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1

Radiation nephropathy in young and adult rats  

SciTech Connect

The effects of bilateral kidney irradiation were compared in young and adult rats. During a 1 year period after a single dose of 0, 7.5, 10, 12.5, or 15 Gy on both kidneys, renal function (glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow), urine composition, and systolic blood pressure were measured periodically. The first changes after irradiation were observed in the glomerular filtration rate and urine osmolality. One month after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine osmolality had declined below control values in the young rats. After this initial decline, renal function increased at control rate or even more during the third and fourth month after irradiation but decreased progressively thereafter. In the adult rats, GFR and urine osmolality started to decrease 3 months after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy. A rise in systolic blood pressure and proteinuria started 2-3 months after 12.5 and 15 Gy in both age groups. Early changes in the glomerular filtration rate with a drop in urine osmolality in young rats, occurring during a period of rapid renal development indicated an irradiation-induced inhibition of glomerular and tubular development. Although renal function deteriorated at a later time in adult rats, dose-response relationships obtained in young and adult rats did not show significant differences.

Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.

1987-02-01

2

Hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of a rise in blood pressure after kidney irradiation is unclear but most likely of renal origin. We have investigated the role of the renin-angiotensin system and dietary salt restriction in the development of systolic hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats. Three to 12 months after a single X-ray dose of 7.5 or 12.5 Gy to both kidneys of young and adult rats, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and plasma renin concentration (PRC) were measured regularly. A single X-ray dose of 12.5 Gy caused a moderate rise in SBP and a slight reduction in PRC in both young and adult rats. A dose of 7.5 Gy did not significantly alter the SBP or PRC during the follow-up period of 1 year. In a second experiment, the kidneys of young rats received an X-ray dose of 20 Gy. Subsequently, rats were kept on a standard diet (110 mmol sodium/kg) or a sodium-poor diet (10 mmol sodium/kg). On both diets, SBP started to rise rapidly 3 months after kidney irradiation. Sodium balance studies carried out at that time revealed an increased sodium retention in the irradiated rats compared to controls on the same diet. In rats on a low sodium intake, there was neither a delay nor an alleviation in the development of hypertension. Compared to controls, the PRC tended to be lower in irradiated rats up to 4 months after irradiation. Subsequently, malignant hypertension developed in all 20 Gy rats, resulting in pressure natriuresis, stimulating the renin-angiotensin system. Our findings indicated that hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation was not primarily the result of an activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Although there were some indications that sodium retention played a role, dietary sodium restriction did not influence the development of hypertension.

Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.

1987-09-01

3

DERMAL PENETRATION OF [14C] CAPTAN IN YOUNG AND ADULT RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Dermal penetration of [14C] Captan was determined in young (33 day old) and adult (82 day old) female Fischer 344 rats by an in vivo method and two in vitro methods. ermal penetration in vivo at 72 hours was about 9% of the dose in both young and adult rats. o significant differe...

4

Hearing loss in rats first exposed to toluene as weanlings or as young adults.  

PubMed

Male Fischer-344 rats were exposed by inhalation to 1200 ppm toluene (14 hr/day, 7 days/week for 5 weeks) beginning just after weaning or as young adults. During the fifth week of exposure, they were trained to perform a multisensory conditioned pole-climb avoidance response (CAR) task using a 4-kHz tone, a change in the intensity of the test chamber light, or a nonaversive current on the grill floor as the stimuli. When tested the week after the exposures ended, both groups of toluene-exposed rats were deficient in their performance of the CAR to a 20-kHz tone. This effect was significantly greater for the rats exposed beginning just after weaning than it was for the young adult rats. Subsequent behavioral and electrophysiologic audiometry confirmed the presence of a toluene-induced high-frequency hearing loss in both groups of rats with the more severe deficits occurring in the younger rats. Preliminary morphologic examinations revealed loss of, and/or damage to, hair cells in the basal turn of the cochlea of the younger toluene-exposed rats. These results confirm our earlier discovery that inhalation exposure to toluene causes hearing deficits in rats, and they indicate that young, prepubertal rats are more severely affected than older rats. PMID:6472555

Pryor, G T; Dickinson, J; Feeney, E; Rebert, C S

1984-01-01

5

Dose related effects of nicotine on oxidative injury in young, adult and old rats.  

PubMed

Nicotine affects a variety of cellular process ranging from induction of gene expression to secretion of hormones and modulation of enzymatic activities. The objective of the present study was to study the dose dependent toxicity of nicotine on the oxidative stress in young, adult and old rats which were administered 0.75, 3 and 6 mg kg(-1) nicotine as nicotine hydrogen tartarate intraperitoneally for a period of seven days. No changes were observed in blood catalase (CAT) activity and level of blood reactive oxygen species (ROS) in any of the age group at the lowest dose of nicotine. However, at the highest dose (6 mg kg(-1) nicotine) ROS level increased significantly from 1.17 to 1.41 microM ml(-1) in young rats and from 1.13 to 1.40 microM ml(-1) in old rats. However, no change was observed in blood ROS levels of adult rats. Administration of 3 mg kg(-1) nicotine resulted in an increase in level of reduced glutathione (GSH) in rats of all the age groups. The young animals were the most sensitive as a dose of 6 mg kg(-1) resulted in decline in the levels of reduced GSH to 0.89 mg ml(-1) as compared to normal control (1.03 mg ml(-1)). The antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT were sensitive to a dose of 6 mg kg(-1) as it resulted in decline of the enzymatic activity in all age group animals. Also, administration of nicotine at a lower dose of 3 mg kg(-1) inhibited SOD activity from 1.48 to 1.20 units min(-1) mg(-1) protein in old rats. Catalase activity showed a similar trend at a dose of 3 mg kg(-1). Administration of nicotine also increased the blood lipid peroxidation levels at all three doses in young and old rats dose dependently. Nicotine exposure also increased ROS in brain at the doses of 3 and 6 mg kg(-1) in all the three age groups. Brain GSH decreased significantly at high dose of nicotine (6 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) in adult rats (4.27 mg g(-1)) and old rats (3.68 mg g(-1)) but in young rats level increased to 4.40 mg g(-1) at the lower dose (0.75 mg kg nicotine). Brain lipid peroxidation increased at all three doses of nicotine in young as well as old rats as compared to their respective normal control. The SOD activity increased significantly in young (2.88 units min(-1) mg(-1) protein) and old rats (1.81 units min(-1) mg(-1) protein) as compared to their respective normal at a dose of 6 mg kg(-1). Interestingly, the SOD activity decreased in adult rats (2.18 units min(-1) mg(-1) protein) as compared to its normal control. Catalase activity decreased at the dose of 3 mg kg(-1) and 6 mg kg(-1) nicotine in young and old rats but no effect was observed in adult rats at any of the doses. Acetylcholine esterase (AchE) activity decreased in a dose dependent manner in adult and old rats. Overall, the results of the study indicate that young and old rats are more sensitive to nicotine induced oxidative stress as compared to the adult ones. PMID:23033686

Jain, Anshu; Flora, S J S

2012-03-01

6

The effect of ovariectomy on biomarkers of urogenital ageing in old versus young adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of ageing and ovariectomy on biomarkers of urogenital ageing in old and young-adult\\u000a rats. Fisher 344 rats (18- and 3-months-old, n?=?6???2) underwent ovariectomy. Age-matched sham animals received no intervention (n?=?6???2). One month later, biomarkers of urogenital ageing were evaluated (light microscopic count of urethral and anal canal\\u000a submucosal blood vessels,

Diaa E. E. Rizk; Mohamed A. Fahim; Hazem A. Hassan; Ahmed H. Al-Marzouqi; Gaber A. Ramadan; Soha S. Al-Kedrah; Layla S. Al-Ghafri

2007-01-01

7

Percutaneous absorption of triadimefon in the adult and young male and female rat  

SciTech Connect

The percutaneous absorption of /sup 14/C-phenoxy ring labeled triadimefon was studied in adult and young male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Triadimefon was applied (41.1 to 46.4 micrograms/cm2) in 0.2 ml of acetone to areas comprising 3% of the body surface (7.0 to 14.5 cm2). Thirty-six animals were treated at the initiation of each study. Groups of three animals were subsequently killed at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 hr after treatment. Skin from the treated area as well as blood, heart, liver, kidneys, remaining carcass, urine, and feces were analyzed for /sup 14/C by scintillation counting techniques. Based on /sup 14/C counts, triadimefon was lost more rapidly from the skin of young animals (t 1/2, 20 to 25 hr) than from the skin of adult animals (t 1/2, 29 to 53 hr). Recovery studies indicated that adult males, adult females, young males, and young females, respectively, absorbed 53, 82, 57, and 52% of the dose. The rest of the dose based on material balance was presumably lost by evaporation. Approximately 2.5 to 3.9% of the dose penetrated the skin in one hour and was available for absorption. The rate of entry triadimefon into blood was 2 to 2.5 times faster for young than that observed in adult animals. Elimination of it from blood was faster in the case of the young animals. Triadimefon was absorbed through the skins of the adult male, adult female, young male, and young female rats, respectively, at rates of 0.20, 0.50, 0.58, and 0.48 micrograms/hr/cm2 of skin.

Knaak, J.B.; Yee, K.; Ackerman, C.R.; Zweig, G.; Wilson, B.W.

1984-03-15

8

Micro-CT analysis of myocardial blood supply in young and adult rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study addresses whether the vasculature grows in proportion to the myocardium as the rat heart develops. The volume of myocardium and coronary vessels were estimated from micro-CT images of the hearts injected with Microfil(R) contrast agent. Young (n=5) and adult (n=5) hearts were scanned, resulting in 3D images comprised of 20?m on-a-side cubic voxels. The myocardial muscle and vessel lumen volumes were measured for all vessels 40 to 320?m in diameter by an erosion and dilation method applied to the binary images in which the contrast in the vessels were assigned "1" and all non-opacified entities were assigned "0". The average total muscle volume increases by 50%, 129.4 to 237.4mm3, from young to adult rats, while the luminal volume increases by 10%, 16.6 to 18.6mm3. The vessel volume is 12% of the total muscle volume in young and 8% in adults. For a given vessel volume, the muscle volume in the young is 82% of the muscle volume in adults. We conclude that as the heart matures, the myocardium grows more rapidly than the vasculature. This may result in greater angles of separation between vessel branches, and the increase in myocardial coronary volume. The ratio suggests either higher blood flow velocity or a lower metabolic rate in adults.

Schaefer, Heather M.; Beighley, Patricia E.; Eaker, Diane R.; Vercnocke, Andrew J.; Ritman, Erik L.

2009-02-01

9

Effect of simulated weightlessness on osteoprogenitor cell number and proliferation in young and adult rats.  

PubMed

Experiments with rats flown in space or hind limb unloaded (HU) indicate that bone loss in both conditions is associated with a decrease in bone volume and osteoblast surface in cancellous and cortical bone. We hypothesize that the decrease in osteoblastic bone formation and osteoblast surface is related to a decrease in the number of osteoprogenitors and/or decreased proliferation of their progeny. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating the effect of 14 days of HU on the number of osteoprogenitors (osteoblast colony forming units; CFU-O), fibroblastic colony forming units (CFU-F), and alkaline phosphatase-positive CFU (CFU-AP) in cell populations derived from the proximal femur (unloaded) and the proximal humerus (normally loaded) in 6-week-old and 6-month-old rats. To confirm the effect of unloading on bone volume and structure, static histomorphometric parameters were measured in the proximal tibial metaphysis. Effects of HU on proliferation of osteoprogenitors were evaluated by measuring the size of CFU-O. HU did not affect the total number of progenitors (CFU-F) in young or adult rats in any of the cell populations. In femoral populations of young rats, HU decreased CFU-O by 71.0% and mean colony size was reduced by 20%. HU decreased CFU-AP by 31.3%. As expected, no changes in CFU-O or CFU-AP were seen in cell populations from the humerus. In femoral cell populations of adult rats, HU decreased CFU-O and CFU-AP by 16.6% and 36.6%, respectively. Again, no effects were seen in cell populations from the humerus. In 6-week-old rats, there was a greater decrease in bone volume, osteoblast number, and osteoblast surface in the proximal tibial metaphysis than that observed in adult rats. Both trabecular thickness and trabecular number were decreased in young rats but remained unaffected in adults. Neither osteoclast number nor surface was affected by unloading. Our results show that the HU-induced decrease in the number of osteoprogenitors observed in vitro parallels the effects of HU on bone volume and osteoblast number in young and old rats in vivo, suggesting that the two may be interdependent. HU also reduced CFU-O colony size in femoral populations indicating a diminished proliferative capacity of osteoblastic colonies. PMID:15664015

Basso, N; Bellows, C G; Heersche, J N M

2005-01-01

10

Research report Differential effects of cholinergic lesions on dendritic spines in frontal cortex of young adult and aging rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we demonstrated that plasticity of frontal cortex is altered in aging rats: cholinergic lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) produce larger declines in dendritic morphology in frontal cortex of middle-aged and aged rats relative to young adults. To more closely examine the interactive effects of age and cholinergic deafferentation on synaptic connectivity in frontal cortex, we assessed the

Kelley M. Harmon; Cara L. Wellman

11

Reproductive toxicity of a single dose of 1,3-dinitrobenzene in two ages of young adult male rats  

EPA Science Inventory

These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB). Young adult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24,...

12

Young Adult Literature for Young Adult Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that young adult literature can play a significant role in the emotional and mental health of an adolescent as well as help young males become more literate. Offers a 19-item annotated list of young adult novels with male protagonists, sorted by themes: nature and adventure stories, sports stories, genre stories, historical stories, and…

Gill, Sam D.

1999-01-01

13

Combination Therapy for the Cardiovascular Effects of Perinatal Lead Exposure in Young and Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Combination therapy can play a significant role in the amelioration of several toxic effects of lead (Pb) and recovery from associated cardiovascular changes. Objective: To investigate the effects of combination therapy on the cardiovascular effects of perinatal lead exposure in young and adult rats Methods: Female Wistar rats received drinking water with or without 500 ppm of Pb during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-two- and 70-day-old rat offspring who were or were not exposed to Pb in the perinatal period received meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), L-arginine, or enalapril and a combination of these compounds for 30 additional days. Noradrenaline response curves were plotted for intact and denuded aortas from 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old rats stratified by perinatal Pb exposure (exposed/unexposed) and treatment received (treated/untreated). Results: Systolic blood pressure was evaluated and shown to be higher in the 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day age groups with Pb exposure than in the corresponding control age groups: 117.8 ± 3.9*, 135.2 ± 1.3*, 139.6 ± 1.6*, and 131.7 ± 2.8*, respectively and 107.1 ± 1.8, 118.8 ± 2.1, 126.1 ± 1.1, and 120.5 ± 2.2, respectively (p < 0.05). Increased reactivity to noradrenaline was observed in intact, but not denuded, aortas from 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old exposed rats, and the maximum responses (g of tension) in the respective Pb-exposed and control age groups were as follows: 3.43 ± 0.16*, 4.32 ± 0.18*, and 4.21 ± 0.23*, respectively and 2.38 ± 0.33, 3.37 ± 0.13, and 3.22 ± 0.21, respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusions: All treatments reversed the changes in vascular reactivity to noradrenaline in rats perinatally exposed to Pb. The combination therapy resulted in an earlier restoration of blood pressure in Pb-exposed rats compared with the monotherapies, except for enalapril therapy in young rats. These findings represent a new approach to the development of therapeutic protocols for the treatment of Pb-induced hypertension. PMID:25076181

Gaspar, Andreia Fresneda; Cordellini, Sandra

2014-01-01

14

Comparison of the penetration of 14 pesticides through the skin of young and adult rats.  

PubMed

In vivo percutaneous absorption of 14 pesticides was studied in young (33-d-old) and adult (82-d-old) female Fischer 344 rats, at three different dose levels. Carbon-14-labeled pesticides in acetone were applied to previously clipped middorsal skin. The treatment area was 2-3% of the body surface area. Penetration of the pesticides during a 72-h period ranged from approximately 1%-90%, depending on compound, dose, and age of animal. No clear age-related pattern of dermal absorption among compounds was found. Only chlordecone, folpet, and permethrin did not show significant age-dependent differences in skin penetration. Atrazine, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and hexachloro-biphenyl had greater absorption in the young, while carbofuran, captan, dinoseb, DSMA, MSMA nicotine, and parathion displayed greater absorption in the adult. The majority of the compounds showed dose-dependent penetration. The dose-response curves for penetration were not parallel for 8 of the 14 compounds studied. PMID:3586065

Shah, P V; Fisher, H L; Sumler, M R; Monroe, R J; Chernoff, N; Hall, L L

1987-01-01

15

Similarities between aberrant serotonergic fibers in the aged and 5,7DHT denervated young adult rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent morphological observations have suggested neurotransmitter specific degeneration of amongst others, the serotonergic system in the aged rat brain. However, morphological studies can only give a static picture of the events that take place over a period of several months. In the present study we used an experimental model in which degeneration of the serotonergic system in the young adult

M. G. P. A. Luijtelaar; H. W. M. Steinbusch; J. A. D. M. Tonnaer

1989-01-01

16

Brain apoptosis signaling pathways are regulated by methylphenidate treatment in young and adult rats.  

PubMed

Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed for children who have been diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, the action mechanisms of methylphenidate have not been fully elucidated. Studies have shown a relationship between apoptosis signaling pathways and psychiatric disorders, as well as in therapeutic targets for such disorders. So, we investigated if chronic treatment with MPH at doses of 1, 2 and 10mg/kg could alter the levels of pro-apoptotic protein, Bax, anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, caspase-3 and cytochrome c in the brain of young and adult Wistar rats. Our results showed that MPH at all doses increased Bax in the cortex; the Bcl-2 and caspase-3 were increased with MPH (1mg/kg) and were reduced with MPH (2 and 10mg/kg); the cytochrome c was reduced in the cortex after treatment with MPH at all doses; in the cerebellum there was an increase of Bax with MPH at all doses, however, there was a reduction of Bcl-2, caspase-3, and cytochrome c with MPH (2 and 10mg/kg); in the striatum the treatment with MPH (10mg/kg) decreased caspase-3 and cytochrome c; treatment with MPH (2 and 10mg/kg) increased Bax and decreased Bcl-2 in the hippocampus; and the caspase-3 and cytochrome c were reduced in the hippocampus with MPH (10mg/kg). In conclusion, our results suggest that MPH influences plasticity in the brain of young and adult rats; however, the effects were dependent of age and brain area, on the one hand activating the initial cascade of apoptosis, increasing Bax and reducing Bcl-2, but otherwise inhibiting apoptosis by reduction of caspase-3 and cytochrome c. PMID:25128604

Réus, Gislaine Z; Scaini, Giselli; Jeremias, Gabriela C; Furlanetto, Camila B; Morais, Meline O S; Mello-Santos, Lis Maira; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

2014-10-01

17

Effects of dimethylarsinic and dimethylarsinous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of young and adult rats  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the effects of pentavalent dimethylarsinic acid ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}AsO(OH); DMA{sup V}) and trivalent dimethylarsinous acid ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}As(OH); DMA{sup III}) on synaptic transmission generated by the excitatory Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse were tested in hippocampal slices of young (14-21 day-old) and adult (2-4 month-old) rats. Both compounds were applied in concentrations of 1 to 100 {mu}mol/l. DMA{sup V} had no effect on the amplitudes of evoked fEPSPs or the induction of LTP recorded from the CA1 dendritic region either in adult or in young rats. However, application of DMA{sup III} significantly reduced the amplitudes of evoked fEPSPs in a concentration-dependent manner with a total depression following application of 100 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} in adult and 10 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} in young rats. Moreover, DMA{sup III} significantly affected the LTP-induction. Application of 10 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} resulted in a complete failure of the postsynaptic potentiation of the fEPSP amplitudes in slices taken both from adult and young rats. The depressant effect was not reversible after a 30-min washout of the DMA{sup III}. In slices of young rats, the depressant effects of DMA{sup III} were more pronounced than in those taken from adult ones. Compared to the (absent) effect of DMA{sup V} on synaptic transmission, the trivalent compound possesses a considerably higher neurotoxic potential.

Krueger, Katharina [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)], E-mail: katharina.krueger@uni-muenster.de; Repges, Hendrik [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Hippler, Joerg; Hartmann, Louise M.; Hirner, Alfred V. [Institut fuer Umweltanalytik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 3-5, D-45141 Essen (Germany); Straub, Heidrun [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Binding, Norbert [Institut fuer Arbeitsmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 51, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Musshoff, Ulrich [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

2007-11-15

18

Differences in amygdala cell proliferation between adolescent and young adult rats.  

PubMed

Adolescence is characterized by changes in both behavior and neural organization. During this period, the amygdala, a structure that mediates social and emotional behaviors, is changing in terms of neural and glia density. We examined cell proliferation within the amygdala of adolescent (post natal day (PND) 31) and adult (PND 70) male Sprague-Dawley rats using BrdU (bromodeoxyuridine) to label dividing cells. BrdU-labeled cells were distributed throughout the amygdala, often found in fibers surrounding major nuclei. Using two independent cell counting strategies under light and confocal microcopy, respectively, we found significantly more labeled cells in the amygdala in adolescent compared to adult animals (239.3 ± 87.18 vs. 44.75 ± 13.68; n=4/group; p<.05). BrdU/doublecortin (DCX) positive cells constitute approximately 30% of all dividing cells in the amygdala in both adolescents and adults. These data suggest that compared to young adulthood, adolescence is a relatively active period of cell proliferation in the amygdala. Moreover, the normal decline in dividing cells with age does not preferentially affect cells co-containing DCX-immunoreactivity. PMID:23775606

Saul, Michele L; Helmreich, Dana L; Callahan, Linda M; Fudge, Julie L

2014-04-01

19

Adolescents and Young Adults  

Cancer.gov

Kent EE, Wilder Smith A, Keegan THM, Lynch CF, Kato I, Wu X, Schwartz S, Hamilton A. (in press). Social information needs of adolescent and young adults with cancer in the Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experiences (AYA-HOPE) Study. Jounral of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology.

20

An increased calcium sensitivity of mesenteric resistance vessels in young and adult spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed Central

1. We have measured the calcium sensitivity in response to noradrenaline stimulation and potassium depolarization of isolated segments of 100 to 200 micrometer mesenteric resistance vessels from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and control Wistar-Kyoto rats. The rats were either young (4 wk) or adult (4 months), that is of ages before or after the SHRs had developed elevated blood pressure. Experiments were performed under conditions in which the effect of noradrenaline uptake by, and the potassium-induced noradrenaline release from, the nerve terminals in the vessel walls was eliminated. 2. The response of the SHR and WKY vessels to noradrenaline under conditions where only the extracellular calcium appeared to have been removed was similar. When subsequently stimulated maximally by noradrenaline, the calcium-sensitivity of the SHR vessels (Ca-ED50 approximately or equal to 0.1 mM) was greater than that of the WKY vessels (Ca-ED50 approximately or equal to 0.2 mM). When depolarized by potassium, all vessels were less sensitive to calcium and there was little difference in the calcium sensitivity of SHR and WKY vessels in either age group (Ca-ED50 approximately or equal to 0.8 mM). 3. The results suggest that whereas the potassium (potential)-dependent calcium permeability of the SHR smooth muscle cell membrane is normal, the noradrenaline-induced calcium permeability is abnormally high. The presence of this abnormality in the vessels from the young SHRs suggests that it may be a factor involved in the aetiology of hypertension in the SHR. PMID:7470763

Mulvany, M. J.; Nyborg, N.

1980-01-01

21

America's Young Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Young Adult Figures America's Children at a Glance Forum Agencies List of Tables Data Source Descriptions Press ... of 2014 Reports Health and Safety Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics | Privacy Policy | Contact ...

22

Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Characterization of Spontaneously Occurring Uterine Deciduomas in Young Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

Uterine deciduomas were found in two female virgin rats, a 15-week-old Lewis rat and a 7-week-old Sprague-Dawley rat. The firm white nodules were located at the base of unilateral uterine horns and were approximately 6 mm and 4 mm in diameter. Histopathologically, the nodules were composed of three areas, each with a distinct type of proliferating cells: large epithelioid decidual cells with round nuclei, prominent nucleoli and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm (antimesometrial region); compact spindle-shaped cells with oval nuclei and vacuolar cytoplasm (transitional region); and pleomorphic and spiny cells with round to oval nuclei and compact eosinophilic cytoplasm (mesometrial region). These cells proliferated in sheet-like arrangements and transformed into the other types of cells located in surrounding regions. Immunohistochemically, proliferating cells in all regions were strongly positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The proliferating cells were positive for vimentin, and large decidual cells were positive for common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen 10, a marker of uterine interstitial cells. Large decidual cells were positive for ?-smooth muscle actin and desmin, suggesting differentiation into muscular cells. Progesterone receptor was expressed in all cell types; however, estrogen receptor ? was not expressed in the antimesometrial region. These extremely rare tumor-like nodules represent nonneoplastic lesions referred as decidual reactions of endometrial interstitial cells, and their biological behavior is that of a space-occupying benign tumor in young rats. Our cases might provide information as a historical control in toxicity and pharmacological studies in rats. PMID:23723570

Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Emoto, Yuko; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Kimura, Ayako; Uehara, Norihisa; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo

2013-01-01

23

Histopathological and immunohistochemical characterization of spontaneously occurring uterine deciduomas in young adult rats.  

PubMed

Uterine deciduomas were found in two female virgin rats, a 15-week-old Lewis rat and a 7-week-old Sprague-Dawley rat. The firm white nodules were located at the base of unilateral uterine horns and were approximately 6 mm and 4 mm in diameter. Histopathologically, the nodules were composed of three areas, each with a distinct type of proliferating cells: large epithelioid decidual cells with round nuclei, prominent nucleoli and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm (antimesometrial region); compact spindle-shaped cells with oval nuclei and vacuolar cytoplasm (transitional region); and pleomorphic and spiny cells with round to oval nuclei and compact eosinophilic cytoplasm (mesometrial region). These cells proliferated in sheet-like arrangements and transformed into the other types of cells located in surrounding regions. Immunohistochemically, proliferating cells in all regions were strongly positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The proliferating cells were positive for vimentin, and large decidual cells were positive for common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen 10, a marker of uterine interstitial cells. Large decidual cells were positive for ?-smooth muscle actin and desmin, suggesting differentiation into muscular cells. Progesterone receptor was expressed in all cell types; however, estrogen receptor ? was not expressed in the antimesometrial region. These extremely rare tumor-like nodules represent nonneoplastic lesions referred as decidual reactions of endometrial interstitial cells, and their biological behavior is that of a space-occupying benign tumor in young rats. Our cases might provide information as a historical control in toxicity and pharmacological studies in rats. PMID:23723570

Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Emoto, Yuko; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Kimura, Ayako; Uehara, Norihisa; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo

2013-03-01

24

Ketogenic Diet Prevents Alterations in Brain Metabolism in Young but not Adult Rats after Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Previous studies have shown that the change of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) in response to traumatic brain injury (TBI) is different in young (PND35) and adult rats (PND70), and that prolonged ketogenic diet treatment results in histological and behavioral neuroprotection only in younger rat brains. However, the mechanism(s) through which ketones act in the injured brain and the biochemical markers of their action remain unknown. Therefore, the current study was initiated to: 1) determine the effect of injury on the neurochemical profile in PND35 compared to PND70 rats; and 2) test the effect of early post-injury administration of ketogenic diet on brain metabolism in PND35 versus PND70 rats. The data show that alterations in energy metabolites, amino acid, and membrane metabolites were not evident in PND35 rats on standard diet until 24?h after injury, when the concentration of most metabolites was reduced from sham-injured values. In contrast, acute, but transient deficits in energy metabolism were measured at 6?h in PND70 rats, together with deficits in N-acetylaspartate that endured until 24?h. Administration of a ketogenic diet resulted in significant increases in plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate (?OHB) levels. Similarly, brain ?OHB levels were significantly elevated in all injured rats, but were elevated by 43% more in PND35 rats compared to PND70 rats. As a result, ATP, creatine, and phosphocreatine levels at 24?h after injury were significantly improved in the ketogenic PND35 rats, but not in the PND70 group. The improvement in energy metabolism in the PND35 brains was accompanied by the recovery of NAA and reduction of lactate levels, as well as amelioration of the deficits of other amino acids and membrane metabolites. These results indicate that the PND35 brains are more resistant to the injury, indicated by a delayed deficit in energy metabolism. Moreover, the younger brains revert to ketones metabolism more quickly than do the adult brains, resulting in better neurochemical and cerebral metabolic recovery after injury. PMID:21635175

Prins, Mayumi L.; Hovda, David A.; Harris, Neil G.

2011-01-01

25

Direct and acute cardiotoxicity of ultrafine particles in young adult and old rat hearts  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background\\u000a   Air pollution is associated with significant increases in cardiac morbidity and mortality in the general population. The elderly\\u000a cohort within the general population is considered at high risk for cardiac diseases. However the degree to which air pollutants\\u000a affect cardiac responses in old hearts vs. their young adult counterparts has not been systematically addressed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives\\u000a   We sought to

Boris Z. Simkhovich; Paul Marjoram; Michael T. Kleinman; Robert A. Kloner

2007-01-01

26

Young Adults' Choices for 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides brief annotations of the 1999 Young Adults Choices List for 1999: 30 trade books for young adults published in 1997 that were chosen by secondary school students in 5 different regions in the United States as their favorites. (SR)

Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 1999

1999-01-01

27

Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Cancers In Young People Diagnosis ... Dictionary Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: Cancers Affecting Young ...

28

Fostering itself increases nicotine self-administration in young adult male rats  

PubMed Central

Rationale In gestational exposure studies, a fostered group is frequently used to control for drug-induced maternal effects. However, fostering itself has varying effects depending on the parameters under investigation Objectives This study was designed to assess whether maternal behavior contributed to enhanced acquisition (higher number of bar presses compared to controls) of nicotine self-administration (SA) displayed by offspring with gestational nicotine and ethanol (Nic+EtOH) exposure. Methods Offspring were exposed to Nic+EtOH throughout full gestation, that is, gestational days (GD) GD2-20 and during postnatal days 2-12 (PN2-12), the rodent third trimester-equivalent of human gestation during which rapid brain growth and synaptogenesis occur. Young adult (PN60) male offspring acquired operant nicotine SA, using a model of unlimited (i.e., 23h) access to nicotine. Results Gestational drug treatments did not alter litter parameters (body weight, volume distribution, crown-rump length, and brain weight) or postnatal growth of the offspring. Fostering increased locomotor activity to a novel environment on PN45 regardless of gestational treatment group. Surprisingly, fostering per se significantly increased the SA behavior of drug-naïve pair-fed (PF) controls, so that their drug taking behavior resembled the enhanced nicotine SA observed in non-fostered offspring exposed to Nic+EtOH during gestation. In contrast, fostering did not change the SA behavior of the Nic+EtOH group. Conclusions Fostering is shown to be its own experimental variable, ultimately increasing the acquisition of nicotine SA in control, drug-naïve offspring. As such, the current dogma that fostering is required for our gestationally drug-exposed offspring is contraindicated. PMID:23681157

Roguski, Emily E.; Chen, Hao; Sharp, Burt M.; Matta, Shannon G.

2013-01-01

29

Alterations in monoamines level in discrete brain regions and other peripheral tissues in young and adult male rats during experimental hyperthyroidism.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of experimentally-induced hyperthyroidism on dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) levels in different brain regions as well as in blood plasma, cardiac muscle and adrenal gland of young and adult male albino rats (60 rats of each age). Hyperthyroidism was induced by daily s.c. injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 500 ?g/kg body wt.) for 21 consecutive days. Induction of hyperthyroidism caused a significant elevation in DA and 5-HT levels in most of the tissues studied of both young and adult animals after 7, 14, and 21 days. NE content significantly decreased after 21 days in most of the brain regions examined and after 14 and 21 days in blood plasma of young rats following hyperthyroidism. In adult rats, NE content decreased after 14 and 21 days in cardiac muscle and after 21 days only in adrenal gland. It may be suggested that the changes in monoamines level induced by hyperthyroidism may be due to disturbance in the synthesis, turnover and release of these amines through the neurons impairment or may attributed to an alteration pattern of their synthesis and/or degradative enzymes or changes in the sensitivity of their receptors. PMID:23501473

Hassan, Wafaa A; Rahman, Taghride Abdel; Aly, Mona S; Shahat, Asmaa S

2013-08-01

30

Impact of experimental hypothyroidism on monoamines level in discrete brain regions and other peripheral tissues of young and adult male rats.  

PubMed

The levels of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) in different brain regions as well as in blood plasma, cardiac muscle and adrenal gland of young and adult male albino rats were measured following experimentally induced hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism induced by daily oral administration of propylthiouracil (PTU, 5mg/kg body wt) caused a significant reduction in DA levels in most of the tissues examined of both young and adult rats after 21 and 28 days, in NE levels after all the time intervals studied in young rats, and after 21 and 28 days in adult rats. 5-HT exhibited a significant reduction in the selected brain regions and blood plasma after 21 and 28 days and in cardiac muscle after all the time intervals in the two age groups of animals. It may be suggested that the changes in monoamine levels induced by hypothyroidism may be due to disturbance in the synthesis and release of these amines through the neurons impairment or may be due to an alteration pattern of their synthesizing and/or degradative enzymes. PMID:23411049

Hassan, Wafaa A; Aly, Mona S; Rahman, Taghride Abdel; Shahat, Asmaa S

2013-06-01

31

REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF A SINGLE DOSE OF 1,3-DINITROBENZENE IN TWO AGES OF YOUNG ADULT MALE RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-Dinitrobenzene (M-DNB). oung adult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24, ...

32

Effects of Training on a Spatial Memory Task on High Affinity Choline Uptake in Hippocampus and Cortex in Young Adult and Aged Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation of forebrain cholinergic function to learning and memory was explored by identification and characterization of a training-induced change in high-affinity choline uptake (HACU), an index of cholinergic activity. Young adult rats were trained to find an invisible escape platform in a water tank using environmental cues. After 4 d of this place-train- ing (16 trials), hippocampal HACU was

Michael W. Decker; Mary Ann Pelleymounter; Michela GallagheP

1988-01-01

33

Children's and Young Adult Librarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yolith Omnibus Bill passed during he WHLIS in July 1991, includes oprovisions for six separate grants for children's, school, and young adult services in libraries. Funding cuts have made developing alternate sources of revenue vital for the survival of existing librarv services and the develooment of new ones. Are children's and young adult librarians trained in writing grant proposals?

Patricia J. Davis

1994-01-01

34

Serum biomarkers in young adult and aged Brown Norway (BN) rats following episodic (weekly) ozone exposure  

EPA Science Inventory

Ozone (03) is an air pollutant that is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Older adults are considered to be particularly susceptible to oxidant air pollutants such as 03. Serum biomarkers are being sought that would lead to better predictions of susceptibili...

35

Household Arrangements of Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter examines the living arrangements of young adults in Latin America in the mid-1970s. Young adulthood is a time\\u000a of life when many end an educational career, begin full-time employment, and start a family of their own. Most young adults\\u000a marry, whether formally or not, and become parents (even in societies with high rates of never-married individuals). Some\\u000a engage

Susan M. Vos

36

Bone formation in vitro by stromal cells obtained from bone marrow of young adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells from fetal or neonatal skeleton can synthesize bone-like tissue in vitro. In contrast, formation of bone-like tissue in vitro by cells derived from adult animals has rarely been reported and has not been achieved using cells from bone marrow. We have explored development of bone-like tissue in vitro by bone marrow stromal cells. Marrow stromal cells obtained from 40–43-day-old

C. Maniatopoulos; J. Sodek; A. H. Melcher

1988-01-01

37

Biochemical modifications and neuronal damage in brain of young and adult rats after long-term exposure to mobile phone radiations.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of exposure to mobile phone radiations on oxidative stress and apoptosis in brain of rats. Rats were allocated into six groups (three young and three adult). Groups 1 and 4 were not subjected to the radiation source and served as control groups. In groups 2 and 5, the mobile phones were only connected to the global system for mobile communication, while in groups 3 and 6, the option of calling was in use. Microwaves were generated by a mobile test phone (SAR = 1.13 W/kg) during 60 days (2 h/day). Significant increments in conjugated dienes, protein carbonyls, total oxidant status, and oxidative stress index along with a significant reduction of total antioxidant capacity levels were evident after exposure. Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase-3 activity, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha level were enhanced, whereas no DNA fragmentation was detected. The relative brain weight of young rats was greatly affected, and histopathological examination reinforced the neuronal damage. The study highlights the detrimental effects of mobile phone radiations on brain during young and adult ages. The interaction of these radiations with brain is via dissipating its antioxidant status and/or triggering apoptotic cell death. PMID:24801773

Motawi, Tarek K; Darwish, Hebatallah A; Moustafa, Yasser M; Labib, Mohammed M

2014-11-01

38

Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force Determination: A Demonstration Quantifying Locomotor Abilities of Young Adult, Middle-aged, and Geriatric Rats  

PubMed Central

Behavior, in its broadest definition, can be defined as the motor manifestation of physiologic processes. As such, all behaviors manifest through the motor system. In the fields of neuroscience and orthopedics, locomotion is a commonly evaluated behavior for a variety of disease models. For example, locomotor recovery after traumatic injury to the nervous system is one of the most commonly evaluated behaviors 1-3. Though locomotion can be evaluated using a variety of endpoint measurements (e.g. time taken to complete a locomotor task, etc), semiquantitative kinematic measures (e.g. ordinal rating scales (e.g. Basso Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor (BBB) rating scale, etc)) and surrogate measures of behaviour (e.g. muscle force, nerve conduction velocity, etc), only kinetics (force measurements) and kinematics (measurements of body segments in space) provide a detailed description of the strategy by which an animal is able to locomote 1. Though not new, kinematic and kinetic measurements of locomoting rodents is now more readily accessible due to the availability of commercially available equipment designed for this purpose. Importantly, however, experimenters need to be very familiar with theory of biomechanical analyses and understand the benefits and limitations of these forms of analyses prior to embarking on what will become a relatively labor-intensive study. The present paper aims to describe a method for collecting kinematic and ground reaction force data using commercially available equipment. Details of equipment and apparatus set-up, pre-training of animals, inclusion and exclusion criteria of acceptable runs, and methods for collecting the data are described. We illustrate the utility of this behavioral analysis technique by describing the kinematics and kinetics of strain-matched young adult, middle-aged, and geriatric rats. PMID:21403621

Webb, Aubrey A.; Kerr, Brendan; Neville, Tanya; Ngan, Sybil; Assem, Hisham

2011-01-01

39

Sexually dimorphic c-Fos expression following spatial working memory in young and adult rats.  

