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1

Ototoxicity of Tobramycin in Young Adult and Old Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the possible age-dependent ototoxic effects of tobramycin a subacute toxicity study was performed. To young adult (3 months) and old (27–30 months) female Wag-Rij rats 0, 10, 40, and 160 mg tobramycin sulfate\\/kg was administered subcutaneously in two doses a day. After 14 days all animals were autopsied. The cochlea was fixed by perfusion through the opened oval

J. A. M. A. Dormans; G. W. M. Peters-Volleberg; P. M. Dortant; G. J. A. Speijers

1996-01-01

2

Restitution of ATP and Creatine Phosphate after Experimental Depletion in Young, Adult, and Old Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates of restitution of skeletal muscle, heart, and brain creatine phosphate and brain ATP, following experimental depletion, were compared in young (3–5 month), adult (12 month) and old (24 month) rats. In skeletal muscle, restitution of creatine phosphate after 3 min of recovery was greatest in the young rats, minimal in the adult animals, and absent in the old

M. C. McNamara; A. L. Shen; J. J. Wood

1978-01-01

3

The effect of swimming on bone modeling and composition in young adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The purpose of this study was to investigate the adaptability of long bones of young adult rats to the stress of chronic aquatic\\u000a exercise. Twenty-eight female Sabra rats (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to two groups and treatments: exercise (14\\u000a rats) and sedentary control (14 rats) matched for age and weight. Exercised animals were trained to swim in a

Aaron Swissa-Sivan; Reouven Azoury; Marian Statter; Issac Leichter; Abraham Nyska; Meir Nyska; Jacob Menczel; Shlomo Samueloff

1990-01-01

4

Labeling of RNA in young and adult rat brain: evidence for different RNA processing  

SciTech Connect

The labeling of RNA in young and adult rat brain has been studied by measuring in vitro (tissue slices incubation) the incorporation of labeled uridine into RNA of total tissue and of the various subcellular fractions purified from cerebral hemispheres of 1- and 10-month-old rats. Gel electrophoretic analysis of the newly synthesized nuclear and microsomal RNA was also accomplished. An active metabolism of RNA in adult animals was found; moreover, distinct differences in ribosomal RNA processing in cerebral hemispheres of 1- and 10-month-old rats, with a more rapid processing in the brain of adult animals, were obtained.

Serra, I.; Cupello, A.; Gadaleta, M.N.; Viola, M.; Ragonese, P.; Giuffrida, A.M.

1983-04-01

5

Ketogenic diet increases concentrations of kynurenic acid in discrete brain structures of young and adult rats.  

PubMed

Targeting mechanisms that result in increased concentrations of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the brain has been considered as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of epilepsy and certain neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, KYNA has been implicated in the effects produced by the high-fat and low-protein/carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) in a report demonstrating an increased production of KYNA in vitro by one of the ketone bodies, ?-hydroxybutyrate, elevated by the KD. To further explore this association, brain concentrations of KYNA were compared in young (3 weeks old) and adult (8-10 weeks old) rats that were chronically exposed to the KD and regular diet. Exposure to the KD resulted in the anticipated elevations of ?-hydroxybutyrate with accompanying decreases in glucose concentrations. In comparison to rats fed the regular diet, KYNA concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in the hippocampus (256 and 363% increase in young and adult rats, respectively) and in the striatum (381 and 191% increase in young and adult rats, respectively) in KD-fed rats. KD-induced increases in KYNA concentrations in young versus adult rats in the hippocampus and striatum were comparable (p > 0.05). Exposure to the KD had no effect on KYNA concentrations in the cortex of young and adult rats (p > 0.05). In summary, chronic exposure to the KD resulted in several-fold increases in KYNA concentrations in discrete brain structures in the rats. Thus, the relevant clinical question for further exploration is whether KD-induced increases in KYNA concentrations can translate into clinically significant improvements in neuropsychiatric diseases associated with KYNA hypofunction. PMID:22200857

?arnowski, Tomasz; Chor?giewicz, Tomasz; Tulidowicz-Bielak, Maria; Thaler, Sebastian; Rejdak, Robert; ?arnowski, Iwona; Turski, Waldemar Andrzej; Gasior, Maciej

2011-12-27

6

Susceptibility of young and adult rats to the oral toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have potential applications as food additives, but concerns persist about their safety. Children are identified as having the highest exposure and may face the greatest health risks. However, the toxicological sensitivity of TiO2 NPs in different ages is not clear. Here, a comparative toxicity study of TiO2 NPs in 3-week (youth) and 8-week (adult) old Sprague-Dawley rats is reported following oral exposure at doses of 0, 10, 50, 200 mg kg(-1) body weight per day for 30 days. The organ mass and histology, blood biochemistry and redox state, intestinal function, and biodistribution of NPs are characterized. The results show that TiO2 NPs induce different toxic effects on young and adult rats. The liver edema, heart injuries and non-allergic mast cell activation in stomach tissues are found in young rats. On the other hand, only slight injury in the liver and kidney and decreased intestinal permeability and molybdenum contents are found in adult rats. Furthermore, TiO2 NP exposure can provoke reductive stress (i.e., increased reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratios) in plasmas through enhancing the glucose and GSH levels in young rats or reducing the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) acitivity and GSSG levels in adult rats. These results suggest that different ages may require different biomarkers for identifying and monitoring oral toxicity of nanoparticles. PMID:22945798

Wang, Yun; Chen, Zhangjian; Ba, Te; Pu, Ji; Chen, Tian; Song, Yanshuang; Gu, Yongen; Qian, Qin; Xu, Yingying; Xiang, Kun; Wang, Haifang; Jia, Guang

2012-09-04

7

The Conservation of Water by Young Adult Rats with Restricted Water Supplies 1\\/2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to study the water balance of laboratory rats under restricted water conditions, with particular attention to insensible water loss. Young adult female rats were fed liquid diets by gavage in amounts which maintained constant body weights. The diets were identical except for their water content which was 61.5, 48.3 and 38.7% of the diets.

S. A. OSMAN; J. D. SMITH; L. E. HANSON ANDR; J. MEADE

2009-01-01

8

Micro-CT analysis of myocardial blood supply in young and adult rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study addresses whether the vasculature grows in proportion to the myocardium as the rat heart develops. The volume of myocardium and coronary vessels were estimated from micro-CT images of the hearts injected with Microfil(R) contrast agent. Young (n=5) and adult (n=5) hearts were scanned, resulting in 3D images comprised of 20?m on-a-side cubic voxels. The myocardial muscle and vessel lumen volumes were measured for all vessels 40 to 320?m in diameter by an erosion and dilation method applied to the binary images in which the contrast in the vessels were assigned "1" and all non-opacified entities were assigned "0". The average total muscle volume increases by 50%, 129.4 to 237.4mm3, from young to adult rats, while the luminal volume increases by 10%, 16.6 to 18.6mm3. The vessel volume is 12% of the total muscle volume in young and 8% in adults. For a given vessel volume, the muscle volume in the young is 82% of the muscle volume in adults. We conclude that as the heart matures, the myocardium grows more rapidly than the vasculature. This may result in greater angles of separation between vessel branches, and the increase in myocardial coronary volume. The ratio suggests either higher blood flow velocity or a lower metabolic rate in adults.

Schaefer, Heather M.; Beighley, Patricia E.; Eaker, Diane R.; Vercnocke, Andrew J.; Ritman, Erik L.

2009-02-01

9

Uterine phenotype of young adult rats exposed to dietary soy or genistein during development.  

