). Hence, the results reveal that the somatosensory change detection mechanism is altered in aging. The sMMR can be used as a reliable measure of age-related changes in sensory-cognitive functions. PMID:25386140

Strömmer, Juho M.; Tarkka, Ina M.; Astikainen, Piia

2014-01-01

193

Psychological predictors of young adults' use of social networking sites.  

PubMed

Young people are increasingly using social networking sites (SNSs) like MySpace and Facebook to engage with others. The use of SNSs can have both positive and negative effects on the individual; however, few studies identify the types of people who frequent these Internet sites. This study sought to predict young adults' use of SNSs and addictive tendency toward the use of SNSs from their personality characteristics and levels of self-esteem. University students (N = 201), aged 17 to 24 years, reported their use of SNSs and addictive tendencies for SNSs use and completed the NEO Five-Factor Personality Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Multiple regression analyses revealed that, as a group, the personality and self-esteem factors significantly predicted both level of SNS use and addictive tendency but did not explain a large amount of variance in either outcome measure. The findings indicated that extroverted and unconscientious individuals reported higher levels of both SNS use and addictive tendencies. Future research should attempt to identify which other psychosocial characteristics explain young people's level of use and propensity for addictive tendencies for these popular Internet sites. PMID:20528274

Wilson, Kathryn; Fornasier, Stephanie; White, Katherine M

2010-04-01

194

Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head in young adults.  

PubMed

A subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head (SIF) is generally observed in elderly women. In addition, SIF has been reported to occur in young military trainees, which are considered to be due to a fatigue stress fracture. This report reviewed five cases of SIF in young adults without any history of overexertion or antecedent trauma. The clinical findings, time to the initial radiograph, time to the initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and follow-up period were investigated. Radiographs and MRI were obtained in both hips. Bone mineral density and bone scintigram were performed. Measurements of a bone mineral density indicated presence of osteopenia in three patients. MRI disclosed a discontinuous irregular-shaped low-intensity band surrounded by bone marrow edema in all cases. After conservative treatments, one patient's condition resolved, while four patients underwent femoral head collapse resulting in surgical treatment. In these four patients, the diagnosis of SIF was histologically confirmed. In addition, the histological findings showed thin disconnected bone trabeculae, thus indicating the presence of some degree of osteopenia. These patients were considered to demonstrate an insufficiency fracture rather than a fatigue stress fracture based on both clinical findings and histological findings. SIF needs to be considered in patients presenting with hip pain even in young cases. PMID:21513858

Iwasaki, Kenyu; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Motomura, Goro; Mawatari, Taro; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Iwamoto, Yukihide

2011-01-01

195

Corrective Tibial Osteotomy in Young Adults Using an Intramedullary Nail  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to document results of a less invasive technique of open wedge proximal tibial osteotomy (PTO) for the varus knee in young adults using an intramedullary tibial nail. Materials and Methods We prospectively studied 24 knees in 16 young patients with varus knee deformity. The mean follow-up was 54 months (range, 36 to 107 months) and the mean age of patients at the time of operation was 25.8 years (range, 18 to 40 years). The open wedge PTO was performed below tibial tuberosity using a percutaneous multiple drill-hole technique. Conventional intramedullary tibial nail was used for fixation without bone graft. Radiographic evaluations were made using mechanical alignment (MA), posterior tibial slope angle, and Insall-Salvati ratio. Union time, loss of correction, implant failure, and associated complications were also investigated. Results The mean MA was significantly changed from -9.7° preoperatively to 1.1° at the final follow-up (p<0.001). There was no significant change in the proximal tibial anatomy and patellar height. All patients achieved radiographic bony union at an average of 3.1 months without loss of correction. The only complication was knee pain due to nail prominence in 3 patients. Conclusions Radiographic evaluation indicated that PTO using an intramedullary tibial nail leads to significant improvement in radiographic parameters without changes in posterior tibial slope or patellar height. We found that this technique could be a less invasive and effective alternative for correction of the varus knee in young adults. PMID:24944974

Kim, Kang-Il; Thaller, Peter H.; Ramteke, Alankar; Lee, Seung-Hyuk

2014-01-01

196

The Experiences of Mothers of Young Adults with an Intellectual Disability Transitioning from Secondary School to Adult Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The transition from school to adulthood for young adults with an intellectual disability involves movement from a generally secure and supported school environment to an emerging adult life that may be characterised by a wide variation in adoption of adult roles related to employment, independent living, friendships, and day…

Dyke, Paula; Bourke, Jenny; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Leonard, Helen

2013-01-01

197

Patterns of Tobacco Use and Dual Use in US Young Adults: The Missing Link between Youth Prevention and Adult Cessation  

PubMed Central

Few studies address the developmental transition from youth tobacco use uptake to regular adulthood use, especially for noncigarette tobacco products. The current study uses online panel data from the Legacy Young Adult Cohort Study to describe the prevalence of cigarette, other tobacco product, and dual use in a nationally representative sample of young adults aged 18–34 (N = 4,201). Of the 23% of young adults who were current tobacco users, 30% reported dual use. Ever use, first product used, and current use were highest for cigarettes, cigars, little cigars, and hookah. Thirty-two percent of ever tobacco users reported tobacco product initiation after the age of 18 and 39% of regular users reported progressing to regular use during young adulthood. This study highlights the need for improved monitoring of polytobacco use across the life course and developing tailored efforts for young adults to prevent progression and further reduce overall population prevalence. PMID:22666279

Rath, Jessica M.; Villanti, Andrea C.; Abrams, David B.; Vallone, Donna M.

2012-01-01

198

Andragogy for Teen and Young Adult Learners with Intellectual Disabilities: Learning, Independence, and Best Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teens and young adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) meet the criteria of teen and adult learners chronologically, but may be deficient in many other areas of teen and adult learning. The spectrum of intellectual and adaptive capabilities among teens and adults with ID is vast, with each individual being unique. There are specific teaching…

Bowman, Stephanie L.; Plourde, Lee A.

2012-01-01

199

Childhood victimization experiences of young adults in st. Petersburg, Russia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of childhood victimization experiences in a sample of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. The study sample included 743 students aged 19 to 25 from 15 universities in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the study participants completed a reliable questionnaire assessing the following types of childhood victimization: conventional crime, child maltreatment, peer victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessing violence. Participation in the study was anonymous. High rates of victimization and exposure to violence were reported by the study participants. The majority of the sample experienced at least one type of victimization during childhood or adolescence, and poly-victimization was reported frequently. The most common type of victimization reported was peer or sibling assault (66.94%), followed by witnessing an assault without weapon (63.91%), personal theft (56.19%), vandalism (56.06%), and emotional bullying (49.99%). Sexual assault by a known adult was reported by 1.45% males and 5.16% of females. This study provides new information on the scope of childhood victimization experiences in Russia. Further research is warranted, including epidemiological research with representative data across the country and studies of the impact of trauma and victimization on mental health and well-being of Russian adults and children. PMID:25012953

Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov

2015-04-01

200

ACUTE BEHAVIORAL TOXICITY OF CARBARYL AND PROPOXUR IN ADULT RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Motor activity and neuromotor function were examined in adult CD rats exposed to either carbaryl or propoxur, and behavioral effects were compared with the time course of cholinesterase inhibition. Rats received an IP injection of either 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 mg/kg propoxur or 0, 4, 8,...

201

Thyroid Hormone Influences Antioxidant Defense System in Adult Rat Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the current study was to find out whether thyroid hormone influences antioxidant defense parameters of rat brain. Several oxidative stress and antioxidant defense parameters of mitochondrial (MF) and post-mitochondrial (PMF) fractions of cerebral cortex (CC) of adult rats were compared among euthyroid (control), hypothyroid [6-n-propylthiouracil (PTU)-challenged], and hyperthyroid (T3-treatment to PTU-challenged rats) states. Oxidative stress parameters, such

Kajari Das; G. B. N. Chainy

2004-01-01

202

Prenatal programming of adult hypertension in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal programming of adult hypertension in the rat.BackgroundEpidemiological studies have suggested that low birthweight is a risk factor for the development of essential hypertension in adulthood, but the mechanism is unknown.MethodsA rat model of intrauterine growth retardation was employed. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were kept on 6% protein or on control isocaloric 20% protein diet from gestational day 12 until term.

V Matti Vehaskari; Diego H Aviles; Jennifer Manning

2001-01-01

203

Self-Evaluated Dental Appearance Satisfaction among Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background: Dental appearance satisfaction is important among young adults because judgment concerning the personal characteristics of individuals is influenced by their dental appearance in the absence of other information. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction among young adults. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional survey of financial industry prone undergraduates of University of Benin was conducted between July and September, 2010. The self-administered questionnaire which assessed information on demographic characteristics, smoking habit, alcohol use, previous dental visit, dental appearance satisfaction, tooth shape, size, arrangement and strength was the tool of data collection. The data was subjected to descriptive, Chi-square and regression statistics using statistical package for the social sciences version 17.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). (P < 0.05) was considered to be significant. Results: A total of 399 undergraduates which are made up of 179 (44.9%) males and 220 (55.1%) females with mean age of 24.66 (4.20) years participated in this study. Self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction was expressed by 79.4% (317/399) of the participants. The significant predictors of self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction were skin color (P = 0.03, odds ratio [OR] =2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.09-6.09) and perceived tooth strength (P = 0.02, OR = 5.83, 95% CI = 1.40-24.28) among males and alcohol consumption (P = 0.04, OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.21-0.95] and perceived size of tooth (P = 0.02, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.15-4.89) among females. The significant predictors of self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction among the participants were ethnicity (P = 0.04, OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.32-0.96), skin color (P = 0.04, OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.03-2.93), perceived tooth size (P = 0.03, OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.07-3.09) and strength (P = 0.01, OR = 3.42, 95% CI = 1.58-7.41). Conclusion: Ethnicity, tooth arrangement, size and strength need to be given detailed consideration in tooth replacement as they emerged as the significant predictors of self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction among young adults. PMID:25221713

Azodo, CC; Ogbomo, AC

2014-01-01

204

Juvenile and adult rat neuromuscular junctions: density, distribution, and morphology.  

PubMed

Anatomical and physiological differences in neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) between juvenile and adult muscle may partially explain the variability in clinical results following chemodenervation with botulinum toxin or nerve repair in children and adults. We evaluated NMJ density, distribution, and morphometry in biceps brachii and gastrocnemius muscles from juvenile and adult rats. Motor endplates were stained with Karnovsky-Roots methods, and NMJ density (number/gram muscle tissue) was determined. The NMJ morphometry was quantitated with alpha-bungarotoxin labeling using confocal microscopy. Juvenile rats had a greater NMJ density in both muscles compared with adult rats. Juveniles and adult rats had a similar NMJ distribution in both muscles. In juvenile muscles NMJs occupied approximately 50% of the surface area and 70% of the length, width, circumference, and gutter depth compared with adult muscles. Our study demonstrates that although NMJs are smaller, juvenile muscles have a higher NMJ density than do adult muscles with similar distributions. If these age-dependent differences in NMJ density are obtained in humans, they may account, at least in part, for the better recovery that occurs in children than adults after nerve repair and also suggest that the dosage of botulinum toxin (units per kg) for chemodenervation may need to be increased in juveniles. PMID:12451605

Ma, Jianjun; Smith, Beth P; Smith, Thomas L; Walker, Francis O; Rosencrance, Eileen V; Koman, L Andrew

2002-12-01

205

Thyroid hormone regulates hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult rat brain  

E-print Network

Thyroid hormone regulates hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult rat brain Lynette A. Desouza,a,1 March 2005 Available online 27 April 2005 We have examined the influence of thyroid hormone on adult hormone may be optimally permissive at euthyroid levels. Our in vivo and in vitro results revealed

Vaidya, Vidita

206

Attractiveness judgments and discrimination of mommies and grandmas: Perceptual tuning for young adult faces.  

PubMed

Adults are more accurate in detecting deviations from normality in young adult faces than in older adult faces despite exhibiting comparable accuracy in discriminating both face ages. This deficit in judging the normality of older faces may be due to reliance on a face space optimized for the dimensions of young adult faces, perhaps because of early and continuous experience with young adult faces. Here we examined the emergence of this young adult face bias by testing 3- and 7-year-old children on a child-friendly version of the task used to test adults. In an attractiveness judgment task, children viewed young and older adult face pairs; each pair consisted of an unaltered face and a distorted face of the same identity. Children pointed to the prettiest face, which served as a measure of their sensitivity to the dimensions on which faces vary relative to a norm. To examine whether biases in the attractiveness task were specific to deficits in referencing a norm or extended to impaired discrimination, we tested children on a simultaneous match-to-sample task with the same stimuli. Both age groups were more accurate in judging the attractiveness of young faces relative to older faces; however, unlike adults, the young adult face bias extended to the match-to-sample task. These results suggest that by 3years of age, children's perceptual system is more finely tuned for young adult faces than for older adult faces, which may support past findings of superior recognition for young adult faces. PMID:25222629

Short, Lindsey A; Mondloch, Catherine J; Hackland, Anne T

2015-01-01

207

Cannabis and Anxiety and Depression in Young Adults: A Large Prospective Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine whether age of first use or frequency of use of cannabis is associated with anxiety and depression (AD) in young adults, independent of known potential confounders, including the use of other illicit drugs. Method: A cohort of 3,239 Australian young adults was followed from birth to the age of 21 when data on AD were obtained…

Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad R.; Najman, Jake M.; Jamrozik, Konrad; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Alati, Rosa; Bor, William

2007-01-01

208

Tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and other illegal drug use among young adults: the socioeconomic context.  

E-print Network

1 Tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and other illegal drug use among young adults: the socioeconomic.drugalcdep.2011.09.002 #12;2 Tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and other illegal drug use among young adults-completed mail survey: regular tobacco smoking, alcohol abuse (AUDIT), cannabis use, problematic cannabis use

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

209

Perception of asthma as a factor in career choice among young adults with asthma  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/AIM: Asthma is a common chronic condition that can be aggravated by workplace exposures. Young adults with asthma should know how their future occupation might affect their asthma, and potentially, their quality of life. The aim of the present study was to assess the awareness of young adults to occupational risks for asthma and high-risk occupations, as well as their perception of the role of asthma in career choice. METHODS: Young adults 16 to 22 years of age with reported physician-diagnosed asthma were recruited to complete a questionnaire eliciting information regarding asthma control, career choice and awareness of occupational exposure risks. RESULTS: A small majority of the study cohort (56.4%) could identify occupations that cause or exacerbate asthma, and 34.7% indicated that asthma was an important factor in their career plans. Family physicians were most responsible for asthma management (80.2%), but young adults were more likely to discuss asthma and career plans with their parents (43.6%) or friends (29.7%) than with their family physician (13.9%; P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Young adults with asthma have suboptimal awareness of potential work-related asthma risks. Family physicians most commonly provide asthma care to these young adults. However, few young adults are talking to their family physicians about career choices and asthma. This observation represents an area of asthma care that needs to be explored in young adults with asthma. PMID:20011720

Bhinder, Sacha; Cicutto, Lisa; Abdel-Qadir, Husam M; Tarlo, Susan M

2009-01-01

210

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND HEALTH ENHANCING DIETARY BEHAVIORS IN YOUNG ADULTS: BOGALUSA HEART STUDY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Obesity results from energy imbalance. This study used data from the Bogalusa Heart Study to examine relationships between the dietary and physical activity behaviors of young adults. One thousand one hundred ninety-one young adults (76% Euro-American, 24% African-American, 61% female) completed a f...

211

Factors Related to Smoking in College and Not in College Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought variables associated with current smoking for young adult males and females in college compared with those not in college. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by a cohort of 1,270 young adults (ages 20-24) who have been followed from grade 6 for 10 years. Both bivariate and multivariable analyses of demographic…

Koval, John; Pederson, Linda; Zhang, Xiaohe

2006-01-01

212

The Longitudinal Relationships between Rural Adolescents' Prosocial Behaviors and Young Adult Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While many adolescents and young adults experiment with substances (e.g., alcohol, cigarette smoking, marijuana), recent research suggests that rural youth and young adults may be more at risk for substance use than their urban counterparts. This study was designed to examine the longitudinal relationships between rural adolescents' prosocial…

Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Beal, Sarah J.

2011-01-01

213

Relationship Between Arterial Stiffness and Athletic Training Programs in Young Adult Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We examined the relationships of endurance and strength exercise training and the adolescent duration of training to arterial stiffness in young adult men. We hypothesized that young adults participating in endurance sports would have decreased arterial stiffness, whereas those in strength-based sports would have increased arterial stiffness. In addition, we predicted that these trends would be more pronounced with

Takeshi Otsuki; Seiji Maeda; Motoyuki Iemitsu; Yoko Saito; Yuko Tanimura; Ryuichi Ajisaka; Takashi Miyauchi

2007-01-01

214

UK young adults' safety awareness online – is it a ‘girl thing’?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a recent research project undertaken in the UK that investigated young adults' perception of potentially risky behaviour online. The research was undertaken through the use of an online survey associated with the UK teen soap opera Being Victor. The findings of the project suggest that this sample of British young adults was mostly aware of the

Sarah Pedersen

2012-01-01

215

African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

2014-01-01

216

Assessment of the Familial Relationships of Young Adult Children of Separated Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was the psychometric study of six scales designed to assess the familial relationships of young adult children of separated parents. The analyzed constructs are interparental conflict, loyalty conflict, coalition, parentification, children's perceptions of the parent–child relationships, and young adult perception of the separation–individuation process. Internal consistency and factorial validity was studied through a sample of

Clara Valls-Vidal; Carles Pérez-Testor; Joan Guardia-Olmos; Raffaella Iafrate

2010-01-01

217

Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention and Intervention in a Community Setting: Perspectives of Young Adults and Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent dating violence (ADV) is a significant community problem. In this study, we examine the perspectives of two groups (young adults who experienced ADV as teens and professionals who work with teens) on ADV prevention/intervention in a community context. We interviewed 88 young adults and 20 professionals. Our research team used Thorne's…

Martsolf, Donna S.; Colbert, Crystal; Draucker, Claire B.

2012-01-01

218

Designing a Weight Gain Prevention Trial for Young Adults: The CHOICES Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Young adults are at risk for weight gain. Little is known about how to design weight control programs to meet the needs of young adults and few theory-based interventions have been evaluated in a randomized control trial. The Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings (CHOICES) study was funded to create a…

Lytle, Leslie A.; Moe, Stacey G.; Nanney, M. Susie; Laska, Melissa N.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Petrich, Christine A.; Sevcik, Sarah M.

2014-01-01

219

Healthy Behaviors and Lifestyles in Young Adults with a History of Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Measure select Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators in young adults with and without a history of developmental disabilities (DD) using a population-based cohort. Methods: Young adults were interviewed to assess the prevalence of seven Leading Health Indicators: physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance…

Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Schendel, Diana; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

2006-01-01

220

Predictors of Work Participation of Young Adults with Mild Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among young adults with ID is lacking altogether.…

Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

2013-01-01

221

The Relationship of Parenting Styles to Commitment to the Church among Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effects of parenting style experiences during childhood has on the religious commitment of young adults. Surveyed Seventh-day Adventist young adults (n=653) in United States and Canada. Reveals that the affectionate constraint parenting style produced the largest percentage of members. Includes references. (CMK)

Dudley, Roger L.; Wisbey, Randall L.

2000-01-01

222

The long-term costs of job displacement for young adult workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using NLSY data, the authors estimate the long-term costs of job displacement for young adults. Earnings and wage losses were large for the first three years following displacement. Compared to earnings losses found by other studies for more mature workers, however, earnings losses for these young adults were short-lived, with differences between observed and expected earnings narrowing considerably five years

Lori G. Kletzer; Robert W. Fairlie

2003-01-01

223

Exploring the Psychosocial and Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes of Multi-Type Abuse among Homeless Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the psychosocial and behavioral adjustment outcomes associated with verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse among homeless young adults as well as the associations among abuse types. Convenience sampling was used to select 28 homeless young adults (ages 18 to 24) from one drop-in center. Overall, subjects experienced…

Ferguson, Kristin M.

2009-01-01

224

Young Adult Couples Transitioning to Work: The Intersection of Career and Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contextual action theory was used to frame an exploratory qualitative study of young adult couples' experiences of transitioning from post-secondary education into the labor force, addressing the specific research question ''What kinds of projects for future work and life together do young adult couples jointly construct and pursue as they…

Domene, Jose F.; Nee, Jessica J.; Cavanaugh, Ashley K.; McLelland, Serita; Stewart, Becky; Stephenson, Michelle; Kauffman, Bradley; Tse, Christopher K.; Young, Richard A.

2012-01-01

225

Suicide Acceptability Is Related to Suicide Planning in U.S. Adolescents and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The association between adolescents' and young adults' attitudes toward suicide and their own suicidality across five racial-ethnic classifications was studied in a nationally representative sample of 3,301 youth ages 14 to 22 years from the National Annenberg Risk Survey of Youth. Results indicate that adolescents and young adults who most…

Joe, Sean; Romer, Daniel; Jamieson, Patrick E.

2007-01-01

226

Understanding Tobacco-Related Attitudes among College and Noncollege Young Adult Hookah and Cigarette Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege young adults. Participants: Time-location samples of young adult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque…

Lee, Youn Ok; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Ling, Pamela M.

2014-01-01

227

The Cultural Work of Magical Realism in Three Young Adult Novels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Magical realism as a literary mode is often subversive and transgressive, questioning the values and assumptions of the dominant society that it depicts. Young adult literature, by contrast, is typically thought to serve a socializing function, helping to integrate young readers into adult society. What then is the cultural work of magical realism…

Latham, Don

2007-01-01

228

Young Adult Follow-Up of Hyperactive Children: Antisocial Activities and Drug Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Hyperactive/ADHD children are believed to be a greater risk for adolescent and young adult antisocial activity and drug use/abuse, particularly that subset having comorbid conduct problems/disorder. Method: We report on the lifetime antisocial activities and illegal drug use self-reported at young adult follow-up (mean age 20-21 years;…

Barkley, Russell A.; Fischer, Mariellen; Smallish, Lori; Fletcher, Kenneth

2004-01-01

229

Sexual behavior and drug consumption among young adults in a shantytown in Lima, Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Risky sexual behaviors of young adults have received increasing attention during the last decades. However, few studies have focused on the sexual behavior of young adults in shantytowns of Latin America. Specifically, studies on the association between sexual behaviors and other risk factors for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV\\/AIDS transmission, such as the consumption of illicit drugs or

Juan A Gálvez-Buccollini; Suzanne DeLea; Phabiola M Herrera; Robert H Gilman; Valerie Paz-Soldan

2009-01-01

230

Twenty-Five Years of Research in Young Adult Literature: Past Perspectives and Future Directions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the history and methodology of a project to compile an annotated bibliography of published critical research on young adult literature. Preliminary findings include recommended book lists, articles by young adult authors, author studies, and topic analyses. Recommendations for future research are included. (EAM)

Poe, Elizabeth Ann; And Others

1993-01-01

231

Sexual Activity of Young Adults Who Are Visually Impaired and the Need for Effective Sex Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Little research has been reported on all aspects of sexuality as it pertains to individuals with visual impairments. This article analyzes data on the sexual experiences of young adults who are visually impaired and young adults without disabilities. Methods: The authors conducted a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal…

Kelly, Stacy M.; Kapperman, Gaylen

2012-01-01

232

Parents Raising Young Adults on the Autism Spectrum: Perspectives on Advocacy and Occupational Balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an investigation of parents’ perspectives on advocacy actions and occupational balance raising young adults on the autism spectrum. Previous findings on parent advocacy have focused on mothers (1) and young children with autism (2); however data are sparse regarding parenting the older adult child on the autism spectrum. As children transition to adulthood, at

SherwinAndreaB

2009-01-01

233

Reactive and Proactive Control in Incarcerated and Community Adolescents and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the cognitive control skills of male incarcerated adolescents (n = 44), male control adolescents (n = 33), male incarcerated young adults (n = 41), and male control young adults (n = 35) using the AX-continuous performance test (AX-CPT). This test measures proactive control (the ability to maintain a mental representation of…

Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

2009-01-01

234

Demographic differences and food patterns associated with metabolic syndrome in young adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Little is known about risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MS) in young adults. Intake was collected on 1,012 young adults (20-38 years) (61% female; 26% black) using a food-frequency questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometrics, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profiles were quantifi...