PubMed

The sex differences in the functional contribution of brain substrates were explored following acquisition of a spatial working memory task using quantification of c-Fos protein. Rats of both sexes were trained during adolescence and adulthood in Morris water maze using a hidden escape platform with different daily location. Two control groups for each sex and age were added to explore the c-Fos activation not specific to the memory process. These were a free-swimming group (yoked control) and a handled control (CO) group. Behaviorally, no age differences were found in number of days required by males to acquire the task, but females showed a delay in acquisition during adolescence (P30) that improved in adulthood (P90). Both sexes showed a learning-related increase in Fos immunoreactivity in the anterodorsal and anteroventral thalamus and medial and lateral mammillary nuclei during adolescence. Higher levels of learning-related Fos immunoreactivity were found in the infralimbic cortex, CA3 and CA1 only in females. During adulthood the common activated region was the prelimbic cortex with the addition of the infralimbic cortex in the male group and the lateral mammillary nucleus in the female group. These results indicated sex and age differences in brain functioning following working memory task. However, they could not be necessarily linked with differences in performance since similar results were found between males and females during adulthood. The activation of common and interrelated structures suggests that these structures are involved in spatial processing but it also highlights the relevance of developmental changes for understanding the memory process. PMID:19545582

Méndez-López, Magdalena; Méndez, Marta; López, Laudino; Arias, Jorge L

2009-09-01

40

Young Adults, Mortality, and Employment  

PubMed Central

Objective This study assessed the relationship between employment status and mortality over a two-year period among a nationally representative sample of young adults aged 18–24 years (n=121,478, representing over 21 million US young adults). Methods Using data from the 1986–2000 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and its public-use mortality follow-up through 2002, mortality after two- year follow-up (for each individual) was regressed on employment status at baseline, controlling for gender, race, education, season, and survey design. Results Having been employed was associated with significantly lower risks of all-cause, homicide, and “other-cause” mortality (adjusted odds ratios range:0.51–0.60). Conclusion Working appears to be a factor that may prevent premature mortality among young adults; increasing unemployment may result in increased mortality risks among young adults in the future. PMID:20431416

Davila, EP; Christ, SL; Caban Martinez, A; Lee, DJ; Arheart, KA; LeBlanc, WG; McCollister, KE; Clarke, T; Zimmerman, FJ; Goodman, E; Muntaner, C; Fleming, LE

2014-01-01

41

Collaborative Writing for Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a dialogue between the authors on what it is like to collaborate in writing young adult fiction. Discusses their writing processes, how they come up with ideas for their books, and how they get the books published. (RS)

Hadley, Lee; Irwin, Annabelle

1992-01-01

42

Young Adults' Choices for 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents annotations of 30 works of adolescent literature (published in 1999) chosen as the result of voting by students in five different regions of the United States. Notes that the goals of the project are to encourage young people to read and to make teens, teachers, librarians, and parents aware of new literature for young adults. (SG)

Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 2001

2001-01-01

43

Gender-dependent behavioural impairment and brain metabolites in young adult rats after short term exposure to lead acetate.  

PubMed

We investigated the behavioural effects of short-term lead (Pb) exposure in adult rats producing blood Pb concentration (<10 ?g/dL) below those associated with neurological impairment in occupationally exposed individuals. In order to assess gender differences, we performed parallel behavioural experiments in male and female rats. Exposure to Pb acetate (50 mg/L in drinking water) for 30-45 days induced behavioural alterations consisting in hyperactivity in a novel environment and impairment of spatial memory. These effects were observed only in male rats. Object recognition, motor coordination were unaffected by Pb exposure. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy allows in vivo assessment of main brain metabolites (glutamate/glutamine, creatine, myoinositol, N-acetylaspartate and choline) whose changes have been demonstrated in several central nervous system pathologies. Exposure to Pb did not affect metabolite profile in the striatum and increase myoinositol signal in the hippocampus of male rats. The increase in myoinositol in hippocampus suggests early Pb-induced alteration in glial metabolism in this brain region and may represent a potential marker of early brain dysfunction during Pb exposure. PMID:22285975

Mansouri, M T; Naghizadeh, B; López-Larrubia, P; Cauli, O

2012-04-01

44

Peripheral immune challenge with viral mimic during early postnatal period robustly enhances anxiety-like behavior in young adult rats.  

PubMed

Inflammatory factors associated with immune challenge during early brain development are now firmly implicated in the etiologies of schizophrenia, autism and mood disorders later in life. In rodent models, maternal injections of inflammagens have been used to induce behavioral, anatomical and biochemical changes in offspring that are congruent with those found in human diseases. Here, we studied whether inflammatory challenge during the early postnatal period can also elicit behavioral alterations in adults. At postnatal day 14, rats were intraperitoneally injected with a viral mimic, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PIC). Two months later, these rats displayed remarkably robust and consistent anxiety-like behaviors as evaluated by the open field/defensive-withdrawal test. These results demonstrate that the window of vulnerability to inflammatory challenge in rodents extends into the postnatal period and offers a means to study the early sequelae of events surrounding immune challenge to the developing brain. PMID:21643765

Konat, Gregory W; Lally, Brent E; Toth, Anastasia A; Salm, Adrienne K

2011-09-01

45

TRICARE Young Adult. Final rule.  

PubMed

This final rule implements Section 702 of the Ike Skelton National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult (TYA) program to provide an extended TRICARE Program coverage opportunity to most unmarried children under the age of 26 of uniformed services sponsors. The TYA program is a premium-based program. PMID:23724426

2013-05-29

46

Young Adults' Choices for 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents annotations of 30 trade books on the 2008 list of Young Adults' Choices that are the result of voting by students in five different regions of the United States. Trade books (books other than textbooks) published in 2006 were submitted by more than 50 publishers. Each book had to have at least two positive reviews from…

Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 2008

2008-01-01

47

Young Adults' Choices for 1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the 1992 "Young Adults' Choices," an annual list of favorite books chosen in voting by students in middle schools and junior and senior high schools in the United States. Offers brief descriptions of the 30 books on the list (published since 1990), and supplies bibliographic data for each title. (SR)

Journal of Reading, 1992

1992-01-01

48

Young Adults' Choices for 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents annotations of 30 trade books on this year's list of Young Adults' choices that are the results of voting by students in five different regions of the United States. Notes that the books selected were published in 2001 and each book had to have at least two positive reviews from recognized sources. (SG)

Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 2003

2003-01-01

49

Young adult suicide and exposure to television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young adult suicide rates tripled following the introduction of television into the United States and Canada. To assess whether exposure to television is a risk factor for young adult suicide (ages 15–24), suicide trends were compared between the U. S., Canada, and South Africa, 1949–1985. Major increases in young adult suicide rates occurred in all three countries, even though there

B. S. Centerwall

1990-01-01

50

Raising "Hot Topics" through Young Adult Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While young adult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read young adult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching young adult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their…

Groenke, Susan; Maples, Joellen; Henderson, Jill

2010-01-01

51

for adolescents and young adults with cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is mounting national and international evidence to support targeted improvements in cancer care services for adolescents and for young adults; an age group defined in Australia as those between 15 and 25 years. Both paediatric and adult oncology and haematology services currently provide cancer care for adolescents and young adults. There are many unmet needs under the current service

Susan Hanson; Liam Hunt; Barbara Merz

52

Memory deficit and reduced anxiety in young adult rats given repeated intermittent MDMA treatment during the periadolescent period  

Microsoft Academic Search

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, or “Ecstasy”) is a popular recreational drug among adolescents that is often taken primarily on weekends. The goals of this study were to develop a model of the typical intermittent pattern of human MDMA use in periadolescent rats and to determine the behavioral consequences of MDMA exposure in this model. Male Sprague–Dawley rats received s.c. injections of 10

Brian J. Piper; Jerrold S. Meyer

2004-01-01

53

Reading Their World: The Young Adult Novel in the Classroom. Second Edition. Young Adult Literature Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book was born of a desire to provide students, teachers, and all interested readers with a collection of essays that address issues of selection, pedagogy, and worth of the young adult novel. A primary purpose of the book is to enter the world of young adult readers through a literary form they know well, the modern young adult novel. Another…

Monseau, Virginia R., Ed.; Salvner, Gary M., Ed.

54

Young Adult Literature in the High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses three ways that high school English teachers can use young adult books: as books for whole-class study, as read-alouds, and as "classroom library" books to recommend to students for independent reading. Presents criteria for selecting novels for classroom study and for reading aloud. Mentions 53 young adult novels to consider for these…

Wilder, Ann, Ed.; Teasley, Alan B., Ed.

1998-01-01

55

Trends in Earnings Inequality among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial stage of labor market activity for young adults influences their labor market engagement and earnings profiles over their life cycle. I examine earnings inequality among young adults in a dynamic setting. Education, marital status, race are contributors to the observed earnings inequality. Earnings equalization is observed in the long run, and the proportion of earnings inequality attributed to

Sourushe Zandvakili

2002-01-01

56

Perceptions of Custodial Grandparents Among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study's purpose was to investigate young adults' perceptions of grandparents who are raising their grandchildren. Over 1,200 young adult volunteers (M age = 21) read a randomly assigned scenario describing a grandparent raising a grandchild. Scenarios varied in terms of grandchild gender, grandparent ethnicity, the presence\\/absence of grandchild problems, and the reason for the assumption of the grandparent caregiving

Bert Hayslip JR; Rebecca J. Glover; Bric E. Harris; Paula B. Miltenberger; Annabel Baird; Patricia L. Kaminski

2009-01-01

57

Do young children have adult syntactic competence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many developmental psycholinguists assume that young children have adult syntactic competence, this assumption being operationalized in the use of adult-like grammars to describe young children's language. This ''continuity assumption'' has never had strong empirical support, but recently a number of new findings have emerged - both from systematic analyses of children's spontaneous speech and from controlled experiments - that contradict

58

Do young children have adult syntactic competence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many developmental psycholinguists assume that young children have adult syntactic competence, this assumption being operationalized in the use of adult-like grammars to describe young children's language. This “continuity assumption” has never had strong empirical support, but recently a number of new findings have emerged - both from systematic analyses of children's spontaneous speech and from controlled experiments - that contradict

Michael Tomasello

2000-01-01

59

Multicultural Literature for Children and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the selection of multicultural literature for children and young adults, educators and researchers focus on two main controversial issues--authority and authenticity--that the authors portray in their writing. What type of author can accurately portray realistic pictures of minority cultures in multicultural literature for young adults? Must it…

Bista, Krishna

2012-01-01

60

MARRIAGE AND MENTAL HEALTH AMONG YOUNG ADULTS  

PubMed Central

Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this relationship may vary across the life course. Early marriage—which is non-normative—could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 11,743), I find that married young adults exhibit similar levels of psychological distress as young adults who are in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults report lower rates of drunkenness than others. Married young adults—especially those who first married at age 22–26—report higher life satisfaction than those in other types of relationships or no relationship at all, as well as those who married at younger ages. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed. PMID:22328171

Uecker, Jeremy E.

2012-01-01

61

Toluene effects on Oxidative Stress in Brain regions of Young-adult, Middleage,and Senescent Brown Norway Rats  

EPA Science Inventory

The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress plays a role in the adver...

62

Toluene effects on oxidative stress in brain regions of young-adult, middle-age, and senescent Brown Norway rats  

SciTech Connect

The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound, toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in the adverse effects caused by toluene exposure, and if so, if effects are age-dependent. OS parameters were selected to measure the production of reactive oxygen species (NADPH Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), NADH Ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD)), antioxidant homeostasis (total antioxidant substances (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase ({gamma}-GCS), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD)), and oxidative damage (total aconitase and protein carbonyls). In this study, Brown Norway rats (4, 12, and 24 months) were dosed orally with toluene (0, 0.65 or 1 g/kg) in corn oil. Four hours later, frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus were dissected, quick frozen on dry ice, and stored at - 80 Degree-Sign C until analysis. Some parameters of OS were found to increase with age in select brain regions. Toluene exposure also resulted in increased OS in select brain regions. For example, an increase in NQO1 activity was seen in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 4 and 12 month old rats following toluene exposure, but only in the hippocampus of 24 month old rats. Similarly, age and toluene effects on glutathione enzymes were varied and brain-region specific. Markers of oxidative damage reflected changes in oxidative stress. Total aconitase activity was increased by toluene in frontal cortex and cerebellum at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Protein carbonyls in both brain regions and in all age groups were increased by toluene, but step-down analyses indicated toluene effects were statistically significant only in 12 month old rats. These results indicate changes in OS parameters with age and toluene exposure resulted in oxidative damage in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 12 month old rats. Although increases in oxidative damage are associated with increases in horizontal motor activity in older rats, further research is warranted to determine if these changes in OS parameters are related to neurobehavioral and neurophysiological effects of toluene in animal models of aging.

Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S., E-mail: kodavanti.prasada@epa.gov [Neurotoxicology Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Royland, Joyce E. [Genetic and Cellular Toxicology Branch, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)] [Genetic and Cellular Toxicology Branch, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Richards, Judy E. [Research Core Unit, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)] [Research Core Unit, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Besas, Jonathan; MacPhail, Robert C. [Neurotoxicology Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)] [Neurotoxicology Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

2011-11-15

63

Effects of amphetamine exposure in adolescence or young adulthood on inhibitory control in adult male and female rats.  

PubMed

Heightened impulsivity is a feature of some psychiatric disorders, including addiction, that also have sex-specific patterns of expression. The relationship between addiction and impulsivity may be driven by drug-induced changes in behavior caused by long term adaptations in signaling within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Here, we used a response inhibition task that is sensitive to changes in mPFC function to examine the effects of sex and exposure to amphetamine (AMPH) on impulsive action and vigilance. We also examined drug-induced alterations in glutamatergic and dopaminergic signaling through challenge injections with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine) and AMPH. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were injected (i.p.) with saline or 3 mg/kg AMPH every other day during adolescence (postnatal day (P) 27-45) or adulthood (P85-103). Starting on P125-135, rats were tested for their ability to lever press for a food reward during periods of signaled availability and withhold responding during a "premature response" phase. In experiment 1, rats received challenge injections (i.p.) of MK-801 and AMPH followed by tests of task performance and locomotor activity. In experiment 2, rats received intra-mPFC infusion of MK-801. We found that females had better inhibitory control and poorer vigilance than males and that AMPH exposure had both sex- and age-of-exposure dependent effects on impulsivity. Systemic drug challenges disrupted task performance, particularly in females, and increased impulsivity while intra-mPFC infusions had modest effects. AMPH exposure did not affect responses to drug challenges. Together, these results suggest that sex mediates both trait and drug-induced impulsivity. PMID:24462963

Hammerslag, Lindsey R; Waldman, Alex J; Gulley, Joshua M

2014-04-15

64

From Insider to Outsider: The Evolution of Young Adult Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses changes in the field of young adult literature since the 1980s. Examines how the definition of "young adult" has evolved. Offers a brief overview of the history of young adult literature from the 1940s. Considers the rise of awards for merit in young adult publishing, noting three in particular. Concludes this is a golden age of young…

Cart, Michael

2001-01-01

65

Decrease of serum triglyceride in normal rat fed with 2000 ppm aluminum diet for 67 days. II. Feeding young and adult rats a sucrose diet with addition of aluminum hydroxide and aluminum potassium sulfate.  

PubMed

To confirm the hypotriglyceridemic effect of aluminum (Al), male weanling and adult Wistar rats were fed sucrose diets with the addition of aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3) or aluminum potassium sulfate (AlK(SO4)2) for 67 days. As in the foregoing report (C. Sugawara, N. Sugawara, H. Kiyosawa, and H. Miyake, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 10, 607-615), no Al-induced anemia or hypophosphatemia was observed and serum Al did not exceed 20 ng/ml. Serum triglyceride (TG) was decreased by aluminum. Serum TG was significantly correlated with the serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration in both the Young groups (R = 0.757, n = 22, p less than 0.01) and the Adult groups (R = 0.727, n = 19, p less than 0.01). Neither serum cholesterol nor phospholipids was affected by Al ingestion. Aluminum caused a decrease in hepatic glycogen in all groups, but the decrease was significant only in Adult groups. Glycerol tri[9,10(n)-3H]oleate was administered by gastric tube into rats fed for 81 days with experimental diets. In all the Al-treated groups serum 3H was significantly greater than in control groups at 3 hr after intubation. At 24 hr after intubation, serum 3H did not differ between Control and Al-treated groups. Total 3H at 24 hr found in serum, liver, and epididymal adipose tissue was not changed significantly by Al feeding. These effects were observed without measurable increase of Al in the serum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3396789

Sugawara, C; Sugawara, N; Kiyosawa, H; Miyake, H

1988-05-01

66

Young and Older Adults’ Reading of Distracters  

E-print Network

Eye-tracking technology was employed to examine young and older adults' performance in the reading with distraction paradigm. Distracters of 1, 2, and 4 words that formed meaningful phrases were used. There were marked age ...

Kemper, Susan; McDowd, Joan; Metcalf, Kim; Liu, Chiung-Ju

2008-05-01

67

Meeting the needs of young adults.  

PubMed

As they mature and become sexually active, more young people face serious health risks. Most face these risks with too little factual information, too little guidance about sexual responsibility, and too little access to health care. Meeting young adults' diverse needs challenges parents, communities, health care providers, and educators. Despite urgent needs, program efforts have been slight and slowed by controversy. PMID:8654883

McCauley, A P; Salter, C; Kiragu, K; Senderowitz, J

1995-10-01

68

Nutrition support programs for young adult athletes.  

PubMed

After graduating from college and entering the work force, young adult athletes often struggle with the task of fueling themselves optimally for top performance and weight control. The stresses and time constraints of work, family, and social responsibilities often result in eating fast foods on the run. These young adults can benefit from nutrition education programs in the worksite, at health clubs, in the community, and via the media. Dietitians who specialize in sport nutrition have particular appeal to these athletes, who are struggling to each well, exercise well, and stay lean yet put little time or effort into their food program. This article includes two case studies of young adults and the dietary recommendations that taught them how to make wise food choices, fuel themselves well for high energy, and control their weight. PMID:9841961

Clark, N

1998-12-01

69

Aplastic Anemia in Adolescents and Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Adolescent and young adult patient presentations of aplastic anemia require a particular perspective on both diagnosis and treatment. This unique age group necessitates a thorough diagnostic evaluation to ensure the etiology, acquired or inherited, is sufficiently determined. The treatment options include human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling hematopoietic cell transplantation or immunosuppressive therapy, and both require attention to the specific medical and social needs of these adolescents and young adults. Longitudinal surveillance throughout life for the development of late complications of the disease and treatment is mandatory. PMID:25228559

DeZern, Amy E.; Guinan, Eva C.

2014-01-01

70

Postural Sway during Dual Tasks in Young and Elderly Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies have shown that healthy young adults are able to decrease their standing postural sway when an additional postural visual task, such as reading, is performed. Objective: In this study, we investigated postural sway during dual tasks in young and elderly adults. Methods: Twelve healthy active elderly adults (aged 65–75 years) and 12 healthy young adults (aged 22–39

Janina M. Prado; Thomas A. Stoffregen; Marcos Duarte

2007-01-01

71

Stumbling over obstacles in older adults compared to young adults.  

PubMed

Falls are a major problem in older adults. Many falls occur because of stumbling. The aim of the present study is to investigate stumbling reactions of older adults and to compare them with young adults. While subjects walked on a treadmill, a rigid obstacle unexpectedly obstructed the forward sway of the foot. In general, older adults used the same movement strategies as young adults ("elevating" and "lowering"). The electromyographic responses were categorized according to latencies: short-latency (about 45 ms, RP1), medium-latency (about 80 ms, RP2), and long-latency responses (about 110 ms, RP3; about 160 ms, RP4). Latencies of RP1 responses increased by about 6 ms and of RP2 by 10-19 ms in older adults compared with the young. Amplitudes of RP1 were similar for both age groups, whereas amplitudes of RP2-RP4 could differ. In the early-swing elevating strategy (perturbed foot directly lifted over the obstacle) older adults showed smaller responses in ipsilateral upper-leg muscles (biceps femoris and rectus femoris). This was related to shorter swing durations, more shortened step distances, and more failures in clearing the obstacle. In parallel, RP4 activity in the contralateral biceps femoris was enhanced, possibly pointing to a higher demand for trunk stabilization. In the late-swing lowering strategy (foot placed on the treadmill before clearing the obstacle) older adults showed lower RP2-RP3 responses in most muscles measured. However, kinematic responses were similar to those of the young. It is concluded that the changes in muscular responses in older adults induce a greater risk of falling after tripping, especially in early swing. PMID:15615837

Schillings, A M; Mulder, Th; Duysens, J

2005-08-01

72

The effect of supplemental food on the growth rates of neonatal, young, and adult cotton rats ( Sigmodon hispidus) in northeastern Kansas, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In food-limited populations, the presence of extra food resources can influence the way individuals allocate energy to growth and reproduction. We experimentally increased food available to cotton rats ( Sigmodon hispidus) near the northern limit of their range over a 2-year period and tested the hypothesis that seasonal growth rates would be enhanced by supplemental food during winter and spring when natural food levels are low. We also examined whether additional food resources were allocated to somatic growth or reproductive effort by pregnant and lactating females. The effect of supplemental food on growth varied with mass and season, but did not influence the growth rates of most cotton rats during spring and winter. In winter, small animals on supplemented grids had higher growth rates than small animals on control grids, but females in spring had lower growth rates under supplemented conditions. Growth rates of supplemented cotton rats were enhanced in summer. Northern cotton rat populations may use season-specific foraging strategies, maximizing energy intake during the reproductive season and minimizing time spent foraging in winter. Adult females invest extra resources in reproduction rather than in somatic growth. Pregnant females receiving supplemental food had higher growth rates than control females, and dependent pups (? 1 month of age) born to supplemented mothers had higher growth rates than those born to control mothers. Increased body size seems to confer an advantage during the reproductive season, but has no concomitant advantage to overwinter survival.

Eifler, Maria A.; Slade, Norman A.; Doonan, Terry J.

2003-09-01

73

Sexual Prejudice Among Puerto Rican Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex

José A. Bauermeister; Mercedes Morales; Gretchen Seda; Milagritos González-Rivera

2007-01-01

74

Young Adult Literature and Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the body of high quality young adult literature (YAL) continues to grow, what role might these texts play in professional development for educators? This article describes ways in which schools can develop book study programs that use this literature to promote meaningful dialogue and understanding of contemporary adolescent issues. Based on…

Bach, Jacqueline; Choate, Laura Hensley; Parker, Bruce

2011-01-01

75

Applying lead user theory to young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify lead users within social networks of young adults between 14 and 17 years of age. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire and the SAGS-method were used to collect data within seven high schools in the north of The Netherlands. These data were used to empirically test five hypotheses using the variables which

N. Oosterloo; J. Kratzer; M. C. Achterkamp

2010-01-01

76

Coping with Death in Young Adult Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three examples of Young Adult novels in which death is addressed, including: Angela Johnson's "Toning the Sweep" (1993), Paula Fox's "The Eagle Kite" (1995), and Cynthia Rylant's "Missing May" (1992). Considers how these three novels portray adolescents anticipating death, facing death, and dealing with its aftermath. (SC)

Radley, Gail

1999-01-01

77

Marriage and Mental Health among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this apparent benefit may vary across the life course. Early marriage, which is nonnormative, could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 11,695),

Jeremy E. Uecker

2012-01-01

78

Suicide in children, adolescents and young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

As suicides of children, adolescents and young adults occur very seldom and only few case reports and more comprehensive studies are available in forensic literature, the autopsy records of the Bonn Institute of Forensic Medicine and the database of the Bonn police authorities from 1989 to 1998 were retrospectively analysed for this phenomenon. This search revealed 37 respective suicides involving

P Schmidt; R Müller; R Dettmeyer; B Madea

2002-01-01

79

Reducing Underage and Young Adult Drinking  

PubMed Central

Forty years ago, when the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded, alcoholism was considered an adult disease driven principally by physiological determinants. As NIAAA expanded its research portfolio, new data and insights were obtained that led to an increased focus on underage and young adult drinking. Fostered by interdisciplinary research, etiologic models were developed that recognized the multiplicity of relevant genetic and environmental influences. This shift in conceptualizing alcohol use disorders also was based on findings from large-scale, national studies indicating that late adolescence and early young adulthood were peak periods for the development of alcohol dependence and that early initiation of alcohol use (i.e., before age 15) was associated with a fourfold increase in the probability of subsequently developing alcohol dependence. In recent years, developmental studies and models of the initiation, escalation, and adverse consequences of underage and early young adult drinking have helped us to understand how alcohol use may influence, and be influenced by, developmental transitions or turning points. Major risk and protective factors are being identified and integrated into screening, prevention, and treatment programs to optimize interventions designed to reduce drinking problems among adolescents and young adults. In addition, regulatory policies, such as the minimum drinking age and zero-tolerance laws, are being implemented and evaluated for their impact on public health. PMID:23579934

Windle, Michael; Zucker, Robert A.

2010-01-01

80

Young Adult Literature 2.0  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Web 2.0 tools enable today's writers to connect with their audience in unprecedented ways. The advent of social networking and other Web 2.0 tools have changed the rules for how authors and book publishers market and communicate with their audience. Through tools like blogs, Twitter, MySpace, and Facebook, Young Adult (YA) lit authors can choose…

Hamilton, Buffy

2009-01-01

81

Young Adult Literature and Alternative Assessment Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principal purpose of assessment, regardless of teaching level, should be to guide instruction. Unlike evaluation, the goal of assessment is not to arrive at a grade for students. Rather, it is to inform the educator as to what needs to be addressed in the classroom. Assessment in a young adult literature (YAL) curriculum is no different. Its…

Comer, Melissa

2011-01-01

82

Sexual Experiences in Childhood: Young Adults' Recollections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood sexuality and children's sexual experiences have become increasingly important to study because our knowledge on the impact of sexually abusive experiences on children's developing sexuality has increased. The main aim of this paper was to study aspects of young adults' recollections of their sexual experiences before the age of 13, solitary and shared, mutual as well as coercive. Anonymous

IngBeth Larsson; Carl-Göran Svedin

2002-01-01

83

Literary Maps for Young Adult Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The activities presented in this handbook are designed to help students envision the locations and landmarks of sites along journeys described in popular young adult literature (e.g., "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,""Born Free,""The Call of the Wild,""Catcher in the Rye,""I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings,""The Island of the Blue…

Snodgrass, Mary Ellen

84

Suggested Interventions for Young Adults' Relationship Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professionals in the social psychology field concur that teenagers and young adults may not have the appropriate skills and ego strength to affirm healthy relationship decisions. This article reviews current research regarding partner selection from adolescence through early adulthood. It also provides appendices of interventions used in clinical…

Terneus, Sandra K.; Martin, H. Dan

2005-01-01

85

VAGINAL REPLACEMENT IN CHILDREN AND YOUNG ADULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeAbsence of the vagina in the pediatric population most commonly results from congenital abnormalities, such as the Mayer-Rokitansky syndrome but it may also be seen after treatment for pelvic tumors, such as rhabdomyosarcoma, and in patients who have had previous gender reassignment. We review our experience using bowel for vaginal replacement in a group of children and young adults to

TERRY W. HENSLE; ELIZABETH A. REILEY

1998-01-01

86

Recreation for Retarded Teenagers and Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for recreational leaders, classroom teachers, volunteers, and parents, the text presents guidelines for planning and conducting activities for mentally retarded youth and young adults. Consideration of understanding the maturing retardate and his social needs includes different kinds of beneficial social experiences, the maturing…

Carlson, Bernice Wells; Ginglend, David R.

87

Classic Readers Theatre for Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents 16 original scripts that have been adapted from classic works of literature for use for readers theatre with young adults and ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Adaptations of the following works are included: "Little Women" (Louisa May Alcott); episodes from "Don Quixote" (Miguel de Cervantes; "The Necklace" (Guy de…

Barchers, Suzanne I.; Kroll, Jennifer L.

88

Gingivitis in young adults with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans  

Microsoft Academic Search

High intraoral load of A. actinomycetemcomitans in subjects with no or minimal periodontal disease may induce subtle changes in clinical periodontal conditions. The aim of the present study was to compare, at a site level, clinical conditions in two groups of young adults with plaque-induced gingivitis. In one group, more than 20% subgingival sites harboured cultivable A. actinomycetemcomitans (n=9), whereas

H.-P. Müller; A. Heinecke; L. Zöller; A. Fuhrmann; T. Eger

2001-01-01

89

Young Adult Literature and Professional Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the body of high quality young adult literature (YAL) continues to grow, what role might these texts play in professional development for educators? This article describes ways in which schools can develop book study programs that use this literature to promote meaningful dialogue and understanding of contemporary adolescent issues. Based on their own work in this area, the authors

Jacqueline Bach; Laura Hensley Choate; Bruce Parker

2011-01-01

90

Young Adult Literature and the English Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates ways in which becoming a reader of young adult literature enriched the author's life by making her a better teacher, allowing more connections to students, increasing student involvement, broadening her view of literature in general, connecting her with a rich network of professionals, and putting her back in touch with a part of…

Mitchell, Diana

2001-01-01

91

Urban Adolescents Jump into Young Adult Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses five young adult novels, which the teacher had successfully shared with previous classes by reading aloud. Reviews the characters, plots and themes of all five books. Presents journal responses from the students about the novels. Discusses how students explored unknown worlds as they heard about other cultures. (SG)

Johnson, Vivian

2002-01-01

92

Young Adult Literature in the English Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses six recent books for educators that focus on young adult literature, and on responding to literature. Describes how adolescent literature can be the center of transdisciplinary, concept-based units in a middle school curriculum. Outlines use of reading response logs and learning journals. Lists recently published books by and about…

Galda, Lee; West, Jane

1998-01-01

93

Young Adult Literature: From Romance to Realism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's young adult (YA) literature is every bit as complex as the audience it's written for, unflinchingly addressing such topics as homosexuality, mental illness, AIDS and drug abuse. In this much expanded revision of his 1996 book, veteran author Michael Cart shows how the best of contemporary YA lit has evolved to tackle such daunting subjects…

Cart, Michael

2010-01-01

94

More Young Adults Insured Since Passage of Affordable Care Act  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. More Young Adults Insured Since Passage of Affordable Care Act: Study ... of 26, a new study finds. Although more young adults aged 19 to 25 had health insurance after ...

95

More Young Adults Getting Mental Health Care Under Obamacare  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. More Young Adults Getting Mental Health Care Under Obamacare: Study Increase was slight, but a ... be allowing more young adults to receive mental health care. Soon after the rule took hold, the number ...

96

Laughing with, or Laughing at the Young-Adult Romance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates characteristics of young adult romance novels, particularly their lack of humor. Discusses ways to use romance in the classroom. Provides a list of young adult novels that deal with romance, humor, and body image. (MM)

Daly, Brenda O.

1989-01-01

97

Mechanisms of L-Triiodothyronine-Induced Inhibition of Synaptosomal Na+-K+-ATPase Activity in Young Adult Rat Brain Cerebral Cortex  

PubMed Central

The role of thyroid hormones (TH) in the normal functioning of adult mammalian brain is unclear. Our studies have identified synaptosomal Na+-K+-ATPase as a TH-responsive physiological parameter in adult rat cerebral cortex. L-triiodothyronine (T3) and L-thyroxine (T4) both inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase activity (but not Mg2+-ATPase activity) in similar dose-dependent fashions, while other metabolites of TH were less effective. Although both T3 and the ?-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase activity in cerebrocortical synaptosomes in similar ways, the ?-adrenergic receptor blocker propranolol did not counteract the effect of T3. Instead, propranolol further inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that the effect of T3 on synaptosomal Na+-K+-ATPase activity was independent of ?-adrenergic receptor activation. The effect of T3 on synaptosomal Na+-K+-ATPase activity was inhibited by the ?2-adrenergic agonist clonidine and by glutamate. Notably, both clonidine and glutamate activate Gi-proteins of the membrane second messenger system, suggesting a potential mechanism for the inhibition of the effects of TH. In this paper, we provide support for a nongenomic mechanism of action of TH in a neuronal membrane-related energy-linked process for signal transduction in the adult condition. PMID:24307963

Sarkar, Pradip K.; Biswas, Avijit; Ray, Arun K.; Martin, Joseph V.

2013-01-01

98

Brief Report: Young Adult Women Resolving Interpersonal Conflicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the social cognitive development of young adults. Furthermore, existing studies of young adults tend to rely on college-age participants. A study of social cognition during interpersonal conflict was conducted with 100 young adult women (mean age = 25 years). The relationship of contextual variables to conflict-resolution strategy was examined. Strategy coding was done according to Selman's

Patricia Flynn Weitzman

2001-01-01

99

Value Preferences Predicting Narcissistic Personality Traits in Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed at showing how the value preferences of young adults could predict the narcissistic characteristics of young adults according to structural equation modeling. 133 female (59.6%) and 90 male (40.4%), total 223 young adults participated the study (average age: 25.66, ranging from 20 to 38). Ratio group sampling method was used while…

Gungor, Ibrahim Halil; Eksi, Halil; Aricak, Osman Tolga

2012-01-01

100

Young Adults Deserve the Best: YALSA's Competencies in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As high school enrollment continues to rise, the need for effective librarianship serving young adults is greater than ever before. "Young Adults Deserve the Best: Competencies for Librarians Serving Youth," developed by Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), is a document outlining areas of focus for providing quality library service…

Flowers, Sarah

2010-01-01

101

The Influence of Peers on Young Adult Substance Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data collected from 294 young adults, ages 19 to 25, and both a same- and an opposite-gender best friend or mate across 3 annual assessments were analyzed to examine the similarity to and influence of the peer on the young adult's substance use. The authors found similarity across time between both peers and the young adult in cigarette use, alcohol

Judy A. Andrews; Elizabeth Tildesley; Hyman Hops; Fuzhong Li

2002-01-01

102

Financial Literacy of Young Adults: The Importance of Parental Socialization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of young adults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence young adults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which young adults' financial attitudes mediated financial…

Jorgensen, Bryce L.; Savla, Jyoti

2010-01-01

103

Adolescent and young adult colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Although the overall incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) is low, it has seen an increase over the past 2 to 3 decades, which contrasts with the trend of decreased incidence in the older population. This phenomenon is conceivably caused by a lack of routine CRC screening in the young population and lifestyle issues, including the obesity epidemic and dietary factors. Hereditary genetic syndromes (eg, familial adenomatous polyposis and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome) and known predisposing medical conditions (eg, inflammatory bowel disease) account for only a minority of CRC cases in AYA. Younger patients with CRC commonly present with more advanced disease at diagnosis and exhibit specific molecular and clinical characteristics associated with a distinct biologic phenotype of CRC compared with older individuals. Matched for stage, however, the prognosis of patients with young-onset CRC is similar to or better than that for older patients. A surprising paucity of data exists on outcomes associated with modern systemic cytotoxic and biologic therapy specifically in young patients with CRC. The toxicity pattern of these treatments, however, differs between young and older patients, partly because of the lower rate of pertinent comorbidities in younger adults. Issues regarding surgical management in the setting of hereditary syndromes and fertility preservation while on therapy are of particular importance to the younger patient population. Future studies should seek to increase understanding of the distinct tumor biology of AYA patients with CRC and the consequences of treatment interventions to optimize outcomes for this population. PMID:24142823

Hubbard, Joleen M; Grothey, Axel

2013-10-01

104

Are standard behavioral weight loss programs effective for young adults?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To compare the enrollment, attendance, retention and weight losses of young adults in behavioral weight loss (BWL) programs with older participants in the same trials.Methods:Data were pooled from three NIH-funded adult BWL trials from two clinical centers in different regions of the country (total N=298); young adults were defined as those aged 18–35 years. Both young adults and adults were

J Gokee-LaRose; A A Gorin; H A Raynor; M N Laska; R W Jeffery; R L Levy; R R Wing

2009-01-01

105

Developmental Counseling: The Young Adult Period. Critical Issues in Young Adult Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, development during the adolescent period is considered from a counseling perspective. Although many of the issues of young adults continue to confront older adults, this paper discusses the issues that are special to this age group. It suggests that the emotional and social domain is best represented by the theory of Erikson, which…

Beaty, Lee A.

106

Test anxiety in elderly and young adults.  