PubMed

Dietary soy intake is associated with protection from breast cancer, but questions persist on the potential risks of the major soy isoflavone genistein (GEN) on female reproductive health. Here, we evaluated intermediate markers of cancer risk in uteri of cycling, young adult Sprague-Dawley rats lifetime exposed to one of three AIN-93G semipurified diets: casein (CAS), soy protein isolate (SPI+ with 276 mg GEN aglycone equivalents/kg) and CAS+GEN (GEN at 250 mg/kg). Postnatal day 50 (PND50) rats lifetime exposed to GEN or SPI+ had similar uterine luminal epithelium height, myometrial thickness, endometrial gland numbers, endometrial immunoreactive proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and serum estrogen and progesterone, as CAS-fed rats. GEN-fed rats showed modestly increased apoptosis in uterine glandular epithelium, compared to those of CAS- or SPI+-fed groups. Diet had no effect on the uterine expression of genes for the tumor suppressors PTEN, p53 and p21, and the apoptotic-associated proteins Bcl2, Bax and progesterone receptor. Uterine tissue and serum concentrations of total GEN were higher in rats fed GEN than in those fed SPI+. Human Ishikawa endocarcinoma cells treated with GEN-fed rat serum tended to exhibit increased apoptotic status than those treated with CAS-fed rat serum. Exogenously added GEN (0.2 and 2 microM) increased, while estradiol-17beta (0.1 microM) decreased Ishikawa cell apoptosis, relative to untreated cells. Results suggest that lifetime dietary exposure to soy foods does not alter uterine cell phenotype in young adult rats, while GEN, by enhancing uterine endometrial glandular apoptosis in vivo and in vitro, may confer protection against uterine carcinoma. Given its limited influence on uterine phenotype of young adult females, GEN, when taken as part of soy foods or as supplement, should be favorably considered for other potential health benefits. PMID:16081271

Eason, Renea R; Till, S Reneé; Velarde, Michael C; Geng, Yan; Chatman, Leon; Gu, Liwei; Badger, Thomas M; Simmen, Frank A; Simmen, Rosalia C M

2005-10-01

10

Cardiac and plasma lipid profiles in response to acute hypoxia in neonatal and young adult rats  

PubMed Central

Background The physiological and biochemical responses to acute hypoxia have not been fully characterized in neonates. Fatty acids and lipids play an important role in most aspects of cardiac function. Methods We performed comprehensive lipid profiling analysis to survey the changes that occur in heart tissue and plasma of neonatal and young adult rats exposed to hypoxia for 2 h, and following 2 h of recovery from hypoxia. Results Cardiac and plasma concentrations of short-chain acylcarnitines, and most plasma long-chain fatty acids, were decreased in hypoxic neonates. Following recovery from hypoxia, concentrations of propionylcarnitine, palmitoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine were increased in neonatal hearts, while oleylcarnitine and linoleylcarnitine concentrations were increased in neonatal plasma. The concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain acylcarnitines were increased in the hearts and plasma of hypoxic young adult rats; these metabolites returned to baseline values following recovery from hypoxia. Conclusion There are differential effects of acute hypoxia on cardiac and plasma lipid profiles with maturation from the neonate to the young adult rat. Changes to neonatal cardiac and plasma lipid profiles during hypoxia likely allowed for greater metabolic and physiologic flexibility and increased chances for survival. Persistent alterations in the neonatal cardiac lipid profile following recovery from hypoxia may play a role in the development of rhythm disturbances.

2010-01-01

11

Zinc homeostasis in the hippocampus of zinc-deficient young adult rats.  

PubMed

On the basis of the evidence of the transient learning impairment of young adult rats fed a zinc-deficient diet for 4 weeks, zinc concentration in the hippocampus was examined in the zinc-deficient rats to understand the mechanism of brain dysfunction in zinc deficiency. Zinc concentration in the hippocampus, as well as that in other brain regions, was not decreased by 4-week zinc deprivation. When Timm's stain, with which histochemically reactive zinc in the presynaptic vesicles is detected, was compared between the control and zinc-deficient rats, the intensity of Timm's stain in the hippocampus was almost the same between them. In the hippocampus, zinc concentration in the synaptosomal fraction was not also decreased by 4-week zinc deprivation, whereas that in the crude nuclear fraction was significantly increased. These results suggest that zinc concentration in the presynaptic vesicles is not decreased in young adults rats by 4-week zinc deprivation. It is likely that zinc-requiring systems in the nucleus are more responsive to zinc deficiency than vesicular zinc. This responsiveness appears to be involved in the transient learning impairment. PMID:15670638

Takeda, Atsushi; Tamano, Haruna; Tochigi, Minori; Oku, Naoto

2004-12-19

12

Reproductive toxicity of a single dose of 1,3-dinitrobenzene in two ages of young adult male rats  

EPA Science Inventory

These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB). Young adult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24,...

13

Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls PCB153 or PCB126 impairs learning ability in young but not in adult rats.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants present in the food chain and in human blood and milk. Exposure to PCBs during pregnancy and lactation leads to cognitive impairment in children. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Some PCBs are endocrine disrupters. The aim of this work was to assess whether exposure of rats to PCB126 (dioxin-like) or PCB153 (non-dioxin-like) during pregnancy and lactation affects the ability of the pups to learn a Y maze conditional discrimination task and/or the function of the glutamate-nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway in brain in vivo when the rats are young (3 months) or adult (7-8 months). After finishing the learning experiments, the function of the pathway was analysed in the same rats by in vivo brain microdialysis. The results obtained show that perinatal exposure to PCB153 or PCB126: (1) impairs learning ability in young but not in adult rats, (2) impairs the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway function in cerebellum in vivo in young but not in adult rats and (3) affect these parameters in males and females similarly. PCB126 is around 10 000-fold more potent than PCB153. In control rats the function of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway and learning ability are lower in adult than in young rats. These age-related differences are not present in rats exposed to PCBs. The impairment of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway function induced at young age by developmental exposure to the PCBs could be one of the mechanisms contributing to the cognitive impairment found in children whose mothers ingested PCB-contaminated food during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:18093177

Piedrafita, Blanca; Erceg, Slaven; Cauli, Omar; Monfort, Pilar; Felipo, Vicente

2008-01-01

14

Pulmonary Function in Juvenile and Young Adult Rats Exposed to Low-Level NO2 with Diurnal Spikes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pulmonary function was examined in juvenile and young adult Fischer-344 rats continuously exposed to NO2 (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 ppm) for up to 6 weeks with twice daily 1 hr spikes equal to 3X the baseline concentration. The spike to baseline ratio was chosen to...

M. A. Stevens M. G. Menache J. D. Crapo F. J. Miller J. A. Graham

1988-01-01

15

Differences in amygdala cell proliferation between adolescent and young adult rats.  