235

Risk Perceptions and Behavioral Intentions for Hepatitis B: How Do Young Adults Fare?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adults are at risk for Hepatitis B infection. Little is known about their attitudes and beliefs concerning Hepatitis B, which are determinants of getting immunized. This investigation examined risk perceptions and behavioral intentions concerning Hepatitis B among a convenience sample of 1070 young adults, 18-24 years old who participated in…

Gonzales, R. M.; Glik, D. C.; Prelip, M.; Bourque, L.; Yuen, J.; Ang, A.; Jones, M. C.

2006-01-01

236

Characters with Visual Impairment: Looking at Books for Young Adults through Their Eyes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study that joined the fields of young adult literature and vision impairment explored the questions: How are characters who have visual impairment presented by young adult books?; and How do readers respond to those characters? Only a few books were found (13) that feature characters with visual impairments, and the portrayal of characters…

Carroll, Pamela S.; Rosenblum, L. Penny

237

Young Adults' Linguistic Manipulation of English in Bangla in Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is commonly assumed in the print media that bilingual young adults in Bangladesh are subjugated by the colonial legacy of English and they are "polluting" Bangla, the national language of Bangladesh, by their indiscriminate insertion of English in it. However, this ethnographic study on a group of young adults in a university in…

Sultana, Shaila

2014-01-01

238

Cultural Variations in Accounts by American and Japanese Young Adults: Recalling a Major Conflict With Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

American (N = 208) and Japanese young adults (N = 181) were asked to recall a major conflict with their parents for our study on cross-cultural variations in family communication. Reported conflict episodes were coded on: 1) topical content, 2) conflict strategy used by the parents, 3) conflict strategy used by the young adults, 4) outcome, and 5) reported consequences

Sachiyo M. Shearman; Rebecca Dumlao; Naomi Kagawa

2011-01-01

239

Predictors of Developmental Task Attainment for Young Adults from Divorced Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine which variables impact developmental task attainment for young adults from divorced families, respondents completed demographic questions, the young adult version of the Personal Authority in the Family System Questionnaire, and the three family relationship subscales of the Family Environment Scale. Of the factors assessed, results suggest that the quality of post-divorce family functioning is the most salient predictor

Patrick Johnson; Keith McNeil

1998-01-01

240

Optic Neuritis Caused by Rathke's Cleft Cyst in Young Adult  

PubMed Central

We report a case of right optic neuritis caused by Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC) in a young adult. A 15-year-old boy presented with reduced visual acuity in the right eye. He was diagnosed with optic neuritis in the right eye 4 years earlier at other clinics before he was referred to our department. During our one-year examinations, the cause of the reduced vision in his right eye could not be determined conclusively. At the age of 17 years, a RCC was detected by a neurosurgeon who specialized in hypophyseal diseases. He underwent microscopic transsphenoidal resection of the cyst, and his vision recovered to 1.2 and he has had no recurrence for at least 9 months. We suggest that repeated rupturing of the RCC was the cause of the optic neuritis, and a RCC can be successfully treated by surgery even after 3 years of optic neuritis. PMID:25045561

Kobayashi, Namie; Oshitari, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Onoda, Takatsugu; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Adachi-Usami, Emiko

2014-01-01

241

Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability Among Young Adults in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high prevalence setting of South Africa—where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. In 2007, we conducted six focus groups (n=42) with South Africans aged 18-24 years old. We used a deductive framework approach to identify key motivators and barriers to future HIV vaccine uptake. Participants identified HIV testing, HIV stigma, mistrust of the health care system, and concerns about sexual disinhibition as barriers to vaccine uptake. For women, family members and friends were strong motivators for vaccine uptake, while men were more likely to see vaccines as an opportunity to stop using HIV prevention strategies such as condoms and partner reductions. Implications of these findings for developing HIV vaccine dissemination strategies and policy in South Africa are discussed. PMID:19509123

Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

2010-01-01

242

VR Mobile Solutions For Chronic Stress Reduction in Young Adults.  

PubMed

Chronic stress in young adults has become a growing problem within recent decades and many are unable to find cost-effective and accessible treatment for psychological stress in their daily lives. We analyze the market of using a mobile application, Positive Technology, as a solution. Eleven participants, aged between 18 and 24, participated in the exercise. Self-reported stress reduction was measured via an online marketing survey, while physiological measurements were monitored via peripheral devices. Secondary goals assessed the app's ease-of-use, accessibility, and cost. Results indicate that participants enjoyed the availability of the mobile solution and found the app to be fun and easy to learn. Stress levels were reduced in 73% of the participants, with higher effects in females and in participants aged 18-24. We conclude that the mobile platform is an effective means of delivering psychological stress reduction, and could provide an accessible, cost-effective solution. PMID:24875697

Gao, Kenneth; Boyd, Chelsie; Wiederhold, Mark D; Wiederhold, Brenda K

2014-01-01

243

ObamaCare: A Bad Deal for Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

health care overhaul now moving through\\u000d\\u000aCongress is how it would affect young adults.\\u000d\\u000aThat legislation would force most or all Americans\\u000d\\u000ato purchase health insurance (an “individual\\u000d\\u000amandate”) and would impose price controls on\\u000d\\u000ahealth insurance (“community rating”) that\\u000d\\u000awould limit insurers’ ability to offer lower premiums\\u000d\\u000ato low-risk enrollees.\\u000d\\u000aThose provisions would drive premiums\\u000d\\u000adown for 55-year-olds but

Aaron Yelowitz

2009-01-01

244

Young adults' trajectories of Ecstasy use: a population based study.  

PubMed

Young adults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (Young Adult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns. PMID:23899430

Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert

2013-11-01

245

Intestinal absorption of triglyceride and vitamin D3 in aged and young rats  

SciTech Connect

(3H)Trioleyl glycerol (TO) and (14C)vitamin D3 were perfused intraduodenally for 5 hr in aged (19-21 months) and young adult (4-5 months) Sprague-Dawley rats. The rate of intestinal uptake from the gastrointestinal lumen and transport into the body of these lipids were decreased in the aged animals. Since the distribution of TO lipolytic products in the lumen was unchanged, reduced intestinal uptake rate probably occurred at the mucosal membrane. Furthermore, in the aged rats, the rate of transintestinal transport of both trioleyl glycerol and vitamin D3 was impaired. No evidence for impaired mucosal TO reesterification or for accumulation of vitamin D3 metabolites was found, suggesting that intestinal lipid accumulation resulted from a defect in lipoprotein assembly or in discharge from the mucosal cell. Impaired absorption of lipids may contribute to malnutrition and osteopenia of advancing age.

Holt, P.R.; Dominguez, A.A.

1981-12-01

246

Making music, making friends: Long-term music therapy with young adults with severe learning disabilities.  

PubMed

This collaborative practitioner research study emerged from music therapists' concerns about the value of improvisational, music-centred music therapy for young adults with severe learning disabilities (SLDs), given the long-term nature of such work. Concerns included the relevance, in this context, of formulating, and reporting on, therapeutic aims, development, change; and working in 'goal-oriented' way. Focus groups with the young adults' families and a range of professionals suggest that, rather than leading to developmental change, long-term shared therapeutic musicking provides young adults with ongoing opportunities for experiencing confidence and self-esteem, with feelings of shared acceptance and success, and also provides young adults and their families with opportunities for developing and sustaining friendships. In addition, families experienced meeting other parents and carers in the communal reception area as supportive and countering their isolation. Focus groups assigned intrapersonal, relational and social values to long-term music therapy for young adults with SLDs. PMID:24196841

Pavlicevic, Mercédès; O'Neil, Nicky; Powell, Harriet; Jones, Oonagh; Sampathianaki, Ergina

2014-03-01

247

Executive function and bilingualism in young and older adults  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that being bilingual results in advantages on executive control processes and disadvantages on language tasks relative to monolinguals. Furthermore, the executive function advantage is thought to be larger in older than younger adults, suggesting that bilingualism may buffer against age-related changes in executive function. However, there are potential confounds in some of the previous research, as well as inconsistencies in the literature. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the presence of a bilingual advantage in executive control and a bilingual disadvantage on language tasks in the same sample of young and older monolingual anglophones, monolingual francophones, and French/English bilinguals. Participants completed a series of executive function tasks, including a Stroop task, a Simon task, a sustained attention to response task (SART), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), and the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and language tasks, including the Boston Naming Test (BNT), and category and letter fluency. The results do not demonstrate an unequivocal advantage for bilinguals on executive function tasks and raise questions about the reliability, robustness and/or specificity of previous findings. The results also did not demonstrate a disadvantage for bilinguals on language tasks. Rather, they suggest that there may be an influence of the language environment. It is concluded that additional research is required to fully characterize any language group differences in both executive function and language tasks. PMID:25120442

Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Lemieux, Maude; Monetta, Laura; Taler, Vanessa

2014-01-01

248

Cocaine use among American adolescents and young adults.  

PubMed

In this chapter, we have tried to provide some objective information about the levels of and recent trends in cocaine use among America's adolescents and young adults, as well as some of their attitudes and beliefs about the drug and their reasons for using it. We have also examined cross-time patterns of use, certain predictors of use, and some of the conditions of the social and physical environments which are associated with use. Overall, we have found levels of use to be relatively stable for the past several years after a period of rapid increase between 1976 and 1979. We also found a strong age effect, with cocaine use increasing in the first few years after high school. The levels of use, though stable recently, are disturbingly high, particularly among young adults in their early to mid twenties. Self reported use has followed patterns that parallel exposure to use and use by friend, as would be expected, assuming valid measures. Perceived availability also has moved in tandem with these other measures. The great majority of today's seniors believe regular use to be dangerous, and 77% disapprove of even experimenting with cocaine. Use is found most frequently in the western and northeastern regions of the country, in more urban areas, among males, and among those who are not college-bound. Neither socioeconomic status nor personal income are very strongly associated with use; but a history of truancy, going out frequently in the evenings, and having relatively low religious involvement are. Cocaine users tend to use other illicit drugs (particularly marijuana) and to be cigarette smokers and heavy drinkers much more frequently than nonusers. Thus, there is little evidence that cocaine involves a separate drug-using syndrome. In fact, it is not uncommon for cocaine users to use marijuana or alcohol concurrently. When taking cocaine, high school students most often snort it, though some (24% of recent users) smoke it while only 4% of the users inject it. It is almost always used with other people present, often at a party but more often with just one or two people present. Most use occurs in the evening, with very few young people using at school and a minority ever using at home or in a car. Among the reasons most often cited for using cocaine use are: "to see what it's like," "to get high," and "to have a good time with my friends."(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3932881

O'Malley, P M; Johnston, L D; Bachman, J G

1985-01-01

249

Transport of branched-chain amino acids in brain slices of developing and adult rats.  

PubMed

The accumulation of labelled leucine, isoleucine and valine by cerebral slices of developing and adult rats was studied. The accumulation increased with age by 15-25%. It was strongly (from 52 to 86%) inhibited by a 100-fold excess of phenylalanine, tryptophan and another branched-chain amino acid, but moderately activated by GABA and glutamate. The inhibitions evoked by leucine and isoleucine were slightly stronger in young than in adult rats. The corresponding 2-oxoacid analogs of leucine, isoleucine and valine were also inhibitory but less effective. The 30-min accumulation of 3H-labelled branched-chain amino acids was ostensibly higher than the increase in their total concentrations in incubated slices, which apparently bespeaks lively homoexchange of endogenous intracellular and labelled extracellular amino acids. PMID:6516888

Pajari, M

1984-11-01

250

Simulated Driving Changes in Young Adults With ADHD Receiving Mixed Amphetamine Salts Extended Release and Atomoxetine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Psychostimulant treatment may improve simulated driving performance in young adults with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of simulated driving performance with mixed amphetamine salts—extended release (MAS XR) 50 mg\\/day (Cohort 1) and atomoxetine 80 mg\\/day (Cohort 2) in young adults with ADHD. Results: Adults aged 19 to 25 years with AD\\/HD (N

Gary G. Kay; M. Alex Michaels; Barton Pakull

2009-01-01

251

Effects of vigabatrin on the skeletal system of young rats.  

PubMed

Long-term administration of antiepileptic drugs may be connected with the risk of impairment of bone remodeling. Contrary to the reported unfavorable effect of classic antiepileptic drugs on bone metabolism, little is known about the effect of the next generation antiepileptics on bone remodeling. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of vigabatrin, as a representative of new antiepileptics, on the skeletal system of young rats, in comparison with conventional drugs--phenytoin and valproic acid. The experiments were carried out on 4-week-old male Wistar rats, divided into the control rats, and rats receiving vigabatrin (250 mg/kg p.o. daily), phenytoin (20 mg/kg p.o. daily) or valproic acid (250 mg/kg p.o. daily). The drugs were administered for 28 days. Histomorphometric parameters of the tibia and femur, mechanical properties of the femur, and bone length, diameter, mass, content of mineral substances and calcium were examined. After administration of phenytoin or valproic acid, the investigated bone parameters did not significantly differ from those observed in the control rats. Administration of vigabatrin caused profound impairment of bone accrual with impairment of bone histomorphometric parameters, along with the significant decrease in the body mass gain. PMID:22568048

Nowi?ska, Barbara; Folwarczna, Joanna; Dusi?o, Agnieszka; Pytlik, Maria; Sliwi?ski, Leszek; Cegie?a, Urszula; Kaczmarczyk-Sedlak, Ilona; Pietryka, Wojciech; Hanke, Tomasz; Trzeciak, Henryk I

2012-01-01

252

A Comparative Analysis of Young, Middle-Aged, and Elder Adults' Interpersonal Communication Motives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compared interpersonal communication motives of three age groups: young adults (age 18 to 25), middle-aged adults (age 35 to 55), and elder adults (age 62 to 82). Three-hundred randomly selected volunteers completed a survey containing the Interpersonal Communication Motives (ICM) scale. Results indicated that all three groups used motives…

Long, Larry W.; And Others

253

Confronting the Youth Demographic Challenge: The Labor Market Prospects of Out-of-School Young Adults. Policy Issues Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The labor market prospects of out-of-school young adults and options for improving the employment and earnings potential of all young adults were examined. The following issues were among those considered: demographic and social factors affecting young adults' employment prospects; employment trends and labor market problems in the United States…

Sum, Andrew; Fogg, Neeta; Mangum, Garth

254

Cardiorespiratory effects of gap junction blockade in the locus coeruleus in unanesthetized adult rats.  

PubMed

The locus coeruleus (LC) plays an important role in central chemoreception. In young rats (P9 or younger), 85% of LC neurons increase firing rate in response to hypercapnia vs. only about 45% of neurons from rats P10 or older. Carbenoxolone (CARB - gap junction blocker) does not affect the % of LC neurons responding in young rats but it decreases the % responding by half in older animals. We evaluated the participation of gap junctions in the CO2 ventilatory response in unanesthetized adult rats by bilaterally microinjecting CARB (300?M, 1mM or 3mM/100nL), glycyrrhizic acid (GZA, CARB analog, 3mM) or vehicle (aCSF - artificial cerebrospinal fluid) into the LC of Wistar rats. Bilateral gap junction blockade in LC neurons did not affect resting ventilation; however, the increase in ventilation produced by hypercapnia (7% CO2) was reduced by ?25% after CARB 1mM or 3mM injection (1939.7±104.8mLkg(-1)min(-1) for the aCSF group and 1468.3±122.2mLkg(-1)min(-1) for 1mM CARB, P<0.05; 1939.7±104.8mLkg(-1)min(-1) for the aCSF group and 1540.9±68.4mLkg(-1)min(-1) for the 3mM CARB group, P<0.05) due largely to a decrease in respiratory frequency. GZA injection or CARB injection outside the LC (peri-LC) had no effect on ventilation under any conditions. The results suggest that gap junctions in the LC modulate the hypercapnic ventilatory response of adult rats. PMID:24035835

Patrone, Luis G A; Bícego, Kênia Cardoso; Hartzler, Lynn K; Putnam, Robert W; Gargaglioni, Luciane H

2014-01-01

255

Higher susceptibility of newborn than young rats to 3-methylphenol.  

PubMed

To determine susceptibility of infants to 3-methylphenol, a repeated dose toxicity study was conducted with oral administration to newborn and young rats. In an 18-day newborn study from postnatal days 4 to 21 at doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day, various clinical signs including deep respiration, hypersensitivity on handling and tremors under contact stimulus, and depressed body weight gain were observed at 300 mg/kg. At 100 mg/kg, hypersensitivity and tremors were also noted in a small number of males only on single days during the dosing period. No adverse effects were observed in the 30 mg/kg group. There were no abnormalities of physical development, sexual maturation and reflex ontogeny. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for newborn rats was considered to be 30 mg/kg/day and the unequivocally toxic level 300 mg/kg/day. In a 28-day study starting at 5 weeks of age, clinical signs and depression of body weight gain, as observed in the newborn rats, appeared in both sexes at 1000 mg/kg but not 300 mg/kg. The NOAEL and the unequivocally toxic level were 300 mg/kg/day and 1,000 mg/kg/day, respectively. From these results, newborn rats were concluded to be 3 to 10 times more susceptible to 3-methylphenol than young rats. However, the realistic no adverse effect dose for the newborn must be slightly lower than 100 mg/kg/day, at which the toxicity incidence was very low, rather than 30 mg/kg/day. Based on this speculation and the equal toxicity at unequivocally toxic levels, the differences in the susceptibility to 3-methylphenol could be concluded to be 3 to 4 times. This is consistent with the results of our previous comparative studies on 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol and 3-aminophenol, which showed 2 to 4 times differences in the susceptibility between newborn and young rats. PMID:12820538

Koizumi, Mutsuko; Noda, Atsushi; Ito, Yoshihiko; Furukawa, Masatoshi; Fujii, Sakiko; Kamata, Eiichi; Ema, Makoto; Hasegawa, Ryuichi

2003-05-01

256

Educational Level of Female Teenagers and Young Adults Declines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sichuan Provincial Women's Federation surveyed 513 married and 517 unmarried young women concerning their educational level in order to explore the life of rural women. An additional survey of both young males and females suggests that the decline of young women's educational level is greater than that of young males. (KO)

Wang, Shuhui

1989-01-01

257

Impact of human immunodeficiency virus on neurocognition and risky behaviors in young adults  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have identified cognitive impairments due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in adults. However, few studies have examined the impact of HIV on cognition in young adults (18-24 years old). Yet, this group is one of the largest populations of individuals with new HIV infection. Young adulthood is also an important developmental window as the brain has not fully matured and individuals are prone to engage in risky behavior. The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of HIV on neurocognition and risky behaviors. We hypothesized that HIV+ young adults (n=23) would exhibit greater cognitive impairment and risky behaviors compared to seronegative controls (n=21). In addition, we predicted that self-reported risky behavior as assessed by the Risk Assessment Battery (RAB) would covary with cognitive performances. Results revealed poorer executive function in HIV+ young adults compared to seronegative controls. HIV+ young adults also exhibited significantly greater risk scores on the RAB (p < 0.01) compared to HIV- young adults. However, there were no relationships between risky behavior and cognitive performance. Overall, our results suggest that HIV is associated with poorer cognition and increased risky behaviors in young adults. PMID:24970235

Baker, Laurie M.; Paul, Robert H.; Heaps, Jodi; Westerhaus, Elizabeth; Chang, Jee Yoon; Williams, Samuel; Brier, Matthew R.; Plax, Katie; Ances, Beau M.

2015-01-01

258

Comparison of gastrointestinal adverse effects of ketoprofen between adult and young cats.  

PubMed

This study elucidated differences in predisposition to the gastrointestinal adverse effects of ketoprofen between young and adult cats. Ketoprofen was administered subcutaneously (2.0 mg/kg, s.c.) once a day for 3 days. The animals were sacrificed 24 hr after final injection to allow examination of gastrointestinal mucosal lesions. Ketoprofen caused gastric lesions in adult cats (>6 months) but not in young cats (<3 months). Ketoprofen caused more severe small intestinal lesions in adult cats than in young cats. In the study of prevention of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hyperthermia using ketoprofen, young and adult cats of both sexes were administered LPS (0.3 ?g/kg, intravenously), and body temperature was measured 24 hr later. Ketoprofen was administered subcutaneously 30 min before LPS injection. LPS-induced hyperthermia was almost completely inhibited by pretreatment with ketoprofen in both adult and young cats. In the pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen, plasma concentrations were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. No significant differences were observed in plasma concentrations of two mirror-image R(-) and S(+) ketoprofen between young and adult cats from 0.5-4 hr after injection. As observed in a previous study using flunixin, the degree of gastrointestinal damage was unrelated to plasma concentrations of ketoprofen. The results of this study demonstrated that ketoprofen is safer for use in young cats than in adult cats from the viewpoint of gastrointestinal adverse effects. PMID:22785617

Takata, Kenji; Hikasa, Yoshiaki; Satoh, Hiroshi

2012-12-01

259

The effects of varying task priorities on language production by young and older adults  

PubMed Central

The present study compared how varying task priorities affected young and older adults’ language production. Both young and older adults responded to monetary incentives to vary their performance when simultaneously talking and tracking a pursuit rotor. Tracking performance improved when they were rewarded for tracking and declined when they were rewarded for talking. Both young and older adults also spoke more slowly when rewarded for tracking and more rapidly when rewarded for talking. Young produced less complex sentences when rewarded for tracking and produced more complex sentences when rewarded for talking. However, older adults did not vary their grammatical complexity as a function of monetary incentives. These results are consistent with prior studies suggesting that older adults use a simplified speech register in response to dual task demands. PMID:21424957

Kemper, Susan; Schmalzried, RaLynn; Herman, Ruth; Mohankumar, Deepthi

2009-01-01

260

What Are Young Adults Saying About Mental Health? An Analysis of Internet Blogs  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the high prevalence of mental health concerns, few young adults access treatment. While much research has focused on understanding the barriers to service access, few studies have explored unbiased accounts of the experiences of young adults with mental health concerns. It is through hearing these experiences and gaining an in-depth understanding of what is being said by young adults that improvements can be made to interventions focused on increasing access to care. Objective To move beyond past research by using an innovative qualitative research method of analyzing the blogs of young adults (18–25 years of age) with mental health concerns to understand their experiences. Methods We used an enhanced Internet search vehicle, DEVONagent, to extract Internet blogs using primary keywords related to mental health. Blogs (N = 8) were selected based on age of authors (18–25 years), gender, relevance to mental health, and recency of the entries. Blogs excerpts were analyzed using a combination of grounded theory and consensual qualitative research methods. Results Two core categories emerged from the qualitative analysis of the bloggers accounts: I am powerless (intrapersonal) and I am utterly alone (interpersonal). Overall, the young adult bloggers expressed significant feelings of powerlessness as a result of their mental health concerns and simultaneously felt a profound sense of loneliness, alienation, and lack of connection with others. Conclusions The present study suggests that one reason young adults do not seek care might be that they view the mental health system negatively and feel disconnected from these services. To decrease young adults’ sense of powerlessness and isolation, efforts should focus on creating and developing resources and services that allow young adults to feel connected and empowered. Through an understanding of the experiences of young adults with mental health problems, and their experiences of and attitudes toward receiving care, we provide some recommendations for improving receptivity and knowledge of mental health care services. PMID:22569642

Westra, Henny A; Eastwood, John D; Barnes, Kirsten L

2012-01-01

261

“Most of the Time You Already Know”: Pharmaceutical Information Assembly by Young Adults on the Internet  

PubMed Central

This study examined the utilization of the Internet by young adults as a source of information for the non-medical use of prescription drugs. Collected during 2008 and 2009, the data presented here comes from semi-structured interviews (N=62) conducted in a northwestern city of the United States through support from the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Previous studies have characterized young adults as particularly vulnerable to online prescription drug information which analysts portray as having a significant, invariably detrimental, impact on youth drug use behaviors. The results presented here suggest that young adults are more skeptical and information-savvy than many substance abuse analysts acknowledge. PMID:21599506

Quintero, Gilbert; Bundy, Henry

2011-01-01

262

Health and supportive care needs of young adult cancer patients and survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE  A sizable body of literature exists for young adult survivors of childhood cancer but relatively little is known about the health and supportive care needs of older adolescent and young adult cancer\\u000a survivors. This project assessed priority health and supportive care needs for young adult patients and off-treatment survivors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a METHODS  1,088 cancer patients and off-treatment survivors (age 18–39, diagnosed between the

Brad J. Zebrack; Jennifer Mills; Tammy S. Weitzman

2007-01-01

263

Gene-environment contributions to young adult sexual partnering.  