PubMed

Test anxiety in elderly and young adult college students was measured by the Anxiety Achievement Test following a free-recall memory experiment. As expected, the elderly had higher levels of debilitating test anxiety than the younger adults. A large proportion of older persons showed behavioural manifestations of test anxiety either by refusing to participate in the study, or by their reactions during the testing. Test anxiety was related to memory performance among both age groups, suggesting than an older person's performance on a cognitive task may be influenced by affective reactions to the testing situation itself. PMID:1002325

Whitbourne, S K

1976-01-01

107

Methamphetamine use and violence among young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research analyzed the relationship between methamphetamine use and violence among young adults eighteen to twenty-five years old. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 106 respondents. The research was based primarily on in-depth, life-history interviews with individuals who used methamphetamine for a minimum of three months and who resided in Los Angeles County.Of the 106 respondents, 37 (34.9

Arielle Baskin-Sommers; Ira Sommers

2006-01-01

108

Water turnover in children and young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water homeostasis is essential for life and optimal function and considerable interest surrounds the issue of recommendations\\u000a for water consumption in healthy individuals. Objective data on water turnover in free-living individuals are limited, however.\\u000a The aim of the present work was to measure water turnover in children and young adults using isotopically labeled water to\\u000a provide objective data on magnitude

Elaine C. Rush; Purvi Chhichhia; Andrew E. Kilding; Lindsay D. Plank

2010-01-01

109

Taiwanese young adults’ intergenerational communication schemas  

E-print Network

(Chang, 1997). Confucianism clearly dictates an individual’s roles and proper behaviors in relation to others with filial piety (Xiao) as its core value. The basic tenet of filial piety guides people’s attitudes towards parents and older adults... indicated that young Asian participants scored higher on items suggesting practical support (e.g., taking care of aging parents and providing financial support) and lower on those suggesting communicative support (e.g., listen patiently, retain contact...

Lin, Mei-Chen; Zhang, Yan Bing; Harwood, Jake

2004-01-01

110

Does Vocational Training Matter for Young Adults in the Labour Market?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of vocational training on employment and income is investigated for young adults. Young adults without further education and training are compared to young adults with two-years and young adults with three-years of vocational training. The sample consists of 41 000 Swedish young adults born in 1974. The employment of these young adults…

Murray, Asa; Skarlind, Anders

2005-01-01

111

Adolescents' and Young Adults' Expectations of Parental Responsibilities in Stepfamilies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This current study investigates adolescents' and young adults' expectations of parenting by mothers following remarriage. Based on an earlier qualitative study of parent-child relationships, it was hypothesized that young people expect parents to maintain parenting responsibilities, including warmth\\/support and discipline behaviors, towards children following remarriage. It was also hypothesized that adolescents and young adults expect parents to give them priority

Sharon Moore; Claire Cartwright

2005-01-01

112

Demographic Demise: The Declining Young Adult Population in New England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adult workers provide businesses with the dynamic labor force and fresh ideas they need to innovate and grow. With their contributions to cultural, intellectual and social life, young adults also make New England a vibrant and interesting place to live. Young families support local schools and demand a strong educational system. Yet New…

Gittell, Ross

2007-01-01

113

Young Adults' Support Strategies when Peers Disclose Suicidal Intent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the growing suicide rate among adolescents and young adults, researchers have noted the importance of peer responses to suicidal disclosures in this population. The most adaptive response is to inform a responsible adult about the suicidal peer, but existing data indicate that most adolescents and young adults choose to talk to the…

Dunham, Katherine

2004-01-01

114

Survivorship in adolescents and young adults.  

PubMed

In the USA, approximately 26,000 adolescents and young adults (AYAs) aged 15-29 years are diagnosed with cancer every year. The cure rate among this population exceeds 80%, resulting in a growing number of AYA cancer survivors. AYA cancer survivors suffer from a wide range of long-term treatment-related toxicities that adversely affect quality of life and increase the risk of premature death. Therefore, it is important to recognize the unique medical needs of the AYA cancer survivors and develop a cost-effective and systemic approach to screen and prevent cancer treatment-related sequelae and the adverse health outcomes. PMID:25228564

Kishtagari, Ashwin; Tavakkoli, Montreh; Park, Jae H

2014-01-01

115

Sexual Prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults  

PubMed Central

Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195

Bauermeister, Jose A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; Gonzalez-Rivera, Milagritos

2014-01-01

116

Merchandising Library Materials to Young Adults. Libraries Unlimited Professional Guides for Young Adult Librarians Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By addressing the concept of merchandising, this handbook shows librarians how to turn their young adult collection into one that will attract teenagers. Delivering an introduction to marketing and merchandising concepts, the author shares years of experience as a teen services librarian, combined with the latest studies and research findings on…

Nichols, Mary Anne

117

Dietary Fiber Intake of Children and Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine dietary fiber intake of children and young adults.Design and setting Cross-sectional surveys of children and young adults in Bogalusa, La.Subjects Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected from 1976 to 1988 on five cohorts of 10-year-olds (n=l,254), two cohorts of 13-year-olds (n=360), and young adults (n=504) 19 to 28 years of age.Statistics Dietary fiber intake data were analyzed for

THERESA A. NICKLAS; ROSANNE P. FARRIS; LEANN MYERS; GERALD S. BERENSON

1995-01-01

118

Emotion Regulation and Impulsivity in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Past research has linked both emotion regulation and impulsivity with the development and maintenance of addictions. However, no research has investigated the relationship between emotion regulation and impulsivity within young adults. In the present study, we analyzed 194 young adults (27.8% female; 21.3 ± 3.32 years old; 91.8% single; 85.1% Caucasian), grouping them as low, average, or high emotionally dysregulated, and compared self-reported impulsivity, impulsive behaviors (such as alcohol and substance use and gambling) and cognitive impulsivity. We hypothesized that those with high levels of emotion dysregulation would score higher on self-reported and cognitive impulsivity, and report more impulsive behaviors. Analysis indicated that compared to low, the high emotion dysregulation group scored significantly higher on two self-report measures of impulsivity, harm avoidance, and cognitive reasoning. No significant differences were found between groups in impulsive behaviors and cognitive impulsivity. Overall, this study highlights the relationship between emotion dysregulation and impulsivity, suggesting that emotion regulation may be an important factor to consider when assessing individuals at a higher risk for developing an addiction. PMID:22385661

Schreiber, Liana R.N.; Grant, Jon E.; Odlaug, Brian L.

2012-01-01

119

Young adults talk about their problems.  

PubMed

This study aims to explore how young adults in psychotherapy and young adults in general describe their problems and how their problem formulations change over time. Two matched samples from longitudinal prospective studies were compared using thematic analysis. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted at baseline, 1.5 years after termination of psychotherapy (N=12) in the clinical sample and 3 years after baseline in the non clinical sample (N=12). Inductive thematic analysis revealed six themes: problems associated with oneself, family, intimate relationships, sense of belonging, occupation, and social roles. The psychotherapy sample was characterized by problems with oneself closely related to other problematic areas, at both pre-treatment and at follow-up 1.5 years after termination, while problematic sense of belonging was a general theme only prior to psychotherapy. However, they were less troubled by their problems after psychotherapy. Problems with oneself decreased considerably in the non-clinical sample, while problems with intimate relationships were twice as frequent at follow-up. In the psychotherapy sample, the initial experience of being passively trapped within their problems was transformed into an experience of being an active agent in their own life. However, considerable differences between the psychotherapy sample and non-clinical sample still persisted at follow-up. PMID:21323672

Jacobsson, Gunnel; Tysklind, Fredrik; Werbart, Andrzej

2011-06-01

120

Differences among Adolescent, Young Adult, and Adult Callers of Suicide Help Lines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined data on 165 adolescents, 65 young adults, and 175 adults who called 2 suicide help lines. Adults and young adults reported depression as primary reason for contemplating suicide; adolescents reported interpersonal problems. Although callers reported suicide ideation, very small percentage fell into high-risk categories with regard to…

de Anda, Diane; Smith, Melanie A.

1993-01-01

121

Chinese older, middle-aged, and young participants' stereotypes of young adults  

E-print Network

This study examined stereotype traits of Chinese young adults generated by 180 older, middle-aged, and young Chinese participants. Trait lists were compared across age groups and to Western traits reported in earlier research. Results indicated a...

Zhang, Yan Bing; Wang, Kai

2006-01-01

122

The Young Adult Novels in the Classroom Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

When former Heinemann-Boynton\\/Cook editor Peter Stillman first conceived the Young Adult Literature (YAL) series in 1990 and asked me to be the series editor, I was excited to be part of such an innovative endeavor. At that time there were few professional books available for teachers who wanted to bring young adult literature into their classrooms, and Heinemann was the

VIRGINIA R. MONSEAU

123

Deficits in Working Memory in Young Adults with Reading Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to assess the extent to which reading disabilities (RD) in young adults are related to deficits in specific aspects of temporary storage of verbal information, namely, memory span and the central executive (CE) component of working memory. Thirty-two native Hebrew-speaking young adults with and without RD were…

Cohen-Mimran, Ravit; Sapir, Shimon

2007-01-01

124

Factors Associated with Substance Use Among Homeless Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with substance use among homeless young adults. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined the influence of social networks and economic factors among a group of homeless young adults with differing levels of alcohol and drug use. In addition, for those with an alcohol use disorder, the role of future time expectancies

Rebecca Gomez; Sanna J. Thompson; Amanda N. Barczyk

2010-01-01

125

Recreational Drug Use and Suicidality Among Italian Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to explore recreational drug use patterns among a sample of Italian young adults and to examine the role of substance misuse on suicidality. Three hundred and forty Italian young adults between 19 and 30 years of age completed measures of suicidality (Reasons for Living Inventory, Beck Hopelessness Scale, and Suicide Score Scale), depression (Zung

Marco Innamorati; Maurizio Pompili; David Lester; Roberto Tatarelli; Paolo Girardi

2008-01-01

126

Using Young Adult Literature with Adolescent Learners of English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses (1) a rationale for using young adult literature with adolescent English-as-a-Second-Language learners; (2) an approach to teaching the novel "Make Lemonade" by Virginia Euwer Wolff; (3) activities in which students engaged and samples of their work; and (4) implications for teachers who explore young adult literature with adolescent…

Watts, Elizabeth L.

1999-01-01

127

Identifying Correlates of Young Adults' Weight Behavior: Survey Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…

Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.

2011-01-01

128

Intergenerational Relationships and Affectual Solidarity between Grandparents and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines whether both parents' relationships with their offspring, parents, and parents-in-law matter for young adults' perceptions of closeness to grandparents. This study focuses on two groups of grandchildren (ages 18-23) in Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households: young adults with married biological parents (N =…

Monserud, Maria A.

2008-01-01

129

Leaving home: Food choice behavior of young German adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like other western countries, Germany too reports record numbers of overweight and obese individuals with young German adults in a particularly high-risk position. As such, this study sought to investigate if food choice varied by the place of residence (dependent or independent) of these young adults. Using a self-administered questionnaire, analyses of quantitative data from 305 German students between the

Debra Harker; Bishnu Sharma; Michael Harker; Karin Reinhard

2010-01-01

130

Teens' Favorite Books: Young Adults' Choices 1987-1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to make the job of encouraging adolescents to read less of a challenge, this book provides descriptions of all of the approximately 150 examples of young adult literature that were selected "Young Adults' Choices" in the yearly voting by teenagers conducted from 1987 to 1992. Each entry in the book includes bibliographic information, an…

International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

131

What young adults say about factors affecting their food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research has been conducted examining the food choice behaviors of young adults. The few studies reported have been limited to college students and used survey questionnaire techniques. This study sought to describe a broader sample of young adults and to gather information about reasons for food choice behavior using a qualitative method. Fifty?seven focus group interviews were conducted across

Nancy M. Betts; Rosalie J. Amos; Constance Georgiou; Sharon L. Hoerr; Rao Ivaturi; Kathryn S. Keim; Ann Tinsley; Jane Voichick

1995-01-01

132

Language Use in Multiethnic Literature For Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed ethnic authenticity with regard to language use in 16 books for children and young adults used in Central Michigan University's English 582 course, "Cultural Pluralism in Children and Young Adult Literature." Four ethnic groups were included: Native American, African American, Asian American, and Hispanic American. To evaluate…

Christianson, Darcy

133

Risky Sex Behavior and Substance Use among Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between substance use during adolescence and HIV risk behavior among young adults ages 19 to 21 with and without a college education. Results indicate that increased use of alcohol and marijuana at younger ages is related to riskier sexual activity as well as increased use of alcohol and marijuana as young adults

Staton, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl; Logan, T. K.; Zimmerman, Rick; Lynam, Donald; Milich, Richard; Martin, Catherine; McClanahan, Karen; Clayton, Richard

1999-01-01

134

Examining Work Delay in Young Adults with Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work delay as a dimension of work restoration in young adults with schizophrenia has not been explored with much frequency in the vocational rehabilitation literature; and it has never been explored and analyzed from the subjective experience of the person with the disorder. In this exploratory, mixed-method study of 20 first-episode young adults diagnosed with schizophrenia who returned to work,

DEBORAH GIOIA

2006-01-01

135

Reading Interests of Young Adults in Medina County, Ohio.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the reading interests of the young adult participants in the summer reading program at Medina County District Library (Ohio). Findings were compared to research done in other locations and to current bibliographies of recommended reading for young adults. The study looked at a systematic sample of reader…

Fronius, Sandra K.

136

A Collaborative Approach to Teaching Young Adult Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a collaborative project between a young adult literature course for prospective school library media specialists and a ninth-grade literature class. Describes how the students corresponded weekly, writing about young adult books they had chosen from a list. Notes their reflections on this collaborative effort, and reports that it was…

Riedling, Ann M.

1997-01-01

137

Appalachian Literature for Young Adults: The Contributions of Rebecca Caudill.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the life and work of Rebecca Caudill, an author of young adult and children's literature, and discusses how she captures major characteristics of Appalachian culture. Examines four young adult novels: (1) "Tree of Freedom"; (2) "The Far-Off Land"; (3) "Barrie and Daughter"; and (4) "Susan Cornish." Contains teaching guides and writing…

Warner, Mary

1999-01-01

138

Serving Adolescents' Reading Interests through Young Adult Literature. Fastback 258.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help parents and teachers select books for young people that reflect the actual interests of adolescents, this booklet discusses titles that both appeal to teenagers and help adults gain insight into their needs, their concerns, and their values. Titles of chapters in the booklet are as follows: (1) "Are Young Adult Books Literature?";…

Fuchs, Lucy

139

Economic Socialization, Saving and Assets in European Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of young adults by parents using data from European young adults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…

Webley, Paul; Nyhus, Ellen K.

2013-01-01

140

Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…

Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2012-01-01

141

The respiratory effects of cannabis dependence in young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim. To evaluate the relationship between cannabis dependence and respiratory symptoms and lung function in young adults, while controlling for the effects of tobacco smoking. Setting and participants. Nine hundred and forty-three young adults from a birth cohort of 1037 subjects born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972\\/1973 were studied at age 21. Measurements. Standardized respiratory symptom questionnaires were administered.

D. Robin Taylor; Richie Poulton; Terrie E. Moffitt; Padmaja Ramankutty; Malcolm R. Sears

2000-01-01

142

Factors associated with substance use among homeless young adults  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with substance use among homeless young adults. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined the influence of social networks and economic factors among a group of homeless young adults with differing levels of alcohol and drug use. In addition, for those with an alcohol use disorder the role of future time expectancies was examined. A sample (n=185) of homeless young adults aged 18-23 were recruited from a community drop-in center and interviewed utilizing self-report instruments. Findings suggest that social networks, economic factors, and future expectancies are significant predictors of the level of substance use among homeless young adults. Being able to identify those areas that place homeless young adults at risk for substance abuse and dependence has implications for effective intervention. PMID:20391267

Gomez, Rebecca; Thompson, Sanna J.; Barczyk, Amanda N.

2010-01-01

143

Parental Divorce and Religious Involvement among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surprisingly few studies have explored the implications of parental divorce for the religious involvement of offspring, especially in young adulthood. Our study addresses several theoretical argu- ments linking parental divorce with reduced religious involvement in young adulthood and tests rele- vant hypotheses using data from a unique sample of 1,500 young adults (ages 18-35), evenly divid- ed between offspring of

Jiexia Elisa Zhai; Christopher G. Ellison; Norval D. Glenn; Elizabeth Marquardt

144

Quality Books about Bullying in the Young Adult Tradition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anti-bullying experts employ trade books in dealing with contemporary issues facing young people, including bullying. At least three conceptual strands underpin the application of young adult literature (YAL) in such enterprises: (1) reliance on tested voices appealing to young readers; (2) the potential effect of quality YAL on literacy…

Larson, Joanne; Hoover, John H.

2012-01-01

145

Neurological abnormalities in young adults born preterm  

PubMed Central

Objective Individuals born before 33?weeks' gestation (very preterm, VPT) have an increased likelihood of neurological abnormality, impaired cognitive function, and reduced academic performance in childhood. It is currently not known whether neurological signs detected in VPT children persist into adulthood or become attenuated by maturation of the CNS. Method We assessed 153 VPT individuals and 71 term?born controls at 17–18?years old, using a comprehensive neurological examination. This examination divides neurological signs into primary and integrative domains, the former representing the localising signs of classical neurology, and the latter representing signs requiring integration between different neural networks or systems. Integrative signs are sub?divided into three groups: sensory integration, motor confusion, and sequencing. The VPT individuals have been followed up since birth, and neonatal information is available on them, along with the results of neurological assessment at 4 and 8?years of age and neuropsychological assessment at 18?years of age. Results The total neurology score and primary and integrative scores were significantly increased in VPT young adults compared to term?born controls. Within the integrative domain, sensory integration and motor confusion scores were significantly increased in the VPT group, but sequencing was not significantly different between the VPT and term groups. Integrative neurological abnormalities at 18 were strongly associated with reduced IQ but primary abnormalities were not. Conclusions Neurological signs are increased in VPT adults compared to term?born controls, and are strongly associated with reduced neuropsychological function. PMID:16543529

Allin, M; Rooney, M; Griffiths, T; Cuddy, M; Wyatt, J; Rifkin, L; Murray, R

2006-01-01

146

Selenium and blood pressure studies in young and adult normotensive, renal, and spontaneously hypertensive animals.  

PubMed

With reports of either no change or reduction of blood pressure, the relationship between selenium and blood pressure has not been clear. Normal Se values are not available for the Sprague Dawley (SD) rat or in the young and adult rat with various models of experimental hypertension. This study measured serum Se levels in the young and adult normotensive (NT), Grollman renal hypertensive (RH), and Okamoto-Aoki spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). The young animals have statistically significant (P less than 0.001) lower Se values as measured by the fluorometric method than those found at adulthood. Selenium levels were found to be altered in the adult SHR animals when compared with the RH and NT animals. The serum Se value for the normotensive SD rat was found to be 65.0 +/- 3.5 micrograms/dL, and for the two experimental models, 63.7 +/- 4.6 micrograms/dL for the RH, whereas the SHR level was elevated to 75.04 +/- 4.8 micrograms/dL (P less than 0.001). Elevated serum Se values in the adult SHR animals suggests an altered metabolism in SHR animals. PMID:1379450

Loyke, H F

1992-01-01

147

Young Adults' Stereotypes of Older Adults with Their Grandparents as the Targets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the role of closeness in mediating young adults' stereotypes of older adults. Notes that young adults (college students less than 25 years old) consistently rate their closest grandparent more positively on exhibiting stereotypic behaviors and communicative ability than they do their least close grandparent. Concludes that although…

Pecchioni, Loretta L.; Croghan, Jon M.

2002-01-01

148

Differential regulation of immune responses and macrophage\\/neuron interactions in the dorsal root ganglion in young and adult rats following nerve injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain is an apparently spontaneous experience triggered by abnormal physiology of the peripheral or central nervous system, which evolves with time. Neuropathic pain arising from peripheral nerve injury is characterized by a combination of spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia. There is no evidence of this type of pain in human infants or rat pups; brachial plexus avulsion, which

David Vega-Avelaira; Sandrine M Géranton; Maria Fitzgerald

2009-01-01

149

Drinking and arterial blood pressure responses to ANG II in young and old rats  

PubMed Central

We investigated water drinking and arterial blood pressure responses to intravenous infusions of ANG II in young (4 mo), middle-aged adult (12 mo), and old (29 mo) male Brown Norway rats. Infusions of ANG II began with arterial blood pressure either at control levels or at reduced levels following injection of the vasodilator minoxidil. Under control conditions, mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to ANG II rose to the same level for all groups, and middle-aged and old rats drank as much or more water in response to ANG II compared with young rats, depending on whether intakes were analyzed using absolute or body weight-adjusted values. When arterial blood pressure first was reduced with minoxidil, MAP in response to ANG II stabilized at significantly lower levels compared with control conditions for all groups. Young rats drank significantly more water under reduced pressure conditions compared with control conditions, while middle-aged and old rats did not. Urine volume in response to ANG II was lower, while water balance was higher, under conditions of reduced pressure compared with control conditions. Baroreflex control of heart rate was substantially reduced in old rats compared with young and middle-aged animals. In summary, young rats appear to be more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of increased arterial blood pressure on water drinking than are older animals. PMID:20739604

Beltz, Terry G.; Johnson, Alan Kim

2010-01-01

150

Drinking and arterial blood pressure responses to ANG II in young and old rats.  

PubMed

We investigated water drinking and arterial blood pressure responses to intravenous infusions of ANG II in young (4 mo), middle-aged adult (12 mo), and old (29 mo) male Brown Norway rats. Infusions of ANG II began with arterial blood pressure either at control levels or at reduced levels following injection of the vasodilator minoxidil. Under control conditions, mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to ANG II rose to the same level for all groups, and middle-aged and old rats drank as much or more water in response to ANG II compared with young rats, depending on whether intakes were analyzed using absolute or body weight-adjusted values. When arterial blood pressure first was reduced with minoxidil, MAP in response to ANG II stabilized at significantly lower levels compared with control conditions for all groups. Young rats drank significantly more water under reduced pressure conditions compared with control conditions, while middle-aged and old rats did not. Urine volume in response to ANG II was lower, while water balance was higher, under conditions of reduced pressure compared with control conditions. Baroreflex control of heart rate was substantially reduced in old rats compared with young and middle-aged animals. In summary, young rats appear to be more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of increased arterial blood pressure on water drinking than are older animals. PMID:20739604

Thunhorst, Robert L; Beltz, Terry G; Johnson, Alan Kim

2010-11-01

151

Life history strategy and young adult substance use.  

PubMed

This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS) and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment. PMID:25365695

Richardson, George B; Chen, Ching-Chen; Dai, Chia-Liang; Swoboda, Christopher M

2014-01-01

152

Eye movements of young and older adults during reading  

E-print Network

The eye movements of young and older adults were tracked as they read sentences varying in syntactic complexity. In Experiment 1, cleft object and object relative clause sentences were more difficult to process than cleft subject and subject...

Kemper, Susan; Liu, Chiung-Ju

2007-03-01

153

Hearing loss and tinnitus in adolescents and young adults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little attention has been paid to hearing abilities and the effects of noise on the normal adolescent and young adult population. A series of studies will be presented on the prevalence of hearing loss and reported effects of hearing loss and tinnitus in adolescents and young adults from different cultural backgrounds. Adolescents and young adults from different backgrounds may tend to seek or avoid various noise environments that could be detrimental to their hearing and cause tinnitus. Attitudes and exposures to noise environments were evaluated to see if these may be correlated with their hearing losses and/or tinnitus. In addition, these adolescent and young adult subjects reported how often they used hearing protection in various noise environments. Finally, the issues of quality of life and the need for hearing conservation programs with these populations will be presented.

Holmes, Alice

2001-05-01

154

Adolescent & Young Adult Health Outcomes & Patient Experience Study  

Cancer.gov

Compared to younger and older aged cancer populations, the adolescent and young adult (AYA) population between the ages of 15 and 39 years has seen little or no improvement in cancer survival rates for decades.

155

Uncovering the Biology of Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults  

Cancer.gov

Evidence suggests that some adolescent and young adult cancers may have unique genetic and biological features. Researchers are trying to better understand the biology of these cancers in order to identify potential therapeutic targets.

156

Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Homeless Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Adolescent homelessness has received increasing attention due to its fast growth throughout the United States and the poor mental outcomes experienced by homeless young people. This cross-sectional study (N = 156) identified correlates of depressive symptomatology among homeless young adults and investigated how depressive symptoms are influenced by the coping strategies these young adults employ. The findings are based on analysis of baseline data collected for a hepatitis vaccination intervention pilot study conducted in partnership with a young adult’s drop-in center in Santa Monica, California. Standardized tools assessed drug use history, coping ability, and psychiatric symptomatology. Linear regression modeling was used to identify correlates of depressive symptom severity. Poor perceived physical health, recent crack cocaine use and recent use of tranquilizers were significantly associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. Self-destructive escape, non-disclosure/avoidance, passive problem-solving and thoughts of harming self were also associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:21131507

Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary; Slagle, Alexandra; Greengold, Barbara; Liu, Yihang; Leake, Barbara

2013-01-01

157

Income Pooling between Australian Young Adults and Their Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractWe test whether young adults who co?reside with their parents derive influence over household?level expenditure by earning income. We propose a new variant of the Engel curve consistent with the Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System, which allows a simple test of income pooling. Our tests suggest that young adults and parents mostly pool their income — pooling is not rejected

Robert V. Breunig; Rebecca J. McKibbin

2012-01-01

158

Comparative clinical outcomes between pediatric and young adult dialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published data on the comparative achievement of The Kidney Disease Dialysis Outcome Quality Initative (KDOQI) recommended\\u000a clinical performance targets between children and young adults on dialysis are scarce. To characterize the achievement of\\u000a KDOQI targets among children (<18 years) and young adults (18–24 years) with prevalent end stage renal disease (ESRD), we\\u000a performed a cross-sectional analysis of data collected by the Mid-Atlantic

Meredith A. Atkinson; Rachel M. Lestz; Barbara A. Fivush; Douglas M. Silverstein

159

Energy cost of running in young and adult female athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2imax.kg) and energy cost of running were determined on the treadmill in groups of differently trained young and adult athletes. The VO2 max.kg was in all cases higher in adults than in young athletes. These differences were significant (p<005) in long-distance runners (n = 12, mean age = 24-2 ±2-2 vs 17-3 ±0-9 yrs, mean VO2max.kg= 66-9

VACLAV BUNC; JAN HELLER

1994-01-01

160

The Role of Personality Characteristics in Young Adult Driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Motor vehicle injury is the major cause of mortality among young adults. Information about the individual characteristics of those who drive dangerously could enhance traffic safety programs. The goal of this research was to examine the association between various personality-related characteristics and risky driving behaviors.Methods. Young adults in Michigan, USA (n = 5,362) were surveyed by telephone regarding several

Sujata M. Patil; Jean Thatcher Shope; Trivellore E. Raghunathan; C. Raymond Bingham

2006-01-01

161

Motion Sensor Reactivity in Physically Active Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine whether young adults changed their physical activity (PA) behavior when wearing motion sensors. PA patterns of 119 young adults (M age = 20.82 years, SD = 1.50, M body mass index = 23.93 kg/m[superscript 2] , SD = 4.05) were assessed during 2 consecutive weeks. In Week 1, participants wore an accelerometer.…

Behrens, Timothy K.; Dinger, Mary K.

2007-01-01

162

Food insecurity and increased BMI in young adult women  

PubMed Central

Food insecurity has been associated with weight status in children and adults although results have been mixed. We aimed to identify whether food insecurity was associated with BMI in young adults and whether this association differed by gender and was modified by food stamp use and the presence of children in the home. Cross-sectional data from Wave 4 (2007–2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate the association between food insecurity and BMI in gender stratified models of young adult women (n=7116) and men (n=6604) controlling for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, the presence of children in the home, and food stamp use in young adulthood and/or adolescence. Food insecurity was more common in young adult women (14%) than young adult men (9%). After controlling for a variety of individual variables, food insecure women had a BMI that was on average 0.9kg/m2 units higher than women who were food secure. This difference in BMI persisted after controlling for recent or past food stamp use and was not different among women with or without children in the household. No relationship was found between food insecurity and BMI in young adult men. Providers should inquire about food insecurity, especially when treating obesity, and policy initiatives should address the role of access to healthy food in those facing food insecurity. PMID:21779092

Gooding, Holly C; Walls, Courtney E; Richmond, Tracy K

2014-01-01

163

Homosexual Experience, Desire and Identity Among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is young people's sexuality becoming more fluid and less tied to steady, stable identity patterns? Are we developing into a society where sexual relationships between individuals of the same sex are no longer reserved for the small minority of gay men and lesbian women? Adherents of so-called queer theory have promulgated such views. Using a population-based sample of young adults

Willy Pedersen; Hans W. Kristiansen

2008-01-01

164

Social Participation among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in…

Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.

2013-01-01

165

Multiple Voices, Multiple Genres: Fiction for Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that with so many multivoice novels accessible to teens, there is a great opportunity to expand students' reading repertoire. Proposes that young adult novels are an excellent transition to classic literature that may seem remote or difficult. Offers advice on teaching multivoice novels. Concludes that multivoice novels show young readers…

Gillis, Candida

2002-01-01

166

Five Invaluable Resources for Young Adult Religious Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than a decade ago, the popular topic of discussion in higher education and in pop culture concerned the character traits of what was then called "Generation X" or "GenX" for short. One lasting impact of this focus has been a renewed effort on the part of higher education to define young adulthood and to reassess young adult education. In the…

Winings, Kathy

2007-01-01

167

Psychiatric Comorbidity in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the findings of a study investigating rates and types of comorbid mental disorder evident in adolescents and young adults with autism. A sample of 84 young people (M = 19.5 years, SD = 4.6) with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association,…

Moseley, David S.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Brereton, Avril V.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

2011-01-01

168

Books for Adolescents: Young Adult Fiction in Australia: Part 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers an overview of what is "hot" in fiction for young Australians currently (year 2000) from the point of view of an Australian educator with a long history in children's literature. Introduces contemporary key authors and emergent trends. Describes briefly 26 recent popular Australian books of young adult fiction. (SR)

Comber, Barbara; Nixon, Helen

2000-01-01

169

Elemental concentration analysis in brain structures from young, adult and old Wistar rats by total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The knowledge of the spatial distribution and the local concentration of trace elements in tissues are of great importance since trace elements are involved in a number of metabolic and physiological processes in the human body, and their deficiency and excess may lead to different metabolic disorders. In this way, the main goal of this work is to compare the elemental concentration in different brain structures, namely temporal cortex, entorhinal cortex, visual cortex and hippocampus, from Wistar female rats ( n = 15) with different ages: 2, 8 and 48 weeks. The measurements were performed at the Synchrotron Light Brazilian Laboratory, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. In the entorhinal cortex, the following elements decreased with age: Zn, S, Cl, K, Ca and Br. In the temporal cortex, Ca, Fe and Br levels increased with aging and on the other hand, P, S, Cl, K and Rb levels decreased with aging. In the visual cortex almost all the elements decreased with aging: Cl, Ca, Fe, Ni and Zn. In the hippocampus, in turn, most of the elements identified, increased with aging: Al, P, S, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. The increase of Fe with aging in the hippocampus is an important fact that will be studied, since it is involved in oxidative stress. It is believed that oxidative stress is the one of the main causes responsible for neuronal death in Parkinson's disease.

Serpa, R. F. B.; de Jesus, E. F. O.; Anjos, M. J.; do Carmo, M. G. T.; Moreira, S.; Rocha, M. S.; Martinez, A. M. B.; Lopes, R. T.

2006-11-01

170

THE GEOTROPIC CONDUCT OF YOUNG RATS  

PubMed Central

Young rats, old enough to creep well but before the eyelids are open, orient and move upward upon an inclined surface. The angle of geotropic orientation on such a surface (?) is proportional to the logarithm of the component of gravity parallel to the inclined plane. This result is compared with the scanty information available for other animals; there is indication that it may be generally valid. The precision of the orientation, measured by the percentage dispersion of the individual measurements, also increases in proportion to the logarithm of this component. The cosine of the angle of orientation decreases very nearly in proportion to the sine of the angle of inclination. A possible interpretation of this is given as involving the idea that upward orientation ceases when the differential pull of the body weight upon the opposed legs reaches a threshold value. Attaching weights (W) to the tail causes ? to increase, and in proportion to log W. PMID:19872320

Crozier, W. J.; Pincus, G.

1926-01-01

171

YOUNG ADULT LITERATURE: AN ALTERNATIVE GENRE IN THE CLASSROOM READING LIST  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to examine the possibility of incorporating of young adult literature into the classroom reading list, a study on Malaysian young adult students' response to two young adult storybooks, Audrey's Promise and The Dragon Lives Again, written by K.S. Maniam (2003) was conducted. Drawing on Stover and Tway's (1992) common concerns of young adults, Havighurst's (1972) lifetime development

172

No Limits--READ! Young Adult Reading Club and Programming Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides strategies for developing young adult collections, outlines a reading club designed specifically for young adults, suggests promotional ideas for the young adult reading club and young adult programming in general, and provides age-appropriate ideas for both formal and passive programming. Specific topics covered in the…

Youngblood, Lisa

173

Young, uninsured, and seeking change: health coverage of young adults and their views on health reform. Findings from the Commonwealth fund Survey of Young Adults (2009).  

PubMed

Young adults are one of the largest uninsured segments of the population. This analysis of new survey data from The Commonwealth Fund finds almost half are without insurance at some time during the year. As they hit milestones like high school or college graduation, they face loss of coverage as they are dropped from parents' plans or public insurance programs. In the current economic climate, young adults are less likely to find jobs, and when they do, are frequently offered positions that come without benefits. Provisions in the health reform bills could help young adults by expanding Medicaid eligibility, creating a health insurance exchange with premium subsidies, and requiring insurers and employers to allow young adults to remain on parents' plans up to age 26 or 27. These provisions could help young adults obtain and keep affordable, comprehensive coverage through transitions from school to work and from job to job. PMID:20183947

Nicholson, Jennifer L; Collins, Sara R

2009-12-01

174

Advocacy skills training for young adult cancer survivors: the Young Adult Survivors Conference at Camp M?k-a-Dream  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goals of the work  This manuscript reports on the design, implementation, and evaluation of the Young Adult Survivor Conference (YASC)—a 4-day retreat designed to provide an educational and support experience for cancer survivors diagnosed as children, adolescents, and young adults. The goals of the program were to address issues of survivorship, provide cancer education and tools for self-advocacy, and build bridges

B. J. Zebrack; K. C. Oeffinger; P. Hou; S. Kaplan

2006-01-01

175

Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

2009-01-01

176

The Structure of Verbal Abilities in Young and Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four language sample measures as well as measures of vocabulary, verbal fluency, and memory span were obtained from a sample of young adults and a sample of older adults. Factor analysis was used to analyze the structure of the vocabulary, fluency, and span measures for each age group. Then an \\

Susan Kemper; Aaron Sumner

2001-01-01

177

Mature Young Adult Books Are Given a Bad Reputation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the viewpoints of a tenth grader on novels for young adults that portray troubled teens dealing with alcoholism, drugs, depression, suicide, sexual abuse, and violence. Suggests that contrary to adult opinions that these novels are not always age-appropriate, they in fact broaden teens' outlooks and prepare them for the real world. (LRW)

Rosen, Julia

1998-01-01

178

Study of Sexuality-Related Characteristics in Young Adults With Schizophrenia Treated With Novel Neuroleptics and in a Comparison Group of Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared characteristics related to sexual history, sexual activities, sexual functioning, and psychological tendencies associated with sexuality in 45 young adults with schizophrenia treated with novel neuroleptics and in 61 young adults from a comparison group. A smaller proportion of young adults with schizophrenia currently had a sexual partner or had ever engaged in sexual relations. They also had

Pierre Fortier; Jean-Pierre Mottard; Gilles Trudel; Sandrine Even

2003-01-01

179

Adolescent and young adult male health: a review.  

PubMed

Adolescent and young adult male health receives little attention, despite the potential for positive effects on adult quality and length of life and reduction of health disparities and social inequalities. Pediatric providers, as the medical home for adolescents, are well positioned to address young men's health needs. This review has 2 primary objectives. The first is to review the literature on young men's health, focusing on morbidity and mortality in key areas of health and well-being. The second is to provide a clinically relevant review of the best practices in young men's health. This review covers male health issues related to health care access and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Healthy 2020 objectives for adolescents and young adults, focusing on the objectives for chronic illness, mortality, unintentional injury and violence, mental health and substance use, and reproductive and sexual health. We focus, in particular, on gender-specific issues, particularly in reproductive and sexual health. The review provides recommendations for the overall care of adolescent and young adult males. PMID:23940241

Bell, David L; Breland, David J; Ott, Mary A

2013-09-01

180

Reverse correlating trustworthy faces in young and older adults.  

PubMed

Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as "facial trustworthiness."In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Todorov, 2008; Engell et al., 2010). Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Calder et al., 2003; Firestone et al., 2007; Ruffman et al., 2008; Chaby and Narme, 2009). Based on Todorov';s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004) reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment), from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness. PMID:24046755

Ethier-Majcher, Catherine; Joubert, Sven; Gosselin, Frédéric

2013-01-01

181

Risky sex behavior and substance use among young adults.  