PubMed

Adolescence is characterized by changes in both behavior and neural organization. During this period, the amygdala, a structure that mediates social and emotional behaviors, is changing in terms of neural and glia density. We examined cell proliferation within the amygdala of adolescent (post natal day (PND) 31) and adult (PND 70) male Sprague-Dawley rats using BrdU (bromodeoxyuridine) to label dividing cells. BrdU-labeled cells were distributed throughout the amygdala, often found in fibers surrounding major nuclei. Using two independent cell counting strategies under light and confocal microcopy, respectively, we found significantly more labeled cells in the amygdala in adolescent compared to adult animals (239.3?±?87.18 vs. 44.75?±?13.68; n?=?4/group; p?adults. These data suggest that compared to young adulthood, adolescence is a relatively active period of cell proliferation in the amygdala. Moreover, the normal decline in dividing cells with age does not preferentially affect cells co-containing DCX-immunoreactivity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 9999: 1-12, 2013. PMID:23775606

Saul, Michele L; Helmreich, Dana L; Callahan, Linda M; Fudge, Julie L

2013-06-15

16

Effects of dimethylarsinic and dimethylarsinous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of young and adult rats  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the effects of pentavalent dimethylarsinic acid ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}AsO(OH); DMA{sup V}) and trivalent dimethylarsinous acid ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}As(OH); DMA{sup III}) on synaptic transmission generated by the excitatory Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse were tested in hippocampal slices of young (14-21 day-old) and adult (2-4 month-old) rats. Both compounds were applied in concentrations of 1 to 100 {mu}mol/l. DMA{sup V} had no effect on the amplitudes of evoked fEPSPs or the induction of LTP recorded from the CA1 dendritic region either in adult or in young rats. However, application of DMA{sup III} significantly reduced the amplitudes of evoked fEPSPs in a concentration-dependent manner with a total depression following application of 100 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} in adult and 10 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} in young rats. Moreover, DMA{sup III} significantly affected the LTP-induction. Application of 10 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} resulted in a complete failure of the postsynaptic potentiation of the fEPSP amplitudes in slices taken both from adult and young rats. The depressant effect was not reversible after a 30-min washout of the DMA{sup III}. In slices of young rats, the depressant effects of DMA{sup III} were more pronounced than in those taken from adult ones. Compared to the (absent) effect of DMA{sup V} on synaptic transmission, the trivalent compound possesses a considerably higher neurotoxic potential.

Krueger, Katharina [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)], E-mail: katharina.krueger@uni-muenster.de; Repges, Hendrik [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Hippler, Joerg; Hartmann, Louise M.; Hirner, Alfred V. [Institut fuer Umweltanalytik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 3-5, D-45141 Essen (Germany); Straub, Heidrun [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Binding, Norbert [Institut fuer Arbeitsmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 51, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Musshoff, Ulrich [Institut fuer Physiologie I, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 27a, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

2007-11-15

17

Young Adult Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Poses the question of why coming-of-age stories about girls are usually published as juveniles while those about boys originate on adult book lists. Challenges the conventional wisdom on how best to market young adult literature. (FL)|

Epstein, Connie C.

1987-01-01

18

The influence of suspension hypokinesia on contractile properties of slow and fast twitch muscles of young growing and adult rats.  

PubMed

The influence of the lack of the gravity force on contractile properties of the slow-twitch soleus (SOL) and the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles was investigated in 3 week or 6-month-old rats suspended by their tail. In both groups suspension hypokinesia (SH) lasting 3 weeks or longer leads to a marked decrease of the mass and of the mean cross-sectional area of the SOL. The SOL of suspended animals shows decreased contraction and half-relaxation times and a lower tension of the single twitch, a decreased maximum tetanic force output, an increased fusion frequency and a decreased tetanus-half-rise time. The force developed per unit cross-sectional area and the twitch-tetanus ratio are unchanged. The atrophy and the changes in contractile properties are more pronounced in young developing rats than in adult ones. The SOL of suspended young rats does not develop into a slow-twitch muscle and shows a posttetanic potentiation and a cooling potentiation of the single twitch, properties observed in fast-twitch muscles only. In comparison to controls SH has no influence on the wet weight, mean cross-sectional area, and contractile properties of the EDL of young or adult rats. The data presented here and supported by histochemical and biochemical results demonstrates the importance of the gravity force for slow-twitch muscles especially during development. PMID:2757614

Asmussen, G; Miersch, H; Soukup, T

1989-01-01

19

Young Adult Smoking Behavior  

PubMed Central

Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking.

Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

2009-01-01

20

Ketogenic Diet Prevents Alterations in Brain Metabolism in Young but not Adult Rats after Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Previous studies have shown that the change of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) in response to traumatic brain injury (TBI) is different in young (PND35) and adult rats (PND70), and that prolonged ketogenic diet treatment results in histological and behavioral neuroprotection only in younger rat brains. However, the mechanism(s) through which ketones act in the injured brain and the biochemical markers of their action remain unknown. Therefore, the current study was initiated to: 1) determine the effect of injury on the neurochemical profile in PND35 compared to PND70 rats; and 2) test the effect of early post-injury administration of ketogenic diet on brain metabolism in PND35 versus PND70 rats. The data show that alterations in energy metabolites, amino acid, and membrane metabolites were not evident in PND35 rats on standard diet until 24?h after injury, when the concentration of most metabolites was reduced from sham-injured values. In contrast, acute, but transient deficits in energy metabolism were measured at 6?h in PND70 rats, together with deficits in N-acetylaspartate that endured until 24?h. Administration of a ketogenic diet resulted in significant increases in plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate (?OHB) levels. Similarly, brain ?OHB levels were significantly elevated in all injured rats, but were elevated by 43% more in PND35 rats compared to PND70 rats. As a result, ATP, creatine, and phosphocreatine levels at 24?h after injury were significantly improved in the ketogenic PND35 rats, but not in the PND70 group. The improvement in energy metabolism in the PND35 brains was accompanied by the recovery of NAA and reduction of lactate levels, as well as amelioration of the deficits of other amino acids and membrane metabolites. These results indicate that the PND35 brains are more resistant to the injury, indicated by a delayed deficit in energy metabolism. Moreover, the younger brains revert to ketones metabolism more quickly than do the adult brains, resulting in better neurochemical and cerebral metabolic recovery after injury.

Prins, Mayumi L.; Hovda, David A.; Harris, Neil G.

2011-01-01

21

The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor modulator GLYX-13 enhances learning and memory, in young adult and learning impaired aging rats.  

PubMed

NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activity has been strongly implicated in both in vitro and in vivo learning models and the decline in cognitive function associated with aging and is linked to a decrease in NMDAR functional expression. GLYX-13 is a tetrapeptide (Thr-Pro-Pro-Thr) which acts as a NMDAR receptor partial agonist at the glycine site. GLYX-13 was administered to young adult (3 months old) and aged (27-32 months old) Fischer 344 X Brown Norway F1 rats (FBNF1), and behavioral learning tested in trace eye blink conditioning (tEBC), a movable platform version of the Morris water maze (MWM), and alternating t-maze tasks. GLYX-13 (1mg/kg, i.v.) enhanced learning in both young adult and aging animals for MWM and alternating t-maze, and increased tEBC in aging rats. We previously showed optimal enhancement of tEBC in young adult rats given GLYX-13 at the same dose. Of these learning tasks, the MWM showed the most robust age related deficit in learning. In the MWM, GLYX-13 enhancement of learning was greater in the old compared to the young adult animals. Examination of the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in hippocampal slices showed that aged rats showed marked, selective impairment in the magnitude of LTP evoked by a sub-maximal tetanus, and that GLYX-13 significantly enhanced the magnitude of LTP in slices from both young adult and aged rats without affecting LTD. These data, combined with the observation that the GLYX-13 enhancement of learning was greater in old than in young adult animals, suggest that GLYX-13 may be a promising treatment for deficits in cognitive function associated with aging. PMID:19446371

Burgdorf, Jeffrey; Zhang, Xiao-lei; Weiss, Craig; Matthews, Elizabeth; Disterhoft, John F; Stanton, Patric K; Moskal, Joseph R

2009-05-14

22

The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor modulator GLYX-13 enhances learning and memory, in young adult and learning impaired aging rats  

