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1

Progression of Brainstem Glioma in Young and Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

Objective Brainstem gliomas are common in children and have the worst prognosis of any brain tumor in children. On the other hand, brainstem gliomas are rare in adult, and clinical studies have suggested different biological behavior between young and adult. The present study was designed to develop an orthotropic C6 brainstem glioma model in young and adult rats, and to investigate the tumor biological behavior in the two age groups. Methods C6 glioma cells were stereotactically implanted into the pons of young or adult male rats. Neurological presentation and survival time were recorded. Tumor proliferation and apoptosis in brainstem gliomas of young and adult rats were determined by immunohistochemical staining of Ki-67 and TUNEL assay, respectively. Results Striking difference were found between young and adult brainstem glioma in the onset of neurological signs, duration of symptoms, survival time, tumor growth pattern, as well as tumor proliferation and apoptosis. Relatively focal tumors were observed in adult rats harboring brainstem glioma, while diffusive tumors were found in young rats. Furthermore, brainstem gliomas in adult rats were less proliferative and had more apoptosis than those in young rats. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that C6 brainstem glioma model in young and adult rats closely imitates human brainstem glioma in neurological findings and histopathology. Our findings suggest that the different growth pattern and invasiveness of brainstem glioma between children and adult could be due to the different host cellular environments between the two age groups, hence, warrant further investigation of the different host-response between childhood and adult brainstem glioma in human. PMID:18976074

Liu, Qing; Liu, Ran; Kashyap, Meghana V.; Agarwal, Rajnee; Shi, Xiang’en; Wang, Chung-cheng; Yang, Shao-Hua

2009-01-01

2

DERMAL PENETRATION OF [14C] CAPTAN IN YOUNG AND ADULT RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Dermal penetration of [14C] Captan was determined in young (33 day old) and adult (82 day old) female Fischer 344 rats by an in vivo method and two in vitro methods. ermal penetration in vivo at 72 hours was about 9% of the dose in both young and adult rats. o significant differe...

3

Myogenic regulatory factors during regeneration of skeletal muscle in young, adult, and old rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Myogenic factor mRNA expression was examined during muscle regeneration after bupivacaine injection in Fischer 344/Brown Norway F1 rats aged 3, 18, and 31 mo of age (young, adult, and old, respectively). Mass of the tibialis anterior muscle in the young rats had recovered to control values by 21 days postbupivacaine injection but in adult and old rats remained 40% less than that of contralateral controls at 21 and 28 days of recovery. During muscle regeneration, myogenin mRNA was significantly increased in muscles of young, adult, and old rats 5 days after bupivacaine injection. Subsequently, myogenin mRNA levels in young rat muscle decreased to postinjection control values by day 21 but did not return to control values in 28-day regenerating muscles of adult and old rats. The expression of MyoD mRNA was also increased in muscles at day 5 of regeneration in young, adult, and old rats, decreased to control levels by day 14 in young and adult rats, and remained elevated in the old rats for 28 days. In summary, either a diminished ability to downregulate myogenin and MyoD mRNAs in regenerating muscle occurs in old rat muscles, or the continuing myogenic effort includes elevated expression of these mRNAs.

Marsh, D. R.; Criswell, D. S.; Carson, J. A.; Booth, F. W.

1997-01-01

4

Micro-CT analysis of myocardial blood supply in young and adult rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study addresses whether the vasculature grows in proportion to the myocardium as the rat heart develops. The volume of myocardium and coronary vessels were estimated from micro-CT images of the hearts injected with Microfil(R) contrast agent. Young (n=5) and adult (n=5) hearts were scanned, resulting in 3D images comprised of 20?m on-a-side cubic voxels. The myocardial muscle and vessel lumen volumes were measured for all vessels 40 to 320?m in diameter by an erosion and dilation method applied to the binary images in which the contrast in the vessels were assigned "1" and all non-opacified entities were assigned "0". The average total muscle volume increases by 50%, 129.4 to 237.4mm3, from young to adult rats, while the luminal volume increases by 10%, 16.6 to 18.6mm3. The vessel volume is 12% of the total muscle volume in young and 8% in adults. For a given vessel volume, the muscle volume in the young is 82% of the muscle volume in adults. We conclude that as the heart matures, the myocardium grows more rapidly than the vasculature. This may result in greater angles of separation between vessel branches, and the increase in myocardial coronary volume. The ratio suggests either higher blood flow velocity or a lower metabolic rate in adults.

Schaefer, Heather M.; Beighley, Patricia E.; Eaker, Diane R.; Vercnocke, Andrew J.; Ritman, Erik L.

2009-02-01

5

Reproductive toxicity of a single dose of 1,3-dinitrobenzene in two ages of young adult male rats  

EPA Science Inventory

These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB). Young adult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24,...

6

America's Young Adults  

MedlinePLUS

America's Young Adults: Special Issue, 2014 Foreword Demographics Education Economic Circumstances Family Formation Civic, Social, and Personal ... Young Adult Tables List of Young Adult Figures America's Children at a Glance Forum Agencies List of ...

7

Impact of chronic nicotine administration on bone mineral content in young and adult rats: a comparative study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic nicotine administration on bone mineral homeostasis in rapidly growing young rats in comparison to effects in adult male rats. Two doses of nicotine (3 and 4.5mg/kg/day, as nicotine hydrogen tartrate) were used and rat treatment was continued for 6 months. In this study, all nicotine-treated rats weighed less than control rats and the effect was dose-dependent. Also, rats treated with nicotine had lower femoral wet weight and showed a significant reduction in femoral mid-shaft cortical width and femoral and lumbar vertebral ash weights. These effects were associated with a significant reduction of ash calcium and phosphorus contents of the femora and lumbar vertebrae. The bone mineral-lowering effects of nicotine were more severe in the lumbar vertebral spongy bone than in the femoral compact bone and these changes were more marked in adult rats than in young rats. An additional interesting observation was that the femora of young rats treated with nicotine were significantly shorter than those of control young rats. Also, the values of the femoral ash weight per unit length were significantly decreased in nicotine-treated adult rats but not in nicotine-treated young rats. Thus, these results show that nicotine-induced changes in bone vary with age. The clinical relevance of this study is that it may provide justification to insist that all people in general and the risky young group in particular should be warned against the hazards of the negative effects of nicotine on bone. PMID:24211783

Farag, Mahmoud M; Selima, Eman A; Salama, Mona A

2013-11-15

8

Combination Therapy for the Cardiovascular Effects of Perinatal Lead Exposure in Young and Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Combination therapy can play a significant role in the amelioration of several toxic effects of lead (Pb) and recovery from associated cardiovascular changes. Objective: To investigate the effects of combination therapy on the cardiovascular effects of perinatal lead exposure in young and adult rats Methods: Female Wistar rats received drinking water with or without 500 ppm of Pb during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-two- and 70-day-old rat offspring who were or were not exposed to Pb in the perinatal period received meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), L-arginine, or enalapril and a combination of these compounds for 30 additional days. Noradrenaline response curves were plotted for intact and denuded aortas from 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old rats stratified by perinatal Pb exposure (exposed/unexposed) and treatment received (treated/untreated). Results: Systolic blood pressure was evaluated and shown to be higher in the 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day age groups with Pb exposure than in the corresponding control age groups: 117.8 ± 3.9*, 135.2 ± 1.3*, 139.6 ± 1.6*, and 131.7 ± 2.8*, respectively and 107.1 ± 1.8, 118.8 ± 2.1, 126.1 ± 1.1, and 120.5 ± 2.2, respectively (p < 0.05). Increased reactivity to noradrenaline was observed in intact, but not denuded, aortas from 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old exposed rats, and the maximum responses (g of tension) in the respective Pb-exposed and control age groups were as follows: 3.43 ± 0.16*, 4.32 ± 0.18*, and 4.21 ± 0.23*, respectively and 2.38 ± 0.33, 3.37 ± 0.13, and 3.22 ± 0.21, respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusions: All treatments reversed the changes in vascular reactivity to noradrenaline in rats perinatally exposed to Pb. The combination therapy resulted in an earlier restoration of blood pressure in Pb-exposed rats compared with the monotherapies, except for enalapril therapy in young rats. These findings represent a new approach to the development of therapeutic protocols for the treatment of Pb-induced hypertension. PMID:25076181

Gaspar, Andréia Fresneda; Cordellini, Sandra

2014-01-01

9

Functional evidence of ?1D-adrenoceptors in the vasculature of young and adult spontaneously hypertensive rats  

PubMed Central

The role of ?1D-adrenoceptors in the vasculature of spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), of different ages was assessed in pithed rats by the use of the selective ?1D-adrenoceptor antagonist BMY 7378 (8-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-ethyl]-8-azaspiro [4.5]decane-7,9-dione dihydrochloride). BMY 7378 displaced the pressor effect of phenylephrine in young pre-hypertensive pithed SHR rats, but produced no effect in young WKY rats (dose ratio of 3.4 and 1.6, respectively), while in adult rats BMY 7378 produced a greater shift in the phenylephrine response curve than in younger animals (dose ratio of 3.2 and 6.2 in WKY and SHR, respectively). The presence of ?1D-adrenoceptors in the vasculature of pre-hypertensive rats, suggests its role in the pathogenesis/maintenance of increased blood pressure. PMID:10323583

Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; López-Guerrero, J Javier; Ibarra, Maximiliano

1999-01-01

10

Fenugreek potent activity against nitrate-induced diabetes in young and adult male rats.  

PubMed

Nitrate has described as an endocrine disruptor that promotes onset of diabetes. This study was undertaken to evaluate diabetic effect of high nitrate intake in young and adult male rats and its amelioration by fenugreek administration. The study revealed significant increase in serum glucose and blood glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c%), while serum insulin and liver glycogen were decreased among nitrate exposed animals, in particular the young group. A significant reduction in the body weight gain and serum thyroid hormones (T4 & T3) was also recorded. Further reduction in serum levels of urea and creatinine, as well as total protein in serum, liver and pancreas was demonstrated, with elevation in their levels in the urine of all nitrate exposed groups. Meanwhile, the activity of serum transaminases (ALT and AST) was increased, with decline in their activity in the liver tissue. In addition, an elevation in serum total bilirubin, tissues (liver and pancreas) nitric oxide and lipid profile, as well as liver activity of glucose-6-phosphatase was recorded. Fenugreek administration to nitrate exposed rats was found to be effective in alleviating hyperglycemia and other biochemical changes characterizing nitrate-induced diabetes. So, fenugreek can be considered to possess potent activity against onset of nitrate induced-diabetes. PMID:24615531

El-Wakf, Azza M; Hassan, Hanaa A; Mahmoud, Ashraf Z; Habza, Marwa N

2015-05-01

11

Effects of dimethylarsinic and dimethylarsinous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of young and adult rats  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the effects of pentavalent dimethylarsinic acid ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}AsO(OH); DMA{sup V}) and trivalent dimethylarsinous acid ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}As(OH); DMA{sup III}) on synaptic transmission generated by the excitatory Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse were tested in hippocampal slices of young (14-21 day-old) and adult (2-4 month-old) rats. Both compounds were applied in concentrations of 1 to 100 {mu}mol/l. DMA{sup V} had no effect on the amplitudes of evoked fEPSPs or the induction of LTP recorded from the CA1 dendritic region either in adult or in young rats. However, application of DMA{sup III} significantly reduced the amplitudes of evoked fEPSPs in a concentration-dependent manner with a total depression following application of 100 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} in adult and 10 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} in young rats. Moreover, DMA{sup III} significantly affected the LTP-induction. Application of 10 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} resulted in a complete failure of the postsynaptic potentiation of the fEPSP amplitudes in slices taken both from adult and young rats. The depressant effect was not reversible after a 30-min washout of the DMA{sup III}. In slices of young rats, the depressant effects of DMA{sup III} were more pronounced than in those taken from adult ones. Compared to the (absent) effect of DMA{sup V} on synaptic transmission, the trivalent compound possesses a considerably higher neurotoxic potential.

Krueger, Katharina [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)], E-mail: katharina.krueger@uni-muenster.de; Repges, Hendrik [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Hippler, Joerg; Hartmann, Louise M.; Hirner, Alfred V. [Institut fuer Umweltanalytik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 3-5, D-45141 Essen (Germany); Straub, Heidrun [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Binding, Norbert [Institut fuer Arbeitsmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 51, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Musshoff, Ulrich [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

2007-11-15

12

Adolescents and Young Adults  

Cancer.gov

Kent EE, Wilder Smith A, Keegan THM, Lynch CF, Kato I, Wu X, Schwartz S, Hamilton A. (in press). Social information needs of adolescent and young adults with cancer in the Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experiences (AYA-HOPE) Study. Jounral of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology.

13

IN VIVO AND IN VITRO DERMAL PENETRATION AND PHARMACOKINETICS OF 2,4,5,2',4'5'-HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL IN YOUNG AND ADULT RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Penetration of l4C-2,4,5,2'4'5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB) through skin of young (33 days) and adult (82 days) female Fischer 344 rats was determined in vivo and by two in vitro methods. n vivo dermal penetration at 120 hours was 45% in young and 43% in adults. t 72 hours in vivo d...

14

Effects of monomethylarsonic and monomethylarsonous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of adult and young rats  

SciTech Connect

Arsenite and its metabolites, dimethylarsinic or dimethylarsinous acid, have previously been shown to disturb synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices of rats (Krueger, K., Gruner, J., Madeja, M., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2006a. Blockade and enhancement of glutamate receptor responses in Xenopus oocytes by methylated arsenicals. Arch. Toxicol. 80, 492-501, Krueger, K., Straub, H., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2006b. Effects of arsenite on long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices from adult and young rats. Toxicol. Lett. 165, 167-173, Krueger, K., Repges, H., Hippler, J., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Straub, H., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2007. Effects of dimethylarsinic and dimethylarsinous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of young and adult rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 225, 40-46). The present experiments investigate, whether the important arsenic metabolites monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}) and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}) also influence the synaptic functions of the hippocampus. In hippocampal slices of young (14-21 days-old) and adult (2-4 months-old) rats, evoked synaptic field potentials from the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse were measured under control conditions and during and after 30 and 60 min of application of the arsenic compounds. MMA{sup V} had no effect on the synapse functions neither in slices of adult nor in those from young rats. However, MMA{sup III} strongly influenced the synaptic transmission: it totally depressed the amplitudes of fEPSPs at concentrations of 50 {mu}mol/l (adult rats) and 25 {mu}mol/l (young rats) and LTP amplitudes at concentrations of 25 {mu}mol/l (adult rats) and 10 {mu}mol/l (young rats), respectively. In contrast, application of 1 {mu}mol/l MMA{sup III} led to an enhancement of the LTP amplitude in young rats, which is interpretable by an enhancing effect on NMDA receptors and a lack of the blocking effect on AMPA receptors at this concentration (Krueger, K., Gruner, J., Madeja, M., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2006a. Blockade and enhancement of glutamate receptor responses in Xenopus oocytes by methylated arsenicals. Arch. Toxicol. 80, 492-501). These effects are probably not mediated by changes in cell excitability or in presynaptic glutamate release rates, since antidromically induced population spikes and paired-pulse facilitation failed to show any MMA{sup III} effect. The impairment of the excitatory CA1 synapse is more likely caused by the action of MMA{sup III} on postsynaptic glutamatergic receptors and may be jointly responsible for dysfunctions of cognitive effects in arsenic toxicity.

Krueger, Katharina [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)], E-mail: katharina.krueger@uni-muenster.de; Straub, Heidrun [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Hirner, Alfred V.; Hippler, Joerg [Institut fuer Umweltanalytik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 3-5, D-45141 Essen (Germany); Binding, Norbert [Institut fuer Arbeitsmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 51, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Musshoff, Ulrich [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

2009-04-01

15

Young Adult Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poses the question of why coming-of-age stories about girls are usually published as juveniles while those about boys originate on adult book lists. Challenges the conventional wisdom on how best to market young adult literature. (FL)

Epstein, Connie C.

1987-01-01

16

Long-term behavioral consequences of stress exposure in adolescent versus young adult rats.  

PubMed

Adolescence is a developmental time period marked by rapid changes in behavior and brain structure. Stress during adolescence has been shown to cause long-lasting behavioral changes, including increased anxiety- and depression-like behavior, in both rats and humans. These findings have led to the hypothesis that adolescence may be a particularly vulnerable or sensitive period for stress exposure. To investigate this hypothesis, we directly compared the effects of a 3-day stress exposure during either an adolescent (post natal day (PND) 27-29) or adult (PND 72-74) time window on exploratory behavior in male rats, measured 6 weeks post-stress (PND 72 or PND 117). Exploratory behavior was tested in both 'anxiogenic' and 'anxiolytic' environments, using the open field and novel object tests, respectively. We hypothesized that rats stressed as adolescents would show greater behavioral changes than rats stressed as adults. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found a decrease in exploratory behavior in the open-field test in both age groups. Furthermore, the magnitude of difference between stress and age-matched control animals was similar between age groups. In contrast, stress had no effect at either age in the novel object test, a more anxiolytic environment. Older adults showed decreased exploration in the novel object test compared to the younger adults, regardless of stress experience. These results suggest that adolescence is not a sensitive period for the effects of repeated variable stress on exploratory behavior in an anxiogenic environment. PMID:22281462

Saul, Michele L; Tylee, Daniel; Becoats, Kyeesha T; Guerrero, Beatriz G; Sweeney, Patrick; Helmreich, Dana L; Fudge, Julie L

2012-04-01

17

Enhanced dilatation by atrial natriuretic peptide of renal arcuate arteries from young, but not adult, spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

The effects of a synthetic atrial natriuretic peptide (sANP) on the contractile response of isolated renal resistance vessels (internal diameter 180-300 micron) from young (5 wk) and adult (20 wk) spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats have been examined. Segments of the vessels were mounted as ring preparations on an isometric myograph and a sub-maximal tone was induced with potassium chloride. All vessels relaxed in a concentration dependent manner when sANP was added to the chamber solution; the threshold concentration was 10(-10) mol/L, but half-maximal relaxation was seen at about 10(-8) mol/L. The vessels from the young SHRs relaxed slightly more than those from the young WKYs. There was no difference in the relaxation of the vessels from the adult SHRs and WKYs. The results suggest that although slight differences in sensitivity to atrial natriuretic peptide may exist in young SHRs, the greater hypotensive action of infused atrial natriuretic peptide which has been reported for adult SHRs is not related to a greater relaxing effect of the peptide on the renal resistance vessels. PMID:2963713

Mulvany, M J

1987-01-01

18

Young Adult Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the similarities between science fiction writing and young adult literature, and points out that several well-known authors, such as Robert Heinlein and Jane Yolen, write in both genres. (NKA)

Epstein, Connie C.

1987-01-01

19

Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Characterization of Spontaneously Occurring Uterine Deciduomas in Young Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

Uterine deciduomas were found in two female virgin rats, a 15-week-old Lewis rat and a 7-week-old Sprague-Dawley rat. The firm white nodules were located at the base of unilateral uterine horns and were approximately 6 mm and 4 mm in diameter. Histopathologically, the nodules were composed of three areas, each with a distinct type of proliferating cells: large epithelioid decidual cells with round nuclei, prominent nucleoli and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm (antimesometrial region); compact spindle-shaped cells with oval nuclei and vacuolar cytoplasm (transitional region); and pleomorphic and spiny cells with round to oval nuclei and compact eosinophilic cytoplasm (mesometrial region). These cells proliferated in sheet-like arrangements and transformed into the other types of cells located in surrounding regions. Immunohistochemically, proliferating cells in all regions were strongly positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The proliferating cells were positive for vimentin, and large decidual cells were positive for common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen 10, a marker of uterine interstitial cells. Large decidual cells were positive for ?-smooth muscle actin and desmin, suggesting differentiation into muscular cells. Progesterone receptor was expressed in all cell types; however, estrogen receptor ? was not expressed in the antimesometrial region. These extremely rare tumor-like nodules represent nonneoplastic lesions referred as decidual reactions of endometrial interstitial cells, and their biological behavior is that of a space-occupying benign tumor in young rats. Our cases might provide information as a historical control in toxicity and pharmacological studies in rats. PMID:23723570

Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Emoto, Yuko; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Kimura, Ayako; Uehara, Norihisa; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo

2013-01-01

20

Ketogenic Diet Prevents Alterations in Brain Metabolism in Young but not Adult Rats after Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Previous studies have shown that the change of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) in response to traumatic brain injury (TBI) is different in young (PND35) and adult rats (PND70), and that prolonged ketogenic diet treatment results in histological and behavioral neuroprotection only in younger rat brains. However, the mechanism(s) through which ketones act in the injured brain and the biochemical markers of their action remain unknown. Therefore, the current study was initiated to: 1) determine the effect of injury on the neurochemical profile in PND35 compared to PND70 rats; and 2) test the effect of early post-injury administration of ketogenic diet on brain metabolism in PND35 versus PND70 rats. The data show that alterations in energy metabolites, amino acid, and membrane metabolites were not evident in PND35 rats on standard diet until 24?h after injury, when the concentration of most metabolites was reduced from sham-injured values. In contrast, acute, but transient deficits in energy metabolism were measured at 6?h in PND70 rats, together with deficits in N-acetylaspartate that endured until 24?h. Administration of a ketogenic diet resulted in significant increases in plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate (?OHB) levels. Similarly, brain ?OHB levels were significantly elevated in all injured rats, but were elevated by 43% more in PND35 rats compared to PND70 rats. As a result, ATP, creatine, and phosphocreatine levels at 24?h after injury were significantly improved in the ketogenic PND35 rats, but not in the PND70 group. The improvement in energy metabolism in the PND35 brains was accompanied by the recovery of NAA and reduction of lactate levels, as well as amelioration of the deficits of other amino acids and membrane metabolites. These results indicate that the PND35 brains are more resistant to the injury, indicated by a delayed deficit in energy metabolism. Moreover, the younger brains revert to ketones metabolism more quickly than do the adult brains, resulting in better neurochemical and cerebral metabolic recovery after injury. PMID:21635175

Prins, Mayumi L.; Hovda, David A.; Harris, Neil G.

2011-01-01

21

Human Placenta-Derived Adherent Cell Treatment of Experimental Stroke Promotes Functional Recovery after Stroke in Young Adult and Older Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Human Placenta-Derived Adherent Cells (PDAC®) are a novel mesenchymal-like cell population derived from normal human placental tissue. PDA-001 is a clinical formulation of PDAC® developed for intravenous administration. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of PDA-001 treatment in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in young adult (2–3 month old) and older rats (10–12 months old). Methods To evaluate efficacy and determine the optimal number of transplanted cells, young adult Wistar rats were subjected to MCAo and treated 1 day post MCAo with 1×106, 4×106 or 8×106 PDA-001 cells (i.v.), vehicle or cell control. 4×106 or 8×106 PDA-001 cells were also tested in older rats after MCAo. Treatment response was evaluated using a battery of functional outcome tests, consisting of adhesive-removal test, modified Neurological Severity Score (mNSS) and foot-fault test. Young adult rats were sacrificed 56 days after MCAo, older rats were sacrificed 29 days after MCAo, and lesion volumes were measured using H&E. Immunohistochemical stainings for bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and von Willebrand Factor (vWF), and synaptophysin were performed. Results In young adult rats, treatment with 4×106 PDA-001 cells significantly improved functional outcome after stroke (p<0.05). In older rats, significant functional improvement was observed with PDA-001 cell therapy in both of the 4×106 and 8×106 treatment groups. Functional benefits in young adult and older rats were associated with significant increases in the number of BrdU immunoreactive endothelial cells, vascular density and perimeter in the ischemic brain, as well as significantly increased synaptophysin expression in the ischemic border zone (p<0.05). Conclusion PDA-001 treatment significantly improved functional outcome after stroke in both young adult and older rats. The neurorestorative effects induced by PDA-001 treatment may be related to increased vascular density and synaptic plasticity. PMID:24466174

Shehadah, Amjad; Chen, Jieli; Pal, Ajai; He, Shuyang; Zeitlin, Andrew; Cui, Xu; Zacharek, Alex; Cui, Yisheng; Roberts, Cynthia; Lu, Mei; Hariri, Robert; Chopp, Michael

2014-01-01

22

Rotenone exerts similar stimulatory effects on H2O2 production by isolated brain mitochondria from young-adult and old rats.  

PubMed

Chronic and systemic treatment of rodents with rotenone, a classical inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory complex I, results in neurochemical, behavioral, and neuropathological features of Parkinson's disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether brain mitochondria from old rats (24 months old) would be more susceptible to rotenone-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption and increased generation of H2O2 than mitochondria from young-adult rats (3-4 months old). Isolated brain mitochondria were incubated in the presence of different rotenone concentrations (5, 10, and 100nM), and oxygen consumption and H2O2 production were measured during respiratory states 3 (ADP-stimulated respiration) and 4 (resting respiration). Respiratory state 3 and citrate synthase activity were significantly lower in mitochondria from old rats. Mitochondria from young-adult and old rats showed similar sensitivity to rotenone-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption. Similarly, H2O2 production rates by both types of mitochondria were dose-dependently stimulated to the same extent by increasing concentrations of rotenone. We conclude that rotenone exerts similar effects on oxygen consumption and H2O2 production by isolated brain mitochondria from young-adult and old rats. Therefore, aging does not increase the mitochondrial H2O2 generation in response to complex I inhibition. PMID:25596437

Michelini, Luiz G B; Figueira, Tiago R; Siqueira-Santos, Edilene S; Castilho, Roger F

2015-03-01

23

Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.  

EPA Science Inventory

Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have...

24

Long-term effects of dexamethasone and nerve growth factor on adrenal medullary cells cultured from young adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal postnatal rat chromaffin cells and rat pheochromocytoma cells are known to show extensive Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)-induced process outgrowth in culture, and this outgrowth from the postnatal chromaffin cells is abolished by the corticosteroid dexamethasone. To determine whether adult rat chromaffin cells respond to NGF and dexamethasone, dissociated adrenal medullary cells from 3-month-old rats were cultured for 30 days

Arthur S. Tischler; Robert L. Perlman; Gretl Nunnemacher; Gardiner M. Morse; Ronald A. DeLellis; Hubert J. Wolfe; Beth E. Sheard

1982-01-01

25

Systemic Effects of Fractionated, Whole-Brain Irradiation in Young Adult and Aging Rats  

PubMed Central

Cranial irradiation is a critical and effective treatment for primary brain tumors and metastases. Unfortunately, most patients who are treated and survive for more than a few months develop neural and cognitive problems as the result of radiation-induced normal tissue injury. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying these cognitive deficits remain largely unknown and there are no validated treatments to prevent or ameliorate them; thus, there is a significant and continuing need for preclinical studies in animal models. Investigations from several laboratories have demonstrated neurobiological changes after cranial irradiation in rodents. To date, however, experimental studies in animal models have included little assessment of the systemic effects of cranial irradiation, despite evidence from the clinic that cranial irradiation results in changes throughout the body and recognition that systemic responses may influence the development of neural and cognitive deficits. This study evaluated systemic effects of clinically relevant, fractionated whole-brain irradiation in adult rats and demonstrates effects on the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis, which may contribute to the development of neural changes. These and other systemic responses are important to consider in ongoing efforts to understand the mechanisms of radiation-induced normal tissue injury. PMID:23952575

Forbes, M. E.; Paitsel, M.; Bourland, J. D.; Riddle, D. R.

2013-01-01

26

Chronic schisandrin B treatment improves mitochondrial antioxidant status and tissue heat shock protein production in various tissues of young adult and middle-aged rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of chronic schisandrin B (Sch B) treatment (10 mg\\/kg\\/day×15) on mitochondrial antioxidant status and sensitivity to Ca2+-induced permeability transition, as well as tissue heat shock protein (Hsp)25\\/70 production were examined in various tissues (brain, heart, liver, skeletal muscle) of young adult and middle-aged female rats. Age-dependent impairment in mitochondrial antioxidant status, as assessed by levels\\/activities of antioxidant components (reduced

Po Yee Chiu; Hoi Yan Leung; Michel K. T. Poon; Kam Ming Ko

2006-01-01

27

Effects of glyoxal or methylglyoxal on the metabolism of amino acids, lactate, glucose and acetate in the cerebral cortex of young and adult rats.  

PubMed

The in vitro effects of glyoxal and methylglyoxal on the metabolism of glycine, alanine, leucine, glutamate, glutamine, glucose, lactate and acetate were evaluated in cortico-cerebral slices from young (10-day-old) or adult (3-month-old) rats. In a first set of experiments with cortico-cerebral slices from young animals, the compounds glyoxal or methylglyoxal at 400 microM, increased the oxidation of alanine, leucine and glycine to CO(2) and decreased the protein synthesis from these amino acids. Lipid synthesis from alanine, leucine and glycine was not changed in the cortico-cerebral slices from young rats after glyoxals exposure. Moreover, glutamine oxidation to CO(2) decreased by glyoxals exposure, but glutamate oxidation was not affected. In a second set of experiments with brain slices from adult animals, glycine metabolism (oxidation to CO(2), conversion to lipids or incorporation into proteins) was not changed by glyoxals exposure. In addition, the oxidation rates of glucose, lactate, acetate, glutamine and glutamate to CO(2) were also not modified. Taken together, these results indicate that glyoxal disrupts the energetic metabolism of the rat cerebral cortex in vitro. However, only young animals were susceptible to such events, suggesting that the immature cerebral cortex is less capable of dealing with glyoxal than the mature one. PMID:20005868

Schmidt, Betina; de Assis, Adriano Martimbianco; Battu, Cíntia Eickhoff; Rieger, Débora Kurle; Hansen, Fernanda; Sordi, Fernanda; Longoni, Aline; Hoefel, Ana Lúcia; Farina, Marcelo; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Perry, Marcos Luiz Santos

2010-02-22

28

Short-lived diabetes in the young-adult ZDF rat does not exacerbate neuronal Ca(2+) biomarkers of aging.  

PubMed

Results from clinical studies provide evidence that cognitive changes relatively late in life may be traced to antecedent conditions including diabetes, obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and an atherogenic diet. As such, several traits of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) could be considered pathogenic factors of aging, contributing to age-dependent cognitive decline and our susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease. It appears that both the duration of metabolic condition and the age of the individual, together can contribute to the potential impact on peripheral as well as brain health. Because of robust evidence that in animal models of aging, Ca(2+) dysregulation alters neuronal health, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory processes, we tested the hypothesis that peripheral metabolic dysregulation could exacerbate Ca(2+) dysfunction in hippocampal CA1 neurons. Using intracellular/ extracellular electrophysiological and Ca(2+) imaging techniques, we show that Ca(2+)levels at rest or during synaptic stimulation, the Ca(2+)-dependent afterhyperpolarization, baseline field potentials, and short-term synaptic plasticity were not significantly altered in young-adult male Zucker diabetic fatty rats compare to their lean counterparts. Our observations suggest that early phases of T2DM characterized by high levels of glucose and insulin may be too transient to alter hippocampal CA1 physiology in this animal model of diabetes. These results are supported by clinical data showing that longer T2DM duration can have greater negative impact on cognitive functions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory. PMID:25451110

Maimaiti, Shaniya; DeMoll, Chris; Anderson, Katie L; Griggs, Ryan B; Taylor, Bradley K; Porter, Nada M; Thibault, Olivier

2014-11-01

29

Preventing and Alleviating Hypothermia-Induced Amnesia in Weanling and Young Adult Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reminder (Experiment 1) and familiarization (Experiment 2) treatments were found to have similar effects on the 24-hr retention performance of 24- to 26- and 90- to 100-day-old rats that either did or did not undergo an amnesic treatment (hypothermia) immediately after training. Similar degrees of retrograde amnesia and normal forgetting were evident in both trained age groups that were not

Charles F. Hinderliter; Paul Blanton; James R. Misanin

1989-01-01

30

Onion decreases the ovariectomy-induced osteopenia in young adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that fruit and vegetable consumption are associated with good bone health. Onion, in particular, has been verified in its efficacy in bone resorption activity. In this study, we further investigated the effects of an onion-containing diet on ovariectomy-induced bone loss using methods of serum marker assay, histomorphometric analysis and biomechanical tests. Sixty-four female Wistar rats (14-week-old)

Tsang-Hai Huang; Roman C. Mühlbauer; Chih-Hsin Tang; Hsiun-Ing Chen; Guan-Liang Chang; Yi-Wei Huang; Yu-Ting Lai; Hsin-Shi Lin; Wei-Ting Yang; Rong-Sen Yang

2008-01-01

31

Serum biomarkers in young adult and aged Brown Norway (BN) rats following episodic (weekly) ozone exposure  

EPA Science Inventory

Ozone (03) is an air pollutant that is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Older adults are considered to be particularly susceptible to oxidant air pollutants such as 03. Serum biomarkers are being sought that would lead to better predictions of susceptibili...

32

Age and sex differences in the ventilatory response to hypoxia and hypercapnia in awake neonatal, pre-pubertal and young adult rats  

PubMed Central

There is evidence for a “sensitive period” in respiratory development in rats around postnatal age (P) 12-13d. Little is known about sex differences during that time. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of sex on breathing development, specifically around the “sensitive period”. We used whole-body plethysmography to study breathing in normoxic, hypoxic and hypercapnic gases in non-anesthetized male and female neonatal rats from P10-P15, juvenile (P30) and young adult (P90) rats. Compared to other neonatal ages, P12-13 male rats had significantly lower ventilation during normoxia, hypoxia, and hypercapnia. Compared to age-matched females, P12-13 male rats had lower ventilation in normoxia and hypoxia and a lower O2 saturation during hypoxia. Circulating estradiol was greater in P12-13 male vs. female rats. Estradiol and ventilatory responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia were negatively correlated in neonatal male, but not female, rats. Our results suggest that P10-P15 includes a critical developmental period in male but not female rats. PMID:22067556

Holley, Heidi S.; Behan, Mary; Wenninger, Julie M.

2011-01-01

33

Chronic neonatal nicotine exposure increases excitation in the young adult rat hippocampus in a sex-dependent manner  

PubMed Central

Smoking during pregnancy exposes the fetus to nicotine, resulting in nicotine-stimulated neurotransmitter release. Recent evidence suggests that the hippocampus develops differently in males and females with delayed maturation in males. We show that chronic nicotine exposure during the first postnatal week has sex-specific long-term effects. Neonatal rat pups were chronically treated with nicotine (6 mg/kg/day) (CNN) from postnatal day 1 to 7 or milk only (Controls), and hippocampal slices were prepared from Control- and CNN-treated young adults. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) or population spikes (PSs) were recorded from the CA1 hippocampus following CA1 s. radiatum stimulation. Input/Output curves constructed from fEPSP data indicated that CNN-males, but not females, had significantly increased excitatory responses compared to Controls (p<0.05, n=10 Con, n=11 CNN). Long-term potentiation (LTP) was not significantly changed by CNN. In the presence of bicuculline, which blocks inhibitory GABAA receptors, an epileptiform burst consisting of a series of PSs was evoked. The amplitude of the first PS was significantly larger in CNN-males and females compared to Controls (males: p<0.01, n=8 Con, n=8 CNN; females: p<0.05, n=9 Con, n=7 CNN). Only CNN-males also had significantly larger second PSs (p<0.05, n=8 con, n=8 CNN). Epileptiform activity evoked by zero Mg2+ incubation did not differ in amplitude or duration of bursts in CNN-males or females compared to Controls. These data indicate that neonatal nicotine exposure has long lasting effects and results in increased excitation within the CA1 hippocampus in adulthood, with males showing increased sensitivity to nicotine's effects. PMID:22119395

Damborsky, Joanne C.; Griffith, William H.; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H.

2012-01-01

34

Clueless? Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a list of adult mystery titles for young adult readers. Includes first titles in a series (for reading in order); new and lesser-known mystery authors' works are the focus. Annotations include plot summary. The rest of each annotation is for professional use (includes date and name of award bestowed). (AEF)

Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

1997-01-01

35

Young Adults and Colon Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... hand corner of the player. Young Adults and Colon Cancer HealthDay January 28, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Colorectal Cancer Health Screening Transcript Colon cancer may be on the decline in older Americans, ...

36

Different types of soluble fermentable dietary fibre decrease food intake, body weight gain and adiposity in young adult male rats  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary fibre-induced satiety offers a physiological approach to body weight regulation, yet there is lack of scientific evidence. This experiment quantified food intake, body weight and body composition responses to three different soluble fermentable dietary fibres in an animal model and explored underlying mechanisms of satiety signalling and hindgut fermentation. Methods Young adult male rats were fed ad libitum purified control diet (CONT) containing 5% w/w cellulose (insoluble fibre), or diet containing 10% w/w cellulose (CELL), fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), oat beta-glucan (GLUC) or apple pectin (PECT) (4 weeks; n = 10/group). Food intake, body weight, and body composition (MRI) were recorded, final blood samples analysed for gut satiety hormones, hindgut contents for fermentation products (including short-chain fatty acids, SCFA) and intestinal tissues for SCFA receptor gene expression. Results GLUC, FOS and PECT groups had, respectively, 10% (P < 0.05), 17% (P < 0.001) and 19% (P < 0.001) lower food intake and 37% (P < 0.01), 37% (P < 0.01) and 45% (P < 0.001) lower body weight gain than CONT during the four-week experiment. At the end they had 26% (P < 0.05), 35% (P < 0.01) and 42% (P < 0.001) less total body fat, respectively, while plasma total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was 2.2-, 3.2- and 2.6-fold higher (P < 0.001) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) was 2.3-, 3.1- and 3.0-fold higher (P < 0.001). There were no differences in these parameters between CONT and CELL. Compared with CONT and CELL, caecal concentrations of fermentation products increased 1.4- to 2.2-fold in GLUC, FOS and PECT (P < 0.05) and colonic concentrations increased 1.9- to 2.5-fold in GLUC and FOS (P < 0.05), with no consistent changes in SCFA receptor gene expression detected. Conclusions This provides animal model evidence that sustained intake of three different soluble dietary fibres decreases food intake, weight gain and adiposity, increases circulating satiety hormones GLP-1 and PYY, and increases hindgut fermentation. The presence of soluble fermentable fibre appears to be more important than its source. The results suggest that dietary fibre-induced satiety is worthy of further investigation towards natural body weight regulation in humans. PMID:25152765

2014-01-01

37

Young adults’ experiences with cancer  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine the experiences with cancer of adults diagnosed when between 20 and 35 years old. DESIGN Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. SETTING Largest health care region in the province of New Brunswick. PARTICIPANTS Six men and 9 women cancer patients and survivors. METHOD Fifteen adults interviewed when between the ages of 20 and 43 representing a variety of cancers and stages of disease were recruited for this study. Interviews were guided by a set of open-ended questions and explored participants’ experiences with cancer from initial presentation of symptoms through to survivorship issues. MAIN FINDINGS The most important clinical issue that emerged from the analysis was that participants’ youth appeared to contribute to delays in diagnosis of cancer. These delays were attributed to either patients’ or physicians’ inaction. Some patients attributed their initial cancer symptoms to the adverse effects of alcohol or excessive partying; others feared a bad diagnosis and delayed seeking help. Family physicians frequently interpreted nonspecific symptoms as resulting from patients’ lifestyle choices and were reluctant to consider a diagnosis of cancer. Several family physicians reportedly believed that persistent symptoms could not be the result of cancer because patients were too young. CONCLUSION Although cancer is relatively rare in young adults, family physicians need to include it in differential diagnoses. Both patients and physicians tend to minimize cancer symptoms in young adults. Delays in diagnosis might not affect health outcomes, but can cause distress to young adults with cancer. PMID:17279205

Miedema, Baukje (Bo); Easley, Julie; Hamilton, Ryan

2006-01-01

38

Stroke in young Nigerian adults.  