PubMed

To date, there has been relatively little work on gene-environment contributions to human sexuality, especially molecular analyses examining the potential contributions of specific polymorphisms in conjunction with life experiences. Using Wave III data from 717 heterozygous young adult sibling pairs included in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this article examined the combined contributions of attendance at religious services and three genetic polymorphisms (in the dopamine D4 receptor [DRD4]), dopamine D2 receptor [DRD2]), and the serotonin transporter promoter [5HTT]) to sensation seeking, a personality construct related to sexual behavior, and the number of vaginal sex partners participants had in the year before interview. Data analyses used an Allison mixed model approach to account for population stratification and correlated observations. DRD4 was unrelated to sensation seeking and to the number of sex partners in tests of both main effects and in interaction with religious attendance. Contrary to hypothesis, presence of the A1 DRD2 allele was associated with having had fewer sex partners in the past year. Associations between the 5HTT allele and sex partners varied by religious attendance, but again the patterns of associations were contrary to hypothesized relationships and were small in magnitude. These findings underscore the necessity of using more comprehensive multiple gene-multiple life experience approaches to investigations of complex behaviors such as sexual patterns. PMID:17186131

Halpern, Carolyn T; Kaestle, Christine E; Guo, Guang; Hallfors, Denise D

2007-08-01

264

Effects of walnut consumption on cognitive performance in young adults.  

PubMed

Walnuts contain a number of potentially neuroprotective compounds like vitamin E, folate, melatonin, several antioxidative polyphenols and significant amounts of n-3 ?-linolenic fatty acid. The present study sought to determine the effect of walnuts on verbal and non-verbal reasoning, memory and mood. A total of sixty-four college students were randomly assigned to two treatment sequences in a crossover fashion: walnuts-placebo or placebo-walnuts. Baseline data were collected for non-verbal reasoning, verbal reasoning, memory and mood states. Data were collected again after 8 weeks of intervention. After 6 weeks of washout, the intervention groups followed the diets in reverse order. Data were collected once more at the end of the 8-week intervention period. No significant increases were detected for mood, non-verbal reasoning or memory on the walnut-supplemented diet. However, inferential verbal reasoning increased significantly by 11.2 %, indicating a medium effect size (P = 0.009; d = 0.567). In young, healthy, normal adults, walnuts do not appear to improve memory, mood or non-verbal reasoning abilities. However, walnuts may have the ability to increase inferential reasoning. PMID:21923981

Pribis, Peter; Bailey, Rudolph N; Russell, Andrew A; Kilsby, Marcia A; Hernandez, Magaly; Craig, Winston J; Grajales, Tevni; Shavlik, David J; Sabatè, Joan

2012-05-01

265

Coping and psychological distress in young adults with advanced cancer  

PubMed Central

Little is known about how young adults (YAs) cope with cancer or the relationship between coping and psychological distress in YAs with advanced cancer. Structured clinical interviews with 53 YAs (20–40 years) with advanced cancer assessed coping methods, depression, anxiety, and grief. A principal components factor analysis identified underlying coping factors. Regression analyses examined the relationship between these coping factors and depression, anxiety, and grief. Six coping factors emerged and were labeled as: Proactive, Distancing, Negative Expression, Support-seeking, Respite-seeking, and Acceptance coping. Acceptance and Support-seeking coping styles were used most frequently. Coping by Negative Expression was positively associated with severity of grief after controlling for depression, anxiety, and confounding variables. Support-seeking coping was positively associated with anxiety after controlling for depression and grief. This study was limited by cross-sectional design, small sample size, and focus on YAs with advanced cancer. YAs with advanced cancer utilize a range of coping responses that are uniquely related to psychological distress. PMID:22285777

Trevino, K. M.; Maciejewski, P. K.; Fasciano, K.; Greer, J.; Partridge, A.; Kacel, E. L.; Block, S.; Prigerson, H.G.

2011-01-01

266

Influence of Forest Therapy on Cardiovascular Relaxation in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background. Despite increasing attention toward forest therapy as an alternative medicine, very little evidence continues to be available on its therapeutic effects. Therefore, this study was focused on elucidating the health benefits of forest walking on cardiovascular reactivity. Methods. Within-group comparisons were used to examine the cardiovascular responses to walking in forest and urban environments. Forty-eight young adult males participated in the two-day field research. Changes in heart rate variability, heart rate, and blood pressure were measured to understand cardiovascular reactivity. Four different questionnaires were used to investigate the changes in psychological states after walking activities. Results. Forest walking significantly increased the values of ln(HF) and significantly decreased the values of ln(LF/HF) compared with the urban walking. Heart rate during forest walking was significantly lower than that in the control. Questionnaire results showed that negative mood states and anxiety levels decreased significantly by forest walking compared with urban walking. Conclusion. Walking in the forest environment may promote cardiovascular relaxation by facilitating the parasympathetic nervous system and by suppressing the sympathetic nervous system. In addition, forest therapy may be effective for reducing negative psychological symptoms. PMID:24660018

Takayama, Norimasa; Park, Bum-Jin; Li, Qing; Song, Chorong; Komatsu, Misako; Ikei, Harumi; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Kagawa, Takahide

2014-01-01

267

Management of femoral neck fractures in young adults  

PubMed Central

Femoral neck fractures in young adults are uncommon and often the result of high-energy trauma. They are associated with higher incidences of femoral head osteonecrosis and nonunion. Multiple factors can play a significant role in preventing these devastating complications and contribute to a good outcome. While achieving an anatomic reduction and stable internal fixation are imperative, other treatment variables, such as time to surgery, the role of capsulotomy and the fixation methods remain debatable. Open reduction and internal fixation through a Watson-Jones exposure is the recommended approach. Definitive fixation can be accomplished with three cannulated or noncannulated cancellous screws. Capsulotomy in femoral neck fractures remains a controversial issue and the practice varies by trauma program, region and country. Until there is conclusive data (i.e. prospective and controlled) we recommend performing a capsulotomy. The data available is inconclusive on whether this fracture should be operated emergently, urgently or can wait until the next day. Until there is conclusive data available, we recommend that surgery should be done on an urgent basis. The key factors in treating femoral neck fractures should include early diagnosis, early surgery, anatomic reduction, capsular decompression and stable internal fixation. PMID:19823648

Ly, Thuan V; Swiontkowski, Marc F

2008-01-01

268

Bikram yoga training and physical fitness in healthy young adults.  

PubMed

There has been relatively little longitudinal controlled investigation of the effects of yoga on general physical fitness, despite the widespread participation in this form of exercise. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the effect of short-term Bikram yoga training on general physical fitness. Young healthy adults were randomized to yoga training (N = 10, 29 ± 6 years, 24 sessions in 8 weeks) or a control group (N = 11, 26 ± 7 years). Each yoga training session consisted of 90-minute standardized supervised postures performed in a heated and humidified studio. Isometric deadlift strength, handgrip strength, lower back/hamstring and shoulder flexibility, resting heart rate and blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption (treadmill), and lean and fat mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured before and after training. Yoga subjects exhibited increased deadlift strength, substantially increased lower back/hamstring flexibility, increased shoulder flexibility, and modestly decreased body fat compared with control group. There were no changes in handgrip strength, cardiovascular measures, or maximal aerobic fitness. In summary, this short-term yoga training protocol produced beneficial changes in musculoskeletal fitness that were specific to the training stimulus. PMID:22592178

Tracy, Brian L; Hart, Cady E F

2013-03-01

269

Speaking up for Vocabulary: Reading Skill Differences in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

This study is part of a broader project that has the goal of developing cognitive and neuro-cognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. The study explores relationships among reading related abilities in participants aged 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range of reading ability. Two specific questions are addressed: (1) Does the Simple View of Reading (Gough & Tunmer, 1986) capture all non-random variation in reading comprehension? (2) Does orally-assessed vocabulary knowledge account for variance in reading comprehension, as predicted by the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002)? A comprehensive battery of cognitive and educational tests was employed to assess phonological awareness, decoding, verbal working memory, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, word knowledge, experience with print. In this heterogeneous sample, decoding ability clearly plays an important role in reading comprehension. Gough and Tunmer’s Simple View of Reading gives a reasonable fit to the data, though it does not capture all of the reliable variance in reading comprehension as predicted. Orally assessed vocabulary knowledge captures unique variance in reading comprehension even after listening comprehension and decoding skill are accounted for. We explore how a specific connectionist model of lexical representation and lexical access can account for these findings. PMID:17518215

Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald; Mencl, Einar

2010-01-01

270

Genetic association of impulsivity in young adults: a multivariate study  

PubMed Central

Impulsivity is a heritable, multifaceted construct with clinically relevant links to multiple psychopathologies. We assessed impulsivity in young adult (N~2100) participants in a longitudinal study, using self-report questionnaires and computer-based behavioral tasks. Analysis was restricted to the subset (N=426) who underwent genotyping. Multivariate association between impulsivity measures and single-nucleotide polymorphism data was implemented using parallel independent component analysis (Para-ICA). Pathways associated with multiple genes in components that correlated significantly with impulsivity phenotypes were then identified using a pathway enrichment analysis. Para-ICA revealed two significantly correlated genotype–phenotype component pairs. One impulsivity component included the reward responsiveness subscale and behavioral inhibition scale of the Behavioral-Inhibition System/Behavioral-Activation System scale, and the second impulsivity component included the non-planning subscale of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and the Experiential Discounting Task. Pathway analysis identified processes related to neurogenesis, nervous system signal generation/amplification, neurotransmission and immune response. We identified various genes and gene regulatory pathways associated with empirically derived impulsivity components. Our study suggests that gene networks implicated previously in brain development, neurotransmission and immune response are related to impulsive tendencies and behaviors. PMID:25268255

Khadka, S; Narayanan, B; Meda, S A; Gelernter, J; Han, S; Sawyer, B; Aslanzadeh, F; Stevens, M C; Hawkins, K A; Anticevic, A; Potenza, M N; Pearlson, G D

2014-01-01

271

Genetic association of impulsivity in young adults: a multivariate study.  

PubMed

Impulsivity is a heritable, multifaceted construct with clinically relevant links to multiple psychopathologies. We assessed impulsivity in young adult (N~2100) participants in a longitudinal study, using self-report questionnaires and computer-based behavioral tasks. Analysis was restricted to the subset (N=426) who underwent genotyping. Multivariate association between impulsivity measures and single-nucleotide polymorphism data was implemented using parallel independent component analysis (Para-ICA). Pathways associated with multiple genes in components that correlated significantly with impulsivity phenotypes were then identified using a pathway enrichment analysis. Para-ICA revealed two significantly correlated genotype-phenotype component pairs. One impulsivity component included the reward responsiveness subscale and behavioral inhibition scale of the Behavioral-Inhibition System/Behavioral-Activation System scale, and the second impulsivity component included the non-planning subscale of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and the Experiential Discounting Task. Pathway analysis identified processes related to neurogenesis, nervous system signal generation/amplification, neurotransmission and immune response. We identified various genes and gene regulatory pathways associated with empirically derived impulsivity components. Our study suggests that gene networks implicated previously in brain development, neurotransmission and immune response are related to impulsive tendencies and behaviors. PMID:25268255

Khadka, S; Narayanan, B; Meda, S A; Gelernter, J; Han, S; Sawyer, B; Aslanzadeh, F; Stevens, M C; Hawkins, K A; Anticevic, A; Potenza, M N; Pearlson, G D

2014-01-01

272

Microrna profiling analysis of differences between the melanoma of young adults and older adults  

PubMed Central

Background This study represents the first attempt to perform a profiling analysis of the intergenerational differences in the microRNAs (miRNAs) of primary cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms in young adult and older age groups. The data emphasize the importance of these master regulators in the transcriptional machinery of melanocytic neoplasms and suggest that differential levels of expressions of these miRs may contribute to differences in phenotypic and pathologic presentation of melanocytic neoplasms at different ages. Methods An exploratory miRNA analysis of 666 miRs by low density microRNA arrays was conducted on formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissues (FFPE) from 10 older adults and 10 young adults including conventional melanoma and melanocytic neoplasms of uncertain biological significance. Age-matched benign melanocytic nevi were used as controls. Results Primary melanoma in patients greater than 60 years old was characterized by the increased expression of miRs regulating TLR-MyD88-NF-kappaB pathway (hsa-miR-199a), RAS/RAB22A pathway (hsa-miR-204); growth differentiation and migration (hsa-miR337), epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) (let-7b, hsa-miR-10b/10b*), invasion and metastasis (hsa-miR-10b/10b*), hsa-miR-30a/e*, hsa-miR-29c*; cellular matrix components (hsa-miR-29c*); invasion-cytokinesis (hsa-miR-99b*) compared to melanoma of younger patients. MiR-211 was dramatically downregulated compared to nevi controls, decreased with increasing age and was among the miRs linked to metastatic processes. Melanoma in young adult patients had increased expression of hsa-miR-449a and decreased expression of hsa-miR-146b, hsa-miR-214*. MiR-30a* in clinical stages I-II adult and pediatric melanoma could predict classification of melanoma tissue in the two extremes of age groups. Although the number of cases is small, positive lymph node status in the two age groups was characterized by the statistically significant expression of hsa-miR-30a* and hsa-miR-204 (F-test, p-value < 0.001). Conclusions Our findings, although preliminary, support the notion that the differential biology of melanoma at the extremes of age is driven, in part, by deregulation of microRNA expression and by fine tuning of miRs that are already known to regulate cell cycle, inflammation, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)/stroma and more specifically genes known to be altered in melanoma. Our analysis reveals that miR expression differences create unique patterns of frequently affected biological processes that clearly distinguish old age from young age melanomas. This is a novel characterization of the miRnomes of melanocytic neoplasms at two extremes of age and identifies potential diagnostic and clinico-pathologic biomarkers that may serve as novel miR-based targeted modalities in melanoma diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20302635

2010-01-01

273

Association of education with dietary intake among young adults in the bi-ethnic Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of changes in dietary intake with education in young black and white men and women.\\u000aDESIGN: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a multi-centre population-based prospective study. Dietary intake data at baseline and year 7 were obtained from an extensive nutritionist-administered diet history questionnaire with 700 items developed for CARDIA.\\u000aSETTING: Participants

S. L. Archer; J. E. Hilner; A. R. Dyer; Kurt J. Greenlund; Laura A. Colangelo; Catarina I. Kiefe; K. Liu

2003-01-01

274

Mechanisms of Isometric Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia in Young and Older Adults.  

E-print Network

??Pain reduction following exercise (exercise-induced hypoalgesia; EIH) is well-established in young adults. Specific to isometric exercise, the greatest EIH follows low intensity contractions held for… (more)

Lemley, Kathy J.

2014-01-01

275

Eye movements of young and older adults while reading with distraction  

E-print Network

The authors used eye-tracking technology to examine young and older adults' online performance in the reading in distraction paradigm. Participants read target sentences and answered comprehension questions following each sentence. In some sentences...

Kemper, Susan; McDowd, Joan; Kramer, Art

2006-03-01

276

A Research Strategy for Studying Learning Disabled Adolescents and Young Adults  

E-print Network

Unique problems related to adolescents and young adults which researchers must consider in designing interventions are discussed. These unique factors associate with the condition of learning disabilities in adolescents ...

Schumaker, Jean B.; Alley, Gordon R.; Warner, Michael M.; Deshler, Donald D.

1980-01-01

277

The Application of Poetry Therapy in Grief Counseling with Adolescents and Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of poetry therapy, utilizing poems composed by the bereaved, as a creative vehicle in grief counseling with adolescents and young adults. Suggests additional strategies for those involved in the assimilation of the death of a parent. (SR)

Bowman, Daniel O.; And Others

1994-01-01

278

Assumptions and Strategies for Conducting Research with Learning Disabled Adolescents and Young Adults  

E-print Network

This paper details the assumptions about learning disabled adolescents and young adults as well as assumptions about conducting research with this population held by researchers at the Kansas Institute. Strategies developed ...

Meyen, Edward L.; Schiefelbusch, Richard L.; Deshler, Donald D.; Alley, Gordon R.; Moran, Mary Ross; Clark, Frances L.

1980-01-01

279

A Model for Conducting Research with Learning Disabled Adolescents and Young Adults  

E-print Network

Issues from the field of learning disabilities and the field of education in general which impact the learning disabled individual are discussed as they relate to research with learning disabled adolescents and young adults ...

Meyen, Edward L.; Schiefelbusch, Richard L.; Deshler, Donald D.; Alley, Gordon R.; Schumaker, Jean B.; Clark, Frances L.

1980-01-01

280

Tracking Reading: Dual Task Costs of Oral Reading for Young Versus Older Adults  

E-print Network

A digital pursuit rotor was used to monitor oral reading costs by time-locking tracking performance to the auditory wave form produced as young and older adults were reading out short paragraphs. Multilevel modeling was used to determine how...

Kemper, Susan; Bontempo, Daniel; Schmalzried, RaLynn Cheri; McKedy, Whitney; Tagliaferri, Bruno; Kieweg, Doug

2014-02-01

281

Young Adults with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Do Well on Intensified Pediatric Chemotherapy Regimen  

Cancer.gov

Adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia lived longer when treated with an intensified multi-drug chemotherapy regimen that is used to treat younger children, according to the November 1, 2009, Journal of Clinical Oncology.

282

An Engagement Intervention for Young Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions.  

PubMed

Young adults with serious mental health conditions (SMHCs) often do not engage continuously with mental health services, and there are few engagement interventions designed for them. This qualitative study presents a blueprint for conceptualizing and developing an engagement intervention designed for young adults with SMHCs. The blueprint includes the following activities: (1) establishing a strong theoretical basis, (2) designing an initial manual based on previous research and practice, (3) systematically examining feedback on the manual from stakeholders, and (4) examining the feasibility, acceptability, and implementation demands of the intervention. Interviews, group discussions, and journaling were utilized to collect information from young adult participant-researchers, intervention facilitators (i.e., recovery role models and clinicians), and additional stakeholders (e.g., clinic staff and administrators) (N?=?43). Analyses were performed with multiple coders using constant comparative methods. Results revealed critical information to improve the intervention, while also suggesting that the engagement intervention for young adults with SMHCs has promise. PMID:24989700

Munson, Michelle R; Cole, Andrea; Jaccard, James; Kranke, Derrick; Farkas, Kathleen; Frese, Fred J

2014-07-01

283

Many Docs Fail to Counsel Young Adults with High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... Fail to Counsel Young Adults With High Blood Pressure Too few physicians urge lifestyle changes, study finds (* ... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Healthy Living High Blood Pressure Talking With Your Doctor MONDAY, Nov. 10, 2014 ( ...

284

NEONATAL TRIETHYLTIN EXPOSURE ALTERS ADULT ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY IN RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

In adults, triethyltin (TET) produces degeneration of white mater, edema, vacuolization of myelin and histoxic hypoxia. To determine the functional consequences of perinatal exposure to TET, albino rats were administered either 0,3,6, or 9 mg/kg TET on postnatal day 5. Upon reach...

285

ACUTE TOXICITY OF PESTICIDES IN ADULT AND WEANLING RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

LD sub 50 values were determined for 57 pesticides administered by the oral or dermal route to adult male and female Sherman rats. Nine pesticides tested by the oral route (bufencarb, cacodylic acid, dialifor, deltamethrin, dicamba, diquat, quintozene, phoxim, pyrazon) and 4 test...

286

Antigay Behaviors Among Young AdultsPrevalence, Patterns, and Motivators in a Noncriminal Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first empirical research into prevalence rates of and motivations for antigay harassment and violence by noncriminal young adults. In an anonymous survey of 484 young adults, 1 in 10 admitted physical violence or threats against presumed homosexuals, and another 24% acknowledged name-calling. Factor analyses revealed four motivational themes: peer dynamics, antigay ideology, thrill-seeking, and perceived self-defense. Compared

KAREN FRANKLIN

2000-01-01

287

Risky Eating Behaviors of Young Adults—Implications for Food Safety Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young adults engage in risky eating behaviors like eating raw\\/undercooked foods of animal origin that put them at increased risk for foodborne disease. This cross-sectional survey assessed the self-reported risky eating behaviors of young adults enrolled in higher education as a part of a large-scale survey administered over 10 months. Par- ticipants (N4,343) completed a risky eating question- naire by

CAROL BYRD-BREDBENNER; JACLYN MAURER ABBOT; VIRGINIA WHEATLEY; DONALD SCHAFFNER; CHRISTINE BRUHN; LYDIA BLALOCK

288

Risky Eating Behaviors of Young Adults—Implications for Food Safety Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young adults engage in risky eating behaviors like eating raw\\/undercooked foods of animal origin that put them at increased risk for foodborne disease. This cross-sectional survey assessed the self-reported risky eating behaviors of young adults enrolled in higher education as a part of a large-scale survey administered over 10 months. Participants (N=4,343) completed a risky eating questionnaire by indicating which

Carol Byrd-Bredbenner; Jaclyn Maurer Abbot; Virginia Wheatley; Donald Schaffner; Christine Bruhn; Lydia Blalock

2008-01-01

289

Attachment and the quality of romantic relationships of young adults with same-sex parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigated attachment and the quality of romantic relationships in young adults with same-sex parents. Specifically, two variables, attachment-related anxiety and attachment-related avoidance were investigated to determine what extent they predicted relationship support, depth, and conflict. Participants consisted of 82 young adults, ages 18 to 30, who were raised from birth by same-sex parents and who were or

Joseph Verdino

2009-01-01

290

The Independence of Young Adults and the Rise of Interracial and Same-Sex Unions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interracial unions and same-sex unions were rare and secretive in the past because U.S. society was organized to suppress such unions. The rise of same-sex and interracial unions in the past few decades suggests changes in the basic structure of U.S. society. Young adults have been marrying later, and single young adults are much less likely to live with their

Michael J. Rosenfeld; Byung-Soo Kim

2005-01-01

291

The Functional Profile of Young Adults with Suspected Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assessed the non-academic and academic functioning of young adults with DCD, and investigated the emotional influences and the role of strategy use within this population. A random sample of 2379 adolescents and young adults aged 19-25 (1081 males [45.4%]; mean age = 20.68, SD = 3.42) was used to develop the instruments. From this sample, three…

Tal-Saban, Miri; Zarka, Salman; Grotto, Itamar; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula

2012-01-01

292

Tracking Talking: Dual Task Costs of Planning and Producing Speech for Young versus Older Adults  

E-print Network

Kemper, S., Hoffman, L., Schmalzried, R., Herman, R., & Kieweg, D. (2011). Tracking Talking: Dual Task Costs of Planning and Producing Speech for Young versus Older Adults. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 18, 257-279. PMC3091967... of this document.] Paper citation: Kemper, S., Hoffman, L., Schmalzried, R., Herman, R., & Kieweg, D. (2011). Tracking Talking: Dual Task Costs of Planning and Producing Speech for Young versus Older Adults. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 18, 257...

Kemper, Susan; Hoffman, Lesa; Schmalzried, RaLynn Cheri; Herman, Ruth; Kieweg, Doug

2011-05-01

293

Young adult smoking: What factors differentiate ex-smokers, smoking cessation treatment seekers and nontreatment seekers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated demographic and psychosocial correlates of smoking status and predictors of smoking cessation among young adults, ages 18–30years old. Young adults (n=294) completed a self-report survey regarding their health habits and smokers were offered the opportunity to enroll in a smoking cessation program. Substitute reinforcers were greater among ex-smokers compared to nontreatment-seeking smokers, treatment-seeking smokers who did

Janet Audrain-McGovern; Daniel Rodriguez; Leonard H. Epstein; Kelli Rodgers; Jocelyn Cuevas; E. Paul Wileyto

2009-01-01

294

Effects of tityustoxin on cerebral inflammatory response in young rats.  