PubMed Central

NMDA Receptor (NMDAR) activity has been strongly implicated in both in-vitro and in-vivo learning models and the decline in cognitive function associated with aging and is linked to a decrease in NMDAR functional expression. GLYX-13 is a tetrapeptide (Thr-Pro-Pro-Thr) which acts as a NMDAR receptor partial agonist at the glycine site. GLYX-13 was administered to young adult (3 month old) and aged (27–32 month old) Fischer 344 X Brown Norway F1 rats (FBNF1), and behavioral learning tested in trace eyeblink conditioning (tEBC), a movable platform version of the Morris water maze (MWM), and alternating t-maze tasks. GLYX-13 (1 mg/kg i.v.) enhanced learning in both young adult and aging animals for MWM and alternating t-maze, and increased tEBC in aging rats. We previously showed optimal enhancement of tEBC in young adult rats given GLYX-13 at the same dose. Of these learning tasks, the MWM showed the most robust age related deficit in learning. In the MWM, GLYX-13 enhancement of learning was greater in the old compared to the young adult animals. Examination of the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in hippocampal slices showed that aged rats showed marked, selective impairment in the magnitude of LTP evoked by a sub-maximal tetanus, and that GLYX-13 significantly enhanced the magnitude of LTP in slices from both young adult and aged rats without affecting LTD. These data, combined with the observation that the GLYX-13 enhancement of learning was greater in old than in young adult animals, suggest that GLYX-13 may be a promising treatment for deficits in cognitive function associated with aging.

Burgdorf, Jeffrey; Zhang, Xiao-lei; Weiss, Craig; Matthews, Elizabeth; Disterhoft, John F.; Stanton, Patric K.; Moskal, Joseph R.

2010-01-01

23

Chronic Cellular Hyperexcitability in Elderly Epileptic Rats with Spontaneous Seizures Induced by Kainic Acid Status Epilepticus while Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Emerging data indicate that age-related brain changes alter seizure susceptibility, seizure-associated neurodegeneration, and responsiveness to AEDs. The present study assessed long-term animal survival in the Kainic Acid (KA) model along with in-vivo spontaneous seizure frequency, cellular hyperexcitability in CA1 in-vitro and in-vivo in subiculum, and responsiveness of in-vitro CA1 hyperexcitability to topiramate. Sprague-Dawley male rats were given KA to induce convulsive status epilepticus (KA-SE) at 2–3 months of age. The one-month mortality after KA-SE was 27%. One-month survivor rats had 37% sudden unexplained late mortality after KA-SE as compared to none in saline controls during their second year of life. In-vivo seizure frequency was examined prior to terminal experiments. The diurnal average seizure frequency in the KA-SE group at age 2 years was 1.06 ± 0.24 seizures/hour while no seizures were observed in the saline age-matched controls (p<0.001). In-vitro recordings of CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed that depolarizing current injection from ?60 mV evoked an increased number of action potentials in the aged KA-SE group compared to controls (p<0.002). Topiramate exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of action potential firing evoked by current injections into CA1 pyramidal neurons of KA-SE rats. In subiculum, KA-SE rats had frequent interictal spikes associated with high frequency oscillations while only rare spontaneous EPSPs were recorded in saline controls. Our experiments revealed that the hippocampal formation of aged epileptic rats shares features of hyperexcitability previously described in young adult epileptic rats using the KA model.

Zhang, Kun; Tolstykh, Gleb P.; Sanchez, Russell M.; Cavazos, Jose E.

2011-01-01

24

A quantitative analysis of fine structure and drug metabolism in livers of clofibrate-treated young adult and retired breeder rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of clofibrate on the fine structure and drug-metabolizing capacity of livers of normolipidemic young adult virgin (YA) and hypercholesterolemic retired breeder (RB) male rats were measured by morphometric and biochemical procedures. The oral administration of clofibrate for 7 days significantly increased liver weight and reduced the cholesterol concentrations in the serum and liver tissue in both groups of

Luean E. Anthony; Douglas L. Schmucker; Jill S. Mooney; Albert L. Jones

2009-01-01

25

Differential regulation of immune responses and macrophage/neuron interactions in the dorsal root ganglion in young and adult rats following nerve injury  

PubMed Central

Background Neuropathic pain is an apparently spontaneous experience triggered by abnormal physiology of the peripheral or central nervous system, which evolves with time. Neuropathic pain arising from peripheral nerve injury is characterized by a combination of spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia. There is no evidence of this type of pain in human infants or rat pups; brachial plexus avulsion, which causes intense neuropathic pain in adults, is not painful when the injury is sustained at birth. Since infants are capable of nociception from before birth and display both acute and chronic inflammatory pain behaviour from an early neonatal age, it appears that the mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain are differentially regulated over a prolonged postnatal period. Results We have performed a microarray analysis of the rat L4/L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG), 7 days post spared nerve injury, a model of neuropathic pain. Genes that are regulated in adult rats displaying neuropathic behaviour were compared to those regulated in young rats (10 days old) that did not show the same neuropathic behaviour. The results show a set of genes, differentially regulated in the adult DRG, that are principally involved in immune system modulation. A functional consequence of this different immune response to injury is that resident macrophages cluster around the large A sensory neuron bodies in the adult DRG seven days post injury, whereas the macrophages in young DRG remain scattered evenly throughout the ganglion, as in controls. Conclusions The results show, for the first time, a major difference in the neuroimmune response to nerve injury in the dorsal root ganglion of young and adult rats. Differential analysis reveals a new set of immune related genes in the ganglia, that are differentially regulated in adult neuropathic pain, and that are consistent with the selective activation of macrophages around adult, but not young large A sensory neurons post injury. These differences may contribute to the reduced incidence of neuropathic pain in infants.

2009-01-01

26

Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Trials Cancer Statistics Research & Funding News About NCI Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Adolescents and Young ... Young Adult (AYA) Cancers Quiz Cancer Research Now: Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers You will need Adobe ...

27

Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.  

EPA Science Inventory

Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have...

28

[Types of neurons in the visual cortex of the adult and young rat].  

PubMed

The neurons of the visual cortex of adult und juvenile rats (Wistar) were studied with Golgi Rapid and Golgi Kopsch methods at the age of one to twenty days, 4 months and 18 months. The nerve cells were classified according to the form and size of their soma, the branching and surface of their dendrites and their axonal ramification. The neuron types show great similarities with those described in other species. We distinguish pyramidal neurons in L II-L VI, pyramid-like neurons--e.g. horizontally orientated neurons--neurons with a thick basal dendrite and multiangular neurons in L I as well as the spiny multipolar neurons in L IV all showing spiny dendrites and long axons. Neurons with spiny or sparsely spined dendrites and short axons are spine-free multipolar neurons with horizontal axons, sparsely spined polarized neurons with vertical axons, spine-free bipolar neurons with vertical axons and chandelier neurons. In general, all described cell types are nearly undifferentiated in the first postnatal week. The axons are in a more advanced stage than soma and dendrites at this time. During the process of differentiation the soma looses its irregular shape and the somaspines disappear. The immature dendrites show varicosities, which disappear during dendritic lengthening. The dendritic surface becomes either smooth or spiny. The axonal growth is connected with a loss of varicosities and finally with the formation of terminal boutons. At the time of eye-opening all described cell types have reached their differentiated state, but spine density and distal dendritic length have not yet achieved adult values. PMID:7161476

Hedlich, A; Winkelmann, E

1982-01-01

29

Postnatal early overnutrition changes the leptin signalling pathway in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis of young and adult rats  