PubMed

Many young adults, despite widespread prevention and education efforts that target this age group, engage in behaviors that place them at risk of HIV infection. These behaviors include frequent experimentation with alcohol and other drugs before sex, sexual activity with different partners, and inconsistent safe-sex practices. The combination of these risky behaviors causes increased concern about the spread of HIV among this age group. The study discussed in this article examined the relationship between substance use during adolescence and HIV risk behavior among young adults ages 19 to 21 with and without a college education. Results indicated that increased use of alcohol and marijuana at younger ages is related to riskier sexual activity and increased use of alcohol and marijuana as young adults. Recommendations for interventions are made. PMID:10340165

Staton, M; Leukefeld, C; Logan, T K; Zimmerman, R; Lynam, D; Milich, R; Martin, C; McClanahan, K; Clayton, R

1999-05-01

182

Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species  

PubMed Central

African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) are small to medium sized, long-lived, and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN) correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of 1 year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin). Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis), social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae), and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean rodents. PMID:24904308

Amrein, Irmgard; Becker, Anton S.; Engler, Stefanie; Huang, Shih-hui; Muller, Julian; Slomianka, Lutz; Oosthuizen, Maria K.

2014-01-01

183

Uses and Dependency of Entertainment Television Among Mormon Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uses-and-dependency model recognizes the influence of both micro- and macroinfluences on decisions to use media; however, few studies have empirically tested the model. This study represents an attempt to test the uses-and-dependency model in the context of the television-use decisions of Mormon young adults. Students attending Brigham Young University (N = 216) completed a survey of how they make

John J. Davies

2007-01-01

184

Taiwanese older adults’ perceptions of aging and communication with peers and young adults  

E-print Network

This study examined interview accounts from thirty-one Taiwanese older adults’ about their inter- and intra-generational communication experiences, and perceptions of today’s young and older people. Thematic analysis showed that Taiwanese older...

Zhang, Yan Bing; Lin, Mei-Chen

2008-01-01

185

Developmental Antecedents of Young Adult Civic Engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Civic engagement was studied in relation to overall development in adolescence, emerging adulthood, and young adulthood to examine how earlier activity involvement and success in prior and concurrent age-salient domains of competence may contribute to 2 forms of civic engagement in adulthood (citizenship and volunteering). Data on 163 youth were drawn from a longitudinal study of competence in a normative,

Jelena Obradovi?; Ann S. Masten

2007-01-01

186

Young adults' perceptions of smoking actors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of portrayed smoking status of actors on their popularity with both smoking and non-smoking young people, as well as their perceptions of the prevalence of smoking Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Two experimental studies were conducted with Australian undergraduate university students, in which students were exposed to different versions of mock

Sandra C. Jones; John D. Rossiter

2008-01-01

187

Young Adult Authors on the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses publishing on the Internet by young authors. Describes "fan-fiction" Web sites where fans write passages that link to characters in popular books, television shows, or movies; fan-fiction inspired by the Disney film "Newsies"; posting short stories on Web pages; poetry, book reviews, and other publications; the attraction of the Internet…

Flench, Chris Ebert

1999-01-01

188

Clinical outcomes of adolescents and young adults in adult HIV care.  

PubMed

We sought to describe virologic and clinical retention outcomes among a group of HIV-infected adolescents and young adults (AYA) newly established in an adult HIV clinic compared with matched HIV-infected adults. AYA demonstrated lower rates of HIV-1 virologic suppression and higher rates of HIV-1 viral rebound and loss to follow-up compared with adults. African American AYA had the lowest rates of virologic suppression and the highest rates of viral rebound. Adult providers should consider HIV-infected AYA, particularly African American HIV-infected AYA, to potentially be at high risk for poor clinical outcomes in adult care. PMID:21826014

Ryscavage, Patrick; Anderson, Evan J; Sutton, Sarah H; Reddy, Susheel; Taiwo, Babafemi

2011-10-01

189

Perceived Neighborhood Fear and Drug Use Among Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the association between perceptions of neighborhood safety and drug use, as well as mediation by depression and self-esteem. Methods The sample included 210 inner-city young adults (18 to 25 years) recruited from the Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Results Respondents who indicated greater fear of their neighborhood environment also had significantly greater levels of drug use than did those with lower perceived fear. However, this relationship was not a result of lower self-esteem or higher levels of depressive symptoms. Conclusions Exploratory results point to the need to consider the broader role of the community environment and its impact on drug use among young adults. PMID:19182981

Theall, Katherine P.; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

2013-01-01

190

Serum Phosphate and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Young Adults: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: A relationship with vascular dysfunction in chronic kidney disease suggests a possible association of phosphate level with left ventricular hypertrophy development in people with normal kidney function. We aimed to determine whether such an association exists in community-dwelling young adults. Methods: This is a cohort study of participants in the ongoing, community-based, prospective Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young

Robert N. Foley; Allan J. Collins; Charles A. Herzog; Areef Ishani; Philip A. Kalra

2009-01-01

191

College Selectivity and Young Adult Health Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Large literatures have shown important links between the quantity of completed education and health outcomes on one hand and the quality or selectivity of schooling on a host of adult outcomes, such as wages, on the other hand. However, little research attempts to produce evidence of the link between school quality and health. The paper presents…

Fletcher, Jason M.; Frisvold, David E.

2011-01-01

192

Functional Literacy of Young Guyanese Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the rationale, development, and administration of the test used for measuring levels of achievement in functional literacy in Guyana. Draws attention to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate that is reported for Guyana in international…

Jennings, Zellyne

2000-01-01

193

Living with Cystic Fibrosis: A Guide for the Young Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for the young adult with cystic fibrosis, the booklet provides information on dealing with problems and on advances in treatment and detection related to the disease. Addressed are the following topics: description of cystic fibrosis; inheritance of cystic fibrosis; early diagnosis; friends, careers, and other matters; treatment;…

Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Atlanta, GA.

194

Reasons for living in homosexual and heterosexual young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

For researchers, suicide is a major concern in young adults. The additional stressors that may be present for gay or lesbian individuals may promote less adaptive characteristics than in heterosexual individuals. Gay and lesbian and heterosexual subjects completed the Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL) to determine levels of adaptive characteristics that may prevent suicidal behaviors. Results indicated that gay men

Jameson K. Hirsch; Jon B. Ellis

1998-01-01

195

Engagement with Young Adult Literature: Outcomes and Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines students' perceptions of the outcomes and processes of engaged reading in classrooms prioritizing engagement through self-selected, self-paced reading of compelling young adult literature. The primary data were 71 end-of-year student interviews, supported by end-of-year teacher interviews, biweekly observational data,…

Ivey, Gay; Johnston, Peter H.

2013-01-01

196

Young Adult Capacity Initiative Cross-Site Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-site analysis presents findings about the implementation, impact, and outcomes of the Young Adult Capacity Initiative (YACI), at 13 community-based organizations in New York City. These agencies received technical assistance and small incentive grants from the Fund for the City of New York Youth Development Institute (YDI) to build…

Academy for Educational Development, 2012

2012-01-01

197

Thematic Solutions Using Young Adult Literature to Increase Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors discuss thematic solutions using young adult literature to increase reading comprehension. Here, they emphasize that prior knowledge plays a very important role in the reading process. As students read, they actively "construct meaning through the integration of existing and new knowledge and the flexible use of…

Adams, Jill; Bushman, John H.

2006-01-01

198

Guides to Collection Development for Children and Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assist librarians with collection development, this work identifies, describes, and evaluates more than 800 significant bibliographies of children's and young adult materials. Emphasis is on print and nonprint works published from 1986 through 1996, with some earlier but still useful publications also covered. In addition, special…

Gillespie, John T.; Folcarelli, Ralph J.

199

Not so Fast: Reassessing Gender Essentialism in Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined young adults' essentialist reasoning about gender categories. Previous developmental results suggest that until age 9 or 10, children show marked essentialist reasoning about gender, but this disappears by early adulthood. In contrast, results from social cognition suggest that essentialist thinking about social categories…

Eidson, R. Cole; Coley, John D.

2014-01-01

200

Critical Conversations on Whiteness with Young Adult Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author argues that whiteness remains an overwhelmingly absent dimension in literacy teaching that addresses systems of power from a critical perspective. One way literacy teachers may bring this dimension more explicitly into the classroom is by facilitating critical conversations on whiteness with young adult literature. As…

Schieble, Melissa

2012-01-01

201

A Qualitative Survey Examining the Moral Identities of Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moral identity can orient one's behaviors when exhibiting any kind of moral behavior. In this study, the moral identities of young adults are analyzed to a certain extent. For this purpose, the "interpretative phenomenological pattern" and "grounded theory" models are used as qualitative survey models. The study group for…

Onat Kocabiyik, Oya; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan

2014-01-01

202

Initial College Attendance of Low-Income Young Adults. Portraits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than 2.3 million low-income young adults began postsecondary education in 2008. Where these students initially enroll is of greater consequence than it is to their economically better-off peers because the likelihood of completing college for students from low-income backgrounds depends strongly on where they start their studies. This brief…

Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

203

An evolutionary psychology perspective on gift giving among young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

With evolutionary psychology used as the theoretical framework, two aspects of gift giving among young adults are investigated: (a) sex differences in motives for giving gifts to a romantic partner, and (b) the allocation of gift expenditures among various relations, including romantic partners, close friends, close kin, and distant kin members. As per the evolved sex differences in mating strategies,

Gad Saad; Tripat Gill

2003-01-01

204

Internet Use, Identity Development and Social Anxiety Among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contradictory evidence exists regarding the benefit of the Internet for social and personal wellbeing, with some studies indicating deleterious effects and others possible social enrichment. The potential for increased social isolation from 'over- involvement' in online activities or, conversely, the Internet's possibilities for enhancing social relationships, may be particularly salient during young adult- hood and adolescence because of the special

Dennis Mazalin; Susan Moore

2004-01-01

205

Predicting the intention to eat healthier food among young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate which factors predicted the intention to eat healthier food. The empirical data stem from a questionnaire survey carried out among,527 young adults aged 23-26 years living in Oslo, Norway. The study was carried out in September 1991. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used as a guiding theoretical framework. The

Lisbet Øygard; Jostein Rise

1996-01-01

206

Rewriting Eve: Reinserting Ideology in Young Adult Fiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature for older children and young adults (YA fiction) has long been identified as having a didactic tendency to moralise and instruct readers (see, for example, the work of John Stephens, Robyn McCallum, Peter Hollindale and others). Although the didactic tenor of YA fiction has softened in the last several decades, in line with a general decrease in literary didacticism

Georgina Ledvinka

2012-01-01

207

Exposure to Interparental Conflict and Psychological Disorder Among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the effect of exposure to interparental conflict on the mental health of young adults. Based on a diverse sample of 649 students from three New England colleges, the authors investigate the association between nonviolent interparental conflict during childhood, subsequent distress and disorder, and identified factors that mediate the relationship. Results indicate that exposure to interparental conflict significantly

Heather A. Turner; Kathleen Kopiec

2006-01-01

208

Mapping images to objects by young adults with cognitive disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

How the type of representation (icons, photos of objects in context, photos of objects in isolation) displayed on a hand-held computer affected recognition performance in young adults with cognitive disabilities was examined. Participants were required to match an object displayed on the computer to one of three pictures projected onto a screen. We tested the opinion widely held by occupational

Stefan Carmien; Erica Wohldman

2008-01-01

209

Mapping Images to Objects by Young Adults with Cognitive Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How the type of representation (icons, photos of objects in context, photos of objects in isolation) displayed on a hand-held computer affected recognition performance in young adults with cognitive disabilities was examined. Participants were required to match an object displayed on the computer to one of three pictures projected onto a screen.…

Carmien, Stefan; Wohldman, Erica

2008-01-01

210

Predictors of Heterosexual Casual Sex Among Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Casual sex is often associated with the young adult stage in the life course. Most recent research on the prevalence, motives, and consequences of heterosexual casual sex has relied on samples of college students, yet students are only a small and advantaged subset of the young adult population. The current study drew on the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, which was collected in 2006–2007 and included young adults (ages 18–24 years) whose trajectories reflected a wider spectrum of educational experiences (N = 1,023). We moved beyond prior work by examining both frequency and type of heterosexual casual sex: lifetime vaginal, lifetime oral, and recent vaginal sex. We found that young adults enrolled or who graduated from 4-year educational institutions reported fewer casual sex partners on all three measures compared to participants with-out a high school degree and those with some college experience. Sexual attitudes were key factors mediating the association between educational status and casual sex behavior. These results indicate that programs aimed at encouraging healthy sexual behavior should target individuals who are at risk of not graduating high school because they are at greatest risk of frequent casual sex partners. PMID:23297151

Manning, Wendy; Giordano, Peggy; Longmore, Monica

2013-01-01

211

A Comparison of Young Adult Novels: Developmental Tasks and Readability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adults read not only to experience real-life problems, but also to "escape" from those problems. The two most popular types of novels available to teens are the contemporary realistic problem novel and the formula romance novel. A study examined the incidence of specific adolescent developmental tasks (adolescent problems/concerns) in 15…

Roberts, Linda K.

212

Negotiating Understanding through the Young Adult Literature of Muslim Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although United States citizens generally pride themselves on their understanding and acceptance of diversity, all too many of them harbor a fear of Muslims, which transformed into widespread bigotry after September 11, 2001. Knowing that young adult literature can be a powerful means of negotiating understanding of the other, this article…

Baer, Allison L.; Glasgow, Jacqueline N.

2010-01-01

213

Recognize the Signs: Reading Young Adult Literature to Address Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes preservice teachers' experiences in a book club that read young adult literature focused on issues related to bullying. Preservice teachers learned to recognize various incidents of bullying in the books. They also began to consider how they might handle incidents of bullying in their future classrooms. (Contains 2 figures.)

Pytash, Kristine E.; Morgan, Denise N.; Batchelor, Katherine E.

2013-01-01

214

Homeless Young Adults and Behavioral HealthAn Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young adults (ages 18-24) are especially vulnerable to homelessness in the United States, and those experiencing homelessness exhibit high prevalence for many kinds of abuse and negative health outcomes. This article reviews common behavioral health issues facing homeless youth and assesses collective wisdom on effective treatments and services for this vulnerable population. On the whole, the research remains focused on

Suzanne Zerger; Aaron J. Strehlow; Adi V. Gundlapalli

2008-01-01

215

Speaking Up for Vocabulary: Reading Skill Differences in Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is part of a broader project aimed at developing cognitive and neurocognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. We explore the relationships among reading-related abilities in participants ages 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range…

Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald P.; Mencl, W. Einar

2007-01-01

216

Nonfiction for Young Adults: From Delight to Wisdom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggesting that the vital element nonfiction lacks is professional attention, this book shows the literary qualities of nonfiction as well as defining its importance for young adults. The book discusses seven issues related to information books, each issue making up a single chapter. The first chapter addresses the reading interests of teenagers,…

Carter, Betty; Abrahamson, Richard F.

217

Suicide Prevention in Young Adults (Age 18-30).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents some explanations for the doubling of the young adult suicide rate since 1950. Analyzes the diagnoses and population groups that contribute the most to this increase. Groups that can be readily affected by suicide reduction measures are discussed, and methods for reducing suicide are proposed. (JPS)

Lipschitz, Alan

1995-01-01

218

ERIC/RCS: Booklists on Young Adult Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Annotates booklists of literature for young adults that were selected on the basis of their quality and interest. Topics include: (1) contemporary nonfiction; (2) fantasy, science fiction, and the supernatural; (3) titles for reluctant readers; (4) death and war; (5) love and teen sexuality; (6) science; (7) American and world culture; (8) Black…

Dorney, Jacqueline M.

1987-01-01

219

Young Adults' Perceptions and Memories of a Televised Woman Hero  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and thirty-nine young adults viewed one of three episodes of a television program about a female action hero titled Xena: Warrior Princess. Programs varied in portrayals of Xena's shadow, the dark but also life-preserving facet of the personality. Participants of both genders who had higher levels of traditionally masculine personality characteristics were most likely to perceive Xena as

Sandra L. Calvert; Tracy A. Kondla; Karen A. Ertel; Douglas S. Meisel

2001-01-01

220

Connecting with Texts: Teacher Candidates Reading Young Adult Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preparing teachers to understand their students' reading processes so that they can guide their students toward connecting with texts in meaningful and personal ways are goals that can be met through the study of young adult literature. Twenty-first century learners live in an increasingly interconnected world and have access to countless texts…

Bull, Kelly Byrne

2011-01-01

221

Emotion Research on Stanford Typically developing children and young adults  

E-print Network

Emotion Research on Stanford Typically developing children and young adults between 8-22 years old needed for research study on Autism Spectrum Disorder, emotions, and emotion regulation. Each participant Be between 8 and 22 years old Autism Study on Emotion Reactivity and Regulation Stanford Psychophysiology Lab

Gross, James J.

222

America's Young Adults: Special Issue, 2014  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The well-being of young adults in the United States today remains an area of key interest to the public and policy-makers alike. This age group faces the well-known challenges of achieving financial and social independence while forming their own households at a time of greater economic uncertainty than in the past. Better understanding of the…

Cook, Traci; Kappeler, Evelyn; Ellis, Renee; Kominski, Robert; Cooper, Alexia; Smith, Erica; Donoghue, Brecht; Whitestone, Yuko; Snyder, Tom; Aud, Susan; Williamson, Lisa; Henderson, Steve; Steffen, Barry; Madans, Jennifer; Lukacs, Susan; Pastor, Patricia; Goldstrom, Ingrid; Han, Beth; Bures, Regina; Chamberlain, Seth; Despain, Jason; Chadwick, Laura; Park, Jennifer

2014-01-01

223

Using Young Adult Literature To End Discrimination against Mental Illness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to inform junior and senior high school students about mental illness, this document provides educators with an annotated bibliography of young adult fiction and a set of supporting activities. Included in the bibliography are nearly 100 current fiction titles, grouped according to the following topics: anorexia, drugs and alcohol,…

Perez, Kathy

224

Stepgrandparents and Grandparents: The View from Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adult college students described their relationship with either their stepgrandparent or grandparent. Grandchildren reported having and desiring more contact; rated that relationship as more important; and reported more involvement in social and personal roles, expected behaviors, and high relationship strength than did stepgrandchildren.…

Sanders, Gregory F.; Trygstad, Debra W.

1989-01-01

225

Motivations for parenthood among young adult college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and sixty three young adult college students responded to openended questions assessing their specific intentions, motives, and plans for having children. The most commonly stated motives for childbearing reflected a strong interest in establishing an identity and social network. Financial, marital, and emotional stability were identified as important factors influencing the timing of parenthood. Several significant sex differences

Anne V. Gormly; John B. Gormly; Helen Weiss

1987-01-01

226

Exposure to Interparental Conflict and Psychological Disorder among Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the effect of exposure to interparental conflict on the mental health of young adults. Based on a diverse sample of 649 students from three New England colleges, the authors investigate the association between nonviolent interparental conflict during childhood, subsequent distress and disorder, and identified factors that…

Turner, Heather A.; Kopiec, Kathleen

2006-01-01

227

Perspectives of Young Adults with Disabilities on Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, researchers have linked greater self-determination capacities to improved postsecondary outcomes for youth with disabilities. Although leadership is one component of self-determination, little is known about how youth and young adults with disabilities define, develop, and demonstrate leadership. In this qualitative interview study,…

Carter, Erik W.; Swedeen, Beth; Walter, Martha J.; Moss, Colleen K.; Hsin, Ching-Ting

2011-01-01

228

Suicide Among Gay and Lesbian Adolescents and Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the issue of suicide among gay and lesbian adolescents and young adults, as well as provides information to guide clinicians in working effectively with this population. The theoretical perspectives on homosexual identity development by Troiden, Cass, and Lewis are discussed in connection with Durkheim's Suicide Theory and various theoretical risk factors, as well as implications for social

Heidi S. Kulkin; Elizabeth A. Chauvin; Gretchen A. Percle

2000-01-01

229

Aerobic endurance exercise benefits memory and affect in young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise seems a simple and widely practised behaviour that activates molecular and cellular signalling cascades involved in various central nervous system processes. Despite impressive results obtained in animal studies, fitness interventions have produced less reliable effects in humans, particularly in young adults. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that an individually adapted exercise training consisting of three running

Sanna Stroth; Katrin Hille; Manfred Spitzer; Ralf Reinhardt

2009-01-01

230

Perceived Choice of Prose Materials by Young and Elderly Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated effects of perceived choice upon comprehension and memory of prose reading passages. Compared choice and no choice conditions with young and elderly adults and only elderly groups. Results indicated both age- and vocabulary-related deficits. However, perceived choice conditions did not produce any consistent improvement in performance.…

Taub, Harvey A.; And Others

1982-01-01

231

Quality of life in young adult survivors of childhood cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years the necessity of measuring quality of life in childhood cancer survivors has been stressed. This paper gives an overview of the results of studies into the quality of life (QL) of young adult survivors of childhood cancer and suggest areas for future research. The review located 30 empirical studies published up to 2001. The results are described

N. E. Langeveld; H. Stam; M. A. Grootenhuis; B. F. Last

2002-01-01

232

Dietary monotony and food cravings in young and elderly adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many hypothesized mechanisms for food cravings focus on nutritional deprivation. However, outside of the laboratory, nutritional inadequacy is often confounded with dietary monotony. Therefore, one aim was to examine the effects of a nutritionally adequate, liquid, sweet, monotonous diet on food cravings in young and elderly adults. In addition, previous retrospective questionnaire work has indicated that elderly individuals report fewer

Marcia Levin Pelchat; Susan Schaefer

2000-01-01

233

Self-Discrepancies in Young Adults and Childhood Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the relationship between violence in childhood and later discrepancies in young adults' self-perceptions. Results show that reports of harsh punishment in childhood were modestly, but not highly, associated with greater discrepancies between how participants saw their actual selves and how they felt they ought to be. (RJM)

Brewin, Chris R.; Vallance, Hannah

1997-01-01

234

Perceived Effectiveness of Tobacco Countermarketing Advertisements among Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To measure relative effectiveness of tobacco countermarketing advertisements by category and emotive execution style among young adults. Methods: Participants (n = 1011) from 2 US 4-year colleges, one southern and one northern were surveyed before and after viewing advertisements in one of 3 categories: social norms, health…

Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Higbee, Cheryl

2008-01-01

235

Early Language Impairment and Young Adult Delinquent and Aggressive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinic and forensic studies have reported high rates of language impairments in conduct disordered and incarcerated youth. In community samples followed to early adolescence, speech and language impairments have been linked to attention deficits and internalizing problems, rather than conduct problems, delinquency, or aggression. This study examines the young adult antisocial outcomes of speech or language impaired children. Language impaired

E. B. Brownlie; Joseph H. Beitchman; Michael Escobar; Arlene Young; Leslie Atkinson; Carla Johnson; Beth Wilson; Lori Douglas

2004-01-01

236

Young Adult Literature: An Entree into the Joys of Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes how adolescents through young adult literature begin to discover the meaning behind the words and to explore their own emotions. Describes the use of small groups and an introduction of the concept of a literacy community. Discusses a whole-class reading and response to S.E. Hinton's novel "The Outsiders." (SC)

Van Horn, Leigh

2000-01-01

237

The Power of Books and Literacy (Young Adult Literature).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the power of books and literacy, the power of giving students their own books to take home, and young adult novels in which the importance of books is a major theme. Offers brief descriptions of 27 books (mostly novels) whose stories focus on the power of books and literacy. (SR)

Kaywell, Joan F.; Joseph, Rebecca J.

1998-01-01

238

ORIGINAL PAPER Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults  

E-print Network

interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges, cognition, and functioning in autism. Keywords Virtual reality Á Autism Á Asperger Á Intervention Á-Functioning Autism Michelle R. Kandalaft · Nyaz Didehbani · Daniel C. Krawczyk · Tandra T. Allen · Sandra B. Chapman

O'Toole, Alice J.

239

Blogging the Time Away? Young Adults' Motivations for Blog Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The content of Weblogs ranges from personal diary entries to interactive content from news organizations. Employing the uses and gratifications framework, this study examined how much time young adults spend with blogs and how well traditional predictors of media trust fit a model of overall blog trust. Findings from data collections in 2005 and 2007 indicate that information seekers trust

Cory L. Armstrong; Melinda J. McAdams

2011-01-01

240

ADHD Stimulant Drug Abuse Common Among Young Adults: Survey  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. ADHD Stimulant Drug Abuse Common Among Young Adults: Survey ... 2015) Thursday, November 13, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder College Health Prescription Drug Abuse THURSDAY, Nov. 13, ...

241

Hit List: Frequently Challenged Books for Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents descriptions of 26 young adult titles that have been frequent targets of censorship attempts. Each entry provides an annotation for the book in question; examples of recent challenges; citations to reviews of the book and background articles; a list of awards garnered by the book or its author; references about the author;…

Monks, Merri M.; Pistolis, Donna Reidy

242

Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…

Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

2010-01-01

243

Aesthetic Learning Theory and the Faith Formation of Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participation in the arts is a form of practical reason and as such has the potential to form and transform the faith of individuals. The findings from Katherine M. Douglass's 2011 study on the role of the arts in the faith lives of young adults provides examples of the transformative potential of the arts as they foster expression,…

Douglass, Katherine M.

2013-01-01

244

Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David

2008-01-01

245

Childhood predictors of young adult male crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study sample was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children (93% Black) growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. The study sample included 733 males who were active by age 26. Adult criminal records were collected through administrative records and supplemented with self-reports. Outcome measures included incarceration, conviction, and

Suh-Ruu Ou; Arthur J. Reynolds

2010-01-01

246

The Effects of Varying Task Priorities on Language Production by Young and Older Adults  

E-print Network

The present study compared how varying task priorities affected young and older adults' language production. Both young and older adults responded to monetary incentives to vary their performance when simultaneously talking ...

Kemper, Susan; Schmalzried, RaLynn Cheri; Herman, Ruth; Mohankumar, Deepthi

2011-02-01

247

Extending the Five-Foot Bookshelf: More Essential Books for Librarians Serving Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an annotated bibliography of books: girls perceptions of their bodies, excellence in library services to young adults, adolescence in America, evaluating and reviewing childrens books, and connecting young adults and libraries. (PEN)

Rosenzweig, Susan

1998-01-01

248

Report Reveals Millions of Young Adults Use Illicit Substances Every Day  

MedlinePLUS

... Report reveals millions of young adults use illicit substances every day Tuesday, June 10, 2014 According to ... every day, thousands of young adults use illicit substances for the first time. This includes 2,470 ...

249

Relationship Between Criminal Behaviour and Mental Illness in Young Adults: Conduct Disorder, Cruelty to Animals and Young Adult Serious Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many mental health professionals working with children and juveniles either do not have the training in psychological testing techniques, or sufficient diagnostic time to recognise significant indicators of future serious violent offending. The research literature suggests the diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) can be a strong indicator of serious young adult violence. One component of CD, cruelty to animals, would

Paul Wilson; Gareth Norris

2003-01-01

250

Psychological, social, and behavioral issues for young adults with cancer.  

PubMed

Theories of human development suggest that, although all cancer patients experience a common set of life disruptions, they experience them differently, focus on different issues, and attach different levels of importance to different aspects of the experience depending on the time in life at which they were diagnosed. During the critical developmental transition from childhood to adulthood, older adolescents and young adults in particular have typical concerns with establishing identity, developing a positive body image and sexual identity, separating from parents, increasing involvement with peers and dating, and beginning to make decisions about careers or employment, higher education, and/or family. Accordingly, cancer-related issues such as premature confrontation with mortality, changes in physical appearance, increased dependence on parents, disruptions in social life and school/employment because of treatment, loss of reproductive capacity, and health-related concerns about the future may be particularly distressing for adolescents and young adults. Psychosocial and behavioral interventions for young adult cancer patients and survivors often involve assisting these individuals in retaining or returning to function in significant social roles, such as spouse, parent, student, worker, or friend. Successful interventions will enable these young people to overcome the detrimental impact of a health crisis and strengthen the internal and external coping resources available to them. PMID:21523748

Zebrack, Brad J

2011-05-15

251

Tobacco industry research on smoking cessation - Recapturing young adults and other recent quitters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Smoking rates are declining in the United States, except for young adults (age 18 to 24). Few organized programs target smoking cessation specifically for young adults, except programs for pregnant women. In contrast, the tobacco industry has invested much time and money studying young adult smoking patterns. Some of these data are now available in documents released through litigation.

P M Ling; S A Glantz

2004-01-01

252

Pastoral Asst. For Youth and Young Adult Ministry St. Anthony Parish Renton, WA  

E-print Network

The purpose of this position is to develop and implement the parish's commitment to youth and young adult Preparation program of the parish. D. Assures the development of a Youth & Young Adult CommissionPastoral Asst. For Youth and Young Adult Ministry St. Anthony Parish Renton, WA I. POSITION PURPOSE

Huang, Jianyu

253

Course Profile: Programming and Services for Children and Young Adults Course Number: LIS 7250  

E-print Network

with children and young adults in public libraries there is a need for skill in the development of programmingCourse Profile: Programming and Services for Children and Young Adults Course Number: LIS 7250 and in the planning of services directed to children and young adults. This course analyzes the principles

Berdichevsky, Victor

254

Blood-feeding in the young adult filarial worms Litomosoides sigmodontis  

E-print Network

Blood-feeding in the young adult filarial worms Litomosoides sigmodontis T. ATTOUT1 , S. BABAYAN1 adults). Only the very young adult filarial worms had red blood cells in their gut. Haematophagy number of filarial worms of both sexes was examined at different stages of development from young 4th

MacDonald, Andrew

255

Addiction Treatment Experience among a Cohort of Street-Involved Youths and Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very little is known about the accessibility and potential barriers to addiction treatment among street youths and young adults. We sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of enrollment in addiction treatment among a cohort of street-involved youths and young adults in Vancouver, Canada. Street-involved youths and young adults who use illicit drugs were enrolled in a prospective cohort study

Jellena Wong; Brandon D. L. Marshall; Thomas Kerr; Calvin Lai; Evan Wood

2009-01-01

256

Direct Effects of Assets and Savings on the College Progress of Black Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Descriptive data indicate that 62% of White young adults between the ages of 17 and 23 years were on course (i.e., either in college or have graduated from college) in 2007, compared with only 37% of Black young adults. Given this, finding novel and promising ways to promote college progress among Black young adults, in particular, is a growing concern

William Elliott; Ilsung Nam

2012-01-01

257

Direct Effects of Assets and Savings on the College Progress of Black Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descriptive data indicate that 62% of White young adults between the ages of 17 and 23 years were on course (i.e., either in college or have graduated from college) in 2007, compared with only 37% of Black young adults. Given this, finding novel and promising ways to promote college progress among Black young adults, in particular, is a growing…

Elliott, William; Nam, Ilsung

2012-01-01

258

The effects of framing vocational choices on young adults' sets of career options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The present paper examines the effects of two decision-framing inductions on young adults' set of career options: first, whether young adults use abilities or interests as the grounds for their vocational choices and, second, whether young adults approach the decision-making task by including all career options to which they feel positively or by eliminating all career options to

Daniel C. Feldman; Kathleen M. Whitcomb

2005-01-01

259

Young Adult Children of Divorced Parents: Depression and the Perception of Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined long-term effects of divorce in young adult children by comparing young adults of divorce (N=104) and those of intact families (N=172). When non-custodial parent was perceived as "lost" the young adult was more depressed. After-divorce perception of non-custodial father changed negatively, while perception of mother remained stable.…

Drill, Rebecca L.

1986-01-01

260

Motorsports Involvement among Adolescents and Young Adults with Childhood ADHD  

PubMed Central

Objective Though children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined non-substance use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent engagement in motorsports, a collection of risky driving-related activities associated with elevated rates of physical injury. Path analyses tested whether persistent impulsivity, comorbid conduct disorder or antisocial personality disorder (CD/ASP), and heavy alcohol use mediated this association. Analyses also explored whether frequent motorsporting was associated with unsafe and alcohol-influenced driving. Method Two-hundred and twenty-one adolescent and young adult males (16–25 years-old) diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 139 demographically-similar males without ADHD histories reported their motorsports involvement. Persistent impulsivity, CD/ASP, heavy drinking, and hazardous driving were also measured in adolescence/young adulthood1 Results Adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely to report frequent motorsports involvement than those without childhood ADHD. Impulsivity, CD/ASP and heavy drinking partially mediated this association, such that individuals with ADHD histories, who had persistent impulsivity or CD/ASP diagnoses, were more likely to engage in heavy drinking, which was positively associated with frequent motorsporting. Motorsports involvement was associated with more unsafe and alcohol-influenced driving, and this association was more often found among those with, than without, ADHD histories. Conclusions Adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories, especially those with persisting impulsivity, comorbid CD/ASP and heavy drinking tendencies, are more likely to engage in motorsports, which may heighten risk of injury. PMID:23347139

Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, JeeWon; McGinley, James S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.

2013-01-01

261

Declining Alternative Reinforcers Link Depression to Young Adult Smoking  

PubMed Central

Aims Young adulthood represents a period of continued smoking progression and the establishment of regular and long-term smoking practices. Our understanding of the psychological processes that facilitate and solidify regular smoking patterns in this developmental period is limited. We sought to evaluate the role of depression symptoms in young adult smoking uptake and to evaluate whether non-smoking related alternative reinforcers was a mechanism by which depression symptoms influence smoking. Participants The sample was composed of 834 young adults who participated in a longitudinal study of smoking adoption (age 18 – 22 years old). Design and measurements In this prospective cohort study, smoking, depression, alternative reinforcers and several covariates were measured annually via telephone from emerging adulthood (age 18) to young adulthood (age 22). Findings Results of a parallel processes latent growth curve model showed that depression symptoms level (baseline age 18) had a significant negative effect on substitute alternative reinforcers trend (? = ?.01, z=?3.17, p=.002) and that substitute reinforcers trend had a significant negative effect on smoking trend (? = ?.62, z= ?2.99, p=.003). An assessment of indirect effects revealed that depression symptoms level had a significant positive indirect effect on smoking trend through substitute alternative reinforcers trend (B = .01, z = 2.09, p=.04, 99% CI = .001, .02), such that greater depression symptoms at baseline predicted decreases in substitute reinforcers across time which in turn predicted increases in smoking uptake/rate from emerging to young adulhood. Conclusions Depression symptoms in emerging adulthood indirectly influence smoking and mitigating declines and/or promoting greater alternative reinforcers to smoking may prevent smoking uptake and further increases in smoking rate among young adults. PMID:20840206

Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Rodriguez, Daniel; Rodgers, Kelli; Cuevas, Jocelyn

2010-01-01

262

A young adult Jehovah's Witness with severe anemia.  

PubMed

Two of the most ethically complex situations in pediatrics are those involving families whose religious beliefs preclude the provision of life-sustaining treatment and those involving young adults who have reached the age of legal majority and who face decisions about life-sustaining treatment. This month's "Ethics Rounds" presents a case in which these 2 complexities overlapped. An 18-year-old Jehovah's Witness with sickle cell disease has life-threatening anemia. She is going into heart failure. Her doctors urgently recommend blood transfusions. The young woman and her family adamantly refuse. Should the doctors let her die? Is there any alternative? PMID:23958767

Ukachi, Nnenna; Morrison, Wynne; Vanhorn, Samantha; Sundaram, Revathy; Lantos, John D

2013-09-01

263

Perinatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters the functional differentiation of the adult rat uterus.  

PubMed

The exposure to endocrine disrupters and female reproductive tract disorders has not been totally clarified. The present study assessed the long-term effect of perinatal (gestation+lactation) exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) on the rat uterus and the effect of estrogen replacement therapy. DES (5?g/kg bw/day) was administered in the drinking water from gestational day 9 until weaning and we studied the uterus of young adult (PND90) and adult (PND360) females. To investigate whether perinatal exposure to DES modified the uterine response to a long-lasting estrogen treatment, 12-month-old rats exposed to DES were ovariectomized and treated with 17?-estradiol for 3 months (PND460). In young adult rats (PND90), the DES treatment decreased both the proliferation of glandular epithelial cells and the percentage of glandular perimeter occupied by ?-smooth muscle actin-positive cells. The other tissue compartments remained unchanged. Cell apoptosis was not altered in DES-exposed females. In control adult rats (PND360), there were some morphologically abnormal uterine glands. In adult rats exposed to DES, the incidence of glands with cellular anomalies increased. In response to estrogens (PND460), the incidence of cystic glands increased in the DES group. We observed glands with daughter glands and conglomerates of glands only on PND460 and in response to estrogen replacement therapy, independently of DES exposure. The p63 isoforms were expressed without changes on PND460. Estrogen receptors ? and ? showed no changes, while the progesterone receptor decreased in the subepithelial stroma of DES-exposed animals with estrogen treatment. The long-lasting effects of perinatal exposure to DES included the induction of abnormalities in uterine tissues of aged female rats and an altered response of the adult uterus to estradiol. PMID:23454116

Bosquiazzo, Verónica L; Vigezzi, Lucía; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Luque, Enrique H

2013-11-01

264

Medulloblastoma in young adults. Must we give adjuvant chemotherapy?  

PubMed

Medulloblastoma is a rare entity in adult patients. All data about treatment are from children, where this disease is the most common cerebral tumour. Reports of medulloblastoma in adults are scarce but in all of them the prognosis seems similar to the prognosis of children. We present our experience in five cases of medulloblastoma in young adults, treated at the University Hospital "Germans Trias i Pujol" from June 1994 to October 2003. This has not been a good experience as more than 50% of the patients had a recurrence in spite of the standard treatment. We have reviewed the literature, concluding that we have to adapt the findings in children to our adult patients, offering them adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery. PMID:17329226

Roussos, I; Balaña, C; Cuadras, P; Ballester, R; Etxaniz, O; Hostalot, C

2007-02-01

265

Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes in adolescents and young adults.  