PubMed

Stroke in adults under the age of 45 results in a greater loss of potential years of life than for other adults. This premature loss of life is associated with a high social and economic burden. Few data are available regarding stroke among young Nigerian adults in the Niger Delta Basin. This study sought to determine the incidence, risk factors, stroke subtypes and case fatality of stroke among young Nigerian adults. The medical records of all 18- to 45-year-old patients admitted with stroke in the medical wards of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) from January 2003 to December 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 611 patients admitted with stroke, 54 (8.8%) were aged 18-45 years. There were 26 males and 28 females. Hypertension was responsible for 42 (77.8%) stroke cases. Other important risk factors were excessive alcohol intake (27.8%), heart disease (13%), diabetes mellitus (11.1%), cigarette smoking (11.1%) and HIV infection (7.4%). The total case fatality was 29.6% with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) having higher case fatality of 69.2% than cerebral infarction (CI) with a case fatality of 16.7%. Among the young Nigerian adults who presented with stroke, 53.7% survived. The authors conclude from the above information that the incidence of stroke in young patients at UPTH is low. Hypertension is the most important risk factor of stroke; however, other less common but important risk factors in the young adults are cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus and HIV. Efforts should be made to reduce the impact of stroke in this age group by focusing on these risk factors, which are either preventable or modifiable. PMID:19914570

Onwuchekwa, A C; Onwuchekwa, R C; Asekomeh, E G

2009-12-01

39

Induction of Colitis in Young Rats by Dextran Sulfate Sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce experimental colitis in rodents have been performed mostly in adult animals. For this reason, we aimed to develop a model of colitis in young rats. DSS was administered to 30-day-old rats at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5% in drinking water. Young rats were remarkably sensitive to DSS since clinical symptoms rapidly

María Vicario; Mar Crespí; Àngels Franch; Concepció Amat; Carme Pelegrí; Miquel Moretó

2005-01-01

40

Chronic restricted access to 10% sucrose solution in adolescent and young adult rats impairs spatial memory and alters sensitivity to outcome devaluation.  

PubMed

Although increasing consumption of sugar drinks is recognized as a significant public health concern, little is known about (a) the cognitive effects resulting from sucrose consumption; and (b) whether the long-term effects of sucrose consumption are more pronounced for adolescents. This experiment directly compared performance on a task of spatial learning and memory (the Morris Water Maze) and sensitivity to outcome devaluation following 28 days of 2-h/day access to a 10% sucrose solution in adolescent and young-adult Wistar rats. Sucrose groups developed elevated fasting blood glucose levels after the diet intervention, despite drawing <15% of calories from sucrose and gaining no more weight than controls. In subsequent behavioral testing, sucrose groups were impaired on the Morris Water Maze, with some residual deficits in spatial memory observed more than 6 weeks after the end of sucrose exposure. Further, results from outcome devaluation testing indicated that in the older cohort of rats, those fed sucrose showed reduced sensitivity to devaluation of the outcome, suggestive of differences in instrumental learning following sucrose exposure. Data provide strong evidence that sucrose consumption can induce deficits in spatial cognition and reward-oriented behavior at levels that resemble patterns of sugar drink consumption in young people, and which can remain long after exposure. PMID:23954407

Kendig, Michael D; Boakes, Robert A; Rooney, Kieron B; Corbit, Laura H

2013-08-15

41

Young Adult Realism: Conventions, Narrators, and Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of a subset of books popular with young adults--problem novels or young adult realism--is based on deductions concerning nature of reading response that text invites. Young adult realism as formula of popular culture, changes in conventions, narrators and narratees, and identification and distance are discussed. (34 references) (EJS)

Ross, Catherine Sheldrick

1985-01-01

42

Raising "Hot Topics" through Young Adult Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While young adult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read young adult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching young adult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their…

Groenke, Susan; Maples, Joellen; Henderson, Jill

2010-01-01

43

Early methylphenidate exposure enhances cocaine self-administration but not cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in young adult rats  

PubMed Central

Rationale Previous studies in rodents show that early exposure to methylphenidate alters later responsiveness to drugs of abuse. An interesting feature of these studies is that early methylphenidate treatment decreases the rewarding value of cocaine when measured by conditioned place preference (CPP), but the same treatment increases cocaine self-administration. Objective The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of early methylphenidate exposure on cocaine-induced responding using both reward paradigms. Methods Rats were treated with methylphenidate (0, 2, or 5 mg/kg) from postnatal day (PD) 11 to PD 20 and then cocaine-induced CPP or cocaine self-administration was measured in separate groups of rats in adulthood. The CPP procedure included eight days of acquisition training, eight days of extinction training, and a reinstatement test. Rats were conditioned with 0, 10 or 20 mg/kg cocaine. Reinstatement was assessed after a priming dose of cocaine (10 mg/kg). For the self-administration experiment, a jugular catheter was implanted and rats were trained to press a lever reinforced with cocaine (0.25 or 0.75 mg/kg/infusion) on a fixed ratio (FR) 1 schedule. Rats were gradually moved from an FR1 to an FR10 schedule and, after criterion was reached, rats were placed on a progressive ratio schedule for five days. Results Cocaine produced robust rewarding effects as determined by both the CPP and self-administration experiments; however, early methylphenidate exposure only enhanced the reinforcing effects of cocaine on the self-administration paradigm. Interestingly, this methylphenidate enhancement was only seen in male rats. Conclusions These data suggest that in males methylphenidate enhances the reinforcing value of cocaine, but not cocaine-associated cues. PMID:20848087

Crawford, Cynthia A.; Baella, Shelley A.; Farley, Cristal M.; Herbert, Matthew S.; Horn, Leslie R.; Campbell, Rachel H.; Zavala, Arturo R.

2010-01-01

44

Best Books for Young Adults. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents an annotated listing of the Young Adult Library Services Association's "Best Books for Young Adults" (BBYA) from 1966-99. Selected books are listed in topical bibliographies under the following subjects: Too Good To Miss; Adventure; Animals; Family; Fantasy; Friendship; Historical Fiction; The Holocaust; Humor; Mystery; Not…

Carter, Betty

45

The Relevance of Young Adult Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although young adult literature is often recommended as a reading bridge to the classics, Stallworth insists that the genre deserves a prominent place in the middle school canon in its own right. She describes several examples from middle school classrooms of how young adult novels can enhance tweens' "life literacy" by both helping them develop…

Stallworth, B. Joyce

2006-01-01

46

Literature for Today's Young Adults. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflecting the rapid changes that have occurred in young adult literature, this second edition provides teachers with the history and background needed to stay current with what adolescents are reading and how such literature can be taught. The book is organized much as a literature course is taught: first, an introduction to young adults and…

Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Donelson, Kenneth L.

47

MARRIAGE AND MENTAL HEALTH AMONG YOUNG ADULTS  

PubMed Central

Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this relationship may vary across the life course. Early marriage—which is non-normative—could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 11,743), I find that married young adults exhibit similar levels of psychological distress as young adults who are in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults report lower rates of drunkenness than others. Married young adults—especially those who first married at age 22–26—report higher life satisfaction than those in other types of relationships or no relationship at all, as well as those who married at younger ages. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed. PMID:22328171

Uecker, Jeremy E.

2012-01-01

48

Marriage and mental health among young adults.  

PubMed

Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this apparent benefit may vary across the life course. Early marriage, which is nonnormative, could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 11,695), I find that married young adults exhibit levels of psychological distress that are similar to those of young adults in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults also report lower frequency of drunkenness than those who are not in a romantic relationship. Married young adults, especially those who first married at ages 22 to 26, report higher life satisfaction than those in other type of romantic relationships,those in no romantic relationship, and those who married prior to age 22. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed. PMID:22328171

Uecker, Jeremy E

2012-03-01

49

Working with Young Adults. NIACE Lifelines in Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document explains how adult educators and others in the United Kingdom can increase levels of participation and achievement in learning for young adults by providing informal learning opportunities for those young people who are least inclined to participate in formal education and training programs. The guide outlines a step-by-step approach…

Jackson, Carol

50

Toluene effects on Oxidative Stress in Brain regions of Young-adult, Middleage,and Senescent Brown Norway Rats  

EPA Science Inventory

The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress plays a role in the adver...

51

Toluene effects on oxidative stress in brain regions of young-adult, middle-age, and senescent Brown Norway rats.  

PubMed

The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound, toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in the adverse effects caused by toluene exposure, and if so, if effects are age-dependent. OS parameters were selected to measure the production of reactive oxygen species (NADPH Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), NADH Ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD)), antioxidant homeostasis (total antioxidant substances (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (?-GCS), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD)), and oxidative damage (total aconitase and protein carbonyls). In this study, Brown Norway rats (4, 12, and 24 months) were dosed orally with toluene (0, 0.65 or 1g/kg) in corn oil. Four hours later, frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus were dissected, quick frozen on dry ice, and stored at -80°C until analysis. Some parameters of OS were found to increase with age in select brain regions. Toluene exposure also resulted in increased OS in select brain regions. For example, an increase in NQO1 activity was seen in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 4 and 12 month old rats following toluene exposure, but only in the hippocampus of 24 month old rats. Similarly, age and toluene effects on glutathione enzymes were varied and brain-region specific. Markers of oxidative damage reflected changes in oxidative stress. Total aconitase activity was increased by toluene in frontal cortex and cerebellum at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Protein carbonyls in both brain regions and in all age groups were increased by toluene, but step-down analyses indicated toluene effects were statistically significant only in 12month old rats. These results indicate changes in OS parameters with age and toluene exposure resulted in oxidative damage in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 12 month old rats. Although increases in oxidative damage are associated with increases in horizontal motor activity in older rats, further research is warranted to determine if these changes in OS parameters are related to neurobehavioral and neurophysiological effects of toluene in animal models of aging. PMID:21549141

Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S; Royland, Joyce E; Richards, Judy E; Besas, Jonathan; Macphail, Robert C

2011-11-01

52

Toluene effects on oxidative stress in brain regions of young-adult, middle-age, and senescent Brown Norway rats  

SciTech Connect

The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound, toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in the adverse effects caused by toluene exposure, and if so, if effects are age-dependent. OS parameters were selected to measure the production of reactive oxygen species (NADPH Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), NADH Ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD)), antioxidant homeostasis (total antioxidant substances (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase ({gamma}-GCS), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD)), and oxidative damage (total aconitase and protein carbonyls). In this study, Brown Norway rats (4, 12, and 24 months) were dosed orally with toluene (0, 0.65 or 1 g/kg) in corn oil. Four hours later, frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus were dissected, quick frozen on dry ice, and stored at - 80 Degree-Sign C until analysis. Some parameters of OS were found to increase with age in select brain regions. Toluene exposure also resulted in increased OS in select brain regions. For example, an increase in NQO1 activity was seen in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 4 and 12 month old rats following toluene exposure, but only in the hippocampus of 24 month old rats. Similarly, age and toluene effects on glutathione enzymes were varied and brain-region specific. Markers of oxidative damage reflected changes in oxidative stress. Total aconitase activity was increased by toluene in frontal cortex and cerebellum at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Protein carbonyls in both brain regions and in all age groups were increased by toluene, but step-down analyses indicated toluene effects were statistically significant only in 12 month old rats. These results indicate changes in OS parameters with age and toluene exposure resulted in oxidative damage in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 12 month old rats. Although increases in oxidative damage are associated with increases in horizontal motor activity in older rats, further research is warranted to determine if these changes in OS parameters are related to neurobehavioral and neurophysiological effects of toluene in animal models of aging.

Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S., E-mail: kodavanti.prasada@epa.gov [Neurotoxicology Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Royland, Joyce E. [Genetic and Cellular Toxicology Branch, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)] [Genetic and Cellular Toxicology Branch, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Richards, Judy E. [Research Core Unit, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)] [Research Core Unit, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Besas, Jonathan; MacPhail, Robert C. [Neurotoxicology Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)] [Neurotoxicology Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

2011-11-15

53

?2-Adrenoceptor stimulation restores frontal cortex plasticity and improves visuospatial performance in hidden-prenatally-malnourished young-adult rats.  

PubMed

Moderate reduction in dietary protein composition of pregnant rats from 25% to 8% casein, calorically compensated by carbohydrates, has been described as a "hidden malnutrition" because it does not alter body and brain weights of pups at birth. However, this dietary treatment leads to altered central noradrenergic systems, impaired cortical long-term potentiation (LTP) and worsened visuo-spatial memory performance. Given the increasing interest on the role played by ?2-adrenoceptors (?2-ARs) on brain plasticity, the present study aimed to address the following in hidden-malnourished and eutrophic control rats: (i) the expression levels of ?2-ARs in the frontal cortex determined by immunohistochemistry, and (ii) the effect of the ?2 selective agonist clenbuterol on both LTP elicited in vivo in the prefrontal cortex and visuospatial performance measured in an eight-arm radial maze. Our results showed that, prenatally malnourished rats exhibited a significant reduction of neocortical ?2-AR expression in adulthood. Concomitantly, they were unable to elicit and maintain prefrontal cortex LTP and exhibited lower visuospatial learning performance. Administration of clenbuterol (0.019, 0.038 and 0.075mg/kg i.p.) enhanced LTP in malnourished and control animals and restored visuospatial learning performance in malnourished but not in normal rats, in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest that decreased density of neocortical ?2-ARs during postnatal life, subsequent to hidden prenatal malnutrition might affect some synaptic networks required to elicit neocortical LTP and form visuospatial memory, since those neuroplastic deficits were counteracted by ?2-AR stimulation. PMID:25464009

Sáez-Briones, Patricio; Soto-Moyano, Rubén; Burgos, Héctor; Castillo, Amparo; Valladares, Luis; Morgan, Carlos; Pérez, Hernán; Barra, Rafael; Constandil, Luis; Laurido, Claudio; Hernández, Alejandro

2015-03-01

54

Fructose Consumption and Moderate Zinc Deficiency Influence Growth and Adipocyte Metabolism in Young Rats Prone to Adult-Onset Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of low zinc, high fructose diet on growth and adipocyte metabolism were examined in rats. At 28 days of age, animals\\u000a were assigned to diets either adequate in zinc (30 ppm) with water (AZW) or fructose solution (AZF), or low in zinc (5 ppm)\\u000a with water (LZW) or fructose solution (LZF). Body weight and food and fructose solution intake were measured

Erin L. Streiff; Kimber L. Stanhope; James Graham; Peter J. Havel; Janet C. King

2007-01-01

55

Pup Shoving by Adult Naked Mole-Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) characteristically perform an unusual behavior toward young: they shove small pups frequently and vigorously around the nest. We studied 15 litters in five captive colonies to quantify which adults shove pups, changes in shoving frequencies as pups develop, how external disturbances affect pup-shovingfrequencies, and behavior of juveniles that were not shoved as pups. In all

Theodore Stankowich; Paul W. Sherman

2002-01-01

56

Strokes in young adults: epidemiology and prevention  

PubMed Central

Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%–15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of stroke in young adults. This is important given the fact that younger stroke patients have a clearly increased risk of death compared with the general population. The prevalence of standard modifiable vascular risk factors in young stroke patients is different from that in older patients. Modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension, are highly prevalent in the young stroke population, with no significant difference in geographic, climatic, nutritional, lifestyle, or genetic diversity. The list of potential stroke etiologies among young adults is extensive. Strokes of undetermined and of other determined etiology are the most common types among young patients according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) criteria. Prevention is the primary treatment strategy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to stroke. Therefore, primary prevention is very important with regard to stroke in young adults, and aggressive treatment of risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, is essential. The best form of secondary stroke prevention is directed toward stroke etiology as well as treatment of additional risk factors. However, there is a lack of specific recommendations and guidelines for stroke management in young adults. In conclusion, strokes in young adults are a major public health problem and further research, with standardized methodology, is needed in order to give us more precise epidemiologic data. Given the increasing incidence of stroke in the young, there is an objective need for more research in order to reduce this burden. PMID:25750539

Smajlovi?, Dževdet

2015-01-01

57

Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Cancers Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

... for AYA cancer patients Poor understanding of the biology of AYA cancers Limited access to care and ... article or from these workshop presentations . “ Uncovering the Biology of Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults ,” an ...

58

Literature for Today's Young Adults. Fourth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to help teachers open young minds to literature, this book presents criteria for evaluating books in all genres and their suggested classroom uses, an examination of hotly debated topics, and an overview of the significance of young adult literature. The fourth edition of the book features 30 boxed inserts containing essays by some of the…

Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Donelson, Kenneth L.

59

Hippocampal protein expression is differentially affected by chronic paroxetine treatment in adolescent and adult rats: a possible mechanism of “paradoxical” antidepressant responses in young persons  

PubMed Central

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly recognized as the pharmacological treatment of choice for patients with depressive disorders, yet their use in adolescent populations has come under scrutiny following reports of minimal efficacy and an increased risk of suicidal ideation and behavior in this age group. The biological mechanisms underlying these effects are largely unknown. Accordingly, the current study examined changes in hippocampal protein expression following chronic administration of paroxetine in drinking water (target dose = 10 mg/kg for 22 days) to adult and adolescent rats. Results indicated age-specific changes in protein expression, with paroxetine significantly altering expression of 8 proteins in adolescents only and 10 proteins solely in adults. A further 12 proteins were significantly altered in both adolescents and adults. In adults, protein changes were generally suggestive of a neurotrophic and neuroprotective effect of paroxetine, with significant downregulation of apoptotic proteins Galectin 7 and Cathepsin B, and upregulation of the neurotrophic factor Neurogenin 1 and the antioxidant proteins Aldose reductase and Carbonyl reductase 3. Phosphodiesterase 10A, a signaling protein associated with major depressive disorder, was also downregulated (-6.5-fold) in adult rats. Adolescent rats failed to show the neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects observed in adults, instead displaying upregulation of the proapoptotic protein BH3-interacting domain death agonist (4.3-fold). Adolescent protein expression profiles also suggested impaired phosphoinositide signaling (Protein kinase C: -3.1-fold) and altered neurotransmitter transport and release (Syntaxin 7: 5.7-fold; Dynamin 1: -6.9-fold). The results of the present study provide clues as to possible mechanisms underlying the atypical response of human adolescents to paroxetine treatment. PMID:23847536

Karanges, Emily A.; Kashem, Mohammed A.; Sarker, Ranjana; Ahmed, Eakhlas U.; Ahmed, Selina; Van Nieuwenhuijzen, Petra S.; Kemp, Andrew H.; McGregor, Iain S.

2013-01-01

60

Patterns of Rumination by Young and Older Adults  

E-print Network

often than young adults and that the structure of rumination by young and older adults would differ, including the relationship between rumination, working memory, inhibition, and mood. These hypotheses were supported. Older adults reported less...

Schmalzried, RaLynn Cheri

2012-05-31

61

Mixed Heritage in Young Adult Literature. Scarecrow Studies in Young Adult Literature #32  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mixed-heritage people are one of the fastest-growing groups in the United States, yet culturally they have been largely invisible, especially in young adult literature. "Mixed Heritage in Young Adult Literature" is a critical exploration of how mixed-heritage characters (those of mixed race, ethnicity, religion, and/or adoption) and real-life…

Reynolds, Nancy Thalia

2009-01-01

62

Aplastic Anemia in Adolescents and Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Adolescent and young adult patient presentations of aplastic anemia require a particular perspective on both diagnosis and treatment. This unique age group necessitates a thorough diagnostic evaluation to ensure the etiology, acquired or inherited, is sufficiently determined. The treatment options include human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling hematopoietic cell transplantation or immunosuppressive therapy, and both require attention to the specific medical and social needs of these adolescents and young adults. Longitudinal surveillance throughout life for the development of late complications of the disease and treatment is mandatory. PMID:25228559

DeZern, Amy E.; Guinan, Eva C.

2014-01-01

63

Young Adults and the Affordable Care Act: Protecting Young Adults and Eliminating Burdens on Families and Businesses  

E-print Network

on Families and Businesses The Affordable Care Act allows young adults to stay on their parents' health careYoung Adults and the Affordable Care Act: Protecting Young Adults and Eliminating Burdens Adults The Affordable Care Act requires plans and issuers that offer coverage to children

64

Adolescent social isolation influences cognitive function in adult rats?  

PubMed Central

Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment. Evidence from animal studies suggests that isolated rearing can exert negative effects on behavioral and brain development. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social isolation on latent inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the forebrain of adult rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into adolescent isolation (isolated housing, 38–51 days of age) and social groups. Latent inhibition was tested at adulthood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adolescent social isolation impaired latent inhibition and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of young adult rats. These data suggest that adolescent social isolation has a profound effect on cognitive function and neurotrophin levels in adult rats and may be used as an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:25206396

Shao, Feng; Han, Xiao; Shao, Shuang; Wang, Weiwen

2013-01-01

65

Young Adult Literature: From Romance to Realism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's young adult (YA) literature is every bit as complex as the audience it's written for, unflinchingly addressing such topics as homosexuality, mental illness, AIDS and drug abuse. In this much expanded revision of his 1996 book, veteran author Michael Cart shows how the best of contemporary YA lit has evolved to tackle such daunting subjects…

Cart, Michael

2010-01-01

66

Challenging Perspectives on Young Adult Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As proponents of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) publish lists of "Exemplar Texts" that are said to represent the degree of textual complexity appropriate for the different grade levels, and that are overwhelmingly canonical, those who value young adult literature and recognize a place for it in the high school literature…

Conners, Sean P.

2013-01-01

67

Lesson Plans for Teaching Young Adult Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for teachers, this book is a collection of lesson plans created by 28 teachers in North Carolina to provide opportunities that support integrated learning. Using recommended young adult literature, the book presents activities which promote the integration of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and viewing. The book provides two or…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

68

Alcohol Use Among Adolescents and Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

National surveys of adolescents, college students, and other young adults in the United States reveal high rates of alcohol use among these age groups as well as high rates of dangerous drinking practices such as binge drinking and daily drinking. Additional health-compromising behaviors such as tobacco use and drinking and driving often co-occur with alcohol use in these populations. The

Michael Windle

2003-01-01

69

Gender Representation in Poetry for Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers how poetry for adolescents depicts female and male roles and examines portrayals of gender in young adult poetry. Finds volumes that both upheld and challenged traditional gender roles. Discusses five anthologies that provide a balance of poetry considered rich and some anthologies challenged for their assumptions regarding gender roles.…

Johnson, Angela Beumer; McClanahan, Lauren G.; Mertz, Maia Pank

1999-01-01

70

Young Adult Literature and Alternative Assessment Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principal purpose of assessment, regardless of teaching level, should be to guide instruction. Unlike evaluation, the goal of assessment is not to arrive at a grade for students. Rather, it is to inform the educator as to what needs to be addressed in the classroom. Assessment in a young adult literature (YAL) curriculum is no different. Its…

Comer, Melissa

2011-01-01

71

Coping with Death in Young Adult Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three examples of Young Adult novels in which death is addressed, including: Angela Johnson's "Toning the Sweep" (1993), Paula Fox's "The Eagle Kite" (1995), and Cynthia Rylant's "Missing May" (1992). Considers how these three novels portray adolescents anticipating death, facing death, and dealing with its aftermath. (SC)

Radley, Gail

1999-01-01

72

Reducing Underage and Young Adult Drinking  

PubMed Central

Forty years ago, when the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded, alcoholism was considered an adult disease driven principally by physiological determinants. As NIAAA expanded its research portfolio, new data and insights were obtained that led to an increased focus on underage and young adult drinking. Fostered by interdisciplinary research, etiologic models were developed that recognized the multiplicity of relevant genetic and environmental influences. This shift in conceptualizing alcohol use disorders also was based on findings from large-scale, national studies indicating that late adolescence and early young adulthood were peak periods for the development of alcohol dependence and that early initiation of alcohol use (i.e., before age 15) was associated with a fourfold increase in the probability of subsequently developing alcohol dependence. In recent years, developmental studies and models of the initiation, escalation, and adverse consequences of underage and early young adult drinking have helped us to understand how alcohol use may influence, and be influenced by, developmental transitions or turning points. Major risk and protective factors are being identified and integrated into screening, prevention, and treatment programs to optimize interventions designed to reduce drinking problems among adolescents and young adults. In addition, regulatory policies, such as the minimum drinking age and zero-tolerance laws, are being implemented and evaluated for their impact on public health. PMID:23579934

Windle, Michael; Zucker, Robert A.

2010-01-01

73

Young Adult Outcome of Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To learn about the lives of young adults with ASD, families with children born 1974-1984, diagnosed as preschoolers and followed into adolescence were contacted by mail. Of 76 eligible, 48 (63%) participated in a telephone interview. Global outcome scores were assigned based on work, friendships and independence. At mean age 24, half had good to…

Eaves, Linda C.; Ho, Helena H.

2008-01-01

74

Iron Deficiency in Adolescents and Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the prevalence, natural history, causes, impact on performance, diagnosis, and treatment of iron deficiency in adolescent and young adult athletes. All athletes should be screened and treated. The best diagnosis involves determining serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. Treatment requires therapeutic doses of oral ferrous iron for several…

Risser, William L.; Risser, Jan M. H.

1990-01-01

75

Classic Readers Theatre for Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents 16 original scripts that have been adapted from classic works of literature for use for readers theatre with young adults and ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Adaptations of the following works are included: "Little Women" (Louisa May Alcott); episodes from "Don Quixote" (Miguel de Cervantes; "The Necklace" (Guy de…

Barchers, Suzanne I.; Kroll, Jennifer L.

76

Physical Education Waivers and Young Adult Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was to evaluate the relationship between physical activity of young adults who were granted waivers from high school physical education versus those who completed courses in states requiring physical education teacher certification, with curriculum standards and credit requirements for graduation. University students from three…

Mears, Derrick

2010-01-01

77

The Glory of Young Adult Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adult literature (YAL) is an important and valuable tool for helping students learn and for motivating them to read. YAL also helps students gain insights into themselves and others. YAL (1) is written and marketed primarily for teenagers; (2) has main characters similar in age (12-25) to its readership; (3) has relatively uncomplicated plot…

Lee, Ly

78

Literary Maps for Young Adult Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The activities presented in this handbook are designed to help students envision the locations and landmarks of sites along journeys described in popular young adult literature (e.g., "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,""Born Free,""The Call of the Wild,""Catcher in the Rye,""I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings,""The Island of the Blue…

Snodgrass, Mary Ellen

79

Long-term differential effects of chronic young-adult corticosterone exposure on anxiety and depression-like behaviour in BDNF heterozygous rats depend on the experimental paradigm used.  

PubMed

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has key roles in neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity and is implicated in affective disorders such as anxiety and depression. The aim of the present study was to use BDNF heterozygous mutant rats (HET) and wildtype controls (WT) to investigate the effect of BDNF downregulation on affective behaviours. We also assessed the longterm effects of young-adult stress, here simulated by chronic corticosterone (CORT) treatment. This treatment reduced anxiety-like behaviour in BDNF HET rats on the plus-maze but not in the open-field. There were no genotype or CORT effects on immobility time in the forced swim test. These results show differential effects of CORT treatment on anxiety-like behaviour in BDNF HET rats which were dependent on the experimental paradigms used. While these results do not negate the potential of BDNF HET rats in studies on the role of BDNF in affective disorders, caution is needed about experimental details and the choice of paradigms used. PMID:24907687

Gururajan, Anand; Hill, Rachel; van den Buuse, Maarten

2014-07-25

80

Milk hypersensitivity in young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of milk hypersensitivity in Finnish adults.Design: Cross-sectional study.Subjects: Two hundred men and 206 women aged 27 y randomly recruited from the population register in southwestern Finland.Interventions: The subjects were interviewed about their dairy product consumption, abdominal discomfort after dairy product intake and lactose intolerance. From serum samples, serum reactivity to milk protein and milk-specific IgG1,

L Pelto; O Impivaara; S Salminen; T Poussa; S Seppänen; E-M Lilius

1999-01-01

81

Laughing with, or Laughing at the Young-Adult Romance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates characteristics of young adult romance novels, particularly their lack of humor. Discusses ways to use romance in the classroom. Provides a list of young adult novels that deal with romance, humor, and body image. (MM)

Daly, Brenda O.

1989-01-01

82

2010 YALSA Fabulous Films and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2010 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the list of titles that were released in January 2010 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Boston,…

School Library Journal, 2010

2010-01-01

83

2009 YALSA Fabulous Films & Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2009 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the titles that were released in January 2009 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Denver,…

School Library Journal, 2009

2009-01-01

84

Advertisements: interpreting images used to sell to young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to identify images used in advertising directed toward young adults, investigate what young adults thought of these images, and explore how young adults used these images. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A content analysis of 674 apparel and cosmetic advertisements located in four fashion magazines (Elle Girl, Seventeen, YM, and TeenVogue) resulted in eight categories.

Alyssa Dana Adomaitis; Kim P. Johnson

2008-01-01

85

Value Preferences Predicting Narcissistic Personality Traits in Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed at showing how the value preferences of young adults could predict the narcissistic characteristics of young adults according to structural equation modeling. 133 female (59.6%) and 90 male (40.4%), total 223 young adults participated the study (average age: 25.66, ranging from 20 to 38). Ratio group sampling method was used while…

Gungor, Ibrahim Halil; Eksi, Halil; Aricak, Osman Tolga

2012-01-01

86

Nuclear expression of PG-21, SRC-1, and pCREB in regions of the lumbosacral spinal cord involved in pelvic innervation in young adult and aged rats  

PubMed Central

In rats, ageing results in dysfunctional patterns of micturition and diminished sexual reflexes that may reflect degenerative changes within spinal circuitry. In both sexes the dorsal lateral nucleus and the spinal nucleus of the bulbospongiosus, which lie in the L5-S1 spinal segments, contain motor neurons that innervate perineal muscles, and the external anal and urethral sphincters. Neurons in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus of these segments provide autonomic control of the bladder, cervix and penis and other lower urinary tract structures. Interneurons in the dorsal gray commissure and dorsal horn have also been implicated in lower urinary tract function. This study investigates the cellular localisation of PG-21 androgen receptors, steroid receptor co-activator one (SRC-1) and the phosphorylated form of c-AMP response element binding protein (pCREB) within these spinal nuclei. These are components of signalling pathways that mediate cellular responses to steroid hormones and neurotrophins. Nuclear expression of PG-21 androgen receptors, SRC-1 and pCREB in young and aged rats was quantified using immunohistochemistry. There was a reduction in the number of spinal neurons expressing these molecules in the aged males while in aged females, SRC-1 and pCREB expression was largely unchanged. This suggests that the observed age-related changes may be linked to declining testosterone levels. Acute testosterone therapy restored expression of PG-21 androgen receptor in aged and orchidectomised male rats, however levels of re-expression varied within different nuclei suggesting a more prolonged period of hormone replacement may be required for full restoration. PMID:23301192

Ranson, Richard N.; Connelly, Jennifer H.; Watson, Alan H. D.

2012-01-01

87

Water turnover in children and young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water homeostasis is essential for life and optimal function and considerable interest surrounds the issue of recommendations\\u000a for water consumption in healthy individuals. Objective data on water turnover in free-living individuals are limited, however.\\u000a The aim of the present work was to measure water turnover in children and young adults using isotopically labeled water to\\u000a provide objective data on magnitude

Elaine C. Rush; Purvi Chhichhia; Andrew E. Kilding; Lindsay D. Plank

2010-01-01

88

Does Vocational Training Matter for Young Adults in the Labour Market?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of vocational training on employment and income is investigated for young adults. Young adults without further education and training are compared to young adults with two-years and young adults with three-years of vocational training. The sample consists of 41 000 Swedish young adults born in 1974. The employment of these young adults

Murray, Asa; Skarlind, Anders

2005-01-01

89

Secondary Level Re-Entry of Young Canadian Adult Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper illuminates and details some of the traits, pressures and semi-autonomy of the young adult between the ages of 18 and 24 who must confront the barriers and challenges upon returning to secondary school within the high school and the adult education centre context. Focusing on these young adults is fundamentally important to begin to…

MacGregor, Cassandra; Ryan, Thomas G.

2011-01-01

90

Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer, CSR 1975-2005  

Cancer.gov

Tumors affecting adolescents and young adults often differ from those affecting pediatric and older adult populations (1). For this reason, a classification scheme has been proposed for tumors diagnosed in adolescents and young adults (2). This classification scheme was updated based on site and histology codes of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition (3).

91

Young adults' reactions to infant crying.  

PubMed

An infant's optimal development is determined to a great extent by the adequate and sensitive responses of the caregiver. The adequacy and sensitivity of a reaction to an infant in distress (i.e. crying) will partly depend on the causal attributions of the crying and on the individual's sympathy for the infant. Being female, prior caring experiences, and multiparity have shown to be linked to more sympathetic, tolerant and less hostile emotional responses to crying. However, little is known about other factors explaining inexperienced future caregivers' reactions to infant crying. The present paper's goal is to shed more light on the subject by looking at how personality factors, caregiving interest, sex, promptness of the reaction, and gender identity are related to emotional reactions and causal attributions to crying in a population of young adults without children. One hundred and ninety-one childless university students participated (126 females; ages 18-35 years). The participants completed questionnaires on personality, gender identity and caregiving interest, and listened to an audio sample of an infant crying, reporting their emotions and their causal attributions to the crying. The results showed that experiencing anger was associated with more child-blaming attributions to the crying, while quickness of response and feelings of sympathy predicted more child-oriented attributions. The latter was stronger in males. Explicit care interest decreased child-blaming causal attributions more for men than for the women. Interestingly, solely in the females' personality factors neuroticism and conscientiousness played a role in child blaming attributions together with anger. These findings suggest that the motives that young adults attribute to a crying infant depend in males on the emotions triggered by the crying, responsiveness and care interest. While in females, emotions, responsiveness and personality affect the causal attribution to the crying. Future research is needed in order to determine whether these attributions are also linked to young adults' actual behaviour towards a crying infant. PMID:24463036

Cohen-Bendahan, C C C; van Doornen, L J P; de Weerth, C

2014-02-01

92

Sexual Prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults  

PubMed Central

Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195

Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos

2014-01-01

93

Dietary Fiber Intake of Children and Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine dietary fiber intake of children and young adults.Design and setting Cross-sectional surveys of children and young adults in Bogalusa, La.Subjects Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected from 1976 to 1988 on five cohorts of 10-year-olds (n=l,254), two cohorts of 13-year-olds (n=360), and young adults (n=504) 19 to 28 years of age.Statistics Dietary fiber intake data were analyzed for

THERESA A. NICKLAS; ROSANNE P. FARRIS; LEANN MYERS; GERALD S. BERENSON

1995-01-01

94

Stroke in young adults: about 128 cases  

PubMed Central

Ischemic stroke is rare in young adults, but it is genuinely a serious situation giving the fact that it touch a very active part of our society. We report a series of 128 cases. The purpose is to analyze the risk factors, etiologies and outcomes of ischemic stroke in young adults in Marrakesh. Retrospective study performed at the Neurology department Mohammed VI universitary hospital in Marrakesh interesting 128 patients. The diagnosis of ischemic stroke was assessed through clinical and radiological confrontation. Results: The age of our patients varied from 18 to 45 years old, 76 males and 52 females giving a male: female ratio of 1:46. Hypertension was the first risk factor involved with 63 (49.2%) cases, followed by smoking with 52 (40.6%) patients. The causes of ischemic stroke were characterized by the predominance of the cardio embolic origin with 43 (33.5%) cases, the existence of 14 (11%) cases of syphilitic arthritis, and the 52 (40.6%) cases of unknown etiologies. The authors stress the difficulties faced on supporting ischemic stroke in southern Morocco in particular when concerned by the etiological finding and the rehabilitation after the acute phase of the stroke. Our study points out the high incidence of embolic heart disease in our context. The lack of neurologists, low coverage of the population and the underestimation by physicians are factors that can explain why ischemic stroke remain undiagnosed. PMID:24932348

Chraa, Mohamed; Louhab, Nesrine; Kissani, Najib

2014-01-01

95

HEALTH INDICATORS AMONG UNEMPLOYED AND EMPLOYED YOUNG ADULTS  

PubMed Central

Research on the prevalence of health indicators by employment status among young US adults is limited. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of young adults aged 18 to 24 years to document the prevalence of five health behaviors (cigarette smoking, risky drinking, leisure-time physical activity, and fruit and French fries consumption) by employment status. Unemployed young adults reported higher levels of risky drinking and nonengagement in leisure-time physical activity, while employed young adults had higher levels of smoking, French fries consumption, and low fruit/vegetable consumption. Transportation/material-moving young adult workers reported the highest level of risky drinking (13.5%), and precision production/craft/repair workers reported the highest smoking rates (39.7%). We found an elevated prevalence of risk factors, which places young workers at increased risk for the development of chronic conditions later in life. PMID:21270653

Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Lee, David J.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Davila, Evelyn P.; Fleming, Lora E.; LeBlanc, William G.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.; Christ, Sharon L.; Zimmerman, Frederick J.; Muntaner, Carles; Hollenbeck, Julie A

2011-01-01

96

GEOTROPIC CREEPING OF YOUNG RATS  

PubMed Central

The rate of upward creeping in negatively geotropic rats aged 13 to 14 days is a function of the gravitational stimulus. The rate of upward movement on the creeping plane, like the angle of orientation, is directly proportional to the logarithm of the gravity component. The variability in the speed of creeping decreases in proportion to the logarithm of the gravitational effect. When weights are attached to the animals' tails the rate of upward creeping varies almost directly as the logarithm of the attached weight, and the speed of creeping is still proportional to the angle of upward orientation. PMID:19872341

Pincus, G.

1927-01-01

97

Chinese older, middle-aged, and young participants' stereotypes of young adults  

E-print Network

This study examined stereotype traits of Chinese young adults generated by 180 older, middle-aged, and young Chinese participants. Trait lists were compared across age groups and to Western traits reported in earlier research. Results indicated a...

Zhang, Yan Bing; Wang, Kai

2006-01-01

98

Do you know a child, adolescent, or young adult  

E-print Network

, comprehensive assessments to children, adolescents, and young adults experiencing emotional (anxiety, depressionDo you know a child, adolescent, or young adult who is having difficulties in school, with peers.g., aggression, hyperactivity, substance use, depression) 2. Evaluation of learning difficulties, attention

Li, X. Rong

99

Psychological adjustment and adaptive impairments in young adults with ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compared a group of 25 young adults with ADHD to 23 young adults drawn from the community equated for age (Mean = 25 yrs.) and educational level (Mean 13 yrs.) using a structured psychiatric interview (non-blinded), self-report ratings of psychological distress, and psychological tests of inattention, impulsive responding, working memory, verbal fluency, sense of time, and creativity.

R. A. Barkley; K. Murphy; D. Kwasnik

1996-01-01

100

Family Relationships in Realistic Young Adult Fiction, 1987 to 1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine how parents and family relationships are characterized in realistic young adult fiction. A random sample of 20 realistic young adult novels was selected from the American Library Association's Best Lists for the years 1987-1991. A content analysis of the novels focused on the following: (1) whether…

Sampson, Cathie

101

Intergenerational Relationships and Affectual Solidarity between Grandparents and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines whether both parents' relationships with their offspring, parents, and parents-in-law matter for young adults' perceptions of closeness to grandparents. This study focuses on two groups of grandchildren (ages 18-23) in Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households: young adults with married biological parents (N =…

Monserud, Maria A.

2008-01-01

102

Reading Interests of Young Adults in Medina County, Ohio.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the reading interests of the young adult participants in the summer reading program at Medina County District Library (Ohio). Findings were compared to research done in other locations and to current bibliographies of recommended reading for young adults. The study looked at a systematic sample of reader…

Fronius, Sandra K.

103

Serving Adolescents' Reading Interests through Young Adult Literature. Fastback 258.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help parents and teachers select books for young people that reflect the actual interests of adolescents, this booklet discusses titles that both appeal to teenagers and help adults gain insight into their needs, their concerns, and their values. Titles of chapters in the booklet are as follows: (1) "Are Young Adult Books Literature?";…

Fuchs, Lucy

104

Well Researched, Yet Little Understood: Young Adults and Physical Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors present two beginning studies. One investigated the teaching-style preferences of young adults, and the other looked at physical activity trends within this age group. One key to understanding young adults and physical activity is to recognize the importance of participant cognition on physical activity patterns. From this…

Cothran, Donetta; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

2005-01-01

105

Economic Socialization, Saving and Assets in European Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of young adults by parents using data from European young adults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…

Webley, Paul; Nyhus, Ellen K.

2013-01-01

106

Social Cognitive Correlates of Young Adult Sport Competitors' Sunscreen Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis…

Berndt, Nadine C.; O'Riordan, David L.; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville

2011-01-01

107

Dental Care among Young Adults with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer…

Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

2013-01-01

108

Teens' Favorite Books: Young Adults' Choices 1987-1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to make the job of encouraging adolescents to read less of a challenge, this book provides descriptions of all of the approximately 150 examples of young adult literature that were selected "Young Adults' Choices" in the yearly voting by teenagers conducted from 1987 to 1992. Each entry in the book includes bibliographic information, an…

International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

109

Breakfast is the Lowest Fat Meal for Young Adult Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breakfast consumption and the contribution of breakfast foods to the daily fat and fiber intakes of young adults were evaluated in a sample of 2628 young adults (mean ± SD age = 19.6 ± 3.0 years).The subjects (males = 817, females = 1811) completed 24-hour dietary records for a college introductory nutrition class. The 1-day dietary intake data were analyzed

Ya-Li Huang; Sharon L. Hoerr; Won O. Song

1997-01-01

110

Young adults' food motives: an Australian social marketing perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Understanding the drivers of young adults' healthy food choices is vital to addressing the public health issue of obesity. The healthy eating motives that underlay such consumer choice behavior are particularly important to the well-being of society. This research is novel in that it aims to investigate the food motives of young Australian adults in relation to five

Tegan Piggford; Maria Raciti; Debra Harker; Michael Harker

2008-01-01

111

Prescription drug misuse among club drug-using young adults.  