PubMed Central

Postnatal early overnutrition (EO) is a risk factor for obesity in adult life. Rats raised in a small litter can develop hyperinsulinaemia, hyperphagia, hyperleptinaemia and hypertension as adults. Since leptin regulates the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis and the metabolism of thyroid hormones, we studied the leptin signalling pathway in pituitary and thyroid glands of the postnatal EO model. To induce EO, at the third day of lactation the litter size was reduced to three pups per litter (SL group). In control litters (NL group), the litter size was adjusted to 10 pups per litter. Body weight and food intake were monitored. Rat offspring were killed at 21 (weaning) and 180 days old (adulthood). Plasma thyroid hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and leptin were measured by radioimmunoassay. Proteins of the leptin signalling pathway were analysed by Western blotting. Body weight of offspring in the SL group was higher from the seventh day of lactation (+33%, P < 0.05) until 180 days old (+18%, P < 0.05). Offspring in the SL group showed higher visceral fat mass at 21 and 180 days old (+176 and +52%, respectively, P < 0.05), but plasma leptin was higher only at 21 days (+88%, P < 0.05). The SL offspring showed higher plasma TSH, 3,5,3?-triiodothronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) at 21 days (+60, +91 and +68%, respectively, P < 0.05), while the opposite was observed at 180 days regarding thyroid hormones (T3, ?10%; and T4, ?30%, P < 0.05), with no difference in TSH levels. In hypothalamus, no change was observed in the leptin signalling pathway at 21 days. However, lower janus thyrosine kinase 2 (JAK2) and phosphorilated-signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (p-STAT3) content were detected in adulthood. In pituitary, the SL group presented higher leptin receptors (Ob-R), JAK2 and p-STAT3 content at 21 days and lower JAK2 and STAT3 content at 180 days old. In contrast, in thyroid, the Ob-R expression was lower in young SL rats, while the adult SL group presented higher Ob-R and JAK2 content. We showed that postnatal EO induces short- and long-term effects upon the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis. These changes may help to explain future development of metabolic and endocrine dysfunctions, such as metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism.

Rodrigues, Ananda Lages; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Passos, Magna Cottini Fonseca; Dutra, Sheila Cristina Potente; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina

2009-01-01

30

Postnatal early overnutrition changes the leptin signalling pathway in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis of young and adult rats.  

PubMed

Postnatal early overnutrition (EO) is a risk factor for obesity in adult life. Rats raised in a small litter can develop hyperinsulinaemia, hyperphagia, hyperleptinaemia and hypertension as adults. Since leptin regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and the metabolism of thyroid hormones, we studied the leptin signalling pathway in pituitary and thyroid glands of the postnatal EO model. To induce EO, at the third day of lactation the litter size was reduced to three pups per litter (SL group). In control litters (NL group), the litter size was adjusted to 10 pups per litter. Body weight and food intake were monitored. Rat offspring were killed at 21 (weaning) and 180 days old (adulthood). Plasma thyroid hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and leptin were measured by radioimmunoassay. Proteins of the leptin signalling pathway were analysed by Western blotting. Body weight of offspring in the SL group was higher from the seventh day of lactation (+33%, P < 0.05) until 180 days old (+18%, P < 0.05). Offspring in the SL group showed higher visceral fat mass at 21 and 180 days old (+176 and +52%, respectively, P < 0.05), but plasma leptin was higher only at 21 days (+88%, P < 0.05). The SL offspring showed higher plasma TSH, 3,5,3'-triiodothronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) at 21 days (+60, +91 and +68%, respectively, P < 0.05), while the opposite was observed at 180 days regarding thyroid hormones (T(3), -10%; and T(4), -30%, P < 0.05), with no difference in TSH levels. In hypothalamus, no change was observed in the leptin signalling pathway at 21 days. However, lower janus thyrosine kinase 2 (JAK2) and phosphorilated-signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (p-STAT3) content were detected in adulthood. In pituitary, the SL group presented higher leptin receptors (Ob-R), JAK2 and p-STAT3 content at 21 days and lower JAK2 and STAT3 content at 180 days old. In contrast, in thyroid, the Ob-R expression was lower in young SL rats, while the adult SL group presented higher Ob-R and JAK2 content. We showed that postnatal EO induces short- and long-term effects upon the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. These changes may help to explain future development of metabolic and endocrine dysfunctions, such as metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism. PMID:19403617

Rodrigues, Ananda Lages; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Passos, Magna Cottini Fonseca; Dutra, Sheila Cristina Potente; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina

2009-04-29

31

Children's and Young Adult Librarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yolith Omnibus Bill passed during he WHLIS in July 1991, includes oprovisions for six separate grants for children's, school, and young adult services in libraries. Funding cuts have made developing alternate sources of revenue vital for the survival of existing librarv services and the develooment of new ones. Are children's and young adult librarians trained in writing grant proposals?

Patricia J. Davis

1994-01-01

32

Snapshot of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... servingpeople/cancer-statistics/snapshots Selected Advances in AYA Cancer Research • • • • • • Melanoma in adolescents and young adults (ages 15– ... a Diagnosis, Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer. Cancer Research Now: Fertility Issues for Adolescents and Young Adults ...

33

REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF A SINGLE DOSE OF 1,3-DINITROBENZENE IN TWO AGES OF YOUNG ADULT MALE RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-Dinitrobenzene (M-DNB). oung adult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24, ...

34

UTERINE PHENOYTPE OF YOUNG ADULT RATS EXPOSED TO DIETARY SOY OR GENISTEIN DURING DEVELOPMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have found that AIN-93G diets made with whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) reduce DMBA-induced tumor incidence in Sprague-Dawley (Harlan) rats relative to those fed diet with casein (CAS). Herein, we replicated these findings in another Sprague-Dawley sub-strain (Charles Rivers) and examined whether ...

35

Onion decreases the ovariectomy-induced osteopenia in young adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that fruit and vegetable consumption are associated with good bone health. Onion, in particular, has been verified in its efficacy in bone resorption activity. In this study, we further investigated the effects of an onion-containing diet on ovariectomy-induced bone loss using methods of serum marker assay, histomorphometric analysis and biomechanical tests. Sixty-four female Wistar rats (14-week-old)

Tsang-Hai Huang; Roman C. Mühlbauer; Chih-Hsin Tang; Hsiun-Ing Chen; Guan-Liang Chang; Yi-Wei Huang; Yu-Ting Lai; Hsin-Shi Lin; Wei-Ting Yang; Rong-Sen Yang

2008-01-01

36

Long-term effects of neonatal MK-801 treatment on prepulse inhibition in young adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Blockade of N-methyl-d-asparate (NMDA) receptors has been shown to produce some of the abnormal behaviors related to symptoms of schizophrenia in\\u000a rodents and human. Neonatal treatment of rats with non-competitive NMDA antagonists has been shown to induce behavioral abnormality\\u000a in a later period.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The aim of this study was to determine whether brief disruption of NMDA receptor function during a

Takashi Uehara; Tomiki Sumiyoshi; Tomonori Seo; Hiroko Itoh; Tadasu Matsuoka; Michio Suzuki; Masayoshi Kurachi

2009-01-01

37

Differences in the Appetite-Stimulating Effect of Orexin, Neuropeptide Y and Ghrelin among Young, Adult and Old Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging is associated with a progressive decrease in appetite and food intake. The appetite-stimulating peptides orexin A, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and ghrelin are known to play a critical role in food intake. In this study, the stimulatory effect of intracerebroventricular administration of these peptides on food intake was compared among young (4 months old), adult (11 months old) and old

Saeko Akimoto-Takano; Chihiro Sakurai; Setsuko Kanai; Hiroko Hosoya; Minoru Ohta; Kyoko Miyasaka

2005-01-01

38

Chronic neonatal nicotine exposure increases excitation in the young adult rat hippocampus in a sex-dependent manner.  