PubMed

The inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are a diverse group of genetic diseases associated with inadequate production of one or more blood cell lineages. Examples include Fanconi anemia, dyskeratosis congenita, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, thrombocytopenia absent radii syndrome, severe congenital neutropenia, and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. The management of these disorders was once the exclusive domain of pediatric subspecialists, but increasingly physicians who care for adults are being called upon to diagnose or treat these conditions. Through a series of patient vignettes, we highlight the clinical manifestations of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes in adolescents and young adults. The diagnostic and therapeutic challenges posed by these diseases are discussed. PMID:24888387

Wilson, David B; Link, Daniel C; Mason, Philip J; Bessler, Monica

2014-09-01

266

Parental rearing and transient thought disorder in young adults.  

PubMed

85 students and 72 medical and surgical patients, aged between 16 and 24, and 48 mature-aged clerical and executive workers, aged between 29 and 60, were administered a written version of a scale measuring transient thought disorder, the Eysenck personality questionnaire and the EMBU questionnaire on parental rearing methods. It was found that there were differences between samples on frequency of depersonalisation, and that a majority of the young adult sample had had two or more depersonalisation experiences. Those who had experienced the greater degree of transient thought disorder had had fathers who were more intolerant, unaffectionate and unstimulating, and mothers who were more intolerant, unstimulating and rejecting. Transient thought disorder was related significantly to both psychoticism and particularly to neuroticism on the EPQ in the young, but not the mature adult, sample. It is suggested that it arises as a function of remote and uninvolved parents and is related to uncertainty about identity. PMID:6701262

Clayer, J R; Campbell, R L; Ross, M W

1984-01-01

267

Implicit and explicit memory in young, old, and demented adults.  

PubMed

Previous study of scopolamine and memory (Grober et al., 1989) showed that young adults given moderate or high doses of scopolamine maintained maximum cued recall in spite of a dose-dependent decrement in free recall when memory was assessed by cued selective reminding (CSR), a procedure which circumvents inattention and induces semantic processing. Intact recall by CSR indicates either that scopolamine impairs memory indirectly through effects on attention and information processing or that it impairs explicit memory but not implicit memory. In the present study which was done to determine if CSR reflects explicit or implicit memory, a free association test was used to estimate implicit memory after CSR was administered; explicit memory was estimated with a final trial of cued recall. Data from young, nondemented, and demented adults indicate that CSR reflects explicit memory supporting the interpretation of the previous study that scopolamine does not produce direct impairment of explicit memory. PMID:1572951

Grober, E; Gitlin, H L; Bang, S; Buschke, H

1992-03-01

268

Violence and delayed social independence among young adult British men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To explain why a subgroup of young men aged 20–24 years do not follow the general trend within the adult general population,\\u000a of declining violence with age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A cross-sectional survey of 8,397 adults in households in Great Britain in 2000. Computer-assisted interviews to measure self-reported\\u000a violence and psychiatric morbidity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Young men age 20–24 years had the same high prevalence of self-reported violence

Jeremy Coid; Min Yang

2010-01-01

269

Adolescent alcohol use, sociability and income as a young adult  

PubMed Central

We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to study how sociability and adolescent alcohol use impact personal income as a young adult. We find that factors which enhance not only individual sociability but also social interaction at the community level are positively linked to future earnings of adolescents. Adolescents whose friends and friends of friends have greater sociability reap long-term labor market rewards into adulthood. After adjusting for individual and community sociability, the effect of teenage alcohol consumption on labor market earnings as young adults is reduced. Our results suggest that earnings premiums associated with adolescent alcohol consumption may be partially explained by social network dynamics. PMID:22984291

Mundt, Marlon P.; French, Michael T.

2012-01-01

270

Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank et al., 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic selection task was used to assess how participants implicitly extracted reinforcement history from the environment based on probabilistic positive/negative feedback. The findings showed impaired RL in individuals with DLI, indicating an altered gating function of the striatum in testing. However, they exploited similar learning strategies as comparison participants at the beginning of training, reflecting relatively intact functions of the prefrontal cortex to rapidly update reinforcement information. Within the context of Frank’s model, these results can be interpreted as evidence for alterations in the basal ganglia of individuals with DLI. PMID:22921956

Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2012-01-01

271

Abdominal obesity and coronary artery calcification in young adults: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Whether abdominal obesity is related to coronary artery calcification (CAC) is not known. Objective:Weinvestigatedtherelationsofwaistgirthandwaist-hip ratio (WHR) to CAC in 2951 African American and white young adultsfromtheCoronaryArteryRiskDevelopmentinYoungAdults Study. Design: The present study was a cross-sectional and observational cohort study. Using standardized protocols, we measured CAC in 2001-2002byusingcomputedtomographyandmeasuredwaistand hipgirthsin1985-1986(baseline),1995-1996(year10),and2001- 2002 (year 15, waist girth only). CAC was classified as present or

Chong-Do Lee; David R Jacobs Jr; Pamela J Schreiner; Carlos Iribarren; Arlene Hankinson

272

Young Adults with Gambling Problems: The Impact of Childhood Maltreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood maltreatment has been thought to be a significant risk factor in the development of gambling problems. Incorporating\\u000a a developmental psychopathology perspective, 1,324 adolescents and young adults, age 17–22 years completed self-report measures\\u000a on gambling behaviors, gambling severity, and childhood maltreatment. Problem gamblers reported high levels of childhood maltreatment\\u000a as compared with non gamblers and social gamblers. The results highlight the

Jennifer R. Felsher; Jeffrey L. Derevensky; Rina Gupta

2010-01-01

273

Early life course predictors of young adults' gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between a wide range of factors and young adults' gambling. Data were from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy. The study is based on 3691 individuals for whom data were available on self-report gambling and gambling expenditure at the 21-year follow-up. Independent variables were measured at the baseline and 14-year follow-up. Adolescents who smoked

Mohammad R. Hayatbakhsh; Alexandra M. Clavarino; Gail M. Williams; William Bor; Jake M. Najman

2012-01-01

274

Comorbidity patterns in adolescents and young adults with suicide attempts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of comorbidity as a risk for suicide attempts is investigated in a random sample of 3021 young adults aged 14–24\\u000a years. The M-CIDI, a fully standardized and modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used\\u000a for the assessment of various DSM-IV lifetime and 12-month diagnoses as well as suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Of\\u000a all suicide

U. Wunderlich; T. Bronisch; H.-U. Wittchen

1998-01-01

275

Delay of gratification in young adults with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-one young adults (17-23 years of age) with Down syndrome participated in two self-imposed delay of gratifi cation trials. Thirty-six and forty-eight percent waited for the experimenter to return (15 minutes) on Trials 1 and 2 respectively, and thirty-six percent waited for the experimenter on both occasions. Expressive language differentiated those who waited from those who did not. A discriminant

Monica Cuskelly; Maria Einam; Anne Jobling

2001-01-01

276

Vegetarian and Weight-Loss Diets among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Young adults frequently experiment with vegetarian and weight-loss diets. Comparisons of their experiences on these two different diets may help in the development of approaches to improve long-term adherence to weight-loss regimens. In the current study vegetarian and weight-loss diets were compared on how long and how strictly they were followed, and reasons why they were initiated and discontinued.Research

Cheryl F. Smith; Lora E. Burke; Rena R. Wing

2000-01-01

277

Ecstasy-induced recurrent toxic hepatitis in a young adult  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), otherwise known as “ecstasy,” is a synthetic amphetamine that produces euphoria, increases sociability and energy, and is often used as a “weekend” recreational drug by young adults.CASE SUMMARY: A 23-year-old male (height, 184 cm; weight, 68 kg) presented to the emergency department of Marmara University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, with jaundice and nausea lasting for 6

Ozlem Guneysel; Ozge Ecmel Onur; Haldun Akoglu; Arzu Denizbasi

2008-01-01

278

Gene-Environment Contributions to Young Adult Sexual Partnering  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, there has been relatively little work on gene-environment contributions to human sexuality, especially molecular\\u000a analyses examining the potential contributions of specific polymorphisms in conjunction with life experiences. Using Wave\\u000a III data from 717 heterozygous young adult sibling pairs included in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health,\\u000a this article examined the combined contributions of attendance at religious services

Carolyn T. Halpern; Christine E. Kaestle; Guang Guo; Denise D. Hallfors

2007-01-01

279

Neuropsychology of self-awareness in young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disorders of self-awareness are common following cortical damage, particularly to the frontal lobes, but there have been few\\u000a studies of individual differences in self-awareness in the normal population. In the current study, we explored patterns of\\u000a metacognitive awareness among healthy young adults, based on discrepancies of self- and other-ratings on the Frontal Systems\\u000a Behavior Scale (FrSBe; Grace and Malloy, 2002).

Doreen Hoerold; Paul M. Dockree; Fiadhnait M. O’Keeffe; Helen Bates; Maria Pertl; Ian H. Robertson

2008-01-01

280

Young adults and civic behavior: the psychosocial variables determining it.  

PubMed

The present work has a two-fold aim: (a) to verify the difference in civic behavior enacted by socially engaged young people in a lasting and structured form, sealed by membership in an organization, on the one hand, and in non-engaged young people, on the other hand; (b) to identify a pattern of characteristics (personal, social, and familial) able to explain civic behavior. Participants, 577 young adults from ages 19 to 29, filled out a self-report questionnaire. The results of the t test for independent samples confirm the presence of the difference between means of scores on the civic behavior. Moreover, data confirm a model in which civic behavior is predicted by personal identity, engagement values, family discussion of current events, the quality of previous membership experiences in socially oriented groups (membership), and finally, in a mediator position, by sense of community. The present study has many implications for researchers and practitioners. PMID:22242781

Marzana, Daniela; Marta, Elena; Pozzi, Maura

2012-01-01

281

YOUNG ADULT DATING RELATIONSHIPS AND THE MANAGEMENT OF SEXUAL RISK  

PubMed Central

Young adult involvement in sexual behavior typically occurs within a relationship context, but we know little about the ways in which specific features of romantic relationships influence sexual decision-making. Prior work on sexual risk taking focuses attention on health issues rather than relationship dynamics. We draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 475) to examine the association between qualities and dynamics of current/most recent romantic relationships such as communication and emotional processes, conflict, demographic asymmetries, and duration and the management of sexual risk. We conceptualize ‘risk management’ as encompassing multiple domains, including (1) questioning the partner about previous sexual behaviors/risks, (2) using condoms consistently, and (3) maintaining sexual exclusivity within the relationship. We identify distinct patterns of risk management among dating young adults and find that specific qualities and dynamics of these relationships are linked to variations in risk management. Results from this paper suggest the need to consider relational dynamics in efforts to target and influence young adult sexual risk-taking and reduce STIs, including HIV. PMID:23805015

Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Flanigan, Christine M.

2012-01-01

282

Life satisfaction of young adults with spina bifida.  

PubMed

This study concerns life satisfaction and its determinants in Dutch young adults with spina bifida (SB). Data on life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire [LiSat-9]) were related to hydrocephalus, lesion level, disabilities, and demographic variables. In total, 179 young adults with SB participated (41% male, age range 16-25y; 79% SB aperta, 67% hydrocephalus [HC], 39% wheelchair-dependent). Most were satisfied with their life as a whole (24% dissatisfied). No difference was found from a population reference group (28% dissatisfied). Highest proportions of dissatisfaction were found for financial situation (44%), partnership relations (49%), and sex life (55%). Least dissatisfaction was found for contact with friends (17%) and families (15%). Young adults with SB and HC were more satisfied with their financial situation and family life but were less satisfied with self-care ability and partnership relations than those without HC and the reference group. However, except for self-care ability, relationships between life satisfaction and having SB were weak. In conclusion, self-care ability and partnership relations were rated least favourable and may need more attention from care providers. Overall, SB does not seem to be an important determinant of life satisfaction. PMID:17518933

Barf, H A; Post, M W M; Verhoef, M; Jennekens-Schinkel, A; Gooskens, R H J M; Prevo, A J H

2007-06-01

283

Dietary iron concentration may influence aging process by altering oxidative stress in tissues of adult rats.  

PubMed

Iron is an essential element. However, in its free form, iron participates in redox-reactions, leading to the production of free radicals that increase oxidative stress and the risk of damaging processes. Living organisms have an efficient mechanism that regulates iron absorption according to their iron content to protect against oxidative damage. The effects of restricted and enriched-iron diets on oxidative stress and aging biomarkers were investigated. Adult Wistar rats were fed diets containing 10, 35 or 350 mg/kg iron (adult restricted-iron, adult control-iron and adult enriched-iron groups, respectively) for 78 days. Rats aged two months were included as a young control group. Young control group showed higher hemoglobin and hematocrit values, lower levels of iron and lower levels of MDA or carbonyl in the major studied tissues than the adult control group. Restricted-iron diet reduced iron concentrations in skeletal muscle and oxidative damage in the majority of tissues and also increased weight loss. Enriched-iron diet increased hematocrit values, serum iron, gamma-glutamyl transferase, iron concentrations and oxidative stress in the majority of tissues. As expected, young rats showed higher mRNA levels of heart and hepatic L-Ferritin (Ftl) and kidneys SMP30 as well as lower mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and interleukin-1 beta (Il1b) and also lower levels of liver protein ferritin. Restricted-iron adult rats showed an increase in heart Ftl mRNA and the enriched-iron adult rats showed an increase in liver nuclear factor erythroid derived 2 like 2 (Nfe2l2) and Il1b mRNAs and in gut divalent metal transporter-1 mRNA (Slc11a2) relative to the control adult group. These results suggest that iron supplementation in adult rats may accelerate aging process by increasing oxidative stress while iron restriction may retards it. However, iron restriction may also impair other physiological processes that are not associated with aging. PMID:23593390

Arruda, Lorena Fernandes; Arruda, Sandra Fernandes; Campos, Natália Aboudib; de Valencia, Fernando Fortes; Siqueira, Egle Machado de Almeida

2013-01-01

284

Dietary Iron Concentration May Influence Aging Process by Altering Oxidative Stress in Tissues of Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

Iron is an essential element. However, in its free form, iron participates in redox-reactions, leading to the production of free radicals that increase oxidative stress and the risk of damaging processes. Living organisms have an efficient mechanism that regulates iron absorption according to their iron content to protect against oxidative damage. The effects of restricted and enriched-iron diets on oxidative stress and aging biomarkers were investigated. Adult Wistar rats were fed diets containing 10, 35 or 350 mg/kg iron (adult restricted-iron, adult control-iron and adult enriched-iron groups, respectively) for 78 days. Rats aged two months were included as a young control group. Young control group showed higher hemoglobin and hematocrit values, lower levels of iron and lower levels of MDA or carbonyl in the major studied tissues than the adult control group. Restricted-iron diet reduced iron concentrations in skeletal muscle and oxidative damage in the majority of tissues and also increased weight loss. Enriched-iron diet increased hematocrit values, serum iron, gamma-glutamyl transferase, iron concentrations and oxidative stress in the majority of tissues. As expected, young rats showed higher mRNA levels of heart and hepatic L-Ferritin (Ftl) and kidneys SMP30 as well as lower mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and interleukin-1 beta (Il1b) and also lower levels of liver protein ferritin. Restricted-iron adult rats showed an increase in heart Ftl mRNA and the enriched-iron adult rats showed an increase in liver nuclear factor erythroid derived 2 like 2 (Nfe2l2) and Il1b mRNAs and in gut divalent metal transporter-1 mRNA (Slc11a2) relative to the control adult group. These results suggest that iron supplementation in adult rats may accelerate aging process by increasing oxidative stress while iron restriction may retards it. However, iron restriction may also impair other physiological processes that are not associated with aging. PMID:23593390

Arruda, Lorena Fernandes; Arruda, Sandra Fernandes; Campos, Natalia Aboudib; de Valencia, Fernando Fortes; Siqueira, Egle Machado de Almeida

2013-01-01

285

Adolescent and young adult oncology: an emerging subspecialty.  

PubMed

Adolescent and young adult (AYA) oncology is caught between the pediatric and adult oncology settings and, therefore, poorly defined. Unfortunately, progress in overall survival for this age cohort has been stagnant while children and older adults have seen significant improvements. Reasons for the lack of progress are multifactorial, with biologic and psychosocial explanations. The current article will detail the unique features of AYA patients with cancer in terms of outcomes, psychosocial issues, and recommendations. Literature pertaining to AYA patients with cancer from 2006-2012 was reviewed. Findings suggested that recognizing AYAs as a subspecialty that requires holistic, multidisciplinary care may improve outcomes. Nurses at all levels are adept at providing holistic care and are, therefore, excellent potential advocates for a specialized care delivery model that AYAs with cancer deserve. PMID:23715705

Williams, Kirstin A

2013-06-01

286

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adolescents and young adults.  

PubMed

The cure rate of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children is 80%, compared to less than half in adults. A major proportion of this cure rate drop occurs in adolescents and young adults (AYAs). The age range defining this population varies between studies, biological characteristics are different from both younger children and older adults, and AYAs are treated either by pediatric or adult oncologists, who often apply different treatment approaches to the same ALL patient population. The outcome of AYAs aged 15-21 years treated by more contemporary pediatric protocols is similar to that of younger children but is inferior when using adult regimens. This motivated studying AYA patients, including those above the age of 21 years, with pediatric or 'pediatrics-inspired' regimens that intensified nonmyelosuppressive drugs such as vincristine, steroids and asparaginase, with very promising preliminary results. Discovering new mutations in AYA ALL will help stratify patients into risk subgroups and identify targets for novel agents. This, together with fine-tuning pediatric chemotherapy principles will hopefully finally decrease the cure rate gap between children and AYAs - and even older adults. PMID:25228551

Burke, Patrick W; Douer, Dan

2014-01-01

287

Glutathione system in young spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Glutathione (GSH) forms a part of the antioxidant system that plays a vital role in preventing oxidative stress, and an imbalance in the oxidant/antioxidant system has been linked to the pathogenesis of hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of the GSH system in the kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Components of the GSH system, including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and total GSH content, were measured in the kidneys of 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 weeks old SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Systolic blood pressure of SHR was significantly higher from the age of 6 weeks onwards compared with age-matched WKY rats. GPx activity in the SHR was significantly lower from the age of 8 weeks onwards when compared to that in age-matched WKY rats. No significant differences were evident in the GPx-1 protein abundance, and its relative mRNA levels, GR, GST activity, and total GSH content between SHR and age-matched WKY rats. The lower GPx activity suggests of an impairment of the GSH system in the SHR, which might be due to an abnormality in its protein rather than non-availability of a cofactor. Its role in the development of hypertension in SHR however remains unclear. PMID:20680541

Lee, S K; Arunkumar, Sundaram; Sirajudeen, K N S; Singh, H J

2010-12-01

288

Alcohol consumption in young adults and incident hypertension: 20-year follow-up from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between alcohol consumption and incident hypertension is unclear, and most observational studies have not accounted for socioeconomic factors. This study examined the association between alcohol consumption in a diverse group of young adults and incident hypertension over 20 years. Participants (n = 4,711) were from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study cohort, recruited in 1985

Jewell H. Halanych; Monika M. Safford; Stefan G. Kertesz; Mark J. Pletcher; Young-Il Kim; Sharina D. Person; Cora E. Lewis; Catarina I. Kiefe

2010-01-01

289

Coronary risk factors measured in childhood and young adult life are associated with coronary artery calcification in young adults: The muscatine study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of coronary artery calcification in young adult men and women and to examine the association between the presence of coronary artery calcification and coronary risk factors measured in childhood and young adult life.Background. Electron beam computed tomography is a sensitive, noninvasive method for detecting coronary artery calcification, a marker of the

Larry T. Mahoney; Trudy L. Burns; William Stanford; Brad H. Thompson; John D. Witt; Catherine A. Rost; Ronald M. Lauer

1996-01-01

290

Vowel perception by noise masked normal-hearing young adults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined vowel perception by young normal-hearing (YNH) adults, in various listening conditions designed to simulate mild-to-moderate sloping sensorineural hearing loss. YNH listeners were individually age- and gender-matched to young hearing-impaired (YHI) listeners tested in a previous study [Richie et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2923-2933 (2003)]. YNH listeners were tested in three conditions designed to create equal audibility with the YHI listeners; a low signal level with and without a simulated hearing loss, and a high signal level with a simulated hearing loss. Listeners discriminated changes in synthetic vowel tokens /smcapi e ? invv æ/ when F1 or F2 varied in frequency. Comparison of YNH with YHI results failed to reveal significant differences between groups in terms of performance on vowel discrimination, in conditions of similar audibility by using both noise masking to elevate the hearing thresholds of the YNH and applying frequency-specific gain to the YHI listeners. Further, analysis of learning curves suggests that while the YHI listeners completed an average of 46% more test blocks than YNH listeners, the YHI achieved a level of discrimination similar to that of the YNH within the same number of blocks. Apparently, when age and gender are closely matched between young hearing-impaired and normal-hearing adults, performance on vowel tasks may be explained by audibility alone.

Richie, Carolyn; Kewley-Port, Diane; Coughlin, Maureen

2005-08-01

291

Social cognitive correlates of young adult sport competitors' sunscreen use.  

PubMed

Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis (n = 48) completed a sun habits survey. Almost half (n = 113) of the participants used sunscreen inadequately and 30% (n = 70) reported not using sunscreen. In fully adjusted models, social cognitive attributes significantly (p < .05) associated with inadequate sunscreen use (vs. nonuse) included skin cancer risk perceptions (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.3, 1.0), perceived barriers to sunscreen use (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3, 0.9), and stronger personal norms for applying sunscreen (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.0, 3.2). These findings provide insight into the attributes that enable or inhibit the use of sunscreen among young competitors and as a result may be useful in informing behavior change interventions within the sporting context. PMID:21059896

Berndt, Nadine C; O'Riordan, David L; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville

2011-02-01

292

Face age modulates gaze following in young adults  

PubMed Central

Gaze-following behaviour is considered crucial for social interactions which are influenced by social similarity. We investigated whether the degree of similarity, as indicated by the perceived age of another person, can modulate gaze following. Participants of three different age-groups (18–25; 35–45; over 65) performed an eye movement (a saccade) towards an instructed target while ignoring the gaze-shift of distracters of different age-ranges (6–10; 18–25; 35–45; over 70). The results show that gaze following was modulated by the distracter face age only for young adults. Particularly, the over 70 year-old distracters exerted the least interference effect. The distracters of a similar age-range as the young adults (18–25; 35–45) had the most effect, indicating a blurred own-age bias (OAB) only for the young age group. These findings suggest that face age can modulate gaze following, but this modulation could be due to factors other than just OAB (e.g., familiarity). PMID:24752250

Ciardo, Francesca; Marino, Barbara F. M.; Actis-Grosso, Rossana; Rossetti, Angela; Ricciardelli, Paola

2014-01-01

293

Canon Fodder: Young Adult Literature as a Tool for Critiquing Canonicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adult literature is a tool of socialisation and acculturation for young readers. This extends to endowing "reading" with particular significance in terms of what literature should be read and why. This paper considers some recent young adult fiction with an eye to its engagement with canonical literature and its representations of…

Hateley, Erica

2013-01-01

294

Habitual use of vocal fry in young adult female speakers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the use of vocal fry in young adult Standard American-English (SAE) speakers. This was a preliminary attempt (1) to determine the prevalence of the use of this register in young adult college-aged American speakers and (2) to describe the acoustic characteristics of vocal fry in these speakers. Subjects were 34 female college students. They were native SAE speakers aged 18-25 years. Data collection procedures included high quality recordings of two speaking conditions, (1) sustained isolated vowel /a/ and (2) sentence reading task. Data analyses included both perceptual and acoustic evaluations. Results showed that approximately two-thirds of this population used vocal fry and that it was most likely to occur at the end of sentences. In addition, statistically significant differences between vocal fry and normal register were found for mean F(0) minimum, F(0) maximum, F(0) range, and jitter local. Preliminary findings were taken to suggest that use of the vocal fry register may be common in some adult SAE speakers. PMID:21917418

Wolk, Lesley; Abdelli-Beruh, Nassima B; Slavin, Dianne

2012-05-01

295

Aging-Dependent Changes in the Radiation Response of the Adult Rat Brain  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the impact of aging on the radiation response in the adult rat brain. Methods and Materials: Male rats 8, 18, or 28 months of age received a single 10-Gy dose of whole-brain irradiation (WBI). The hippocampal dentate gyrus was analyzed 1 and 10 weeks later for sensitive neurobiologic markers associated with radiation-induced damage: changes in density of proliferating cells, immature neurons, total microglia, and activated microglia. Results: A significant decrease in basal levels of proliferating cells and immature neurons and increased microglial activation occurred with normal aging. The WBI induced a transient increase in proliferation that was greater in older animals. This proliferation response did not increase the number of immature neurons, which decreased after WBI in young rats, but not in old rats. Total microglial numbers decreased after WBI at all ages, but microglial activation increased markedly, particularly in older animals. Conclusions: Age is an important factor to consider when investigating the radiation response of the brain. In contrast to young adults, older rats show no sustained decrease in number of immature neurons after WBI, but have a greater inflammatory response. The latter may have an enhanced role in the development of radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction in older individuals.

Schindler, Matthew K. [Program in Neuroscience, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)], E-mail: mkschind@wfubmc.edu; Forbes, M. Elizabeth [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Robbins, Mike E. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Riddle, David R. [Program in Neuroscience, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

2008-03-01

296

Psychosocial Correlates of Sunburn among Young Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement), lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ. PMID:22829801

Heckman, Carolyn J.; Darlow, Susan; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Munshi, Teja; Perlis, Clifford S.

2012-01-01

297

Sexual communication and sexual behavior among young adult heterosexual latinos.  

PubMed

We examined verbal sexual health communication, pleasure discussions, and physical sexual communication in relation to condom use by young adult, heterosexual Latinos (ages 18-30 years). Participants (N = 220, 51% female) were recruited in a Midwestern state. Verbal sexual health communication was positively associated with consistent condom use among men (odds ratio [OR] = 2.66, p < .05) and women (OR = 3.12, p < .05). For men, pleasure discussions were negatively associated with consistent condom use (OR = 0.21, p < .05). For women, verbal sexual health communication was positively associated with condom use at last sex (OR = 2.75, p < .05), whereas physical sexual communication was negatively associated with condom use at last sex (OR = .29, p < .05). Various aspects of sexual communication may be important in HIV-prevention programs with young Latinos. Physical sexual communication and pleasure discussions, in particular, warrant further exploration given negative relationships with condom use. PMID:25305027

Alvarez, Carmen; Bauermeister, José A; Villarruel, Antonia M

2014-01-01

298

Recollections of Being LovedImplications of Childhood Experiences With Parents for Young Adults’ Romantic Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the extent to which young adults’ recollections of their childhood experiences with parents were associated with their reported feelings and behavior in romantic relationships. Participants were 205 young adults. Based on a question from the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996), participants wrote adjectives that described their childhood relationships with each parent as well as

Katherine A. Black; Emily D. Schutte

2006-01-01

299

Recollections of Being Loved: Implications of Childhood Experiences with Parents for Young Adults' Romantic Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent to which young adults recollections of their childhood experiences with parents were associated with their reported feelings and behavior in romantic relationships. Participants were 205 young adults. Based on a question from the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996), participants wrote adjectives…

Black, Katherine A.; Schutte, Emily D.

2006-01-01

300

Young Adults' Suicide Related Knowledge and Attitudes: Implications for suicide awareness education  

Microsoft Academic Search

,,,,,Abstract This study investigated the effects of gender, personal experience with suicidal others and exposure to suicide ,awareness ,education upon suicide related knowledge ,and attitudes of 190 young adults and 52 older adults. Results showed,that both the young and older adults indicated a substantial degree of personal ,experience with suicidal others, and despite displaying inadequate knowledge, possessed reasonable attitudes to

Jaime Thornhill; Robyn Gillies

301

The Black Arts Movement and African American Young Adult Literature: An Evaluation of Narrative Style  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I question whether or not African American young adult literature serves as a primer for, and a version of, African American adult literature. Using the Black Aesthetic as my literary theory and the Coretta Scott King Award as the young adult canon, I note that while the content of adolescent literature is consistent with the tenets of

Laretta Henderson

2005-01-01

302

Digital InequalityDifferences in Young Adults' Use of the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article expands understanding of the digital divide to more nuanced measures of use by examining differences in young adults' online activities. Young adults are the most highly connected age group, but that does not mean that their Internet uses are homogenous. Analyzing data about the Web uses of 270 adults from across the United States, the article explores the

Eszter Hargittai; Amanda Hinnant

2008-01-01

303

Neighborhood characteristics and components of the insulin resistance syndrome in young adults: the coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of neighborhood characteristics with six components of the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) in young adults.\\u000aRESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study were used to examine associations of neighborhood characteristics with the IRS in 3,093 nondiabetic adults aged 28-40 years. Measures of BMI, fasting HDL cholesterol,

Ana V. Diez-Roux; David R. Jacobs; Catarina I. Kiefe

2002-01-01

304

Prevention of alcohol misuse among children, youths and young adults  

PubMed Central

Background Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. Objectives This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. Methods A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool’sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. Results 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA). Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Discussion Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters). The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. Conclusion The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour) as well as the definition and empirical validation of risky alcohol consumption. The efficacy of prevention activities should be proven before they are launched. At present activities for the reduction or prevention of risky alcohol consumption are not sufficiently evaluated in Germany concerning their sustainable efficacy. PMID:21808659

Korczak, Dieter; Steinhauser, Gerlinde; Dietl, Markus

2011-01-01

305

Gingival recession: prevalence and risk indicators among young greek adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of the current research was to assess the prevalence of gingival recession and to investigate possible associations among this condition, periodontal and epidemiological variables in a sample of young Greek adults in a general dental practice. Material and Methods: A total of 1,430 young adults was examined clinically and interviewed regarding several periodontal and epidemiological variables. Collected data included demographic variables, oral hygiene habits and smoking status. Clinical examination included the recording of dental plaque, supragingival calculus presence, gingival status and buccal gingival recession. Multivariate logistic regression analysis model was performed to access the possible association between gingival recession and several periodontal and epidemiological variables as potential risk factors. Results: The overall prevalence of gingival recession was 63.9%. The statistical analysis indicated that higher educational level [OR= 2.12, 95% CI= 0.53-8.51], cigarette smoking [OR= 1.97, 95% CI= 1.48-7.91], frequent tooth brushing [OR= 0.98, 95% CI= 0.56-1.96], presence of oral piercing [OR= 0.92, 95% CI= 0.38-1.58], presence of gingival inflammation [OR= 4.54, 95% CI= 1.68-7.16], presence of dental plaque [OR= 1.67, 95% CI= 0.68-2.83] and presence of supragingival calculus [OR=1.34, 95% CI= 0.59-1.88], were the most important associated factors of gingival recession. Conclusions: The observations of the current research supported the results from previous authors that several periodontal factors, educational level and smoking were significantly associated with the presence of gingival recession, while presence of oral piercing was a new factor that was found to be associated with gingival recession. Key words:Gingival recession, prevalence, risk factors, young adults. PMID:25136424

2014-01-01

306

Sexual Orientation Disparities in Cardiovascular Biomarkers Among Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Emerging evidence from general population studies suggests that lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adults are more likely to experience adverse cardiovascular outcomes relative to heterosexuals. No studies have examined whether sexual orientation disparities exist in biomarkers of early cardiovascular disease risk. Purpose To determine whether sexual orientation disparities in biomarkers of early cardiovascular risk are present among young adults. Methods Data come from Wave IV (2008–2009) of the National Longitudinal Study for Adolescent Health (N=12,451), a prospective nationally representative study of U.S. adolescents followed into young adulthood (mean age: 28.9 years). A total of 520 respondents identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Biomarkers included C-reactive protein, glycosylated hemoglobin, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Results In gender-stratified models adjusted for demographics (age, race/ethnicity); SES (income, education); health behaviors (smoking, regular physical activity, alcohol consumption); and BMI, gay and bisexual men had significant elevations in C-reactive protein, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate, compared to heterosexual men. Despite having more risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, and higher BMI, lesbians and bisexual women had lower levels of C-reactive protein than heterosexual women in fully adjusted models. Conclusions Evidence was found for sexual orientation disparities in biomarkers of cardiovascular risk among young adults, particularly in gay and bisexual men. These findings, if confirmed in other studies, suggest that disruptions in core physiologic processes that ultimately confer risk for cardiovascular disease may occur early in the life course for sexual minority men. PMID:23683979

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Kate A.; Slopen, Natalie

2013-01-01

307

ACUTE BEHAVIORAL TOXICITY OF CARBARYL AND PROPOXUR IN ADULT RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Motor activity and neuromotor function were examined in adult CD rats exposed to either carbaryl or propoxur, and behavioral effects were compared with the time course of cholinesterase inhibition. Rats received an IP injection of either 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 mg/kg propoxur or 0, 4, 8,...

308

The Oral Toxicity of Mirex in Adult and Suckling Rats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The oral toxicity of the pesticide mirex which is used in the control of fire ants, was studied in Sherman strain rats. The single-dose LD50 was 365 mg/kg and the 90-dose LD50, 6.0 mg/kg in adult female rats. The chronicity factor, which is the ratio of s...

T. B. Gaines, R. D. Kimbrough

1969-01-01

309

Young Adult Gambling Behaviors and their Relationship with the Persistence of ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young adulthood is a period renowned for engagement in impulsive and risky behaviors, including gambling. There are some indications\\u000a that young adults exhibit higher gambling rates in comparison to older adults. Problem gambling has also been linked to ADHD.\\u000a This longitudinal study examines the relationship between gambling and ADHD among an epidemiological sample of young adults\\u000a (n = 235; males = 179, females = 56) aged

Jessie L. Breyer; Andria M. Botzet; Ken C. Winters; Randy D. Stinchfield; Gerald August; George Realmuto

2009-01-01

310

Self-Assessed Risk of HIV and Other STIs Among Young Adults in Norway and Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study is to explore how sexually active young Norwegian and Croatian adults assess the risk of\\u000a being infected with HIV and other STIs. Study results are based on a 2009–2010 large-scale national probability survey of\\u000a young adults aged 18–24 in Croatia (n = 1,005) and Norway (n = 871). A majority of sexually active young adults in Croatia\\u000a and

Bente Træen; Aleksandar Štulhofer

311

Young adult stimulant users' increased striatal activation during uncertainty is related to impulsivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Young adults who use stimulants (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines) are at particular risk of transitioning to dependence. Previously, we demonstrated increased risk-taking in young adults who had used stimulants (Leland, D.S., Paulus, M.P., 2005. Increased risk-taking decision-making but not altered response to punishment in stimulant-using young adults. Drug. Alcohol Depend. 78, 83-90). Since outcome uncertainty is a critical element of

David S. Leland; Estibaliz Arce; Justin S. Feinstein; Martin P. Paulus

2006-01-01

312

Using Young Adult Literature to Explore the Causes and Impact of Teen Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project addresses the use of young adult literature in the classroom to teach about teen violence. The research questions addressed are:\\u000a1. How is violence depicted in young adult literature from post-Columbine (1999) to present day (2009)?\\u000a2. How does young adult literature attempt to inform teens about the causes, effects, and warning signs of violence?\\u000a3. How do

Jill Ellen Hathaway

2009-01-01

313

Differential environmental modulations on locomotor activity, exploration and spatial behaviour in young and old rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of environmental enrichment on motor activity, exploration and spatial performances were studied in young and old rats. Both young (4 mo old) and old (22 mo old) rats were housed from weaning to testing either in standard or in enriched conditions. All rats were submitted successively to spontaneous alternation test and to object exploration test. Results show that

Martine Van Waas; Monique Soffié

1996-01-01

314

Whole Body Vibration Improves Cognition in Healthy Young Adults  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p?=?0.009; effect size r?=?0.20) and SDS (p?=?0.034; r?=?0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise. PMID:24949870

Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A.

2014-01-01

315

Tobacco Industry Lifestyle Magazines Targeted to Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose This is the first study describing the tobacco industry’s objectives developing and publishing lifestyle magazines, linking them to tobacco marketing strategies, and how these magazines may encourage smoking. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and content analysis of 31 lifestyle magazines to understand the motives behind producing these magazines and the role they played in tobacco marketing strategies. Results Philip Morris (PM) debuted Unlimited in 1996 to nearly 2 million readers and RJ Reynolds (RJR) debuted CML in 1999 targeting young adults with their interests. Both magazines were developed as the tobacco companies faced increased advertising restrictions Unlimited contained few images of smoking, but frequently featured elements of the Marlboro brand identity in both advertising and article content. CML featured more smoking imagery and fewer Camel brand identity elements. Conclusions Lifestyle promotions that lack images of smoking may still promote tobacco use through brand imagery. The tobacco industry still uses the “under the radar” strategies used in development of lifestyle magazines in branded websites. Prohibiting lifestyle advertising including print and electronic media that associate tobacco with recreation, action, pleasures, and risky behaviors or that reinforces tobacco brand identity may be an effective strategy to curb young adult smoking. PMID:19699423

Cortese, Daniel K.; Lewis, M. Jane; Ling, Pamela M.