PubMed

Nonmedical prescription (Rx) drug use has recently increased, particularly among young adults. Using time-space sampling to generate a probability-based sample of club-going young adults (18-29), 400 subjects provided data on Rx drug misuse. Club-going young adults misuse Rx drugs at high rates. An overwhelming majority of the sample indicated lifetime use of pain killers, sedatives, and stimulants. A majority indicated recent pain killer use. Variations by gender and sexuality exist in this population. Young lesbian/bisexual women emerged as the group most likely to abuse Rx drugs. Research into the contexts influencing these patterns is imperative. PMID:17994483

Kelly, Brian C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

2007-01-01

112

Information and service needs for young adult cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Young adulthood is a time of increased vulnerability to stress and presents young adult cancer patients and off-treatment\\u000a survivors with major developmental challenges above and beyond those faced by their peers. The intent of this study was to\\u000a examine supportive care needs and preferences among young adult cancer patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Two hundred and seventeen young adults aged 18–40 years and diagnosed with

Brad Zebrack

2008-01-01

113

Asthma and Panic in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Psychologic factors are increasingly recognized to influence the onset and course of asthma. Previous cross-sectional community-based studies have provided evidence for a relatively specific association between asthma and panic. Objectives: To examine concurrent and longitudinal associations between asthma and panic in young adults. Measurements and Main Results: Prospective community-based cohort study of young adults (n = 591) followed between ages 19 and 40. Information was derived from six subsequent semistructured diagnostic interviews conducted by professionals. Cross-sectionally (over the whole study period), asthma was more strongly associated with panic disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7, 9.3) than with any panic, which included panic disorder and panic attacks (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1, 4.5). Longitudinally, after adjusting for potentially confounding variables, active asthma predicted subsequent panic disorder (OR = 4.5; 95% CI, 1.1, 20.1), and the presence of panic disorder predicted subsequent asthma activity (OR = 6.3; 95% CI, 2.8, 14.0). Asthma predicted any panic (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1, 7.1), whereas any panic did not predict subsequent asthma activity. Associations were stronger in smokers than in nonsmokers, and stronger in women than in men. Smoking, early-childhood anxiety, and a family history of allergy were important confounders of the asthma–panic association. Conclusions: This is the first long-term follow-up study on asthma and panic. It showed dose–response-type relationships between panic and asthma, and bidirectional longitudinal associations between the two conditions. It provided evidence for familial factors and smoking as possible shared etiologic explanations. PMID:15764721

Hasler, Gregor; Gergen, Peter J.; Kleinbaum, David G.; Ajdacic, Vladeta; Gamma, Alex; Eich, Dominique; Rössler, Wulf; Angst, Jules

2005-01-01

114

Spatial navigation in young versus older adults  

PubMed Central

Older age is associated with changes in the brain, including the medial temporal lobe, which may result in mild spatial navigation deficits, especially in allocentric navigation. The aim of the study was to characterize the profile of real-space allocentric (world-centered, hippocampus-dependent) and egocentric (body-centered, parietal lobe dependent) navigation and learning in young vs. older adults, and to assess a possible influence of gender. We recruited healthy participants without cognitive deficits on standard neuropsychological testing, white matter lesions or pronounced hippocampal atrophy: 24 young participants (18–26 years old) and 44 older participants stratified as participants 60–70 years old (n = 24) and participants 71–84 years old (n = 20). All underwent spatial navigation testing in the real-space human analog of the Morris Water Maze, which has the advantage of assessing separately allocentric and egocentric navigation and learning. Of the eight consecutive trials, trials 2–8 were used to reduce bias by a rebound effect (more dramatic changes in performance between trials 1 and 2 relative to subsequent trials). The participants who were 71–84 years old (p < 0.001), but not those 60–70 years old, showed deficits in allocentric navigation compared to the young participants. There were no differences in egocentric navigation. All three groups showed spatial learning effect (p’ s ? 0.01). There were no gender differences in spatial navigation and learning. Linear regression limited to older participants showed linear (? = 0.30, p = 0.045) and quadratic (? = 0.30, p = 0.046) effect of age on allocentric navigation. There was no effect of age on egocentric navigation. These results demonstrate that navigation deficits in older age may be limited to allocentric navigation, whereas egocentric navigation and learning may remain preserved. This specific pattern of spatial navigation impairment may help differentiate normal aging from prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24391585

Gazova, Ivana; Laczó, Jan; Rubinova, Eva; Mokrisova, Ivana; Hyncicova, Eva; Andel, Ross; Vyhnalek, Martin; Sheardova, Katerina; Coulson, Elizabeth J.; Hort, Jakub

2013-01-01

115

Quality Books about Bullying in the Young Adult Tradition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anti-bullying experts employ trade books in dealing with contemporary issues facing young people, including bullying. At least three conceptual strands underpin the application of young adult literature (YAL) in such enterprises: (1) reliance on tested voices appealing to young readers; (2) the potential effect of quality YAL on literacy…

Larson, Joanne; Hoover, John H.

2012-01-01

116

Nociceptive Behavior following Hindpaw Burn Injury in Young Rats: Response to Systemic Morphine  

PubMed Central

Objective Develop a burn injury model in young age rats. Background Management of pain after burn injury in pediatric patients is an unresolved clinical issue. Methods A burn injury model in young rats of 3–4 weeks old was developed by briefly immersing the dorsal part of the right hindpaw in a hot water bath (85°C) for 12 seconds under pentobarbital anesthesia. Results Burn injury, but not sham control, induced nociceptive behaviors (mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia) when examined on post-injury day 2, 4 and 7. In burn-injured rats, there was the upregulated expression of the NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-d- aspartate (NMDA) receptor, Akt1, Akt2, and protein kinase C ? (PKC ?), but downregulated expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?), within the spinal cord dorsal horn ipsilateral to burn injury. Moreover, intraperitoneal administration of a clinically available NMDA receptor antagonist dextromethorphan (30 mg/kg, once daily × 7 days beginning on day 7 after burn injury) attenuated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in burn-injured rats. Different from our previous finding in adult burn-injured rats, however, burn injury in young rats of this age did not spontaneously shift the morphine antinociceptive response curve to the right within the dose range used in the study when exposed to morphine for the first time, suggesting that the development of intrinsic tolerance to morphine antinociception may be different from adult rats following burn injury. Conclusions Our data suggest that this model may be used to explore the mechanisms of burn injury-induced nociception in young rats and to differentiate the sequelae from burn injury between adult and young rats under certain experimental conditions. PMID:21143761

Wang, Shuxing; Zhang, Lin; Ma, Yuxin; Chen, Lucy; Tian, Yinghong

2010-01-01

117

[Mortality in young adults: international comparisons].  

PubMed

In searching for an epidemiological indicator which might reflect the impact of the widespread use of various drugs among California youth in the late 1960s, the customary sources of health statistics were found to be unsatisfactory due to the lack of consensus on diagnosis of drug related problems. Examination of mortality of young adults (persons aged 15-24, YAM) showed marked and paradoxical rises when drug use was rising. Males and Blacks had higher rates than females and Whites; motor vehicle accidents were the largest single overall cause. But the rise, both in California and the US was proportionally greater among women and motor vehicle accidents did not contribute to the rise. Examination of rates during mid-1970s for various countries showed that for countries with per capita income less than about $3,000 per year, YAM due to diseases was very closely correlated with per capita income. Above that external cause, YAM and particularly that due to motor vehicle accidents, increased with per capita income. The increase was steeper in some countries than in others. The difference in these two groups of countries was correlated with fraction of national income spent on education and with ethnic homogeneity. In the US fluctuations in YAM paralleled admissions for heroin use. As part of the Epidemiological Revolution, young adult mortality complements infant mortality, since it is closely related to social health, employment opportunities and appropriateness of education. Further, it is important for the potential development of a country, region, or community. This report examines YAM data for mid-1980s from selected countries and notes major changes during the past decade, most countries having shown striking decreases. In some countries high rates of suicide, homicide and death due to civil disorders provide an incentive for further improvement. In other countries, the high rates for death attributed to motor vehicle crashes compels attention. Involvement of young persons themselves in plans for improvement of their opportunities seems an essential strategy, for which the educational strategies suggested by Freire seem to be appropriate. PMID:8480252

Goldsmith, J R; Cwikel, J M

1993-01-01

118

78 FR 58290 - TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE Young Adult Program Premium Update  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEFENSE Office of the Secretary TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE Young Adult Program...Updated TRICARE Young Adult Premiums for Calendar Year 2014...TRICARE Young Adult program premiums for Calendar Year (CY) 2014. DATES: The CY...

2013-09-23

119

A Book, a Place, a Time: Using Young Adult Novels in a Reading Workshop (Young Adult Literature).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Patti Cleary, an eighth-grade teacher, and her students. Discusses their perceptions of young adult literature and the reading workshop. Lists and describes new young adult titles that may appeal to fans of romances, S. E. Hinton, short books, and sports novels. (TB)

Foster, Harold M.; And Others

1995-01-01

120

Postsecondary Employment Experiences Among Young Adults With an Autism Spectrum Disorder RH: Employment in Young Adults With Autism  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined postsecondary employment experiences of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and compared these outcomes with those of young adults with different disabilities. Method Data were from Wave 5 of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2), a nationally representative survey of young adults who had received special education services during high school. We examined the prevalence of ever having had—and currently having—a paid job at 21–25 years of age. We analyzed rates of full employment, wages earned, number of jobs held since high school, and job types. Results About half (53.4%) of young adults with an ASD had ever worked for pay outside the home since leaving high school, the lowest rate among disability groups. Young adults with an ASD earned an average of $8.10 per hour, significantly lower than average wages for young adults in the comparison groups, and held jobs that clustered within fewer occupational types. Odds of ever having had a paid job were higher for those who were older, from higher-income households, and with better conversational abilities or functional skills. Conclusions Findings of worse employment outcomes for young adults with an ASD suggest this population is experiencing particular difficulty in successfully transitioning into employment. Research is needed to determine strategies for improving outcomes as these young adults transition into adulthood. PMID:23972695

Roux, Anne M.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Anderson, Kristy A.; Wagner, Mary; Narendorf, Sarah C.

2013-01-01

121

Functional literacy of Young Guyanese Adults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional literacy is interpreted as the ability of the individual to apply skills in reading, writing, calculation and basic problem-solving in those activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning in his/her own group and community. The paper describes the rationale, development and administration of the test used for measuring levels (high, moderate, low) of achievement in functional literacy in three domains (document, prose and quantitative). An assumption of the study was that a high level of functional literacy was required for the individual to function effectively in his/her own group and community. The context of the study is Guyana the most underdeveloped and impoverished country in the English-speaking Caribbean. The subjects are out of school youth in Guyana aged 14-25. Amongst the main findings are: only approximately 11% of the young people show a high level of functional literacy; females tend to have a higher level of functional literacy than males: and most of those at the low level never went beyond primary and low status secondary schools and usually end up unemployed or in semi- or unskilled jobs. Attention is drawn to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate which is reported for Guyana in international statistics. While they credit Guyana with an adult literacy rate of 97.5%, the study suggests that a more realistic figure is in the 70s. The importance of adult and continuing education is underscored in view of the need to help those who are out of school to meet the ever-changing demands of society for improved skills in literacy and numeracy.

Jennings, Zellyne

2000-05-01

122

Maze learning and morphology of frontal cortex in adult and aged basal forebrain-lesioned rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maze performance and morphology of frontal cortex were assessed in young adult, middle-aged, and aged rats with and without lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Although maze performance did not vary with age, neuron number and the thickness of superficial laminae were reduced in aged rats. Lamina II-IH neurons were hypertrophied in middle-aged rats relative to both younger and older

Cara L. Wellman; Sheree F. Logue; Dale R. Sengelaub

1995-01-01

123

Equivalent irrelevant-sound effects for old and young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments are reported in which a total of 182 old and 193 young adults recalled sequences of digits presented visually\\u000a in silence or accompanied by office noise. In each experiment, an effect of irrelevant sound was found—that is, a reduction\\u000a of serial recall due to auditory distraction. Old adults exhibited poorer serial recall than did young adults, but the

Raoul Bell; Axel Buchner

2007-01-01

124

Differential regulation of immune responses and macrophage\\/neuron interactions in the dorsal root ganglion in young and adult rats following nerve injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain is an apparently spontaneous experience triggered by abnormal physiology of the peripheral or central nervous system, which evolves with time. Neuropathic pain arising from peripheral nerve injury is characterized by a combination of spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia. There is no evidence of this type of pain in human infants or rat pups; brachial plexus avulsion, which

David Vega-Avelaira; Sandrine M Géranton; Maria Fitzgerald

2009-01-01

125

Social Participation Among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder  

PubMed Central

Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in social activities among young adults who received special education services for autism (ASD group), compared to young adults who received special education for intellectual disability, emotional/behavioral disability, or a learning disability. Young adults with an ASD were significantly more likely to never see friends, never get called by friends, never be invited to activities, and be socially isolated. Among those with an ASD, lower conversation ability, lower functional skills, and living with parent were predictors of less social participation. PMID:23615687

Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.

2013-01-01

126

Exploring the experiences of young people nursed on adult wards.  

PubMed

This paper reports on a study of experiences of young people aged 14 to 18 years who were nursed on acute adult hospital wards in NHS hospitals in England. In spite of British government guidelines, young people from 14 years of age continue to be admitted to adult wards in the UK. Although much has been written about the transition of the young person to adult services, there is little research about the experiences of young people who are nursed on adult wards. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to explore the lived experiences of eight young people who had been nursed on adult wards between 2004 and 2010. Data were collected in 2010. In-depth interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Colaizzi's framework ( Colaizzi, 1978 ). Themes explored included expectations of what the experience may be like, young people's first impressions of the ward environment, the feelings of the young person while in hospital, the attitudes of people towards them including, both staff and other patients, and future admissions and how they would cope with readmissions. Better provision needs to be made for young people including appropriately trained staff, adolescent-friendly environments and areas in adult wards that are dedicated to adolescents. PMID:25723268

Dean, Linda; Black, Sharon

2015-02-26

127

Young Adults, Technology, and Weight Loss: A Focus Group Study  

PubMed Central

Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have very little knowledge on the use of Smartphone technology for weight loss but would like to use this type of technology to help them lose weight. Results also indicated that young adults struggle to make healthy food choices and have priorities that outweigh exercise and they need support and guidance to make better decisions. In conclusion, young adults would be open to using Smartphone technology for weight loss but also need feedback and guidance to help make healthy decisions. PMID:25789170

Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K.

2015-01-01

128

Serotonergic Cell Signaling in an Animal Model of Aging and Depression: Olfactory Bulbectomy Elicits Different Adaptations in Brain Regions of Young Adult vs Aging Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging involves neuronal and synaptic loss, and maintenance of function depends on adaptations in cellular responsiveness. We studied olfactory bulbectomy (OBX), a model that recapitulates monoaminergic dysfunction in depression, in 10-week vs 19-month-old rats, and evaluated 5HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) mechanisms. OBX elicited little change in 5HT1A receptors in the cerebral cortex or striatum of either age group. In contrast, 5HT2

Theodore A Slotkin; Mandy M Cousins; Charlotte A Tate; Frederic J Seidler

2005-01-01

129

Young adults' relations with grandparents following recent parental divorce.  

PubMed

This study employed a large survey of young adults to consider the association between recent parental divorce and intergenerational solidarity between adult grandchildren and their grandparents. The results indicate no significant association between parental divorce and young adults' reports of affective, associational, or functional solidarity in relation to either maternal or paternal grandparents. Adult grandchildren from divorced families, however, were more likely than those from intact families to initiate contacts with their grandparents on their own, and to see their paternal grandparents without their father accompanying them. We conclude that parental divorce does not influence adult grandchild-grandparent relations because, at least in part, adult grandchildren are less dependent than young children on the middle-generation parent to facilitate this relationship. PMID:8785697

Cooney, T M; Smith, L A

1996-03-01

130

Adolescent & Young Adult Health Outcomes & Patient Experience Study  

Cancer.gov

Compared to younger and older aged cancer populations, the adolescent and young adult (AYA) population between the ages of 15 and 39 years has seen little or no improvement in cancer survival rates for decades.

131

Brain Protein Tied to Alzheimer's Spotted in Young Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Brain Protein Tied to Alzheimer's Spotted in Young Adults ... Alzheimer's Disease MONDAY, March 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Brain plaque buildup, long linked to the onset of ...

132

Psychosocial predictors of smoking behaviour in young adults   

E-print Network

Objectives. The present study aimed to examine the influence of psychosocial factors on smoking behaviour in young adults. Design. The study used a cross-sectional exploratory design. Methods. The participants were 204 ...

Castle, Emma

2006-01-01

133

Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Homeless Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Adolescent homelessness has received increasing attention due to its fast growth throughout the United States and the poor mental outcomes experienced by homeless young people. This cross-sectional study (N = 156) identified correlates of depressive symptomatology among homeless young adults and investigated how depressive symptoms are influenced by the coping strategies these young adults employ. The findings are based on analysis of baseline data collected for a hepatitis vaccination intervention pilot study conducted in partnership with a young adult’s drop-in center in Santa Monica, California. Standardized tools assessed drug use history, coping ability, and psychiatric symptomatology. Linear regression modeling was used to identify correlates of depressive symptom severity. Poor perceived physical health, recent crack cocaine use and recent use of tranquilizers were significantly associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. Self-destructive escape, non-disclosure/avoidance, passive problem-solving and thoughts of harming self were also associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:21131507

Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary; Slagle, Alexandra; Greengold, Barbara; Liu, Yihang; Leake, Barbara

2013-01-01

134

Uncovering the Biology of Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults  

Cancer.gov

Evidence suggests that some adolescent and young adult cancers may have unique genetic and biological features. Researchers are trying to better understand the biology of these cancers in order to identify potential therapeutic targets.

135

Hearing loss and tinnitus in adolescents and young adults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little attention has been paid to hearing abilities and the effects of noise on the normal adolescent and young adult population. A series of studies will be presented on the prevalence of hearing loss and reported effects of hearing loss and tinnitus in adolescents and young adults from different cultural backgrounds. Adolescents and young adults from different backgrounds may tend to seek or avoid various noise environments that could be detrimental to their hearing and cause tinnitus. Attitudes and exposures to noise environments were evaluated to see if these may be correlated with their hearing losses and/or tinnitus. In addition, these adolescent and young adult subjects reported how often they used hearing protection in various noise environments. Finally, the issues of quality of life and the need for hearing conservation programs with these populations will be presented.

Holmes, Alice

2001-05-01

136

Adult Female Walruses on Ice Floe with Young  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Adult female walruses on ice floe with young.  Notice the radio tag borne on her her upper mid back.  This tag will monitor resting and foraging behavior and convey the information back to USGS scientists....

137

Amyloid-Beta Induced CA1 Pyramidal Cell Loss in Young Adult Rats Is Alleviated by Systemic Treatment with FGL, a Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule-Derived Mimetic Peptide  

PubMed Central

Increased levels of neurotoxic amyloid-beta in the brain are a prominent feature of Alzheimer’s disease. FG-Loop (FGL), a neural cell adhesion molecule-derived peptide that corresponds to its second fibronectin type III module, has been shown to provide neuroprotection against a range of cellular insults. In the present study impairments in social recognition memory were seen 24 days after a 5 mg/15 µl amyloid-beta(25–35) injection into the right lateral ventricle of the young adult rat brain. This impairment was prevented if the animal was given a systemic treatment of FGL. Unbiased stereology was used to investigate the ability of FGL to alleviate the deleterious effects on CA1 pyramidal cells of the amyloid-beta(25–35) injection. NeuN, a neuronal marker (for nuclear staining) was used to identify pyramidal cells, and immunocytochemistry was also used to identify inactive glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3?) and to determine the effects of amyloid-beta(25–35) and FGL on the activation state of GSK3?, since active GSK3? has been shown to cause a range of AD pathologies. The cognitive deficits were not due to hippocampal atrophy as volume estimations of the entire hippocampus and its regions showed no significant loss, but amyloid-beta caused a 40% loss of pyramidal cells in the dorsal CA1 which was alleviated partially by FGL. However, FGL treatment without amyloid-beta was also found to cause a 40% decrease in CA1 pyramidal cells. The action of FGL may be due to inactivation of GSK3?, as an increased proportion of CA1 pyramidal neurons contained inactive GSK3? after FGL treatment. These data suggest that FGL, although potentially disruptive in non-pathological conditions, can be neuroprotective in disease-like conditions. PMID:23951173

Corbett, Nicola J.; Gabbott, Paul L.; Klementiev, Boris; Davies, Heather A.; Colyer, Frances M.; Novikova, Tatiana; Stewart, Michael G.

2013-01-01

138

Smoking behaviour among young adults: beyond youth prevention  

PubMed Central

Objective: There is a widespread assumption that smoking behaviour is largely established by the age of 18 years. As a result, smoking prevention has focused almost exclusively upon youth. However, recent trends suggest that young adulthood may be an important—and largely overlooked—period in the development of regular smoking behaviour. The current study sought to examine patterns of tobacco use among young adults (aged 18–29 years) and to address the implications for tobacco control policy. Design: Data are presented from the 2003 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey, a national survey of smoking behaviour (n = 10 559, response rate 89%). Main outcome measures: Measures of smoking behaviour, smoking initiation, susceptibility to smoking, and occupational status. Results: A total of 1.4 million or 28% of young adults in Canada currently smoke, the highest proportion among all age groups. The prevalence of daily smoking rose from 8% among youth to 22% among young adults, and approximately one fifth of smokers tried their first cigarette after the age of 18 years. Smoking behaviour among young adults was also distinct from older smokers: young adults were more likely to be occasional smokers and reported lower daily consumption. Finally, smoking prevalence and cessation rates varied substantially within subgroups of young adults, as characterised by occupational setting. Conclusions: Dramatic increases in the proportion and intensity of smoking occurs after the age of 18 years. Smoking behaviour among young adults is distinct from both youth and older adults, and warrants immediate attention from the public health community. PMID:15923468

Hammond, D

2005-01-01

139

Food insecurity and increased BMI in young adult women.  

PubMed

Food insecurity has been associated with weight status in children and adults although results have been mixed. We aimed to identify whether food insecurity was associated with BMI in young adults and whether this association differed by gender and was modified by food stamp use and the presence of children in the home. Cross-sectional data from wave 4 (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate the association between food insecurity and BMI in gender stratified models of young adult women (n = 7,116) and men (n = 6,604) controlling for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, the presence of children in the home, and food stamp use in young adulthood and/or adolescence. Food insecurity was more common in young adult women (14%) than young adult men (9%). After controlling for a variety of individual variables, food insecure women had a BMI that was on average 0.9 kg/m(2) units higher than women who were food secure. This difference in BMI persisted after controlling for recent or past food stamp use and was not different among women with or without children in the household. No relationship was found between food insecurity and BMI in young adult men. Providers should inquire about food insecurity, especially when treating obesity, and policy initiatives should address the role of access to healthy food in those facing food insecurity. PMID:21779092

Gooding, Holly C; Walls, Courtney E; Richmond, Tracy K

2012-09-01

140

Multiple Voices, Multiple Genres: Fiction for Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that with so many multivoice novels accessible to teens, there is a great opportunity to expand students' reading repertoire. Proposes that young adult novels are an excellent transition to classic literature that may seem remote or difficult. Offers advice on teaching multivoice novels. Concludes that multivoice novels show young readers…

Gillis, Candida

2002-01-01

141

Psychiatric Comorbidity in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the findings of a study investigating rates and types of comorbid mental disorder evident in adolescents and young adults with autism. A sample of 84 young people (M = 19.5 years, SD = 4.6) with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association,…

Moseley, David S.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Brereton, Avril V.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

2011-01-01

142

Newspapers and citizenship: Young adults’ subjective experience of newspapers  

Microsoft Academic Search

American newspaper executives and conservative critics complain that young adults who don't read newspapers and lack a knowledge of basic facts may be unprepared to become informed citizens. Studies also correlate newspaper reading with political interest. Young readers, who begin with comics and turn to newspapers for entertainment, do not find political news meaningful. This study explored what the newspaper

Kevin G. Barnhurst; Ellen Wartella

1991-01-01

143

Social Participation among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in…

Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.

2013-01-01

144

Solo: Facilitating structured or emergent learning outcomes for young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spending time alone in the natural environment is not something that many young (or for that matter, older) adults do \\/ have done. This is not too surprising given the urbanised mode of living that has come to dominate UK society in the last two hundred years and the latter day paranoia around 'stranger danger' that has paralysed young peoples

Andy Williams

145

Initiating Factors of Chinese Intergenerational Conflict: Young Adults' Written Accounts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined young adults' written accounts of intergenerational communication in conflict situations in the People's Republic of China. Using a content analysis approach, this study identified five major types of initiating factors that precipitated intergenerational conflict. Old-to-young criticism was most frequent, followed by illegitimate demand and rebuff. The least frequent initiating factors included young-to-old criticism and disagreement\\/generation gap. In

Yan Bing Zhang

2004-01-01

146

Environmental sustainability: Understanding young adults' learning, thinking, and actions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis explores the ways in which young-adults' environmental learning and experiences influence their decision to live sustainably. In particular, this thesis focuses on young adults' environmental and sustainability learning. It elaborates on young peoples' views about environmental and sustainability issues, such as climate change, the sources for their learning about these issues, and how young adults' learning encounters, in turn, affect their actions toward environmental protection and decision-making. Through a series of in-depth individual interviews with 18 young adults from three universities in southeastern Ontario, this qualitative study provides in-depth insight into young adults' understanding, learning experiences, and actions in relation to environmental and sustainability issues. Employing a Contextual Model of Learning framework the narratives of the young adults in this study are analyzed and discussed within three overlapping environmental learning contexts: personal, sociocultural, and physical settings. This framework allows for an examination of the complex interactions and relationships that shape how and where environmental learning occurs. The findings in this study suggest that the three overlapping learning contexts, that is the personal, sociocultural, and physical play an important role in shaping young adults' learning about environmental and sustainability issues. The data reveal that despite the unavailability or near-absence of environmental studies and education within the formal school curriculum (particularly at the elementary and high school levels), the young adults rely on other locations for learning, such as the internet, environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs), television, and family. In light of this, the research participants suggest the re-introduction of environmental programs and content in the school curriculum. Finally, the results of this study demonstrate the centrality of knowledge and experience in relation to environmental and sustainability issues in the actions and thoughts of the young adult research participants. This study makes an important contribution to the field of environmental and sustainability education by demonstrating the critical role of learning in a knowledge society. It illuminates the implications of various learning contexts for a sustainable global environment and future. Furthermore, it provides insight into the views of young adults regarding the future of the global environment and current sustainability initiatives in a world that faces ever-greater challenges.

Kola-Olusanya, Anthony O.

147

Life Course Status and Exchanges of Support between Young Adults and Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…

Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

2012-01-01

148

Neighborhood environment and marijuana use in urban young adults.  

PubMed

Risk factors for marijuana use in older adolescents and young adults have focused primarily on family environment and peer affiliation. A growing body of work has examined the relationship between environmental context and young adult substance use. This study builds on previous research linking neighborhood environment to young adult marijuana use by exploring two distinct features of neighborhoods, namely the physical (e.g., broken windows) and social environment (e.g., adults watching youth). Data were obtained from a longitudinal sample of 398 predominately African American young adults living in an urban environment. The data also included observational measures of physical and social order and disorder collected on the young adult's residential block. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was utilized to test hypothesized relationships between these two features of the neighborhood environment and past year young adult marijuana use. A two-factor model of neighborhood environment with good fit indices was selected (CFI?=?0.97, RMSEA?=?0.037). There was a positive and significant direct effect from neighborhood physical disorder to marijuana use (0.219, p?young adult marijuana use but do not provide empirical support for the neighborhood social environment as a determinant of drug taking. Better explication of the social environment is needed to understand its relationship to drug use. PMID:25005818

Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Lee, Myong Hwa; Johnson, Renee; Milam, Adam J; Duncan, Alexandra; Reboussin, Beth A; Leaf, Philip J; Ialongo, Nicholas S

2015-02-01

149

The neurotrophin receptor p75NTR mediates early anti-inflammatory effects of estrogen in the forebrain of young adult rats  

PubMed Central

Background Estrogen suppresses microglial activation and extravasation of circulating monocytes in young animals, supporting an anti-inflammatory role for this hormone. However, the mechanisms underlying estrogen's anti-inflammatory effects, especially in vivo, are not well understood. The present study tests the hypothesis that anti-inflammatory effects of estrogen are mediated by the pan-neurotrophin receptor p75NTR. Previously, we reported that estrogen attenuated local increases of interleukin(IL)-1? in the NMDA-lesioned olfactory bulb, while further increasing NGF expression. Results The present studies show that this lesion enhances expression of the neurotrophin receptor p75NTR at the lesion site, and p75NTR expression is further enhanced by estrogen treatment to lesioned animals. Specifically, estrogen stimulates p75NTR expression in cells of microvessels adjacent to the lesion site. To determine the role of this receptor in mediating estrogen's anti-inflammatory effects, a p75NTR neutralizing antibody was administered at the same time the lesion was created (by stereotaxic injections of NMDA) and specific markers of the inflammatory cascade were measured. Olfactory bulb injections of NMDA+vehicle (preimmune serum) increased IL-1? and activated the signaling molecule c-jun terminal kinase (JNK)-2 at 6 h. At 24 h, the lesion significantly increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and prostaglandin (PG)E2, a COX-2 mediated metabolite of arachadonic acid. All of these markers were significantly attenuated by estrogen in a time-dependent manner. However, estrogen's effects on all these markers were abolished in animals that received anti-p75NTR. Conclusion These data support the hypothesis that estrogen's anti-inflammatory effects may be, in part, mediated by this neurotrophin receptor. In view of the novel estrogen-dependent expression of p75NTR in cells associated with microvessels, these data also suggest that the blood brain barrier is a critical locus of estrogen's neuro-immune effects. PMID:16156894

Nordell, Vanessa L; Lewis, Danielle K; Bake, Shameena; Sohrabji, Farida

2005-01-01

150

Correlates of depressive symptoms among homeless young adults.  

PubMed

Adolescent homelessness has received increasing attention because of its fast growth throughout the United States and the poor mental outcomes experienced by homeless young people. This cross-sectional study (N = 156) identified correlates of depressive symptomatology among homeless young adults and investigated how depressive symptoms are influenced by the coping strategies these young adults use. The findings are based on analysis of baseline data collected for a hepatitis vaccination intervention pilot study conducted in partnership with a young adult's drop-in center in Santa Monica, California. Standardized tools assessed drug use history, coping ability, and psychiatric symptomatology. Linear regression modeling was used to identify correlates of depressive symptom severity. Poor perceived physical health, recent crack cocaine use, and recent use of tranquilizers were significantly associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. Self-destructive escape, nondisclosure/avoidance, passive problem solving, and thoughts of harming self were also associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:21131507

Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary; Slagle, Alexandra; Greengold, Barbara; Liu, Yihang; Leake, Barbara

2012-02-01

151

Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer, CSR 1975-2007  

Cancer.gov

Tumors affecting adolescents and young adults often differ from those affecting pediatric and older adult populations1. For this reason, a classification scheme has been proposed for tumors diagnosed in adolescents and young adults2. This classification scheme was updated based on site and histology codes of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition3. Effective 2001, all cases reported to SEER were required to have an ICD-O-3 histology and behavior code and all previous cases were converted to ICD-O-34.

152

Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer, CSR 1975-2011  

Cancer.gov

Tumors affecting adolescents and young adults often differ from those affecting pediatric and older adult populations1. For this reason, a classification scheme has been proposed for tumors diagnosed in adolescents and young adults2. This classification scheme was updated based on site and histology codes of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition3. Effective 2001, all cases reported to SEER were required to have an ICD-O-3 histology and behavior code and all previous cases were converted to ICD-O-34.

153

Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer, CSR 1975-2006  

Cancer.gov

Tumors affecting adolescents and young adults often differ from those affecting pediatric and older adult populations1. For this reason, a classification scheme has been proposed for tumors diagnosed in adolescents and young adults2. This classification scheme was updated based on site and histology codes of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition3. Effective 2001, all cases reported to SEER were required to have an ICD-O-3 histology and behavior code and all previous cases were converted to ICD-O-34.

154

Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer, CSR 1975-2008  

Cancer.gov

Tumors affecting adolescents and young adults often differ from those affecting pediatric and older adult populations1. For this reason, a classification scheme has been proposed for tumors diagnosed in adolescents and young adults2. This classification scheme was updated based on site and histology codes of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition3. Effective 2001, all cases reported to SEER were required to have an ICD-O-3 histology and behavior code and all previous cases were converted to ICD-O-34.

155

Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer, CSR 1975-2010  

Cancer.gov

Tumors affecting adolescents and young adults often differ from those affecting pediatric and older adult populations1. For this reason, a classification scheme has been proposed for tumors diagnosed in adolescents and young adults2. This classification scheme was updated based on site and histology codes of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition3. Effective 2001, all cases reported to SEER were required to have an ICD-O-3 histology and behavior code and all previous cases were converted to ICD-O-34.

156

The New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS): the young adult periods.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the findings and analyses, both qualitative and quantitative, of the young adult periods; early adult life (EAL) or ages 18 to 24, and young adult life (YAL) or ages 25 to 30. A summary is given of the sample and methods used in the study. Complexities of the life paths of the 133 subjects are traced, and the adolescent findings are discussed. In this middle class sample, the YAL period was found qualitatively to demand greater resolution of goals, life patterns and self-sufficiency than earlier periods. PMID:2207993

Chess, S; Thomas, A

1990-08-01

157

Cysteamine depletes prolactin in young and old hyperprolactinemic rats  

SciTech Connect

Studies were undertaken to evaluate the effects of cysteamine on serum and anterior pituitary concentrations of prolactin in hyperprolactinemic female rats. Serum prolactin was elevated in young (4 to 5 months old) rats by implantation of 17 beta-estradiol while 26- to 28-month-old rats were in constant estrus and exhibited an age-related hyperprolactinemia. At 4 h after treatment with cysteamine (90 mg/kg body wt) serum and anterior pituitary prolactin concentrations were reduced in young animals by 98 and 85%, respectively. In old constant-estrous rats, cysteamine reduced serum prolactin by 92% and anterior pituitary prolactin by 82%. In young pseudopregnant rats, cysteamine induced a prompt resumption of estrous cycles. These studies indicate that cysteamine is an effective depletor of serum and pituitary prolactin in hyperprolactinemic rats.

Simpkins, J.W.; Estes, K.S.; Millard, W.J.; Sagar, S.M.; Martin, J.B.

1983-05-01

158

Older Adults Expend More Listening Effort than Young Adults Recognizing Speech in Noise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Listening in noisy situations is a challenging experience for many older adults. The authors hypothesized that older adults exert more listening effort compared with young adults. Listening effort involves the attention and cognitive resources required to understand speech. The purpose was (a) to quantify the amount of listening effort…

Gosselin, Penny Anderson; Gagne, Jean-Pierre

2011-01-01

159

Young Adults and the Affordable Care Act: Protecting Young Adults and Eliminating Burdens on Businesses and Families  

E-print Network

and employers to prevent a gap in coverage for young adults aging off of their parents' policy prior' policies because of their age, whether or not they were a student or where they lived. The Affordable Care the adult child reaches the age of 26. Many parents and their children who worried about losing health

160

Snapshot of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... showed encouraging responses to the experimental drug cediranib. Published April 2013. [PubMed Abstract] Increased DNAmethylation in AYAs ... DNA methylation in leukemia formation in this population. Published June 2013. [PubMed Abstract] Selected Adolescent and Young ...

161

Employment and insurance for young adults with congenital heart disease.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To determine the life and health insurability and employability of young adults with congenital heart disease. DESIGN--Questionnaire study. SETTING--Cardiac department of a tertiary referral hospital for children. PATIENTS--Young adults 18-30 years old with a variety of congenital heart defects, both simple and complex, including postoperative patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Availability of insurance at normal or high rates, with or without special conditions or exclusions. Prospects for employment. RESULTS--Questionnaires were sent to eight large life insurance companies, five health insurance companies and, 15 employers, and 26 replies were received (93%). The consensus for life insurability was that young adults with mitral valve prolapse without regurgitation, postoperative ductus arteriosus, and aortic coarctation were insurable at standard rates. Those with any of the other heart defects listed were either insurable at high rates, or in the case of many lesions, not insurable at all. The consensus for health insurance was that insurance was available, but with complete exclusion of benefit for the cardiac disorder. Employment prospects were good for those with simple defects, but poorer for those with complex lesions. CONCLUSIONS--Prospects for insurance and employment for young adults with complex congenital heart lesions are poor. Inconsistencies found in insurance and job policies may be due to lack of appropriate guidelines for the outcome of young adults with corrected and uncorrected congenital heart disease. PMID:8343323

Celermajer, D S; Deanfield, J E

1993-01-01

162

Cigarillo use among high-risk urban young adults.  

PubMed

In the U.S., cigar use doubled from 5.0 to 10.6 billion cigars consumed annually between 1997 and 2007, driven in large part by increased sales of cigarette-sized "little cigars" and narrow, mid-sized "cigarillos." The present study examined prevalence of cigarillo use as well as attitudes, knowledge and behaviors related to cigarillo use among a sample of predominantly urban African American young adults 18-24 not in school and not employed. Survey data were collected from 131 young adults attending education and job training centers in Baltimore, Maryland and from 78 young adults attending education, job training, or recreational programs in Washington, D.C. In Baltimore, 22% of young adults had smoked a cigarillo in the past 30 days, compared with nearly 63% in D.C. Both populations were heavily exposed to cigarillo advertising and marketing. Cigarillo use in this urban young adult population is a growing public health problem and undermines the progress made in decreasing cigarette use. PMID:24185161

Milam, Adam J; Bone, Lee R; Byron, M Justin; Hoke, Kathleen; Williams, Carla D; Furr-Holden, C Debra; Stillman, Frances A

2013-11-01

163

A Complementary Alternative Medicine Questionnaire for Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Limited information exists on how adolescents decide to use complementary/alternative medicine (CAM). There are also no instruments specific to CAM, for the young adult population, which makes it difficult to explore knowledge in this area. The purpose of this study was to develop and examine the psychometric properties of the CAM Questionnaire for Young Adults which measures young adults’ attitudes about CAM. Participants for this cross-sectional survey were selected from enrolled undergraduate students at an urban university. Factor analysis identified three subscales: 1) positive beliefs about CAM; 2) environmental influence; and 3) psychological comfort. The scale has good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.79) and shows beginning demonstration of validity. Its use in this sample revealed that young adults who are female and have used CAM in the past for preventing or treating illness have the most positive attitude towards CAM and the greatest likelihood for continued use. The implication that prevention may play a role in young adults’ attitudes about CAM is a potential focus for future research. PMID:21614159

Patterson, Christine; Arthur, Heather

2009-01-01

164

Reverse correlating trustworthy faces in young and older adults.  

PubMed

Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as "facial trustworthiness."In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Todorov, 2008; Engell et al., 2010). Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Calder et al., 2003; Firestone et al., 2007; Ruffman et al., 2008; Chaby and Narme, 2009). Based on Todorov';s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004) reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment), from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness. PMID:24046755

Ethier-Majcher, Catherine; Joubert, Sven; Gosselin, Frédéric

2013-01-01

165

Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species  

PubMed Central

African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) are small to medium sized, long-lived, and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN) correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of 1 year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin). Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis), social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae), and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean rodents. PMID:24904308

Amrein, Irmgard; Becker, Anton S.; Engler, Stefanie; Huang, Shih-hui; Müller, Julian; Slomianka, Lutz; Oosthuizen, Maria K.

2014-01-01

166

Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species.  

PubMed

African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) are small to medium sized, long-lived, and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN) correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of 1 year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin). Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis), social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae), and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean rodents. PMID:24904308

Amrein, Irmgard; Becker, Anton S; Engler, Stefanie; Huang, Shih-Hui; Müller, Julian; Slomianka, Lutz; Oosthuizen, Maria K

2014-01-01

167

Social Norms and Dietary Behaviors Among Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine associations between young adults’ dietary behaviors and perceived social norms for healthy eating. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 1000 diverse college students. Associations between perceived behaviors of family, friends, and significant other and participants’ dietary behaviors were examined using t-tests and linear regressions. Results Young adults consumed more fast food if they perceived that their family, friends, or significant other did so (p < .003). Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was associated with perceived consumption by family and friends (p < .034). Fruit and vegetable consumption and dinner preparation were associated with perceived behavior of friends only (p < .001). Conclusions Young adults’ dietary behaviors appear to reflect their perceptions of normative behavior, particularly among friends. PMID:24034689

Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Graham, Dan J.; Laska, Melissa N.