PubMed

Smoking during pregnancy exposes the fetus to nicotine, resulting in nicotine-stimulated neurotransmitter release. Recent evidence suggests that the hippocampus develops differently in males and females with delayed maturation in males. We show that chronic nicotine exposure during the first postnatal week has sex-specific long-term effects. Neonatal rat pups were chronically treated with nicotine (6mg/kg/day) (CNN) from postnatal day 1 to 7 or milk only (Controls), and hippocampal slices were prepared from Control- and CNN-treated young adults. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) or population spikes (PSs) were recorded from the CA1 hippocampus following CA1 s. radiatum stimulation. Input/Output curves constructed from fEPSP data indicated that CNN-males, but not females, had significantly increased excitatory responses compared to Controls (p<0.05, n=10 Con, n=11 CNN). Long-term potentiation (LTP) was not significantly changed by CNN. In the presence of bicuculline, which blocks inhibitory GABA(A) receptors, an epileptiform burst consisting of a series of PSs was evoked. The amplitude of the first PS was significantly larger in CNN-males and females compared to Controls (males: p<0.01, n=8 Con, n=8 CNN; females: p<0.05, n=9 Con, n=7 CNN). Only CNN-males also had significantly larger second PSs (p<0.05, n=8 con, n=8 CNN). Epileptiform activity evoked by zero Mg(2+) incubation did not differ in amplitude or duration of bursts in CNN-males or females compared to Controls. These data indicate that neonatal nicotine exposure has long lasting effects and results in increased excitation within the CA1 hippocampus in adulthood, with males showing increased sensitivity to nicotine's effects. PMID:22119395

Damborsky, Joanne C; Griffith, William H; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H

2011-11-04

39

Age and sex differences in the ventilatory response to hypoxia and hypercapnia in awake neonatal, pre-pubertal and young adult rats  

PubMed Central

There is evidence for a “sensitive period” in respiratory development in rats around postnatal age (P) 12-13d. Little is known about sex differences during that time. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of sex on breathing development, specifically around the “sensitive period”. We used whole-body plethysmography to study breathing in normoxic, hypoxic and hypercapnic gases in non-anesthetized male and female neonatal rats from P10-P15, juvenile (P30) and young adult (P90) rats. Compared to other neonatal ages, P12-13 male rats had significantly lower ventilation during normoxia, hypoxia, and hypercapnia. Compared to age-matched females, P12-13 male rats had lower ventilation in normoxia and hypoxia and a lower O2 saturation during hypoxia. Circulating estradiol was greater in P12-13 male vs. female rats. Estradiol and ventilatory responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia were negatively correlated in neonatal male, but not female, rats. Our results suggest that P10-P15 includes a critical developmental period in male but not female rats.

Holley, Heidi S.; Behan, Mary; Wenninger, Julie M.

2011-01-01

40

Young Adult Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Applies the idea of the theme booktalk to "Wuthering Heights," which serves as a springboard for talking about themes of family rage, confrontation, quarrel and rebellion in other works of literature with relevance to contemporary young people. (JK)|

Rochman, Hazel

1986-01-01

41

Sexually dimorphic c-Fos expression following spatial working memory in young and adult rats.  

PubMed

The sex differences in the functional contribution of brain substrates were explored following acquisition of a spatial working memory task using quantification of c-Fos protein. Rats of both sexes were trained during adolescence and adulthood in Morris water maze using a hidden escape platform with different daily location. Two control groups for each sex and age were added to explore the c-Fos activation not specific to the memory process. These were a free-swimming group (yoked control) and a handled control (CO) group. Behaviorally, no age differences were found in number of days required by males to acquire the task, but females showed a delay in acquisition during adolescence (P30) that improved in adulthood (P90). Both sexes showed a learning-related increase in Fos immunoreactivity in the anterodorsal and anteroventral thalamus and medial and lateral mammillary nuclei during adolescence. Higher levels of learning-related Fos immunoreactivity were found in the infralimbic cortex, CA3 and CA1 only in females. During adulthood the common activated region was the prelimbic cortex with the addition of the infralimbic cortex in the male group and the lateral mammillary nucleus in the female group. These results indicated sex and age differences in brain functioning following working memory task. However, they could not be necessarily linked with differences in performance since similar results were found between males and females during adulthood. The activation of common and interrelated structures suggests that these structures are involved in spatial processing but it also highlights the relevance of developmental changes for understanding the memory process. PMID:19545582

Méndez-López, Magdalena; Méndez, Marta; López, Laudino; Arias, Jorge L

2009-06-21

42

Young Adult Books: Childhood Terror.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Refutes the myth that young adults won't read about protagonists younger than themselves. Describes novels from which adolescents can benefit that contain candid treatment of the loss of innocence, the search for home, and the complexities of independence, love, and self-knowledge. (EL)|

Rochman, Hazel

1985-01-01

43

TRICARE Young Adult. Final rule.  

PubMed

This final rule implements Section 702 of the Ike Skelton National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult (TYA) program to provide an extended TRICARE Program coverage opportunity to most unmarried children under the age of 26 of uniformed services sponsors. The TYA program is a premium-based program. PMID:23724426

2013-05-29

44

Young Adults' Marital and Family Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only a few small studies have examined the effects of recent parental divorce on young adults, including how it influences attitudes toward marriage and divorce. Results from studies using parental marital status as a predictor of young adults' attitudes have been inconsistent. Other studies have suggested that parental and family conflict would be stronger predictors of young adults' marital and

Patricia Kozuch; Teresa M. Cooney

1995-01-01

45

Young adult suicide and exposure to television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young adult suicide rates tripled following the introduction of television into the United States and Canada. To assess whether exposure to television is a risk factor for young adult suicide (ages 15–24), suicide trends were compared between the U. S., Canada, and South Africa, 1949–1985. Major increases in young adult suicide rates occurred in all three countries, even though there

B. S. Centerwall

1990-01-01

46

Raising "Hot Topics" through Young Adult Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While young adult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read young adult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching young adult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their…

Groenke, Susan; Maples, Joellen; Henderson, Jill

2010-01-01

47

Myocardial infarction in young adults  

PubMed Central

Although myocardial infarction (MI) mainly occurs in patients older than 45, young men or women can suffer MI. Fortunately, its incidence is not common in patients younger than 45 years. However, the disease carries a significant morbidity, psychological effects, and financial constraints for the person and the family when it occurs at a young age. The causes of MI among patients aged less than 45 can be divided into four groups: (1) atheromatous coronary artery disease; (2) non-atheromatous coronary artery disease; (2) hyper-coagulable states; (4) MI related to substance misuse. There is a considerable overlap between all the groups. This article reviews the literature and highlights the practical issues involved in the management of young adults with MI.