PubMed

Accidents caused by scorpion stings, mainly affecting children, are considered an important cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical countries. Clinical studies demonstrate the relevant role of systemic inflammatory events in scorpion envenoming. However, remains poorly understood whether the major lethal component in Tityus serrulatus venom, tityustoxin (TsTX), is able to induce inflammatory responses in the cerebral microcirculation. In this study, we systematically examined leukocyte recruitment into the CNS in response to TsTX injection. Accordingly, developing rats were subjected to a subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of TsTX (0.75mg/kg), and leukocyte recruitment (i.e., 4, 8 and 12h after injection) and TNF-? levels were evaluated. Rats injected with TsTX presented a significant increase in leukocyte rolling and adhesion and higher levels of TNF-? at all time points studied, compared to the control group. Altogether, this work demonstrates the triggering of neuroimmunological mechanisms induced by TsTX injection in young rats. PMID:25545555

Van Fraga, Iva Tereza; Limborço-Filho, Marcelo; Lima, Onésia Cristina Oliveira; Lacerda-Queiroz, Norinne; Guidine, Patrícia Alves Maia; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra; Nascimento Araújo, Ricardo; Moraes-Santos, Tasso; Massensini, André Ricardo; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana

2015-02-19

295

High Glucose Accelerates Autophagy in Adult Rat Intervertebral Disc Cells  

PubMed Central

Study Design In vitro cell culture. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high glucose on autophagy in adult rat intervertebral disc cells. Overview of Literature Diabetes mellitus is considered to be an important etiologic factor for intervertebral disc degeneration, resulting in degenerative disc diseases. A glucose-mediated increase of autophagy is a major causative factor for the development of diseases associated with diabetes mellitus. However, no information is available for the effect of high glucose on autophagy in adult intervertebral disc cells. Methods Nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells were isolated from 24-week-old adult rats, cultured and placed in either 10% fetal bovine serum (normal control) or 10% fetal bovine serum plus two different high glucose concentrations (0.1 M and 0.2 M) (experimental conditions) for one and three days, respectively. The expressions of autophagy markers, such as beclin-1, light chain 3-I (LC3-I) and LC3-II, autophagy-related gene (Atg) 3, 5, 7 and 12, were identified and quantified. Results Two high glucoses significantly increased the expressions of beclin-1, LC3-II, Atg3, 5, 7, and 12 in adult rat nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I expression was also increased in a dose-respectively time-dependent manner. Conclusions The results suggest that autophagy of adult nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells might be a potential mechanism for the intervertebral disc degeneration in adult patients with diabetes mellitus. Thus, the prevention of autophagy in adult intervertebral disc cells might be considered as a novel therapeutic target to prevent or to delay the intervertebral disc degeneration in adult patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:25346805

Kong, Chae-Gwan; Kim, Man Soo; Park, Eun-Young

2014-01-01

296

Trajectories of Metabolic Syndrome Development in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of metabolic aberrations that collectively increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Greater understanding of MetS developments may provide insight into targeted prevention strategies for individuals at greatest risk. The purpose of this study was to i) identify distinct patterns of longitudinal MetS development and; ii) develop a character profile that differentiates groups by level of MetS risk. Methods and Results Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (n?=?3 804; 18–30 y) was obtained by limited access application from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and used for this analysis. MetS, as defined by the Harmonized criteria, was assessed over a 20 year follow-up period. Group-level trajectory analysis identified 4 distinct groups with varying rates of component development [No (23.8% of sample); Low (33.5%); Moderate (35.3%); and High MetS (7.4%)]. After adjusting for covariates, individuals in the At-Risk groups (Low, Moderate and High MetS) were more likely to be of black ethnicity (1.37, 1.14–1.66), have a family history of cardiovascular disease (1.61, 1.31–1.97) and history of dieting (1.69, 1.20–2.39) when compared to the No Risk trajectory group (No MetS). Conversely, increasing baseline education (0.76, 0.65–0.89) and aerobic fitness (0.55, 0.47–0.64) was inversely associated with At-Risk group membership. Conclusions Results suggest distinct profiles of MetS development that can be identified by baseline risk factors. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical implication of intermediate MetS development groups with respect to overall cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25368999

Poon, Vivian T. W.; Kuk, Jennifer L.; Ardern, Chris I.

2014-01-01

297

Active Citizens or Passive Recipients: How Australian Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy Define Citizenship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Citizenship participation by young adults has reciprocal benefits both for the individual and for society. This paper provides an insight into the ways young people with cerebral palsy (CP) perceive their citizenship experiences, and also examines factors which may influence citizenship participation for this group. Method: Qualitative…

Yeung, Polly H. Y.; Passmore, Anne E.; Packer, Tanya L.

2008-01-01

298

A Feminist Analysis of the Voices for Advocacy in Young Adult Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a study of six women and their contributions to young adult services in public libraries: Mabel Williams, Margaret Scoggin, Jean Carolyn Roos, Margaret A. Edwards, Dorothy M. Broderick, and Mary K. Chelton. The feminist perspective employed focuses on the voices of these women as advocates for young people. Contains 63 references.…

Hannigan, Jane Anne

1996-01-01

299

What Does It Mean to Be an Adult? Perceptions of Young Men in Residential Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is widely accepted that young people residing in residential care transition to independence and adult responsibilities earlier than peers living within their family of origin. There has been a lack of literature examining the way young people in care construct this transition. In response, in-depth qualitative interviews, guided by grounded…

Raymond, Ivan; Heseltine, Karen

2008-01-01

300

Recycling and Ambivalence: Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of Household Recycling among Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theories about ambivalence, as well as quantitative and qualitative empirical approaches, are applied to obtain an understanding of recycling among young adults. A questionnaire was mailed to 422 Swedish young people. Regression analyses showed that a mix of negative emotions (worry) and positive emotions (hope and joy) about the environmental…

Ojala, Maria

2008-01-01

301

Nurturing Social and Emotional Development in Gifted Teenagers through Young Adult Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how developmental bibliotherapy featuring young adult literature can be an effective strategy to address emotional issues of gifted teenagers. It describes how one high school English class responded to the novel, "The Mosquito Test," in a bibliotherapeutic fashion. Also provided is an annotated bibliography of current young

Hebert, Thomas P.; Kent, Richard

2000-01-01

302

Perceived Racism, Discrimination, and Acculturation in Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts among Black Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During young adulthood the suicide rate among Blacks rises dramatically and approaches that of the U.S. general population, requiring that prevention efforts include a focus on Black young adults. Although most research on suicidality among Blacks has focused on risk factors observed in the dominant culture, in this study the authors examined…

Castle, Kathryn; Conner, Kenneth; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; Tu, Xin

2011-01-01

303

Orthodox Ashkenazi Young Adults’ Knowledge, Experiences, Attitudes, and Beliefs About Genetic Carrier Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Orthodox Ashkenazi Jewish community promotes carrier testing of young adults prior to dating in order to prevent the birth of children affected with genetic diseases. It is unclear how much this young consumer group understands about carrier testing and the testing options available to them, particularly around the inclusion or exclusion of Gaucher disease carrier screening on testing

Andrea L. Kalfoglou; Melissa Broder

2011-01-01

304

Two Studies of Mass Media Use by Contemporary Young Adults. News Research Bulletin No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of the "News Research Bulletin" contains reports on two studies of media use by contemporary young adults. The first study analyzes the media behavior of 447 randomly selected respondents in Virginia Beach, Virginia in the summer of 1973. Some of the highlights of the study were that about 90 percent of the young people report doing at…

American Newspaper Publishers Association, Washington, DC.

305

Social network characteristics and risky sexual and drug related behaviors among homeless young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research finds high rates of risky sexual and drug related behavior among homeless young people, little research had examined how the characteristics of their social networks encourage or constrain risky behaviors. Based on a sample of 145 homeless young adults in the Midwestern United States, results revealed that having used alcohol with at least one of their network members

Kimberly A. Tyler

2008-01-01

306

"Spinning Themselves into Poetry": Images of Urban Adolescent Writers in Two Novels for Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In contrast to the educational research and policy literature depicting urban adolescents as reluctant and struggling readers and writers, young people in recent young adult novels claim writing as an efficacious practice for self-discovery and social understanding. Analysis of the images of writers and writing in "Locomotion" and "Call Me Maria"…

Wissman, Kelly

2009-01-01

307

A Reason, a Season, or a Lifetime: "Relational Permanence among Young Adults with Foster Care Backgrounds"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon called "aging out" includes approximately 20,000 young people who enter adulthood directly from foster care each year (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2005). The number of youth and young adults who aged out of care in the U.S. in 2005, the year for which the most current statistics are available, increased 48 percent…

Samuels, Gina Miranda

2008-01-01

308

What Does it Mean to be an Adult? Perceptions of Young Men in Residential Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely accepted that young people residing in residential care transition to independence and adult responsibilities\\u000a earlier than peers living within their family of origin. There has been a lack of literature examining the way young people\\u000a in care construct this transition. In response, in-depth qualitative interviews, guided by grounded theory, were conducted\\u000a with nine young men (M = 15.9 years) residing

Ivan Raymond; Karen Heseltine

2008-01-01

309

Adult neurogenesis in the African giant rat (Cricetomysgambianus, waterhouse).  

PubMed

African giant rats (AGR) are large nocturnal rodents with well-developed olfactory abilities uniquely linked to cognition. The post natal proliferation of neurons (adult neurogenesis), is thought to play an important role in spatial memory and learning. Eighteen brains of the African giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse) belonging to three age groups (neonates n?=?6, juveniles n?=?6 and adults n?=?6) were examined by immunohistochemistry, using antibodies for proliferating cells (Ki-67), and immature neurons (Doublecortin, DCX). Mean brain weights were 0.40?±?0.00 g; 4.48?±?0.43 g and 5.48?±?0.56 g for neonate, juvenile and adult brains respectively. Our results show positive cell proliferation in the subventricular (SVZ) zone of the lateral ventricle and in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus but at low levels in adults compared to juveniles. Estimate of the mean total proliferative Ki-67 positive cells in the SVZ and DG in the neonates was 21145?±?8395, and 11800?±?1230; brains from juvenile AGRs, 45530?±?13950 and 12480?±?7860 and from adult brains, (6880?±?340 and 1130?±?150) respectively. Juvenile AGR in particular, stained positively in potential sites such as the piriform and somatosensory cortices, striatum and cerebellum. This intensity of the proliferating cells within the dentate gyrus in the juvenile and adult brains could be associated with a role in the cognitive functions of landmine detection and tuberculosis diagnosis after olfactory training of the African giant rat. The juvenile rats are proposed as the most suited for experimental research and olfactory training. PMID:24577632

Olude, Ayo Mathew; Olopade, James Olukayode; Ihunwo, Amadi Ogonda

2014-09-01

310

Squat-to-reach task in older and young adults: kinematic and electromyographic analyses.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the two-dimensional kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) changes during the squat-to-reach task in older and young adults. Twenty-six older adults and thirty-three young adults were studied. A 16-channel telemetry system was used for recording muscular activity and kinematic data during two trials of a squat-to-reach task. Surface EMG data were recorded on select muscles of the trunk and the lower extremity on the dominant side. An electrogoniometer was fixed over the knee joint, and an inclinometer was fastened on the head and thigh to record kinematic data. The task was split into six movement phases based on the angular displacement and velocities of the knee joint. The mean values of the maximal displacements in the sagittal plane of the head, knee, and thigh were significantly (p<0.05) lower, but those in the frontal plane of the head and thigh were significantly (p<0.05) higher in older adults than in young adults. Thigh muscle activities were significantly (p<0.05) higher in older adults than in young adults throughout the movements. The trunk and leg muscles contracted earlier, but the hip adductors contracted later in older adults compared to young adults (p<0.05). The older adults squatted in a shallow and heel-off posture during forward reaching tasks. Therefore, older adults had increased lateral flexion of the head to compensate for insufficient knee flexion during the squat-to-reach movement and required increased activity of the posture muscles to maintain lateral stability. PMID:21095128

Kuo, Fang-Chuan; Kao, Wen-Pin; Chen, Hsiu-I; Hong, Chang-Zern

2011-01-01

311

Use of Motor Abundance in Young and Older Adults during Dual-Task Treadmill Walking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor abundance allows individuals to perform any task reliably while being variable in movement's particulars. The study investigated age-related differences in this feature when young adults (YA) and older adults (OA) performed challenging tasks, namely treadmill walking alone and while performing a cognitive task. A goal function for treadmill walking was first defined, i.e., maintain constant speed at each step,

Leslie M. Decker; Fabien Cignetti; Jane F. Potter; Stephanie A. Studenski; Nicholas Stergiou

2012-01-01

312

RESEARCH Open Access Young adult male carriers of the fragile X  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Young adult male carriers of the fragile X premutation exhibit genetically but significant cognitive impairments, modulated by age and by mutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene in adult female fragile X premutation carriers (fXPCs). Because male carriers, unlike

Nguyen, Danh

313

Validity of a Self-Administered 3-Day Physical Activity Recall in Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Most physical activity recall questionnaires assess activity over a 7-day period. However, questionnaires have been validated in adolescents and adults using shorter recall timeframes. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a self-administered 3-day physical activity recall instrument (3DR) in young adults.…

Han, Jennifer L.; Dinger, Mary K.

2009-01-01

314

Young Adult Outcomes of the Abecedarian and CARE Early Childhood Educational Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult benefits for participants in Project CARE were compared with those of the Abecedarian Project, a closely related randomized study of early childhood educational intervention for children from low-income families who were at risk of developmental delays and school failure. CARE replicated Abecedarian's young adult treatment-related…

Campbell, Frances A.; Wasik, Barbara H.; Pungello, Elizabeth; Burchinal, Margaret; Barbarin, Oscar; Kainz, Kirsten; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.

2008-01-01

315

Gender Differences in Beliefs about Condom Use among Young, Heterosexual Australian Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate gender differences in beliefs about condom use among young, sexually active, heterosexual Australian adults. Design: Cross-sectional survey of 1,113 adults aged 18-26 years. Setting: Higher education institutions across New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Method: Participants were recruited during higher-education…

Newton, Fiona J.; Newton, Joshua D.; Windisch, Lydia; Ewing, Michael T.

2013-01-01

316

Do Alternative Names Block Young and Older Adults' Retrieval of Proper Names?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates whether tip of the tongue experiences (TOTs) are caused by a more accessible word which blocks retrieval of the target word, especially for older adults. In a ''competitor priming'' paradigm, young and older adults produced the name of a famous character (e.g., Eliza Doolittle) in response to a question and subsequently named…

Cross, Emily S.; Burke, Deborah M.

2004-01-01

317

Social Media & Mobile Internet Use among Teens and Young Adults. Millennials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2006, blogging has dropped among teens and young adults while simultaneously rising among older adults. As the tools and technology embedded in social networking sites change, and use of the sites continues to grow, youth may be exchanging "macro blogging" for microblogging with status updates. Blogging has declined in popularity among both…

Lenhart, Amanda; Purcell, Kristen; Smith, Aaron; Zickuhr, Kathryn

2010-01-01

318

Using Speech Sounds To Enhance Occupational Performance in Young and Older Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the effect of vocalization on the daily motor performance of 13 young and 13 older adults. Results suggest that vocalization improves motor performance. The study design has clinical potential that may be used for facilitating task-related motor performance of older adults. (Contains 45 references.) (JOW)

Maitra, K. K.; Curry, D.; Gamble, C.; Martin, M.; Phelps, J.; Santisteban, M. E.; Slattery, E.; Thomas, J.; Telage, K. M.

2003-01-01

319

Psychiatric Comorbidity in Young Adults with a Clinical Diagnosis of Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In children with autism spectrum disorders, previous studies have shown high rates of psychiatric comorbidity. To date, studies on adults have been scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate psychiatric comorbidity in young adults with Asperger syndrome. Participants were 26 men and 28 women (mean age 27 years) with a clinical…

Lugnegard, Tove; Hallerback, Maria Unenge; Gillberg, Christopher

2011-01-01

320

Psychiatric comorbidity in young adults with a clinical diagnosis of Asperger syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In children with autism spectrum disorders, previous studies have shown high rates of psychiatric comorbidity. To date, studies on adults have been scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate psychiatric comorbidity in young adults with Asperger syndrome. Participants were 26 men and 28 women (mean age 27 years) with a clinical diagnosis of Asperger syndrome. Psychiatric comorbidity

Tove Lugnegård; Maria Unenge Hallerbäck; Christopher Gillberg

2011-01-01

321

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Knowledge in Young Adults and 10-year Change in Risk Factors The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study's objective was assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor knowledge in young adults, its association with 10-year changes in risk factor levels, and variables related to risk factor knowledge. A total of 4,193 healthy persons (55% female, 48% Black; mean age ¼ 30 years) from four urban US communities were queried about risk factor knowledge in 1990-1991 and

Elizabeth B. Lynch; Kiang Liu; Catarina I. Kiefe; Philip Greenland

322

Young Adult Literature and Adolescent Identity across Cultures and Classrooms: Contexts for the Literary Lives of Teens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Taking a critical, research-oriented perspective, this exploration of the theoretical, empirical, and pedagogical connections between the reading and teaching of young adult literature and adolescent identity development centers around three key questions: (1) Who are the teens reading young adult literature?; (2) Why should teachers teach young

Alsup, Janet, Ed.

2010-01-01

323

Family Histories and Multiple Transitions Among Homeless Young Adults: Pathways to Homelessness  

PubMed Central

This study explored the early family histories of homeless young adults, the types and number of transitions they experienced, and their pathways to the street. Intensive qualitative interviews were audio taped and transcribed with 40 homeless young adults 19 to 21 years of age in the Midwest. Findings show that family backgrounds were generally characterized by substance use, child maltreatment, and witnessing violence, all of which provide social context for understanding why so many of these young people opted to leave home in search of an alternative living situation. The current findings also reveal that while some young adults ran away from home as adolescents, others were “pushed out” (i.e., told to leave), or removed by state agencies. Current study findings illustrate that young adults’ trajectories are marked by multiple living arrangements such as home, foster care, detention facility, and drug rehabilitation. Overall, study results show that young adults’ family histories place them on trajectories for early independence marked by multiple transitions and numerous living situations, culminating in a lack of a permanent residence to call home. PMID:24151346

Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.

2013-01-01

324

The impact of psychosocial factors on subjective well-being among homeless young adults.  

PubMed

Homeless young adults are one of this country's most vulnerable populations, and information surrounding issues of subjective well-being among this particularly diverse population is scarce. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact social support, future expectations, and homeless cultural factors have on subjective well-being among homeless young adults. A purposive sample of 185 homeless young people, ages 18 to 23, and known to use alcohol or drugs, participated in the study. Multiple regression analyses showed that participants who had a higher level of subjective well-being reported significantly higher levels of social support, more optimistic expectations of the future, and a better perception of the flow of time. More fatalistic views of the future significantly predicted lower levels of subjective well-being. Findings suggest that service providers should focus on understanding the strengths of individuals and, specifically, gain a deeper understanding of homeless young adults' support networks and views of the future. PMID:25095630

Barczyk, Amanda N; Thompson, Sanna J; Rew, Lynn

2014-08-01

325

Sequential difficulty effects during execution of memory strategies in young and older adults.  

PubMed

This study aimed at uncovering factors influencing execution of memory strategies and at furthering our understanding of ageing effects on memory performance. To achieve this end, we investigated strategy sequential difficulty (SSD) effects recently demonstrated by Uittenhove and Lemaire in the domain of problem solving. We found that both young and older participants correctly recalled more words using a sentence-construction strategy when this strategy followed an easier strategy (i.e., repetition strategy) or a harder strategy (i.e., mental-image strategy). These SSD effects were of equal magnitude in young and older adults, correlated significantly with Stroop performance in both young and older adults and correlated with N-back performance only in young adults. These findings have important implications for furthering our understanding of memory strategy execution and age-related variations in memory performance, as well for understanding mechanisms underlying SSD effects. PMID:24967991

Uittenhove, Kim; Burger, Lucile; Taconnat, Laurence; Lemaire, Patrick

2014-06-26

326

A prospective study of adolescent risk and protective factors for problem gambling among young adults.  

PubMed

There is a paucity of research examining prospective predictors of problem gambling. The current study utilised a large longitudinal data set (N = 2328) to examine a large range of adolescent risk and protective factors for problem gambling in young adulthood. These risk and protective factors covered the domains of the community, family, school, peer group and individual. Numerous predictors associated with the family, school and peer-individual were statistically significant in analyses adjusted for gender and age. However, in the fully adjusted multivariate analyses, only two predictors were statistically significant. Within this model, gender (female) was associated with a reduced risk of young adult problem gambling, while family rewards for prosocial involvement moderated the risk relationship between adolescent alcohol use and young adult problem gambling. These findings highlight the importance of adolescent alcohol use and family environment as potentially modifiable predictors of young adult problem gambling. PMID:24439627

Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Dowling, Nicki A; Toumbourou, John W

2014-02-01

327

EFFECT OF SINGLE VERSUS SPLIT DOSES OF DIETHYINITROSAMINE ON THE INDUCTION OF GAMMA-GLUTAMYLTRANSPEPTIDASE-FOCI IN THE LIVERS OF ADULT AND JUVENILE RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

The induction of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT)-foci by single and by split doses of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) was evaluated in the livers of juvenile and young adult male, Sprague-Dawley rats. A single dose of DENA was administered at either 32, 41 or 52 days of age and foll...

328

Psychological needs, purpose in life, and problem video game playing among Chinese young adults.  

PubMed

The negative impacts of excessive and problematic video game playing on both children and adults are attracting increasing concern. Based on self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000), this study hypothesized that the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness are positively associated with purpose in life, which in turn acts as a protective factor against problem video game playing among Chinese young adult players. Through a questionnaire survey with a sample of 165 Chinese adults aged between 18 and 30 years (mean age?=?22.7 years), we found that perceived autonomy, competence, relatedness, and purpose in life were all negatively correlated with problem game playing. The demographic and psychological factors explained 38% of the variances of problem game playing. Specifically, gender, perceived relatedness, and purpose in life emerged as the three most salient predictors of problem game playing among the Chinese young adults. The mediating role of purpose in life was evidenced and it was found that purpose in life mediated the influences of the psychological needs proposed by SDT on problem game playing. Moreover, young men were significantly more susceptible to problem game playing than their female counterparts. To conclude, psychological needs and purpose in life influenced Chinese young adults' vulnerability to problem game playing directly or indirectly. Intervention programs that encourage social involvement and voluntary work, as well as counseling service that helps clients to search for life purpose, are suggested for intervening in problem game playing among Chinese young adults. PMID:22506646

Wu, Anise M S; Lei, Lamis L M; Ku, Lisbeth

2013-01-01

329

How Do Attitudes toward Mental Health Treatment Vary by Age, Gender, and Ethnicity/Race in Young Adults?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates attitudes toward seeking mental health treatment in a national epidemiological sample. Young adults reported the most negative attitudes, as compared to older adults. Males reported more negative attitudes, as compared to females, a consistent finding in young adults. The gender difference was not consistent in Latinos…

Gonzalez, Jodi M.; Alegria, Margarita; Prihoda, Thomas J.

2005-01-01

330

Relationship Between the Parenting Styles of Biological Parents and Stepparents and the Adjustment of Young Adult Stepchildren  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the adjustment of 136 young adult stepchildren and exposure to parent and stepparent warmth, control, and parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, supportive, or disengaged). Parental warmth was found to be consistently associated with adult children's adjustment, while parental control, and the individual parenting styles of parents and stepparents were largely unrelated to adjustment. Young adults whose parent and

Jan M. Nicholson; Maddy E. Phillips; Candida C. Peterson; Diana Battistutta

2002-01-01

331

Eye movements of young and older adults while reading with distraction.  

PubMed

The authors used eye-tracking technology to examine young and older adults' online performance in the reading in distraction paradigm. Participants read target sentences and answered comprehension questions following each sentence. In some sentences, single-word distracters were presented in either italic or red font. Distracters could be related or unrelated to the target text. Online measures, including probability of fixation, fixation duration, and number of fixations to distracting text, revealed no age differences in text processing. However, young adults did have an advantage over older adults in overall reading time and text comprehension. These results provide no support for an inhibition deficit account of age differences in the reading in distraction paradigm, but are consistent with J. Dywan and W. E. Murphy's (1996) suggestion that older adults are less able than the young to distinguish target and distracter information held in working memory. PMID:16594789

Kemper, Susan; McDowd, Joan; Kramer, Art

2006-03-01

332

Estimating the health and economic burden of cancer among those diagnosed as adolescents and young adults.  

PubMed

Adolescent and young adult cancer survivors-those who were ages 15-39 at their first cancer diagnosis-have important health limitations. These survivors are at risk for higher health care expenditures and lost productivity, compared to adults without a history of cancer. Using Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data, we present nationally representative estimates of the economic burden among people who were diagnosed with cancer in adolescence or young adulthood. Our findings demonstrate that surviving cancer at this age is associated with a substantial economic burden. Compared to adults without a history of cancer, adolescent and young adult cancer survivors had excess annual medical expenditures of $3,170 per person and excess annual productivity losses of $2,250 per person. Multifaceted prevention strategies, including education and sustained intervention programs to ensure access to lifelong risk-based follow-up care, may be effective ways to improve the economic outcomes associated with cancer survivorship in this population. PMID:24889952

Guy, Gery P; Yabroff, K Robin; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Dowling, Emily C; Rechis, Ruth; Nutt, Stephanie; Richardson, Lisa C

2014-06-01

333

Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment  

PubMed Central

Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment Abstract Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Further, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal sample (N = 808) was followed from age 10 through 27. Perceptions of neighborhood in childhood predicted depression, alcohol use disorders, and HIV risk in young adulthood. Further, the timing of adversity was important in determining the type of problem experienced in adulthood. Youth adjustment predicted adult outcomes, and in some cases, mediated the relation between adversity and outcomes. These findings support the importance of adversity in predicting adjustment and elucidate factors that affect outcomes into young adulthood. PMID:22754271

Kiff, Cara J.; Cortes, Rebecca; Lengua, Lilana; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Mason, W. Alex

2012-01-01

334

Social influences are associated with BMI and weight loss intentions in young adults.  