2013-01-01

168

Uses and Dependency of Entertainment Television Among Mormon Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uses-and-dependency model recognizes the influence of both micro- and macroinfluences on decisions to use media; however, few studies have empirically tested the model. This study represents an attempt to test the uses-and-dependency model in the context of the television-use decisions of Mormon young adults. Students attending Brigham Young University (N = 216) completed a survey of how they make

John J. Davies

2007-01-01

169

Information and service needs for young adult cancer survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The intent of this study was to examine supportive care needs and preferences among young adult cancer survivors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Eight hundred seventy-nine young adults aged 18–39 years at time of study and diagnosed with cancer between the ages of 15–35\\u000a completed an online survey. Questions assessed the extent to which subjects had utilized various information and supportive\\u000a care services and\\/or expressed a

Brad Zebrack

2009-01-01

170

Food stealing by young Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six experiments were undertaken to explore factors affecting young rats' (Rattus norvegicus) frequencies of stealing food from conspecifics when identical food is available in surplus. It was found that (a) rats would walk across a bed of pellets to steal the particular pellet a peer was eating, (b) frequency of stealing within a pair did not decrease over days, (c)

Cecile A. Marczinksi; Kerry A. Murray; Elaine E. Whiskin

2001-01-01

171

Spinal microglia and neuropathic pain in young rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropathic pain behaviour is not observed in neonatal rats and tactile allodynia does not develop in the spared nerve injury (SNI) model until rats are 4 weeks of age at the time of surgery. Since activated spinal microglia are known to play a key role in neuropathic pain, we have investigated whether the microglial response to nerve injury in young

Andrew Moss; Simon Beggs; David Vega-Avelaira; Michael Costigan; Gareth J. Hathway; Michael W. Salter; Maria Fitzgerald

2007-01-01

172

Clueless: Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography includes adult mysteries that appeal to teen readers under the categories of Sherlock Holmes; reference sources; private investigators; amateur sleuths; historical sleuths; suspense and thrillers; police procedurals; mystery blends; and anthologies. (LRW)

Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

2002-01-01

173

Hypermnesia: Age-related differences between young and older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypermnesia is a net improvement in memory performance that occurs across tests in a multitest paradigm with only one study\\u000a session. Our goal was to identify possible age-related differences in hypermnesic recall. We observed hypermnesia for young\\u000a adults using verbal (Experiment 1) as well as pictorial (Experiment 2) material, but no hypermnesia for older adults in either\\u000a experiment. We found

Robert L. Widner; Hajime Otani; Anderson D. Smith

2000-01-01

174

Distress among young adults from divorced families.  

PubMed

Researchers find that most children from divorced families function normally, but some clinicians assert that young people are disturbed even many years after a divorce. These accounts may be less discrepant than they appear, because research typically focuses on notably problematic behavior (disorder), whereas case studies emphasize more subtle inner turmoil (distress). In Study 1 college students reported painful feelings, beliefs, and memories about their parents divorce on a reliable new measure, but they also reported accepting the divorce and having few psychological symptoms. Distress about family life was greater among students from divorced than from married families. Study 2 replicated these findings in a community sample of young people from low-income divorced families. In both studies, greater distress was associated with children's residence, frequency of contact with fathers, interparental conflict, and psychological symptoms. PMID:11132488

Laumann-Billings, L; Emery, R E

2000-12-01

175

Functional Literacy of Young Guyanese Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the rationale, development, and administration of the test used for measuring levels of achievement in functional literacy in Guyana. Draws attention to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate that is reported for Guyana in international…

Jennings, Zellyne

2000-01-01

176

Life scripts across age groups: A comparison of adolescents, young adults, and older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of the present study was to investigate cultural life scripts across three age groups. Adolescents, young adults, and older adults were asked to list the seven most important events that a typical newborn would experience in a lifetime. They also provided estimates of emotional valence and age for the life script events they listed. Results showed that

Ali ?. Tekcan; Burcu Kaya-K?z?löz; Handan Odaman

2012-01-01

177

Immunotoxicity of clonazepam in adult albino rats.  

PubMed

Clonazepam as an addictive drug is studied to elucidate its destructive effects on rats' immune system. The aim of the current work was to study the immunologic changes induced by sub-chronic administration of clonazepam for three weeks followed by a withdrawal period in adult male albino rats. Seventy-two Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three equal groups. The first group was used as control; the second and third groups were treated with clonazepam. Six rats from each group were sacrificed weekly. Data showed that clonazepam induced a significant suppression in the level of IFN-gamma cortisol production, total splenocytes count and lymphocytes transformation induced by PHA mitogen along the experimental period especially in the third group. However, subchronic doses of clonazepam increased the production of IL-10 in both treated groups. Moreover, significant DNA damage in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of both treated groups was observed along the duration of the study. In conclusion, the immune system responses can be adversely affected to a greater extent by sub-chronic administration of clonazepam and should be prescribed cautiously as patients may turn addict to it. PMID:24617047

Rabei, Hanan Mostafa

2013-01-01

178

Recognize the Signs: Reading Young Adult Literature to Address Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes preservice teachers' experiences in a book club that read young adult literature focused on issues related to bullying. Preservice teachers learned to recognize various incidents of bullying in the books. They also began to consider how they might handle incidents of bullying in their future classrooms. (Contains 2 figures.)

Pytash, Kristine E.; Morgan, Denise N.; Batchelor, Katherine E.

2013-01-01

179

Parenting considerations in young adults with perinatally-acquired HIV  

E-print Network

parenting intentions, have received little attention. How cultural beliefs or the experience of growing up1 Parenting considerations in young adults with perinatally- acquired HIV RESEARCH ARTICLE Michael be associated with relationships and parenting. These may include managing HIV disclosure to their partner

Royal Holloway, University of London

180

Cerebral Specialization in Young Adults with Down Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two groups of right-handed young adults with and without Down Syndrome (N=24) performed a rapid unimanual finger-tapping task under two conditions: alone and while sound-shadowing (repeating) single-syllable, high frequency words. Results provided no evidence for reverse (right hemisphere) lateralization of speech in individuals with Down…

Elliott, Digby; And Others

1987-01-01

181

Adolescent/Young Adult Literature Titles/Holocaust.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents descriptions of the 10 best young adult novels (and teaching suggestions) appropriate for studying the Holocaust in the middle school. Each description begins with a summary and "hook" that can be used with students, and then ends with discussion for the teacher about reading abilities and applications in the classroom. Several…

Jones, Darolyn Lyn

182

Microglial K+ Channel Expression in Young Adult and Aged Mice  

PubMed Central

The K+ channel expression pattern of microglia strongly depends on the cells' microenvironment and has been recognized as a sensitive marker of the cells' functional state. While numerous studies have been performed on microglia in vitro, our knowledge about microglial K+ channels and their regulation in vivo is limited. Here, we have investigated K+ currents of microglia in striatum, neocortex and entorhinal cortex of young adult and aged mice. Although almost all microglial cells exhibited inward rectifier K+ currents upon membrane hyperpolarization, their mean current density was significantly enhanced in aged mice compared with that determined in young adult mice. Some microglial cells additionally exhibited outward rectifier K+ currents in response to depolarizing voltage pulses. In aged mice, microglial outward rectifier K+ current density was significantly larger than in young adult mice due to the increased number of aged microglial cells expressing these channels. Aged dystrophic microglia exhibited outward rectifier K+ currents more frequently than aged ramified microglia. The majority of microglial cells expressed functional BK-type, but not IK- or SK-type, Ca2+-activated K+ channels, while no differences were found in their expression levels between microglia of young adult and aged mice. Neither microglial K+ channel pattern nor K+ channel expression levels differed markedly between the three brain regions investigated. It is concluded that age-related changes in microglial phenotype are accompanied by changes in the expression of microglial voltage-activated, but not Ca2+-activated, K+ channels. PMID:25472417

Schilling, Tom; Eder, Claudia

2015-01-01

183

Off the Shelves: Poetry and Verse Novels for Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of all the material in the English language arts curricula, poetry seems to cause the most consternation among teachers. For a number of teachers, and many students, poetry continues to be a difficult topic to teach and learn. In this article, the author focuses on the ways that young adult literature can help teachers expose their students to…

Letcher, Mark, Ed.

2010-01-01

184

Young Adult Literature Research in the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of young adult literature (YAL) as both an art form and teaching tool is in its infancy. Barely 50 years old, this emerging genre began to establish a presence in the canon of both classical and popular literature. As a developing field of inquiry, however, YAL struggles for legitimacy and prestige. The purpose of this article is to…

Hayn, Judith A.; Kaplan, Jeffrey S.; Nolen, Amanda

2011-01-01

185

Employment Information Needs of Chinese Young Adults in Sheffield  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigate the question of how Chinese young adults (18-26 years old) in Sheffield seek employment information, and what sources and channels they use. Data collection was via a semi-structured questionnaire (78 responses) and via nine follow-up interviews with respondents to the questionnaire. Fifty-five percent felt that they had…

Webber, Sheila; Zhu, Wen

2007-01-01

186

Quality of life in young adult survivors of childhood cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years the necessity of measuring quality of life in childhood cancer survivors has been stressed. This paper gives an overview of the results of studies into the quality of life (QL) of young adult survivors of childhood cancer and suggest areas for future research. The review located 30 empirical studies published up to 2001. The results are described

N. E. Langeveld; H. Stam; M. A. Grootenhuis; B. F. Last

2002-01-01

187

A Comparison of Young Adult Novels: Developmental Tasks and Readability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adults read not only to experience real-life problems, but also to "escape" from those problems. The two most popular types of novels available to teens are the contemporary realistic problem novel and the formula romance novel. A study examined the incidence of specific adolescent developmental tasks (adolescent problems/concerns) in 15…

Roberts, Linda K.

188

Tsunami Summer! 2003 Young Adult Summer Library Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to assist public libraries in Alabama with setting up "Tsunami Summer!," a summer program for young adults, i.e., students in grades 6 through 12. The manual contains the following sections: (1) Publicity and Promotion; (2) Working with Schools; (3) Involving the Students, including teen volunteers, teen advisory councils,…

Alabama Public Library Service, Montgomery.

189

America's Young Adults: Special Issue, 2014  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The well-being of young adults in the United States today remains an area of key interest to the public and policy-makers alike. This age group faces the well-known challenges of achieving financial and social independence while forming their own households at a time of greater economic uncertainty than in the past. Better understanding of the…

Cook, Traci; Kappeler, Evelyn; Ellis, Renee; Kominski, Robert; Cooper, Alexia; Smith, Erica; Donoghue, Brecht; Whitestone, Yuko; Snyder, Tom; Aud, Susan; Williamson, Lisa; Henderson, Steve; Steffen, Barry; Madans, Jennifer; Lukacs, Susan; Pastor, Patricia; Goldstrom, Ingrid; Han, Beth; Bures, Regina; Chamberlain, Seth; Despain, Jason; Chadwick, Laura; Park, Jennifer

2014-01-01

190

Motorsports Involvement among Adolescents and Young Adults with Childhood ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined nonsubstance, use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent…

Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, Jee Won; McGinley, James S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.

2013-01-01

191

Aesthetic Learning Theory and the Faith Formation of Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participation in the arts is a form of practical reason and as such has the potential to form and transform the faith of individuals. The findings from Katherine M. Douglass's 2011 study on the role of the arts in the faith lives of young adults provides examples of the transformative potential of the arts as they foster expression,…

Douglass, Katherine M.

2013-01-01

192

Perceived Effectiveness of Tobacco Countermarketing Advertisements among Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To measure relative effectiveness of tobacco countermarketing advertisements by category and emotive execution style among young adults. Methods: Participants (n = 1011) from 2 US 4-year colleges, one southern and one northern were surveyed before and after viewing advertisements in one of 3 categories: social norms, health…

Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Higbee, Cheryl

2008-01-01

193

Cover Art, Consumerism, and YA [Young Adult] Reading Choices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cover art has long been used as a marketing device for books, particularly with books aimed at young adults (YAs) aged 12 to 18. An examination of some of the teen thrillers published by novelist Lois Duncan since the 1970s yields several discoveries about changes in cover art that come with various editions. Many covers have been resigned to…

Kies, Cosette

194

Miranda Rights Comprehension in Young Adults with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method: Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 young adults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language…

Rost, Gwyneth C.; McGregor, Karla K.

2012-01-01

195

Developing the Social Skills of Young Adult Special Olympics Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to determine if young adult Special Olympics participants could develop, generalize, and maintain target social skills (eye contact, contributing relevant information, and turn taking) as a result of a 14-week Social Skills and Sports (S[superscript 3]) Program that combined classroom instruction with soccer…

Alexander, Melissa G. F.; Dummer, Gail M.; Smeltzer, Ashley; Denton, Stephen J.

2011-01-01

196

Next Steps for Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology  

Cancer.gov

On September 16 and 17, 2013, the National Cancer Institute, with support from LIVESTRONG, held a meeting to summarize current scientific evidence from the past 10 years on adolescent and young adult oncology (AYAO) and to develop a roadmap for future research.

197

Young Adults with Gambling Problems: The Impact of Childhood Maltreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood maltreatment has been thought to be a significant risk factor in the development of gambling problems. Incorporating a developmental psychopathology perspective, 1,324 adolescents and young adults, age 17-22 years completed self-report measures on gambling behaviors, gambling severity, and childhood maltreatment. Problem gamblers…

Felsher, Jennifer R.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina

2010-01-01

198

External and Internal Sport Motivations of Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study aim: To determine and evaluate the spectrum of sport motivation of young adults. Material and methods: A group of 600 subjects, aged 17-19 years, participated in the study. An "ad hoc" questionnaire was applied to assess the 4 motivational factors: competition and success-oriented motivation, external accommodation, physical fitness and…

Bollok, Sandor; Takacs, Johanna; Kalmar, Zsuzsanna; Dobay, Beata

2011-01-01

199

Speaking Up for Vocabulary: Reading Skill Differences in Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is part of a broader project aimed at developing cognitive and neurocognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. We explore the relationships among reading-related abilities in participants ages 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range…

Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald P.; Mencl, W. Einar

2007-01-01

200

Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David

2008-01-01

201

Living with Cystic Fibrosis: A Guide for the Young Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for the young adult with cystic fibrosis, the booklet provides information on dealing with problems and on advances in treatment and detection related to the disease. Addressed are the following topics: description of cystic fibrosis; inheritance of cystic fibrosis; early diagnosis; friends, careers, and other matters; treatment;…

Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Atlanta, GA.

202

Investigating the News Seeking Behavior of Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the news-seeking and browsing behaviours of young adults, partly in the context of everyday life information seeking (ELIS), in order to explore their perceptions of and attitudes towards print and online news media. The study is significant because traditional print newspapers face a steady decline in their readership with…

Qayyum, M. Asim; Williamson, Kirsty; Liu, Ying-Hsang; Hider, Philip

2010-01-01

203

An evolutionary psychology perspective on gift giving among young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

With evolutionary psychology used as the theoretical framework, two aspects of gift giving among young adults are investigated: (a) sex differences in motives for giving gifts to a romantic partner, and (b) the allocation of gift expenditures among various relations, including romantic partners, close friends, close kin, and distant kin members. As per the evolved sex differences in mating strategies,

Gad Saad; Tripat Gill

2003-01-01

204

Transglossic Language Practices of Young Adults in Bangladesh and Mongolia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper explores the use of varied semiotic resources in the linguistic, social and cultural practices of young adults in the context of Bangladesh and Mongolia. Based on a translinguistic analysis (including pre-textual history, contextual relations, sub-textual meaning, intertextual echoes and post-textual interpretation) of these practices,…

Sultana, Shaila; Dovchin, Sender; Pennycook, Alastair

2015-01-01

205

Young Adults Do Not Think World Knowledge Is Vital  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new survey has found that most young adults in the United States have difficulty identifying Iraq on an unlabeled map of the Middle East, or are unaware that the population of China is more than four times that of the United States. This lack of geographic literacy goes beyond simple gaps in knowledge and skills for most of these people do not…

Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

2006-01-01

206

Negotiating Understanding through the Young Adult Literature of Muslim Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although United States citizens generally pride themselves on their understanding and acceptance of diversity, all too many of them harbor a fear of Muslims, which transformed into widespread bigotry after September 11, 2001. Knowing that young adult literature can be a powerful means of negotiating understanding of the other, this article…

Baer, Allison L.; Glasgow, Jacqueline N.

2010-01-01

207

Development of Food Safety Psychosocial Questionnaires for Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Food mishandling is thought to be more acute among young adults; yet little is known about why they may engage in risky food handling behaviors. The purpose of this study was to create valid, reliable instruments for assessing key food safety psychosocial measures. Development of the measures began by examining published studies and behavior…

Byrd-Bredbenner, C.; Wheatley, V.; Schaffner, D.; Bruhn, C.; Blalock, L.; Maurer, J.

2007-01-01

208

Attention, Working Memory, and Grammaticality Judgment in Typical Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine resource allocation and sentence processing, this study examined the effects of auditory distraction on grammaticality judgment (GJ) of sentences varied by semantics (reversibility) and short-term memory requirements. Method: Experiment 1: Typical young adult females (N = 60) completed a whole-sentence GJ task in distraction…

Smith, Pamela A.

2011-01-01

209

Engagement with Young Adult Literature: Outcomes and Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines students' perceptions of the outcomes and processes of engaged reading in classrooms prioritizing engagement through self-selected, self-paced reading of compelling young adult literature. The primary data were 71 end-of-year student interviews, supported by end-of-year teacher interviews, biweekly observational data,…

Ivey, Gay; Johnston, Peter H.

2013-01-01

210

ERIC/RCS: Booklists on Young Adult Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Annotates booklists of literature for young adults that were selected on the basis of their quality and interest. Topics include: (1) contemporary nonfiction; (2) fantasy, science fiction, and the supernatural; (3) titles for reluctant readers; (4) death and war; (5) love and teen sexuality; (6) science; (7) American and world culture; (8) Black…

Dorney, Jacqueline M.

1987-01-01

211

Student Sex: More or Less Risky than Other Young Adults?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexually active young adults are at an increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or experiencing an unplanned pregnancy. Sexual behaviours such as inconsistent condom use, multiple partners and casual sex are known risk factors for negative sexual health outcomes. Sexually active higher education students are classified as…

Burke, Lorraine; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Young, Honor

2015-01-01

212

A Qualitative Survey Examining the Moral Identities of Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moral identity can orient one's behaviors when exhibiting any kind of moral behavior. In this study, the moral identities of young adults are analyzed to a certain extent. For this purpose, the "interpretative phenomenological pattern" and "grounded theory" models are used as qualitative survey models. The study group for…

Onat Kocabiyik, Oya; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan

2014-01-01

213

Sex Differences in Relationship Aggression Among Young Adults in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined the prevalence of physical aggression in the relationships of young adults in Germany. A convenience sample of 248 women and 400 men aged between 17 and 29 years provided reports of physical aggression shown toward and experienced by a partner using the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2). Sex differences were found for several physically aggressive behaviors measured

Barbara Krahé; Anja Berger

2005-01-01

214

Microglial K(+) channel expression in young adult and aged mice.  

PubMed

The K(+) channel expression pattern of microglia strongly depends on the cells' microenvironment and has been recognized as a sensitive marker of the cells' functional state. While numerous studies have been performed on microglia in vitro, our knowledge about microglial K(+) channels and their regulation in vivo is limited. Here, we have investigated K(+) currents of microglia in striatum, neocortex and entorhinal cortex of young adult and aged mice. Although almost all microglial cells exhibited inward rectifier K(+) currents upon membrane hyperpolarization, their mean current density was significantly enhanced in aged mice compared with that determined in young adult mice. Some microglial cells additionally exhibited outward rectifier K(+) currents in response to depolarizing voltage pulses. In aged mice, microglial outward rectifier K(+) current density was significantly larger than in young adult mice due to the increased number of aged microglial cells expressing these channels. Aged dystrophic microglia exhibited outward rectifier K(+) currents more frequently than aged ramified microglia. The majority of microglial cells expressed functional BK-type, but not IK- or SK-type, Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels, while no differences were found in their expression levels between microglia of young adult and aged mice. Neither microglial K(+) channel pattern nor K(+) channel expression levels differed markedly between the three brain regions investigated. It is concluded that age-related changes in microglial phenotype are accompanied by changes in the expression of microglial voltage-activated, but not Ca(2+) -activated, K(+) channels. GLIA 2015;63:664-672. PMID:25472417

Schilling, Tom; Eder, Claudia

2015-04-01

215

100 More Popular Young Adult Authors: Biographical Sketches and Bibliographies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended as a ready reference for teenagers looking for information about their favorite writers, this book features 100 biographical sketches and biographies of popular young adult authors. The book includes many authors who are prize winners, many who have shown strength and consistency in writing, and some who have pioneered new directions or…

Drew, Bernard A.

216

Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…

Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

2010-01-01

217

Assessing Decision Making in Young Adult Romantic Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Romantic relationships among young adults are rich with ambiguity and without a clear, universal progression emphasizing the need for active decision making. Lack of active decision making in romantic relationships can lead to increases in constraints (e.g. pregnancy, shared living space or finances) that promote the continuation of relationships…

Vennum, Amber; Fincham, Frank D.

2011-01-01

218

HYDRATION STATUS AND COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG ADULTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adequate hydration levels are important for both mental and physical functioning. Research conducted in young adults suggests that mild levels of dehydration (2%-4%) can negatively influence cognitive performance in a variety of tasks, but these data are inconsistent. Dehydration may be relatively...

219

Hit List: Frequently Challenged Books for Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents descriptions of 26 young adult titles that have been frequent targets of censorship attempts. Each entry provides an annotation for the book in question; examples of recent challenges; citations to reviews of the book and background articles; a list of awards garnered by the book or its author; references about the author;…

Monks, Merri M.; Pistolis, Donna Reidy

220

Thematic Solutions Using Young Adult Literature to Increase Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors discuss thematic solutions using young adult literature to increase reading comprehension. Here, they emphasize that prior knowledge plays a very important role in the reading process. As students read, they actively "construct meaning through the integration of existing and new knowledge and the flexible use of…

Adams, Jill; Bushman, John H.

2006-01-01

221

Young Adult Literature in the Classroom--Or Is It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questions the use of classic literature in the lower secondary school grades and reports on a survey of reading experience and habits, both in and outside of school, among 380 students in grades 6-12. Suggests that young adult literature can do what schools have not--turn adolescents into avid readers. (TB)

Bushman, John H.

1997-01-01

222

Recognition and management of stroke in young adults and adolescents  

PubMed Central

Approximately 15% of all ischemic strokes (IS) occur in young adults and adolescents. To date, only limited prior public health and research efforts have specifically addressed stroke in the young. Early diagnosis remains challenging because of the lack of awareness and the relative infrequency of stroke compared with stroke mimics. Moreover, the causes of IS in the young are heterogeneous and can be relatively uncommon, resulting in uncertainties about diagnostic evaluation and cause-specific management. Emerging data have raised public health concerns about the increasing prevalence of traditional vascular risk factors in young individuals, and their potential role in increasing the risk of IS, stroke recurrence, and poststroke mortality. These issues make it important to formulate and enact strategies to increase both awareness and access to resources for young stroke patients, their caregivers and families, and health care professionals. The American Academy of Neurology recently convened an expert panel to develop a consensus document concerning the recognition, evaluation, and management of IS in young adults and adolescents. The report of the consensus panel is presented herein. PMID:23946297

Biller, José; Elkind, Mitchell S.; Fullerton, Heather J.; Jauch, Edward C.; Kittner, Steven J.; Levine, Deborah A.; Levine, Steven R.

2013-01-01

223

Executive process training in young and old adults.  

PubMed

There is a growing body of research on the modifiability of executive functions in different stages of life. Previous studies demonstrate robust training effects but limited transfer in younger and particularly in older adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a theoretically derived intervention for executive functioning, addressing several basic processes (updating, shifting, and inhibition), can induce transfer effects in early and late adulthood. Fifty-nine healthy adults, 29 young and 30 older adults, were randomly assigned to either training or no-contact control groups. The training groups received 15 sessions of executive process training for about 45 min/session during 5 weeks. A test battery including a criterion task and near, intermediate, and far transfer tasks was administered before and after training. Results showed pronounced age-equivalent gains on the criterion task. Near transfer was seen to non-trained updating and inhibition tasks for the young and older trained participants. However, only the young adults showed intermediate transfer to two complex working memory tasks. No far transfer effects were seen for either age group. These findings provide additional evidence for age-related constraints in the ability to generalize acquired executive skills, and specifically show that training of multiple executive processes is not sufficient to foster transfer beyond the very near in older adults. PMID:24148093

Sandberg, Petra; Rönnlund, Michael; Nyberg, Lars; Stigsdotter Neely, Anna

2014-01-01

224

Infant BMI trajectories are associated with young adult body composition  

PubMed Central

The dynamic aspect of early life growth is not fully captured by typical analyses, which focus on one specific time period. To better understand how infant and young child growth relate to the development of adult body composition, the authors characterized body mass index (BMI) trajectories using latent class growth analysis (LCGA) and evaluated their association with adult body composition. Data are from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, which followed a birth cohort to age 22 years (n=1749). In both males and females, LCGA identified seven subgroups of respondents with similar BMI trajectories from 0 to 24 months (assessed with bimonthly anthropometrics). Trajectory groups were compared with conventional approaches: (1) accelerated growth between two time points (0–4 months), (2) continuous BMI gain between two points (0–4 months and 0–24 months) and (3) BMI measured at one time point (24 months) as predictors of young adult body composition measures. The seven trajectory groups were distinguished by age-specific differences in tempo and timing of BMI gain in infancy. Infant BMI trajectories were better than accelerated BMI gain between 0 and 4 months at predicting young adult body composition. After controlling for BMI at age 2 years, infant BMI trajectories still explained variation in adult body composition. Using unique longitudinal data and methods, we find that distinct infant BMI trajectories have long-term implications for the development of body composition. PMID:24040489

Slining, M. M.; Herring, A. H.; Popkin, B. M.; Mayer-Davis, E. J.; Adair, L. S.

2013-01-01

225

76 FR 56263 - Titles II and XVI: Documenting and Evaluating Disability in Young Adults  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Documenting and Evaluating Disability in Young Adults AGENCY...documenting and evaluating disability in young adults. DATES...MDI, such as a learning disability or language disorder. Any...person who has borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) may...

2011-09-12

226

More Young Adults at Risk for High Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... young adults have high blood pressure. NIH-funded analysis indicates higher risk for young adults than previously ... health problems. Another healthy move is to limit alcohol intake. Excess alcohol can raise blood pressure as ...

227

Infectious mononucleosis hepatitis in young adults: two case reports.  

PubMed

Infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection sometimes causes acute hepatitis, which is usually self-limiting with mildly elevated transaminases, but rarely with jaundice. Primary EBV infection in children is usually asymptomatic, but in a small number of healthy individuals, typically young adults, EBV infection results in a clinical syndrome of infectious mononucleosis with hepatitis, with typical symptoms of fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. EBV is rather uncommonly confirmed as an etiologic agent of acute hepatitis in adults. Here, we report two cases: the first case with acute hepatitis secondary to infectious mononucleosis and a second case, with acute hepatitis secondary to infectious mononucleosis concomitantly infected with hepatitis A. Both cases involved young adults presenting with fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and atypical lymphocytosis confirmed by serologic tests, liver biopsy and electron microscopic study. PMID:19949739

Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Tae-Hun; Shim, Ki-Nam; Jung, Sung-Ae; Cho, Min-Sun; Yoo, Kwon; Chung, Kyu Won

2009-12-01

228

Everyday Life of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Inclusionary and Exclusionary Processes among Young Adults of Parents with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten young adults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and…

Starke, Mikaela

2013-01-01

229

Gastrointestinal absorption of sulfaguanidine in neonatal and adult rats.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetics of sulfaguanidine in rats was studied after its intravenous or oral administration. In adult rats, its elimination from plasma, after intravenous administration of 2.5 or 25 mg/kg doses, could be described by a two-compartment open model, while its plasma concentration after oral administration of 25 mg/kg doses, agreed with the one- or two-compartment open model. Neonatal rats displayed a lower elimination of sulfaguanidine than adult rats. Comparison of the drug's gastrointestinal absorption showed that the maximum plasma concentration after oral administration was significantly higher for neonatal than for adult rats. However, there was no significant difference between the times required to reach maximum plasma concentrations. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve at 0-infinity h was significantly higher for neonatal than for adult rats. The absolute bioavailability (57.86%) in neonatal rats was approximately five times that (12.76%) in adult rats. Thus, sulfaguanidine was poorly absorbed by adult rats, but was efficiently absorbed by immature gastrointestines of neonatal rats. PMID:3820055

Mizuno, N; Nishikata, M; Morita, E; Miyake, K

1986-10-01

230

Addiction Treatment Experience among a Cohort of Street-Involved Youths and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Very little is known about the accessibility and potential barriers to addiction treatment among street youths and young adults. We sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of enrollment in addiction treatment among a cohort of street-involved youths and young adults in Vancouver, Canada. Street-involved youths and young adults who use…

Wong, Jellena; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Kerr, Thomas; Lai, Calvin; Wood, Evan

2009-01-01

231

A Comparison of Two Generations: Employment and Earnings of Young Adults in 1979 and 1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison of employment and earnings for young adults in 1979 and 1994 shows that young adults in 1994 were more likely than those in 1979 to be employed in lower-paying occupational groups. The 1994 group earned relatively less than young adults did in 1979. (JOW)

Schrammel, Kurt

1997-01-01

232

Addiction Treatment Experience among a Cohort of Street-Involved Youths and Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very little is known about the accessibility and potential barriers to addiction treatment among street youths and young adults. We sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of enrollment in addiction treatment among a cohort of street-involved youths and young adults in Vancouver, Canada. Street-involved youths and young adults who use illicit drugs were enrolled in a prospective cohort study

Jellena Wong; Brandon D. L. Marshall; Thomas Kerr; Calvin Lai; Evan Wood

2009-01-01

233

Young Adult Children of Divorced Parents: Depression and the Perception of Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined long-term effects of divorce in young adult children by comparing young adults of divorce (N=104) and those of intact families (N=172). When non-custodial parent was perceived as "lost" the young adult was more depressed. After-divorce perception of non-custodial father changed negatively, while perception of mother remained stable.…

Drill, Rebecca L.

1986-01-01

234

The Musical Culture of Young Adults and Its Relevance to Education for Librarianship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the important role music plays in the lives of young adults, the graduate education of young adult librarians should include a study of the music and the musical behavior of young adults. A formal course might include reviews of research in these areas: (1) the sound recording industry and the economic factors which determine what is…

Stevenson, Gordon

235

Direct Effects of Assets and Savings on the College Progress of Black Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descriptive data indicate that 62% of White young adults between the ages of 17 and 23 years were on course (i.e., either in college or have graduated from college) in 2007, compared with only 37% of Black young adults. Given this, finding novel and promising ways to promote college progress among Black young adults, in particular, is a growing…

Elliott, William; Nam, Ilsung

2012-01-01

236

The Effects of Framing Vocational Choices on Young Adults' Sets of Career Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The present paper examines the effects of two decision-framing inductions on young adults' set of career options: first, whether young adults use abilities or interests as the grounds for their vocational choices and, second, whether young adults approach the decision-making task by including all career options to which they feel…

Feldman, Daniel C.; Whitcomb, Kathleen M.

2005-01-01

237

Reye's syndrome in a young adult.  

PubMed

Reye's syndrome (RS), originally known by the more descriptive name "encephalopathy with fatty degeneration of the viscera," was first described in children and is still seen mostly in them. However, there have been a few case reports of adult Reye's Syndrome (ARS) since the mid-1970s. The following report is a case of ARS in a previously healthy 26-year-old woman. Although the clinical description and the pathophysiology are well known in RS, the etiology and the pathogenesis are still far from clear. From available evidence a multifactorial cause seems likely, encompassing genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, and the convincing role of aspirin. Moreover, as there is increasing awareness of metabolic mimics, questions arise about the validity of some of the diagnoses of RS, even in Reye's original cases. PMID:8437745

Chan, E D

1993-01-01

238

Motorsports Involvement among Adolescents and Young Adults with Childhood ADHD  

PubMed Central

Objective Though children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined non-substance use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent engagement in motorsports, a collection of risky driving-related activities associated with elevated rates of physical injury. Path analyses tested whether persistent impulsivity, comorbid conduct disorder or antisocial personality disorder (CD/ASP), and heavy alcohol use mediated this association. Analyses also explored whether frequent motorsporting was associated with unsafe and alcohol-influenced driving. Method Two-hundred and twenty-one adolescent and young adult males (16–25 years-old) diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 139 demographically-similar males without ADHD histories reported their motorsports involvement. Persistent impulsivity, CD/ASP, heavy drinking, and hazardous driving were also measured in adolescence/young adulthood1 Results Adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely to report frequent motorsports involvement than those without childhood ADHD. Impulsivity, CD/ASP and heavy drinking partially mediated this association, such that individuals with ADHD histories, who had persistent impulsivity or CD/ASP diagnoses, were more likely to engage in heavy drinking, which was positively associated with frequent motorsporting. Motorsports involvement was associated with more unsafe and alcohol-influenced driving, and this association was more often found among those with, than without, ADHD histories. Conclusions Adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories, especially those with persisting impulsivity, comorbid CD/ASP and heavy drinking tendencies, are more likely to engage in motorsports, which may heighten risk of injury. PMID:23347139

Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, JeeWon; McGinley, James S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.

2013-01-01

239

Sport-Related Concussion and Sensory Function in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Context: The long-term implications of concussive injuries for brain and cognitive health represent a growing concern in the public consciousness. As such, identifying measures sensitive to the subtle yet persistent effects of concussive injuries is warranted. Objective: To investigate how concussion sustained early in life influences visual processing in young adults. We predicted that young adults with a history of concussion would show decreased sensory processing, as noted by a reduction in P1 event-related potential component amplitude. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-six adults (18 with a history of concussion, 18 controls) between the ages of 20 and 28 years completed a pattern-reversal visual evoked potential task while event-related potentials were recorded. Main Outcome Measure(s): The groups did not differ in any demographic variables (all P values > .05), yet those with a concussive history exhibited reduced P1 amplitude compared with the control participants (P = .05). Conclusions: These results suggest that concussion history has a negative effect on visual processing in young adults. Further, upper-level neurocognitive deficits associated with concussion may, in part, result from less efficient downstream sensory capture. PMID:24377961

Moore, Robert D.; Broglio, Steven P.; Hillman, Charles H.

2014-01-01

240

Visual statistical learning in children and young adults: how implicit?  

PubMed Central

Visual statistical learning (VSL) is the ability to extract the joint and conditional probabilities of shapes co-occurring during passive viewing of complex visual configurations. Evidence indicates that even infants are sensitive to these regularities (e.g., Kirkham et al., 2002). However, there is continuing debate as to whether VSL is accompanied by conscious awareness of the statistical regularities between sequence elements. Bertels et al. (2012) addressed this question in young adults. Here, we adapted their paradigm to investigate VSL and conscious awareness in children. Using the same version of the paradigm, we also tested young adults so as to directly compare results from both age groups. Fifth graders and undergraduates were exposed to a stream of visual shapes arranged in triplets. Learning of these sequences was then assessed using both direct and indirect measures. In order to assess the extent to which learning occurred explicitly, we also measured confidence through subjective measures in the direct task (i.e., binary confidence judgments). Results revealed that both children and young adults learned the statistical regularities between shapes. In both age groups, participants who performed above chance in the completion task had conscious access to their knowledge. Nevertheless, although adults performed above chance even when they claimed to guess, there was no evidence of implicit knowledge in children. These results suggest that the role of implicit and explicit influences in VSL may follow a developmental trajectory. PMID:25620943

Bertels, Julie; Boursain, Emeline; Destrebecqz, Arnaud; Gaillard, Vinciane

2015-01-01

241

Age-Related Alterations in Endothelial Function of Femoral Artery in Young SHR and WKY Rats  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of vascular aging in juvenescence on endothelial function in femoral arteries and to assess differences between normotensive and hypertensive rats. The aim of the study was to determine if age affected nitric oxide- (NO-) mediated relaxations in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Juvenile (7-week-old) and young adult (22-week-old) male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were used in this study. Femoral artery (FA) reactivity was determined by wire myograph and NO synthase activity by conversion of [3H]-L-arginine. During juvenescence systolic blood pressure (tail-cuff) increased significantly only in SHR, while NO synthesis decreased significantly in both strains. Endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine were reduced in the FA of SHR compared to age-matched WKY at both ages, yet these parameters were unchanged in adult rats compared with juvenile animals. The NO-dependent component of vasorelaxation was markedly reduced, whereas the NO-independent component was increased in adult compared to juvenile rats in both strains. The endothelial dysfunction in SHR at both ages was associated with reduction of NO-independent mechanisms. In conclusion, aging in early periods of life was associated with reduction of vascular NO production and bioavailability in both strains investigated. This reduction was however fully compensated by accentuation of NO-independent mechanisms. PMID:24772431

Ilovska, Veronika; Balis, Peter

2014-01-01

242

Childhood Predictors of Young Adult Male Crime  

PubMed Central

The study sample was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children (93% Black) growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. The study sample included 733 males who were active by age 26. Adult criminal records were collected through administrative records and supplemented with self-reports. Outcome measures included incarceration, conviction, and felony conviction by age 26. Probit regression was used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that common childhood predictors were AFDC participation by child’s age 3, negative home environment, maltreatment experience, trouble making behavior, and number of school moves. Unique predictors were mother unemployed by child’s age 3 for incarceration or jail, four or more children in household by child’s age 3 for felony conviction, and mother did not complete high school by child’s age 3 and social competence for both incarceration or jail and felony conviction. Implications on crime prevention were discussed. PMID:20657803

Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

2010-01-01

243

“You’re too young for this”: adolescent and young adults’ perspectives on cancer survivorship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors face unique challenges not systematically addressed by cancer clinicians. Four focus groups and two individual interviews were conducted with 19 survivors to profile experiences and identify key concerns for future interventions. The resultant themes reflect cancer care continuum challenges (such as delays in diagnosis, problems with adherence), psychosocial concerns (such as infertility and

Erin E. Kent; Carla Parry; Michael J. Montoya; Leonard S. Sender; Rebecca A. Morris; Hoda Anton-Culver

2012-01-01

244

Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes in adolescents and young adults.  

PubMed

The inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are a diverse group of genetic diseases associated with inadequate production of one or more blood cell lineages. Examples include Fanconi anemia, dyskeratosis congenita, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, thrombocytopenia absent radii syndrome, severe congenital neutropenia, and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. The management of these disorders was once the exclusive domain of pediatric subspecialists, but increasingly physicians who care for adults are being called upon to diagnose or treat these conditions. Through a series of patient vignettes, we highlight the clinical manifestations of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes in adolescents and young adults. The diagnostic and therapeutic challenges posed by these diseases are discussed. PMID:24888387

Wilson, David B; Link, Daniel C; Mason, Philip J; Bessler, Monica

2014-09-01

245

Dissociative symptoms and mother's marital status in young adult population.  

PubMed

Current findings suggest that mother's marital status indicating father's absence or conflicting relationship to father may be specifically related to dissociation and other stress-related symptoms. We have assessed relationships of mother's marital status, dissociative symptoms, and other psychopathological manifestations in a sample of 19 years' old young adults (N = 364) participating in European longitudinal study (European Longitudinal Study of Parenthood and Childhood). The results show clinically significant manifestations of dissociative symptoms in young adult men whose mothers were fatherless and in women whose mothers were re-married. Other psychopathological symptoms did not reach clinically significant manifestations. The results suggest that significant factor related to high level of dissociative symptoms in men growing in fatherless families might be linked with disturbed and conflicting attachment to a father's figure and pathological dependent attachment to mother. In women dissociative symptoms likely are linked to conflicting relationship between mother and daughter associated with stepfather' presence in the family. PMID:25590849

Bob, Petr; Selesova, Petra; Raboch, Jiri; Kukla, Lubomir

2015-01-01

246

Adolescent alcohol use, sociability and income as a young adult.  