2010-01-01

316

Motivational and mindfulness intervention for young adult female marijuana users  

PubMed Central

This pilot study tested the efficacy of a brief intervention using motivational interviewing (MI) plus mindfulness meditation (MM) to reduce marijuana use among young adult female. Thirty-four female marijuana users between the ages of 18–29 were randomized to either the intervention group (n = 22), consisting of 2 sessions of MI-MM or an assessment-only control group (n = 12). Participants’ marijuana use was assessed at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 months post-treatment. Fixed-effects regression modeling was used to analyze treatment effects. Participants randomized to the intervention group were found to use marijuana on 6.15 (z = ?2.42, p=.015), 7.81 (z = ?2.78, p=.005), and 6.83 (z = ?2.23, p=.026) fewer days at months 1, 2, and 3, respectively, than controls. Findings from this pilot study provide preliminary evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of a brief MI-MM for young adult female marijuana users. PMID:21940136

de Dios, Marcel A.; Herman, Debra S.; Britton, Willoughby B.; Hagerty, Claire E.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

2011-01-01

317

Motion sensor reactivity in physically active young adults.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine whether young adults changed their physical activity (PA) behavior when wearing motion sensors. PA patterns of 119 young adults (M age = 20.82 years, SD = 1.50, M body mass index = 23.93 kg/m2, SD = 4.05) were assessed during 2 consecutive weeks. In Week 1, participants wore an accelerometer. During Week 2, participants wore an accelerometer and a pedometer Counts/day from the accelerometer were examined over the entire study period. Steps/day from the pedometer were examined during Week 2. Descriptive statistics and two-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance were calculated. There were significant differences in counts/day by study day during both weeks of the study (Week 1, p < .0001; Week 2, p < .0001), and steps/day during Week 2 (p < .0001). However, reactivity was not evident. Subsequent investigation by day of the week revealed these differences were due to changes in participants' PA behavior by weekdays and weekends. With respect to gender, men were more active than women during both weeks of monitoring, but daily PA behavior between the genders followed a similar pattern. In conclusion, reactivity to accelerometers and pedometers was not evident in this sample. PMID:17479568

Behrens, Timothy K; Dinger, Mary K

2007-03-01

318

Impaired executive functioning in young adults born very preterm.  

PubMed

Individuals born very preterm (VPT) are at increased risk of perinatal brain injury and long-term cognitive and behavioral problems. Executive functioning, in particular, has been shown to be impaired in VPT children and adolescents. This study prospectively assessed executive function in young adults who were born VPT (<33 weeks of gestation) [n = 61; mean age, 22.25 (+/-1.07) years; range, 20.62-24.78 years] and controls [n = 64; mean age, 23.20 (+/-1.48) years; range, 19.97-25.46 years]. Tests used comprised the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), the Hayling Sentence Completion Test (HSCT), the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), the Animal and Object test, the Trail-Making Test (TMT), and the Test of Attentional Performance (TAP). VPT participants showed specific executive function impairments in tasks involving response inhibition and mental flexibility, even when adjusting for IQ, gender, and age. No significant associations were observed between executive function test scores and perinatal variables or neonatal ultrasound classification. The results suggest that, although free from major physical disability, VPT young adults perform worse than controls on tasks involving selective aspects of executive processing, such as mental flexibility and response inhibition. PMID:17521479

Nosarti, Chiara; Giouroukou, Elena; Micali, Nadia; Rifkin, Larry; Morris, Robin G; Murray, Robin M

2007-07-01

319

Staged Resection of Large Hypervascular Vestibular Schwannomas in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Two young adults underwent resection of large hypervascular vestibular schwannomas (acoustic neuromas) via two-stage surgery. The first patient, a 27-year-old woman with hydrocephalus, had a large hypervascular vestibular tumor in the left cerebellopontine angle (CPA) supplied by the left anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) and posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). The second patient, a 34-year-old woman, had a large AICA-supplied hypervascular vestibular tumor in the left CPA that displaced the brain stem significantly. At the initial stage, only the lateral aspect of the tumor was debulked due to excessive bleeding from the tumor bed. Angiography 1 or 2 months after the initial operation showed that the tumor was hypovascular. At the second stage, the remnant medial aspect of the tumor was relatively avascular and nonadherent to the brain stem. Without blood transfusion during the second stage, the tumor was removed totally in the first patient and subtotally in the second patient. Pathological examination revealed that dilatated blood vessels were prominently increased at the first surgery; however, at the second surgery, the number of blood vessels had decreased, showing necrosis and degeneration. Although there are no absolute indications for the staged resection of vestibular schwannomas, this procedure may represent one of the safest options for these difficult lesions in young adults. ImagesFigure 1p201-bFigure 1p202-bFigure 2p203-bFigure 2p204-b PMID:17167621

Abe, Takumi; Izumiyama, Hitoshi; Imaizumi, Youichi; Kobayashi, Shinsuke; Shimazu, Motohiko; Sasaki, Ken; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Kushima, Miki

2001-01-01

320

Therapeutic approaches to haematological malignancies in adolescents and young adults.  

PubMed

Tremendous strides have been made in improving the outcomes of haematological malignancies (HM) over the last three decades, but adolescents and young adult (AYA) patients have not benefitted equally compared to younger and older patients. Excellent outcomes in Hodgkin lymphoma have allowed tailoring of highly effective regimens that limit the incidence of late effects. Early successes in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia set the stage for a series of studies in young adults utilizing a paediatric-type treatment strategy. These studies have determined that AYAs benefit from paediatric-type chemotherapy regimens. Despite the increased incidence of acute myeloid leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the AYA age group, optimal strategies for these patients have not been systematically pursued. There is renewed interest in improving HM outcomes in AYA patients and this will rely on the development of clinical trials that specifically target these patients. Understanding and addressing the unique psychosocial challenges of this population will be critical in supporting this endeavor. PMID:24007213

Place, Andrew E; Frederick, Natasha N; Sallan, Stephen E

2014-01-01

321

Major depressive disorder symptoms in male and female young adults.  

PubMed

This research aimed to compare the prevalence rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) and to differentiate the presence and severity of depressive symptoms between women and men aged 18-24?years. In this population-based, cross-sectional study (n?=?1560), young adults were screened with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for MDD (n?=?137). Participants then completed a self-report questionnaire to gather sociodemographic data, and the presence of each symptom of depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. The proportion of women (12.2%) with MDD was higher than that of men (5.3%). The symptoms of depression found to be significantly more prevalent in women were sadness, crying, difficulty making decisions, and lack of energy, as well as self-criticism, irritability, changes in self-image, work difficulty, and loss of interest in sex. Sadness and self-criticism were significantly more severe in women than in men. The presentation of depressive symptoms in young adults with MDD differed between men and women. PMID:23651450

Lopez Molina, Mariane Acosta; Jansen, Karen; Drews, Cláudio; Pinheiro, Ricardo; Silva, Ricardo; Souza, Luciano

2014-01-01

322

[Etiological workup for cerebral infarction in young adults].  

PubMed

identifying the cause of ischemic stroke in young adults is of major importance to prevent stroke recurrence. However, given the wide variety of potential underlying causes, the etiological workup of stroke in young adults requires a different approach from that in the elderly The purpose of this article is to provide a sequential diagnostic workup in order to optimize the yield of diagnostic tests, and to reduce their cost and risks for the patient. The first line screening mainly includes contemporary MRI of the brain and its vessels, and cardiac investigations which will assess the most frequent causes of stroke in this age group: arterial dissection and cardioembolism. The second line screening should be guided by context and clinical suspicion: lumbar puncture and immunological tests in case of angeitis suspicion; lumbar puncture, blood culture and serologies in case of infectious context; antiphospholipid syndrome, Holter-ECG, transoesophageal echocardiography, HIV and syphilis serologies in absence of context. Finally, the third line screening may include more invasive tests such as angiography and leptomeningeal biopsy in case of angeitis suspicion or genetic analyses. Despite such a comprehensive workup, about one third of cases will remain unexplained, leading to the diagnosis of idiopathic ischemic stroke. PMID:24167893

Renou, Pauline; Rouanet, François

2013-09-01

323

Thyroid hormone regulates hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult rat brain  

E-print Network

Thyroid hormone regulates hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult rat brain Lynette A. Desouza,a,1 March 2005 Available online 27 April 2005 We have examined the influence of thyroid hormone on adult hormone may be optimally permissive at euthyroid levels. Our in vivo and in vitro results revealed

Vaidya, Vidita

324

Somatosensory mismatch response in young and elderly adults  

PubMed Central

Aging is associated with cognitive decline and alterations in early perceptual processes. Studies in the auditory and visual sensory modalities have shown that the mismatch negativity [or the mismatch response (MMR)], an event-related potential (ERP) elicited by a deviant stimulus in a background of homogenous events, diminishes with aging and cognitive decline. However, the effects of aging on the somatosensory MMR (sMMR) are not known. In the current study, we recorded ERPs to electrical pulses to different fingers of the left hand in a passive oddball experiment in young (22–36 years) and elderly (66–95 years) adults engaged in a visual task. The MMR was found to deviants as compared to standards at two latency ranges: 180–220 ms and 250–290 ms post-stimulus onset. At 180–220 ms, within the young, the MMR was found at medial electrode sites, whereas aged did not show any amplitude difference between the stimulus types at the same latency range. At 250–290 ms, the MMR was evident with attenuated amplitude and narrowed scalp distribution among aged (Fz) compared to young (fronto-centrally and lateral parietal sites). Hence, the results reveal that the somatosensory change detection mechanism is altered in aging. The sMMR can be used as a reliable measure of age-related changes in sensory-cognitive functions. PMID:25386140

Strommer, Juho M.; Tarkka, Ina M.; Astikainen, Piia

2014-01-01

325

Microrna profiling analysis of differences between the melanoma of young adults and older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study represents the first attempt to perform a profiling analysis of the intergenerational differences in the microRNAs (miRNAs) of primary cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms in young adult and older age groups. The data emphasize the importance of these master regulators in the transcriptional machinery of melanocytic neoplasms and suggest that differential levels of expressions of these miRs may contribute

Drazen M Jukic; Uma N. M. Rao; Lori Kelly; Jihad S Skaf; Laura M Drogowski; John M Kirkwood; Monica C Panelli

2010-01-01

326

Quality of Life Concerns in Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Qualitative Research Investigation  

E-print Network

Although young adult (YA) survivors of child cancer comprise a unique group from a developmental standpoint, in most treatment and research settings either child or general adult measures of quality of life (QL) are used to measure adjustment...

Puckett, Stevie

2013-06-13

327

Clinical characteristics and outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage in young adults.  

PubMed

Data on determinants of prognosis after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in young adults are scarce. Our aim was to identify clinical determinants of prognosis after ICH in adults aged 18-50. We investigated 98 consecutive patients with an ICH, aged 18-50 years, admitted to our hospital between 1980 and 2010. Collected ICH characteristics included presenting symptoms, etiology, location, severity and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Outcomes were case-fatality (death within 30 days), poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale >2), long-term mortality and recurrent ICH. We assessed discriminatory power of factors associated with case-fatality [area under receiver operating curve (AUC)]. Case-fatality was 20.4 % (n = 20) and well predicted by the GCS (AUC 0.83). Among 30-day survivors, a poor functional outcome at discharge was present in 51.3 %. During a mean follow-up of 11.3 years mortality was only increased in patients aged 40-50 years [standardized mortality ratio 4.8 (95 % CI 2.3-8.6)], but not in patients aged 18-40 years. Recurrent ICH occurred in 6 patients [10-year cumulative incidence 12.2 % (95 % CI 1.5-22.9 %)], all with the index ICH attributable to structural vascular malformations. Prognosis after ICH in young adults is poor, mainly due to high case-fatality, that is well predicted by the GCS. An exception is 30-day survivors <40 years, who have a similar risk of dying as the general population. Recurrence risk is especially present in patients with structural vascular malformations, whereas risk seems to be very low in other patients. PMID:25138477

Rutten-Jacobs, Loes Ca; Maaijwee, Noortje Am; Arntz, Renate M; Schoonderwaldt, Hennie C; Dorresteijn, Lucille D; van Dijk, Ewoud J; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

2014-11-01

328

Battle on the Gender Homefront: Depictions of the American Civil War in Contemporary Young-Adult Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Civil War has been a popular topic for young-adult writers for years, with new books now being written from young women's perspectives. In this paper, I will examine the gender ideologies that infiltrate contemporary Civil War books for young adults. I will examine four recent young-adult Civil-War novels: G. Clifton Wisler's "Mr.…

Clapp-Itnyre, Alisa

2007-01-01

329

Expanding dependent coverage for young adults: lessons from state initiatives.  

PubMed

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires that adults up to age twenty-six be permitted to enroll as dependents on their parents' health plans. This article examines the experiences of states that enacted dependent expansion laws. Drawing on public information from thirty-one enacting states and case studies of four diverse reform states, it derives lessons that are pertinent to the implementation of this ACA provision. Dependent coverage laws vary across the states, but most impose residency, marital status, and other restrictions. The federal Employee Retirement Income Security Act further limits the reach of state laws. Eligibility for expanded coverage under the ACA is much broader. Rules in some states requiring or allowing separate premiums for adult dependents may also discourage enrollment compared with rules in other states (and the ACA), where these costs must be factored into family premiums. Business opposition in some states led to more restrictive regulations, especially for how premiums are charged, which in turn raised greater implementation challenges. Case study states did not report substantial young adult dependent coverage take-up, but early enrollment experience under ACA appears to be more positive. Long-term questions remain about the implications of this policy for risk pooling and the distribution of premium costs. PMID:22273776

Cantor, Joel C; Belloff, Dina; Monheit, Alan C; Delia, Derek; Koller, Margaret

2012-02-01

330

Neuroimaging in children, adolescents and young adults with psychological trauma.  

PubMed

Childhood psychological trauma is a strong predictor of psychopathology. Preclinical research points to the influence of this type of trauma on brain development. However, the effects of psychological trauma on the developing human brain are less known and a challenging question is whether the effects can be reversed or even prevented. The aim of this review is to give an overview of neuroimaging studies in traumatized juveniles and young adults up till 2012. Neuroimaging studies in children and adolescents with traumatic experiences were found to be scarce. Most studies were performed by a small number of research groups in the United States and examined structural abnormalities. The reduction in hippocampal volume reported in adults with PTSD could not be confirmed in juveniles. The most consistent finding in children and adolescents, who experienced psychological trauma are structural abnormalities of the corpus callosum. We could not identify any studies investigating treatment effects. Neuroimaging studies in traumatized children and adolescents clearly lag behind studies in traumatized adults as well as studies on ADHD and autism. PMID:23553572

Rinne-Albers, Mirjam A W; van der Wee, Nic J A; Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

2013-12-01

331

Intestinal absorption of triglyceride and vitamin D3 in aged and young rats  

SciTech Connect

(3H)Trioleyl glycerol (TO) and (14C)vitamin D3 were perfused intraduodenally for 5 hr in aged (19-21 months) and young adult (4-5 months) Sprague-Dawley rats. The rate of intestinal uptake from the gastrointestinal lumen and transport into the body of these lipids were decreased in the aged animals. Since the distribution of TO lipolytic products in the lumen was unchanged, reduced intestinal uptake rate probably occurred at the mucosal membrane. Furthermore, in the aged rats, the rate of transintestinal transport of both trioleyl glycerol and vitamin D3 was impaired. No evidence for impaired mucosal TO reesterification or for accumulation of vitamin D3 metabolites was found, suggesting that intestinal lipid accumulation resulted from a defect in lipoprotein assembly or in discharge from the mucosal cell. Impaired absorption of lipids may contribute to malnutrition and osteopenia of advancing age.

Holt, P.R.; Dominguez, A.A.

1981-12-01

332

Functions of Reminiscence in Later Life as Viewed by Young and Old Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The views of 76 young adults on their own reminiscences and those of older persons were compared with the self-reports of 83 older adults. Older adults used reminiscence to transmit life experiences. The beliefs of younger adults about elders' use of reminiscence reflect the prevalence of ageist stereotypes. (Contains 22 references.) (JOW)

Cappeliez, Philippe; Lavallee, Rosanne

2001-01-01

333

Andragogy for Teen and Young Adult Learners with Intellectual Disabilities: Learning, Independence, and Best Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teens and young adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) meet the criteria of teen and adult learners chronologically, but may be deficient in many other areas of teen and adult learning. The spectrum of intellectual and adaptive capabilities among teens and adults with ID is vast, with each individual being unique. There are specific teaching…

Bowman, Stephanie L.; Plourde, Lee A.

2012-01-01

334

Illicit drug use in young adults and subsequent decline in general health: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The long-term health consequences of drug use among healthy young adults in the general population are not well described. We assessed whether drug use predicted decline in general self-rated health (GSRH) in a community-based cohort, healthy at baseline.\\u000aMETHODS: A prospective cohort of 3124 young adults (20-32 years old) from four US cities, the Coronary Artery Risk Development in

Stefan G. Kertesz; Mark J. Pletcher; Monika M. Safford; Jewell H. Halanych; Katharine Kirk; Joseph Schumacher; Stephen Sidney; Catarina I. Kiefe

2006-01-01

335

Impact of father's education and parental smoking status on smoking behavior in young adults. The CARDIA study. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations of parents' education and smoking with young adults' smoking were examined in participants aged 18-30 years at baseline (1985-1986) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. Significant (p < 0.05) inverse age-adjusted associations of father's education with participant smoking status among black men, white men, and white women disappeared after adjustment for participant's education. Parental smoking

Kurt J. Greenlund; K. Liu; Catarina I. Kiefe; Carla Yunis; A. R. Dyer; Gregory L. Burke

1995-01-01

336

Effects of Chronic Fluoxetine Treatment on Neurogenesis and Tryptophan Hydroxylase Expression in Adolescent and Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

The antidepressant drug fluoxetine (Prozac) has been increasingly prescribed to children and adolescents with depressive disorders despite a lack of thorough understanding of its therapeutic effects in the paediatric population and of its putative neurodevelopmental effects. Within the framework of PRIOMEDCHILD ERA-NET, we investigated; a) effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a structural readout relevant for antidepressant action and hippocampal development; b) effects on tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) expression, a measure of serotonin synthesis; c) whether treatment effects during adolescence differed from treatment at an adult age, and d) whether they were subregion-specific. Stereological quantification of the number of proliferating (Ki-67+) cells and of the number of young migratory neurons (doublecortin+), revealed a significant age-by-treatment interaction effect, indicating that fluoxetine affects both proliferation and neurogenesis in adolescent-treated rats differently than it does in adult-treated rats. In terms of subregional differences, fluoxetine enhanced proliferation mainly in the dorsal parts of the hippocampus, and neurogenesis in both the suprapyramidal and infrapyramidal blades of the dentate gyrus in adolescent-treated rats, while no such differences were seen in adult-treated rats. Fluoxetine exerted similar age-by-treatment interaction effects on TPH cells mainly in the ventral portion of the dorsal raphe nucleus. We conclude that fluoxetine exerts divergent effects on structural plasticity and serotonin synthesis in adolescent versus adult-treated rats. These preliminary data indicate a differential sensitivity of the adolescent brain to this drug and thus warrant further research into their behavioural and translational aspects. Together with recent related findings, they further call for caution in prescribing these drugs to the adolescent population. PMID:24827731

Meerhoff, Gideon F.

2014-01-01

337

Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability Among Young Adults in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high prevalence setting of South Africa—where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. In 2007, we conducted six focus groups (n=42) with South Africans aged 18-24 years old. We used a deductive framework approach to identify key motivators and barriers to future HIV vaccine uptake. Participants identified HIV testing, HIV stigma, mistrust of the health care system, and concerns about sexual disinhibition as barriers to vaccine uptake. For women, family members and friends were strong motivators for vaccine uptake, while men were more likely to see vaccines as an opportunity to stop using HIV prevention strategies such as condoms and partner reductions. Implications of these findings for developing HIV vaccine dissemination strategies and policy in South Africa are discussed. PMID:19509123

Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

2010-01-01

338

Miranda Rights Comprehension in Young Adults With Specific Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 young adults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language impairment (SLI). A correlational analysis of the relationship between language scores and Miranda rights comprehension was conducted, as were tests of differences between individuals with SLI (n = 17) and individuals without SLI. Results Language ability was positively correlated with overall performance on the Miranda measure. As a group, individuals with SLI were significantly poorer than their peers with normal language at defining Miranda vocabulary and applying Miranda rights in hypothetical situations. The group with SLI was also marginally less able to paraphrase Miranda sentences. Conclusion Language impairment limits comprehension of Miranda warnings. As a result, citizens with language impairment are at risk of being denied their constitutional rights. PMID:22230180

Rost, Gwyneth C.; McGregor, Karla K.

2013-01-01

339

Peer influence on event reports among adolescents and young adults.  

PubMed

When two or more people witness an event together, the event report from one person can influence others' reports. In the current study we examined the role of age and motivational factors on peer influence regarding event reports in adolescents and young adults. Participants (N=249) watched a short video of a robbery then answered questions with no co-witness information or with information believed to be from a co-witness. Public and private response conditions were included to explore motivations for peer influence. Co-witness information influenced participants' responses, although the effect was equally strong in the private and the public co-witness conditions. Peer influence on event reports was steady across a large age range (11- to 25-year-olds). PMID:21919594

McGuire, Katherine; London, Kamala; Wright, Daniel B

2011-08-01

340

Optic Neuritis Caused by Rathke's Cleft Cyst in Young Adult  

PubMed Central

We report a case of right optic neuritis caused by Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC) in a young adult. A 15-year-old boy presented with reduced visual acuity in the right eye. He was diagnosed with optic neuritis in the right eye 4 years earlier at other clinics before he was referred to our department. During our one-year examinations, the cause of the reduced vision in his right eye could not be determined conclusively. At the age of 17 years, a RCC was detected by a neurosurgeon who specialized in hypophyseal diseases. He underwent microscopic transsphenoidal resection of the cyst, and his vision recovered to 1.2 and he has had no recurrence for at least 9 months. We suggest that repeated rupturing of the RCC was the cause of the optic neuritis, and a RCC can be successfully treated by surgery even after 3 years of optic neuritis. PMID:25045561

Kobayashi, Namie; Oshitari, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Onoda, Takatsugu; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Adachi-Usami, Emiko

2014-01-01

341

[Teenage and young adult cancer: how to make effective disclosures?].  

PubMed

Announcement of diagnosis is a critical step in establishing a trust-based relationship of quality between patient and physician. Disclosing "bad news" is a difficult and sensitive task which has direct consequences on psychological, emotional and relational levels, as well as on therapeutic management. This is a potentially traumatic experience which requires a long process of integration and psychological adaptation. The hematologist-oncologist occupies a central position: He introduces the framework for a multidisciplinary care, while taking into account the personality and behavior of the teenager or young adult. We propose an analysis of doctor-patient interaction; an overview of psychological issues associate with diagnosis disclosure; suggestions to build and manage communication with patients; and a clarification of the role of the psychologist and of the psychological adjustment at the time of disclosure. PMID:24977445

Ezhova, Ivanka; Martinez, Nicole; Ciais, Catherine; Fogliarini, Anne; Cherikh, Faredj; Coso, Diane; Peyrade, Frédéric

2014-06-01

342

Quantifying light exposure patterns in young adult students  

PubMed Central

Exposure to bright light appears to be protective against myopia in both animals (chicks, monkeys) and children, but quantitative data on human light exposure are limited. In this study, we report on a technique for quantifying light exposure using wearable sensors. Twenty-seven young adult subjects wore a light sensor continuously for two weeks during one of three seasons, and also completed questionnaires about their visual activities. Light data were analyzed with respect to refractive error and season, and the objective sensor data were compared with subjects’ estimates of time spent indoors and outdoors. Subjects’ estimates of time spent indoors and outdoors were in poor agreement with durations reported by the sensor data. The results of questionnaire-based studies of light exposure should thus be interpreted with caution. The role of light in refractive error development should be investigated using multiple methods such as sensors to complement questionnaires. PMID:25342873

Alvarez, Amanda A.; Wildsoet, Christine F.

2014-01-01

343

Healthy older adults have insufficient hip range of motion and plantar flexor strength to walk like healthy young adults.  

PubMed

Limited plantar flexor strength and hip extension range of motion (ROM) in older adults are believed to underlie common age-related differences in gait. However, no studies of age-related differences in gait have quantified the percentage of strength and ROM used during gait. We examined peak hip angles, hip torques and plantar flexor torques, and corresponding estimates of functional capacity utilized (FCU), which we define as the percentage of available strength or joint ROM used, in 10 young and 10 older healthy adults walking under self-selected and controlled (slow and fast) conditions. Older adults walked with about 30% smaller hip extension angle, 28% larger hip flexion angle, 34% more hip extensor torque in the slow condition, and 12% less plantar flexor torque in the fast condition than young adults. Older adults had higher FCU than young adults for hip flexion angle (47% vs. 34%) and hip extensor torque (48% vs. 27%). FCUs for plantar flexor torque (both age groups) and hip extension angle (older adults in all conditions; young adults in self-selected gait) were not significantly <100%, and were higher than for other measures examined. Older adults lacked sufficient hip extension ROM to walk with a hip extension angle as large as that of young adults. Similarly, in the fast gait condition older adults lacked the strength to match the plantar flexor torque produced by young adults. This supports the hypothesis that hip extension ROM and plantar flexor strength are limiting factors in gait and contribute to age-related differences in gait. PMID:24461576

Anderson, Dennis E; Madigan, Michael L

2014-03-21

344

Outcome for Adolescent and Young Adult Patients With Osteosarcoma  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND There are conflicting data regarding age as a prognostic factor in osteosarcoma. The authors conducted a study evaluating the impact of age on prognosis in children and young adults with osteosarcoma enrolled on North American cooperative group trials. METHODS Patients with high-grade osteosarcoma of any site enrolled on North American cooperative group trials CCG-7943, POG-9754, INT-0133, and AOST0121 were included in this study. Primary tumor site, age, sex, ethnicity, histologic response, and presence of metastatic disease at diagnosis were evaluated for their impact on overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS). RESULTS A total of 1054 patients were eligible and had complete data available for the study. Age was not significantly associated with any other presenting covariate analyzed except sex. Age 18 or older was associated with a statistically significant poorer EFS (P = .019) and OS (P = .043). The 10-year EFS and OS in patients <10, 10 to 17, and ?18 years old were 55%, 55%, 37% and 68%, 60%, 41%, respectively. The poorer EFS in patients ?18 years old was because of an increased rate of relapse. Presence of metastatic disease at diagnosis, poor histologic response, and pelvic tumor site were also associated with a poorer prognosis. In multivariate analysis, age continued to be associated with poorer EFS (P = .019) and OS (P = .049). CONCLUSIONS In osteosarcoma, age 18 to 30 years is associated with a statistically significant poorer outcome because of an increased rate of relapse. Poorer outcome in adolescent and young adult patients is not explained by tumor location, histologic response, or metastatic disease at presentation. PMID:22252521

Janeway, Katherine A.; Barkauskas, Donald A.; Krailo, Mark D.; Meyers, Paul A.; Schwartz, Cindy L.; Ebb, David H.; Seibel, Nita L.; Grier, Holcombe E.; Gorlick, Richard; Marina, Neyssa

2012-01-01

345

Evaluation of an AIDS education programme for young adults.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVES--To evaluate the impact of an AIDS education programme designed for young adults. DESIGN--A randomised trial with a pre-post test design. SETTING--Participants were drawn from six youth training centres in the city of Nottingham, England. STUDY POPULATION--All trainees aged 16-19 years attending the six centres were included in the sample and centres were randomly allocated to experimental (n = 173) and control (n = 164) groups. The response rate to both questionnaires was high (71%). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Data on sexual behaviour, knowledge, and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS were obtained by confidential questionnaire. Two thirds of the sample were sexually active. There were no differences between groups at pre-test and no differences by sex. The experimental group had a significantly higher level of knowledge than the control group post-test. Significantly more experimental than control trainees knew post-test that HIV could be transmitted via anal sex and through broken skin. In addition, twice as many experimental (53%) as control trainees (25%; p < 0.001) were aware that a cure for AIDS was unlikely in the near future. There were no observed effects on sexual behaviour, intentions, or attitudes. CONCLUSIONS--The Streetwize UK educational programme had a significant impact on young adults' knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention in the short term. If community based AIDS education is to do more than merely inform, however, resources must be made available for peer led interventions and skills training. PMID:8326271

Bellingham, K; Gillies, P

1993-01-01

346

Sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in young adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most prior research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Methods Young adults (N=763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Results Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared to their non-sexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Conclusions Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks subsequent to sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. PMID:23299017

Benotsch, Eric G.; Snipes, Daniel J.; Martin, Aaron M.; Bull, Sheana S.

2012-01-01

347

Pubertal testosterone predicts mental rotation performance of young adult males.  

PubMed

Robust sex differences in some spatial abilities that favor males have raised the question of whether testosterone contributes to those differences. There is some evidence for prenatal organizational effects of testosterone on male-favoring spatial abilities, but not much is known about the role of pubertal testosterone levels on adult cognitive abilities. We studied the association between pubertal testosterone (at age 14) and cognitive performance in young adulthood (at age 21-23), assessing male-favoring, female-favoring, and sex-neutral cognitive domains in a population-based sample of 130 male and 178 female twins. Pubertal testosterone was negatively associated with performance in the Mental Rotation Test in young adult men (r=-.27), while among women no significant associations between testosterone and cognitive measures were detected. The significant association among men remained after controlling for pubertal development. Confirmatory within-family comparisons with one-sided significance testing yielded a negative correlation between twin pair differences in testosterone levels and Mental Rotation Test performances in 35 male twin pairs (r=-.32): the twin brother with higher testosterone performed less well on the Mental Rotation Test. That association was evident in 18 pairs of dizygotic male twin pairs (r=-.42; analysis controlling for shared environmental effects). In contrast, the association of differences was not evident among 17 monozygotic male twin pairs (r=-.07; analysis controlling for shared genetic influences). Results suggest that pubertal testosterone levels are related specifically to male-favoring spatial ability and only among men. Within-family analyses implicated possible shared genetic effects between pubertal testosterone and mental rotation ability. PMID:22520299

Vuoksimaa, Eero; Kaprio, Jaakko; Eriksson, C J Peter; Rose, Richard J

2012-11-01

348

Sexual Functioning in Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of sexuality or sexual behavior in childhood cancer survivors tend to examine relationships or achievement of developmental milestones but not physiological response to cancer or treatment. The purpose of this study is to (1) identify prevalence and risk factors for sexual dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors, and (2) examine the extent to which sexual dysfunction may be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and psychosocial outcomes. Methods Five hundred ninety-nine survivors age 18-39 years completed standardized measures of sexual functioning, HRQOL, psychological distress and life satisfaction. Descriptive statistics assessed prevalence of sexual symptoms. Bivariate analyses identified correlates of sexual symptoms and examined associations between symptoms and HRQOL/psychosocial outcomes. Results Most survivors appear to be doing well, although 52% of female survivors and 32% of male survivors reported at least “a little of a problem” in one or more areas of sexual functioning. Mean symptom score for females was more than twice that of males. Sexual symptoms were associated with reporting health problems. Significant associations between sexual functioning and HRQOL outcomes were observed, with gender differences in strengths of association suggesting that males find sexual symptoms more distressing than do females. Conclusions While most survivors appear to be doing well in this important life domain, some young adult survivors report sexual concerns. While female survivors may report more sexual symptoms than male survivors, males may experience more distress associated with sexual difficulties. Better specified measures of sexual function, behavior and outcomes are needed for this young adult population. PMID:19862693

Zebrack, Brad J.; Foley, Sallie; Wittmann, Daniela; Leonard, Marcia

2009-01-01

349

Young Adults' Retrospective Reports of Parenting by Mothers and Fathers: Associations With Current Relationship Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined retrospective reports of both mothers' and fathers' parenting and young adults' (N = 75) relationship quality. Multiple regression analyses showed that, as predicted, young adults' retrospective reports of the positive parenting they experienced as children were significantly related to the extent by which they currently viewed (a) others as accessible and responsive, (b) their relationships with others

William T. Dalton III; Donna Frick-Horbury; Katherine M. Kitzmann

2006-01-01

350

Intergenerational Contact and the Life Course Status of Young Adult Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how the life course status of young adults--whether they have a romantic partner and whether they have children--is related to how often they have contact with their parents. Hypotheses were tested using recent data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study. The main sample included 1,911 young adults between the ages of 18 and…

Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie; Hagendoorn, Louk

2008-01-01

351

Discovering and examining Arabic young adult literature trade books: A content analysis of cultural authenticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the current availability of Arabic young adult literature trade books and to systematically analyze Arabic young adult literature trade books in terms of their cultural authenticity. By analyzing the contents of the trade books through the lenses of literary merit and Arabic culture, I hoped to fill a gap in the current

Nisreen M. Kamel Anati

2009-01-01

352

Predictors of Developmental Task Attainment for Young Adults from Divorced Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine which variables impact developmental task attainment for young adults from divorced families, respondents completed demographic questions, the young adult version of the Personal Authority in the Family System Questionnaire, and the three family relationship subscales of the Family Environment Scale. Of the factors assessed, results suggest that the quality of post-divorce family functioning is the most salient predictor

Patrick Johnson; Keith McNeil

1998-01-01

353

Stuttering, attractiveness and romantic relationships: The perception of adolescents and young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible negative impact of stuttering on romantic opportunities for adolescents and young adults who stutter. The first part of the study investigated if being a person who stutters affects the attractiveness of adolescents and young adults to their peers. To this end, 343 males and 393 females were shown age-matched pictures

John Van Borsel; Marie Brepoels; Janne De Coene

2011-01-01

354

Macrostructural Narrative Language of Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome or Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To gain a better understanding of language abilities, the expressive macrostructural narrative language abilities of verbally expressive adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) and those with fragile X syndrome (FXS) were examined. Method: The authors evaluated 24 adolescents and young adults with DS, 12 male adolescents and…

Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Palmer, Meghan; Abbeduto, Leonard

2012-01-01

355

Parental Divorce and Family Functioning: Effects on Differentiation Levels of Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study examines the effect of parental divorce and various dimensions of functioning in the family of origin on young adult development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning significantly affect differentiation levels of young adults. Implications of the results for counselors and future researchers are provided. (Contains…

Johnson, Patrick; Throngren, Jill M.; Smith, Adina J.

2001-01-01

356

Young Adult Identities and Their Pathways: A Developmental and Life Course Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental and life course studies of young adult identities have focused on 2 dimensions: subjective age and psychosocial maturity. This study examines the developmental synchrony of these 2 processes. In a longitudinal sample of young adults from Add Health (ages 18-22), a person-centered analysis of indicators of these dimensions identified…

Benson, Janel E.; Elder, Glen H., Jr.

2011-01-01

357

African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

2014-01-01

358

Foster Care Experiences and Educational Outcomes of Young Adults Formerly Placed in Foster Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study contributes to the body of research on the educational outcomes of young adults who were formerly placed in foster care. Telephone interviews were conducted with 359 young adults (a 54.6% response rate). Participants must have been served for at least one year by one private foster care agency in one of its twenty-two offices. Results…

Havalchak, Anne; White, Catherine Roller; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Sepulveda, Martin

2009-01-01

359

The impact of family functioning on anxiety symptoms in African American and European American young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study aimed to investigate reported family functioning and its impact on anxiety symptoms in a sample of African American and European American young adults. One hundred African American and one hundred twenty one European American young adults completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and a retrospective version of the McMaster Family Assessment

L. Kevin Chapman; Janet Woodruff-Borden

2009-01-01

360

The Longitudinal Relationships between Rural Adolescents' Prosocial Behaviors and Young Adult Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While many adolescents and young adults experiment with substances (e.g., alcohol, cigarette smoking, marijuana), recent research suggests that rural youth and young adults may be more at risk for substance use than their urban counterparts. This study was designed to examine the longitudinal relationships between rural adolescents' prosocial…

Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Beal, Sarah J.

2011-01-01

361

Understanding Tobacco-Related Attitudes among College and Noncollege Young Adult Hookah and Cigarette Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege young adults. Participants: Time-location samples of young adult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque…

Lee, Youn Ok; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Ling, Pamela M.

2014-01-01

362

Legally Tripping: A Qualitative Profile of Salvia Divinorum Use Among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

During recent years, there has been increasing interest in “legal highs” among youth and young adults. Salvia divinorum is a legally available hallucinogenic plant, primarily utilized in smokable form, that produces a brief but intense hallucinogenic experience for the user. Data are presented from an ethnographic project to provide a qualitative profile of salvia use among young adults. Most users

Brian C. Kelly

2011-01-01

363

Purchase of clothing and its linkage to family communication and lifestyles among young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how family communication patterns and lifestyles are linked to purchases of sports shoes and casual clothing for young adults. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The survey was conducted in 2005, and total valid samples were 576. Differences in purchasing decisions among various segments of young adults are analysed for two product categories: sports

Jane Lu Hsu; Kai-Ming Chang

2008-01-01

364

Sexual Activity of Young Adults Who Are Visually Impaired and the Need for Effective Sex Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Little research has been reported on all aspects of sexuality as it pertains to individuals with visual impairments. This article analyzes data on the sexual experiences of young adults who are visually impaired and young adults without disabilities. Methods: The authors conducted a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal…

Kelly, Stacy M.; Kapperman, Gaylen

2012-01-01

365

Identifying Clinically Distinct Subgroups of Self-Injurers among Young Adults: A Latent Class Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High rates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI; 14%-17%) in adolescents and young adults suggest that some self-injurers may exhibit more or different psychiatric problems than others. In the present study, the authors utilized a latent class analysis to identify clinically distinct subgroups of self-injurers. Participants were 205 young adults with…

Klonsky, E. David; Olino, Thomas M.