PubMed

Christakis and colleagues have shown that health behaviors cluster in social networks and suggest social norms may account for the clustering. This study examined: (i) whether obesity clusters among young adults and whether social norms do in fact account for the clustering, and (ii) among overweight/obese (OW/OB) young adults, whether number of social contacts trying to lose weight is associated with weight loss intentions and whether social norms for weight loss account for this effect. Normal weight (NW) and OW/OB young adults (N = 288; 66% female; 75% white) completed measures assessing number of OW social contacts and social norms for obesity. OW/OB young adults also indicated number of OW social contacts currently trying to lose weight, social norms for weight loss, and weight loss intentions. Compared to NW, OW/OB young adults were more likely to have OW romantic partners and best friends and had more OW casual friends and family members (Ps < 0.05), but social norms for obesity did not differ between groups, and social norms did not mediate the relationship between OW social contacts and participants' weight status. However, among OW/OB young adults, having more social contacts trying to lose weight was associated with greater intention to lose weight (r = 0.20, P = 0.02) and social norms for weight loss fully mediated this effect (P < 0.01). This study is the first to show that social contacts and normative beliefs influence weight status and intentions for weight control in young adults. Findings underscore the importance of targeting social influence in the treatment and prevention of obesity in this high-risk age group. PMID:21164501

Leahey, Tricia M; Gokee LaRose, Jessica; Fava, Joseph L; Wing, Rena R

2011-06-01

335

DOPAMINE RECEPTOR INACTIVATION IN THE CAUDATE-PUTAMEN DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTS THE BEHAVIOR OF PREWEANLING AND ADULT RATS  

PubMed Central

The irreversible receptor antagonist N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) has been used to study the ontogeny of dopamine (DA) receptor functioning in the young and adult rat. Most notably, systemic administration of EEDQ blocks the DA agonist-induced behaviors of adult rats, while leaving the behavior of preweanling rats unaffected. The purpose of the present study was to: (a) determine whether the age-dependent actions of EEDQ involve receptors located in the dorsal caudate-putamen (CPu) and (b) confirm that EEDQ's behavioral effects result from the inactivation of DA receptors rather than some other receptor type. In Experiment 1, EEDQ or DMSO were bilaterally infused into the CPu on PD 17 or PD 84. After 24 h, rats were given bilateral microinjections of the full DA agonist R(–)-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) or vehicle into the dorsal CPu and behavior was assessed for 40 min. In Experiment 2, preweanling rats were treated as just described, except that DA receptors were protected from EEDQ-induced alkylation by administering systemic injections of D1 (SCH23390) and D2 (sulpiride) receptor antagonists. As predicted, microinjecting EEDQ into the dorsal CPu attenuated the NPA-induced locomotor activity and stereotypy of adult rats. In contrast, rats given bilateral EEDQ infusions on PD 17 exhibited a potentiated locomotor response when treated with NPA. Experiment 2 showed that DA receptor inactivation was responsible for NPA's actions. A likely explanation for these results is that EEDQ inactivates a sizable percentage of DA receptors on PD 17, but leaves the remaining receptors in a supersensitive state. This receptor supersensitivity, which probably involves alterations in G protein coupling, could account for NPA-induced locomotor potentiation. Either adult rats do not show a similar EEDQ-induced change in receptor dynamics or DA receptor inactivation was more complete in older animals and effectively eliminated the expression of DA agonist-induced behaviors. PMID:23000622

DER-GHAZARIAN, T.; GUTIERREZ, A.; VARELA, F. A.; HERBERT, M. S.; AMODEO, L. R.; CHARNTIKOV, S.; CRAWFORD, C. A.; MCDOUGALL, S. A.

2012-01-01

336

Differences in lower-extremity muscular activation during walking between healthy older and young adults  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have identified differences in gait kinetics between healthy older and young adults. However, the underlying factors that cause these changes are not well understood. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of age and speed on the activation of lower-extremity muscles during human walking. We recorded electromyography (EMG) signals of the soleus, gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, medial hamstrings, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris as healthy young and older adults walked over ground at slow, preferred and fast walking speeds. Nineteen healthy older adults (age, 73 ± 5 years) and 18 healthy young adults (age, 26 ± 3 years) participated. Rectified EMG signals were normalized to mean activities over a gait cycle at the preferred speed, allowing for an assessment of how the activity was distributed over the gait cycle and modulated with speed. Compared to the young adults, the older adults exhibited greater activation of the tibialis anterior and soleus during mid-stance at all walking speeds and greater activation of the vastus lateralis and medial hamstrings during loading and mid-stance at the fast walking speed, suggesting increased coactivation across the ankle and knee. In addition, older adults depend less on soleus muscle activation to push off at faster walking speeds. We conclude that age-related changes in neuromuscular activity reflect a strategy of stiffening the limb during single support and likely contribute to reduced push off power at fast walking speeds. PMID:19081734

Schmitz, Anne; Silder, Amy; Heiderscheit, Bryan; Mahoney, Jane; Thelen, Darryl G.

2013-01-01

337

An exploration of young adults' progress in treatment for dissociative disorder.  

PubMed

Although treatment outcome research on dissociative disorders (DD) is increasing, an examination of treatment progress in young adults with these disorders remains noticeably absent from the literature. Many studies of DD patients report mean ages over 35. The present study examined the response to treatment of a subsample of young adults ages 18-30 with dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified who participated in a naturalistic, longitudinal study of DD treatment outcome. Over 30 months, these patients demonstrated decreases in destructive behaviors and symptomatology as well as improved adaptive capacities. Compared to the older adult participants in the study, the young adults were more impaired initially. However, these younger patients improved at a rapid pace, such that their clinical presentations were similar to or more improved than those of the older adults at the 30-month follow-up. This brief report suggests not only that young adult DD patients can benefit from a trauma-focused, phasic treatment approach but that their treatment may progress at a faster pace than that of older adults with DD. PMID:22989245

Myrick, Amie C; Brand, Bethany L; McNary, Scot W; Classen, Catherine C; Lanius, Ruth; Loewenstein, Richard J; Pain, Clare; Putnam, Frank W

2012-01-01

338

Homeostatic regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in aging rats: long-term effects of early exercise  

PubMed Central

Adult neurogenesis is highly responsive to environmental and physiological factors. The majority of studies to date have examined short-term consequences of enhancing or blocking neurogenesis but long-term changes remain less well understood. Current evidence for age-related declines in neurogenesis warrant further investigation into these long-term changes. In this report we address the hypothesis that early life experience, such as a period of voluntary running in juvenile rats, can alter properties of adult neurogenesis for the remainder of the animal's life. The results indicate that the number of proliferating and differentiating neuronal precursors is not altered in runners beyond the initial weeks post-running, suggesting homeostatic regulation of these processes. However, the rate of neuronal maturation and survival during a 4 week period after cell division was enhanced up to 11 months of age (the end of the study period). This study is the first to show that a transient period of physical activity at a young age promotes changes in neurogenesis that persist over the long-term, which is important for our understanding of the modulation of neurogenesis by exercise with age. Functional integration of adult-born neurons within the hippocampus that resist homeostatic regulation with aging, rather than the absolute number of adult-born neurons, may be an essential feature of adult neurogenesis that promotes the maintenance of neural plasticity in old age. PMID:25071426

Merkley, Christina M.; Jian, Charles; Mosa, Adam; Tan, Yao-Fang; Wojtowicz, J. Martin

2014-01-01

339

Homeostatic regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in aging rats: long-term effects of early exercise.  

PubMed

Adult neurogenesis is highly responsive to environmental and physiological factors. The majority of studies to date have examined short-term consequences of enhancing or blocking neurogenesis but long-term changes remain less well understood. Current evidence for age-related declines in neurogenesis warrant further investigation into these long-term changes. In this report we address the hypothesis that early life experience, such as a period of voluntary running in juvenile rats, can alter properties of adult neurogenesis for the remainder of the animal's life. The results indicate that the number of proliferating and differentiating neuronal precursors is not altered in runners beyond the initial weeks post-running, suggesting homeostatic regulation of these processes. However, the rate of neuronal maturation and survival during a 4 week period after cell division was enhanced up to 11 months of age (the end of the study period). This study is the first to show that a transient period of physical activity at a young age promotes changes in neurogenesis that persist over the long-term, which is important for our understanding of the modulation of neurogenesis by exercise with age. Functional integration of adult-born neurons within the hippocampus that resist homeostatic regulation with aging, rather than the absolute number of adult-born neurons, may be an essential feature of adult neurogenesis that promotes the maintenance of neural plasticity in old age. PMID:25071426

Merkley, Christina M; Jian, Charles; Mosa, Adam; Tan, Yao-Fang; Wojtowicz, J Martin

2014-01-01

340

Development and Measurement through Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Young Adult Social Behavior Scale (YASB): An Assessment of Relational Aggression in Adolescence and Young Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Young Adult Social Behavior Scale was developed for the purpose of measuring self-reported relational and social aggression and behaviors of interpersonal maturity in adolescents and young adults (the sample included 629 university students; 66% female; 91.6% White). Despite previous research suggesting that relational and social aggression…

Crothers, Laura M.; Schreiber, James B.; Field, Julaine E.; Kolbert, Jered B.

2009-01-01

341

The Utility of Seven-Subtest Short Forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Along with ongoing research on the WAIS-R, short forms of the WAIS-III have attracted much attention. However, few studies of WAIS-III short forms are based on normal samples or on the validation of estimated indexes. This study examined the utility of two seven-subtest short forms in 81 healthy young adults in Taiwan with the administration of…

Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl

2004-01-01

342

Impulsivity and Social Functioning in Healthy Young Adults.  

E-print Network

??The relationship between impulsivity and social functioning in healthy adults is currently debated. Several studies have found an association between impulsivity and maladaptive social behaviors… (more)

Dawson, Erica Lind

2008-01-01

343

The effect of bovine whey protein on ectopic bone formation in young growing rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beneficial effect of bovine whey protein (WP) on bone metabolism has been shown in adult human subjects and ovariectomised rats. However, its effect on bone formation in earlier life, particularly during periods of bone mineral accrual, has not been investigated. Twenty-one male rats (4 weeks old, Wistar strain) were randomised by weight into three groups of seven rats each

Owen Kelly; Siobhan Cusack; Kevin D. Cashman

2003-01-01

344

Differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults during walking.  

PubMed

Our understanding of age-related changes to foot function during walking has mainly been based on plantar pressure measurements, with little information on differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults during walking using a multi-segment foot model. Joint kinematics of the foot and ankle for 20 young (mean age 23.2 years, standard deviation (SD) 3.0) and 20 older adults (mean age 73.2 years, SD 5.1) were quantified during walking with a 12 camera Vicon motion analysis system using a five segment kinematic model. Differences in kinematics were compared between older adults and young adults (preferred and slow walking speeds) using Student's t-tests or if indicated, Mann-Whitney U tests. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) for the differences were also computed. The older adults had a less plantarflexed calcaneus at toe-off (-9.6° vs. -16.1°, d = 1.0, p = <0.001), a smaller sagittal plane range of motion (ROM) of the midfoot (11.9° vs. 14.8°, d = 1.3, p = <0.001) and smaller coronal plane ROM of the metatarsus (3.2° vs. 4.3°, d = 1.1, p = 0.006) compared to the young adults. Walking speed did not influence these differences, as they remained present when groups walked at comparable speeds. The findings of this study indicate that independent of walking speed, older adults exhibit significant differences in foot kinematics compared to younger adults, characterised by less propulsion and reduced mobility of multiple foot segments. PMID:24183676

Arnold, John B; Mackintosh, Shylie; Jones, Sara; Thewlis, Dominic

2014-02-01

345

PARENCHYMAL CELLS FROM ADULT RAT LIVER IN NONPROLIFERATING MONOLAYER CULTURE  

PubMed Central

Parenchymal cells from adult rat liver have been established in primary monolayer culture. Donor animals are subjected to a partial hepatectomy and, 4 days later, cells are prepared by collagenase perfusion of the regenerated liver. The hepatic parenchymal cells, separated from nonparenchymal material and suspended in serum-free medium, are placed in plastic tissue culture dishes, where they form a monolayer within 24 h. The monolayer cells exhibit minimal mitotic activity and demonstrate several major metabolic functions characteristic of liver in vivo; these include albumin synthesis and secretion, gluconeogenesis from 3-carbon precursors, responsiveness to insulin and glucagon, glycogen synthesis, and activity of two microsomal enzymes. These functions are present in the monolayer cells for several days at activities similar to those observed in the liver in vivo. The findings indicate that hepatic parenchymal cells in this monolayer system are viable and behave in many respects like normal adult rat liver. PMID:4357460

Montgomery Bissell, D.; Hammaker, Lydia E.; Meyer, Urs A.

1973-01-01

346

Continuity and Discontinuity of Depressed Mood from Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Mediating and Stabilizing Roles of Young Adults' Socioeconomic Attainment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using prospective, longitudinal data from 467 youth over a 13-year period (late adolescence and young adulthood), the present study investigates three research questions: (1) to what extent do elevations in depressed mood continue (homotypic continuity) from adolescence to young adulthood, (2) to what extent do young adults' socioeconomic…

Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Rand D.; Lorenz, Federick O.; Martin, Monica

2012-01-01

347

Considering quality of care for young adults with diabetes in Ireland  

PubMed Central

Background Research on the quality of diabetes care provided to young adults with Type 1 diabetes is lacking. This study investigates perceptions of quality of care for young adults with Type 1 diabetes (23–30 years old) living in the Republic of Ireland. Methods Thirty-five young adults with Type 1 diabetes (twenty-nine women, six men) and thirteen healthcare professionals (ten diabetes nurse specialists, three consultant Endocrinologists) were recruited. All study participants completed semi-structured interviews that explored their perspectives on the quality of diabetes services in Ireland. Interviews were analyzed using standard qualitative thematic analysis techniques. Results Most interviewees identified problems with Irish diabetes services for young adults. Healthcare services were often characterised by long waiting times, inadequate continuity of care, overreliance on junior doctors and inadequate professional-patient interaction times. Many rural and non-specialist services lacked funding for diabetes education programmes, diabetes nurse specialists, insulin pumps or for psychological support, though these services are important components of quality Type 1 diabetes healthcare. Allied health services such as psychology, podiatry and dietician services appeared to be underfunded in many parts of the country. While Irish diabetes services lacked funding prior to the recession, the economic decline in Ireland, and the subsequent austerity imposed on the Irish health service as a result of that decline, appears to have additional negative consequences. Despite these difficulties, a number of specialist healthcare services for young adults with diabetes seemed to be providing excellent quality of care. Although young adults and professionals identified many of the same problems with Irish diabetes services, professionals appeared to be more critical of diabetes services than young adults. Young adults generally expressed high levels of satisfaction with services, even where they noted that aspects of those services were sub-optimal. Conclusion Good quality care appears to be unequally distributed throughout Ireland. National austerity measures appear to be negatively impacting health services for young adults with diabetes. There is a need for more Endocrinologist and diabetes nurse specialist posts to be funded in Ireland, as well as allied health professional posts. PMID:24168159

2013-01-01

348

Gambling-related cognitive biases and pathological gambling among youths, young adults, and mature adults in Chinese societies.  

PubMed

This study investigated the extent to which gambling-related cognitive biases would associate with various levels of gambling pathology among 2,835 youths, 934 young adults, and 162 mature adults in Chinese societies. Results showed that gambling cognitive biases, especially biases in perceived inability to stop gambling and positive gambling expectancy, were salient correlates of pathological gambling across the three age cohorts. Analyses of variances on total cognitive biases also showed a gambling pathology main effect and an age cohort × gambling pathology 2-way interaction effect. It was noted that the probable pathological gambling group had greater cognitive biases than the probable problem gambling group, which in turn had greater cognitive biases than the non-problem gambling group. In the non-problem gambling group, mature adults had greater cognitive biases than youths and young adults, but this pattern was reversed in the probable problem gambling group. In the probable pathological gambling group, youths had greater cognitive biases than young and mature adults. Specific categories of cognitive biases also varied according to gender and gambling pathology. While men as compared to women in the non-problem and probable problem gambling groups reported a greater bias in their perceived inability to stop gambling, no significant gender difference in this bias was found in the probable pathological gambling group. Men generally had greater perceived gambling expectancy bias than women. PMID:21556792

Tang, Catherine So-kum; Wu, Anise M S

2012-03-01

349

Subependymal glycosaminoglycan networks in adult and developing rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histochemical studies of normal adult rat brain indicate two types of glycosaminoglycans in the subependymal region of the lateral ventricle. One network is characterized by an affinity for the cationic dyes alcian blue, aldehyde fuchsin and colloidal iron. These reactions occur at pH 1.0 and at 0.5–0.3 M concentration of MgCl2, which suggests that this material is chondroitin sulfate. The

R. M. Torack; L. Grawe

1980-01-01

350

Low birth weight-associated adult hypertension in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological surveys have suggested that intrauterine growth retardation is a risk factor for the development of hypertension\\u000a in later life. A rat model of intrauterine growth retardation, induced by maternal low-protein diet during the second half\\u000a of pregnancy, was used to study the relationship between birth weight and adult hypertension. The offspring were born at term\\u000a and were allowed to

Jennifer Manning; V. Matti Vehaskari

2001-01-01

351

Young adults who smoke cigarettes and marijuana: Analysis of thoughts and behaviors  

PubMed Central

Introduction Smoking both cigarettes and marijuana is increasingly common among young adults, yet little is known about use patterns, motivations, or thoughts about abstinence. In a U.S. sample, this study explored young adults’ severity of cigarette and marijuana co-use, quit attempts, and thoughts about use. Methods Young adults age 18-to-25 who had smoked at least one cigarette in the past 30 days completed an anonymous online survey. Results Of 1987 completed surveys, 972 participants reported both past-month cigarette and marijuana use (68% male, 71% Caucasian, mean age 20.4 years [SD=2.0]). Frequency of use, temptations to use, measures of dependence, decisional balance, and past-year quit attempts were associated across the two substances (all p< .05), but not motivation to quit. Relative to marijuana, participants reported greater desire and a later stage of change for quitting cigarettes and were more likely to endorse a cigarette abstinence goal, yet they had lower expectancy of success with quitting cigarettes and with staying quit (all p<.001). Conclusions Cigarette and marijuana use, temptations to use, and pros/cons of using were related in this young adult sample. Differences in motivation and thoughts about abstinence, however, suggest that young adults may be more receptive to interventions for tobacco than marijuana use. Use patterns and cognitions for both substances should be considered in prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:24090626

Ramo, Danielle E.; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Liu, Howard; Hall, Sharon M.; Prochaska, Judith J.

2013-01-01

352

Fast Mapping in Healthy Young Adults: The Influence of Metamemory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several research studies suggest the significant role played by metamemory in lexical abilities of both adults and children. To our knowledge, there have been no studies to date that have explored the role of metamemory (Judgments of Learning) in fast mapping of novel words by adults. One hundred and twelve undergraduate students were given tasks…

Ramachandra, Vijayachandra; Rickenbach, Bryna; Ruda, Marissa; LeCureux, Bethanie; Pope, Moira

2010-01-01

353

Childhood Onset Schizophrenia: Cortical Brain Abnormalities as Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare but severe form of the adult onset disorder. While structural brain imaging studies show robust, widespread, and progressive gray matter loss in COS during adolescence, there have been no longitudinal studies of sufficient duration to examine comparability with the more common adult onset…

Greenstein, Deanna; Lerch, Jason; Shaw, Philip; Clasen, Liv; Giedd, Jay; Gochman, Peter; Rapoport, Judith; Gogtay, Nitin

2006-01-01

354

Non-Symbolic Arithmetic in Adults and Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five experiments investigated whether adults and preschool children can perform simple arithmetic calculations on non-symbolic numerosities. Previous research has demonstrated that human adults, human infants, and non-human animals can process numerical quantities through approximate representations of their magnitudes. Here we consider whether…

Barth, Hilary; La Mont, Kristen; Lipton, Jennifer; Dehaene, Stanislas; Kanwisher, Nancy; Spelke, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

355

Increasing hepatitis C prevalence and associated risk behaviors among incarcerated young adults.  

PubMed

This study sought to assess the rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and associated risk factors in young adults 18-28 years of age who were incarcerated in the Rhode Island Department of Corrections. The majority of participants reported injection drug use and engaged in high-risk behaviors such as needle sharing. Despite having these risk factors and believing themselves to be at risk, the majority of youths reported no prior HCV testing. Correctional facilities present a unique opportunity to detect HCV infection and provide risk reduction education to young adults, the population with the highest rates of new infections in the US. Seventy-two incarcerated individuals with a history of drug use were approached to participate in the study; 68 completed the screening and interview. The rate of HCV infection among adults <30 years of age and incarcerated at the Rhode Island Department of Corrections in 2011 was high (24%). In 1998, the rate of HCV among inmates <30 years of age at the same facility was only 11.4%. These data follow the same increase in HCV infection rates among young adults observed in non-incarcerated young adults across the nation. HCV is the leading cause of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma in the US. Despite a decline and leveling in HCV incidence nationwide, alarming increases in HCV rates among adolescents and young adults have been reported during the period between the years 1992 and 2005. This disquieting epidemic is attributable to injection drug use amongst young adults. PMID:23722268

McNamara, Blair C; Losikoff, Phyllis T; Huguenin, Linda; Macalino, Grace E; Rich, Josiah D; Gregory, Stephen H

2014-04-01

356

Vision of the active limb impairs bimanual motor tracking in young and older adults  

PubMed Central

Despite the intensive investigation of bimanual coordination, it remains unclear how directing vision toward either limb influences performance, and whether this influence is affected by age. To examine these questions, we assessed the performance of young and older adults on a bimanual tracking task in which they matched motor-driven movements of their right hand (passive limb) with their left hand (active limb) according to in-phase and anti-phase patterns. Performance in six visual conditions involving central vision, and/or peripheral vision of the active and/or passive limb was compared to performance in a no vision condition. Results indicated that directing central vision to the active limb consistently impaired performance, with higher impairment in older than young adults. Conversely, directing central vision to the passive limb improved performance in young adults, but less consistently in older adults. In conditions involving central vision of one limb and peripheral vision of the other limb, similar effects were found to those for conditions involving central vision of one limb only. Peripheral vision alone resulted in similar or impaired performance compared to the no vision (NV) condition. These results indicate that the locus of visual attention is critical for bimanual motor control in young and older adults, with older adults being either more impaired or less able to benefit from a given visual condition. PMID:25452727

Boisgontier, Matthieu P.; Van Halewyck, Florian; Corporaal, Sharissa H. A.; Willacker, Lina; Van Den Bergh, Veerle; Beets, Iseult A. M.; Levin, Oron; Swinnen, Stephan P.

2014-01-01

357

Associative memory advantage in grapheme-color synesthetes compared to older, but not young adults.  