PubMed

We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to study how sociability and adolescent alcohol use impact personal income as a young adult. We find that factors which enhance not only individual sociability but also social interaction at the community level are positively linked to future earnings of adolescents. Adolescents whose friends and friends of friends have greater sociability reap long-term labor market rewards into adulthood. After adjusting for individual and community sociability, the effect of teenage alcohol consumption on labor market earnings as young adults is reduced. Our results suggest that earnings premiums associated with adolescent alcohol consumption may be partially explained by social network dynamics. PMID:22984291

Mundt, Marlon P; French, Michael T

2013-01-01

247

Identifying Correlates of Young Adults’ Weight Behavior: Survey Development  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2,287 young adults. Results The systematic process employed led to a psychometrically sound and developmentally appropriate survey. Test-retest reliabilities for items included on the final survey were mostly moderate to good and Cronbach’s alphas were >0.7 for 83% of developed scales. Conclusions Future studies may find the systematic process used to be helpful in creating other weight-related surveys. PMID:22251762

Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.

2012-01-01

248

Reinforcement learning in young adults with developmental language impairment.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic selection task was used to assess how participants implicitly extracted reinforcement history from the environment based on probabilistic positive/negative feedback. The findings showed impaired RL in individuals with DLI, indicating an altered gating function of the striatum in testing. However, they exploited similar learning strategies as comparison participants at the beginning of training, reflecting relatively intact functions of the prefrontal cortex to rapidly update reinforcement information. Within the context of Frank's model, these results can be interpreted as evidence for alterations in the basal ganglia of individuals with DLI. PMID:22921956

Lee, Joanna C; Tomblin, J Bruce

2012-12-01

249

Osteoarthritis of the young adult hip: etiology and treatment.  

PubMed

Childhood hip disorders contribute to a significant proportion of young adults with painful osteoarthritis of the hip. Prosthetic hip replacement rarely is indicated for active young adults with osteoarthritis of the hip because of high failure rates without subsequent solutions. Modern osteotomies provide a viable alternative for these individuals. Recently published data indicate that the osteotomy can have reliable results with more modest expectations. Four requirements must be met. The orthopaedist should grasp the modern principles of osteotomy and be willing to carry out more involved operative planning. The patient should exhibit a mature understanding of alternatives and long-range goals of treatment. Both orthopaedist and patient should commit themselves to a long-term relationship, beyond the 6-month rehabilitation period. The patient should be willing to compromise some motion (hip mobility) for pain relief and increased function. PMID:3819398

Aronson, J

1986-01-01

250

Gender differences in clinical correlates of suicidality among young adults.  

PubMed

Gender differences were examined in risk factors for suicidality among young adult friends of suicide victims. Data were derived from a follow-up community survey of 76 members of the social network of 23 consecutive adolescent suicide victims 6 years after the friend's death. The Beck-Kovacs Scale for Suicidal Ideation was the outcome measure. Multiple regression analyses revealed aggression to have the only significant effect on suicidality among men, whereas depression and posttraumatic stress disorder had significant independent effects on suicidality among women. Results suggest that young adult men who are aggressive and female subjects with elevated symptoms of depression and/or posttraumatic stress disorder may be at increased risk of suicidality. PMID:9952250

Prigerson, H G; Slimack, M J

1999-01-01

251

Dietary Iron Concentration May Influence Aging Process by Altering Oxidative Stress in Tissues of Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

Iron is an essential element. However, in its free form, iron participates in redox-reactions, leading to the production of free radicals that increase oxidative stress and the risk of damaging processes. Living organisms have an efficient mechanism that regulates iron absorption according to their iron content to protect against oxidative damage. The effects of restricted and enriched-iron diets on oxidative stress and aging biomarkers were investigated. Adult Wistar rats were fed diets containing 10, 35 or 350 mg/kg iron (adult restricted-iron, adult control-iron and adult enriched-iron groups, respectively) for 78 days. Rats aged two months were included as a young control group. Young control group showed higher hemoglobin and hematocrit values, lower levels of iron and lower levels of MDA or carbonyl in the major studied tissues than the adult control group. Restricted-iron diet reduced iron concentrations in skeletal muscle and oxidative damage in the majority of tissues and also increased weight loss. Enriched-iron diet increased hematocrit values, serum iron, gamma-glutamyl transferase, iron concentrations and oxidative stress in the majority of tissues. As expected, young rats showed higher mRNA levels of heart and hepatic L-Ferritin (Ftl) and kidneys SMP30 as well as lower mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and interleukin-1 beta (Il1b) and also lower levels of liver protein ferritin. Restricted-iron adult rats showed an increase in heart Ftl mRNA and the enriched-iron adult rats showed an increase in liver nuclear factor erythroid derived 2 like 2 (Nfe2l2) and Il1b mRNAs and in gut divalent metal transporter-1 mRNA (Slc11a2) relative to the control adult group. These results suggest that iron supplementation in adult rats may accelerate aging process by increasing oxidative stress while iron restriction may retards it. However, iron restriction may also impair other physiological processes that are not associated with aging. PMID:23593390

Arruda, Lorena Fernandes; Arruda, Sandra Fernandes; Campos, Natália Aboudib; de Valencia, Fernando Fortes; Siqueira, Egle Machado de Almeida

2013-01-01

252

Effects of glucose on memory processes in young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest that glucose enhances memory in rodents and humans. The present experiment investigated the effects of glucose on memory performance and blood glucose changes in young adults (19–25 years). Subjects ingested (300 ml beverage) three doses of glucose (0, 30, 100 g) in a random, double-blind, triple crossover design. Thirty minutes post-glucose, subjects were shown nouns on a

Nina P. Azari

1991-01-01

253

Adolescent & Young Adult Health Outcomes & Patient Experience Survey  

Cancer.gov

Thank you for participating in the Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experience (AYA HOPE) Survey. The survey is about your experiences with the medical care you receive in the first year following your cancer diagnosis and how your cancer has influenced different areas of your life. Survey results will be used to help improve medical care and support services for cancer patients like you. The survey should take about 15 minutes to complete.

254

Correlation between hypertension and hyperglycemia among young adults in India  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the correlation between blood pressure levels and fasting plasma glucose levels among young adults attending Chatrapati Shahuji Maharaj University, Kanpur, India. METHODS: The present study was cross-sectional in nature, conducted among students in the Institute of Paramedical Sciences, Chatrapati Shahuji Maharaj University, Kanpur. Study subjects included 185 young adults. Among them, 94 were males and 91 were females, in the age group 17 to 19 years. RESULTS: Mean age among males was 18.5 ± 1.5 years and among females was 17.9 ± 1.8 years. Of the total 185 study subjects, 61 (32.9%) were classified as pre-diabetic and 20 (10.8%) as pre-hypertensive. Mean waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and serum high density lipoprotein did not vary significantly between normoglycemic and pre-diabetic subjects. However, the mean diastolic blood pressure of pre-diabetics (82 ± 5 mmHg) was significantly higher than normoglycemics (79 ± 6 mmHg). Mean serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) and serum very low density lipoprotein was also higher among pre-diabetic subjects in comparison to normoglycemic subjects and the difference was statistically significant. Upon multiple linear regression analysis, it was observed that body mass index (BMI) (? = 0.149), diastolic blood pressure (? = 0.375) and serum LDL (? = 0.483) were significantly associated with fasting plasma glucose. Multiple linear regression with diastolic blood pressure as the outcome variable showed that BMI (? = 0.219), fasting blood glucose (? = 0.247) and systolic blood pressure (? = 0.510) were significantly associated. CONCLUSION: A significant prevalence of pre-diabetes and pre-hypertension in young adults is a matter of concern therefore all young adults need to be targeted for screening of diabetes and hypertension and lifestyle modification. PMID:25685764

Midha, Tanu; Krishna, Vinay; Shukla, Rishi; Katiyar, Praveen; Kaur, Samarjeet; Martolia, Dinesh Singh; Pandey, Umeshwar; Rao, Yashwant Kumar

2015-01-01

255

Young Adults with Gambling Problems: The Impact of Childhood Maltreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood maltreatment has been thought to be a significant risk factor in the development of gambling problems. Incorporating\\u000a a developmental psychopathology perspective, 1,324 adolescents and young adults, age 17–22 years completed self-report measures\\u000a on gambling behaviors, gambling severity, and childhood maltreatment. Problem gamblers reported high levels of childhood maltreatment\\u000a as compared with non gamblers and social gamblers. The results highlight the

Jennifer R. Felsher; Jeffrey L. Derevensky; Rina Gupta

2010-01-01

256

Vegetarian and Weight-Loss Diets among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Young adults frequently experiment with vegetarian and weight-loss diets. Comparisons of their experiences on these two different diets may help in the development of approaches to improve long-term adherence to weight-loss regimens. In the current study vegetarian and weight-loss diets were compared on how long and how strictly they were followed, and reasons why they were initiated and discontinued.Research

Cheryl F. Smith; Lora E. Burke; Rena R. Wing

2000-01-01

257

Use of artificial tanning products among young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Neither the prevalence of sunless tanner use nor its impact on sunburning and tanning bed use has been evaluated in the United States.\\u000aOBJECTIVE: We surveyed young adults in greater Boston to measure use of artificial tanning products, as well as recent history of sunburns and tanning bed use.\\u000aMETHODS: In July 2004, 448 individuals 18 to 30 years

Katie R. Brooks; Daniel Brooks; Zeina Dajani; Susan M. Swetter; Erin Powers; Sherry L. Pagoto; Alan C. Geller

2006-01-01

258

Social Branding to Decrease Smoking Among Young Adults in Bars  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P?=?.002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P?young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502

Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.

2014-01-01

259

Suicide Risks among Adolescents and Young Adults in Rural China  

PubMed Central

Background: In China, suicide is one of the major causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 34 years. Aim: The current study examines how risk factors vary by age groups in rural China, referring to those aged 15 to 24 years and those aged 25 to 34 years. Method: A case-control psychological autopsy (PA) study is conducted in sixteen counties from three Chinese provinces, including 392 suicide cases and 416 community living controls in the sample. Results: In China, young adults aged 25 to 34 years have a higher risk for suicide than adolescents aged 15 to 24 years, and it holds true even controlling for relevant social factors. In addition, age-related factors such as education, marital status, whether having children, status in the family, physical health, and personal income all have varying degrees of impact on suicide risks for rural youth. Conclusions: This study shows that there are some age-related risk factors for suicide at certain life stages and emphasizes that young adults in rural China aged 25 to 34 years have an increased risk of suicide as a result of experiencing more psychological strains with age. PMID:25546276

Zhao, Sibo; Zhang, Jie

2014-01-01

260

Mental health in young adults and adolescents - supporting general physicians to provide holistic care.  

PubMed

In the era of an ageing population, young adults on medical wards are quite rare, as only 12% of young adults report a long-term illness or disability. However, mental health problems remain prevalent in the younger population. In a recent report, mental health and obesity were listed as the most common problems in young adults. Teams set up specifically for the needs of younger adults, such as early intervention in psychosis services are shown to work better than traditional care and have also proven to be cost effective. On the medical wards, younger patients may elicit strong emotions in staff, who often feel protective and may identify strongly with the young patient's suffering. In order to provide holistic care for young adults, general physicians need to recognise common presentations of mental illness in young adults such as depression, deliberate self-harm, eating disorders and substance misuse. Apart from treating illness, health promotion is particularly important for young adults. PMID:25824067

Jurewicz, Izabela

2015-04-01

261

Youth and Young Adult Physical Activity and Body Composition of Young Adult Women: Findings From the Dietary Intervention Study in Children.  

PubMed

This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend=0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (?=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p=0.02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women. PMID:25387239

Hodge, Melissa G; Hovinga, Mary; Shepherd, John A; Egleston, Brian; Gabriel, Kelley; VanHorn, Linda; Robson, Alan; Snetselaar, Linda; Stevens, Victor K; Jung, Seungyoun; Dorgan, Joanne

2014-11-10

262

Intermittent prenatal MDMA exposure alters physiological but not mood related parameters in adult rat offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recreational party drug “ecstasy” (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine MDMA) is particularly popular among young adults who are in the childbearing age and thus there is a substantial risk of prenatal MDMA exposure.We applied an intermittent treatment protocol with an early first injection on pregnant Wistar rats (15mg\\/kg MDMA s.c. on the E4, E11 and E18 days of gestation) to examine the potential

Csaba Ádori; Dóra Zelena; Júlia Tímár; Zsuzsa Gyarmati; Ágnes Domokos; Melinda Sobor; Zsuzsanna Fürst; Gábor Makara; György Bagdy

2010-01-01

263

Moderate High Fat Diet Increases Sucrose Self-Administration In Young Rats  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported that a moderately high fat diet increases motivation for sucrose in adult rats. In this study, we tested the motivational, neurochemical, and metabolic effects of the high fat diet in male rats transitioning through puberty, during 5-8 weeks of age. We observed that the high fat diet increased motivated responding for sucrose, which was independent of either metabolic changes or changes in catecholamine neurotransmitter metabolites in the nucleus accumbens. However, AGRP mRNA levels in the hypothalamus were significantly elevated. We demonstrated that increased activation of AGRP neurons is associated with motivated behavior, and that exogenous (third cerebroventricular) AGRP administration resulted in significantly increased motivation for sucrose. These observations suggest that increased expression and activity of AGRP in the medial hypothalamus may underlie the increased responding for sucrose caused by the high fat diet intervention. Finally, we compared motivation for sucrose in pubertal vs. adult rats and observed increased motivation for sucrose in the pubertal rats, which is consistent with previous reports that young animals and humans have an increased preference for sweet taste, compared with adults. Together, our studies suggest that background diet plays a strong modulatory role in motivation for sweet taste in adolescent animals. PMID:23023044

Figlewicz, Dianne P.; Jay, Jennifer L.; Acheson, Molly A.; Magrisso, Irwin J.; West, Constance H.; Zavosh, Aryana; Benoit, Stephen C.; Davis, Jon F.

2012-01-01

264

A Question of Diversity: An Analysis of the Young Adult Library Service Association's Best Books for Young Adults, 1994-1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the Young Adult Library Service Association's (YALSA's) Best Books for Young Adults (BBYA) recommended list for the years 1994-98 in order to determine if the list provides diversity in terms of the content of books and the gender and ethnicity of the authors and editors whose works appear on it. The results of the study…

Benedikt, Anna R.

265

Coronary risk factors measured in childhood and young adult life are associated with coronary artery calcification in young adults: The muscatine study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of coronary artery calcification in young adult men and women and to examine the association between the presence of coronary artery calcification and coronary risk factors measured in childhood and young adult life.Background. Electron beam computed tomography is a sensitive, noninvasive method for detecting coronary artery calcification, a marker of the

Larry T. Mahoney; Trudy L. Burns; William Stanford; Brad H. Thompson; John D. Witt; Catherine A. Rost; Ronald M. Lauer

1996-01-01

266

Anatomical gradients of adult neurogenesis and activity: young neurons in the ventral dentate gyrus are activated by water maze training  

PubMed Central

Hippocampal function varies in a subregion-specific fashion: spatial processing is thought to rely on the dorsal hippocampus, while anxiety-related behavior relies more on the ventral hippocampus. During development, neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus proceeds along ventral to dorsal as well as suprapyramidal to infrapyramidal gradients, but it is unclear whether regional differences in neurogenesis are maintained in adulthood. Moreover, it is unknown whether young neurons in the adult exhibit subregion-specific patterns of activation. We therefore examined the magnitude of neurogenesis and the activation of young and mature granule cells in dentate gyrus subregions in adult rats that learned a spatial water maze task, swam with no platform, or were left untouched. We found that both adult neurogenesis and granule cell activation, as defined by c-fos expression in the granule cell population as a whole, were higher in the dorsal than the ventral dentate gyrus. In contrast, c-fos expression in adult-born granule cells, identified by PSA-NCAM or location in the subgranular zone, occurred at a higher rate in the opposite subregion, the ventral dentate gyrus. Interestingly, c-fos expression in the entire granule cell population was equivalent in water maze-trained rats and swim control rats, but was increased in the young granule cells only in the learning condition. These results provide new evidence that hippocampally-relevant experience activates young and mature neurons in different dentate gyrus subregions and with different experiential specificity, and suggest that adult-born neurons may play a specific role in anxiety-related behavior or other non-spatial aspects of hippocampal function. PMID:19004012

Snyder, Jason S.; Radik, Ruvim; Wojtowicz, J. Martin; Cameron, Heather A.

2009-01-01

267

Aging-Dependent Changes in the Radiation Response of the Adult Rat Brain  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the impact of aging on the radiation response in the adult rat brain. Methods and Materials: Male rats 8, 18, or 28 months of age received a single 10-Gy dose of whole-brain irradiation (WBI). The hippocampal dentate gyrus was analyzed 1 and 10 weeks later for sensitive neurobiologic markers associated with radiation-induced damage: changes in density of proliferating cells, immature neurons, total microglia, and activated microglia. Results: A significant decrease in basal levels of proliferating cells and immature neurons and increased microglial activation occurred with normal aging. The WBI induced a transient increase in proliferation that was greater in older animals. This proliferation response did not increase the number of immature neurons, which decreased after WBI in young rats, but not in old rats. Total microglial numbers decreased after WBI at all ages, but microglial activation increased markedly, particularly in older animals. Conclusions: Age is an important factor to consider when investigating the radiation response of the brain. In contrast to young adults, older rats show no sustained decrease in number of immature neurons after WBI, but have a greater inflammatory response. The latter may have an enhanced role in the development of radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction in older individuals.

Schindler, Matthew K. [Program in Neuroscience, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)], E-mail: mkschind@wfubmc.edu; Forbes, M. Elizabeth [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Robbins, Mike E. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Riddle, David R. [Program in Neuroscience, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

2008-03-01

268

Effects of chronic overload on muscle hypertrophy and mTOR signaling in adult and aged rats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We examined the effect of 28 days of overload on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in young adult (Y; 6 mo old) and aged (O; 30 mo old) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats subjected to bilateral synergist ablation (SA) of two-thirds of the gas...

269

Investing in the health and well-being of young adults.  

PubMed

Contrary to popular perception, young adults-ages approximately 18-26 years-are surprisingly unhealthy. They are less healthy than adolescents, and they also show a worse health profile than those in their late 20s and 30s. The Affordable Care Act provisions to extend coverage for young adults are well known, and some states had already been pursuing similar efforts before the Affordable Care Act was enacted. These initiatives have resulted in important gains in young adults' heath care coverage. However, too little attention has been paid to the care that young adults receive once they are in the system. Given young adults' health problems, this is a critical omission. The Institute of Medicine and National Research Council recently released a report titled Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. The report concludes that young adulthood is a critical developmental period and recommends that young adults ages 18-26 years be treated as a distinct subpopulation in policy, planning, programming, and research. The report also recommends action in three priority areas to improve health care for young adults: improving the transition from pediatric to adult medical and behavioral health care, enhancing preventive care for young adults, and developing evidence-based practices. PMID:25620297

Stroud, Clare; Walker, Leslie R; Davis, Maryann; Irwin, Charles E

2015-02-01

270

Face age modulates gaze following in young adults  

PubMed Central

Gaze-following behaviour is considered crucial for social interactions which are influenced by social similarity. We investigated whether the degree of similarity, as indicated by the perceived age of another person, can modulate gaze following. Participants of three different age-groups (18–25; 35–45; over 65) performed an eye movement (a saccade) towards an instructed target while ignoring the gaze-shift of distracters of different age-ranges (6–10; 18–25; 35–45; over 70). The results show that gaze following was modulated by the distracter face age only for young adults. Particularly, the over 70 year-old distracters exerted the least interference effect. The distracters of a similar age-range as the young adults (18–25; 35–45) had the most effect, indicating a blurred own-age bias (OAB) only for the young age group. These findings suggest that face age can modulate gaze following, but this modulation could be due to factors other than just OAB (e.g., familiarity). PMID:24752250

Ciardo, Francesca; Marino, Barbara F. M.; Actis-Grosso, Rossana; Rossetti, Angela; Ricciardelli, Paola

2014-01-01

271

Alcohol Use Potentiates Marijuana Problem Severity in Young Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Background Most young adult women who smoke marijuana also drink alcohol. Marijuana-related problems are associated with marijuana use frequency. We hypothesized that increased alcohol use frequency potentiates the association between frequency of marijuana use and marijuana-related problem severity. Methods We recruited women age 18–24 who smoked marijuana at least monthly and were not treatment-seeking. Marijuana and alcohol use were measured using the Timeline Followback method. Problems associated with marijuana use were assessed using the Marijuana Problems Scale. Findings Participants (n=332) averaged 20.5 (± 1.8) years of age, were 66.7% non-Hispanic White, and reported using marijuana on 51.5 (± 30.6) and alcohol on 18.9 (± 16.8) of the 90 previous days. Controlling for education, ethnicity, years of marijuana use, and other drug use, frequency of marijuana use (b = .22, p < .01) and frequency of alcohol use (b = 0.13, p < .05) had statistically significant positive effects on marijuana problem severity. In a separate multivariate model, the linear by linear interaction of marijuana by alcohol use frequency was statistically significant (b = 0.18, p < .01) consistent with the hypothesis. Conclusions Concurrent alcohol use impacts the experience of negative consequences from marijuana use in a community sample of young women. Discussions of marijuana use in young adults should consider the possible potentiating effects of alcohol use. PMID:24439950

Stein, Michael D.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Anderson, Bradley J.

2013-01-01

272

Emotional memory for musical excerpts in young and older adults  

PubMed Central

The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24 h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24 h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and dementia.

Alonso, Irene; Dellacherie, Delphine; Samson, Séverine

2015-01-01

273

Recollections of Being Loved: Implications of Childhood Experiences with Parents for Young Adults' Romantic Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent to which young adults recollections of their childhood experiences with parents were associated with their reported feelings and behavior in romantic relationships. Participants were 205 young adults. Based on a question from the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996), participants wrote adjectives…

Black, Katherine A.; Schutte, Emily D.

2006-01-01

274

Entry into labour: The experience of young adults in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the experience of young adults employed in the tertiary sector in Brasília. The results show that young people are prepared for work by on-the-job training and nonformal education; schooling is mainly an indicator of trainability. Entry into the labour force reinforces social differences in family background and schooling. The results tend to support the moderate version of classical theory with regard to the nature of school/work relationships. In the context of the conflict paradigm, the data run contrary to both reproductionism and the radical critique of this view. From the comparative standpoint youth is an underprivileged group in the labour market, regardless of sex, socioeconomic status and country of residence. Despite these variations, societies are stratified by age groups.

Gomes, Candido A.

1990-12-01

275

ACUTE BEHAVIORAL TOXICITY OF CARBARYL AND PROPOXUR IN ADULT RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Motor activity and neuromotor function were examined in adult CD rats exposed to either carbaryl or propoxur, and behavioral effects were compared with the time course of cholinesterase inhibition. Rats received an IP injection of either 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 mg/kg propoxur or 0, 4, 8,...

276

Gingival recession: prevalence and risk indicators among young greek adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of the current research was to assess the prevalence of gingival recession and to investigate possible associations among this condition, periodontal and epidemiological variables in a sample of young Greek adults in a general dental practice. Material and Methods: A total of 1,430 young adults was examined clinically and interviewed regarding several periodontal and epidemiological variables. Collected data included demographic variables, oral hygiene habits and smoking status. Clinical examination included the recording of dental plaque, supragingival calculus presence, gingival status and buccal gingival recession. Multivariate logistic regression analysis model was performed to access the possible association between gingival recession and several periodontal and epidemiological variables as potential risk factors. Results: The overall prevalence of gingival recession was 63.9%. The statistical analysis indicated that higher educational level [OR= 2.12, 95% CI= 0.53-8.51], cigarette smoking [OR= 1.97, 95% CI= 1.48-7.91], frequent tooth brushing [OR= 0.98, 95% CI= 0.56-1.96], presence of oral piercing [OR= 0.92, 95% CI= 0.38-1.58], presence of gingival inflammation [OR= 4.54, 95% CI= 1.68-7.16], presence of dental plaque [OR= 1.67, 95% CI= 0.68-2.83] and presence of supragingival calculus [OR=1.34, 95% CI= 0.59-1.88], were the most important associated factors of gingival recession. Conclusions: The observations of the current research supported the results from previous authors that several periodontal factors, educational level and smoking were significantly associated with the presence of gingival recession, while presence of oral piercing was a new factor that was found to be associated with gingival recession. Key words:Gingival recession, prevalence, risk factors, young adults. PMID:25136424

2014-01-01

277

Food safety hazards lurk in the kitchens of young adults.  

PubMed

Food mishandling in home kitchens likely causes a significant amount of foodborne disease; however, little is known about the food safety hazards lurking in home kitchens. The purposes of this study were to audit the kitchens of young adults with education beyond high school to identify food safety problems and develop recommendations for education efforts. Researchers developed a criterion-referenced home kitchen observation instrument to assess compliance of home food storage and rotation practices (e.g., temperature), sanitation and chemical storage, and general kitchen condition (e.g., infestation) with recommended practices. The instrument contained seven scales: Kitchen Cleanliness (eight items), Appliance Cleanliness (three items), Cleaning Supplies Availability (eight items), Temperatures (Food Thermometer Access & Refrigerator/Freezer Temperatures) (five items), Cold Food Storage (seven items), Dry Food Storage (eight items), and Poisons Storage (two items). Descriptive statistics were conducted to describe the study population, as a whole, and by gender. A total of 154 young adults (mean age, 20.7+/- 1.3 SD) enrolled in a northeastern university participated. Participants scored 70% or higher on Poisons Storage, Dry Food Storage, Kitchen Cleanliness, and Cleaning Supplies Availability scales but less than 60% on the Appliance Cleanliness and Cold Food Storage scales. Performance was lowest on the Temperatures scale. Females scored significantly higher than males on the Kitchen Cleanliness and Cleaning Supply Availability scales. Average refrigerator and freezer temperatures were higher than recommendations. Food safety education targeted at this young adult population needs to evolve into focused messages pertaining to the key food safety violations in this population. PMID:17477272

Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Maurer, Jaclyn; Wheatley, Virginia; Cottone, Ellen; Clancy, Michele

2007-04-01

278

Binge Drinking Impairs Vascular Function in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives The study aimed to assess whether young binge drinkers have impaired macrovascular and microvascular function and cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factors compared to age-matched alcohol abstainers. Background Binge drinking rates are highest on college campuses and among 18- to 25-year-olds; however, macrovascular and microvascular endothelial function in young adults with a history of repeated binge drinking (?5 standard drinks in 2 hrs. in men; ?4 standard drinks in 2 hrs. in women) has not been investigated Methods We evaluated the cardiovascular profile, brachial artery endothelial-dependent flow mediated vasodilation (FMD), and flow independent nitroglycerin (NTG)-mediated dilation and vasoreactivity of resistance arteries (isolated from gluteal fat biopsies) in abstainers and binge drinkers. Results Men and women (18–25 years of age, abstainers [A] n = 17, binge drinkers [BD] n = 19) were enrolled. Among the BD group, past-month average number of binge episodes was 6 ± 1, and average duration of binge drinking behavior was 4 ± 0.6 years. FMD and NTG-mediated dilations were significantly lower in the BD (FMD: 8.4% ± 0.7, P = 0.022; NTG: 19.6% ± 2, P = 0.009) than the A group (FMD: 11 ± 0.7%; NTG: 28.6 ± 2%). ACh- and SNP-induced dilation in resistance arteries was not significantly different between the A and BD groups. However, ET-1-induced constriction was significantly enhanced in the BD group compared to the A group (P = 0.032). No differences between groups were found in blood pressure, lipoproteins, and C-reactive protein. Conclusions Alterations in the macrocirculation and microcirculation may represent early clinical manifestations of CV risk in otherwise healthy young binge drinkers. This study has important clinical implications for screening young adults for a repeated history of binge drinking. PMID:23623907

Goslawski, Melissa; Piano, Mariann R.; Bian, Jing-Tan; Church, Emily; Szczurek, Mary; Phillips, Shane A.

2013-01-01

279

Eating styles, overweight and obesity in young adult twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To explore the association of eating styles with overweight and obesity in young adults, controlling for identical genetic background in monozygotic twins.Design:Prospective twin cohort study.Setting:Finland, 1991–2002.Subjects:Two-hundred and thirty-three women and 2060 men from the FinnTwin16 study, aged 16 years at baseline (T1), and ranging from 22 to 27 years at the time of the nutritional assessment (T4).Methods:Eating styles (Restrictive\\/overeating, health-conscious,

A Keski-Rahkonen; C M Bulik; K H Pietiläinen; R J Rose; J Kaprio; A Rissanen

2007-01-01

280

Young Adult Outcomes of Juvenile Court–Involved Girls  

PubMed Central

The recent increase in the number of girls involved in the juvenile justice system has resulted in increased academic and public attention. Thus far, this attention has focused on entry into the juvenile justice system rather than longer-term consequences. This research helps fill this gap by examining a sample of 700 maltreated and/or impoverished juvenile court–involved females. Competing risks models were used to control for time from juvenile-court entry to adult outcomes: criminal justice system involvement, use of public mental health or substance use services, and income maintenance use. Results indicate that there are distinct predictors associated with the different outcomes, although learning disability and adolescent parenthood were associated with higher risk of both mental health/substance use services and income maintenance. Individualized services for juvenile court–involved girls are suggested. Prospective, longitudinal research is needed to investigate intrapsychic and behavioral dynamics associated with females’ young adult outcomes. PMID:23430819

Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa

2013-01-01

281

The effect of reduced vowel working space on speech intelligibility in Mandarin-speaking young adults  

E-print Network

The effect of reduced vowel working space on speech intelligibility in Mandarin-speaking young working space area and speech intelligibility was examined in Mandarin-speaking young adults with cerebral

282

Acceleration of wound healing in young and aged rats  

E-print Network

on eczema and radiaflon ulcers (I). In addition to the effects on human burns and wounds, evidence also suggests that the crude forms of Aloe vera gel have beneficial effects on wound healing in animals (12). It has been demonstrated that Aloe vera gel has... on the backs of young and old rats (45). It was subsequently demonstrated that the incidence of wound dehiscence after duodenal ulcer surgery increased nearly linearly with age (47). Further evaluation of cutaneous wounds showed younger rats had wounds...

Maxwell, Bryan Douglas

1996-01-01

283

Repeated aripiprazole treatment causes dopamine D2 receptor up-regulation and dopamine supersensitivity in young rats.  

PubMed

Aripiprazole is a second-generation antipsychotic that is increasingly being prescribed to children and adolescents. Despite this trend, little preclinical research has been done on the neural and behavioral actions of aripiprazole during early development. In the present study, young male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with vehicle, haloperidol (1 mg/kg), or aripiprazole (10 mg/kg) once daily on postnatal days (PD) 10-20. After 1, 4, or 8 days (i.e. on PD 21, PD 24, or PD 28), amphetamine-induced locomotor activity and stereotypy, as well as dorsal striatal D2 receptor levels, were measured in separate groups of rats. Pretreating young rats with aripiprazole or haloperidol increased D2 binding sites in the dorsal striatum. Consistent with these results, dopamine supersensitivity was apparent when aripiprazole- and haloperidol-pretreated rats were given a test day injection of amphetamine (2 or 4 mg/kg). Increased D2 receptor levels and altered behavioral responding persisted for at least 8 days after conclusion of the pretreatment regimen. Contrary to what has been reported in adults, repeated aripiprazole treatment caused D2 receptor up-regulation and persistent alterations of amphetamine-induced behavior in young rats. These findings are consistent with human clinical studies showing that children and adolescents are more prone than adults to aripiprazole-induced side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms. PMID:24045880

Varela, Fausto A; Der-Ghazarian, Taleen; Lee, Ryan J; Charntikov, Sergios; Crawford, Cynthia A; McDougall, Sanders A

2014-04-01

284

Thyroid hormone regulates hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult rat brain  

E-print Network

Thyroid hormone regulates hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult rat brain Lynette A. Desouza,a,1 March 2005 Available online 27 April 2005 We have examined the influence of thyroid hormone on adult hormone may be optimally permissive at euthyroid levels. Our in vivo and in vitro results revealed

Vaidya, Vidita

285

TRIMETHYLTIN DISRUPTS ACOUSTIC STARTLE RESPONDING IN ADULT RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Trimethyltin (TMT) is a limbic-system toxicant which also produces sensory dysfunction in adult animals. In the present experiment, the authors examined the effects of TMT on the acoustic startle response. Adult male, Long-Evans rats (N=12/dose) received a single i.p. injection o...

286

Using Young Adult Literature to Explore the Causes and Impact of Teen Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project addresses the use of young adult literature in the classroom to teach about teen violence. The research questions addressed are:\\u000a1. How is violence depicted in young adult literature from post-Columbine (1999) to present day (2009)?\\u000a2. How does young adult literature attempt to inform teens about the causes, effects, and warning signs of violence?\\u000a3. How do

Jill Ellen Hathaway

2009-01-01

287

Examining Representations of Young Adult Female Protagonists through Critical Race Feminism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the ways in which the professional literature—by scholars, educators and reviewers—represents young adult female protagonists and approaches sexism. Drawing on critical race feminist theory, the author finds that recommended young adult female protagonists are still overwhelmingly white, middle?class and heterosexual. Despite descriptors such as ‘strong’, ‘gutsy’, ‘feisty’ and ‘independent’, the young adult female protagonists that are recommended

2007-01-01

288

Uninsurance among young adults continues to decline, particularly in medicaid expansion States.  

PubMed

The Affordable Care Act provision allowing young adults to remain on a parent's private insurance plan until age twenty-six disproportionately reduced uninsurance among higher-income young adults, while the 2014 coverage provisions were associated with substantial reductions for those with low and moderate incomes, particularly in Medicaid expansion states. About 20 percent of young adults remained uninsured in early 2014. PMID:25847644

McMorrow, Stacey; Kenney, Genevieve M; Long, Sharon K; Anderson, Nathaniel

2015-04-01

289

Adrenocortical function in young adults with diabetes mellitus type 1.  

PubMed

In 75 young adults with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM 1) we have performed a cross-sectional study to gain more information about their adrenocortical function. We have found in a surprisingly large portion of patients (25%) a subnormal response (<500 nmol/L, low responders) of the serum cortisol during low-dose Synacthen test, accompanied by significantly decreased stimulated values of aldosterone and salivary cortisol. Basal serum cortisol, aldosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (in women only) were significantly reduced in low responders as well, while ACTH, cortisol binding globulin, plasma renin activity, urinary free cortisol/24h, and salivary cortisol did not differ. The results indicate that the disorder of adrenocortical function in low responders occurs in all adrenocortical zones. The patients with the highest risk in respect to revealed hypocorticalism were DM 1 with autoimmune thyroiditis, 13 out of 36 in contrast to 5 out of 39 suffered from isolated form of DM 1, with onset around 30 years, independently on sex. The biorhythm of salivary cortisol in low responders under real-life conditions did not significantly differ from normal responders, except of the decreased values in the morning. Antibodies against 21-hydroxylase and adrenal cortex were negative in the entire group of diabetics studied. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate in as much as 25% of young adults with DM 1 patients without any signs of adrenal autoimmunity decreased both basal and stimulated serum cortisol and aldosterone levels, implying existence of subclinical primary hypocorticalism. PMID:20433924

Simunkova, Katerina; Hampl, Richard; Hill, Martin; Kriz, Lubomir; Hrda, Pavlina; Janickova-Zdarska, Denisa; Zamrazil, Vaclav; Vrbikova, Jana; Vondra, Karel

2010-10-01

290

Tobacco Industry Lifestyle Magazines Targeted to Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose This is the first study describing the tobacco industry’s objectives developing and publishing lifestyle magazines, linking them to tobacco marketing strategies, and how these magazines may encourage smoking. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and content analysis of 31 lifestyle magazines to understand the motives behind producing these magazines and the role they played in tobacco marketing strategies. Results Philip Morris (PM) debuted Unlimited in 1996 to nearly 2 million readers and RJ Reynolds (RJR) debuted CML in 1999 targeting young adults with their interests. Both magazines were developed as the tobacco companies faced increased advertising restrictions Unlimited contained few images of smoking, but frequently featured elements of the Marlboro brand identity in both advertising and article content. CML featured more smoking imagery and fewer Camel brand identity elements. Conclusions Lifestyle promotions that lack images of smoking may still promote tobacco use through brand imagery. The tobacco industry still uses the “under the radar” strategies used in development of lifestyle magazines in branded websites. Prohibiting lifestyle advertising including print and electronic media that associate tobacco with recreation, action, pleasures, and risky behaviors or that reinforces tobacco brand identity may be an effective strategy to curb young adult smoking. PMID:19699423

Cortese, Daniel K.; Lewis, M. Jane; Ling, Pamela M.

2010-01-01

291

Young adult perceptions of smoking in outdoor park areas  

PubMed Central

Purpose Smoking restrictions in recreational settings are established to promote anti-smoking norms and to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke. Outdoor smoke-free policies are increasing, yet little is known about the perceptions of such restrictions. Methods Data were collected from a population-based sample of young adults (n=2,289) in upper Midwestern United States. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression was used to assess predictors of the perceived difficulty to smoke in outdoor park areas. Results Living in an area with a smoke-free park policy was associated with a 1.4 times higher odds of perceiving difficulty to smoke compared to those living in an area without such a policy, after controlling for past month smoking, physical activity, age, and gender. Both smokers and non-smokers living in an area with a smoke-free park policy had higher odds of perceiving difficulty to smoking in park areas (OR=1.6 and 1.3, respectively) compared to smokers and non-smokers living in areas without such policies. Conclusion Banning smoking in parks areas was associated with a heightened perception of difficulty in smoking for young adult smokers and non-smokers. PMID:22784775

Klein, Elizabeth G.; Bernat, Debra H.; Forster, Jean L.

2014-01-01

292

Depressive Symptoms and Serum Lipid Levels in Young Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression (CES-D) scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-hour recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors. PMID:22382824

Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J.; Kwiterovich, Peter O.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Longacre, Margaret L.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

2012-01-01

293

Somatosensory mismatch response in young and elderly adults  

PubMed Central

Aging is associated with cognitive decline and alterations in early perceptual processes. Studies in the auditory and visual sensory modalities have shown that the mismatch negativity [or the mismatch response (MMR)], an event-related potential (ERP) elicited by a deviant stimulus in a background of homogenous events, diminishes with aging and cognitive decline. However, the effects of aging on the somatosensory MMR (sMMR) are not known. In the current study, we recorded ERPs to electrical pulses to different fingers of the left hand in a passive oddball experiment in young (22–36 years) and elderly (66–95 years) adults engaged in a visual task. The MMR was found to deviants as compared to standards at two latency ranges: 180–220 ms and 250–290 ms post-stimulus onset. At 180–220 ms, within the young, the MMR was found at medial electrode sites, whereas aged did not show any amplitude difference between the stimulus types at the same latency range. At 250–290 ms, the MMR was evident with attenuated amplitude and narrowed scalp distribution among aged (Fz) compared to young (fronto-centrally and lateral parietal sites). Hence, the results reveal that the somatosensory change detection mechanism is altered in aging. The sMMR can be used as a reliable measure of age-related changes in sensory-cognitive functions. PMID:25386140

Strömmer, Juho M.; Tarkka, Ina M.; Astikainen, Piia

2014-01-01

294

Psychological predictors of young adults' use of social networking sites.  

PubMed

Young people are increasingly using social networking sites (SNSs) like MySpace and Facebook to engage with others. The use of SNSs can have both positive and negative effects on the individual; however, few studies identify the types of people who frequent these Internet sites. This study sought to predict young adults' use of SNSs and addictive tendency toward the use of SNSs from their personality characteristics and levels of self-esteem. University students (N = 201), aged 17 to 24 years, reported their use of SNSs and addictive tendencies for SNSs use and completed the NEO Five-Factor Personality Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Multiple regression analyses revealed that, as a group, the personality and self-esteem factors significantly predicted both level of SNS use and addictive tendency but did not explain a large amount of variance in either outcome measure. The findings indicated that extroverted and unconscientious individuals reported higher levels of both SNS use and addictive tendencies. Future research should attempt to identify which other psychosocial characteristics explain young people's level of use and propensity for addictive tendencies for these popular Internet sites. PMID:20528274

Wilson, Kathryn; Fornasier, Stephanie; White, Katherine M

2010-04-01

295

The Experiences of Mothers of Young Adults with an Intellectual Disability Transitioning from Secondary School to Adult Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The transition from school to adulthood for young adults with an intellectual disability involves movement from a generally secure and supported school environment to an emerging adult life that may be characterised by a wide variation in adoption of adult roles related to employment, independent living, friendships, and day…

Dyke, Paula; Bourke, Jenny; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Leonard, Helen

2013-01-01

296

Andragogy for Teen and Young Adult Learners with Intellectual Disabilities: Learning, Independence, and Best Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teens and young adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) meet the criteria of teen and adult learners chronologically, but may be deficient in many other areas of teen and adult learning. The spectrum of intellectual and adaptive capabilities among teens and adults with ID is vast, with each individual being unique. There are specific teaching…

Bowman, Stephanie L.; Plourde, Lee A.