Egred, M; Viswanathan, G; Davis, G

2005-01-01

48

Oxidative stress induced by the Fe2+/ascorbic acid system or model ischemia in vitro: effect of carvedilol and pyridoindole antioxidant SMe1EC2 in young and adult rat brain tissue  

PubMed Central

New effective strategies and new highly effective neuroprotective agents are being searched for the therapy of human stroke and cerebral ischemia. The compound SMe1EC2 is a new derivative of stobadine, with enhanced antioxidant properties compared to the maternal drug. Carvedilol, a non-selective beta-blocker, possesses besides its cardioprotective and vasculoprotective properties also an antioxidant effect. We compared the effect of carvedilol and SMe1EC2, antioxidants with a similar chemical structure, in two experimental models of oxidative stress in young and adult rat brain tissue. SMe1EC2 was found to improve the resistance of hippocampal neurons to ischemia in vitro in young and even in 18-month-old rats and inhibited formation of protein carbonyl groups induced by the Fe2+/ascorbic acid pro-oxidative system in brain cortex homogenates of young rats. Carvedilol exerted a protective effect only in the hippocampus of 2-month-old rats and that at the concentration 10-times higher than did SMe1EC2. The inhibitory effect of carvedilol on protein carbonyl formation induced by the pro-oxidative system was not proved in the cortex of either young or adult rats. An increased baseline level of the content of protein carbonyl groups in the adult versus young rat brain cortex confirmed age-related changes in neuronal tissue and may be due to increased production of reactive oxygen species and low antioxidant defense mechanisms in the adult rat brain. The results revealed the new pyridoindole SMe1EC2 to be more effective than carvedilol in neuroprotection of rat brain tissue in both experimental models involving oxidative stress.

Gasparova, Zdenka; Ondrejickova, Olga; Gajdosikova, Alena; Gajdosik, Andrej; Snirc, Vladimir; Stolc, Svorad

2010-01-01

49

Qualitative study of young, adult, and aged Wistar rats temporomandibular synovial membrane employing light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze the rat temporomandibular joint (TMJ) synovial membrane at different ages using light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Under light microscopic analysis, the TMJ structures were observed such as condyle, capsule, disk, the synovial membrane collagen type, and cells distribution. In the scanning electron microscopy, the synovial membrane surface exhibited a smooth aspect in young animals and there was an increase with ageing in the number of folds. The transmission electron microscopic analysis showed more synoviocytes in the synovial layer in the young group and still a great number of vesicles and cisterns dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum in the aged group. In the three groups, a dense layer of collagen fibers in the synovial layer and cytoplasmic extensions were clearly seen. It was possible to conclude that synovial membrane structures in aged group showed alterations contributing to the decrease in joint lubrication and in the sliding between disk and joint surfaces. These characteristic will reflect in biomechanics of chewing, and may cause the TMJ disorders, currently observed in clinical processes. PMID:22791633

Duro, Christiano Cony; Ciena, Adriano Polican; De Almeida, Sonia Regina Yokomizo; Righetti, Marta Maria Da Silva; Grisolia, Débora De Freitas; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira; Watanabe, Ii-Sei

2012-07-13

50

Just How Adult Is This Young Adult Book: Young Adult Books for the Junior High Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses young adult novels and presents a bibliography to acquaint librarians with titles and authors that are suitable for emerging young adult readers in grades five through nine. Subject categories include realistic fiction, in the news, historical fiction, short stories, legendary characters, mysteries, science fiction/fantasy/horror, and…

Decker, Charlotte

1999-01-01

51

Personality Profiles of Physically Impaired Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Different forms of chronic observable disability may have differing impacts on adult personality adjustment. Young adults with cleft lip/palate display fewer personality adjustment problems than those with orthopedic impairment. (Author)|

Richman, Lynn C.; Harper, Dennis C.

1980-01-01

52

Reading Their World: The Young Adult Novel in the Classroom. Second Edition. Young Adult Literature Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book was born of a desire to provide students, teachers, and all interested readers with a collection of essays that address issues of selection, pedagogy, and worth of the young adult novel. A primary purpose of the book is to enter the world of young adult readers through a literary form they know well, the modern young adult novel.…

Monseau, Virginia R., Ed.; Salvner, Gary M., Ed.

53

Effect of a neonatal low-protein diet on the morphology of myotubes in culture and the expression of key proteins that regulate myogenesis in young and adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  To investigate the effects of a neonatal low-protein diet on the morphology of myotubes in culture and the expression of key\\u000a proteins that regulate myogenesis in young and adult rats.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Male Wistar rats (n = 18) were suckled by mothers fed diets containing 17% protein (controls, C) or 8% protein (undernourished, UN). All rats\\u000a were fed a normal protein diet after weaning.

Juliana Felix de MeloNijez; Nijez Aloulou; Jean-Luc Duval; Pascale Vigneron; Lee Bourgoin; Carol Góis Leandro; Celia M. M. B. de Castro; Marie-Danielle Nagel

2011-01-01

54

Do young children have adult syntactic competence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many developmental psycholinguists assume that young children have adult syntactic competence, this assumption being operationalized in the use of adult-like grammars to describe young children's language. This “continuity assumption” has never had strong empirical support, but recently a number of new findings have emerged - both from systematic analyses of children's spontaneous speech and from controlled experiments - that contradict

Michael Tomasello

2000-01-01

55

Do young children have adult syntactic competence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many developmental psycholinguists assume that young children have adult syntactic competence, this assumption being operationalized in the use of adult-like grammars to describe young children's language. This ''continuity assumption'' has never had strong empirical support, but recently a number of new findings have emerged - both from systematic analyses of children's spontaneous speech and from controlled experiments - that contradict

56

Multicultural Literature for Children and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the selection of multicultural literature for children and young adults, educators and researchers focus on two main controversial issues--authority and authenticity--that the authors portray in their writing. What type of author can accurately portray realistic pictures of minority cultures in multicultural literature for young adults? Must…

Bista, Krishna

2012-01-01

57

Art Messaging to Engage Homeless Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Background: Art has been shown to be an empowering and engaging entity with numerous benefits to vulnerable populations, including the homeless persons and young adults. However, little is known how homeless young adults perceive the use of art as messages that can communicate the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to

Manuel Cuchilla; Farinaz Kahilifard; Alexandra Slagle; Julie Orser; Glenna Avila; Alexandra Thomas; Adeline Nyamathi; Angela Hudson

2011-01-01

58

Art Messaging to Engage Homeless Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Art has been shown to be an empowering and engaging entity with numerous benefits to vulnerable populations, including the homeless persons and young adults. However, little is known how homeless young adults perceive the use of art as messages that can communicate the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Objectives: The purpose of this study was

Manuel Cuchilla; Farinaz Kahilifard; Alexandra Slagle; Julie Orser; Glenna Avila; Alexandra Thomas; Adeline Nyamathi; Angela Hudson

2011-01-01

59

Memory deficit and reduced anxiety in young adult rats given repeated intermittent MDMA treatment during the periadolescent period  

Microsoft Academic Search

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, or “Ecstasy”) is a popular recreational drug among adolescents that is often taken primarily on weekends. The goals of this study were to develop a model of the typical intermittent pattern of human MDMA use in periadolescent rats and to determine the behavioral consequences of MDMA exposure in this model. Male Sprague–Dawley rats received s.c. injections of 10

Brian J. Piper; Jerrold S. Meyer

2004-01-01

60

Early methylphenidate exposure enhances cocaine self-administration but not cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in young adult rats  

PubMed Central

Rationale Previous studies in rodents show that early exposure to methylphenidate alters later responsiveness to drugs of abuse. An interesting feature of these studies is that early methylphenidate treatment decreases the rewarding value of cocaine when measured by conditioned place preference (CPP), but the same treatment increases cocaine self-administration. Objective The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of early methylphenidate exposure on cocaine-induced responding using both reward paradigms. Methods Rats were treated with methylphenidate (0, 2, or 5 mg/kg) from postnatal day (PD) 11 to PD 20 and then cocaine-induced CPP or cocaine self-administration was measured in separate groups of rats in adulthood. The CPP procedure included eight days of acquisition training, eight days of extinction training, and a reinstatement test. Rats were conditioned with 0, 10 or 20 mg/kg cocaine. Reinstatement was assessed after a priming dose of cocaine (10 mg/kg). For the self-administration experiment, a jugular catheter was implanted and rats were trained to press a lever reinforced with cocaine (0.25 or 0.75 mg/kg/infusion) on a fixed ratio (FR) 1 schedule. Rats were gradually moved from an FR1 to an FR10 schedule and, after criterion was reached, rats were placed on a progressive ratio schedule for five days. Results Cocaine produced robust rewarding effects as determined by both the CPP and self-administration experiments; however, early methylphenidate exposure only enhanced the reinforcing effects of cocaine on the self-administration paradigm. Interestingly, this methylphenidate enhancement was only seen in male rats. Conclusions These data suggest that in males methylphenidate enhances the reinforcing value of cocaine, but not cocaine-associated cues.