PubMed

People with grapheme-color synesthesia perceive enriched experiences of colors in response to graphemes (letters, digits). In this study, we examined whether these synesthetes show a generic associative memory advantage for stimuli that do not elicit a synesthetic color. We used a novel between group design (14 young synesthetes, 14 young, and 14 older adults) with a self-paced visual associative learning paradigm and subsequent retrieval (immediate and delayed). Non-synesthesia inducing, achromatic fractal pair-associates were manipulated in visual similarity (high and low) and corresponded to high and low memory load conditions. The main finding was a learning and retrieval advantage of synesthetes relative to older, but not to younger, adults. Furthermore, the significance testing was supported with effect size measures and power calculations. Differences between synesthetes and older adults were found during dissimilar pair (high memory load) learning and retrieval at immediate and delayed stages. Moreover, we found a medium size difference between synesthetes and young adults for similar pair (low memory load) learning. Differences between young and older adults were also observed during associative learning and retrieval, but were of medium effect size coupled with low power. The results show a subtle associative memory advantage in synesthetes for non-synesthesia inducing stimuli, which can be detected against older adults. They also indicate that perceptual mechanisms (enhanced in synesthesia, declining as part of the aging process) can translate into a generic associative memory advantage, and may contribute to associative deficits accompanying healthy aging. PMID:25071664

Pfeifer, Gaby; Rothen, Nicolas; Ward, Jamie; Chan, Dennis; Sigala, Natasha

2014-01-01

358

Associative memory advantage in grapheme-color synesthetes compared to older, but not young adults  

PubMed Central

People with grapheme-color synesthesia perceive enriched experiences of colors in response to graphemes (letters, digits). In this study, we examined whether these synesthetes show a generic associative memory advantage for stimuli that do not elicit a synesthetic color. We used a novel between group design (14 young synesthetes, 14 young, and 14 older adults) with a self-paced visual associative learning paradigm and subsequent retrieval (immediate and delayed). Non-synesthesia inducing, achromatic fractal pair-associates were manipulated in visual similarity (high and low) and corresponded to high and low memory load conditions. The main finding was a learning and retrieval advantage of synesthetes relative to older, but not to younger, adults. Furthermore, the significance testing was supported with effect size measures and power calculations. Differences between synesthetes and older adults were found during dissimilar pair (high memory load) learning and retrieval at immediate and delayed stages. Moreover, we found a medium size difference between synesthetes and young adults for similar pair (low memory load) learning. Differences between young and older adults were also observed during associative learning and retrieval, but were of medium effect size coupled with low power. The results show a subtle associative memory advantage in synesthetes for non-synesthesia inducing stimuli, which can be detected against older adults. They also indicate that perceptual mechanisms (enhanced in synesthesia, declining as part of the aging process) can translate into a generic associative memory advantage, and may contribute to associative deficits accompanying healthy aging. PMID:25071664

Pfeifer, Gaby; Rothen, Nicolas; Ward, Jamie; Chan, Dennis; Sigala, Natasha

2014-01-01

359

Use of social comparisons in interviews about young adults' experiences of chronic illness.  

PubMed

In this article I examine how young adults used social comparisons in research interviews about their experiences of chronic illness. The interviews were originally conducted not only to provide data for academic analysis but also to generate experiential accounts for publication online as part of an Internet-based health information resource for patients, professionals, and the public wanting to learn about people's real-life experiences of illness in the United Kingdom. Through secondary analysis of these data, I show how the young adults used various social comparisons to represent themselves and their experiences to the target audience. Two new concepts-analogues and foils-are introduced to describe how the young adults likened themselves to, and contrasted themselves with, different reference groups in their accounts. Through these and related strategies, they created positive renditions of their experiences for the audience, helping to inform and support others in the process. PMID:25281241

Heaton, Janet

2015-03-01

360

The relation of depression and anxiety to measures of attention in young adults seeking psychoeducational evaluation.  

PubMed

The relation between mood and attentional functioning in young adults seeking psychoeducational evaluation has not been previously reported. This study examined the relation of self-reported depression and anxiety on attentional abilities among 161 young adults referred for psychoeducational evaluation. Depression and anxiety were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Attentional functioning was assessed using the Trail Making Test, the d2 Test of Attention, the Conners' Continuous Performance Test, and the WAIS-III Working Memory and Processing Speed Indices. The unique variance accounted for by depression or anxiety was minimal (typically <1.5%); these null results were confirmed by diagnostic subgroup analyses and also after examining the interaction between depression and anxiety. These results suggest that performance on measures of attention within samples of young adults seeking psychoeducational evaluation is minimally related to self-reported depression and anxiety. PMID:18789645

Hill, B D; Smitherman, Todd A; Pella, Russell D; O'Jile, Judith R; Gouvier, Wm Drew

2008-01-01

361

A culture of future planning: perceptions of sexual risk among educated young adults.  

PubMed

In this study we examined how social processes, specifically the acquisition of postsecondary education and capital, shaped perceptions of sexual risk and impacted sexual practices and sexual health among young adults. Using qualitative research methods we collected and analyzed data among students attending a 4-year university in the northeastern region of the United States over a 1-year period. By analyzing participants' narratives, we found that the reproduction of shared norms and values encouraged educated young adults to focus on educational and professional success, pressing many of them to be concerned about preventing pregnancy rather than preventing disease transmission, and increasing their risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. Sexual-health educators need to address how social processes shape sexual practices, encourage educated young adults to challenge unequal gender expectations, and consider how sexually transmitted infections might also interfere with life plans. PMID:25156216

Cheney, Ann M; Ostrach, Bayla; Marcus, Ruthanne; Frank, Cynthia; Ball, Cassandra; Erickson, Pamela I

2014-10-01

362

Tobacco Industry Control of Menthol in Cigarettes and Targeting of Adolescents and Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether tobacco manufacturers manipulate the menthol content of cigarettes in an effort to target adolescents and young adults. Methods. We analyzed data from tobacco industry documents describing menthol product development, results of laboratory testing of US menthol brands, market research reports, and the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Results. The tobacco industry attracted new smokers by promoting cigarettes with lower menthol content, which were popular with adolescents and young adults, and provided cigarettes with higher menthol content to long-term smokers. Menthol cigarette sales remained stable from 2000 to 2005 in the United States, despite a 22% decline in overall packs sold. Conclusions. Tobacco companies manipulate the sensory characteristics of cigarettes, including menthol content, thereby facilitating smoking initiation and nicotine dependence. Menthol brands that have used this strategy have been the most successful in attracting youth and young adult smokers and have grown in popularity. PMID:18633084

Kreslake, Jennifer M.; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Alpert, Hillel R.; Koh, Howard K.; Connolly, Gregory N.

2008-01-01

363

Being out at school: The implications for school victimization and young adult adjustment.  

PubMed

Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents disclose their sexual and/or gender identities to peers at school. Disclosure of LGBT status is linked with positive psychosocial adjustment for adults; however, for adolescents, "coming out" has been linked to school victimization, which in turn is associated with negative adjustment. This study investigates the associations among adolescent disclosure of LGBT status to others at school, school victimization, and young adult psychosocial adjustment using a sample of 245 LGBT young adults (aged 21-25 years, living in California). After accounting for the association between school victimization and later adjustment, being out at high school was associated with positive psychosocial adjustment in young adulthood. Results have significant implications for training of school-based health and mental health providers, education and guidance for parents and caregivers, fostering positive development of LGBT youth, and developing informed school policies and educational practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25545431

Russell, Stephen T; Toomey, Russell B; Ryan, Caitlin; Diaz, Rafael M

2014-11-01

364

Ecological Associations of Alcohol Outlets with Underage and Young Adult Injuries  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper argues that associations between rates of three specific problems related to alcohol (i.e., accidents, traffic crashes, and assaults) should be differentially related to densities of off-premise outlets among underage youth and young adults based upon age related-patterns of alcohol outlet use. Methods Zip code-level population models assessed local and distal effects of alcohol outlets upon rates of hospital discharges for these outcomes. Results Densities of off-premise alcohol outlets were significantly related to injuries from accidents, assaults, and traffic crashes for both underage youth and young adults. Densities of bars were associated with more assaults and densities of restaurants were associated with more traffic crash injuries for young adults. Conclusions The distribution of alcohol-related injuries relative to alcohol outlets reflect patterns of alcohol outlet use. PMID:20028361

Gruenewald, Paul J.; Freisthler, Bridget; Remer, Lillian; LaScala, Elizabeth A.; Treno, Andrew J.; Ponicki, William R.

2010-01-01

365

It's Not Just for Kids Anymore: TSA's Young Adult Newsletter  

MedlinePLUS

... and, particularly, "Family Profiles" of Adults living with Tourettes Syndrome. LAST ISSUE Volume 2 No.3 Volume ... Return to the TSA Home Page ©2007-2015 Tourette Syndrome Association, Inc. / 42-40 Bell Boulevard / Bayside ...

366

Psychiatric disorders and treatment among newly homeless young adults with histories of foster care  

PubMed Central

Objective While foster care placement is often preceded by stressful events such as childhood abuse, foster care itself often exposes children to additional severe stressors. A history of foster care, as well as the childhood abuse that often precedes it, is common among homeless young adults. However, whether a history of foster care elevates the likelihood of psychiatric disorders and treatment among homeless young adults, after adjustment for childhood abuse, is unknown. This study examined whether a history of foster care was associated with psychiatric disorders, prior psychiatric counseling, prescription of psychiatric medications, and prior psychiatric hospitalization among newly homeless young adults, controlling for childhood abuse and other covariates. Methods Among a consecutive sample of 424 newly homeless young adults (18 to 21 years) in a crisis shelter, logistic regression analyses determined the associations between foster care and any psychiatric disorder (affective, anxiety, personality, psychotic) and psychiatric treatment, adjusted for demographics, childhood abuse, substance abuse, prior arrest, unemployment, lack of high school diploma, and histories of psychiatric disorders and drug abuse among biological relatives. Results Homeless young adults with histories of foster care were 70% more likely to report any psychiatric disorder (AOR=1.70) and twice as likely to have received mental health counseling for a psychiatric disorder (AOR=2.17), been prescribed psychiatric medication (AOR=2.26), and been hospitalized for psychiatric problems (AOR=2.15) than those without such histories. Conclusions Histories of foster care should trigger screening for psychiatric disorders among homeless young adults to aid in the provision of treatment (counseling, medication, hospitalization) tailored to their psychiatric needs. PMID:22706986

Thompson, Ronald G.; Hasin, Deborah S.

2013-01-01

367

Cancer Incidence among Adolescents and Young Adults in Urban Shanghai, 1973–2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLack of cancer incidence information for adolescents and young adults led us to describe incidence trends within the young population of 15 to 49 year-olds in urban Shanghai between 1973 and 2005.MethodsDuring 1973 to 2005, data on 43,009 (45.8%) male and 50,828 (54.2%) female cancer cases aged 15–49 years from the Shanghai Cancer Registry were analyzed. Five-year age-specific rates, world

Qi-Jun Wu; Emily Vogtmann; Wei Zhang; Li Xie; Wan-Shui Yang; Yu-Ting Tan; Jing Gao; Yong-Bing Xiang

2012-01-01

368

NAEP Profiles of Literacy. An Assessment of Young Adults. Development Plan, April 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has acted to provide a new perspective with its 1985 survey of the literacy skills of young Americans aged 21-25. In the Spring of 1985, NAEP began screening 40,000 households to identify a nationally representative sample of between 3,600 and 5,000 young adults aged 21-25 and several hundred…

Kirsch, Irwin

369

Cardiovascular disease risk factor knowledge in young adults and 10-year change in risk factors: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study's objective was assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor knowledge in young adults, its association with 10-year changes in risk factor levels, and variables related to risk factor knowledge. A total of 4,193 healthy persons (55% female, 48% Black; mean age=30 years) from four urban US communities were queried about risk factor knowledge in 1990-1991 and were reexamined

Elizabeth B. Lynch; Kiang Liu; Catarina I. Kiefe; Philip Greenland

2006-01-01

370

Young adults' (16-25 years) suggestions for providing developmentally appropriate diabetes services: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Managing the multiple demands of a chronic condition whilst negotiating the developmental tasks of adolescence and young adulthood is a process that is neither well described nor understood, particularly in relation to providing developmentally appropriate health care for young people. The importance of this issue is starting to be reflected within the literature, and although research into models of service delivery is emerging, a lack of user involvement in service development is apparent. This qualitative, user involvement study aimed to describe and understand the considered opinions of 19 young adults with diabetes who were receiving secondary care services about the provision of diabetes services for young people. The findings, gathered using semistructured interview and focus group methods, have potentially wide-reaching implications across primary and secondary health care, and across agencies providing services to children and young people, in terms of facilitating a person's transition through adolescence and into young adult life. Participants suggested key issues to address when developing services for young people, including staff consistency, civility, clinic structures which help a person navigate the health care system, provision of age-specific information, and support in relation to a range of health, emotional, social and developmental needs. Health care professionals can help young people to meet the expectations upon them as autonomous service users by modelling appropriate relationships, helping them to acquire skills and knowledge, and overcome barriers to them becoming active participants in their health care and achieving social participation in a fuller sense. It is somewhat arbitrary to delineate between adolescence and young adulthood in terms of age alone, but in this paper, 'adolescence' refers to the period between 11 and 15 years of age, and 'young adulthood' between 16 and 25 years of age. The phrase 'young people' will also be used to refer to people between 11 and 25 years. PMID:16048529

Dovey-Pearce, Gail; Hurrell, Ruth; May, Carl; Walker, Caron; Doherty, Yvonne

2005-09-01

371

'See it doesn't look pretty does it?' Young adults' airbrushed drinking practices on Facebook.  

PubMed

A range of negative health outcomes are associated with young adults' drinking practices. One key arena where images of, and interaction about, drinking practices occurs is social networking sites, particularly Facebook. This study investigated the ways in which young adults' talked about and understood their uses of Facebook within their drinking practices. Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven New Zealand young adults as they displayed, navigated and talked about their Facebook pages and drinking behaviours. Our social constructionist thematic analysis identified three major themes, namely 'friendship group belonging', 'balanced self-display' and 'absences in positive photos'. Drinking photos reinforced friendship group relationships but time and effort was required to limit drunken photo displays to maintain an overall attractive online identity. Positive photos prompted discussion of negative drinking events which were not explicitly represented. Together these understandings of drinking photos function to delimit socially appropriate online drinking displays, effectively 'airbrushing' these visual depictions of young adults' drinking as always pleasurable and without negative consequences. We consider the implications of these findings for ways alcohol health initiatives may intervene to reframe 'airbrushed' drinking representations on Facebook and provoke a deeper awareness among young people of drinking practices and their online displays. PMID:24527709

Niland, Patricia; Lyons, Antonia C; Goodwin, Ian; Hutton, Fiona

2014-01-01

372

Comparing young and older adults' perceptions of conflicting stereotypes and multiply-categorizable individuals.  

PubMed

Individuals can be simultaneously categorized into multiple social groups (e.g., racial, gender, age), and stereotypes about one social group may conflict with another. Two such conflicting stereotype sets are those associated with older adults (e.g., frail, kind) and with Black people (e.g., violent, hostile). Recent research shows that young adult perceivers evaluate elderly Black men more positively than young Black men, suggesting that components of the elderly stereotype moderate the influence of conflicting Black stereotypes (Kang & Chasteen, 2009). The current research begins to examine whether this pattern of perceiving multiply-categorizable individuals is maintained among older adults or altered, perhaps due to aging-related cognitive and motivational changes. In three studies using different targets and evaluative tasks, both young and older participants showed evidence of an interplay between Black and elderly stereotypes, such that they perceived elderly Black targets more positively than young Black targets. A similar pattern was observed when assessing emotion change (Study 1), making ratings of warmth and power in the past, present, and future (Study 2), and when directly comparing young and old Black and White targets on traits related to warmth and power (Study 3). The absence of age differences suggests that evaluation of multiply-categorizable targets follows comparable underlying patterns of stereotype activation and inhibition in younger and older adults. PMID:25244468

Kang, Sonia K; Chasteen, Alison L; Cadieux, Jonathan; Cary, Lindsey A; Syeda, Maisha

2014-09-01

373

Evaluation of the Effect of Implanted Depleted Uranium (DU) on Adult Rat Behavior and Toxicological Endpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2002, the Naval Health Research Center Toxicology Detachment began a study to determine the effects of surgically implanted depleted uranium (DU) pellets on adult rat (e.g., P1 generation) health and reproduction. In this report, the effect of implanted DU on adult rat behavior and health is described. Adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, 8 wk of age, were surgically implanted with

D. P. Arfsten; E. R. Wilfong; M. Y.-V. Bekkedal; E. W. Johnson; S. M. McInturf; J. S. Eggers; D. J. Schaeffer; K. R. Still

2007-01-01

374

Defining Happiness for Young Adults with Schizophrenia: A Building Block for Recovery  

PubMed Central

Purpose Findings from this mixed methods descriptive study include a definition of happiness for young adults with schizophrenia (SCZ). Methods Thirteen men and women, ages 23 to 35, completed a series of three individual one-hour interviews over six weeks. Results This definition included themes of material happiness, relational happiness, and health happiness. Although these themes correspond to those for young adults without SCZ, four barriers to happiness were identified for this vulnerable population: 1) fear, 2) isolation, 3) medication, 4) not being considered “normal.” Conclusion Implications of these findings include designing interventions to support recovery by overcoming barriers to happiness. PMID:24070992

Buckland, Helen T.; Schepp, Karen G.; Crusoe, Kristen

2013-01-01

375

Young Adult Obesity and Household Income: Effects of Unconditional Cash Transfers.  

PubMed

We investigate the effect of household cash transfers during childhood on young adult body mass indexes (BMI). The effects of extra income differ depending on the household's initial socioeconomic status (SES). Children from the initially poorest households have a larger increase in BMI relative to children from initially wealthier households. Several alternative mechanisms are examined. Initial SES holds up as the most likely channel behind the heterogeneous effects of extra income on young adult BMI. (JEL D14, H23, H75, I12, J13, J15). PMID:24707346

Akee, Randall; Simeonova, Emilia; Copeland, William; Angold, Adrian; Costello, E Jane

2013-04-01

376

Young Adult Obesity and Household Income: Effects of Unconditional Cash Transfers†  

PubMed Central

We investigate the effect of household cash transfers during childhood on young adult body mass indexes (BMI). The effects of extra income differ depending on the household’s initial socioeconomic status (SES). Children from the initially poorest households have a larger increase in BMI relative to children from initially wealthier households. Several alternative mechanisms are examined. Initial SES holds up as the most likely channel behind the heterogeneous effects of extra income on young adult BMI. (JEL D14, H23, H75, I12, J13, J15) PMID:24707346

Akee, Randall; Simeonova, Emilia; Copeland, William; Angold, Adrian

2014-01-01

377

The context of condom use among young adults in the Philippines: Implications for HIV prevention  

PubMed Central

We examine current perceptions and constraints surrounding condom use among young adults in the Philippines to garner a deeper contextual understanding of this aspect of HIV prevention within Filipino society. Through thematic analysis of focus group data, we found three broad themes, all of which included societal and individual barriers to using condoms. The findings may provide insight for similar settings that have strong religious influences on society. To strengthen HIV prevention efforts in such settings, we suggest that the development of strategies to address these constraints in the cultural setting and promote sexual health of young adults is essential. PMID:23394323

Lucea, Marguerite B.; Hindin, Michelle J.; Gultiano, Socorro; Kub, Joan; Rose, Linda

2012-01-01

378

Beliefs about mental health problems and help-seeking behavior in Dutch young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Mental health problems in young adults are frequent and impairing, but are often left untreated. This study among young adults\\u000a with self-perceived mental health problems examines beliefs about mental health problems (i.e. their cause, consequences,\\u000a timeline, and controllability) and help-seeking behaviour.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A cross-sectional population survey (n = 2,258) in the south-west Netherlands. Participants were included who reported having mental health problems during

Kathleen Vanheusden; Jan van der Ende; Cornelis L. Mulder; Frank J. van Lenthe; Frank C. Verhulst; Johan P. Mackenbach

2009-01-01

379

Personal Motivation, Exercise, and Smoking Behaviors among Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the motivational factors that influence individuals across the stages of change for exercise. The authors compared physically active nonsmokers with physically active smokers in a college student population. Half of regular exercisers identified themselves as smokers. Compared with their nonsmoking peers, young smokers have…

Scioli, Erica Rose; Biller, Henry; Rossi, Joseph; Riebe, Deborah

2009-01-01

380

Hopelessness and Healing: Racial Identity in Young Adult Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that "Tears of a Tiger" is the story of a young African American man's responsibility for a drunk-driving crash that killed his best friend. Offers a reading of "Tears of a Tiger" and "Whirligig" through the lens of critical race theory. Suggests that, paired together, these novels afford a powerful opportunity for students to explore racial…

Franzak, Judith K.

2003-01-01

381

Adolescent-onset substance use disorders predict young adult mortality  

PubMed Central

This study determined whether adolescent-onset substance use disorders (SUDs) prospectively predicted early mortality. Among 870 adolescents, 21 young adulthood deaths were observed. Adolescent SUDs, as well as gender, ethnic group, hazardous substance use, and drug trafficking, predicted these deaths. Among African American males with SUDs, 23% died by age 25. PMID:18486875

Clark, Duncan B.; Martin, Christopher S.; Cornelius, Jack R.

2009-01-01

382

Organize! A Look at Labor History in Young Adult Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how labor history has been written in books for young readers. Discusses 12 books that focus on the "monstrous working conditions, the miserable poverty of the workers, and the callous apathy of the bosses." Notes that these novels avoid any meaningful discussion of the inherent injustices of capitalism, class structure, and the belief in…

Overstreet, Deborah Wilson

2001-01-01

383

Young Adult Outcomes of Children Growing up with Chronic Illness: An analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine young adult outcomes in a nationally representative US cohort of young adults who grew up with a chronic illness. Design Secondary analysis of nationally representative data from Wave III (2001) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Setting United States Participants The analytic sample included 13,236 young adults 18–28 years old at Wave III. Main Exposure Self-report of a chronic physical illness (asthma, cancer, diabetes or epilepsy) in adolescence. Respondents with (1) asthma or (2) non-asthma chronic illness (cancer, diabetes, or epilepsy) were compared to subjects without these conditions. Main Outcome Measures Self-report of high school graduation, ever having a job, having a current job, living with parents, and ever receiving public assistance. Results Three percent of young adults had non-asthma chronic illness (cancer, diabetes, or epilepsy) and 16% had asthma. The majority of young adults with chronic illness graduated high school (81%) and were currently employed (60%). However, compared to healthy young adults, those with a non-asthma chronic illness were significantly less likely to graduate high school, ever have a job, or have a current job and were more likely to receive public assistance. When compared to young adults with asthma, young adults with non-asthma chronic illness again had significantly worse young adult outcomes on all measures. Conclusions Most young adults growing up with chronic illness graduate high school and are employed. However, these young adults are significantly less likely than their healthy peers to achieve these important educational and vocational milestones. PMID:21383274

Maslow, Gary R.; Haydon, Abigail; Ford, Carol Ann; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

2012-01-01

384

Adult Rats Treated with Risperidone during Development Are Hyperactive  

PubMed Central

Risperidone is an antipsychotic drug approved for use in children, but little is known about the long-term effects of early-life risperidone treatment. In animals, prolonged risperidone administration during development increases forebrain dopamine receptor expression immediately upon the cessation of treatment. A series of experiments was performed to ascertain whether early-life risperidone administration altered locomotor activity, a behavior sensitive to dopamine receptor function, in adult rats. One additional behavior modulated by forebrain dopamine function, spatial reversal learning, was also measured during adulthood. In each study, Long-Evans rats received daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle or one of two doses of risperidone (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg per day) from postnatal days 14 – 42. Weight gain during development was slightly yet significantly reduced in risperidone-treated rats. In the first two experiments, early-life risperidone administration was associated with increased locomotor activity at one week post-administration through approximately nine months of age, independent of changes in weight gain. In a separate experiment, it was found that the enhancing effect of early-life risperidone on locomotor activity occurred in males and female rats. A final experiment indicated that spatial reversal learning was unaffected in adult rats administered risperidone early in life. These results indicate that locomotor activity during adulthood is permanently modified by early-life risperidone treatment. The findings suggest that chronic antipsychotic drug use in pediatric populations (e.g., treatment for the symptoms of autism) could modify brain development and alter neural set-points for specific behaviors during adulthood. PMID:23750695

Bardgett, Mark E.; Franks-Henry, Julie M.; Colemire, Kristin R.; Juneau, Kathleen R.; Stevens, Rachel M.; Marczinski, Cecile A.; Griffith, Molly S.

2014-01-01

385

Recruiting young adults into a weight loss trial: Report of protocol development and recruitment results  

PubMed Central

Obesity has spread to all segments of the U.S. population. Young adults, aged 18-35, are rarely represented in clinical weight loss trials. We conducted a qualitative study to identify factors that may facilitate recruitment of young adults into a weight loss intervention trial. Participants were 33 adults aged 18-35 yrs with BMI > 25 kg/m2. Six group discussions were conducted using the nominal group technique. Health, social image, and “self”factors such as emotions, self-esteem, and confidence were reported as reasons to pursue weight loss. Physical activity, dietary intake, social support, medical intervention, and taking control (e.g. being motivated) were perceived as the best weight loss strategies. Incentives, positive outcomes, education, convenience, and social support were endorsed as reasons young adults would consider participating in a weight loss study. Incentives, advertisement, emphasizing benefits, and convenience were endorsed as ways to recruit young adults. These results informed the Cellphone Intervention for You (CITY) marketing and advertising, including message framing and advertising avenues. Implications for recruitment methods are discussed. PMID:23591327

Corsino, Leonor; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Batch, Bryan C.; Intille, Stephen; Grambow, Steven C.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Bennett, Gary G.; Tyson, Crystal; Svetkey, Laura P.; Voils, Corrine I.