2012-01-01

297

Childhood victimization experiences of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of childhood victimization experiences in a sample of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. The study sample included 743 students aged 19 to 25 from 15 universities in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the study participants completed a reliable questionnaire assessing the following types of childhood victimization: conventional crime, child maltreatment, peer victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessing violence. Participation in the study was anonymous. High rates of victimization and exposure to violence were reported by the study participants. The majority of the sample experienced at least one type of victimization during childhood or adolescence, and poly-victimization was reported frequently. The most common type of victimization reported was peer or sibling assault (66.94%), followed by witnessing an assault without weapon (63.91%), personal theft (56.19%), vandalism (56.06%), and emotional bullying (49.99%). Sexual assault by a known adult was reported by 1.45% males and 5.16% of females. This study provides new information on the scope of childhood victimization experiences in Russia. Further research is warranted, including epidemiological research with representative data across the country and studies of the impact of trauma and victimization on mental health and well-being of Russian adults and children. PMID:25012953

Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov

2015-04-01

298

Effects of Chronic Fluoxetine Treatment on Neurogenesis and Tryptophan Hydroxylase Expression in Adolescent and Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

The antidepressant drug fluoxetine (Prozac) has been increasingly prescribed to children and adolescents with depressive disorders despite a lack of thorough understanding of its therapeutic effects in the paediatric population and of its putative neurodevelopmental effects. Within the framework of PRIOMEDCHILD ERA-NET, we investigated; a) effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a structural readout relevant for antidepressant action and hippocampal development; b) effects on tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) expression, a measure of serotonin synthesis; c) whether treatment effects during adolescence differed from treatment at an adult age, and d) whether they were subregion-specific. Stereological quantification of the number of proliferating (Ki-67+) cells and of the number of young migratory neurons (doublecortin+), revealed a significant age-by-treatment interaction effect, indicating that fluoxetine affects both proliferation and neurogenesis in adolescent-treated rats differently than it does in adult-treated rats. In terms of subregional differences, fluoxetine enhanced proliferation mainly in the dorsal parts of the hippocampus, and neurogenesis in both the suprapyramidal and infrapyramidal blades of the dentate gyrus in adolescent-treated rats, while no such differences were seen in adult-treated rats. Fluoxetine exerted similar age-by-treatment interaction effects on TPH cells mainly in the ventral portion of the dorsal raphe nucleus. We conclude that fluoxetine exerts divergent effects on structural plasticity and serotonin synthesis in adolescent versus adult-treated rats. These preliminary data indicate a differential sensitivity of the adolescent brain to this drug and thus warrant further research into their behavioural and translational aspects. Together with recent related findings, they further call for caution in prescribing these drugs to the adolescent population. PMID:24827731

Meerhoff, Gideon F.

2014-01-01

299

Attractiveness judgments and discrimination of mommies and grandmas: perceptual tuning for young adult faces.  

PubMed

Adults are more accurate in detecting deviations from normality in young adult faces than in older adult faces despite exhibiting comparable accuracy in discriminating both face ages. This deficit in judging the normality of older faces may be due to reliance on a face space optimized for the dimensions of young adult faces, perhaps because of early and continuous experience with young adult faces. Here we examined the emergence of this young adult face bias by testing 3- and 7-year-old children on a child-friendly version of the task used to test adults. In an attractiveness judgment task, children viewed young and older adult face pairs; each pair consisted of an unaltered face and a distorted face of the same identity. Children pointed to the prettiest face, which served as a measure of their sensitivity to the dimensions on which faces vary relative to a norm. To examine whether biases in the attractiveness task were specific to deficits in referencing a norm or extended to impaired discrimination, we tested children on a simultaneous match-to-sample task with the same stimuli. Both age groups were more accurate in judging the attractiveness of young faces relative to older faces; however, unlike adults, the young adult face bias extended to the match-to-sample task. These results suggest that by 3 years of age, children's perceptual system is more finely tuned for young adult faces than for older adult faces, which may support past findings of superior recognition for young adult faces. PMID:25222629

Short, Lindsey A; Mondloch, Catherine J; Hackland, Anne T

2015-01-01

300

Adolescent and young adult health in the United States in the past decade: little improvement and young adults remain worse off than adolescents.  

PubMed

Adolescence and young adulthood are unique developmental periods that present opportunities and challenges for improving health. Health at this age can affect health throughout the lifespan. This review has two aims: (1) to examine trends in key indicators in outcomes, behaviors, and health care over the past decade for U.S. adolescents and young adults; and (2) to compare U.S. adolescents and young adults on these indicators. The review also assesses sociodemographic differences in trends and current indicators. Guided by our aims, previous reviews, and national priorities, the present review identified 21 sources of nationally representative data to examine trends in 53 areas and comparisons of adolescents and young adults in 42 areas. Most health and health care indicators have changed little over the past decade. Encouraging exceptions were found for adolescents and young adults in unintentional injury, assault, and tobacco use, and, for adolescents, in sexual/reproductive health. Trends in violence and chronic disease and related behaviors were mixed. Review of current indicators demonstrates that young adulthood continues to entail greater risk and worse outcomes than adolescence. Young adults fared worse on about two-thirds of the indicators examined. Differences among sociodemographic subgroups persisted for both trends and current indicators. PMID:24815958

Park, M Jane; Scott, Jazmyn T; Adams, Sally H; Brindis, Claire D; Irwin, Charles E

2014-07-01

301

Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention and Intervention in a Community Setting: Perspectives of Young Adults and Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent dating violence (ADV) is a significant community problem. In this study, we examine the perspectives of two groups (young adults who experienced ADV as teens and professionals who work with teens) on ADV prevention/intervention in a community context. We interviewed 88 young adults and 20 professionals. Our research team used Thorne's…

Martsolf, Donna S.; Colbert, Crystal; Draucker, Claire B.

2012-01-01

302

Popular Postmodernism for Young Adult Readers: "Walk Two Moons,""Holes," and "Monster."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines arguments as to whether, how, and to what extent children's and adolescent literature is becoming postmodern. Suggests young adult literature has fully embraced the postmodern mode. Discusses three young adult novels that use postmodernist ideas and techniques: Sharon Creech's "Walk Two Moons," Louis Sachar's "Holes," and Walter Dean…

Yearwood, Stephenie

2002-01-01

303

Tensions in Teaching Adolescence/ts: Analyzing Resistances in a Young Adult Literature Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifying English Education courses focused on young adult literature as apposite sites for exploring teacher conceptions of youth and the texts aimed for youths' consumptions, this article addresses the multiple sources of tension--and pedagogical potential--of teaching a young adult literature course centrally framed around controversial…

Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

2012-01-01

304

Young Adult Couples Transitioning to Work: The Intersection of Career and Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contextual action theory was used to frame an exploratory qualitative study of young adult couples' experiences of transitioning from post-secondary education into the labor force, addressing the specific research question ''What kinds of projects for future work and life together do young adult couples jointly construct and pursue as they…

Domene, Jose F.; Nee, Jessica J.; Cavanaugh, Ashley K.; McLelland, Serita; Stewart, Becky; Stephenson, Michelle; Kauffman, Bradley; Tse, Christopher K.; Young, Richard A.

2012-01-01

305

Family Background, Adolescents' Educational Aspirations, and Australian Young Adults' Educational Attainment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this longitudinal study, relationships were examined between educational aspirations and educational attainment for Australian young adults from different ethnic and social status backgrounds. Participants included 6,811 (3,547 women and 3,264 men) young adults (mean age = 20.3 years) who were in Year 9 when the study began. In the analysis,…

Marjoribanks, Kevin

2005-01-01

306

More Than Kids Stuff: Can News and Information Web Sites Mobilize Young Adults?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many young adults are not politically active. Since 1972, their participation and interest levels have declined not only in absolute terms but also relative to other voting-age groups. This paper examines how the Internet can reverse this trend. It focuses on how leading news and political information Web sites affected young adults during the…

Lupia, Arthur; Philpot, Tasha S.

307

Education, Employment, and Independent Living of Young Adults Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little information is available on the education, employment, and independent living status of young deaf and hard of hearing adults who have transitioned from high school. The present article reports post-secondary outcomes of 46 young adults who had attended for at least 4 years a non-public agency school in the northwestern United States…

Appelman, Karen I.; Callahan, Judy Ottren; Mayer, Margaret H.; Luetke, Barbara S.; Stryker, Deborah S.

2012-01-01

308

Exploring the Psychosocial and Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes of Multi-Type Abuse among Homeless Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the psychosocial and behavioral adjustment outcomes associated with verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse among homeless young adults as well as the associations among abuse types. Convenience sampling was used to select 28 homeless young adults (ages 18 to 24) from one drop-in center. Overall, subjects experienced…

Ferguson, Kristin M.

2009-01-01

309

Factors Related to Smoking in College and Not in College Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought variables associated with current smoking for young adult males and females in college compared with those not in college. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by a cohort of 1,270 young adults (ages 20-24) who have been followed from grade 6 for 10 years. Both bivariate and multivariable analyses of demographic…

Koval, John; Pederson, Linda; Zhang, Xiaohe

2006-01-01

310

Meanings of Good Nonresidential Fathering: The Recollections of Young Adults with a Childhood Experience of Divorce  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to describe the meanings of good nonresidential fathering from the recollections of young adults with a childhood experience of divorce. An additional purpose was to identify barriers and contributions to good nonresidential fathering from the viewpoint of young adults. A phenomenological perspective was used to…

Wages, Alan, Jr.

2010-01-01

311

Physical Fitness Performance of Young Adults with and without Cognitive Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the physical fitness performance of young adults with and without cognitive impairments. Participants were 75 young adults, including 41 without disabilities (23 females, 18 males; M of age = 21.88) and 34 with mild cognitive impairments (14 females, 20 males; M of age = 21.79). They received…

Zhang, Jiabei; Piwowar, Nathan; Reilly, Coleen Jennifer

2009-01-01

312

The Social Inclusion of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Phenomenology of Their Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social inclusion enhances the quality of life of young adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Young adults with ID continue to face prejudice and discrimination that limit their social inclusion. They experience limited social inclusion because there are not enough appropriate activities available and they have limited opportunities to…

Hall, Sarah A.

2010-01-01

313

The Relationship among Alcohol Consumption, Dietery Intake, and Body Mass Index in Young Adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Little is known about the relationship of diet and weight to alcohol consumption in young adults. Dietary intake data were collected in 1995–1996 on 1,335 young adults (20–38 years) (62% female; 27% black) using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (YAQ), and the Health Lifestyle-Behavio...

314

Understanding Tobacco-Related Attitudes among College and Noncollege Young Adult Hookah and Cigarette Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege young adults. Participants: Time-location samples of young adult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque…

Lee, Youn Ok; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Ling, Pamela M.

2014-01-01

315

Career Interests and Self-Estimated Abilities of Young Adults with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to ascertain vocational interests and self-estimated work-relevant abilities of young adults with disabilities. Results showed that young adults with both low incidence and high incidence disabilities have a wide range of interests and self-estimated work-relevant abilities that are comparable to those in the general…

Turner, Sherri; Unkefer, Lesley Craig; Cichy, Bryan Ervin; Peper, Christine; Juang, Ju-Ping

2011-01-01

316

The Learning Needs of Young Adults with Mental Health Difficulties. NIACE Briefing Sheet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 1996 report recognized the benefits of effective learning provision and the impact that mental health difficulties can have on quality of life of young adults in the United Kingdom. The range of mental health difficulties experienced by young adults in the United Kingdom and elsewhere is similar to that experienced by the older population and…

National Inst. of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester (England).

317

UK young adults' safety awareness online – is it a ‘girl thing’?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a recent research project undertaken in the UK that investigated young adults' perception of potentially risky behaviour online. The research was undertaken through the use of an online survey associated with the UK teen soap opera Being Victor. The findings of the project suggest that this sample of British young adults was mostly aware of the

Sarah Pedersen

2012-01-01

318

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND HEALTH ENHANCING DIETARY BEHAVIORS IN YOUNG ADULTS: BOGALUSA HEART STUDY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Obesity results from energy imbalance. This study used data from the Bogalusa Heart Study to examine relationships between the dietary and physical activity behaviors of young adults. One thousand one hundred ninety-one young adults (76% Euro-American, 24% African-American, 61% female) completed a f...

319

Young Adult Follow-Up of Hyperactive Children: Antisocial Activities and Drug Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Hyperactive/ADHD children are believed to be a greater risk for adolescent and young adult antisocial activity and drug use/abuse, particularly that subset having comorbid conduct problems/disorder. Method: We report on the lifetime antisocial activities and illegal drug use self-reported at young adult follow-up (mean age 20-21 years;…

Barkley, Russell A.; Fischer, Mariellen; Smallish, Lori; Fletcher, Kenneth

2004-01-01

320

The Longitudinal Relationships between Rural Adolescents' Prosocial Behaviors and Young Adult Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While many adolescents and young adults experiment with substances (e.g., alcohol, cigarette smoking, marijuana), recent research suggests that rural youth and young adults may be more at risk for substance use than their urban counterparts. This study was designed to examine the longitudinal relationships between rural adolescents' prosocial…

Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Beal, Sarah J.

2011-01-01

321

Respectfully Treating the Elderly: Affective and Behavioral Ways of American Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been little research on how young people respect, or disrespect, older adults. This study explored the ways in which young adults connote elder respect by utilizing two different forms of data. Based on quantitative data from a survey of 521 college students, a set of 11 behavioral forms of elder respect was obtained. Out of these forms,…

Sung, Kyu-Taik; Kim, Bum Jung; Torres-Gil, Fernando

2010-01-01

322

Risk Perceptions and Behavioral Intentions for Hepatitis B: How Do Young Adults Fare?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adults are at risk for Hepatitis B infection. Little is known about their attitudes and beliefs concerning Hepatitis B, which are determinants of getting immunized. This investigation examined risk perceptions and behavioral intentions concerning Hepatitis B among a convenience sample of 1070 young adults, 18-24 years old who participated in…

Gonzales, R. M.; Glik, D. C.; Prelip, M.; Bourque, L.; Yuen, J.; Ang, A.; Jones, M. C.

2006-01-01

323

Measures of Obesity Are Associated With Vascular Stiffness in Young and Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity has reached epidemic levels and carries a risk for cardiovascular disease. Obesity's effects on the vascular systems of young adults and African Americans have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to assess the association between measures of obesity and aortic stiffness in 186 young adults (20 to 40 years, 50% African American) and 177 older

Rachel P. Wildman; Rachel H. Mackey; Andrew Bostom; Trina Thompson; Kim Sutton-Tyrrell

2009-01-01

324

Designing a Weight Gain Prevention Trial for Young Adults: The CHOICES Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Young adults are at risk for weight gain. Little is known about how to design weight control programs to meet the needs of young adults and few theory-based interventions have been evaluated in a randomized control trial. The Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings (CHOICES) study was funded to create a…

Lytle, Leslie A.; Moe, Stacey G.; Nanney, M. Susie; Laska, Melissa N.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Petrich, Christine A.; Sevcik, Sarah M.

2014-01-01

325

Voices of Young Adults with Autism and Their Perspective on Life Choices after Secondary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative research study was to explore how young adults who have an autism spectrum disorder perceive their life choices after secondary education. The focus participants in the sample were young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). For the purpose of this research, ASD includes autism and…

Galler, Susan

2013-01-01

326

Developing conceptions of racism among young white adults in the context of cultural diversity coursework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite substantial research on racial attitudes and racial identity development among young white adults, little is known about the development of their conceptions about racism. The present study assessed a five-step, empirically based contextualist model of the development of conceptions about racism in young white adults, adapted from the research of Perry (1970), Kitchener and Fischer (1990), and others. A

Thomas R. Bidell; Elaine Meyer Lee; Nicole Bouchie; Colleen Ward; Dana Brass

1994-01-01

327

Adapting the Individual Placement and Support Model with Homeless Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless young adults. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining competitive employment; yet few examples exist to date with homeless young adults with mental…

Ferguson, Kristin M.; Xie, Bin; Glynn, Shirley

2012-01-01

328

Macrostructural Narrative Language of Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome or Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To gain a better understanding of language abilities, the expressive macrostructural narrative language abilities of verbally expressive adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) and those with fragile X syndrome (FXS) were examined. Method: The authors evaluated 24 adolescents and young adults with DS, 12 male adolescents and…

Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Palmer, Meghan; Abbeduto, Leonard

2012-01-01

329

Becoming Stronger at Broken Places: A Model for Group Work with Young Adult from Divorced Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a model for group work with young adults from divorced families using an 8-session psychoeducational group intervention. Goals include reducing isolation, establishing connectedness, and building a stronger sense of identify. By educating young adults on topics such as assertiveness, communication skills, and self-esteem, it will give…

Hage, Sally M.; Nosanow, Mia

2000-01-01

330

Living arrangements of migrant and Dutch young adults: The family influence disentangled  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the family of origin on whether migrant and Dutch young adults live in the parental home. Using a sample of 1,678 young adults aged between 15 and 30 years from 847 families with five different ethnic backgrounds, we identified patterns of co-residence and investigated how and to what extent

Helga A. G. de Valk; Francesco C. Billari

2007-01-01

331

Food prices and fruit and vegetable consumption among young American adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate negative binomial count models were estimated to examine associations between young adults’ fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption and the prices of FV, other food at home grocery items, and fast food and the availability of restaurants and food stores. This study used the 2002 wave of data collected from US young adults aged 18–23 years in the 1997 National

Lisa M. Powell; Zhenxiang Zhao; Youfa Wang

2009-01-01

332

Writers of Multicultural Fiction for Young Adults. A Bio-Critical Sourcebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference book includes 51 alphabetically arranged entries about writers of multicultural fiction for young adults. Each entry consists of a biographical introduction to the author, an overview of his or her major young adult works, a section on the critical reception of the author's writings, a bibliography of works by the author, and a…

Kutzer, M. Daphne, Ed.

333

Predictors of Work Participation of Young Adults with Mild Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among young adults with ID is lacking altogether.…

Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

2013-01-01

334

African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

2014-01-01

335

Images of Women in Historical Young Adult Fiction: Seeking Role Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers a number of young adult novels in light of how they cast female characters as potential role models to which late 20th-century adolescent readers can relate. Offers brief descriptions of 28 young adult books of historical fiction set in America with female protagonists. (SR)

Boreen, Jean

1999-01-01

336

Developing Conceptions of Racism among Young White Adults in the Context of Cultural Diversity Coursework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory study was conducted to evaluate a model that predicts a five-step developmental sequence from dualistic to systematic conceptions of racism among young white adults. The model predicts developmental changes for white middle-class young adults within the context of a college cultural-diversity course. The following steps in…

Bidell, Thomas R.; And Others

337

Perception of Young Adults on Online Games: Implications for Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to identify and categorize the perceptions of young adults before we allocate the resources to design, develop, and implement digital game-based learning in higher education institutions in Taiwan. Q-methodology was conducted for this study because it is a quantitative analysis of subjective data. Thirty young adults

Chen, Liwen; Chen, Tung-Liang; Liu, Hsu-Kuan Jonathan

2010-01-01

338

Characters with Visual Impairment: Looking at Books for Young Adults through Their Eyes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study that joined the fields of young adult literature and vision impairment explored the questions: How are characters who have visual impairment presented by young adult books?; and How do readers respond to those characters? Only a few books were found (13) that feature characters with visual impairments, and the portrayal of characters…

Carroll, Pamela S.; Rosenblum, L. Penny

339

Demographic differences and food patterns associated with metabolic syndrome in young adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Little is known about risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MS) in young adults. Intake was collected on 1,012 young adults (20-38 years) (61% female; 26% black) using a food-frequency questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometrics, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profiles were quantifi...

340

Gay and lesbian fiction for young adults: a survey of holdings in Canadian public libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine if young adults, or others interested in literature for teens, have access through public libraries to novels with homosexual content. A random sample of 40 English language young adult novels with gay\\/lesbian content was checked against the holdings of 40 medium and large Canadian public libraries having remotely accessible catalogs. The average

Paulette M. Rothbauer; Lynne E. F. McKechnie

1999-01-01

341

Disparities in Debt: Parents' Socioeconomic Resources and Young Adult Student Loan Debt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an era of rising college costs and stagnant grant-based student aid, many young adults rely on their parents' resources and student loans to pay for their postsecondary education. In this study I ask how parents' income and education are linked to young adults' student loan debt. I develop and test two perspectives regarding the…

Houle, Jason N.

2014-01-01

342

The Cultural Work of Magical Realism in Three Young Adult Novels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Magical realism as a literary mode is often subversive and transgressive, questioning the values and assumptions of the dominant society that it depicts. Young adult literature, by contrast, is typically thought to serve a socializing function, helping to integrate young readers into adult society. What then is the cultural work of magical realism…

Latham, Don

2007-01-01

343

Optic Neuritis Caused by Rathke's Cleft Cyst in Young Adult  

PubMed Central

We report a case of right optic neuritis caused by Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC) in a young adult. A 15-year-old boy presented with reduced visual acuity in the right eye. He was diagnosed with optic neuritis in the right eye 4 years earlier at other clinics before he was referred to our department. During our one-year examinations, the cause of the reduced vision in his right eye could not be determined conclusively. At the age of 17 years, a RCC was detected by a neurosurgeon who specialized in hypophyseal diseases. He underwent microscopic transsphenoidal resection of the cyst, and his vision recovered to 1.2 and he has had no recurrence for at least 9 months. We suggest that repeated rupturing of the RCC was the cause of the optic neuritis, and a RCC can be successfully treated by surgery even after 3 years of optic neuritis. PMID:25045561

Kobayashi, Namie; Oshitari, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Onoda, Takatsugu; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Adachi-Usami, Emiko

2014-01-01

344

ObamaCare: A Bad Deal for Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

health care overhaul now moving through\\u000d\\u000aCongress is how it would affect young adults.\\u000d\\u000aThat legislation would force most or all Americans\\u000d\\u000ato purchase health insurance (an “individual\\u000d\\u000amandate”) and would impose price controls on\\u000d\\u000ahealth insurance (“community rating”) that\\u000d\\u000awould limit insurers’ ability to offer lower premiums\\u000d\\u000ato low-risk enrollees.\\u000d\\u000aThose provisions would drive premiums\\u000d\\u000adown for 55-year-olds but

Aaron Yelowitz

2009-01-01

345

Perceived fraudulence in young adults: is there an "imposter syndrome"?  

PubMed

This investigation consists of two studies designed to examine perceived fraudulence, its measurement, and the personality traits associated with the experience in young adults. For Study 1, the Perceived Fraudulence Scale (PFS), a new measure constructed for this study, was administered to a sample of 50 college undergraduates, along with several other self-report measures; a semistructured interview and thought-listing exercise were added to provide convergent assessments of perceived fraudulence. Correlational patterns and regression analyses supported the investigators' conceptualization of perceived fraudulence as involving a combination of fraudulent ideation, depressive tendencies, self-criticism, social anxiety, achievement pressures, and self-monitoring skills. Study 2, in which 100 college undergraduates completed several personality questionnaires, replicated the factor structure of the PFS and provided some evidence for the discriminant validity of the construct of perceived fraudulence. PMID:2056424

Kolligian, J; Sternberg, R J

1991-04-01

346

Early language impairment and young adult delinquent and aggressive behavior.  

PubMed

Clinic and forensic studies have reported high rates of language impairments in conduct disordered and incarcerated youth. In community samples followed to early adolescence, speech and language impairments have been linked to attention deficits and internalizing problems, rather than conduct problems, delinquency, or aggression. This study examines the young adult antisocial outcomes of speech or language impaired children. Language impaired boys had higher levels of parent-rated delinquency symptoms by age 19 than boys without language impairment, controlled for verbal IQ and for demographic and family variables. Language impaired boys did not differ from controls in self-reported delinquency or aggression symptoms on a standardized checklist; however, language impaired boys reported higher rates of arrests and convictions than controls. Language impairment was not related to aggression or delinquency in girls. We examine alternate models of the interrelationships between language, academics, and behavior, at ages 5, 12, and 19. PMID:15305549

Brownlie, E B; Beitchman, Joseph H; Escobar, Michael; Young, Arlene; Atkinson, Leslie; Johnson, Carla; Wilson, Beth; Douglas, Lori

2004-08-01

347

Quantifying light exposure patterns in young adult students  

PubMed Central

Exposure to bright light appears to be protective against myopia in both animals (chicks, monkeys) and children, but quantitative data on human light exposure are limited. In this study, we report on a technique for quantifying light exposure using wearable sensors. Twenty-seven young adult subjects wore a light sensor continuously for two weeks during one of three seasons, and also completed questionnaires about their visual activities. Light data were analyzed with respect to refractive error and season, and the objective sensor data were compared with subjects’ estimates of time spent indoors and outdoors. Subjects’ estimates of time spent indoors and outdoors were in poor agreement with durations reported by the sensor data. The results of questionnaire-based studies of light exposure should thus be interpreted with caution. The role of light in refractive error development should be investigated using multiple methods such as sensors to complement questionnaires. PMID:25342873

Alvarez, Amanda A.; Wildsoet, Christine F.

2014-01-01

348

Future HIV vaccine acceptability among young adults in South Africa.  

PubMed

Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa- where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups ( n = 42) conducted in 2007 with South Africans aged 18 to 24 years. A deductive framework approach is used to identify key motivators and barriers to future HIV vaccine uptake. Participants identify HIV testing, HIV stigma, mistrust of the health care system, and concerns about sexual disinhibition as barriers to vaccine uptake. For women, family members and friends are strong motivators for vaccine uptake, whereas men are more likely to see vaccines as an opportunity to stop using HIV prevention strategies such as condoms and partner reduction. Implications of these findings for developing HIV vaccine dissemination strategies and policy in South Africa are discussed. PMID:19509123

Sayles, Jennifer N; Macphail, Catherine L; Newman, Peter A; Cunningham, William E

2010-04-01

349

APOPLEXY IN YOUNG ADULTS—DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC OBSERVATIONS  

PubMed Central

Apoplexy in young adults is due to rupture of an artery or to obstruction, as by clot, by embolus, or by transitory vasospasm. In differential diagnosis, tumor and demyelinizing disease must be considered. Spinal fluid study helps to differentiate between hemorrhagic stroke and stroke due to vascular block. In hemorrhagic stroke, search for the site of bleeding is imperative and angiography, the preferred method of study, should be carried out as soon as the patient's general condition permits. In vascular occlusive stroke, measures to maintain the blood pressure and to dilate collateral channels are often helpful. Stellate block is most valuable in the acute phase immediately following embolism or thrombosis. In a small percentage of chronic cases, stellate block may be followed by significant recovery of function. Benefit may also be derived at times from systemic vasodilators such as niacin and intravenously administered histamine. PMID:14879275

Boldrey, Edwin

1951-01-01

350

Pubertal Testosterone Predicts Mental Rotation Performance of Young Adult Males  

PubMed Central

Summary Robust sex differences in some spatial abilities that favor males have raised the question of whether testosterone contributes to those differences. There is some evidence for prenatal organizational effects of testosterone on male-favoring spatial abilities, but not much is known about the role of pubertal testosterone levels on adult cognitive abilities. We studied the association between pubertal testosterone (at age 14) and cognitive performance in young adulthood (at age 21–23), assessing male-favoring, female-favoring, and sex-neutral cognitive domains in a population-based sample of 130 male and 178 female twins. Pubertal testosterone was negatively associated with performance in the Mental Rotation Test in young adult men (r = ?.27), while among women no significant associations between testosterone and cognitive measures were detected. The significant association among men remained after controlling for pubertal development. Confirmatory within-family comparisons with one-sided significance testing yielded a negative correlation between twin pair differences in testosterone levels and Mental Rotation Test performances in 35 male twin pairs (r = ?.32):the twin brother with higher testosterone performed less well on the Mental Rotation Test. That association was evident in18 pairs of dizygotic male twin pairs (r = ?.42; analysis controlling for shared environmental effects). In contrast, the association of differences was not evident among 17 monozygotic male twin pairs (r = ?.07; analysis controlling for shared genetic influences). Results suggest that pubertal testosterone levels are related specifically to male-favoring spatial ability and only among men. Within-family analyses implicated possible shared genetic effects between pubertal testosterone and mental rotation ability. PMID:22520299

Vuoksimaa, Eero; Kaprio, Jaakko; Eriksson, C. J. Peter; Rose, Richard J.

2012-01-01

351

Genetic research participation in a young adult community sample.  

PubMed

Opposed to large nationally sponsored health initiatives or biobanks, little is known about gathering genetic samples from young adults participating in academic community-based epidemiologic studies of mental health and substance use, especially samples with a large number of minority participants. This study describes our experience of establishing a genetic arm within a longitudinal study of a cohort of young adults (mean age 29, 75 % African American, 58 % female). In total, 75 % of those interviewed in the most recent wave donated a DNA sample (31.6 % blood and 68.4 % saliva) and over 90 % provided consent for storage and sharing. Current smokers were more likely to donate a sample than nonsmokers (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)?=?1.59, 95 % confidence interval (CI)?=?1.14, 2.22). The odds of obtaining a saliva sample were increased for those who were former cannabis smokers and who drank more regularly, but decreased among participants with less education and a history with drug use. Fewer minorities (aOR?=?0.37, 95 % CI?=?0.18, 0.75; p?=?0.006) and cannabis users (aOR?=?0.46, 95 % CI?=?0.27, 0.77) consented to sharing their sample with other investigators. Findings also illustrate there are many study parameters that are important in planning biologic collection efforts. Building strong rapport and trust with subjects, minimizing the burden involved by the respondent to obtain a biological sample, offering a choice to provide blood or saliva, and offering an incentive will increase the likelihood of obtaining a sample and, importantly, increase the opportunity to store and share the sample for the future. PMID:24948529

Storr, Carla L; Or, Flora; Eaton, William W; Ialongo, Nicholas

2014-10-01

352

Sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in young adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most prior research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Methods Young adults (N=763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Results Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared to their non-sexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Conclusions Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks subsequent to sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. PMID:23299017

Benotsch, Eric G.; Snipes, Daniel J.; Martin, Aaron M.; Bull, Sheana S.

2012-01-01

353

Text messaging intervention for teens and young adults with diabetes.  

PubMed

Adolescents and young adults use text messaging as their primary mode of communication, thus providing an opportunity to use this mode of communication for mobile health (mHealth) interventions. Youth with diabetes are an important group for these mHealth initiatives, as diabetes management requires an enormous amount of daily effort and this population has difficulty achieving optimal diabetes management. Goal setting and self-efficacy are 2 factors in the management of diabetes. We examined the feasibility of a healthy lifestyle text messaging program targeting self-efficacy and goal setting among adolescents and young adults with diabetes. Participants, ages 16-21, were assigned to either a text messaging group, which received daily motivational messages about nutrition and physical activity, or a control group, which received paper-based information about healthy lifestyle. Both groups set goals for nutrition and physical activity and completed a measure of self-efficacy. Participants' mean age was 18.7 ± 1.6 years old, with diabetes duration of 10.0 ± 4.6 years, and A1c of 8.7 ± 1.7%. The text messaging intervention was rated highly and proved to be acceptable to participants. Self-efficacy, glycemic control, and body mass index did not change over the course of the short, 1-month pilot study. Positive, daily, motivational text messages may be effective in increasing motivation for small goal changes in the areas of nutrition and physical activity. These interventions may be used in the future in youth with diabetes to improve diabetes care. Utilizing more targeted text messages is an area for future research. PMID:25172879

Markowitz, Jessica T; Cousineau, Tara; Franko, Debra L; Schultz, Alan T; Trant, Meredith; Rodgers, Rachel; Laffel, Lori M B

2014-09-01

354

Characteristics of postural control among young adults with asthma.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: We investigated whether young adults with asthma have impaired balance and whether this impairment is related to altered musculoskeletal function and/or psychological characteristics. Methods: 21 participants with a self-reported asthma diagnosis but no known postural instability or history of falls, and 18 control participants were recruited from undergraduate psychology courses. Participants performed a postural control task of maintaining the center of pressure (COP) in a fixed position with visual feedback (feedback condition) and while standing as still as possible without visual feedback (no-feedback condition). COP variability, regularity and task performance were used to characterize the quality of balance. To document group differences in musculoskeletal function, we measured neck and lower back angles as well as range of motion (ROM) of the neck in the frontal and sagittal planes. To document group differences in psychological state, we administered self-report questionnaires to assess symptoms of anxiety and depression, anxiety sensitivity and negative effect. Results: COP variability and task performance were similar between the groups, but participants with asthma exhibited more regular anterior-posterior COP dynamics. Participants with asthma had smaller ROM of neck extension, a more forwardly bent neck, greater thoracic spine angle, and they reported greater levels of the physical concerns facet of anxiety sensitivity. These musculoskeletal and affective variables moderated COP differences between the groups. Conclusions: Young adults with asthma showed a different postural control strategy in the absence of any obvious balance impairment. This change in strategy is related to musculoskeletal and affective characteristics of individuals with asthma. PMID:25134786

Kuznetsov, Nikita A; Luberto, Christina M; Avallone, Kimberly; Kraemer, Kristen; McLeish, Alison C; Riley, Michael A

2014-08-27

355

Medical Acute Complications of Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background. Frequency and impact of medical complications on short-term mortality in young patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have gone unstudied. Methods. We reviewed data of all first-ever nontraumatic ICH patients between 16 and 49 years of age treated in our hospital between January 2000 and March 2010 to identify medical complications suffered. Logistic regression adjusted for known ICH prognosticators was used to identify medical complications associated with mortality. Results. Among the 325 eligible patients (59% males, median age 42 [interquartile range 34–47] years), infections were discovered in 90 (28%), venous thrombotic events in 13 (4%), cardiac complications in 4 (1%), renal failure in 59 (18%), hypoglycemia in 15 (5%), hyperglycemia in 165 (51%), hyponatremia in 146 (45%), hypernatremia in 91 (28%), hypopotassemia in 104 (32%), and hyperpotassemia in 27 (8%). Adjusted for known ICH prognosticators and diabetes, the only independent complication associated with 3-month mortality was hyperglycemia (plasma glucose >8.0?mmol/L) (odds ratio: 5.90, 95% confidence interval: 2.25–15.48, P < 0.001). Three or more separate complications suffered also associated with increased mortality (7.76, 1.42–42.49, P = 0.018). Conclusions. Hyperglycemia is a frequent complication of ICH in young adults and is independently associated with increased mortality. However, multiple separate complications increase mortality even further. PMID:25722917

Koivunen, Riku-Jaakko; Haapaniemi, Elena; Satopää, Jarno; Niemelä, Mika; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Putaala, Jukka

2015-01-01

356

Making music, making friends: Long-term music therapy with young adults with severe learning disabilities.  

PubMed

This collaborative practitioner research study emerged from music therapists' concerns about the value of improvisational, music-centred music therapy for young adults with severe learning disabilities (SLDs), given the long-term nature of such work. Concerns included the relevance, in this context, of formulating, and reporting on, therapeutic aims, development, change; and working in 'goal-oriented' way. Focus groups with the young adults' families and a range of professionals suggest that, rather than leading to developmental change, long-term shared therapeutic musicking provides young adults with ongoing opportunities for experiencing confidence and self-esteem, with feelings of shared acceptance and success, and also provides young adults and their families with opportunities for developing and sustaining friendships. In addition, families experienced meeting other parents and carers in the communal reception area as supportive and countering their isolation. Focus groups assigned intrapersonal, relational and social values to long-term music therapy for young adults with SLDs. PMID:24196841

Pavlicevic, Mercédès; O'Neil, Nicky; Powell, Harriet; Jones, Oonagh; Sampathianaki, Ergina

2014-03-01

357

Cognitive flexibility as a mediator of family communication environments and young adults' well-being.  

PubMed

In this study, cognitive flexibility was tested as a mediator of family communication environments (i.e., family expressiveness, structural traditionalism, and avoidance of conflict) and young adults' well-being (i.e., self-esteem, mental health, and physical health). Participants included 395 young adults from first-marriage and postdivorce families. Using structural equation modeling, the results revealed that family expressiveness positively predicted young adults' cognitive flexibility, whereas avoidance of conflict emerged as a negative predictor. Cognitive flexibility, in turn, fully mediated the influence of both expressiveness and avoidance of conflict on well-being. Although structural traditionalism did not predict cognitive flexibility, it did have a direct, inverse effect on young adults' well-being. Among the more important implications of this study is the finding that structural traditionalism and avoidance of conflict, 2 aspects of a conformity orientation in families, generate different effects (i.e., direct vs. indirect) on young adult's well-being. PMID:19204861

Koesten, Joy; Schrodt, Paul; Ford, Debra J

2009-01-01

358

Stories of management in the future by young adults and young nurses.  

PubMed

Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the phenomenon of management by way of the ideas by secondary school students and young nurses. Background: Young adults are changing workplaces more than ever before, yet their work expectations and perspectives of management differ to those of previous generations. Methods: The data was collected from upper secondary school students and professionally educated nurses (n = 68), some of whom were immigrants (n = 41). Framed essays were used as a research method and emergent data was analysed using content analysis. Results: According to the results, good management involves systematic management, equality, appreciation of know-how, and the promotion of wellbeing at work. Conclusion: New perspectives on management were drawn from the study, in particular the multiple dimensions of equality in workplace organization and the manager's role in an employee's professional development process. Implication for nursing management: The interactive skills of the manager are emphasized in promoting wellbeing at work. This is especially so in multi-cultural teams, where the manager is expected to be adept at understanding intercultural communication and the values of young employees. PMID:24720464

Harmoinen, Merja; Niiranen, Kaisa; Niiranen, Vuokko; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Suominen, Tarja

2014-04-11

359

Physiological responses during whole body suspension of adult rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study was to characterize responses of adult rats to one and two weeks of whole body suspension. Body weights and food and water intakes were initially reduced during suspension, but, while intake of food and water returned to presuspension levels, body weight remained depressed. Diuresis was evident, but only during week two. Hindlimb muscle responses were differential, with the soleus exhibiting the greatest atrophy and the EDL a relative hypertrophy. These findings suggest that adult rats respond qualitatively in a manner similar to juveniles during suspension.

Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Musacchia, X. J.

1987-01-01

360

Executive function and bilingualism in young and older adults  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that being bilingual results in advantages on executive control processes and disadvantages on language tasks relative to monolinguals. Furthermore, the executive function advantage is thought to be larger in older than younger adults, suggesting that bilingualism may buffer against age-related changes in executive function. However, there are potential confounds in some of the previous research, as well as inconsistencies in the literature. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the presence of a bilingual advantage in executive control and a bilingual disadvantage on language tasks in the same sample of young and older monolingual anglophones, monolingual francophones, and French/English bilinguals. Participants completed a series of executive function tasks, including a Stroop task, a Simon task, a sustained attention to response task (SART), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), and the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and language tasks, including the Boston Naming Test (BNT), and category and letter fluency. The results do not demonstrate an unequivocal advantage for bilinguals on executive function tasks and raise questions about the reliability, robustness and/or specificity of previous findings. The results also did not demonstrate a disadvantage for bilinguals on language tasks. Rather, they suggest that there may be an influence of the language environment. It is concluded that additional research is required to fully characterize any language group differences in both executive function and language tasks. PMID:25120442

Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Lemieux, Maude; Monetta, Laura; Taler, Vanessa

2014-01-01

361

Acute myeloid leukemia in adolescents and young adults: challenging aspects.  