2008-01-01

366

Epidemiological Trends in Attempted Suicide in Adolescents and Young Adults Between 1996 and 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Notwithstanding the epidemiological studies indicating an increased risk of attempted suicide among adolescents and young adults, there is a scarcity of international studies that examine long-term epidemiological trends in rates and characteristics of this vulnerable group. Aims: This article describes the results of a 9-year monitoring study of suicide attempts in adolescents and young adults referred to the Accident

Stephanie De Munck; Gwendolyn Portzky; Kees Van Heeringen

2009-01-01

367

An Exploration of Young Adults' Progress in Treatment for Dissociative Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although treatment outcome research on dissociative disorders (DD) is increasing, an examination of treatment progress in young adults with these disorders remains noticeably absent from the literature. Many studies of DD patients report mean ages over 35. This article examined the response to treatment of a subsample of young adults, ages 18–30, with dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder, not

Amie C. Myrick; Bethany L. Brand; Scot W. McNary; Catherine C. Classen; Ruth Lanius; Richard J. Loewenstein; Clare Pain; Frank W. Putnam

2012-01-01

368

Initiating and Avoiding Communication with Mothers: Young Adult Children's Perceptions of Hurtfulness and Affirming Styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined young adults' perceptions of their mothers' communication and their initiated and avoided communication with their mothers. Guided by Interaction Adaptation Theory (Burgoon, Stern, & Dillman, 1995), young adults (N = 206) reported on frequency of mothers' hurtful messages, mothers' affirming style, hurt feelings, desires for closeness, and communication and relational satisfaction. Results revealed that females who received hurtful messages

Carrie D. Kennedy-Lightsey; Megan R. Dillow

2011-01-01

369

Cultural Variations in Accounts by American and Japanese Young Adults: Recalling a Major Conflict With Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

American (N = 208) and Japanese young adults (N = 181) were asked to recall a major conflict with their parents for our study on cross-cultural variations in family communication. Reported conflict episodes were coded on: 1) topical content, 2) conflict strategy used by the parents, 3) conflict strategy used by the young adults, 4) outcome, and 5) reported consequences

Sachiyo M. Shearman; Rebecca Dumlao; Naomi Kagawa

2011-01-01

370

Gay and lesbian fiction for young adults: a survey of holdings in Canadian public libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine if young adults, or others interested in literature for teens, have access through public libraries to novels with homosexual content. A random sample of 40 English language young adult novels with gay\\/lesbian content was checked against the holdings of 40 medium and large Canadian public libraries having remotely accessible catalogs. The average

Paulette M. Rothbauer; Lynne E. F. McKechnie

1999-01-01

371

Syndrome Specificity and Behavioural Disorders in Young Adults with Intellectual Disability: Cultural Differences in Family Impact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examined whether behaviour problems and adaptive behaviour of low functioning young adults, and well-being of their families, varied by diagnostic syndrome intellectual disability (ID) only, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, autism, as well as by cultural group. Methods: Behaviour disorders in young adults with moderate to…

Blacher, J.; McIntyre, L. L.

2006-01-01

372

The Vietnam War in Young Adult Literature: Practical Approaches That Foster Response.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggesting that literature dealing with the Vietnam War can have a dramatic impact on students, this paper assists teachers in selecting young adult literature on the war, discusses a variety of assignments, and presents student responses to the literature. The paper begins with a discussion of the three main types of young adult literature:…

Johannessen, Larry R.

373

INTERGENERATIONAL SHARING SEMINARS: THEIR IMPACT ON YOUNG ADULT COLLEGE STUDENTS AND SENIOR GUEST STUDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3?month intergenerational program was developed on the premise that it is important for young adults, who are in the formative period of career development and direction, to experience the benefits of positive interaction with older persons. Program evaluation findings showed that participation not only influenced the young adults’ interest in gerontology, but also increased their willingness to accept older

Lynda Fowler; Donna Lambert; Dorothy Fruit; Rhonda Richardson

1994-01-01

374

Attracting Young Adults to Public Libraries: Frances Henne/YALSA/VOYA Research Grant Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By identifying effective young adult strategies, programs, and services, this research study adds to the knowledge of the role of libraries and librarians as community partners in providing for the needs of young adults. Two tables provide a comparison of strategies and a program and services comparison. (Contains 24 references.) (AEF)

Bishop, Kay; Bauer, Pat

2002-01-01

375

Family Background, Adolescents' Educational Aspirations, and Australian Young Adults' Educational Attainment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this longitudinal study, relationships were examined between educational aspirations and educational attainment for Australian young adults from different ethnic and social status backgrounds. Participants included 6,811 (3,547 women and 3,264 men) young adults (mean age = 20.3 years) who were in Year 9 when the study began. In the analysis,…

Marjoribanks, Kevin

2005-01-01

376

UK young adults' safety awareness online – is it a ‘girl thing’?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a recent research project undertaken in the UK that investigated young adults' perception of potentially risky behaviour online. The research was undertaken through the use of an online survey associated with the UK teen soap opera Being Victor. The findings of the project suggest that this sample of British young adults was mostly aware of the

Sarah Pedersen

2012-01-01

377

More Than Kids Stuff: Can News and Information Web Sites Mobilize Young Adults?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many young adults are not politically active. Since 1972, their participation and interest levels have declined not only in absolute terms but also relative to other voting-age groups. This paper examines how the Internet can reverse this trend. It focuses on how leading news and political information Web sites affected young adults during the…

Lupia, Arthur; Philpot, Tasha S.

378

Food Safety Self-Reported Behaviors and Cognitions of Young Adults: Results of a National Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

With limited opportunities to learn safe food handling via observation, many young adults lack the knowledge needed to keep them safe from foodborne disease. It is important to reach young adults with food safety education because of their current and future roles as caregivers. With a nationwide online survey, the demographic characteristics, self-reported food handling and consumption behaviors, food safety

CAROL BYRD-BREDBENNER; JACLYN MAURER; VIRGINIA WHEATLEY; DONALD SCHAFFNER; CHRISTINE BRUHN; LYDIA BLALOCK

379

Examining citizenship participation in young Australian adults: a structural equation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As citizens, young adults should be supported and encouraged to enact their basic rights and responsibilities to partake in decision-making that affects their lives and development. Recent studies in several Western countries, including Australia, have suggested that levels of political and community activities among young adults have significantly decreased. This study tested a theoretically and empirically based explanatory model of

Polly Yeung; Anne Passmore; Tanya Packer

2012-01-01

380

Examining citizenship participation in young Australian adults: a structural equation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As citizens, young adults should be supported and encouraged to enact their basic rights and responsibilities to partake in decision-making that affects their lives and development. Recent studies in several Western countries, including Australia, have suggested that levels of political and community activities among young adults have significantly decreased. This study tested a theoretically and empirically based explanatory model of

Polly Yeung; Anne Passmore; Tanya Packer

2011-01-01

381

Training-Related Adaptations in Motor Unit Discharge Rate in Young and Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This study evaluated changes in motor unit (MU) firing rates in young and older adults during exercise training. Methods. Vastus lateralis MU discharge rates were measured in 8 young and 7 older adults. Each participant performed isometric knee extension contractions at 10%, 50%, and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction or effort (MVC) on two separate occasions. Participants then completed

Gary Kamen; Christopher A. Knight

382

Being Close and Being Social: Peer Ratings of Distinct Aspects of Young Adult Social Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study had three main objectives: (1) to develop and validate scales of young adult social competence in two domains, close relationships and social groups, using peer ratings of California Q-sort (Block, 1974; Kremen & Block, 2002) items; (2) to test the hypothesis that social competence is associated with young adult well-being and ego development; (3) to test the

Justine J. Larson; Sarah W. Whitton; Stuart T. Hauser; Joseph P. Allen

2007-01-01

383

Direct and indirect measures of frequency monitoring in young and elderly adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory for frequency of occurrence of novel material (Turkish words) was investigated in young and elderly adults via direct (absolute and relative frequency judgments) and indirect (reading speed) measures. Both young and elderly adults showed increased reading speed as a function of frequency of occurrence (Experiment 1). However, when asked explicitly to identify how often a word occurred (Experiment 1)

Cheri L. Wiggs; Alex Martin; Darlene V. Howard

1994-01-01

384

Developing conceptions of racism among young white adults in the context of cultural diversity coursework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite substantial research on racial attitudes and racial identity development among young white adults, little is known about the development of their conceptions about racism. The present study assessed a five-step, empirically based contextualist model of the development of conceptions about racism in young white adults, adapted from the research of Perry (1970), Kitchener and Fischer (1990), and others. A

Thomas R. Bidell; Elaine Meyer Lee; Nicole Bouchie; Colleen Ward; Dana Brass

1994-01-01

385

Healthy Behaviors and Lifestyles in Young Adults with a History of Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Measure select Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators in young adults with and without a history of developmental disabilities (DD) using a population-based cohort. Methods: Young adults were interviewed to assess the prevalence of seven Leading Health Indicators: physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance…

Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Schendel, Diana; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

2006-01-01

386

What Do Young Adult Novels Say about HIV/AIDS? A Second Look  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adult information needs related to HIV/AIDS persist. However, in recent years, little has been written in either the research or the professional literature in library and information science about the HIV/AIDS information needs of youth. This article reports on a content analysis of young adult novels written in English between 1995 and…

Gross, Melissa; Goldsmith, Annette; Carruth, Debi

2008-01-01

387

Life-course experiences and mortality by adult social class among young men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circumstances over the life-course may contribute to adult social class differences in mortality. However, it is only rarely that the life-course approach has been applied to mortality studies among young adults. The aim of this study is to determine to what extent social class differences in mortality among young Finnish men are explained by living conditions in the parental home

Tiina Pensola; Pekka Martikainen

2004-01-01

388

Renal, cardiovascular and hormonal characteristics of young adults with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal, cardiovascular and hormonal characteristics of young adults with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. We studied young adults with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) to determine the characteristics that precede renal impairment. Nineteen affected (A) and 20 unaffected (U) offspring from families with ADPKD showed no significant differences in basal glomerular filtration rate (A: mean 97, SD 19; U:

Stephen B Harrap; David L Davies; Ann M Macnicol; Anna F Dominiczak; Robert Fraser; Alan F Wright; Michael L Watson; J Douglas Briggs

1991-01-01

389

Do parents' marital circumstances predict young adults' DSM-IV cannabis use disorders? A prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To determine whether parental marital status and marital quality in adolescence are associated with cannabis use disorders in young adults. Design Prospective birth cohort study. Setting A 21 year follow-up of 4815 mothers and their children who participated at 14 years after the child's birth in Queensland, Australia. Participants Cohort of 2303 young adults who completed the life-time version

Mohammad R. Hayatbakhsh; Jake M. Najman; Konrad Jamrozik; Abdullah A. Mamun; Rosa Alati

2006-01-01

390

Relationship Between Arterial Stiffness and Athletic Training Programs in Young Adult Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We examined the relationships of endurance and strength exercise training and the adolescent duration of training to arterial stiffness in young adult men. We hypothesized that young adults participating in endurance sports would have decreased arterial stiffness, whereas those in strength-based sports would have increased arterial stiffness. In addition, we predicted that these trends would be more pronounced with

Takeshi Otsuki; Seiji Maeda; Motoyuki Iemitsu; Yoko Saito; Yuko Tanimura; Ryuichi Ajisaka; Takashi Miyauchi

2007-01-01

391

Young Adult Follow-Up of Hyperactive Children: Antisocial Activities and Drug Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Hyperactive/ADHD children are believed to be a greater risk for adolescent and young adult antisocial activity and drug use/abuse, particularly that subset having comorbid conduct problems/disorder. Method: We report on the lifetime antisocial activities and illegal drug use self-reported at young adult follow-up (mean age 20-21 years;…

Barkley, Russell A.; Fischer, Mariellen; Smallish, Lori; Fletcher, Kenneth

2004-01-01

392

Family background, adolescents' educational aspirations, and Australian young adults' educational attainment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this longitudinal study, relationships were examined between educational aspirations and educational attainment for Australian young adults from different ethnic and social status backgrounds. Participants included 6, 811 (3, 547 women and 3, 264 men) young adults (mean age = 20.3 years) who were in Year 9 when the study began. In the analysis, the AM Statistical Software was used

Kevin Marjoribanks

393

On the Question of Integrating Young Adult Literature into the Mainstream.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses the author's own novels and those of Chris Crutcher to explore the harm that is sometimes done to literature labeled Young Adult. Explores a disturbing trend in the publishing, packaging, and attitudes toward such novels: packaging and cover art which panders, and the refusal to hold young adult literature to high standards. (SR)

Davis, Terry

1997-01-01

394

Appropriate Books for Adolescents and Young Adults: How Can You Tell?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the rise of "young adult" books, and discusses issues related to the appropriateness of books for adolescents. Discusses and reviews 10 books for adolescents and young adults. Notes briefly three books for teachers with ideas for improving the reading and writing skills of students in various content areas. (SR)

Nixon, Helen; Comber, Barbara

2001-01-01

395

Images of Women in Historical Young Adult Fiction: Seeking Role Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers a number of young adult novels in light of how they cast female characters as potential role models to which late 20th-century adolescent readers can relate. Offers brief descriptions of 28 young adult books of historical fiction set in America with female protagonists. (SR)

Boreen, Jean

1999-01-01

396

Teaching Adolescent/Young Adult Literature: Course Handbook II--Education L535.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook presents two core units for a distance education course that provides an introduction to the genre of texts targeted for adolescent/young adult readers. The first core unit in the handbook discusses the teaching of literary aspects of using adolescent/young adult literature. The second core unit addresses alternative approaches to…

Mikulecky, Larry, Comp.; And Others

397

Factors Associated with herb and dietary supplement use by young adults in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between use of herbs and dietary supplements (HDS) and lifestyle\\/behavior factors in young adults in the US. METHODS: Analyzing the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we examined the patterns of HDS (excluding vitamins\\/minerals) use among young adults in the United States using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. RESULTS: In our sample of

Paula Gardiner; Kathi J Kemper; Anna Legedza; Russell S Phillips

2007-01-01

398

Disparities in Debt: Parents' Socioeconomic Resources and Young Adult Student Loan Debt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an era of rising college costs and stagnant grant-based student aid, many young adults rely on their parents' resources and student loans to pay for their postsecondary education. In this study I ask how parents' income and education are linked to young adults' student loan debt. I develop and test two perspectives regarding the…

Houle, Jason N.

2014-01-01

399

The Experience of Anxiety in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety is known to be common among young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), yet little is known about the nature of their experiences or the strategies they use to live and cope with their reported anxiety. In this qualitative study, we began to address this issue through two focus groups involving 11 young adults with ASD, and 10…

Trembath, David; Germano, Carmela; Johanson, Graeme; Dissanayake, Cheryl

2012-01-01

400

Tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and other illegal drug use among young adults: the socioeconomic context.  

E-print Network

1 Tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and other illegal drug use among young adults: the socioeconomic-16Mar2012 Author manuscript, published in "Drug Alcohol Depend 2012;121(3):231-9" DOI : 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.09.002 #12;2 Tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and other illegal drug use among young adults

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

401

Reactive and Proactive Control in Incarcerated and Community Adolescents and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the cognitive control skills of male incarcerated adolescents (n = 44), male control adolescents (n = 33), male incarcerated young adults (n = 41), and male control young adults (n = 35) using the AX-continuous performance test (AX-CPT). This test measures proactive control (the ability to maintain a mental representation of…

Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

2009-01-01

402

On the Border: Young Adults with LGBQ Parents Navigate LGBTQ Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little research has examined the perspectives of young adults with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) parents, particularly in relation to their identification with the LGBTQ community. To address this gap, we conducted a qualitative study of 42 young adults (ages 18-29) who were raised by LGBQ parents. We found that…

Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Richardson, Hannah B.; Downing, Jordan B.

2012-01-01

403

The Social Inclusion of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Phenomenology of Their Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social inclusion enhances the quality of life of young adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Young adults with ID continue to face prejudice and discrimination that limit their social inclusion. They experience limited social inclusion because there are not enough appropriate activities available and they have limited opportunities to…

Hall, Sarah A.

2010-01-01

404

Young Adults' Linguistic Manipulation of English in Bangla in Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is commonly assumed in the print media that bilingual young adults in Bangladesh are subjugated by the colonial legacy of English and they are "polluting" Bangla, the national language of Bangladesh, by their indiscriminate insertion of English in it. However, this ethnographic study on a group of young adults in a university in…

Sultana, Shaila

2014-01-01

405

Sexual Health of Adolescents and Young Adults in the United States  

MedlinePLUS

... and Young Adults HPV is the most common STI among teens, with some estimates reaching an infection rate of ... Title X program provides confidential contraceptive services and STI screening and treatment for low-income teens and young adults by funding approximately 4,400 ...

406

Report Reveals Millions of Young Adults Use Illicit Substances Every Day  

MedlinePLUS

... millions of young adults use illicit substances every day According to SAMHSA’s data, on an average day, 3.2 million young adults used marijuana, 57, ... 20. Underage drinkers drank on average 5.7 days per month and consumed an average of 4. ...

407

Cue-induced positive motivational implicit response in young adults with internet gaming addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the positive motivational implicit response to internet gaming cues (i.e., screenshots of popular online games) to identify potential mechanisms of dyscontrolled internet use in young adults with internet gaming addiction (IGA). The final analysis included 64 young adults with IGA and 71 control subjects. The subjects completed the implicit association task to test their reaction to congruent

Ju-Yu Yen; Cheng-Fang Yen; Cheng-Sheng Chen; Tze-Chun Tang; Tzu-Hui Huang; Chih-Hung Ko

408

Personalised electronic messages to improve sun protection in young adults.  

PubMed

We studied the acceptability and feasibility of delivering sun protection messages via electronic media such as short message services (SMS) to people aged 18-40 years. An online survey was conducted using a pre-established panel of volunteers. We compared the characteristics of those who indicated that they would like to be alerted to the UV index, with those who would not, using bivariate logistic regression. Characteristics found to be associated with a desire to receive such advice were entered into a multivariate logistic regression analysis. The median age of the 141 participants was 34 years. Overall, 80% of participants agreed that they would like to receive some form of sun protection advice. Of these, 20% preferred to receive it via SMS and 42% via email. Willingness to receive electronic messages about the UV index was associated with being unsure about whether a suntanned person would look healthy and greater use of sun protection in the past. Careful attention to message framing and timing of message delivery, and focus on the short-term effects of sun exposure such as sunburn and skin ageing should increase the acceptability of such messages to young people. Sun protection messages delivered to young adults via electronic media appear to be feasible and acceptable. PMID:22302765

Mair, Sarah; Soyer, H Peter; Youl, Philippa; Hurst, Cameron; Marshall, Alison; Janda, Monika

2012-07-01

409

Executive function and bilingualism in young and older adults  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that being bilingual results in advantages on executive control processes and disadvantages on language tasks relative to monolinguals. Furthermore, the executive function advantage is thought to be larger in older than younger adults, suggesting that bilingualism may buffer against age-related changes in executive function. However, there are potential confounds in some of the previous research, as well as inconsistencies in the literature. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the presence of a bilingual advantage in executive control and a bilingual disadvantage on language tasks in the same sample of young and older monolingual anglophones, monolingual francophones, and French/English bilinguals. Participants completed a series of executive function tasks, including a Stroop task, a Simon task, a sustained attention to response task (SART), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), and the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and language tasks, including the Boston Naming Test (BNT), and category and letter fluency. The results do not demonstrate an unequivocal advantage for bilinguals on executive function tasks and raise questions about the reliability, robustness and/or specificity of previous findings. The results also did not demonstrate a disadvantage for bilinguals on language tasks. Rather, they suggest that there may be an influence of the language environment. It is concluded that additional research is required to fully characterize any language group differences in both executive function and language tasks. PMID:25120442

Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Lemieux, Maude; Monetta, Laura; Taler, Vanessa

2014-01-01

410

Acute myeloid leukemia in adolescents and young adults: challenging aspects.  

PubMed

Treating adolescents and young adults (AYAs) diagnosed with cancer is a challenge. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) which is usually diagnosed in a previously healthy kid, requiring immediate aggressive chemotherapy, brings difficulties and conflicts associated with severe illness to extremes. The incidence of AML in adolescents aged 15-19 years approaches 8.5 per million. Only in recent years has it become evident that the prognosis of AYAs diagnosed with AML is poorer compared to younger children diagnosed with AML with similar characteristics. No specific genetic aberration or other known poor risk factor was found to explain the inferior prognosis of AYAs. In acute lymphoblastic leukemia the contribution of differences between adult and pediatric protocols to AYA outcome is established. It has been suggested that pediatric protocols should also apply to AYAs with AML; however, data supporting this are vague. Herein, existing evidence regarding special considerations in treating AYAs with AML is discussed. Mental and psychological age-specific aspects important to consider when treating AYAs with AML are overviewed. Awareness for adolescent special needs, adherence to protocols and intensive supportive care are important. Multidisciplinary adolescent-oriented staff should be involved in the therapy of any AYA with AML escorting this special patient population on the road to cure. PMID:25228554

Ofran, Yishai; Rowe, Jacob M

2014-01-01

411

HIV\\/AIDS-Related Knowledge Among Malaysian Young Adults: Findings From a Nationwide Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: HIV\\/AIDS poses a serious threat to young people, both in Malaysia and throughout the world. A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HIV\\/AIDS among the Malaysian public. This article reports the findings of knowledge about HIV\\/AIDS among young adults. METHODS: A total of 1075 young adult respondents aged 15–24 years participated in

Li-Ping Wong; Caroline-Kwong Leng Chin; Wah-Yun Low; Nasruddin Jaafar

2008-01-01

412

Ageism, Sensation-Seeking, and Risk-Taking Behavior in Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research investigated the relationships among ageism, sensation-seeking, and risk-taking in young adults. Recent research\\u000a has shown that young adults reporting higher levels of ageist attitudes and ageist behaviors also report higher levels of\\u000a risk-taking in daily life than those with less ageist attitudes and behaviors (Popham et al. in press). The results are consistent\\u000a with terror management theory; young

Lauren E. Popham; Shelia M. Kennison; Kristopher I. Bradley

2011-01-01

413

The Longitudinal Relationships Between Rural Adolescents’ Prosocial Behaviors and Young Adult Substance Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many adolescents and young adults experiment with substances (e.g., alcohol, cigarette smoking, marijuana), recent research\\u000a suggests that rural youth and young adults may be more at risk for substance use than their urban counterparts. This study\\u000a was designed to examine the longitudinal relationships between rural adolescents’ prosocial behaviors and substance use in\\u000a young adulthood. Furthermore, we examined the potential

Gustavo CarloLisa; Lisa J. Crockett; Jamie L. Wilkinson; Sarah J. Beal

414

Everyday life of young adults with intellectual disabilities: inclusionary and exclusionary processes among young adults of parents with intellectual disability.  

PubMed

Ten young adults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and family, and considered their families as a resource for their empowerment and development of resilience. The study participants' informal networks were composed of only a few individuals who, moreover, were mostly of dissimilar age and also included support professionals. The participants typically described themselves as excluded from others, an experience that was articulated most conspicuously in their narratives about the special schools they were attending. PMID:23834213

Starke, Mikaela

2013-06-01

415

Why and How the Tobacco Industry Sells Cigarettes to Young Adults: Evidence From Industry Documents  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To improve tobacco control campaigns, we analyzed tobacco industry strategies that encourage young adults (aged 18 to 24) to smoke. Methods. Initial searches of tobacco industry documents with keywords (e.g., “young adult”) were extended by using names, locations, and dates. Results. Approximately 200 relevant documents were found. Transitions from experimentation to addiction, with adult levels of cigarette consumption, may take years. Tobacco marketing solidifies addiction among young adults. Cigarette advertisements encourage regular smoking and increased consumption by integrating smoking into activities and places where young adults' lives change (e.g., leaving home, college, jobs, the military, bars). Conclusions. Tobacco control efforts should include both adults and youths. Life changes are also opportunities to stop occasional smokers' progress to addiction. Clean air policies in workplaces, the military, bars, colleges, and homes can combat tobacco marketing. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:908–916) PMID:12036776

Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

2002-01-01

416

Physiological responses during whole body suspension of adult rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study was to characterize responses of adult rats to one and two weeks of whole body suspension. Body weights and food and water intakes were initially reduced during suspension, but, while intake of food and water returned to presuspension levels, body weight remained depressed. Diuresis was evident, but only during week two. Hindlimb muscle responses were differential, with the soleus exhibiting the greatest atrophy and the EDL a relative hypertrophy. These findings suggest that adult rats respond qualitatively in a manner similar to juveniles during suspension.

Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Musacchia, X. J.

1987-01-01

417

Hachimijiogan produces testosterone in adult rat testes.  

PubMed

The effect of Hachimijiogan (HZ) and Keishibukuryogan (KB) on the steroid production in rats was examined in vivo and in vitro. In an in vivo study, HZ stimulated the testes from ten-week old male rats to produce testosterone, whereas KB decreased the tissue testosterone concentrations. The delta 4-androstenedione and estradiol-17 beta (E2) showed no significant changes. In an incubation study, HZ also stimulated the testosterone production. The data suggested that HZ produces testosterone in rat testes. The role of KB is questionable. PMID:3245540

Usuki, S

1988-01-01

418

Age-Related Decline in Auditory Plasticity: Experience Dependent Changes in Gap Detection as Measured by Prepulse Inhibition in Young and Aged Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young adult and aged F344 rats were compared on a silent gap variant of the prepulse inhibition paradigm. Animals were tested using a 50-ms single tone cue, followed by 8 days of silent gap testing. The first 3 days of gap testing were long gaps (range 2 to 100 ms) followed by 5 days of short gaps (range 2 to

Brentt J. Swetter; R. Holly Fitch; Etan J. Markus

2010-01-01

419

The Relationship between P3 Amplitude and Working Memory Performance Differs in Young and Older Adults  

PubMed Central

While some elderly show deteriorations in cognitive performance, others achieve performance levels comparable to young adults. To examine whether age-related changes in brain activity varied with working memory performance efficiency, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) from young and older healthy adults during performance on an n-back task with two loads (0- and 1-back) and two versions (identity and integrated). Young adults showed a typical P3 amplitude pattern with a parietal-maximum. Compared to young adults, the P3 amplitude of older adults was characterized by frontal hyperactivity coupled with posterior hypoactivity. Moreover, P3 amplitude in young and older adults varied with working memory performance efficiency. Among young adults, more efficient performance correlated with a larger P3 amplitude at parietal sites. In contrast, a higher P3 amplitude at midline electrode sites in older adults correlated with less efficient performance. Particularly, the enhanced frontal midline EEG activity in older adults during working memory performance seems to reflect inefficient use of neural resources due to frontal lobe dysfunction. PMID:23667658

Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Maurits, Natasha M.

2013-01-01

420

Confronting the Youth Demographic Challenge: The Labor Market Prospects of Out-of-School Young Adults. Policy Issues Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The labor market prospects of out-of-school young adults and options for improving the employment and earnings potential of all young adults were examined. The following issues were among those considered: demographic and social factors affecting young adults' employment prospects; employment trends and labor market problems in the United States…

Sum, Andrew; Fogg, Neeta; Mangum, Garth

421

PTSD Contributes to Teen and Young Adult Cannabis Use Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies involving adults suggest that Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) increases the prevalence of cannabis use disorders (CUD)(cannabis dependence and cannabis abuse). However, little work with PTSD and CUD has been conducted involving adolescents, despite the fact that CUD typically have their onset during adolescence. This study addresses the effect of PTSD on CUD among teenagers transitioning to young adulthood. Method The subjects in this ongoing study were the offspring of adult men with a lifetime history of a Substance Use Disorder (SUD) (SUD + probands, N=343) versus those with no lifetime history of a SUD (SUD ? probands, N=350). The participants were initially recruited when the index sons of these fathers were 10-12 years of age, and subsequent assessments were conducted at age 12-14, 16, 19, 22, and 25. Other variable examined were an index of behavioral undercontrol associated with future risk for developing SUD, known as the Transmissible Liability Index, or TLI, and affiliation with deviant peers. Multivariate logistic regression and path analyses were conducted. Results Of these 693 subjects, 31 subjects were diagnosed with PTSD, and 161 were diagnosed with a CUD. The CUD subjects included 136 male participants and 25 female participants, including 103 (64%) Caucasian participants and 58 (36%) participants of other races. Logistic regression demonstrated that the development of a CUD was associated with deviance of peers (Wald=63.4, p=0.000), the TLI (Wald=28.8, p=0.000), African American race (Wald=14.2, p=0.000), PTSD (Wald=12.7, p=0.000), male gender (Wald=12.0, p=0.001), household SES (Wald=9.2, p=0.002), and being an offspring of a SUD+ proband (Wald=6.9, 0.009). Path analyses demonstrated that PTSD is directly associated with the presence of a CUD and with peer deviance, that higher peer deviance is associated with the presence of a CUD, and that PTSD mediated the association between peer deviance and CUD. Conclusions These findings suggest that PTSD contributes to the etiology of CUD among teenagers making the transition to young adulthood beyond the effects of deviant peers, the TLI (Transmissible Liability Index, a measure of risk for SUD), and demographic factors. PMID:19773127

Cornelius, Jack R.; Kirisci, Levent; Reynolds, Maureen; Clark, Duncan B.; Hayes, Jeanine; Tarter, Ralph

2009-01-01

422

Impact of human immunodeficiency virus on neurocognition and risky behaviors in young adults.  

PubMed

Previous studies have identified cognitive impairments due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in adults. However, few studies have examined the impact of HIV on cognition in young adults (18-24 years old). Yet, this group is one of the largest populations of individuals with new HIV infection. Young adulthood is also an important developmental window because the brain has not fully matured and individuals are prone to engage in risky behavior. The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of HIV on neurocognition and risky behaviors. We hypothesized that HIV+ young adults (n?=?23) would exhibit greater cognitive impairment and risky behaviors compared to seronegative controls (n?=?21). In addition, we predicted that self-reported risky behavior as assessed by the Risk Assessment Battery (RAB) would covary with cognitive performances. Results revealed poorer executive function in HIV+ young adults compared to seronegative (HIV-) controls. HIV+ young adults exhibited significantly greater risk scores on the RAB (p?young adults. However, there were no relationships between risky behavior and cognitive performance. Overall, our results suggest that HIV is associated with poorer cognition and increased risky behaviors in young adults. PMID:24970235

Baker, Laurie M; Paul, Robert H; Heaps, Jodi M; Westerhaus, Elizabeth; Chang, Jee Yoon; Williams, Samuel; Brier, Matthew R; Plax, Katie; Ances, Beau M

2014-10-01

423

Young adults' performance in a low intensity weight loss campaign  

PubMed Central

Young adults (YA) are underrepresented in behavioral weight loss programs and achieve poorer outcomes than older adults (OA). There has been a call to develop programs specifically targeting this age group. This study examined the performance of YA enrolled in a low intensity, team-based weight loss campaign and compared their outcomes to OA to determine the utility of such an approach for weight loss in this population. Shape Up Rhode Island 2009 was a 12-week online team-based weight loss and exercise competition (N=6795, 81% female, 94% White, age=44.7±11.2, BMI=29.4±5.9). YA was defined as 18–35 years and OA as >35 years; YA and OA were compared on enrollment, retention, weight loss and change in steps. A total of 1562 YA enrolled and 715 completed the program. Fewer YA completed compared with OA (46% vs. 62%, p<.001). However, among completers, YA achieved greater percent weight loss (?4.5±4.0% vs. ?3.8±3.2%) and greater daily step change (+1578.2±3877.2 vs. +1342.2±3645.7) than OA (p’s<.001). Further, more YA completers achieved a ?5% weight loss (40% vs. 29%, p<.001). Findings were consistent in the overweight/obese subsample, and using ?25 years of age as the cut off for YA. Weight losses among YA in this low-intensity weight loss campaign were quite promising, with over 700 YA completing the program and on average achieving a 4.5% weight loss. Indeed, the potential public health impact of such an approach is substantial; future efforts to develop programs for this age group may benefit from using a low intensity, team-based approach. PMID:22318313

LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Leahey, Tricia M.; Weinberg, Brad M.; Kumar, Rajiv; Wing, Rena R.

2013-01-01

424

Self-Weighing Behaviors in Young Adults: Tipping the Scale Towards Unhealthy Eating Behaviors?  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study examined associations between frequency of self-weighing and healthy weight control behaviors, unhealthy weight control behaviors, muscle enhancing behaviors (e.g. steroid use, protein powders), and psychological well-being (i.e., self-esteem, depression, body satisfaction) in a community sample of young adults. Methods Data were drawn from Project EAT-III (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults), the third wave of a population-based study. Participants included young adults (n=2,287, mean age=25.3) from the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area. Results Self-weighing a few times per week or more frequently was reported by 18% of young adult women and 12% of young adult men. Linear regression models, adjusted for body mass index and demographic characteristics, indicated that in both women and men more frequent self-weighing was associated with a higher prevalence of dieting, both healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors, and muscle-enhancing behaviors. Additionally, young women who reported more frequent self-weighing were more likely to report binge eating. More frequent self-weighing was also associated with more depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem in women and lower body satisfaction in young men. Conclusions More frequent self-weighing is associated with healthy and unhealthy weight control practices, use of muscle enhancing behaviors, and poorer psychological well-being in young adults. Young adults engaging in self-weighing behaviors should be screened for these health indicators and counseled as appropriate. Prior to recommending self-weighing as a weight-monitoring tool, health care providers should ensure that young adults are not at risk for an unhealthy preoccupation with body weight or shape. PMID:23084168

Quick, Virginia; Larson, Nicole; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Hannan, Peter J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2012-01-01

425

NEONATAL TRIETHYLTIN EXPOSURE ALTERS ADULT ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY IN RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

In adults, triethyltin (TET) produces degeneration of white mater, edema, vacuolization of myelin and histoxic hypoxia. To determine the functional consequences of perinatal exposure to TET, albino rats were administered either 0,3,6, or 9 mg/kg TET on postnatal day 5. Upon reach...

426

ACUTE TOXICITY OF PESTICIDES IN ADULT AND WEANLING RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

LD sub 50 values were determined for 57 pesticides administered by the oral or dermal route to adult male and female Sherman rats. Nine pesticides tested by the oral route (bufencarb, cacodylic acid, dialifor, deltamethrin, dicamba, diquat, quintozene, phoxim, pyrazon) and 4 test...

427

What Are Young Adults Saying About Mental Health? An Analysis of Internet Blogs  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the high prevalence of mental health concerns, few young adults access treatment. While much research has focused on understanding the barriers to service access, few studies have explored unbiased accounts of the experiences of young adults with mental health concerns. It is through hearing these experiences and gaining an in-depth understanding of what is being said by young adults that improvements can be made to interventions focused on increasing access to care. Objective To move beyond past research by using an innovative qualitative research method of analyzing the blogs of young adults (18–25 years of age) with mental health concerns to understand their experiences. Methods We used an enhanced Internet search vehicle, DEVONagent, to extract Internet blogs using primary keywords related to mental health. Blogs (N = 8) were selected based on age of authors (18–25 years), gender, relevance to mental health, and recency of the entries. Blogs excerpts were analyzed using a combination of grounded theory and consensual qualitative research methods. Results Two core categories emerged from the qualitative analysis of the bloggers accounts: I am powerless (intrapersonal) and I am utterly alone (interpersonal). Overall, the young adult bloggers expressed significant feelings of powerlessness as a result of their mental health concerns and simultaneously felt a profound sense of loneliness, alienation, and lack of connection with others. Conclusions The present study suggests that one reason young adults do not seek care might be that they view the mental health system negatively and feel disconnected from these services. To decrease young adults’ sense of powerlessness and isolation, efforts should focus on creating and developing resources and services that allow young adults to feel connected and empowered. Through an understanding of the experiences of young adults with mental health problems, and their experiences of and attitudes toward receiving care, we provide some recommendations for improving receptivity and knowledge of mental health care services. PMID:22569642

Westra, Henny A; Eastwood, John D; Barnes, Kirsten L

2012-01-01

428

Defining Adult Experiences: Perspectives of a Diverse Sample of Young Adults  

PubMed Central

This study explored the roles and psychological experiences identified as defining adult moments using mixed methods with a racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse sample of young adults both enrolled and not enrolled in college (N = 726; ages 18-35). First, we evaluated results from a single survey item that asked participants to rate how adult they feel. Consistent with previous research, the majority of participants (56.9%) reported feeling “somewhat like an adult,” and older participants had significantly higher subjective adulthood, controlling for other demographic variables. Next, we analyzed responses from an open-ended question asking participants to describe instances in which they felt like an adult. Responses covered both traditional roles (e.g., marriage, childbearing; 36.1%) and nontraditional social roles and experiences (e.g., moving out of parent’s home, cohabitation; 55.6%). Although we found no differences by age and college status in the likelihood of citing a traditional or nontraditional role, participants who had achieved more traditional roles were more likely to cite them in their responses. In addition, responses were coded for psychological experiences, including responsibility for self (19.0%), responsibility for others (15.3%), self-regulation (31.1%), and reflected appraisals (5.1%). Older participants were significantly more likely to include self-regulation and reflected appraisals, whereas younger participants were more likely to include responsibility for self. College students were more likely than noncollege students to include self-regulation and reflected appraisals. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:23554545

Lowe, Sarah R.; Dillon, Colleen O.; Rhodes, Jean E.; Zwiebach, Liza

2013-01-01

429

Defining Adult Experiences: Perspectives of a Diverse Sample of Young Adults.  