2013-01-01

386

Recruiting young adults into a weight loss trial: report of protocol development and recruitment results.  

PubMed

Obesity has spread to all segments of the U.S. population. Young adults, aged 18-35 years, are rarely represented in clinical weight loss trials. We conducted a qualitative study to identify factors that may facilitate recruitment of young adults into a weight loss intervention trial. Participants were 33 adults aged 18-35 years with BMI ?25 kg/m(2). Six group discussions were conducted using the nominal group technique. Health, social image, and "self" factors such as emotions, self-esteem, and confidence were reported as reasons to pursue weight loss. Physical activity, dietary intake, social support, medical intervention, and taking control (e.g. being motivated) were perceived as the best weight loss strategies. Incentives, positive outcomes, education, convenience, and social support were endorsed as reasons young adults would consider participating in a weight loss study. Incentives, advertisement, emphasizing benefits, and convenience were endorsed as ways to recruit young adults. These results informed the Cellphone Intervention for You (CITY) marketing and advertising, including message framing and advertising avenues. Implications for recruitment methods are discussed. PMID:23591327

Corsino, Leonor; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Batch, Bryan C; Intille, Stephen; Grambow, Steven C; Bosworth, Hayden B; Bennett, Gary G; Tyson, Crystal; Svetkey, Laura P; Voils, Corrine I

2013-07-01

387

Semantically- and Phonologically-Related Primes Improve Name Retrieval in Young and Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Word and name retrieval failures increase with age, and this study investigated how priming impacts young and older adults’ ability to produce proper names. The transmission deficit hypothesis predicts facilitation from related prime names, whereas the blocking and inhibition deficit hypotheses predict interference from related names, especially for older adults. On half of our experimental trials, we exposed participants to a prime name that is phonologically- and semantically-related to a target name. Related names facilitated production of targets overall, with older adults’ naming ability improved at least as much as young adults’. Results are contrary to predictions of the blocking and inhibitory deficit hypotheses, and suggest that an activation-based model of memory and language better accounts for retrieval and production of well-known names. PMID:24187413

Oberle, Shalyn; James, Lori E.

2012-01-01

388

Maximal Aerobic Power versus Performance in Two Aerobic Endurance Tests among Young and Old Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Aerobic fitness is of great value for reducing risk of mortality and cardiovascular diseases. Objective: This study evaluated the performance in and correlations between a new test (five-minute pyramid test, 5MPT), the six-minute walk-test (6MWT) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) among old and young adults. Methods: Forty-four habitually active adults (females and males), 23 old (64–79 years) and 21

Eva A. Andersson; Gunilla Lundahl; Liliane Wecke; Ida Lindblom; Johnny Nilsson

2011-01-01

389

Environmental exposure to gasoline and leukemia in children and young adults–an ecology study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzene is an established cause of leukemia in adults, especially acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL). A few studies have\\u000a indicated that exposure to gasoline is a cause of childhood leukemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate if environmental\\u000a exposure to benzene from gasoline and car exhaust was associated with leukemia in children and young adults. The exposure\\u000a to gasoline

R. Nordlinder; Bengt Järvholm

1997-01-01

390

BMP5 expression in the adult rat brain.  

PubMed

Bone morphogenetic protein-5 (BMP5), a member of the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) superfamily, has many effects in several biological events. Although BMP5 expression has been well reported in the early development of the central nervous system (CNS), there is little information about its expression in the adult CNS. Thus, we analyzed BMP5 expression in the adult rat CNS by immunohistochemistry. Abundant BMP5 expression was observed in most neurons, and their dendrites and axons. Furthermore, strong BMP5 expression was also detected in the neuropil of the gray matters with high plasticity, such as the molecular layer of the cerebellum, locus coeruleus, and nucleus of the solitary tract. In addition, we showed BMP5 expression also in astrocytes, ependymal cells and meninges. Our data suggest that BMP5 is widely expressed throughout the adult CNS, and this abundant expression in the adult brain strongly supports the idea that BMP5 plays important roles not only in the developing brain but also in the adult brain. PMID:25110111

Kusakawa, Y; Mikawa, S; Sato, K

2015-01-22

391

Risk factors and prevalence of Demodex mites in young adults.  

PubMed

Demodex mites are ectoparasites often found in follicles of facial skin. Their role in human diseases is under investigation, and a growing number of studies indicated that they contribute to chronic inflammatory conditions of the skin, such as rosacea, blepharitis, otitis externa, alopecia and folliculitis. In our study we tested 96 healthy adults for the presence of Demodex mites. Risk factors influencing presence of mites and skin types of the tested individuals were evaluated. We found Demodex folliculorum or Demodex brevis in 17.7% of the samples, more frequently in males (21.9%) and in older adults (20%). Use of make-up seems to reduce the likelihood of Demodex carriage, while pet ownership, use of shared items and living in close contact with older adults had no significant influence of presence of mites. Demodex positive individuals described their skin to be drier, more prone to erythema, but less for folliculitis compared to Demodex negative subjects. PMID:21715284

Horváth, Andrea; Neubrandt, Dóra Maja; Ghidán, Á; Nagy, K

2011-06-01

392

Retinoblastoma in a young adult mimicking Coats' disease  

PubMed Central

Retinoblastoma is the most common childhood primary intraocular malignancy, with the majority of cases being diagnosed before 5 years of age. Retinoblastoma in adults is extremely rare. Here, we report the case of a 20-year-old man who presented with a 3 year history of blurred vision in the right eye. Imaging did not reveal the typical presentation of retinoblastoma. After considering Coats' disease, a diagnosis of late-presenting retinoblastoma was made through cytological analysis. Diagnosis of retinoblastoma should be considered in the presence of uncertain mass lesions in the fundus of an adult. PMID:23166876

Zhang, Zheng; Shi, Ji-Tong; Wang, Ning-Li; Ma, Jian-Min

2012-01-01

393

Effect of repetition lag on priming of unfamiliar visual objects in young and older adults.  

PubMed

Across three experiments, we examined the effect of repetition lag on priming of unfamiliar visual objects in healthy young and older adults. Multiple levels of lag were examined, ranging from short (one to four intervening stimuli) to long (50 + intervening stimuli). In each experiment, subjects viewed a series of new and repeated line drawings of objects and decided whether they depicted structurally possible or impossible figures. Experiment 1 and 2 found similar levels of priming in young and older adults at short and medium lags. At the longer repetition lags (?20 + intervening stimuli), older adults showed less overall priming, as measured by reaction time (RT) facilitation, than young adults. This indicates that older adults can rapidly encode unfamiliar three-dimensional objects to support priming at shorter lags; however, they cannot maintain these representations over longer intervals. In addition to repetition lag, we also explored the relationship between priming and cognitive reserve, as measured by education and verbal intelligence. In the older adults, higher levels of cognitive reserve were associated with greater RT priming, suggesting that cognitive reserve may mediate the relationship between aging and priming. PMID:23276220

Gordon, Leamarie T; Soldan, Anja; Thomas, Ayanna K; Stern, Yaakov

2013-03-01

394

The social skill difficulties of young adults with physical disabilities.  

PubMed

Adolescence is generally considered to be a time of increased social activity and the rapid expansion of a teenager's social circle. By contrast, a young person with a physical disability is likely to lack social independence, become socially isolated and experience difficulties in maintaining social relationships. The present study indicates that while both able-bodied and physically disabled young people experience difficulties in social situations, those with physical disabilities experience difficulties that are more severe in nature. Overall, 75% of the disabled group and 70% of the comparison group experienced difficulties in social situations. However, 37% of the disabled group experienced difficulties that were severe in nature compared to only 3% of the comparison group. Whilst these problems are of sufficient magnitude to warrant intervention, programmes of social skills training for people with physical disabilities are not yet generally available. It is recommended that training programmes in social skills should be made available to teenagers with physical disabilities. PMID:2971469

Thomas, A P; Bax, M C; Smyth, D P

1988-01-01

395

Attractiveness in young children: Sex-differentiated reactions of adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attractiveness ratings of 50 children aged 12–38 months were investigated in relation to adult socializing agents' behavior toward the children in their homes and play groups and their attitudes toward the children. Attractiveness scores were derived from 43 judges' ratings of facial photographs of the children. The same children were observed in play groups with female care givers; 40 of

Mary Driver Leinbach; Beverly I. Fagot

1991-01-01

396

Evaluation of Explosive Strength for Young and Adult Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reliability of new electrical measurements of vertical jumping height and of throwing velocity was tested. These results were compared to traditional measurement techniques. The new method was found to give reliable results from children to adults. Methodology is discussed. (Author/JL)

Viitasalo, Jukka T.

1988-01-01

397

Employment and Post-Secondary Educational Activities for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders during the Transition to Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the post-high school educational and occupational activities for 66 young adults with autism spectrum disorders who had recently exited the secondary school system. Analyses indicated low rates of employment in the community, with the majority of young adults (56%) spending time in sheltered workshops or day activity centers.…

Taylor, Julie Lounds; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

2011-01-01

398

Transition to Adulthood: Validation of the Rotterdam Transition Profile for Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy and Normal Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the Rotterdam Transition Profile (RTP) to describe the transition process from childhood to adulthood in young adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Participants were recruited from rehabilitation centres and hospital departments of rehabilitation. In total, 81 young adults (47 males, 34 females)…

Donkervoort, Mireille; Wiegerink, Diana J. H. G.; van Meeteren, Jetty; Stam, Henk J.; Roebroeck, Marij E.

2009-01-01

399

Perceptions of Young Adult Central Nervous System Cancer Survivors and Their Parents Regarding Career Development and Employment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Identify barriers to career development and employment from both the survivor and parent perspective. Method: Young adult survivors (N = 43) and their parents participated in focus groups to elicit information regarding perceptions regarding career development and employment. Results: Perceptions of both the young adults and parents…

Strauser, David R.; Wagner, Stacia; Chan, Fong; Wong, Alex W. K.

2014-01-01

400

Weight-Related Health Behaviors and Body Mass: Associations between Young Adults and Their Parents, Moderated by Parental Authority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Parents' behaviors could contribute to the development of their children's weight-related health behaviors. Purpose: Relationships of young adults' (N = 151) and their parents' weight-related behaviors were examined along with parental authority styles. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by young adults and their parents.…

Niemeier, Brandi S.; Hektner, Joel M.

2012-01-01

401

Does Food Group Consumption Vary by Differences in Socioeconomic, Demographic, and Lifestyle Factors in Young Adults? The Bogalusa Heart Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study is to examine if food group consumption varies by differences in socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors in young adults from a semirural setting in Louisiana. The design is cross-sectional. The subjects are young adults (n = 1,266, 74% European-American, 26% ...

402

Perceived connections between information and communication technology use and mental symptoms among young adults - a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prospective associations have been found between high use of information and communication technology (ICT) and reported mental symptoms among young adult university students, but the causal mechanisms are unclear. Our aim was to explore possible explanations for associations between high ICT use and symptoms of depression, sleep disorders, and stress among young adults in order to propose a model

Sara Thomée; Lotta Dellve; Annika Härenstam; Mats Hagberg

2010-01-01

403

The Effect of Karate Practice on Self-Esteem in Young Adults with Visual Impairment: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has not examined the potential relationship between physical activity interventions and psychological domains of young adults with visual impairment (VI). This study aimed to investigate whether karate practice improves the self-esteem of young adults with VI. A secondary aim of this study was to explore the exercise and…

Qasim, Samir; Ravenscroft, John; Sproule, John

2014-01-01

404

Relationships among postconcussional-type symptoms, depression, and anxiety in neurologically normal young adults and victims of mild brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between self-reports of postconcussional symptoms, depression, and anxiety in neurologically normal young adults and recovered victims of mild head injuries (MHI). The participants were 496 young adults with no history of MHI or depression, 56 neurologically normal individuals with clinical depression, and 40 people with history of MHI. All completed the Beaumont Postconcussional Index (BPCI),

Donald E Trahan; Christina E Ross; Shirley L Trahan

2001-01-01

405

A Longitudinal Study on the Uses of Mobile Tablet Devices and Changes in Digital Media Literacy of Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether gaining access to a new digital device enhanced the digital media literacy of young adults and what factors determine such change. Thirty-five young adults were given a mobile tablet device and observed for one year. Participants engaged in an online community, responding regularly to online surveys and discussion…

Park, Sora; Burford, Sally

2013-01-01

406

An exploratory study of suicidal ideation and comorbid disorders in adolescents and young adults with Asperger's syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that suicidal ideation increases during adolescence. Currently, there are no data on the prevalence of suicidal ideation among adolescents and young adults diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome (AS). This exploratory study examined the following in adolescents and young adults diagnosed with AS: (1) the level of suicidal ideation, prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders (Major Depressive Disorder and Generalized Anxiety

Oren Shtayermman

2006-01-01

407

Early Adolescent through Young Adult alcohol and marijuana use trajectories: Early predictors, young adult outcomes, and predictive utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study takes a developmental approach to subgrouping and examines the trajectories of substance use from early adolescence through young adulthood among a community sample of 481 individuals. The patterns of use were examined, subgroups were identified separately for men and women and for alcohol and marijuana, and psychosocial predictors and psychopathology outcomes that differentiated the groups were identified.

Kate Flory; Donald Lynam; Richard Milich; Carl Leukefeld; Richard Clayton

2004-01-01

408

Rhabdomyosarcoma in adolescent and young adult patients: current perspectives  

PubMed Central

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a malignant tumor of mesenchymal origin, is the third most common extracranial malignant solid tumor in children and adolescents. However, in adults, RMS represents <1% of all solid tumor malignancies. The embryonal and alveolar histologic variants are more commonly seen in pediatric patients, while the pleomorphic variant is rare in children and seen more often in adults. Advances in the research of the embryonal and alveolar variants have improved our understanding of certain genes and biologic pathways that are involved in RMS, but much less is known for the other variants. Multimodality therapy that includes surgery and chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy is the mainstay of treatment for RMS. Improvements in the risk stratification of the pediatric patients based on presurgical (primary tumor site, tumor size, regional lymph node involvement, presence of metastasis) and postsurgical parameters (completeness of resection or presence of residual disease or metastasis) has allowed for the treatment assignment of patients in different studies and therapeutic trials, leading to increases in 5-year survival from 25%–70% over the past 40 years. However, for adult patients, in great part due to rarity of the disease and the lack of consensus on optimal treatment, clinical outcome is still poor. Many factors have been implicated for the differing outcomes between pediatric RMS versus adult RMS, such as the lack of standardized treatment protocols for adult RMS patients and the increased prevalence of advanced presentations. Now that there are increased numbers of survivors, we can appreciate the sequelae from therapy in these patients, such as bone growth abnormalities, endocrinopathies, and infertility. Improvements in risk stratification have led to clinical trials using lower doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy with the intention of decreasing the incidence of side effects without compromising survival outcome. PMID:24966711

Egas-Bejar, Daniela; Huh, Winston W

2014-01-01

409

Pharmacokinetics of Ketamine and Xylazine in Young and Old Sprague–Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

To compare the pharmacokinetics of coadministered intraperitoneal ketamine and xylazine in young (8 to 10 wk; n = 6) and old rats (2 to 2.4 y; n = 6), blood samples obtained at 15 and 30 min and 1, 2, and 4 h after drug administration were analyzed by HPLC–tandem mass spectrometry. In both groups, the withdrawal reflex was absent during anesthesia and was present at 1.1 (± 0.2) and 2.6 (± 0.7) h after drug administration in young and old rats, respectively, with the first voluntary movement at 1.5 ± 0.2 and 4.9 ± 1.0 h. Drug availability of ketamine and xylazine was 6.0 and 6.7 times greater, respectively, in old than young rats. The rate constant of elimination of both drugs was greatly decreased and the elimination half-life was significantly greater in old compared with young rats. In conclusion, age and associated factors affect the availability of ketamine and xylazine when coadministered to attain clinical anesthesia, changing the pharmacokinetics of these drugs and prolonging anesthesia duration and recovery times with aging. Compared with their young counterparts, aged rats required much higher doses to attain a similar level of anesthesia. Finally, the long half-life of both ketamine and xylazine, when coadministered to old rats, may be a factor in research protocols because residual plasma concentrations could still be present for as long as 3 and 5 d, respectively, after administration. PMID:24041212

Veilleux-Lemieux, Daphnée; Castel, Aude; Carrier, Denise; Beaudry, Francis; Vachon, Pascal

2013-01-01

410

Voluntary sway and rapid orthogonal transitions of voluntary sway in young adults, and low and high fall-risk older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFalls amongst older people have been linked to reduced postural stability and slowed movement responses. The objective of this study was to examine differences in postural stability and the speed of response between young adults, low fall-risk older adults, and high fall-risk older adults during voluntary postural sway movements.

Murray G. Tucker; Justin J. Kavanagh; Steven Morrison; Rod S. Barrett

2009-01-01

411

NADPH-diaphorase-positive neurons in the auditory cortex of young and old rats.  

PubMed

Age-related changes in NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d)-positive neurons were examined in the auditory cortex of young (3 months old) and very old (36 months old) rats (strain Long Evans). In very old rats a significant reduction was found in the thickness of the auditory cortex, to 54% of that in young animals, as well as changes in the shape and configuration of nerve cell bodies and dendrites. Quantitative analysis demonstrated an age-related increase in the number of dendritic segments and dendritic branching points. The length of dendrites in NADPH-d-positive neurons and their density increased in very old rats. The total number of NADPH-d-positive neurons within the Te 1 and Te 3 fields was 13% lower in the old rats than in the young. PMID:12634484

Ouda, L; Nwabueze-Ogbo, F C; Druga, R; Syka, J

2003-03-01

412

Influence of Panax ginseng on the offspring of adult rats exposed to prenatal stress  

PubMed Central

The exposure of pregnant females to stress during a critical period of fetal brain development is an environmental risk factor for the development of schizophrenia in adult offspring. Schizophrenia is a group of common mental disorders of unclear origin, affecting approximately 1% of the global population, showing a generally young age at onset. In the present study, a repeated variable stress paradigm was applied to pregnant rats during the final week of gestation. The effects of an extract of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (PG) on rats exposed to prenatal stress (PNS) were investigated in terms of behavioral activity and protein expression analyses. In the behavioral tests, grooming behavior in a social interaction test, line-crossing behavior in an open-field test and swimming activity in a forced-swim test were decreased in the rats exposed to PNS compared with the non-stressed offspring; the changes in behavioral activity were reversed upon oral treatment with PG (300 mg/kg). Subsequently, western blot analysis and immunohistochemical analyses of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus revealed that the downregulation of several neurodevelopmental genes which occurred following exposure to PNS was reversed upon treatment with PG. The current findings demonstrate that the downregulation of several genes following exposure to PNS may affect subsequent behavioral changes, and that these phenomena are reversed following treatment with PG during pregnancy. Our results suggest that oral treatment with PG reduces the incidence of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. PMID:25394395

KIM, YOUNG OCK; LEE, HWA-YOUNG; WON, HANSOL; NAH, SEONG-SU; LEE, HWA-YOUNG; KIM, HYUNG-KI; KWON, JUN-TACK; KIM, HAK-JAE

2015-01-01

413

The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study: exercise intervention in young adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Among the greatest public health concerns today is the rapid rise in obesity in the pediatric population, which now exceeds 18% in children (6-11 y) and 17% in adolescents (12-19 y), while obesity among young adults (20-39 y) approaches 30%. Given the present trend in increasing prevalence of obesit...

414

Substance Use among Young Adults with Disabilities. Facts from NLTS2. NCSER 2008-3009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report uses data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) to answer questions about the use of alcohol, cigarettes and illegal drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, and LSD among young adults with disabilities. The report compares substance use among this population with substance use in the general population, and compares…

Yu, Jennifer; Huang, Tracy; Newman, Lynn

2008-01-01

415

Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

2007-01-01

416

Parental alcohol dependence, socioeconomic disadvantage and alcohol and cannabis dependence among young adults in the community.  

E-print Network

Parental alcohol dependence, socioeconomic disadvantage and alcohol and cannabis dependence among.lestrat@inserm.fr Keywords: alcohol dependence; cannabis; family history; socioeconomic position; young adults; epidemiology), the prevalence of alcohol dependence (WHO AUDIT, 5.8%) and cannabis dependence (DSM IV criteria, 7

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

417

When Diagnosing ADHD in Young Adults Emphasize Informant Reports, "DSM" Items, and Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examined several questions about the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in young adults using data from a childhood-diagnosed sample of 200 individuals with ADHD (age M = 20.20 years) and 121 demographically similar non-ADHD controls (total N = 321). Method: We examined the use of self- versus…

Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Garefino, Allison C.; Babinski, Dara E.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.

2012-01-01

418

Grief reactions of mothers of adolescents and young adults with traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and two mothers of adolescents and young adults with traumatic brain injury completed a modified Grief Experience Inventory (GEI) (Sanders, Mauger, & Strong, 1985) and rated their child's functioning on a modified Neurobehavioral Rating Scale (NRS) (Levin et al., 1987). More severe grief was reported by mothers who rated their children as having poor neurobehavioral functioning and by

Christine Philput

1997-01-01

419

Socialization and Individual Antecedents of Adolescents' and Young Adults' Moral Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Socialization and individual differences were examined as antecedents of moral motivation in representative samples of 15-year-old adolescents (N = 1,258; 54% female) and 21-year-old young adults (N = 584; 53% female). The adolescents' primary caregivers (N = 1,056) also participated. The strength of moral motivation was rated by participants'…

Malti, Tina; Buchmann, Marlis

2010-01-01

420

Profiles and Correlates of Relational Aggression in Young Adults' Romantic Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examines prevalence and correlates of experiencing and perpetrating relational aggression in the context of young adults' romantic relationships. We assess correlates of relational aggression in four domains of risk: (1) Social-cognitive, (2) Relationship, (3) Trait/dispositional, and (4) Mental health. Results indicate that…

Goldstein, Sara E.; Chesir-Teran, Daniel; McFaul, Adrienne

2008-01-01

421

Diffusion abnormalities in adolescents and young adults with a history of heavy cannabis use  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere is growing evidence that adolescence is a key period for neuronal maturation. Despite the high prevalence of marijuana use among adolescents and young adults in the United States and internationally, very little is known about its impact on the developing brain. Based on neuroimaging literature on normal brain developmental during adolescence, we hypothesized that individuals with heavy cannabis use

Manzar Ashtari; Kelly Cervellione; John Cottone; Babak A. Ardekani; Sanjiv Kumra

2009-01-01

422

Cognitive Strategy Instruction for Functional Mathematical Skill: Effects for Young Adults with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the effectiveness of a three-step cognitive strategy (TIP) for calculating tip and total bill for young adults with intellectual disability. In the context of pre- and post-test nonequivalent-groups design, 10 students from a postsecondary education program for individuals with disabilities participated in the study. A teacher…

Hua, Youjia; Morgan, Benjamin S. T.; Kaldenberg, Erica R.; Goo, Minkowan

2012-01-01

423

Running Away from Home: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Risk Factors and Young Adult Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the adolescent risk factors and young adult health-related outcomes associated with running away from home. We examined these correlates of running away using longitudinal data from 4,329 youth (48% female, 85% white) who were followed from Grade 9 to age 21. Nearly 14% of the sample reported running away in the past year at…

Tucker, Joan S.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Klein, David J.

2011-01-01

424

Perception of Dialect Variation by Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The linguistic profile of people with Autism spectrum disorders typically involves intact perceptual processing, accompanied by deficits in the social functions of language. In a series of three experiments, the impact of this profile on the perception of regional dialect was examined. Young adults with High-Functioning Autism exhibited similar…

Clopper, Cynthia G.; Rohrbeck, Kristin L.; Wagner, Laura

2012-01-01

425

The Neural Basis of Sustained and Transient Attentional Control in Young Adults with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences in neural activation during performance on an attentionally demanding Stroop task were examined between 23 young adults with ADHD carefully selected to not be co-morbid for other psychiatric disorders and 23 matched controls. A hybrid blocked/single-trial design allowed for examination of more sustained vs. more transient aspects of…

Banich, Marie T.; Burgess, Gregory C.; Depue, Brendan E.; Ruzic, Luka; Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Hitt-Laustsen, Sena; Du, Yiping P.; Willcutt, Erik G.