PubMed

Treating adolescents and young adults (AYAs) diagnosed with cancer is a challenge. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) which is usually diagnosed in a previously healthy kid, requiring immediate aggressive chemotherapy, brings difficulties and conflicts associated with severe illness to extremes. The incidence of AML in adolescents aged 15-19 years approaches 8.5 per million. Only in recent years has it become evident that the prognosis of AYAs diagnosed with AML is poorer compared to younger children diagnosed with AML with similar characteristics. No specific genetic aberration or other known poor risk factor was found to explain the inferior prognosis of AYAs. In acute lymphoblastic leukemia the contribution of differences between adult and pediatric protocols to AYA outcome is established. It has been suggested that pediatric protocols should also apply to AYAs with AML; however, data supporting this are vague. Herein, existing evidence regarding special considerations in treating AYAs with AML is discussed. Mental and psychological age-specific aspects important to consider when treating AYAs with AML are overviewed. Awareness for adolescent special needs, adherence to protocols and intensive supportive care are important. Multidisciplinary adolescent-oriented staff should be involved in the therapy of any AYA with AML escorting this special patient population on the road to cure. PMID:25228554

Ofran, Yishai; Rowe, Jacob M

2014-01-01

362

Why and How the Tobacco Industry Sells Cigarettes to Young Adults: Evidence From Industry Documents  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To improve tobacco control campaigns, we analyzed tobacco industry strategies that encourage young adults (aged 18 to 24) to smoke. Methods. Initial searches of tobacco industry documents with keywords (e.g., “young adult”) were extended by using names, locations, and dates. Results. Approximately 200 relevant documents were found. Transitions from experimentation to addiction, with adult levels of cigarette consumption, may take years. Tobacco marketing solidifies addiction among young adults. Cigarette advertisements encourage regular smoking and increased consumption by integrating smoking into activities and places where young adults' lives change (e.g., leaving home, college, jobs, the military, bars). Conclusions. Tobacco control efforts should include both adults and youths. Life changes are also opportunities to stop occasional smokers' progress to addiction. Clean air policies in workplaces, the military, bars, colleges, and homes can combat tobacco marketing. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:908–916) PMID:12036776

Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

2002-01-01

363

Discordance in National Estimates of Hypertension Among Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background In the U.S., where coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality, CHD risk assessment is a priority and accurate blood pressure (BP) measurement is essential. Methods Hypertension estimates in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), Wave IV (2008)—a nationally-representative field study of 15,701 participants aged 24–32—was referenced against NHANES (2007–2008) participants of the same age. We examined discordances in hypertension, and estimated the accuracy and reliability of blood pressure in the Add Health study. Results Hypertension rates (BP ? 140/90 mm Hg) were higher in Add Health compared with NHANES (19% versus 4%), but self-reported history was similar (11% versus 9%) among adults aged 24–32. Survey weights and adjustments for differences in participant characteristics, examination time, use of anti-hypertensive medications, and consumption of food/caffeine/cigarettes before blood pressure measurement had little effect on between-study differences in hypertension estimates. Among Add Health participants interviewed and examined twice (full and abbreviated interviews), blood pressure was similar, as was blood pressure at the in-home and in-clinic exams conducted by NHANES III (1988–1994). In Add Health, there was minimal digit preference in blood pressure measurements; mean bias never exceeded 2 mm Hg; and reliability (estimated as intra-class correlation coefficients) was 0.81 and 0.68 for systolic and diastolic BPs, respectively. Conclusions The proportion of young adults in NHANES reporting a history of hypertension was twice that with measured hypertension, whereas the reverse was found in Add Health. Between-survey differences were not explained by digit preference, low validity, or reliability of Add Health blood pressure data, or by salient differences in participant selection, measurement context, or interview content. The prevalence of hypertension among Add Health Wave IV participants suggests an unexpectedly high risk of cardiovascular disease among U.S. young adults and warrants further scrutiny. PMID:21610501

Nguyen, Quynh C.; Tabor, Joyce W.; Entzel, Pamela P.; Lau, Yan; Suchindran, Chirayath; Hussey, Jon M.; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Whitsel, Eric A.

2011-01-01

364

Effects of Maternal Behavior Induction and Pup Exposure on Neurogenesis in Adult, Virgin Female Rats  

PubMed Central

The states of pregnancy and lactation bring about a range of physiological and behavioral changes in the adult mammal that prepare the mother to care for her young. Cell proliferation increases in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the female rodent brain during both pregnancy and lactation when compared to that in cycling, diestrous females. In the present study, the effects of maternal behavior induction and pup exposure on neurogenesis in nulliparous rats were examined in order to determine whether maternal behavior itself, independent of pregnancy and lactation, might affect neurogenesis. Adult, nulliparous, Sprague-Dawley, female rats were exposed daily to foster young in order to induce maternal behavior. Following the induction of maternal behavior each maternal subject plus females that were exposed to pups for a comparable number of test days, but did not display maternal behavior, and subjects that had received no pup exposure were injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, 90 mg/kg, i.v.). Brain sections were double-labeled for BrdU and the neural marker, NeuN, to examine the proliferating cell population. Increases in the number of double-labeled cells were found in the maternal virgin brain when compared with the number of double-labeled cells present in non-maternal, pup-exposed nulliparous rats and in females not exposed to young. No changes were evident in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus as a function of maternal behavior. These data indicate that in nulliparous female rats maternal behavior itself is associated with the stimulation of neurogenesis in the SVZ. PMID:19712726

Furuta, Miyako; Bridges, Robert S.

2009-01-01

365

Selection, Inclusion, Evaluation and Defense of Transgender-Inclusive Fiction for Young Adults: A Resource Guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasingly visible youth transgender population is emerging and the number of transgender-inclusive fiction texts for young adults is growing. Adults serving teens in schools, libraries, and community agencies must begin actively pursuing, utilizing, and incorporating these texts into resource collections. This article provides an overview of the great diversity found in transgender-inclusive young-adult texts—especially those written in the first

Elsworth I. Rockefeller

2009-01-01

366

Up against the System: A Case Study of Young Adult Perspectives Transitioning from Pediatric Palliative Care  

PubMed Central

Advances in pediatric care have not provided the interdisciplinary support services required by those young adults with pediatric life-threatening conditions (pedLTCs) who live beyond childhood but have limited expectations to live past early adulthood. These young adults, the first generation to live into adulthood, face multiple challenges transitioning from a plethora of pediatric palliative services to scant adult health services. In a case study, using an innovative bulletin board focus group, we describe the complex interplay of the health, education, and social service sectors in this transition. Our descriptions include system deficits and strengths and the young adults' resilience and coping strategies to overcome those deficits and move forward with their lives. Young adults with pedLTC need knowledgeable providers, coordinated and accessible services, being respected and valued, and services and supports that promote independence. We recommend implementation of multidisciplinary solutions that are focused on young adult priorities to ensure seamless access to resources to support these young adults' health, educational, vocational, and social goals. The input and voice of young adults in the development of these services are imperative to ensure that multisystem services support their needs and life goals. PMID:23997951

Cook, Karen; Jack, Susan; Thabane, Lehana; Browne, Gina

2013-01-01

367

Adolescent Predictors and Environmental Correlates of Young Adult Alcohol Use Problems  

PubMed Central

Aims To examine: rates of young adult alcohol and drug use and alcohol problems; adolescent predictors of young adult alcohol problems; and correlations with young adult social, work, and recreational environments. Design Adolescents were longitudinally followed into young adulthood. Predictors were measured in grade 9 (av., age 15), and environmental correlates and outcomes in young adulthood (av., age 21). Setting Students recruited in Victoria, Australia in 2002, were resurveyed in 2010/11. Participants Analytic N = 2,309, 80% retention. Measurements Adolescent self-report predictors included past-month alcohol use. Young adults completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) together with reports of environmental influences. Findings Comparisons to United States of America (U.S.) national school graduate samples revealed higher rates of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use (other than cannabis) in Victoria. For example rates of past month use at age 21–22 were: alcohol 69.3% U.S. vs 84.9% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]) 81.3 – 88.6% Victoria; illicit drugs (other than cannabis) 8.8% vs 12.7%, CI 9.7 – 15.7%. AUDIT alcohol problems (scored 8+) were identified for 41.2%, CI 38.8 – 43.6% of young adults in Victoria. The likelihood of young adult alcohol problems was higher for frequent adolescent alcohol users, and those exposed to environments characterised by high alcohol use and problems in young adulthood. Conclusions High rates of alcohol problems are evident in over two in five Australian young adults and these problems appear to be influenced both by earlier patterns of adolescent alcohol use and by young adult social work, and recreational environments. PMID:24321051

Toumbourou, John W.; Evans-Whipp, Tracy J.; Smith, Rachel; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Catalano, Richard F

2013-01-01

368

Trust, negotiation, and communication: young adults’ experiences of primary care services  

PubMed Central

Background Young adulthood is an important transitional period during which there is a higher risk of individuals engaging in behaviours which could have a lasting impact on their health. Research has shown that young adults are the lowest responders to surveys about healthcare experiences and are also the least satisfied with the care they receive. However, the factors contributing to this reduced satisfaction are not clear. The focus of our research was to explore the needs and experiences of young adults around healthcare services with an aim of finding out possible reasons for lower satisfaction. Methods Twenty young adults were interviewed at GP surgeries and at a local young adult advice agency, exploring their experiences and use of primary care services. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Results The use of primary care services varied amongst the young adult interviewees. Many interviewees reported positive experiences; those who did not linked their negative experiences to difficulties in negotiating their care with the health care system, and reported issues with trust, and communication difficulties. Most of the interviewees were unaware of the use of patient surveys to inform healthcare planning and delivery and were not inclined to take part, mainly because of the length of surveys and lack of interest in the topic area. Conclusions In order to effectively address the health needs of young adults, young adults need to be educated about their rights as patients, and how to most efficiently use primary care services. GPs should be alert to effective means of approaching and handling the healthcare needs of young adults. A flexible, varied approach is needed to gathering high quality data from this group in order to provide services with information on the changes necessary for making primary care services more accessible for young adults. PMID:24373254

2013-01-01

369

Confronting the Youth Demographic Challenge: The Labor Market Prospects of Out-of-School Young Adults. Policy Issues Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The labor market prospects of out-of-school young adults and options for improving the employment and earnings potential of all young adults were examined. The following issues were among those considered: demographic and social factors affecting young adults' employment prospects; employment trends and labor market problems in the United States…

Sum, Andrew; Fogg, Neeta; Mangum, Garth

370

Association of Calcium Intake, Dairy Product Consumption with Overweight Status in Young Adults (1995-1996): The Bogalusa Heart Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective is to examine the association between calcium intake and dairy product consumption with overweight and obesity in young adults. The sample used in this study consisted of 1306 young adults, ages 19–38 years, who participated in the 1995–1996 young adult survey. Analysis was performed w...

371

ACUTE TOXICITY OF PESTICIDES IN ADULT AND WEANLING RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

LD sub 50 values were determined for 57 pesticides administered by the oral or dermal route to adult male and female Sherman rats. Nine pesticides tested by the oral route (bufencarb, cacodylic acid, dialifor, deltamethrin, dicamba, diquat, quintozene, phoxim, pyrazon) and 4 test...

372

NEONATAL TRIETHYLTIN EXPOSURE ALTERS ADULT ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY IN RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

In adults, triethyltin (TET) produces degeneration of white mater, edema, vacuolization of myelin and histoxic hypoxia. To determine the functional consequences of perinatal exposure to TET, albino rats were administered either 0,3,6, or 9 mg/kg TET on postnatal day 5. Upon reach...

373

Chronic Antidepressant Treatment Increases Neurogenesis in Adult Rat Hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest that stress-induced atrophy and loss of hippocampal neurons may contribute to the pathophysiology of depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of antidepressants on hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult rat, using the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) as a marker for dividing cells. Our studies demonstrate that chronic antidepressant treatment significantly increases the number

Jessica E. Malberg; Amelia J. Eisch; Eric J. Nestler; Ronald S. Duman

2000-01-01

374

Impact of human immunodeficiency virus on neurocognition and risky behaviors in young adults  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have identified cognitive impairments due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in adults. However, few studies have examined the impact of HIV on cognition in young adults (18-24 years old). Yet, this group is one of the largest populations of individuals with new HIV infection. Young adulthood is also an important developmental window as the brain has not fully matured and individuals are prone to engage in risky behavior. The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of HIV on neurocognition and risky behaviors. We hypothesized that HIV+ young adults (n=23) would exhibit greater cognitive impairment and risky behaviors compared to seronegative controls (n=21). In addition, we predicted that self-reported risky behavior as assessed by the Risk Assessment Battery (RAB) would covary with cognitive performances. Results revealed poorer executive function in HIV+ young adults compared to seronegative controls. HIV+ young adults also exhibited significantly greater risk scores on the RAB (p < 0.01) compared to HIV- young adults. However, there were no relationships between risky behavior and cognitive performance. Overall, our results suggest that HIV is associated with poorer cognition and increased risky behaviors in young adults. PMID:24970235

Baker, Laurie M.; Paul, Robert H.; Heaps, Jodi; Westerhaus, Elizabeth; Chang, Jee Yoon; Williams, Samuel; Brier, Matthew R.; Plax, Katie; Ances, Beau M.

2015-01-01

375

Depression Treatment Non-adherence and its Psychosocial Predictors: Differences between Young and Older Adults?  

PubMed Central

Depression is a common disease among young and older adults. Although it can be treated, non-adherence is very common among individuals of different ages. The aim of the present paper is to review and summarize research findings regarding depression among young and older adults, with a special focus on the phenomenon of treatment non-adherence among young and older adults with depression. The first section of the review focuses on describing the characteristics of depression in young and older adults. The second section focuses on treatment non-adherence of young and older adults, the prevalence of this phenomenon, and its consequences. The third section focuses on several factors (illness beliefs, treatment beliefs, self-stigma, and self-esteem) that were identified as having a significant association with treatment non-adherence of individuals with depression, with special attention focused on age differences. Results of the review of the literature reveal that research in the area of depression treatment non-adherence and its predictors among young and older adults has received, to date, very minor and limited attention. Thus, there is a need to expand the current body of knowledge and promote future interventions geared towards the unique characteristics of depression among young and older adults, in order to increase their treatment adherence. PMID:24307966

Stein-Shvachman, Ifat; Karpas, Dikla Segel; Werner, Perla

2013-01-01

376

What Are Young Adults Saying About Mental Health? An Analysis of Internet Blogs  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the high prevalence of mental health concerns, few young adults access treatment. While much research has focused on understanding the barriers to service access, few studies have explored unbiased accounts of the experiences of young adults with mental health concerns. It is through hearing these experiences and gaining an in-depth understanding of what is being said by young adults that improvements can be made to interventions focused on increasing access to care. Objective To move beyond past research by using an innovative qualitative research method of analyzing the blogs of young adults (18–25 years of age) with mental health concerns to understand their experiences. Methods We used an enhanced Internet search vehicle, DEVONagent, to extract Internet blogs using primary keywords related to mental health. Blogs (N = 8) were selected based on age of authors (18–25 years), gender, relevance to mental health, and recency of the entries. Blogs excerpts were analyzed using a combination of grounded theory and consensual qualitative research methods. Results Two core categories emerged from the qualitative analysis of the bloggers accounts: I am powerless (intrapersonal) and I am utterly alone (interpersonal). Overall, the young adult bloggers expressed significant feelings of powerlessness as a result of their mental health concerns and simultaneously felt a profound sense of loneliness, alienation, and lack of connection with others. Conclusions The present study suggests that one reason young adults do not seek care might be that they view the mental health system negatively and feel disconnected from these services. To decrease young adults’ sense of powerlessness and isolation, efforts should focus on creating and developing resources and services that allow young adults to feel connected and empowered. Through an understanding of the experiences of young adults with mental health problems, and their experiences of and attitudes toward receiving care, we provide some recommendations for improving receptivity and knowledge of mental health care services. PMID:22569642

Westra, Henny A; Eastwood, John D; Barnes, Kirsten L

2012-01-01

377

Adrenal and gonadal function in hypothyroid adult male rats.  

PubMed

The functional relationship between thyroid, adrenal and gonadal hormones was investigated using adult male rats. Hypothyroidism was produced by the administration of 4-methyl-2-thiouracil (thiouracil) in the drinking water for 2 weeks. Plasma concentrations of TSH dramatically increased, whereas plasma concentrations of tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine decreased in thiouraciltreated rats as compared with euthyroid rats. Hypothyroidism increased basal levels of plasma ACTH and pituitary content of ACTH. The pituitary responsiveness to CRH for ACTH release markedly increased, whereas the adrenal responsiveness to ACTH for corticosterone release decreased. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction in adult male rats. Pituitary contents of LH and prolactin decreased in hypothyroid rats as compared with euthyroid rats. In addition, hypothyroidism lowered pituitary LH responsiveness to LHRH. Testicular responsiveness to human chorionic gonadotrophin for testosterone release, however, was not different between euthyroid and hypothyroid animals. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction and results in hypersecretion of ACTH from the pituitary gland. Adrenal dysfunction may contribute to the inhibition of LHRH secretion from the hypothalamus, possibly mediated by excess CRH. PMID:9014850

Tohei, A; Akai, M; Tomabechi, T; Mamada, M; Taya, K

1997-01-01

378

Defining Adult Experiences: Perspectives of a Diverse Sample of Young Adults  

PubMed Central

This study explored the roles and psychological experiences identified as defining adult moments using mixed methods with a racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse sample of young adults both enrolled and not enrolled in college (N = 726; ages 18-35). First, we evaluated results from a single survey item that asked participants to rate how adult they feel. Consistent with previous research, the majority of participants (56.9%) reported feeling “somewhat like an adult,” and older participants had significantly higher subjective adulthood, controlling for other demographic variables. Next, we analyzed responses from an open-ended question asking participants to describe instances in which they felt like an adult. Responses covered both traditional roles (e.g., marriage, childbearing; 36.1%) and nontraditional social roles and experiences (e.g., moving out of parent’s home, cohabitation; 55.6%). Although we found no differences by age and college status in the likelihood of citing a traditional or nontraditional role, participants who had achieved more traditional roles were more likely to cite them in their responses. In addition, responses were coded for psychological experiences, including responsibility for self (19.0%), responsibility for others (15.3%), self-regulation (31.1%), and reflected appraisals (5.1%). Older participants were significantly more likely to include self-regulation and reflected appraisals, whereas younger participants were more likely to include responsibility for self. College students were more likely than noncollege students to include self-regulation and reflected appraisals. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:23554545

Lowe, Sarah R.; Dillon, Colleen O.; Rhodes, Jean E.; Zwiebach, Liza

2013-01-01

379

“Most of the Time You Already Know”: Pharmaceutical Information Assembly by Young Adults on the Internet  

PubMed Central

This study examined the utilization of the Internet by young adults as a source of information for the non-medical use of prescription drugs. Collected during 2008 and 2009, the data presented here comes from semi-structured interviews (N=62) conducted in a northwestern city of the United States through support from the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Previous studies have characterized young adults as particularly vulnerable to online prescription drug information which analysts portray as having a significant, invariably detrimental, impact on youth drug use behaviors. The results presented here suggest that young adults are more skeptical and information-savvy than many substance abuse analysts acknowledge. PMID:21599506

Quintero, Gilbert; Bundy, Henry

2011-01-01

380

Neurochemical Changes after Acute Binge Toluene Inhalation in Adolescent and Adult Rats: A High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study  

PubMed Central

Inhalant abuse in young people is a growing public health concern. We reported previously that acute toluene intoxication in young rats, using a pattern of exposures that approximate abuse patterns of inhalant use in humans, significantly altered neurochemical measures in select brain regions. In this study, adolescent and young adult rats were exposed similarly to an acute (2 × 15 min), high dose (8000 ? 12000 ppm) of toluene and high-resolution magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS 1H-MRS) was used to assess neurochemical profiles of tissue samples from a number of brain regions collected immediately following solvent exposure. The current investigation focused on N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), choline-containing compounds, creatine, glutamate, GABA, and glutamine. Contrary to our predictions, no significant alterations were found in levels of NAA, choline, creatine, glutamate, or glutamine in adolescent animals. In contrast to these minimal effects in adolescents, binge toluene exposure altered several neurochemical parameters in young adult rats, including decreased levels of choline and GABA in the frontal cortex and striatum and lowered glutamine and NAA levels in the frontal cortex. One of the more robust findings was a wide-ranging increase in lactate after toluene exposure in adult animals, an effect not observed in adolescents. These age-dependent effects of toluene are distinct from those reported previously in juvenile rats and suggest a developmental difference in vulnerability to the effects of inhalants. Specifically, the results suggest that the neurochemical response to toluene in adolescents is attenuated compared to adults, and imply an association between these neurochemical differences and age-influenced differences in solvent abuse in humans. PMID:19628036

O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K.; Galloway, Matthew P.; McMechan, Andrew P.; Irtenkauf, Susan; Hannigan, John H.; Bowen, Scott E.

2009-01-01

381

Ventilatory function in young adults and dietary antioxidant intake.  

PubMed

Dietary antioxidants may protect against poor ventilatory function. We assessed the relation between ventilatory function and antioxidant components of diet in young Chileans. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and the ratio FEV1/FVC were measured in 1232 adults aged 22-28 years, using a Vitalograph device. Dietary intake was ascertained with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed for this study, from which nutrient and flavonoid intakes were estimated. Dietary patterns were derived with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). After controlling for potential confounders, dietary intake of total catechins was positively associated with FVC (Regression coefficient (RC) of highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15; p per trend 0.006). Total fruit intake was related to FVC (RC of highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.003 to 0.15; p per trend 0.02). Intake of omega 3 fatty acids was associated with a higher FEV1 (RC for highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15 L; p per trend 0.02) and with FVC 0.08 (RC in highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.08, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.16; p per trend 0.04). Our results show that fresh fruits, flavonoids, and omega 3 fatty acids may contribute to maintain ventilatory function. PMID:25884660

Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Bakolis, Ioannis; Rona, Roberto J

2015-01-01

382

Gene-environment contributions to young adult sexual partnering.  

PubMed

To date, there has been relatively little work on gene-environment contributions to human sexuality, especially molecular analyses examining the potential contributions of specific polymorphisms in conjunction with life experiences. Using Wave III data from 717 heterozygous young adult sibling pairs included in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this article examined the combined contributions of attendance at religious services and three genetic polymorphisms (in the dopamine D4 receptor [DRD4]), dopamine D2 receptor [DRD2]), and the serotonin transporter promoter [5HTT]) to sensation seeking, a personality construct related to sexual behavior, and the number of vaginal sex partners participants had in the year before interview. Data analyses used an Allison mixed model approach to account for population stratification and correlated observations. DRD4 was unrelated to sensation seeking and to the number of sex partners in tests of both main effects and in interaction with religious attendance. Contrary to hypothesis, presence of the A1 DRD2 allele was associated with having had fewer sex partners in the past year. Associations between the 5HTT allele and sex partners varied by religious attendance, but again the patterns of associations were contrary to hypothesized relationships and were small in magnitude. These findings underscore the necessity of using more comprehensive multiple gene-multiple life experience approaches to investigations of complex behaviors such as sexual patterns. PMID:17186131

Halpern, Carolyn T; Kaestle, Christine E; Guo, Guang; Hallfors, Denise D

2007-08-01

383

Genetic association of impulsivity in young adults: a multivariate study  

PubMed Central

Impulsivity is a heritable, multifaceted construct with clinically relevant links to multiple psychopathologies. We assessed impulsivity in young adult (N~2100) participants in a longitudinal study, using self-report questionnaires and computer-based behavioral tasks. Analysis was restricted to the subset (N=426) who underwent genotyping. Multivariate association between impulsivity measures and single-nucleotide polymorphism data was implemented using parallel independent component analysis (Para-ICA). Pathways associated with multiple genes in components that correlated significantly with impulsivity phenotypes were then identified using a pathway enrichment analysis. Para-ICA revealed two significantly correlated genotype–phenotype component pairs. One impulsivity component included the reward responsiveness subscale and behavioral inhibition scale of the Behavioral-Inhibition System/Behavioral-Activation System scale, and the second impulsivity component included the non-planning subscale of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and the Experiential Discounting Task. Pathway analysis identified processes related to neurogenesis, nervous system signal generation/amplification, neurotransmission and immune response. We identified various genes and gene regulatory pathways associated with empirically derived impulsivity components. Our study suggests that gene networks implicated previously in brain development, neurotransmission and immune response are related to impulsive tendencies and behaviors. PMID:25268255

Khadka, S; Narayanan, B; Meda, S A; Gelernter, J; Han, S; Sawyer, B; Aslanzadeh, F; Stevens, M C; Hawkins, K A; Anticevic, A; Potenza, M N; Pearlson, G D

2014-01-01

384

Binge Drinking and Sleep Problems among Young Adults*  

PubMed Central

Objective As most of the literature exploring the relationships between alcohol use and sleep problems is descriptive and with small sample sizes, the present study seeks to provide new information on the topic by employing a large, nationally representative dataset with several waves of data and a broad set of measures for binge drinking and sleep problems. Methods We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative survey of adolescents and young adults. The analysis sample consists of all Wave 4 observations without missing values for the sleep problems variables (N=14,089, 53% females). We estimate gender-specific multivariate probit models with a rich set of socioeconomic, demographic, physical, and mental health variables to control for confounding factors. Results Our results confirm that alcohol use, and specifically binge drinking, is positively and significantly associated with various types of sleep problems. The detrimental effects on sleep increase in magnitude with frequency of binge drinking, suggesting a dose-response relationship. Moreover, binge drinking is associated with sleep problems independent of psychiatric conditions. Conclusions The statistically strong association between sleep problems and binge drinking found in this study is a first step in understanding these relationships. Future research is needed to determine the causal links between alcohol misuse and sleep problems to inform appropriate clinical and policy responses. PMID:23466223

Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T.

2013-01-01

385

Power spectrum analysis of heart-rate variability in the young zucker rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac autonomic control was studied in a group of five young hyperinsulinaemic, insulin resistant, Zucker fatty rats (ZFR) compared with a control group of five young Zucker lean rats (ZLR). Power spectrum analysis (PSA) of heart rate variability (HRV) was performed with autoregressive (AR) models. All rats were anaesthetised with sodium pentobarbital. Mean insulinaemia and glycaemia levels were 185+27 muU\\/ml

L. Burattini; R. Burattini; C. E. Cogo; E. Faelli; P. Ruggeri

2006-01-01

386

ADULT ATTACHMENT, PERSONALITY TRAITS, AND BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER FEATURES IN YOUNG ADULTS  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have demonstrated that insecure attachment patterns and a trait disposition toward negative affect and impulsivity are both associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD) features. According to attachment theory, insecure attachment patterns impart greater risk for the maladaptive personality traits underlying BPD. Hence, insecure attachment might be indirectly related to BPD through its association with these traits. The current cross-sectional study used structural equation modeling to compare two competing models of the relationship between adult attachment patterns, trait negative affect and impulsivity, and BPD features in a large nonclinical sample of young adults: (M1) attachment anxiety and avoidance are positively related to trait negative affect and impulsivity, which in turn, are directly associated with BPD features; and (M2) trait negative affect and impulsivity are positively related to attachment anxiety and avoidance, which in turn, are directly associated with BPD features. Consistent with attachment theory, M1 provided a better fit to the data than M2. However, only attachment anxiety, and not attachment avoidance, was significantly associated with negative affect and impulsivity. The results favored a model in which the relationship between adult attachment anxiety and BPD features is fully mediated by trait negative affect and impulsivity. PMID:19538081

Scott, Lori N.; Levy, Kenneth N.; Pincus, Aaron L.

2011-01-01

387

Young hamsters are more resistant than adults to endotracheally instilled porcine pancreatic elastase.  

PubMed

We measured the physiologic and stereologic response to 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 microgram of porcine pancreatic elastase instilled in a volume of 0.25 ml 0.9% NaCl/100 g body weight into the trachea of groups of young and adult hamsters. The young hamsters averaged 50 g and the adult hamsters 116 g in initial body weight. Twenty-one days after administration of elastase, lung volumes, static lung compliance, maximum expiratory flow, the whole section mean linear intercepts (MLI) were measured. The degree of emphysema increased in all animals as a function of dose. Examination of the lung volume and compliance dose-response characteristics indicated that young hamsters developed less physiologic change with increasing elastase dose than did adult hamsters. Maximum expiratory flow and whole section MLI dose-response were similar in the young and adult elastase-treated groups. However, the MLI in young hamsters treated with the 0.4 microgram elastase dose was decreased in the outer third of the lung compared to adult emphysematous hamsters. Also, mean airspace density relative to saline control values in young hamsters was double that found in adult hamsters treated with the 0.4 microgram elastase dose. Although serum alpha 1-globulin levels were equivalent in both young and adult normal hamsters, values normalized for lung elastin content were significantly increased in young animals. We conclude that young hamsters show less change in lung function as a function of elastase dose twenty-one days after elastase instillation. Possible reasons for this include an increased ratio of lung alpha 1-globulin/lung elastin in young hamsters, their continued ability to grow new alveoli, and age related differences in airway size favoring a central distribution of enzyme. PMID:3640708

Karlinsky, J B; Goldstein, R H; Catanese, A; Snider, G L

1986-01-01

388

Glucose regulation of memory for reward reduction in young and aged rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although baseline blood glucose levels in aged Fischer-344 rats are comparable to those of young rats, the rise in blood glucose in response to training-related stress is substantially attenuated. The diminished response may contribute to increased depletion of extracellular brain glucose levels during training in aged rats; the depletion is blocked and memory is enhanced by systemic injections of glucose.

Juan A. Salinas; Paul E. Gold

2005-01-01

389

Being Close and Being Social: Peer Ratings of Distinct Aspects of Young Adult Social Competence  

PubMed Central

The present study had three main objectives: (1) to develop and validate scales of young adult social competence in two domains, close relationships and social groups, using peer ratings of California Q-sort (Block, 1974; Kremen & Block, 2002) items; (2) to test the hypothesis that social competence is associated with young adult well-being and ego development; (3) to test the hypothesis that close relationship competence aligns more closely than social group competence with young adult functioning. Psychometric data on peer ratings of social competence are presented. For 133 young adults, peer ratings of social competence were correlated in expected directions with indices of functioning (e.g., self-worth, education, psychological distress, criminal behavior, and ego development). Associations were generally stronger for competence in close relationships than in social groups. PMID:17764391

Larson, Justine J.; Whitton, Sarah W.; Hauser, Stuart T.; Allen, Joseph P.

2012-01-01

390

Care seeking for pain in young adults with sickle cell disease.  

PubMed

In individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD), recognizing the cues to an acute pain episode and responding appropriately are important. The purpose of this mixed-methods pilot study is to identify preliminary factors that influence care seeking for pain in young adults with SCD. Responses were received from 69 young adults with SCD, age 18-35 years. The majority of respondents (88%) wait until the pain intensity is an average of 8.7 (± 1.2) on a scale of 1 to 10 before seeking care. Prominent themes influencing care seeking for pain include: trying to treat pain at home, avoiding the emergency department because of past treatment experiences, the desire to avoid admission to the hospital, and the importance of time in the lives of the young adults with SCD. Young adults with SCD need additional support from family and healthcare providers in order to make timely, appropriate decisions regarding care seeking. PMID:23343879

Jenerette, Coretta M; Brewer, Cheryl A; Ataga, Kenneth I

2014-03-01

391

A Retrospective Look at Young Adult Literature of the 1980's.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an annotated list of the 10 best fiction and the 10 best nonfiction young adult literature published in the 1980s. Notes that the books mix popularity and quality into a cake of reading motivation. (RS)

Abrahamson, Richard F.

1992-01-01

392

Young Adults with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Do Well on Intensified Pediatric Chemotherapy Regimen  

Cancer.gov

Adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia lived longer when treated with an intensified multi-drug chemotherapy regimen that is used to treat younger children, according to the November 1, 2009, Journal of Clinical Oncology.

393

Eye movements of young and older adults while reading with distraction  

E-print Network

The authors used eye-tracking technology to examine young and older adults' online performance in the reading in distraction paradigm. Participants read target sentences and answered comprehension questions following each sentence. In some sentences...

Kemper, Susan; McDowd, Joan; Kramer, Arthur F.

2006-03-01

394

Assumptions and Strategies for Conducting Research with Learning Disabled Adolescents and Young Adults  

E-print Network

This paper details the assumptions about learning disabled adolescents and young adults as well as assumptions about conducting research with this population held by researchers at the Kansas Institute. Strategies developed ...

Meyen, Edward L.; Schiefelbusch, Richard L.; Deshler, Donald D.; Alley, Gordon R.; Moran, Mary Ross; Clark, Frances L.

1980-01-01

395

A Research Strategy for Studying Learning Disabled Adolescents and Young Adults  

E-print Network

Unique problems related to adolescents and young adults which researchers must consider in designing interventions are discussed. These unique factors associate with the condition of learning disabilities in adolescents ...

Schumaker, Jean B.; Alley, Gordon R.; Warner, Michael M.; Deshler, Donald D.

1980-01-01

396

Some of My Favorite Books Are by Young Adult Authors and Some Are by Jane Austen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the benefits of reading young adult novels. Remarks on their serious intent, careful craftmanship, effective expression, as well as their ability to illuminate the human condition and provide insights. (EL)

Small, Robert C., Jr.

1986-01-01

397

An Engagement Intervention for Young Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions.  

PubMed

Young adults with serious mental health conditions (SMHCs) often do not engage continuously with mental health services, and there are few engagement interventions designed for them. This qualitative study presents a blueprint for conceptualizing and developing an engagement intervention designed for young adults with SMHCs. The blueprint includes the following activities: (1) establishing a strong theoretical basis, (2) designing an initial manual based on previous research and practice, (3) systematically examining feedback on the manual from stakeholders, and (4) examining the feasibility, acceptability, and implementation demands of the intervention. Interviews, group discussions, and journaling were utilized to collect information from young adult participant-researchers, intervention facilitators (i.e., recovery role models and clinicians), and additional stakeholders (e.g., clinic staff and administrators) (N?=?43). Analyses were performed with multiple coders using constant comparative methods. Results revealed critical information to improve the intervention, while also suggesting that the engagement intervention for young adults with SMHCs has promise. PMID:24989700

Munson, Michelle R; Cole, Andrea; Jaccard, James; Kranke, Derrick; Farkas, Kathleen; Frese, Fred J

2014-07-01

398

More Young Adults Are Living with Their Parents: Who Are They?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Documents the changes since 1940 in the proportion of persons 18 to 29 years of age living with their parents and presents selected demographic characteristics of young adults living in their parental homes in 1980. (Author/ABL)

Glick, Paul C.; Lin, Sung-Ling

1986-01-01

399

Young-Adult Literature: A Good Mix (Books for the Teenage Reader).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a list of 11 new works of young-adult literature from well-known and/or critically successful writers. Provides bibliographic information and extensive summary and analysis of each book. (HB)

Bushman, John H.; Bushman, Kay Parks

1994-01-01

400

The Role of Young Adult Literature: The Reading/Writing Connection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses Chris Crutcher's "Chinese Handcuffs" and several other pieces of young adult literature to show how to teach literary elements and writing and reading skills. Notes that prominence is given to students' responses to reading and writing. (RS)

Bushman, John H.

1992-01-01

401

A Model for Conducting Research with Learning Disabled Adolescents and Young Adults  

E-print Network

Issues from the field of learning disabilities and the field of education in general which impact the learning disabled individual are discussed as they relate to research with learning disabled adolescents and young adults ...

Meyen, Edward L.; Schiefelbusch, Richard L.; Deshler, Donald D.; Alley, Gordon R.; Schumaker, Jean B.; Clark, Frances L.

1980-01-01

402

Gender differences in foot shape: a study of Chinese young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

One important extrinsic factor that causes foot deformity and pain in women is footwear. Women's sports shoes are designed as smaller versions of men's shoes. Based on this, the current study aims to identify foot shape in 1,236 Chinese young adult men and 1,085 Chinese young adult women. Three-dimensional foot shape data were collected through video filming. Nineteen foot shape

Youlian Hong; Lin Wang; Dong Qing Xu; Jing Xian Li

2011-01-01

403

The Functional Profile of Young Adults with Suspected Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assessed the non-academic and academic functioning of young adults with DCD, and investigated the emotional influences and the role of strategy use within this population. A random sample of 2379 adolescents and young adults aged 19-25 (1081 males [45.4%]; mean age = 20.68, SD = 3.42) was used to develop the instruments. From this sample, three…

Tal-Saban, Miri; Zarka, Salman; Grotto, Itamar; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula

2012-01-01

404

Risky Eating Behaviors of Young Adults—Implications for Food Safety Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young adults engage in risky eating behaviors like eating raw\\/undercooked foods of animal origin that put them at increased risk for foodborne disease. This cross-sectional survey assessed the self-reported risky eating behaviors of young adults enrolled in higher education as a part of a large-scale survey administered over 10 months. Par- ticipants (N4,343) completed a risky eating question- naire by

CAROL BYRD-BREDBENNER; JACLYN MAURER ABBOT; VIRGINIA WHEATLEY; DONALD SCHAFFNER; CHRISTINE BRUHN; LYDIA BLALOCK

405

Risky Eating Behaviors of Young Adults—Implications for Food Safety Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young adults engage in risky eating behaviors like eating raw\\/undercooked foods of animal origin that put them at increased risk for foodborne disease. This cross-sectional survey assessed the self-reported risky eating behaviors of young adults enrolled in higher education as a part of a large-scale survey administered over 10 months. Participants (N=4,343) completed a risky eating questionnaire by indicating which

Carol Byrd-Bredbenner; Jaclyn Maurer Abbot; Virginia Wheatley; Donald Schaffner; Christine Bruhn; Lydia Blalock

2008-01-01

406

Hemispheric differences in use-dependent corticomotor plasticity in young and old adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine corticomotor excitability and plasticity following repetitive thumb abduction training\\u000a in left and right hands of young and old adults. Electromyographic recordings were obtained from the abductor pollicis brevis\\u000a (APB) muscle of 12 young (aged 18–27 years) and 14 old (aged 63–75 years) adults. Motor training consisted of 300 ballistic\\u000a abductions of the thumb to

John Cirillo; Nigel C. Rogasch; John G. Semmler

2010-01-01

407

Parental divorce and young adult children's romantic relationships: resolution of the divorce experience.  

PubMed

Fifty-one romantically involved young Israeli adults, whose parents were divorced, were questioned about their romantic relationship, parents' conflict, and current feelings about and reconstruction of the divorce. An integrative perception of the divorce was found to be related to fewer problems and to higher levels of friendship, enjoyment, and intimacy in the relationship. Implications for research and intervention with young adults are discussed. PMID:11822220

Shulman, S; Scharf, M; Lumer, D; Maurer, O

2001-10-01

408

IMPLICIT MEMORY IN YOUNG ADULTS WITH ADHD: DOES IT INCLUDE A CONCEPTUAL PRIMING DEFICIT?  

E-print Network

IMPLICIT MEMORY IN YOUNG ADULTS WITH ADHD: DOES IT INCLUDE A CONCEPTUAL PRIMING DEFICIT? Major: Psychology April 2009 Submitted to the Office of Undergraduate Research Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the designation as UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR A Senior Scholars Thesis by STEPHANIE REBECCA MURPHY IMPLICIT MEMORY IN YOUNG ADULTS WITH ADHD: DOES IT INCLUDE A CONCEPTUAL PRIMING DEFICIT? Approved by: Research...

Murphy, Stephanie R

2009-06-09

409

Food prices and fruit and vegetable consumption among young American adults. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Multivariate negative binomial count models were estimated to examine associations between young adults' fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption and the prices of FV, other food at home grocery items, and fast food and the availability of restaurants and food stores. This study used the 2002 wave of data collected from US young adults aged 18-23 years in the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged by geocode identifiers with food prices and restaurant and food store availability.

410

EFFECT OF SINGLE VERSUS SPLIT DOSES OF DIETHYINITROSAMINE ON THE INDUCTION OF GAMMA-GLUTAMYLTRANSPEPTIDASE-FOCI IN THE LIVERS OF ADULT AND JUVENILE RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

The induction of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT)-foci by single and by split doses of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) was evaluated in the livers of juvenile and young adult male, Sprague-Dawley rats. A single dose of DENA was administered at either 32, 41 or 52 days of age and foll...

411

DOPAMINE RECEPTOR INACTIVATION IN THE CAUDATE-PUTAMEN DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTS THE BEHAVIOR OF PREWEANLING AND ADULT RATS  

PubMed Central

The irreversible receptor antagonist N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) has been used to study the ontogeny of dopamine (DA) receptor functioning in the young and adult rat. Most notably, systemic administration of EEDQ blocks the DA agonist-induced behaviors of adult rats, while leaving the behavior of preweanling rats unaffected. The purpose of the present study was to: (a) determine whether the age-dependent actions of EEDQ involve receptors located in the dorsal caudate-putamen (CPu) and (b) confirm that EEDQ's behavioral effects result from the inactivation of DA receptors rather than some other receptor type. In Experiment 1, EEDQ or DMSO were bilaterally infused into the CPu on PD 17 or PD 84. After 24 h, rats were given bilateral microinjections of the full DA agonist R(–)-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) or vehicle into the dorsal CPu and behavior was assessed for 40 min. In Experiment 2, preweanling rats were treated as just described, except that DA receptors were protected from EEDQ-induced alkylation by administering systemic injections of D1 (SCH23390) and D2 (sulpiride) receptor antagonists. As predicted, microinjecting EEDQ into the dorsal CPu attenuated the NPA-induced locomotor activity and stereotypy of adult rats. In contrast, rats given bilateral EEDQ infusions on PD 17 exhibited a potentiated locomotor response when treated with NPA. Experiment 2 showed that DA receptor inactivation was responsible for NPA's actions. A likely explanation for these results is that EEDQ inactivates a sizable percentage of DA receptors on PD 17, but leaves the remaining receptors in a supersensitive state. This receptor supersensitivity, which probably involves alterations in G protein coupling, could account for NPA-induced locomotor potentiation. Either adult rats do not show a similar EEDQ-induced change in receptor dynamics or DA receptor inactivation was more complete in older animals and effectively eliminated the expression of DA agonist-induced behaviors. PMID:23000622

DER-GHAZARIAN, T.; GUTIERREZ, A.; VARELA, F. A.; HERBERT, M. S.; AMODEO, L. R.; CHARNTIKOV, S.; CRAWFORD, C. A.; MCDOUGALL, S. A.