PubMed

This study explored the roles and psychological experiences identified as defining adult moments using mixed methods with a racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse sample of young adults both enrolled and not enrolled in college (N = 726; ages 18-35). First, we evaluated results from a single survey item that asked participants to rate how adult they feel. Consistent with previous research, the majority of participants (56.9%) reported feeling "somewhat like an adult," and older participants had significantly higher subjective adulthood, controlling for other demographic variables. Next, we analyzed responses from an open-ended question asking participants to describe instances in which they felt like an adult. Responses covered both traditional roles (e.g., marriage, childbearing; 36.1%) and nontraditional social roles and experiences (e.g., moving out of parent's home, cohabitation; 55.6%). Although we found no differences by age and college status in the likelihood of citing a traditional or nontraditional role, participants who had achieved more traditional roles were more likely to cite them in their responses. In addition, responses were coded for psychological experiences, including responsibility for self (19.0%), responsibility for others (15.3%), self-regulation (31.1%), and reflected appraisals (5.1%). Older participants were significantly more likely to include self-regulation and reflected appraisals, whereas younger participants were more likely to include responsibility for self. College students were more likely than noncollege students to include self-regulation and reflected appraisals. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:23554545

Lowe, Sarah R; Dillon, Colleen O; Rhodes, Jean E; Zwiebach, Liza

2013-01-01

430

Effect of dietary fish oil (active EPA30) on liver phospholipids in young and aged rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored the uses of fish oil (active EPA-30) as a source of eicosapentaenate (EPA; 20:5 n-3), to young and old rats. We treated three subgroups of rats each comprising 20 young or old rats, respectively. The first group was kept on the basal ration (lab-pellet) as control diet, the second group was fed semi-purified diets contained 5% pig-fat (n-3

Hossam M Kotkat; Amal A Rady; Janos Nemcsok

1999-01-01

431

Work Hours and Perceived Time Barriers to Healthful Eating Among Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe time-related beliefs and behaviors regarding healthful eating, indicators of dietary intake, and their associations with the number of weekly hours of paid work among young adults. Methods Population-based study in a diverse cohort (N=2287). Results Working > 40 hours per week was associated with time-related barriers to healthful eating most persistently among young adult men. Associations were found among females working both part-time and > 40 hours per week with both time-related barriers and dietary intake. Conclusions Findings indicate that intervention strategies, ideally those addressing time burden, are needed to promote healthful eating among young, working adults. PMID:23026037

Escoto, Kamisha Hamilton; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.

2012-01-01

432

Awareness of and attitudes toward direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising among young adults.  

PubMed

This study examines awareness and knowledge of and attitudes toward direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising among young adults between 18 and 24 years of age. The study finds that young adults are not as aware of prescription drug advertising as older consumers, however, they are aware of specific heavily advertised drugs, especially those for allergy medications, birth control, and sleep aids. Young adults hold mixed to negative views about advertising in general, and they do not view DTC prescription drug advertising as a beneficial source of information, nor do they believe such advertising serves to educate consumers. PMID:25120044

Alperstein, Neil M

2014-01-01

433

Sexual Orientation and Substance Use Among Adolescents and Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined interrelationships among the 3 dimensions of sexual orientation—self-identity, sexual attraction, and sexual experience—and their associations with substance use among adolescents and young adults. Methods. To estimate total and net associations of sexual identity, attraction, and experience with use of tobacco, drugs, and alcohol, we applied logistic regression to cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Family Growth Cycle 6. Results. We found a lack of concordance among the different dimensions of sexual orientation. More youths reported same-gender sexual attraction and same-gender sexual experiences than identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Estimates of substance use prevalence differed significantly by gender and across dimensions of sexual orientation. Sexual experience was the most consistent predictor of substance use. Women and men with no sexual experience had the lowest odds of all forms of substance use; those reporting sexual experience with partners of both genders had the highest odds. Conclusions. Our findings indicate that sexual identity was less strongly associated with substance use than sexual experience and attraction were, pointing to the need for more nuanced indicators of sexual orientation in public health studies. PMID:22021322

Tillman, Kathryn Harker

2012-01-01

434

Genetic association of impulsivity in young adults: a multivariate study.  

PubMed

Impulsivity is a heritable, multifaceted construct with clinically relevant links to multiple psychopathologies. We assessed impulsivity in young adult (N~2100) participants in a longitudinal study, using self-report questionnaires and computer-based behavioral tasks. Analysis was restricted to the subset (N=426) who underwent genotyping. Multivariate association between impulsivity measures and single-nucleotide polymorphism data was implemented using parallel independent component analysis (Para-ICA). Pathways associated with multiple genes in components that correlated significantly with impulsivity phenotypes were then identified using a pathway enrichment analysis. Para-ICA revealed two significantly correlated genotype-phenotype component pairs. One impulsivity component included the reward responsiveness subscale and behavioral inhibition scale of the Behavioral-Inhibition System/Behavioral-Activation System scale, and the second impulsivity component included the non-planning subscale of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and the Experiential Discounting Task. Pathway analysis identified processes related to neurogenesis, nervous system signal generation/amplification, neurotransmission and immune response. We identified various genes and gene regulatory pathways associated with empirically derived impulsivity components. Our study suggests that gene networks implicated previously in brain development, neurotransmission and immune response are related to impulsive tendencies and behaviors. PMID:25268255

Khadka, S; Narayanan, B; Meda, S A; Gelernter, J; Han, S; Sawyer, B; Aslanzadeh, F; Stevens, M C; Hawkins, K A; Anticevic, A; Potenza, M N; Pearlson, G D

2014-01-01

435

Influence of forest therapy on cardiovascular relaxation in young adults.  

PubMed

Background. Despite increasing attention toward forest therapy as an alternative medicine, very little evidence continues to be available on its therapeutic effects. Therefore, this study was focused on elucidating the health benefits of forest walking on cardiovascular reactivity. Methods. Within-group comparisons were used to examine the cardiovascular responses to walking in forest and urban environments. Forty-eight young adult males participated in the two-day field research. Changes in heart rate variability, heart rate, and blood pressure were measured to understand cardiovascular reactivity. Four different questionnaires were used to investigate the changes in psychological states after walking activities. Results. Forest walking significantly increased the values of ln(HF) and significantly decreased the values of ln(LF/HF) compared with the urban walking. Heart rate during forest walking was significantly lower than that in the control. Questionnaire results showed that negative mood states and anxiety levels decreased significantly by forest walking compared with urban walking. Conclusion. Walking in the forest environment may promote cardiovascular relaxation by facilitating the parasympathetic nervous system and by suppressing the sympathetic nervous system. In addition, forest therapy may be effective for reducing negative psychological symptoms. PMID:24660018

Lee, Juyoung; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Takayama, Norimasa; Park, Bum-Jin; Li, Qing; Song, Chorong; Komatsu, Misako; Ikei, Harumi; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Kagawa, Takahide; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

2014-01-01

436

Speaking up for vocabulary: reading skill differences in young adults.  

PubMed

This study is part of a broader project aimed at developing cognitive and neurocognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. We explore the relationships among reading-related abilities in participants ages 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range of reading ability. Two specific questions are addressed: (a) Does the simple view of reading capture all nonrandom variation in reading comprehension? (b) Does orally assessed vocabulary knowledge account for variance in reading comprehension, as predicted by the lexical quality hypothesis? A comprehensive battery of cognitive and educational tests was employed to assess phonological awareness, decoding, verbal working memory, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, word knowledge, and experience with print. In this heterogeneous sample, decoding ability clearly played an important role in reading comprehension. The simple view of reading gave a reasonable fit to the data, although it did not capture all of the reliable variance in reading comprehension as predicted. Orally assessed vocabulary knowledge captured unique variance in reading comprehension even after listening comprehension and decoding skill were accounted for. We explore how a specific connectionist model of lexical representation and lexical access can account for these findings. PMID:17518215

Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald P; Mencl, W Einar

2007-01-01

437

Stereo-anomalous vision in a sample of young adults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimated the proportion of people that have defective stereo vision and are unable to utilize stereo disparity information to perceive depth. Previous estimates have ranged anywhere from as high as 30% to as low as 6%. Our goal was to understand the basis for the wide range in these estimates. To do this, we administered two psychophysical tests to a sample of 100 young adults. Visual stimuli consisted of dynamic random-dot stereograms presented using a fast-decay, time-sequential display device. The stimuli covered a range of disparities between 0 and .38 degrees (both crossed and uncrossed). A forced-choice methodology was used to estimate whether subjects could perceive depth based on horizontal disparity. It was found that display duration was a key variable determining the number of viewers that were classified as stereo-anomalous. The relatively high incidence of stereo- anomalous viewers in previous research was explained by the short display durations (80 ms) used in those studies. With longer durations of about 1 sec, we found that only about 5% of viewers had defective stereo vision.

Stelmach, Lew B.; Tam, Wa James

1996-04-01

438

Speaking up for Vocabulary: Reading Skill Differences in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

This study is part of a broader project that has the goal of developing cognitive and neuro-cognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. The study explores relationships among reading related abilities in participants aged 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range of reading ability. Two specific questions are addressed: (1) Does the Simple View of Reading (Gough & Tunmer, 1986) capture all non-random variation in reading comprehension? (2) Does orally-assessed vocabulary knowledge account for variance in reading comprehension, as predicted by the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002)? A comprehensive battery of cognitive and educational tests was employed to assess phonological awareness, decoding, verbal working memory, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, word knowledge, experience with print. In this heterogeneous sample, decoding ability clearly plays an important role in reading comprehension. Gough and Tunmer’s Simple View of Reading gives a reasonable fit to the data, though it does not capture all of the reliable variance in reading comprehension as predicted. Orally assessed vocabulary knowledge captures unique variance in reading comprehension even after listening comprehension and decoding skill are accounted for. We explore how a specific connectionist model of lexical representation and lexical access can account for these findings. PMID:17518215

Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald; Mencl, Einar

2010-01-01

439

Genetic association of impulsivity in young adults: a multivariate study  

PubMed Central

Impulsivity is a heritable, multifaceted construct with clinically relevant links to multiple psychopathologies. We assessed impulsivity in young adult (N~2100) participants in a longitudinal study, using self-report questionnaires and computer-based behavioral tasks. Analysis was restricted to the subset (N=426) who underwent genotyping. Multivariate association between impulsivity measures and single-nucleotide polymorphism data was implemented using parallel independent component analysis (Para-ICA). Pathways associated with multiple genes in components that correlated significantly with impulsivity phenotypes were then identified using a pathway enrichment analysis. Para-ICA revealed two significantly correlated genotype–phenotype component pairs. One impulsivity component included the reward responsiveness subscale and behavioral inhibition scale of the Behavioral-Inhibition System/Behavioral-Activation System scale, and the second impulsivity component included the non-planning subscale of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and the Experiential Discounting Task. Pathway analysis identified processes related to neurogenesis, nervous system signal generation/amplification, neurotransmission and immune response. We identified various genes and gene regulatory pathways associated with empirically derived impulsivity components. Our study suggests that gene networks implicated previously in brain development, neurotransmission and immune response are related to impulsive tendencies and behaviors. PMID:25268255

Khadka, S; Narayanan, B; Meda, S A; Gelernter, J; Han, S; Sawyer, B; Aslanzadeh, F; Stevens, M C; Hawkins, K A; Anticevic, A; Potenza, M N; Pearlson, G D

2014-01-01

440

Bikram yoga training and physical fitness in healthy young adults.  

PubMed

There has been relatively little longitudinal controlled investigation of the effects of yoga on general physical fitness, despite the widespread participation in this form of exercise. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the effect of short-term Bikram yoga training on general physical fitness. Young healthy adults were randomized to yoga training (N = 10, 29 ± 6 years, 24 sessions in 8 weeks) or a control group (N = 11, 26 ± 7 years). Each yoga training session consisted of 90-minute standardized supervised postures performed in a heated and humidified studio. Isometric deadlift strength, handgrip strength, lower back/hamstring and shoulder flexibility, resting heart rate and blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption (treadmill), and lean and fat mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured before and after training. Yoga subjects exhibited increased deadlift strength, substantially increased lower back/hamstring flexibility, increased shoulder flexibility, and modestly decreased body fat compared with control group. There were no changes in handgrip strength, cardiovascular measures, or maximal aerobic fitness. In summary, this short-term yoga training protocol produced beneficial changes in musculoskeletal fitness that were specific to the training stimulus. PMID:22592178

Tracy, Brian L; Hart, Cady E F

2013-03-01

441

Adult hemiparkinsonian rats do not benefit from tactile stimulation.  

PubMed

Tactile stimulation (TS) applied to adult rats after cortical injury (medial frontal cortex aspiration or sensorimotor pial stripping stroke model) has been previously shown to ameliorate behavioral impairments and to improve morphological parameters like dendritic length of prefrontal cortical neurons (Gibb et al., 2010). The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of TS on healthy and hemiparkinsonian adult rats. Therefore, the animals received TS for 14 days and 15 min three times daily. At different time points rats were tested in various behavioral tests (amphetamine-induced rotation, cylinder test, staircase test). Finally, rats were sacrificed, their brains removed, and processed for Golgi-Cox analyses, tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. We found that the striatal 6-OHDA lesion itself induced a long-term increase of astroglial Fgf2 transcript levels, but was not further increased by TS. In contrast TS applied to healthy rats elicited a transient short-term increase of Fgf2 in the striatum and Bdnf, Grin1, and Fgf2 in the hippocampus. Moreover, behavioral and histological analyses do not support a beneficial effect of TS for hemiparkinsonian rats, applied for two weeks starting one day after partial striatal 6-OHDA lesion. PMID:24342749

Effenberg, Anna; Klein, Alexander; Gibb, Robbin; Carroll, Cathy; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Grothe, Claudia; Ratzka, Andreas

2014-03-15

442

High Glucose Accelerates Autophagy in Adult Rat Intervertebral Disc Cells  

PubMed Central

Study Design In vitro cell culture. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high glucose on autophagy in adult rat intervertebral disc cells. Overview of Literature Diabetes mellitus is considered to be an important etiologic factor for intervertebral disc degeneration, resulting in degenerative disc diseases. A glucose-mediated increase of autophagy is a major causative factor for the development of diseases associated with diabetes mellitus. However, no information is available for the effect of high glucose on autophagy in adult intervertebral disc cells. Methods Nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells were isolated from 24-week-old adult rats, cultured and placed in either 10% fetal bovine serum (normal control) or 10% fetal bovine serum plus two different high glucose concentrations (0.1 M and 0.2 M) (experimental conditions) for one and three days, respectively. The expressions of autophagy markers, such as beclin-1, light chain 3-I (LC3-I) and LC3-II, autophagy-related gene (Atg) 3, 5, 7 and 12, were identified and quantified. Results Two high glucoses significantly increased the expressions of beclin-1, LC3-II, Atg3, 5, 7, and 12 in adult rat nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I expression was also increased in a dose-respectively time-dependent manner. Conclusions The results suggest that autophagy of adult nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells might be a potential mechanism for the intervertebral disc degeneration in adult patients with diabetes mellitus. Thus, the prevention of autophagy in adult intervertebral disc cells might be considered as a novel therapeutic target to prevent or to delay the intervertebral disc degeneration in adult patients with diabetes mellitus.

Kong, Chae-Gwan; Kim, Man Soo; Park, Eun-Young

2014-01-01

443

Young Adult Identities and Their Pathways: A Developmental and Life Course Model  

PubMed Central

Developmental and life course studies of young adult identities have focused on two dimensions, subjective age and psychosocial maturity. This study examines the developmental synchrony of these two processes. In a longitudinal sample of young adults from Add Health (18 to 22), a person-centered analysis of indicators of these dimensions identified four identity profiles. Two depict early and late patterns of identity; the others represent contrasting types of discordance, “pseudo-adult”, subjective age more advanced than maturation level and “anticipatory”, with subjective age less advanced than maturational level. The profiles vary by gender, socioeconomic status, and race-ethnicity as well as by adolescent (ages12–16) pubertal maturation, psychosocial adjustment, and family context. These results provide support for a more holistic, interdisciplinary understanding of adult identity, and show that young adult identities in the Add Health sample follow differentiated paths into the adult years, with largely unknown consequences for the subsequent life course. PMID:21668096

Benson, Janel E.; Elder, Glen H.

2013-01-01

444

ADULT ATTACHMENT, PERSONALITY TRAITS, AND BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER FEATURES IN YOUNG ADULTS  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have demonstrated that insecure attachment patterns and a trait disposition toward negative affect and impulsivity are both associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD) features. According to attachment theory, insecure attachment patterns impart greater risk for the maladaptive personality traits underlying BPD. Hence, insecure attachment might be indirectly related to BPD through its association with these traits. The current cross-sectional study used structural equation modeling to compare two competing models of the relationship between adult attachment patterns, trait negative affect and impulsivity, and BPD features in a large nonclinical sample of young adults: (M1) attachment anxiety and avoidance are positively related to trait negative affect and impulsivity, which in turn, are directly associated with BPD features; and (M2) trait negative affect and impulsivity are positively related to attachment anxiety and avoidance, which in turn, are directly associated with BPD features. Consistent with attachment theory, M1 provided a better fit to the data than M2. However, only attachment anxiety, and not attachment avoidance, was significantly associated with negative affect and impulsivity. The results favored a model in which the relationship between adult attachment anxiety and BPD features is fully mediated by trait negative affect and impulsivity. PMID:19538081

Scott, Lori N.; Levy, Kenneth N.; Pincus, Aaron L.

2011-01-01

445

Microrna profiling analysis of differences between the melanoma of young adults and older adults  

PubMed Central

Background This study represents the first attempt to perform a profiling analysis of the intergenerational differences in the microRNAs (miRNAs) of primary cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms in young adult and older age groups. The data emphasize the importance of these master regulators in the transcriptional machinery of melanocytic neoplasms and suggest that differential levels of expressions of these miRs may contribute to differences in phenotypic and pathologic presentation of melanocytic neoplasms at different ages. Methods An exploratory miRNA analysis of 666 miRs by low density microRNA arrays was conducted on formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissues (FFPE) from 10 older adults and 10 young adults including conventional melanoma and melanocytic neoplasms of uncertain biological significance. Age-matched benign melanocytic nevi were used as controls. Results Primary melanoma in patients greater than 60 years old was characterized by the increased expression of miRs regulating TLR-MyD88-NF-kappaB pathway (hsa-miR-199a), RAS/RAB22A pathway (hsa-miR-204); growth differentiation and migration (hsa-miR337), epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) (let-7b, hsa-miR-10b/10b*), invasion and metastasis (hsa-miR-10b/10b*), hsa-miR-30a/e*, hsa-miR-29c*; cellular matrix components (hsa-miR-29c*); invasion-cytokinesis (hsa-miR-99b*) compared to melanoma of younger patients. MiR-211 was dramatically downregulated compared to nevi controls, decreased with increasing age and was among the miRs linked to metastatic processes. Melanoma in young adult patients had increased expression of hsa-miR-449a and decreased expression of hsa-miR-146b, hsa-miR-214*. MiR-30a* in clinical stages I-II adult and pediatric melanoma could predict classification of melanoma tissue in the two extremes of age groups. Although the number of cases is small, positive lymph node status in the two age groups was characterized by the statistically significant expression of hsa-miR-30a* and hsa-miR-204 (F-test, p-value < 0.001). Conclusions Our findings, although preliminary, support the notion that the differential biology of melanoma at the extremes of age is driven, in part, by deregulation of microRNA expression and by fine tuning of miRs that are already known to regulate cell cycle, inflammation, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)/stroma and more specifically genes known to be altered in melanoma. Our analysis reveals that miR expression differences create unique patterns of frequently affected biological processes that clearly distinguish old age from young age melanomas. This is a novel characterization of the miRnomes of melanocytic neoplasms at two extremes of age and identifies potential diagnostic and clinico-pathologic biomarkers that may serve as novel miR-based targeted modalities in melanoma diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20302635

2010-01-01

446

Early Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Health Insurance Coverage of Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Research Objective To evaluate one of the first implemented provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), which permits young adults up to age 26 to enroll as dependents on a parent's private health plan. Nearly one-in-three young adults lacked coverage before the ACA. Study Design, Methods, and Data Data from the Current Population Survey 2005–2011 are used to estimate linear probability models within a difference-in-differences framework to estimate how the ACA affected coverage of eligible young adults compared to slightly older adults. Multivariate models control for individual characteristics, economic trends, and prior state-dependent coverage laws. Principal Findings This ACA provision led to a rapid and substantial increase in the share of young adults with dependent coverage and a reduction in their uninsured rate in the early months of implementation. Models accounting for prior state dependent expansions suggest greater policy impact in 2010 among young adults who were also eligible under a state law. Conclusions and Implications ACA-dependent coverage expansion represents a rare public policy success in the effort to cover the uninsured. Still, this policy may have later unintended consequences for premiums for alternative forms of coverage and employer-offered rates for young adult workers. PMID:22924684

Cantor, Joel C; Monheit, Alan C; DeLia, Derek; Lloyd, Kristen

2012-01-01

447

Association of education with dietary intake among young adults in the bi-ethnic Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of changes in dietary intake with education in young black and white men and women.\\u000aDESIGN: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a multi-centre population-based prospective study. Dietary intake data at baseline and year 7 were obtained from an extensive nutritionist-administered diet history questionnaire with 700 items developed for CARDIA.\\u000aSETTING: Participants

S. L. Archer; J. E. Hilner; A. R. Dyer; Kurt J. Greenlund; Laura A. Colangelo; Catarina I. Kiefe; K. Liu

2003-01-01

448

Oral contraceptive use and association with glucose, insulin, and diabetes in young adult women: the CARDIA Study. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: We studied the associations between 1) current use of oral contraceptives (OCs) and 2) glucose levels, insulin levels, and diabetes in young women.\\u000aRESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects were women (n = 1,940) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a prospective observational study of African-Americans and whites aged 18-30 years at enrollment in 1985-1986.

Catherine Kim; David S. Siscovick; Stephen Sidney; Cora E. Lewis; Catarina I. Kiefe; Thomas D. Koepsell

2002-01-01

449

Depletion of sorbitol and fructose from young and older rat lenses.  

PubMed

Fasting for as little as 24 hr markedly reduced the levels of sorbitol and fructose in the adult rat lens. This depletion was found in both young (1 month) and older (8-12 month) rats. Two modes of depletion were examined: decreased synthesis and metabolic breakdown. The role of diffusion was discussed. In vitro experiments showed that in both age groups, decreased glucose in the medium resulted in a proportional decrease in glucose and sorbitol in the lens; the lenticular fructose level was not changed. In contrast to reports showing decreased glycolysis with age, the sorbitol-synthetic capacity of rat lenses was undiminished with age. Acceleration of glycolytic flux in lenses in vitro resulted in decreases in fructose, and to a lesser extent in sorbitol, in both age groups. These findings indicated that fructose can be removed from lenses by metabolism; and that, especially in the older lenses, glycolysis may represent a major route by which fructose, and hence sorbitol, are eliminated during fasting. PMID:7151885

Gillis, M K; Chylack, L T

1982-08-01

450

Correlates of urinary albumin excretion in young adult blacks and whites: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.  

PubMed

The rate of urinary albumin excretion is an important risk factor for kidney failure, stroke, and cardiovascular disease, perhaps because higher albumin excretion reflects endothelial cell dysfunction. The authors characterized urinary albumin excretion according to blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and other factors in 2,582 Black and White participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study who were aged 18-30 years in 1985-1986. Urinary albumin and creatinine concentrations were determined using single untimed samples 10 and 15 years later. The albumin:creatinine ratio was analyzed as a continuous variable and a dichotomous variable (higher albumin excretion, including microalbuminuria (25-249 mg/g) and macroalbuminuria (>or=250 mg/g)). Seventy percent of persons with increased albumin excretion were both normoglycemic and normotensive (systolic/diastolic blood pressure <140/90 mmHg and no use of antihypertensive drugs). Even when diabetic subjects, who have greater risk, were excluded, albumin excretion rose continuously as blood pressure increased among Blacks; increases started at systolic/diastolic blood pressures of 130/85 mmHg among Whites. Furthermore, blood pressure measured up to 15 years earlier predicted incident higher albumin excretion at year 15. These findings persisted after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, and blood lipid and plasma insulin levels. A risk of higher urinary albumin excretion exists at blood pressure levels below those commonly regarded as hypertension, with a greater risk among Blacks than among Whites. PMID:14507604

Murtaugh, Maureen A; Jacobs, David R; Yu, Xinhua; Gross, Myron D; Steffes, Michael

2003-10-01

451

Eye movements of young and older adults while reading with distraction  

E-print Network

The authors used eye-tracking technology to examine young and older adults' online performance in the reading in distraction paradigm. Participants read target sentences and answered comprehension questions following each sentence. In some sentences...

Kemper, Susan; McDowd, Joan; Kramer, Art

2006-03-01

452

Some of My Favorite Books Are by Young Adult Authors and Some Are by Jane Austen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the benefits of reading young adult novels. Remarks on their serious intent, careful craftmanship, effective expression, as well as their ability to illuminate the human condition and provide insights. (EL)

Small, Robert C., Jr.

1986-01-01

453

Moderate Alcohol Use and Depression in Young Adults: Findings From a National Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the association between moderate alcohol use and depressive mood among young adults before and after adjustment for demographic, health, and socioeconomic factors that may act as confounders. Methods. We analyzed 2 waves of interview data collected from 13892 young adults who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to compare frequency of depressive symptoms in moderate drinkers with frequency of symptoms in young adults in other alcohol use categories. Results. With adjustment for health and socioeconomic factors, frequency of depressive symptoms were similar among moderate drinkers, lifetime and long-term abstainers, and heavy/heavier moderate drinkers but remained significantly higher among heavy drinkers. Conclusions. Moderate alcohol use may have no effect on depression in young adults relative to abstinence from alcohol use. PMID:15727976

Paschall, Mallie J.; Freisthler, Bridget; Lipton, Robert I.

2005-01-01

454

Tracking Talking: Dual Task Costs of Planning and Producing Speech for Young versus Older Adults  

E-print Network

A digital pursuit rotor was used to monitor speech planning and production costs by time-locking tracking performance to the auditory wave form produced as young and older adults were describing someone they admire. The ...

Kemper, Susan; Hoffman, Lesa; Schmalzried, RaLynn Cheri; Herman, Ruth; Kieweg, Doug

2011-05-01

455

Many Docs Fail to Counsel Young Adults with High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... Many Docs Fail to Counsel Young Adults With High Blood Pressure Too few physicians urge lifestyle changes, study finds (* ... November 10, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Healthy Living High Blood Pressure Talking With Your Doctor MONDAY, Nov. 10, 2014 ( ...

456

Young Adults with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Do Well on Intensified Pediatric Chemotherapy Regimen  

Cancer.gov

Adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia lived longer when treated with an intensified multi-drug chemotherapy regimen that is used to treat younger children, according to the November 1, 2009, Journal of Clinical Oncology.

457

Body Composition and Anthropometric Correlates of Isokinetic Leg Extension Strength of Young Adult Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relative importance of body size and composition as determinants of differences in isokinetic leg extensor strength in young adult males performing at slow, moderate, and fast speeds. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

Nutter, June; Thorland, William G.

1987-01-01

458

One Hundred of Our Best Ideas: Young Adult Literature with Staying Power.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents two lists of young adult literature titles totaling 100 works. Notes that the first list includes books with lasting appeal and the second list includes some new and notable books to fill a summer reading list. (SG)

Lesesne, Teri S.

2003-01-01

459

Into the Woods Again: Three Recent Young Adult Novels of Parental Abandonment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Takes a look at three recent young adult novels that are stories of children abandoned by their parents, and shows how each retains the essential features of the Hansel and Gretel folktale, a prototype of abandonment stories. (SR)

Munde, Gail

1997-01-01

460

The use of mental health services among young adults with emotional and behavioural problems: equal use for equal needs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Mental health problems are highly prevalent in young adults. Despite possibilities for effective treatment, only about one-third\\u000a of young adults with mental health problems seek professional help. Little knowledge exists of which groups of young adults\\u000a are underusing mental health services and for what reasons. The present study examined socio-demographic inequalities in the\\u000a use of mental health services by young

Kathleen Vanheusden; Jan van der Ende; Cornelis L. Mulder; Frank J. van Lenthe; Frank C. Verhulst; Johan P. Mackenbach

2008-01-01

461

Neurotoxicity of digitoxin in adult and newborn rats: drug distribution.  

PubMed

Electrocardiographic monitoring of adult and 1 week old (newborn) rats during severe acute digitoxin toxicity demonstrated a lack of acrdiotoxicity despite marked neurotoxicity in both age groups. To examine the possibility that drug disposition is a factor in the unusual digitoxin sensitivity of newborn rats, 3H-digitoxin distribution in liver, heart, brain, kidney, adrenal, blood and fat was compared in 1 and 3 week old (weanling) rats at 2, 12 and 24 hr. H3-label was rapidly sequestered by the liver in weanlings but not in newborn rats. Newborns had significantly higher concentrations of 3H-substance in all other organs, particularly in brain (greater than 25% of the administered dose at 24 hr), indicating a cerebrotoxic basis for the newborn's sensitivity to digitoxin. Only trace amounts of 3H-substance were recovered from adult rat brain during severe neurotoxicity (72 hr) suggesting that digitoxin metabolites may be potent cerebrotoxins. Extremely high adrenal concentrations were noted in all animals. PMID:1015912

Boor, P J; Reynolds, E S; Moslen, M T

1976-11-01

462

What prompts young adults in Ireland to attend health services for STI testing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In-depth understanding of the factors that prompt young adults to attend health services for sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing are needed to underpin sexual health programes. We conducted a qualitative study to identify and explore why young adults (18–29 years) in Ireland attended specialist and community health services for STI testing; the factors that supported\\/undermined their decisions to seek

Myles Balfe; Ruairi Brugha

2009-01-01

463

Expectations of Psychotherapy Duration by Disorder: A Comparison Between Professional and Young Adult Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using more precise methodology, the current study investigated expectations of psychotherapy duration for specific disorders.\\u000a Duration expectations were obtained for young adults and compared to those obtained from psychotherapists as reported by Lowry\\u000a and Ross (Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training 34:272–277, 1997). Results revealed that expected duration for\\u000a young adults by disorder was quite similar to the psychotherapists, where less

Janet E. Constance; Michael J. Ross; Jenny L. Lowry; Jeffrey D. Gfeller; Paul J. Handal

2008-01-01

464

CHANGES IN THE REPRESENTATIONS OF MOTHER AND FATHER AMONG YOUNG ADULTS IN PSYCHOANALYTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explores the changes in young adult patients' representations of their parents from prior to psychotherapy through long-term follow-up. Twenty-five women and 16 men from the Young Adult Psychotherapy Project (YAPP) were interviewed according to Sidney Blatt's unstructured Object Relations Inventory prior to psychoanalytic psychotherapy, at termination and at the 1.5-year follow-up, comprising 123 interviews in all. Typologies

Andrzej Werbart; Camilla Grünbaum; Britta Jonasson; Helena Kempe; Milosz Kusz; Solweig Linde; Karin Lundén ONils; Patrik Sjövall; Minna Svenson; Catharina Theve; Lena Ulin; Agneta Öhlin

2011-01-01

465

Review of health behaviors and their correlates among young adult cancer survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is imperative that young adult cancer survivors address any modifiable risk factors, given their increased health risks.\\u000a Unfortunately, few behavioral interventions have been developed for this population. The literature on physical activity,\\u000a smoking, and alcohol and drug use among young adult cancer survivors was reviewed in order to identify the behaviors most\\u000a in need of intervention, the most vulnerable

Carolyn Rabin

2011-01-01

466

Motives for cannabis use as a moderator variable of distress among young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the moderating effect of social and coping motives on distress among young cannabis-using adults. A random sample of 2031 young Swiss adults was interviewed by means of a computer-assisted telephone interview. Cannabis users showed more distress, less positive health behaviour and higher hedonism compared to non-users. Taking motive for use as a moderator variable into consideration, it

Jeannette Brodbeck; Monika Matter; Julie Page; Franz Moggi

2007-01-01

467

Identifying Clinically Distinct Subgroups of Self-Injurers Among Young Adults: A Latent Class Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

High rates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI; 14%–17%) in adolescents and young adults suggest that some self-injurers may exhibit more or different psychiatric problems than others. In the present study, the authors utilized a latent class analysis to identify clinically distinct subgroups of self-injurers. Participants were 205 young adults with a history of 1 or more NSSI behaviors. Latent classes were

E. David Klonsky; Thomas M. Olino

2008-01-01

468

Portal hypertension in children and young adults: sonographic and color Doppler findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Portal hypertension is a relatively uncommon pathologic condition in children and young adults in contrast with older adults.\\u000a The aim of this study is to evaluate the utility of sonography and color Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of portal hypertension\\u000a in children and young patients and to evaluate the sonographic pattern of each disease. We reviewed 25 such patients

A. Uno; H. Ishida; K. Konno; Y. Ohnami; H. Naganuma; M. Niizawa; Y. Hamashima; O. Masamune

1997-01-01

469

Mental Health of Rural Young Adults: Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders, Comorbidity, and Service Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies estimate rural psychiatric disorder rates. No study has reported either DSM-III-R or DSM IV disorder prevalence\\u000a and mental health service use among US rural young adults. This paper reports psychiatric disorder prevalence, comorbidity,\\u000a service utilization, and disorder correlates in a community sample of 536 young adults, aged 19 to 23 years, living in the\\u000a rural Midwestern US. More than

Martha A. Rueter; Kristen E. Holm; Rebecca Burzette; Kee Jeong Kim; Rand D. Conger

2007-01-01

470

Behavioral self-regulation for weight loss in young adults: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of recruiting and retaining young adults in a brief behavioral weight loss intervention tailored for this age group, and to assess the preliminary efficacy of an intervention that emphasizes daily self-weighing within the context of a self-regulation model. METHODS: Forty young adults (29.1 ± 3.9 years, range 21–35, average BMI of 33.36 ± 3.4) were

Jessica Gokee-LaRose; Amy A Gorin; Rena R Wing

2009-01-01

471

Sweet and sour preferences in young children and adults: role of repeated exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the influence of repeated exposure to orangeades with added sucrose and different concentrations of citric acid, on the taste preferences of 6- to-11-year-old children and young adults.During an intervention study of 8 days, 59 children (9.2±0.9 years) and 46 young adults (22±2.0 years) received, each day, either an orangeade with a sweet taste, a sour taste, or no

Djin Gie Liem; Cees de Graaf

2004-01-01

472

Short-term regulation of food intake in children, young adults and the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The present study investigated the effects of consuming preloads with different macronutrient and energy contents on subsequent intake and subjective feelings of hunger and satiety in children, young adults and the elderly.Subjects: 30 Children (4–6 y), 33 young adults (18–26 y) and 24 elderly (61–86 y).Design: A ‘preload test meal’ design was applied. Subjects were given four different strawberry

E. H. Zandstra; M. F. A. M. Mathey; C de Graaf; WA van Staveren

2000-01-01

473

Predicting young adult social functioning from developmental trajectories of externalizing behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results. Children with high-level trajectories of opposition and status violations reported more impaired social functioning as young adults than children with high-level trajectories of aggression and property violations. Young adults who showed onset of problems in adolescence reported overall less impaired social functioning than individuals with high-level externalizing problems starting in childhood. Overall, males reported more impaired social functioning in

J. van der Ende

2008-01-01

474

Young and Older Adults Exhibit Proactive and Reactive Adaptations to Repeated Slip Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. A previous study found that, with repeated exposure to slipping during a sit-to-stand task, fall incidence decreased at a similar exponential rate in young and older adults. This study investigated the adaptations responsible for this decrease. Methods. Slips were induced, using bilateral low-friction platforms, during a sit-to-stand in 60 young and 41 older healthy safety-harnessed adults. Participants underwent 5

Michael J. Pavol; Eileen F. Runtz; Yi-Chung Pai

2004-01-01

475

Conjoint Developmental Trajectories of Young Adult Substance Use  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the prominence of comorbidity among substances and the recent attention focused on trajectory-based approaches to characterizing developmental change, little research in the substance use field has simultaneously considered both course and comorbidity. Methods Using nationally representative panel data from the Monitoring the Future Project (MTF; n = 32,087; 56% female; 82% Caucasian), we identified developmental courses of heavy drinking, smoking, and marijuana use using 4 waves of data spanning ages 18 to 26 in a multi-cohort young adult sample. Comorbidity was examined by cross-classifying group membership in substance use trajectories. Finally, the extent to which risk factors (sex, race, alcohol expectancies, delinquency, sensation seeking, depressive affect, religiosity, academic achievement, and parent education) accounted for combinations of comorbidity that occurred at a rate greater than chance was examined. Results For each substance, we identified 4 courses of substance use that were largely consistent with those found in the literature (chronic high use, late-onset use, developmentally limited use, and low-use), with a fifth moderate smoking group. Heavy drinking, smoking, and marijuana use were each highly associated, and distinct patterns of comorbidity were evident, with greatest agreement along the diagonal. All risk factors explained comorbidity to some degree, with delinquency, sensation seeking, alcohol expectancies, and religion in particular predicting combinations of comorbidity that were characterized by early onset and chronic high use. Conclusions Cross-substance trajectory concordance was high, with parallel changes in substance use over emerging adulthood. This suggests similar developmental timing of use, perhaps due to the experience of developmental transitions that have a common influence on use of different substances. Prediction of combinations of comorbidity characterized by early onset and persistently high use suggests that to some extent, individuals use multiple substances because of a common vulnerability to each, rather than directional relations among substances (e.g., cross-tolerance, cueing). PMID:18331376

Jackson, Kristina M.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Schulenberg, John E.

2009-01-01