2009-01-01

426

Direct and Indirect Effects of Childhood Adversity on Depressive Symptoms in Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether cumulative trauma in childhood and adolescence is related to depressive symptoms in young adults and explored mediating factors. Results for 649 college students indicate clear differences in cumulative trauma by sociodemographic characteristics, with high trauma associated with early onset of depression and later depressive…

Turner, Heather A.; Butler, Melissa J.

2003-01-01

427

Tracking Reading: Dual Task Costs of Oral Reading for Young versus Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A digital pursuit rotor was used to monitor oral reading costs by time-locking tracking performance to the auditory wave form produced as young and older adults were reading out short paragraphs. Multilevel modeling was used to determine how paragraph-level predictors of length, grammatical complexity, and readability and person-level predictors…

Kemper, Susan; Bontempo, Daniel; Schmalzried, RaLynn; McKedy, Whitney; Tagliaferri, Bruno; Kieweg, Doug

2014-01-01

428

Walkway Length Determination for Steady State Walking in Young and Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of this study was to determine acceleration (AC) and deceleration (DC) distances that would accommodate young and older adults walking at their preferred and fast speeds. A secondary purpose was to determine the minimal walkway length needed to record six steady state (SS) steps (three full gait cycles) for younger and older…

Macfarlane, Pamela A.; Looney, Marilyn A.

2008-01-01

429

Family Structure and Problem Behavior of Adolescents and Young Adults: A Growth-Curve Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present longitudinal 3-wave study of 1274 adolescents and young adults, aged 12-24 at the 1st wave, it is examined whether youngsters from intact versus postdivorce families show long-term differences in internalizing and externalizing problems. Furthermore, possible differences in the development of this problem behavior between offspring…

VanderValk, Inge; Spruijt, Ed; de Goede, Matijn; Maas, Cora; Meeus, Wim

2005-01-01

430

BRIGHTNESS FEATURES OF VISUAL SIGNALING TRAITS IN YOUNG AND ADULT EURASIAN EAGLE-OWLS  

E-print Network

-Owl (Bubo bubo) white feather patches for both young birds and adult individuals. Our results showed that (1 WORDS: Eurasian Eagle-Owl; Bubo bubo; plumage brightness; visual signaling; white feathers. CARACTERI´STICAS DEL BRILLO DE LAS SEN~ ALES VISUALES EN JO´ VENES Y ADULTOS DE BUBO BUBO RESUMEN.--Trabajos recientes

Penteriani, Vincenzo

431

Mechanisms that contribute to differences in motor performance between young and old adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the physiological mechanisms responsible for differences in the amplitude of force fluctuations between young and old adults. Because muscle force is a consequence of motor unit activity, the potential mechanisms include both motor unit properties and the behavior of motor unit populations. The force fluctuations, however, depend not only on the age of the individual but also

Roger M. Enoka; Evangelos A. Christou; Sandra K. Hunter; Kurt W. Kornatz; John G. Semmler; Anna M. Taylor; Brian L. Tracy

2003-01-01

432

Trends in Smoking among Adolescents and Young Adults in the United Kingdom: Implications for Health Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine trends in smoking prevalence among adolescents and young adults in the UK and to identify any developments in health education theory and practice relating to adolescent tobacco use since 2000. The implications of such research are discussed. Design/methodology/approach: A literature search was…

Sandford, Amanda

2008-01-01

433

Colonizing Bodies: Corporate Power and Biotechnology in Young Adult Science Fiction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American cultural and political landscape has seen changes on the level of seismic shifts in the past four decades, thanks in part to the two very diverse fields of big business and biotechnology. Linking the two arenas together in the literary landscape is a growing body of young adult science fiction that envisions a future shaped profoundly…

Guerra, Stephanie

2009-01-01

434

The Self-Concept of Spanish Young Adults with Retinitis Pigmentosa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a degenerative disease of the retina that causes the severe impairment of visual functioning similar to low vision, leading, in many cases, to blindness. Because the construct of self-concept plays a key role in personality, this study was designed to measure self-concept in a group of young adults with RP. The…

Lopez-Justicia, Maria Dolores; Cordoba, Inmaculada Nieto

2006-01-01

435

Cigarette smoking and tooth loss experience among young adults: a national record linkage study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Various factors affect tooth loss in older age including cigarette smoking; however, evidence regarding the association between smoking and tooth loss during young adulthood is limited. The present study examined the association between cigarette smoking and tooth loss experience among adults aged 20–39 years using linked data from two national databases in Japan. METHODS: Two databases of the National

Miki Ojima; Takashi Hanioka; Keiko Tanaka; Hitoshi Aoyama

2007-01-01

436

LGBTQ YOUTH AND YOUNG ADULT SURVEY: A JOINT PROJECT ON MARRIAGE EQUALITY OF  

E-print Network

1 LGBTQ YOUTH AND YOUNG ADULT SURVEY: A JOINT PROJECT ON MARRIAGE EQUALITY OF THE UNIVERSITY youth. Collected through a survey, their stories articulate how they are unfairly prejudiced by marriage, arguing that denial of the right to marry and recognition of same-sex marriage, sanctioned by the federal

Mazzotti, Frank

437

Bilingual Language Use in Hispanic Young Adults: Did Elementary Bilingual Programs Help?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive study of language use examined the extent to which bilingual Hispanic young adults used their two languages in varying aspects of their lives and analyzed the extent to which they maintained the use of Spanish in these domains. A convenience sample of 202 undergraduate, Hispanic university students completed the Language and…

Hasson, Deborah J.

2006-01-01

438

The Leading Edge: A Career Development Workshop Series for Young Adults. Facilitator Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is designed to be used by facilitators of the Canadian Career Development Foundation's "The Leading Edge: A Career Development Workshop Series for Young Adults." The guide provides information, including objectives of the workshops and lists of required materials, needed in order to facilitate an introductory session as well as the…

Canadian Career Development Foundation, Ottawa (Ontario).

439

Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (aged 21.87±1.13?years, body mass index 24.15 ± 0.50?kg/m2) were recruited. All subjects performed an exercise program on a Wii balance board for 8 weeks (30?min/session, twice a week for 8 weeks). A NeuroCom Balance Master and a hand-held dynamometer were used to measure balance performance and lower limb muscle strength. [Results] According to the comparison of pre- and post-intervention measurements, the Wii balance board exercise program significantly improved the limit of stability parameters. There was also a significant increase in strength of four lower-limb muscle groups: the hip flexor, knee flexor, ankle dorsiflexor and ankle plantarflexor. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that a Wii balance board exercise program can be used to improve the balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults. PMID:25642034

Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

2015-01-01

440

"My Language Tree": Young Finland-Swedish Adults Tell Us about their Linguistic and Cultural Identities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The education of teachers in Swedish Finland is a stage for a powerful display of Finland-Swedish culture. This paper discusses the voices on this cultural stage, exploring the patterns in the stories these young Finland-Swedish adults tell about their linguistic and cultural identities.

Ostern, Anna-Lena

2004-01-01

441

Portable social groups: willingness to communicate, interpersonal communication gratifications, and cell phone use among young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study looked at young adult cell phone usage patterns. Results of a survey of 182 students at a large southern university revealed that respondents typically used their phones an average of 10.5 hours per week - the overwhelming majority of that with traditional calling. Features and services that were regularly utilised related to interpersonal communication. Limited support was found

Philip J. Auter

2007-01-01

442

Outcome After Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement in Children and Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. We asked whether aortic valve replace- ment using a mechanical prosthesis would allow normal- ization of left ventricular function and structure in chil- dren and young adults. Methods. We performed a clinical follow-up examina- tion in 30 patients with aortic valve replacement at 25 years of age or younger, including conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography and magnetic reso- nance

Raoul Arnold; Julia Ley-Zaporozhan; Sebastian Ley; Tsvetomir Loukanov; Christian Sebening; Johann-Baptist Kleber; Björn Goebel; Siegfried Hagl; Matthias Karck; Matthias Gorenflo

2010-01-01

443

Social Skills Training: A Three-Pronged Approach for Developmentally Disabled Adolescents and Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document is designed to provide practical information for teachers, parents, group home workers, work activity personnel, and others interested in developing social interaction skills and appropriate social behaviors in developmentally disabled adolescents and young adults. An introductory section discusses social problems of the…

Coyne, Phyllis

444

Serologic Testing for Celiac Disease in Young Adults—A Cost–Effect Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the diagnostic workups for celiac disease among military personnel, thereby significantly increasing overall laboratory testing expenditures and burden. We evaluated the serologic testing procedure in symptomatic young adults, using a “cost–effect” approach. We evaluated the serologic screening policy for celiac disease among serologically tested military personnel. The study population was

Yael Yagil; Ilan Goldenberg; Ronen Arnon; Vered Ezra; Isaac Ashkenazi

2005-01-01

445

Violence Exposure and Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents and Young Adults Disconnected from School and Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The psychological effects of exposure to different types of violence among urban adolescents and young adults are not yet well understood. This study investigated exposure to neighborhood violence, relationship violence, and forced sex among 677 urban African Americans aged 16-23 enrolled at an employment and training center. We assessed…

Mendelson, Tamar; Turner, Alezandria K.; Tandon, S. Darius

2010-01-01

446

Young Adult Literature in the Classroom: Reading It, Teaching It, Loving It.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adult (YA) literature, which is written for readers in grades 6-10, is a relatively new part of the literary spectrum. In the few decades it has been around, YA literature has developed a following among students, teachers, and librarians. This collection of 12 essays explores the reasons YA literature is so popular, and ways it can be used…

Elliott, Joan B., Ed.; Dupuis, Mary M., Ed.

447

Measuring the psychosocial health of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors: a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors require psychometrically rigorous measures to assess their psychosocial well-being. Without methodologically adequate scales the accuracy of information obtained on the prevalence of needs, predictors of risk, and the potential success of any interventions, can be questioned. This review assessed the psychometric properties of measures designed specifically to identify the psychosocial health of

Tara Clinton-McHarg; Mariko Carey; Rob Sanson-Fisher; Anthony Shakeshaft; Kathy Rainbird

2010-01-01

448

Redefining Normal: A Critical Analysis of (Dis)ability in Young Adult Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This literary analysis examines constructions of normalcy and disability within contemporary young adult literature, including "Jerk," "California" (Friesen, 2008), "Marcelo in the Real World" (Stork, 2009), and "Five Flavors of Dumb" (John, 2010). As recent winners of the Schneider Family Book Award from the American Library Association, these…

Curwood, Jen Scott

2013-01-01

449

Sexuality Education and HIV Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study measured the sexuality education and HIV knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors of young adults (n = 410), ages 18-21, who recently graduated from public high schools in a midwestern state. Based on the participants' responses to specific questions, students were placed into one of three groups: students who received no…

Kniss, Darrel Dean; Akagi, Cynthia G.

2008-01-01

450

Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adult Dating, Cohabitating, and Married Drinking Partnerships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined intimate partner violence (IPV) and drinking partnerships in 741 young adults in male-female dating, cohabitating, and married relationships. Cluster analyses revealed four similar kinds of drinking partnerships: (a) congruent light and infrequent, (b)…

Wiersma, Jacquelyn D.; Cleveland, H. Harrington; Herrera, Veronica; Fischer, Judith L.

2010-01-01

451

Historical Fiction or Fictionalized History? Problems for Writers of Historical Novels for Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the problems associated with writing historical fiction for young adults. Discusses problems of definition, "truth," balance between historical details and fictional elements, accuracy, and provenance. Discusses how such writing negotiates the fine line between contemporary sensibilities and historical accuracy, offering a lens upon the…

Brown, Joanne

1998-01-01

452

Physiologic Responses to Racial Rejection Images among Young Adults from African-American Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physiologic reactivity to racially rejecting images was assessed in 35 young adults (10 males, 25 female) from African-American backgrounds using the startle probe paradigm. In a laboratory setting, participants viewed 16 images depicting racial rejection, racial acceptance, nonracial negative, and nonracial positive themes. While viewing these…

Kiang, Lisa; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Carlson, Erika N.; Lawson, Yolanda N.; Shell, J. Clark

2009-01-01

453

Optimal therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adolescents and young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the survival rate for adolescents and young adults (AYA) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has steadily improved over the past several decades, it still lags behind that of younger children. This Review explores the reasons for this discrepancy and potential solutions, focusing on patients aged 15–22 years. Recent studies that compared the outcome of AYA patients with ALL treated

Eric S. Schafer; Stephen P. Hunger

2011-01-01

454

Young Adults on the Internet: Risk Behaviors for Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine the sexual behaviors and related risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases and HIV among young adults who seek sex partners on the Inter- net. Methods: Study staff recruited participants in online chat rooms, bulletin boards, and other online venues. A total of 4507 participants responded to a 68-item, self- administered, online survey of Internet sex-seeking prac- tices.

SHEANA S. BULL; CORNELIS A. RIETMEIJER

455

"Everyone's Life Is so Different": The Experiences of Young Australian Adults Who Return Home  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adults in modern society are pursuing a range of pathways into independence, pathways that often include returning home. Research around returning home often relies on survey data that was collected in the 1980s and 1990s. This data has contributed to the often negative perception of "returning" that has dominated our understanding. This…

Warner, Elyse; Henderson-Wilson, Claire; Andrews, Fiona

2012-01-01

456

Cortisol response to interpersonal stress in young adults with borderline personality disorder: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis dysregulation after stress was found to be associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Nine female BPD young adults and 12 control subjects were investigated for stress reactivity and recovery after an interpersonal conflict discussion with their mothers. BPD subjects showed a delayed cortisol response after psychosocial stress.

Marc Walter; Jean-François Bureau; Bjarne M. Holmes; Eszter A. Bertha; Michael Hollander; Joan Wheelis; Nancy Hall Brooks; Karlen Lyons-Ruth

2008-01-01

457

The Effects of Work- and Family-Related Transitions on Young People's Perception of Being Adult  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a nationwide sample of 2656 eighteen- to twenty-nine-year-olds, the first part of the present study addressed the question of how non-traditional as compared to traditional living arrangements related to young people's self-perception of being either adolescent or adult. Being in a romantic relationship increased the likelihood of feeling…

Reitzle, Matthias

2007-01-01

458

A Mighty River: Intersections of Spiritualities and Activism in Children's and Young Adult Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article seeks to expand the possibilities of support that children's and young adult literature provides to activist-oriented educators. Joining our voices to others who have made significant contributions to this emphasis, our work examines a too-often-silenced aspect of activism: its intersection with spirituality. Using an inclusive…

Simon, Lisa; Norton, Nadjwa E. L.

2011-01-01

459

Brief Report: Driving and Young Adults with ASD--Parents' Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A paucity of research exists regarding driving skills and individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The current study sought to gain a better understanding of driving and ASD by surveying parents/caregivers of adolescents/young adults with ASD who were currently attempting, or had previously attempted, to learn to drive. Respondents…

Cox, Neill Broderick; Reeve, Ronald E.; Cox, Stephany M.; Cox, Daniel J.

2012-01-01

460

An Online Self-Administered Social Skills Training for Young Adults: Results from a Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Up to 95% of teens and young adults in western societies are online, and research shows striking evidence that users suffering from social fears use the Internet more frequently. Social phobia (SP) is one of the most common anxiety disorders, characterized by early onset and more frequent histories of childhood and adolescent shyness. SP is often…

Lehenbauer, Mario; Kothgassner, Oswald D.; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse; Stetina, Birgit U.

2013-01-01

461

Silent Speech: Narration, Gender and Intersubjectivity in Two Young Adult Novels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combining feminist and narratological perspectives, this paper examines the construction of subjectivity in two young adult novels with a range of narratorial positions. The investigation is grounded in Robyn McCallum's work on intersubjectivity, in which interrelationships affecting subjectivity are only possible when the narrative permits a…

Hartley-Kroeger, Fiona

2011-01-01

462

Research Initiatives | Addressing Gaps in Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Research  

Cancer.gov

The largest population-based cohort study of AYAs with cancer to date, the Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experience (AYA HOPE) Study, is led by Dr. Linda Harlan (ARP Health Services and Economics Branch) and Dr. Smith.

463

The Psychological Consequences of Midlife Men's Social Comparisons with Their Young Adult Sons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I examine how midlife men (N=542) compare their work and family lives with those of their young adult sons, and how these comparisons affect the fathers self-evaluations. Analyses are based on quantitative and qualitative data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Fathers who rate their work lives as more successful than their sons have elevated…

Carr, Deborah

2005-01-01

464

Racial Identification, Racial Composition, and Substance Use Vulnerability Among African American Adolescents and Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective Two studies examined racial identity (RI) as a protective factor against substance-related cognitions and substance use among Black adolescents and young adults living in high versus low percentage Black social environments. Method Using structural equation modeling techniques, Study 1 examined longer term effects of RI on substance use cognitions and behaviors among 720 Black adolescents. Study 2 examined the impact of RI and percentage Black peer environment on alcohol use among 203 Black young adults. Results Study 1 revealed that RI was prospectively associated with lower levels of perceived friends’ use and lower favorability of the substance user prototype and, in turn, lower substance willingness and use, but only among Black adolescents in predominantly White neighborhoods. These adolescents also reported greater access to substances. In Study 2, low RI Black young adults who reported predominantly White peer environments reported the highest levels of alcohol use. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of RI among Black youth and the impact of the social context on the health risk behaviors of adolescents and young adults. This research also demonstrates the utility of social psychological models, such as the prototype–willingness model, to examine mediating and moderating effects of individual differences and contextual factors on health risk cognitions and behavior. Theoretical and applied implications of the results are discussed. PMID:23088177

Stock, Michelle L.; Gerrard, Meg; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Houlihan, Amy E.; Lorenz, Fred O.; Simons, Ronald L.

2013-01-01

465

Young adult female fragile X premutation carriers show age-and genetically-modulated cognitive impairments  

E-print Network

Young adult female fragile X premutation carriers show age- and genetically-modulated cognitive Article history: Accepted 3 January 2011 Available online 3 February 2011 Keywords: Fragile X premutation of the fragile X premutation in the general population and its emerging neurocogni- tive implications highlight

Nguyen, Danh

466

Multiple Selves and Multiple Sites of Influence: Perceptions of Young Adult Literature in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adult literature (YAL) is one of the most engaging and effective tools to promote the goal of lifelong literacy for middle and high school students. This article addresses the stakes of exploring--or failing to explore--common perceptions and misperceptions of YAL. Readers' lives as family members, consumers, and students play roles in their…

Johnson, Angela Beumer

2011-01-01

467

Young Adults in the Workplace: A Multisite Initiative of Substance Use Prevention Programs. RTI Press Book  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although higher rates of substance use among young adults aged 16 to 24 are well-established (OAS, 2010), existing workplace substance use prevention and early intervention programs primarily target older workers. These data suggest that workplaces need substance abuse prevention and early intervention programs that are proven to be efficacious…

Bray, Jeremy W., Ed.; Galvin, Deborah M., Ed.; Cluff, Laurie A., Ed.

2011-01-01

468

Exploring the Intergenerational Dialogue Journal Discussion of a Multicultural Young Adult Novel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the reader response patterns and intergenerational dialogue produced by five high school/university student pairs reading and reacting to a young adult multicultural novel, Gary Soto's "Buried Onions." Concludes that participants offered multiple perspectives, maintained mutual respect for each other's interpretations, and revealed the…

Bean, Thomas W.; Rigoni, Nicole

2001-01-01

469

UK Young Adults' Safety Awareness Online -- Is It a "Girl Thing"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a recent research project undertaken in the UK that investigated young adults' perception of potentially risky behaviour online. The research was undertaken through the use of an online survey associated with the UK teen soap opera "Being Victor". The findings of the project suggest that this sample of…

Pedersen, Sarah

2013-01-01

470

Identifying and Assessing Community-Based Social Behavior of Adolescents and Young Adults with EBD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A battery of three measures for assessing the community-based social behavior of adolescents and young adults with emotional and behavioral disorders is described. The measures, in male and female forms, are "Test of Community-Based Social Skill Knowledge,""Scale of Community-Based Social Skill Performance," and "Behaviors That Are Undesirable for…

Bullis, Michael; And Others

1994-01-01

471

The Young Adult Novel in the Curriculum: Three Books That Might Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three young adult novels published in 1983 or 1984 that are worthy of a place in the literature curriculum are discussed. These books have a special appeal to adolescents, deal with problems students might encounter growing up, expand their self-awareness and their experiences, and are teachable. They contain balanced, recognizable, and…

Bailey, Dale S.

472

What's it all about? Investigating reading comprehension strategies in young adults with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of reading is for the reader to construct meaning from the text. For many young adults with Down syndrome, knowing what the text is all about is difficult, and so for them the activity of reading becomes simply the practice of word calling. It is suggested in the literature that for those individuals with Down syndrome, learning can

Michelle Morgan; Karen B. Moni; Anne Jobling

2004-01-01

473

The Effects of Schooling and Cognitive Ability on Smoking and Marijuana Use by Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Estimates effects of schooling, cognitive ability, and time preference on the probability that young adults smoke cigarettes or use marijuana, using data from the "High School and Beyond 1980 Study." Results show that all three variables affect the likelihood of smoking. Schooling and time preference have modest effects on using marijuana when…

Sander, William

1998-01-01

474

Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (aged 21.87±1.13?years, body mass index 24.15 ± 0.50?kg/m(2)) were recruited. All subjects performed an exercise program on a Wii balance board for 8 weeks (30?min/session, twice a week for 8 weeks). A NeuroCom Balance Master and a hand-held dynamometer were used to measure balance performance and lower limb muscle strength. [Results] According to the comparison of pre- and post-intervention measurements, the Wii balance board exercise program significantly improved the limit of stability parameters. There was also a significant increase in strength of four lower-limb muscle groups: the hip flexor, knee flexor, ankle dorsiflexor and ankle plantarflexor. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that a Wii balance board exercise program can be used to improve the balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults. PMID:25642034

Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

2015-01-01

475

Effects of the Paraphrasing Strategy on Expository Reading Comprehension of Young Adults with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of teaching a three-step paraphrasing strategy on expository reading comprehension of young adults with intellectual disability. Ten learners from a postsecondary education program for individuals with disability participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to the control and…

Hua, Youjia; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Ford, Jeremy W.; Nobles, Kelly A.

2014-01-01

476

Associations among Aspects of Meaning in Life and Death Anxiety in Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation explored the relationship between two aspects of meaning in life, presence of meaning in life and search for meaning in life, and the fear of death and dying in young adults. A community sample of participants ("N" = 168) completed measures of meaning in life and death anxiety. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed…

Lyke, Jennifer

2013-01-01

477

Blood-feeding in the young adult filarial worms Litomosoides sigmodontis  

E-print Network

Blood-feeding in the young adult filarial worms Litomosoides sigmodontis T. ATTOUT1 , S. BABAYAN1 demonstrate that the worms ingest host red blood cells at a precise moment of their life-cycle, immediately after the fourth moult. The red blood cells (RBC) were identified microscopically in live worms

MacDonald, Andrew

478

Mechanism of Sequential Swallowing during Straw Drinking in Healthy Young and Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has revealed differences between isolated and sequential swallowing in healthy young adults; however, the influence of normal aging on sequential swallowing has not been studied. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of normal aging on deglutition during sequential straw drinking. Videofluoroscopic…

Daniels, Stephanie K.; Corey, David M.; Hadskey, Leslie D.; Legendre, Calli; Priestly, Daniel H.; Rosenbek, John C.; Foundas, Anne L.

2004-01-01

479

Characteristics Associated with Genital Herpes Testing among Young Adults: Assessing Factors from Two National Data Sets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives and Participants: In the United States, genital herpes (GH) prevalence is 10.6% among 20- to 29-year-olds and about 90% of seropositive persons do not know their status. This study investigated individual characteristics associated with GH screening and diagnosis in sexually active young adults aged 18 to 24. Methods: Two data sets were…

Gilbert, Lisa K.; Levandowski, Brooke A.; Roberts, Craig M.

2010-01-01

480

Using Alcohol to Sell Cigarettes to Young Adults: A Content Analysis of Cigarette Advertisements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Advertising influences the health-related behaviors of college-aged individuals. Cigarette manufacturers aggressively market to young adults and may exploit their affinity for alcohol when creating advertisements designed to increase cigarettes' appeal. Internal tobacco industry documents reveal that cigarette manufacturers understood…

Belstock, Sarah A.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Carpenter, Carrie M.; Tucker, Lindsey