2012-01-01

412

Self-Ear-Cleaning Among Educated Young Adults in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Context: Self-ear-cleaning has been reported to be common from several hospital-based studies and it has been associated with some diseases of the ear. Aims: To determine community-based prevalence of self-ear-cleaning and its sociodemographic correlates among educated young adults in Nigeria. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey conducted in a National Youth Service Corps camp in Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Semistructured questionnaires were administered on a randomly selected sample of 1280 respondents. The outcome variable was self-ear-cleaning. Independent variables were sociodemographic variables, materials used and ear-cleaning habits. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15 was utilized for univariate, bivariate, and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: There were 1012 respondents (M: F = 1.05:1). Mean age was 25.3 (standard deviation, 2.34). Prevalence of self-ear-cleaning was 93.4%. Mean age at first cleaning was 7.6 years. Cotton buds were the most frequently used objects (in 85.1%). Prevalence was high irrespective of sociodemographic class, significantly higher among females (?2 = 4.549, P = 0.033), those who believed the habit was beneficial (?2 = 114.185, P < 0.001) and those whose parents and siblings practiced the habit. Significant predictive factors were self-ear-cleaning in respondent's father [odds ratio (OR) P = 0.011) and owning cotton buds (OR = 0.192, P = 0.007). Conclusions: Self-ear-cleaning is almost universal. Most of the population is, therefore, at risk of possible harmful effects. Also, medical advice against self-ear-cleaning is not widely known. Rather, the erroneous perception that self-ear-cleaning is beneficial is common. Collaborative health education efforts targeted at families and schools and campaigns and advocacy for legislation regulating the sale of cotton buds are recommended. PMID:24791230

Olaosun, Adedayo Olugbenga

2014-01-01

413

Efficiency of caries risk assessment in young adults using Cariogram  

PubMed Central

Objective The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate the caries risk in young adults using Cariogram and (2) compare the efficiency of Cariogram with the regression risk models created using the same variables in Cariogram by examining the actual caries progression over a 2-year period. Methods: This study included 100 subjects that were either twenty or twenty-one years-old. Data on general health, diet, oral hygiene and use of fluoride were obtained. Saliva analyses were performed, including mutans streptococci and lactobacilli counts, secretion rate and buffer capacity. DMFT and DMFS values were calculated by clinical examinations and radiographs. The participants were divided into 5 groups according to their Cariogram caries risk scores at baseline. Re-examination for caries was done after 2-years. The data were analyzed using Kruskall Wallis, Mann Whitney-U, and logistic regression analyses. Results: Diet frequency, plaque amount and secretion rate were significantly associated with caries increment (P<.05). Cariogram and the regression risk models explained the caries formation at a higher rate than single-variables. However, the regression risk model developed by diet frequency, plaque amount and secretion rate explained the caries formation similar to Cariogram, while the other regression model developed by all variables used in Cariogram explained the caries formation at a higher rate than this computer program. Conclusions: Cariogram is effective and can be used for caries risk assessment instead of single variables; however, it is possible to develop simplier models with regression analyses to determine caries risk. PMID:22904655

Celik, Esra Uzer; Gokay, Necmi; Ates, Mustafa

2012-01-01

414

Trajectories of Metabolic Syndrome Development in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of metabolic aberrations that collectively increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Greater understanding of MetS developments may provide insight into targeted prevention strategies for individuals at greatest risk. The purpose of this study was to i) identify distinct patterns of longitudinal MetS development and; ii) develop a character profile that differentiates groups by level of MetS risk. Methods and Results Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (n?=?3 804; 18–30 y) was obtained by limited access application from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and used for this analysis. MetS, as defined by the Harmonized criteria, was assessed over a 20 year follow-up period. Group-level trajectory analysis identified 4 distinct groups with varying rates of component development [No (23.8% of sample); Low (33.5%); Moderate (35.3%); and High MetS (7.4%)]. After adjusting for covariates, individuals in the At-Risk groups (Low, Moderate and High MetS) were more likely to be of black ethnicity (1.37, 1.14–1.66), have a family history of cardiovascular disease (1.61, 1.31–1.97) and history of dieting (1.69, 1.20–2.39) when compared to the No Risk trajectory group (No MetS). Conversely, increasing baseline education (0.76, 0.65–0.89) and aerobic fitness (0.55, 0.47–0.64) was inversely associated with At-Risk group membership. Conclusions Results suggest distinct profiles of MetS development that can be identified by baseline risk factors. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical implication of intermediate MetS development groups with respect to overall cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25368999

Poon, Vivian T. W.; Kuk, Jennifer L.; Ardern, Chris I.

2014-01-01

415

Condylar volume and surface in Caucasian young adult subjects  

PubMed Central

Background There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy. Methods CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI), of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ) in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, with varied malocclusions, without pain or dysfunction of TMJs. Results The condylar volume was 691.26 ± 54.52 mm3 in males and 669.65 ± 58.80 mm3 in, and was significantly higher (p< 0.001) in the males. The same was observed for the condylar surface, although without statistical significance (406.02 ± 55.22 mm2 in males and 394.77 ± 60.73 mm2 in females). Furthermore, the condylar volume (693.61 ± 62.82 mm3 ) in the right TMJ was significantly higher than in the left (666.99 ± 48.67 mm3, p < 0.001) as was the condylar surface (411.24 ± 57.99 mm2 in the right TMJ and 389.41 ± 56.63 mm2 in the left TMJ; t = 3.29; p < 0.01). The MI is 1.72 ± 0.17 for the whole sample, with no significant difference between males and females or the right and left sides. Conclusion These data from temporomandibular joints of patients without pain or clinical dysfunction might serve as examples of normal TMJ's in the general population not seeking orthodontic care. PMID:21194477

2010-01-01

416

Health, schooling and lifestyle among young adults in Finland.  

PubMed

This was a longitudinal, general population study based on a Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, using a structural equation approach to estimate the health production function and health input functions for four lifestyle variables (smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise and unhealthy diet) for males and females. In particular, we examined the productive and allocative effects of education on health. We used 15D, a generic measure of health-related quality of life, as a single index score measure but we also estimated models for some of its dimensions. Among the males, the important factors impacting on health were education and all the four lifestyle factors, as well as some exogenous variables at 31 years and variables describing parents' background, and health and behaviour at 14 years. An increase of five years in schooling increased the health score by 0.008, of which about 50% was due to direct effect and 50% due to indirect effects. Among the females, education does not impact on health, but health was affected by the use of alcohol, exercise and diet, but not by smoking. Our results indicate that policy options that increase education among men will increase their health indirectly via healthier lifestyles. However, since the total effect was rather modest and the direct effect insignificant, an increase of schooling is not a cost-effective way to increase health given the present high educational level of Finland. The young adults' and particularly women's internationally high educational status in Finland might be a reason why we find only a modest effect of schooling on health and the non-existence of such effects among women. PMID:16786496

Häkkinen, Unto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Rosenqvist, Gunnar; Laitinen, Jaana

2006-11-01

417

Use of the Carolina HPV Immunization Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (CHIAS) in Young Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Background Validated measures that can accurate describe young adults’ HPV vaccination attitudes and how these relate to vaccination intention and receipt are needed for developing interventions to improve low HPV vaccination levels. The Carolina HPV Immunization Attitudes Scale (CHIAS) is a validated measure of these outcomes that was originally designed for parents. Objective To assess the performance of the CHIAS among young adult women using an exploratory factor analysis. Methods A convenience sample of 139 young adult women (age 18–26 years) were given the CHIAS measure at baseline. Factor analysis was used to determine attitudinal factor groupings and the association of these factors with HPV vaccination intention. A 6-month follow up assessment examined the stability of the CHIAS over time and the association of baseline vaccine factors with vaccine receipt. Results Five factors loaded on to the CHIAS in young adults - “Barriers,” “Harms,” “Effectiveness,” “Risk Denial” and “Uncertainty,” - which was similar to the factor loadings of CHIAS for parents. “Harms” was the factor most consistently associated with vaccination intention at all time points assessed. Only 5 women had received or made an appointment to receive the vaccine at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusions In terms of categorizing HPV vaccination attitudes, the CHIAS appears to have similar performance among young adults as in parents. However, additional studies are needed to assess the utility of the CHIAS for predicting HPV vaccine receipt among the young adult population. PMID:24945630

Dempsey, Amanda F.; Fuhrel-Forbis, Andrea; Konrath, Sara

2014-01-01

418

African-American Voices in Young Adult Literature: Tradition, Transition, Transformation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains a collection of 14 original essays. The purpose of the book is to inform teachers, librarians, and other professionals working with young people about aspects of African-American literature and to stimulate further thinking about this literature. After an introduction, chapters in the book are: (1) "African-American Young Adult

Smith, Karen Patricia, Ed.

419

A Portrait of Low-Income Young Adults in Education. Portraits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief takes a broad look at low-income young adults in an effort to contribute to the national discussion on improving degree completion by increasing participation among all disadvantaged populations--especially those who attempt to succeed in postsecondary settings under financial stress. Understanding the linkages between low-income young

Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

420

The History and Timing of Depression Onset as Predictors of Young Adult Self-Esteem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Depression often emerges early in the lifecourse and is consistently shown to be associated with poor self-esteem. The 3 main objectives of the current study are to (1) evaluate the association between a history major depression and self-esteem in young adulthood, (2) assess the relationship between timing of depression onset and young adult

Gayman, Mathew D.; Lloyd, Donald A.; Ueno, Koji

2011-01-01

421

A Reason, a Season, or a Lifetime: "Relational Permanence among Young Adults with Foster Care Backgrounds"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon called "aging out" includes approximately 20,000 young people who enter adulthood directly from foster care each year (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2005). The number of youth and young adults who aged out of care in the U.S. in 2005, the year for which the most current statistics are available, increased 48 percent…

Samuels, Gina Miranda

2008-01-01

422

Two Studies of Mass Media Use by Contemporary Young Adults. News Research Bulletin No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of the "News Research Bulletin" contains reports on two studies of media use by contemporary young adults. The first study analyzes the media behavior of 447 randomly selected respondents in Virginia Beach, Virginia in the summer of 1973. Some of the highlights of the study were that about 90 percent of the young people report doing at…

American Newspaper Publishers Association, Washington, DC.

423

Young Adult Literature and the Common Core: A Surprisingly Good Fit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates have long argued that an increased role for young adult literature in the classroom would help students' reading development. At first glance, the widely adopted Common Core State Standards might seem in opposition to an increased role for such literature. A closer examination of the common core documents suggests, however, that young

Ostenson, Jonathan; Wadham, Rachel

2012-01-01

424

Explaining crime for a young adult population: An application of general strain theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most research informed by general strain theory (GST) concentrated on the young, particularly adolescents. Using data from the National Youth Survey (NYS) Wave 7, in which respondents were asked about their offending when they were ages twenty to twenty-nine, a model of young adult offending was estimated that incorporated variables reflecting strain, as well as control variables related to differential

Michael K. Ostrowsky; Steven F. Messner

2005-01-01

425

Left ventricular abnormalities in children, adolescents and young adults with renal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Left ventricular abnormalities in children, adolescents and young adults with renal disease. The cardiac abnormalities that complicate chronic renal failure and renal replacement therapy are not well characterized in young people. These abnormalities are becoming more important because successful renal transplantation has resulted in children with end-stage renal failure living longer. Echocardiographic abnormalities of cardiac function and structure were studied

Lilian M Johnstone; Colin L Jones; Leeanne E Grigg; James L Wilkinson; Rowan G Walker; Harley R Powell

1996-01-01

426

Perceived Racism, Discrimination, and Acculturation in Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts among Black Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During young adulthood the suicide rate among Blacks rises dramatically and approaches that of the U.S. general population, requiring that prevention efforts include a focus on Black young adults. Although most research on suicidality among Blacks has focused on risk factors observed in the dominant culture, in this study the authors examined…

Castle, Kathryn; Conner, Kenneth; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; Tu, Xin

2011-01-01

427

Physical Appearance and Control Beliefs in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated whether general and domain-specific control beliefs were related to stigmatizing physical appearance qualities in young, middle-aged, and older adults. Being babyfaced, unattractive, or short was associated with dimin- ished control beliefs in young and middle adulthood, whereas being overweight was not. Those who were less attractive, more babyfaced, shorter, or heavier sometimes perceived more rather than less

Carrie Andreoletti; Leslie A. Zebrowitz; Margie E. Lachman

2001-01-01

428

Financial Success for Young Adults and Recent Graduates: Managing Money, Credit, and Your Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are numerous financial planning and money management handbooks, but few focus on the needs of young adults between 16 and 25 years of age. Colleges and some high schools are increasingly offering courses covering money management, but the materials are more "economics-focused" than "real-world" focused. Young people are huge consumers who…

Arrowood, Janet C.

2006-01-01

429

Quality of Life of Adolescents and Young Adults Born at High Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on quality of life (QoL) of adolescents and young adults born preterm and those with congenital heart disease (CHD) was systematically reviewed, and factors associated with QoL were identified. Forty-five studies met the inclusion criteria for review. Although the majority of studies found that self-reported QoL of adolescents and young

Dahan-Oliel, Noemi; Majnemer, Annette; Mazer, Barbara

2011-01-01

430

Functional Changes in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with multiple handicaps, including cerebral palsy (CP), often lose or regress in their functional ability through adolescence and young adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine functional and psychosocial changes in children, adolescents, and young adults with CP. A retrospective chart review and a prospective telephone…

Krakovsky, Gina; Huth, Myra Martz; Lin, Li; Levin, Ron S.

2007-01-01

431

Recycling and Ambivalence: Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of Household Recycling among Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theories about ambivalence, as well as quantitative and qualitative empirical approaches, are applied to obtain an understanding of recycling among young adults. A questionnaire was mailed to 422 Swedish young people. Regression analyses showed that a mix of negative emotions (worry) and positive emotions (hope and joy) about the environmental…

Ojala, Maria

2008-01-01

432

‘Nice cape, super faggot!’ Male adolescent identity crises in young adult graphic novels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a focus has arisen on the difficulty young men experience during adolescence and the pressures they encounter from both institutional and cultural sources. Authors of graphic novels for young adults have engaged the topic with works that detail the experiences of adolescent males struggling with the demands of what Connell has identified as hegemonic masculinity practices. The

Mark Malaby; Melissa Esh

2012-01-01

433

Homeostatic regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in aging rats: long-term effects of early exercise  

PubMed Central

Adult neurogenesis is highly responsive to environmental and physiological factors. The majority of studies to date have examined short-term consequences of enhancing or blocking neurogenesis but long-term changes remain less well understood. Current evidence for age-related declines in neurogenesis warrant further investigation into these long-term changes. In this report we address the hypothesis that early life experience, such as a period of voluntary running in juvenile rats, can alter properties of adult neurogenesis for the remainder of the animal's life. The results indicate that the number of proliferating and differentiating neuronal precursors is not altered in runners beyond the initial weeks post-running, suggesting homeostatic regulation of these processes. However, the rate of neuronal maturation and survival during a 4 week period after cell division was enhanced up to 11 months of age (the end of the study period). This study is the first to show that a transient period of physical activity at a young age promotes changes in neurogenesis that persist over the long-term, which is important for our understanding of the modulation of neurogenesis by exercise with age. Functional integration of adult-born neurons within the hippocampus that resist homeostatic regulation with aging, rather than the absolute number of adult-born neurons, may be an essential feature of adult neurogenesis that promotes the maintenance of neural plasticity in old age. PMID:25071426

Merkley, Christina M.; Jian, Charles; Mosa, Adam; Tan, Yao-Fang; Wojtowicz, J. Martin

2014-01-01

434

Conditions affecting primary cell cultures of functional adult rat hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The conditions for obtaining representative, primary adult rat hepatocyte cultures were explored. The methods applied included\\u000a enzymatic liver perfusion which was nondestructive to hepatocytes, the prevention of aggregation of dissociated cells and\\u000a the selective attachment of viable cells. These procedures yielded a recovery of 50% of the liver cells which gave rise to\\u000a cultures representing 14% of the total liver

Brian A. Laishes; Gary M. Williams

1976-01-01

435

Social Media & Mobile Internet Use among Teens and Young Adults. Millennials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2006, blogging has dropped among teens and young adults while simultaneously rising among older adults. As the tools and technology embedded in social networking sites change, and use of the sites continues to grow, youth may be exchanging "macro blogging" for microblogging with status updates. Blogging has declined in popularity among both…

Lenhart, Amanda; Purcell, Kristen; Smith, Aaron; Zickuhr, Kathryn

2010-01-01

436

An Assessment of Cognitive Behavior of Economically Disadvantaged Young Adults in North Mississippi.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine the appropriateness of two conventional intelligence tests for assessing the ability of economically deprived young adults participating in job training programs by comparing their test results with those of the test standardization groups. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), and the Langmuir Oral Direction…

Wolfe, Lillian S.; And Others

437

Investigating Adult Language Input and Young Children's Responses in Naturalistic Environments: An Observational Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the design and trial of an original Observational Framework for quantitative investigation of young children's responses to adult language in their typical language learning environments. The Framework permits recording of both the response expectation of the adult utterances, and the degree of compliance in the child's…

Marinac, Julie V.; Woodyatt, Gail C.; Ozanne, Anne E.

2008-01-01

438

Young Adult Outcomes of the Abecedarian and CARE Early Childhood Educational Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult benefits for participants in Project CARE were compared with those of the Abecedarian Project, a closely related randomized study of early childhood educational intervention for children from low-income families who were at risk of developmental delays and school failure. CARE replicated Abecedarian's young adult treatment-related…

Campbell, Frances A.; Wasik, Barbara H.; Pungello, Elizabeth; Burchinal, Margaret; Barbarin, Oscar; Kainz, Kirsten; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.

2008-01-01

439

Selection, Inclusion, Evaluation and Defense of Transgender-Inclusive Fiction for Young Adults: A Resource Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An increasingly visible youth transgender population is emerging and the number of transgender-inclusive fiction texts for young adults is growing. Adults serving teens in schools, libraries, and community agencies must begin actively pursuing, utilizing, and incorporating these texts into resource collections. This article provides an overview of…

Rockefeller, Elsworth I.

2009-01-01

440

Do Alternative Names Block Young and Older Adults' Retrieval of Proper Names?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates whether tip of the tongue experiences (TOTs) are caused by a more accessible word which blocks retrieval of the target word, especially for older adults. In a ''competitor priming'' paradigm, young and older adults produced the name of a famous character (e.g., Eliza Doolittle) in response to a question and subsequently named…

Cross, Emily S.; Burke, Deborah M.

2004-01-01

441

Attachment States of Mind and the Quality of Young Adults' Sibling Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines young adults' states of mind regarding their early attachment experiences in relation to the observed and perceived quality of their sibling relationships. Sixty sibling pairs (18-25 years of age) were (a) administered the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1985), (b) videotaped during a conflict resolution…

Fortuna, Keren; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Groh, Ashley M.; Holland, Ashley S.

2011-01-01

442

Stereotype traits of older adults generated by young, middle-aged, and older Chinese participants  

E-print Network

This study examined stereotype traits of older adults elicited from 40 young (M age = 19.6), 40 middle-aged (M = 36.8), and 40 older Chinese adults (M = 64.7). Trait lists were compared across age groups and to traits reported by U.S. and Chinese...

Zhang, Yan Bing; Hummert, Mary Lee; Garstka, Teri A.

2002-01-01

443

Young adults’ support for adult-ratings for movies depicting smoking and for restrictions on tobacco magazine advertising  

PubMed Central

Introduction Smoking images in movies and tobacco advertisements in magazines are influential on adolescent smoking behaviors, and restrictions of these advertising strategies can reduce the prevalence of adolescent smoking. We assessed young adults’ level of support for adult ratings for movies depicting smoking and for restrictions on tobacco magazine advertising. Methods Young adults from the U.S. Midwest were surveyed between 2010–2011 (n=2622). We assessed their level of support for (a) adult-rating all movies depicting smoking, and (b) restrictions on tobacco magazine advertising. Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the characteristics associated with higher level of support for these policies. Results Overall, 34% of the participants favored adult ratings for movies with smoking images, and 68% favored restrictions on tobacco magazine advertising. Characteristics associated with higher level of support differed somewhat by policy. Conclusion Further educating young adults about the influence of smoking images in movies on adolescent smoking may be necessary to gain more support for the policy. With the majority supporting restrictions on tobacco magazine advertising, it may be possible to tighten these restrictions to further protect adolescents. Future research is needed to identify how tobacco control advocates can frame these issues to gain further public support. PMID:25485169

Choi, Kelvin; Fabian, Lindsey; Jansen, Jim; Lenk, Kathleen; Forster, Jean

2014-01-01

444

Preliminary evidence for progressive prefrontal abnormalities in adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Previous cross-sectional study of ventral prefrontal cortex (VPFC) implicated progressive volume abnormalities during adolescence in bipolar disorder (BD). In the present study, a within-subject, longitudinal design was implemented to examine brain volume changes during adolescence/young adulthood. We hypothesized that VPFC volume decreases over time would be greater in adolescents/young adults with BD than in healthy comparison adolescents/young adults (HC). Eighteen adolescents/young adults (10 with BD I and 8 HC participants) underwent two high resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans over approximately two-years. Regional volume changes over time were measured. Adolescents/young adults with BD displayed significantly greater volume loss over time, compared to HC participants, in a region encompassing ventral and rostral PFC and extending to rostral anterior cingulate cortex (p<0.05). Additional areas where volume change differed between groups were observed. While data should be interpreted cautiously due to modest sample size, this study provides preliminary evidence to support the presence of accelerated loss in ventral and rostral PFC volume in adolescents/young adults with BD. PMID:19402934

Kalmar, Jessica H.; Wang, Fei; Spencer, Linda; Edmiston, Erin; Lacadie, Cheryl M.; Martin, Andrés; Constable, R. Todd; Duncan, James S.; Staib, Lawrence H.; Papademetris, Xenophon; Blumberg, Hilary P.

2010-01-01

445

Family Histories and Multiple Transitions Among Homeless Young Adults: Pathways to Homelessness  

PubMed Central

This study explored the early family histories of homeless young adults, the types and number of transitions they experienced, and their pathways to the street. Intensive qualitative interviews were audio taped and transcribed with 40 homeless young adults 19 to 21 years of age in the Midwest. Findings show that family backgrounds were generally characterized by substance use, child maltreatment, and witnessing violence, all of which provide social context for understanding why so many of these young people opted to leave home in search of an alternative living situation. The current findings also reveal that while some young adults ran away from home as adolescents, others were “pushed out” (i.e., told to leave), or removed by state agencies. Current study findings illustrate that young adults’ trajectories are marked by multiple living arrangements such as home, foster care, detention facility, and drug rehabilitation. Overall, study results show that young adults’ family histories place them on trajectories for early independence marked by multiple transitions and numerous living situations, culminating in a lack of a permanent residence to call home. PMID:24151346

Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.

2013-01-01

446

Family Histories and Multiple Transitions Among Homeless Young Adults: Pathways to Homelessness.  

PubMed

This study explored the early family histories of homeless young adults, the types and number of transitions they experienced, and their pathways to the street. Intensive qualitative interviews were audio taped and transcribed with 40 homeless young adults 19 to 21 years of age in the Midwest. Findings show that family backgrounds were generally characterized by substance use, child maltreatment, and witnessing violence, all of which provide social context for understanding why so many of these young people opted to leave home in search of an alternative living situation. The current findings also reveal that while some young adults ran away from home as adolescents, others were "pushed out" (i.e., told to leave), or removed by state agencies. Current study findings illustrate that young adults' trajectories are marked by multiple living arrangements such as home, foster care, detention facility, and drug rehabilitation. Overall, study results show that young adults' family histories place them on trajectories for early independence marked by multiple transitions and numerous living situations, culminating in a lack of a permanent residence to call home. PMID:24151346

Tyler, Kimberly A; Schmitz, Rachel M

2013-10-01

447

Sequential difficulty effects during execution of memory strategies in young and older adults.  

PubMed

This study aimed at uncovering factors influencing execution of memory strategies and at furthering our understanding of ageing effects on memory performance. To achieve this end, we investigated strategy sequential difficulty (SSD) effects recently demonstrated by Uittenhove and Lemaire in the domain of problem solving. We found that both young and older participants correctly recalled more words using a sentence-construction strategy when this strategy followed an easier strategy (i.e., repetition strategy) or a harder strategy (i.e., mental-image strategy). These SSD effects were of equal magnitude in young and older adults, correlated significantly with Stroop performance in both young and older adults and correlated with N-back performance only in young adults. These findings have important implications for furthering our understanding of memory strategy execution and age-related variations in memory performance, as well for understanding mechanisms underlying SSD effects. PMID:24967991

Uittenhove, Kim; Burger, Lucile; Taconnat, Laurence; Lemaire, Patrick

2014-06-26

448

Family Process as a Mediator of the Negative Effects of Parental Alcoholism on Young Adult Dating Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of parental alcoholism on young adult dating relationship quality (trust, intimacy, commitment, and satisfaction) were considered in the context of the mediating variable of family process (cohesion, conflict resolution, and family competence). A model was tested with a sample of 287 young adults (95 were adult children of alcoholics) that suggested that healthier family process mediates the negative

JEFFRY H. LARSON; BRAD M. REEDY

2004-01-01

449

An Exploration of Cultural Identity Patterns and the Family Context among Arab Muslim Young Adults in America  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many studies have explored cultural adaptation and development and its correlates among adult Arab immigrants to the United States (U.S.), little empirical work has focused on Arab youth who were raised in the U.S., particularly Arab Muslim young adults. The present study explores cultural identity patterns and the sociodemographic and family contexts of 150 Arab Muslim American young adults

Pia Rebello Britto; Mona M. Amer

2007-01-01

450

Age Preferences: How Old Is "Too Old" for Selected Service Providers among Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated age preferences for 11 different service providers and the age at which workers in these occupational roles were considered to be "too old" by three age groups: young (18-24), middle-aged (35-55), and older adults (65+). Results indicate that in comparison to middle-aged and older adults, young adults continue to have…

Farney, Lori; Aday, Ronald H.; Breault, Kevin D.

2006-01-01

451

Oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in young adults: a review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a disease of middle-aged to elderly adults. However, an increased incidence of HNSCC in young people under 45 years of age has been reported recently. In the present review, we focused on the epidemiology and aetiology of HNSCC in adults under 45 years of age. Methods We reviewed literature related to HNSCC in adult patients less than 45 years of age and discussed current treatment options and prognosis. Results HNSCC in young adults is associated with a higher incidence rate in nonsmokers, lower female-to-male ratio, a higher percentage of oral cavity and oropharynx tumours, and fewer second primary tumours. However, aside from traditional risk factors of tobacco and alcohol exposure, the causes of these cancers in young adults remain unclear. Agents that might contribute to risk include infection with high-risk human papillomavirus subtypes as well as genetic factors or immunodeficiency status. The expected increase in incidence and mortality of the young with HNSCC may become a major public health concern if current trends persist, particularly lifestyle habits that may contribute to this disease. Conclusions Given the younger age and potential long-term adverse sequelae of traditional HNSCC treatments, young adults should be treated on a case-by-case basis and post-therapy quality of life must be considered in any treatment-decision making process. PMID:24587773

Majchrzak, Ewa; Szybiak, Bartosz; Wegner, Anna; Pienkowski, Piotr; Pazdrowski, Jakub; Luczewski, Lukasz; Sowka, Marcin; Golusinski, Pawel; Malicki, Julian; Golusinski, Wojciech

2014-01-01

452

Linked lives : Young adults’ life course and relations with parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focal point of this dissertation is the middle phase of the parent-child relationship. During this phase children are in young adulthood (roughly 18 to 35 years of age) and parents are in early old age (roughly 50 to 75 years of age). The phase of young adulthood marks the transition from the youth and adolescent phase to the period

A. J. E. H. Bucx

2009-01-01

453

Methionine-Induced Elevation of Plasma Homocysteine Concentration Is Associated with an Increase of Plasma Cholesterol in Adult Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims: Dietary methionine affects cholesterol metabolism in growing rats. Methionine effects on adult rats and mechanisms by which methionine alters the lipid metabolism are not fully elucidated. We investigated possible mechanisms by which dietary methionine acts on lipid metabolism of adult rats. Methods: Male adult rats were divided into three groups (n = 10) and were fed casein-based

Frank Hirche; Arlette Schröder; Berit Knoth; Gabriele I. Stangl; Klaus Eder

2006-01-01

454

An exploration of young adults' progress in treatment for dissociative disorder.  

PubMed

Although treatment outcome research on dissociative disorders (DD) is increasing, an examination of treatment progress in young adults with these disorders remains noticeably absent from the literature. Many studies of DD patients report mean ages over 35. The present study examined the response to treatment of a subsample of young adults ages 18-30 with dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified who participated in a naturalistic, longitudinal study of DD treatment outcome. Over 30 months, these patients demonstrated decreases in destructive behaviors and symptomatology as well as improved adaptive capacities. Compared to the older adult participants in the study, the young adults were more impaired initially. However, these younger patients improved at a rapid pace, such that their clinical presentations were similar to or more improved than those of the older adults at the 30-month follow-up. This brief report suggests not only that young adult DD patients can benefit from a trauma-focused, phasic treatment approach but that their treatment may progress at a faster pace than that of older adults with DD. PMID:22989245

Myrick, Amie C; Brand, Bethany L; McNary, Scot W; Classen, Catherine C; Lanius, Ruth; Loewenstein, Richard J; Pain, Clare; Putnam, Frank W

2012-01-01

455

Learning Curves: Body Image and Female Sexuality in Young Adult Literature. Scarecrow Studies in Young Adult Literature #35  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescence is a time of growth, change, and confusion for young women. During this transition from childhood to adulthood, sex and gender roles become more important. Meanwhile, depictions of females--from the hyper-sexualized girls of music videos to the chaste repression of Purity Balls--send mixed messages to young women about their bodies…

Younger, Beth

2009-01-01

456

Considering quality of care for young adults with diabetes in Ireland  

PubMed Central

Background Research on the quality of diabetes care provided to young adults with Type 1 diabetes is lacking. This study investigates perceptions of quality of care for young adults with Type 1 diabetes (23–30 years old) living in the Republic of Ireland. Methods Thirty-five young adults with Type 1 diabetes (twenty-nine women, six men) and thirteen healthcare professionals (ten diabetes nurse specialists, three consultant Endocrinologists) were recruited. All study participants completed semi-structured interviews that explored their perspectives on the quality of diabetes services in Ireland. Interviews were analyzed using standard qualitative thematic analysis techniques. Results Most interviewees identified problems with Irish diabetes services for young adults. Healthcare services were often characterised by long waiting times, inadequate continuity of care, overreliance on junior doctors and inadequate professional-patient interaction times. Many rural and non-specialist services lacked funding for diabetes education programmes, diabetes nurse specialists, insulin pumps or for psychological support, though these services are important components of quality Type 1 diabetes healthcare. Allied health services such as psychology, podiatry and dietician services appeared to be underfunded in many parts of the country. While Irish diabetes services lacked funding prior to the recession, the economic decline in Ireland, and the subsequent austerity imposed on the Irish health service as a result of that decline, appears to have additional negative consequences. Despite these difficulties, a number of specialist healthcare services for young adults with diabetes seemed to be providing excellent quality of care. Although young adults and professionals identified many of the same problems with Irish diabetes services, professionals appeared to be more critical of diabetes services than young adults. Young adults generally expressed high levels of satisfaction with services, even where they noted that aspects of those services were sub-optimal. Conclusion Good quality care appears to be unequally distributed throughout Ireland. National austerity measures appear to be negatively impacting health services for young adults with diabetes. There is a need for more Endocrinologist and diabetes nurse specialist posts to be funded in Ireland, as well as allied health professional posts. PMID:24168159

2013-01-01

457

Rates of bone loss in young adult males  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis-related fractures occur more frequently in women compared with men, but mortality is greater in men compared with women. Peak bone mass is a significant predictor of osteoporosis and fracture risk; therefore, it is important to optimize peak bone mass during young adulthood. Several recent longitudinal studies, which are summarized in this article, have investigated bone changes among young men. Cortical bone loss does not appear to be significant until individuals reach their mid-30s and is associated with decreased sex hormone concentrations. Significant trabecular bone loss in young men aged in their 20s has been reported and is associated with reduced lean mass and activity levels, especially among former athletes. Whether changes in activity levels among nonathletes lead to bone loss among young men requires further investigation. PMID:20625439

Wey, Howard E; Smith, Eric P

2010-01-01

458

Young Adults Seeking Medical Care: Do Race and Ethnicity Matter?  

MedlinePLUS

... to medical care, National Health Interview Survey Does health insurance coverage differ by race and ethnicity for young ... having health insurance coverage. Definitions Terms related to health insurance Health insurance coverage: Health insurance is broadly defined ...

459

Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... thousands of images of tobacco use that are proven to encourage young people to start smoking. In ... as alcohol or marijuana. Here are some policies proven to work best: ? ? ? ? Make tobacco products less affordable. ...

460

Continuity and Discontinuity of Depressed Mood from Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Mediating and Stabilizing Roles of Young Adults' Socioeconomic Attainment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using prospective, longitudinal data from 467 youth over a 13-year period (late adolescence and young adulthood), the present study investigates three research questions: (1) to what extent do elevations in depressed mood continue (homotypic continuity) from adolescence to young adulthood, (2) to what extent do young adults' socioeconomic…

Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Rand D.; Lorenz, Federick O.; Martin, Monica

2012-01-01

461

A retrospective analysis of pathological changes of testicular tissue in normal adult rats.  

PubMed

Rat testicular model is widely used in experiments on andrology, pharmacology and reproductive toxicology. Generally, normal adult rat is considered to have normal testes. However, whether normal adult rats appeared abnormal testes have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of abnormal testes in normal adult Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and pathological changes in testicular tissues. Six hundred and sixteen adult male SD rats used in previous studies as controls were retrospectively analysed. Testicular tissues were stained with haematoxylin-eosin for observation of pathology. Among 616 rats, 14 rats had pathological testes, and the incidence of abnormal testis was 2.3%. In the 14 rats with abnormal testes, 10 rats were microrchidia (71.4%) and four rats showed normal testicular size. Testicular abnormality included complete interruption of spermatogenesis, partial germ cell arrest, progressive hypospermatogenesis, seminiferous epithelia vacuolation and inflammatory status. Bilateral testicular tissues had similar pathological changes in abnormal testes. The findings in this study demonstrate that the normal adult rats have abnormal testes. We should pay attention to the possibility of abnormal testes when using normal adult male rats for establishing a testicular model. PMID:23808524

Li, J; Zhu, W-J; Xie, B-G

2014-08-01

462

Working memory capacity and overgeneral autobiographical memory in young and older adults.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study are to compare the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) performance of two healthy samples of younger and older adults and to analyse the relationship between overgeneral memory (OGM) and working memory executive processes (WMEP) using a structural equation modelling with latent variables. The AMT and sustained attention, short-term memory and working memory tasks were administered to a group of young adults (N = 50) and a group of older adults (N = 46). On the AMT, the older adults recalled a greater number of categorical memories (p = .000) and fewer specific memories (p = .000) than the young adults, confirming that OGM occurs in the normal population and increases with age. WMEP was measured by reading span and a working memory with sustained attention load task. Structural equation modelling reflects that WMEP shows a strong relationship with OGM: lower scores on WMEP reflect an OGM phenomenon characterized by higher categorical and lower specific memories. PMID:19626477

Ros, Laura; Latorre, José Miguel; Serrano, Juan Pedro

2010-01-01

463

Young adults who smoke cigarettes and marijuana: Analysis of thoughts and behaviors  

PubMed Central

Introduction Smoking both cigarettes and marijuana is increasingly common among young adults, yet little is known about use patterns, motivations, or thoughts about abstinence. In a U.S. sample, this study explored young adults’ severity of cigarette and marijuana co-use, quit attempts, and thoughts about use. Methods Young adults age 18-to-25 who had smoked at least one cigarette in the past 30 days completed an anonymous online survey. Results Of 1987 completed surveys, 972 participants reported both past-month cigarette and marijuana use (68% male, 71% Caucasian, mean age 20.4 years [SD=2.0]). Frequency of use, temptations to use, measures of dependence, decisional balance, and past-year quit attempts were associated across the two substances (all p< .05), but not motivation to quit. Relative to marijuana, participants reported greater desire and a later stage of change for quitting cigarettes and were more likely to endorse a cigarette abstinence goal, yet they had lower expectancy of success with quitting cigarettes and with staying quit (all p<.001). Conclusions Cigarette and marijuana use, temptations to use, and pros/cons of using were related in this young adult sample. Differences in motivation and thoughts about abstinence, however, suggest that young adults may be more receptive to interventions for tobacco than marijuana use. Use patterns and cognitions for both substances should be considered in prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:24090626

Ramo, Danielle E.; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Liu, Howard; Hall, Sharon M.; Prochaska, Judith J.

2013-01-01

464

Assessment of Marital and Family Expectations of a Group of Urban Single Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background: The lack of baseline understanding of what young adults’ needs and expectations are from marital and family life is the context in which this study has evolved. The author believes that the findings from this study could fee into the contents of a more relevant and useful Family Life Education program for young adults in urban India. Aims: To explore and analyze the needs and expectations of single young adults with respect to marital and family life. Materials and Methods: A college in Bangalore with students from graduate and post-graduate courses in the age group of 18 to 25 years. A semi-structure interview schedule prepared by the author was administered on 100 students. Qualitative and Quantitative. Results and Conclusion: The results showed that a large number of the participants had very specific emotional, cognitive and physiological expectations from marital and family life. They also expressed an active need for education on mate selection, sexuality, parenting, interpersonal relationships, intimacy, conflict resolution, among other areas of need. The findings from this study would find great relevance in the preparation of a relevant and practical Family Life Education program for single young adults which in turn would be useful in colleges, workplaces, family counseling centers or any platform where single young adults wish to access such family base services. PMID:21799559

Henry, J. A.; Parthasarathy, R.

2010-01-01

465

What’s distressing about having type 1 diabetes? A qualitative study of young adults’ perspectives  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes distress is a general term that refers to the emotional burdens, anxieties, frustrations, stressors and worries that stem from managing a severe, complex condition like Type 1 diabetes. To date there has been limited research on diabetes-related distress in younger people with Type 1 diabetes. This qualitative study aimed to identify causes of diabetes distress in a sample of young adults with Type 1 diabetes. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 35 individuals with Type 1 diabetes (23–30 years of age). Results This study found diabetes related-distress to be common in a sample of young adults with Type 1 diabetes in the second phase of young adulthood (23–30 years of age). Diabetes distress was triggered by multiple factors, the most common of which were: self-consciousness/stigma, day-to-day diabetes management difficulties, having to fight the healthcare system, concerns about the future and apprehension about pregnancy. A number of factors appeared to moderate distress in this group, including having opportunities to talk to healthcare professionals, attending diabetes education programmes and joining peer support groups. Young adults felt that having opportunities to talk to healthcare professionals about diabetes distress should be a component of standard diabetes care. Conclusions Some aspects of living with diabetes frequently distress young adults with Type 1 diabetes who are in their twenties. Clinicians should facilitate young adults’ attendance at diabetes education programmes, provide them with opportunities to talk about their diabetes-related frustrations and difficulties and, where possible, assist in the development of peer-support networks for young adults with diabetes. PMID:23885644

2013-01-01

466

Fast Mapping in Healthy Young Adults: The Influence of Metamemory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several research studies suggest the significant role played by metamemory in lexical abilities of both adults and children. To our knowledge, there have been no studies to date that have explored the role of metamemory (Judgments of Learning) in fast mapping of novel words by adults. One hundred and twelve undergraduate students were given tasks…

Ramachandra, Vijayachandra; Rickenbach, Bryna; Ruda, Marissa; LeCureux, Bethanie; Pope, Moira

2010-01-01