Crawford, Cynthia A.; Baella, Shelley A.; Farley, Cristal M.; Herbert, Matthew S.; Horn, Leslie R.; Campbell, Rachel H.; Zavala, Arturo R.

2010-01-01

61

Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Cancers Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

... its first issue in March 2011. The journal was created by the Society for Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology. You can learn more about cancer literature in PubMed , a database maintained by the National ...

62

Readings on Young Adult Materials and Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 108 articles and books cited in this annotated bibliography are listed under seven major topic headings: (1) training and personality of the young adult librarian, (2) adolescent psychology and sexuality, (3) sex roles, (4) literature and reading, (5)...

J. Atkinson G. T. Graves

1978-01-01

63

Effective Smallpox Immunization of Young Adults.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study defines the adverse reactions associated with primary immunization of young adults, their frequency and resulting morbidity, develops effective immunizing techniques associated with minimal morbidity, and develops diagnostic techniques permittin...

A. S. Benenson I. A. Phillips

1976-01-01

64

Lifestyle of Young Australian Adults With Asthma.  

PubMed

Asthma is a highly prevalent disease that may affect the lifestyle adopted by young adults. This study investigated whether asthma status influences fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity level, tobacco smoking, and alcohol drinking behavior of young adults in Australia. Information of 2619 participants aged 18 to 29 years was extracted from the 2007-2008 Australian National Health Survey database. The level of physical activity and fruit consumption were found to be similar between young adults with and without asthma. Participants with asthma symptoms in the past 12 months were more likely to achieve the dietary recommendation for vegetable intake, but they tended to smoke tobacco and consume alcohol above safe levels. It may be necessary to develop prevention strategies targeting young adults with asthma that include screening for harmful use of substances. PMID:22426565

Liang, Wenbin; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Lee, Andy H

2012-03-16

65

Communicating with young adults with cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

The care of the young adult with cystic fibrosis is complex, requiring a multidisciplinary input from different carers. Communication with and education of patients covers many areas; topics may include medical and personal problems, transplantation, survival, current scientific breakthroughs and the future. Communicating in these areas with knowledgeable young adults requires skill, tact and self-education upon the part of the cystic fibrosis team. PMID:7567727

Webb, A K

1995-07-01

66

Minimally invasive aesthetic procedures in young adults  

PubMed Central

Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asymmetries, correction after body modifying procedures, and facial sculpturing are important issues for young adults. The implication of aesthetic medicine as part of preventive medicine is a major ethical challenge that differentiates aesthetic medicine from fashion.

Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto

2011-01-01

67

Meeting the needs of young adults.  

PubMed

As they mature and become sexually active, more young people face serious health risks. Most face these risks with too little factual information, too little guidance about sexual responsibility, and too little access to health care. Meeting young adults' diverse needs challenges parents, communities, health care providers, and educators. Despite urgent needs, program efforts have been slight and slowed by controversy. PMID:8654883

McCauley, A P; Salter, C; Kiragu, K; Senderowitz, J

1995-10-01

68

Health care of physically handicapped young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the health needs of physically handicapped young adults after they become too old for the paediatric service. To assess these needs 104 young people with physical handicaps were given a medical examination and interviewed. They had diverse physical handicaps, many of which were rare (41 subjects); 45 had cerebral palsy and 18 spina bifida. Mental handicap

Martin C O Bax; Diane P L Smyth; Andrew P Thomas

1988-01-01

69

Fructose Consumption and Moderate Zinc Deficiency Influence Growth and Adipocyte Metabolism in Young Rats Prone to Adult-Onset Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of low zinc, high fructose diet on growth and adipocyte metabolism were examined in rats. At 28 days of age, animals\\u000a were assigned to diets either adequate in zinc (30 ppm) with water (AZW) or fructose solution (AZF), or low in zinc (5 ppm)\\u000a with water (LZW) or fructose solution (LZF). Body weight and food and fructose solution intake were measured

Erin L. Streiff; Kimber L. Stanhope; James Graham; Peter J. Havel; Janet C. King

2007-01-01

70

Early developmental exposure to benzodiazepine ligands alters brain levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive products in young adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactive material were measured in brain regions of 3–4 monthold rats following prenatal exposure to several benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor ligands over gestational days 14–20. Prenatal exposure to diazepam (DZ) at 1.0 mg\\/kg\\/day markedly elevated levels of brain TBA-reactive material while exposure to a higher dose (2.5 mg\\/kg) induced a significant increase only in the hippocampus. Early

Rajesh C. Miranda; Joseph P. Wagner; Carol K. Kellogg

1989-01-01

71

Toluene effects on gene expression in the hippocampus of young adult, middle-age, and senescent Brown Norway Rats.  

PubMed

Differential susceptibility to environmental exposures across life stages is an area of toxicology about which little is known. We examined the effects of toluene on transcriptomic changes and oxidative stress (OS) parameters (e.g., NQO1 and GPX) in the rat brain at different life stages to elucidate key molecular pathways responsible for toluene-induced neurotoxicity, as well as possible age-related interactions. Changes in assessed end points following acute oral toluene (0, 0.65, and 1.0 g/kg) were examined 4 h after exposure in hippocampi of Brown Norway Rats at 4, 12, and 24 months of age. Genomic data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA to identify the effects of age, toluene, and interactions between the two factors. Analysis by one-way ANOVA identified 183 genes whose expression changed ? 1.25-fold with age. The majority of the genes were upregulated between life stages (> 79%). Similar analysis for toluene-related genes found only two sequences to vary significantly with dose. Fifty-six genes were identified to have expression changes due to an age-toluene interaction. Expression of genes with roles in immune response, cytoskeleton, protein, and energy metabolism was changed with advancing life stage, indicating changes in basic cellular homeostasis. Toluene affected similar cell functions, enhancing the effects of aging. OS parameters also indicated age-related changes in response mechanisms, evidence of toluene damage, and supported an age-toluene interaction. The data indicate that life stage can alter the toxicity of acute toluene exposure in various and complex ways, highlighting the need for further investigation into the role of aging in susceptibility. PMID:22166486

Royland, Joyce E; Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S; Schmid, Judith E; MacPhail, Robert C

2011-12-13

72

Decrease of serum triglyceride in normal rat fed with 2000 ppm aluminum diet for 67 days. II. Feeding young and adult rats a sucrose diet with addition of aluminum hydroxide and aluminum potassium sulfate.  

PubMed

To confirm the hypotriglyceridemic effect of aluminum (Al), male weanling and adult Wistar rats were fed sucrose diets with the addition of aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3) or aluminum potassium sulfate (AlK(SO4)2) for 67 days. As in the foregoing report (C. Sugawara, N. Sugawara, H. Kiyosawa, and H. Miyake, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 10, 607-615), no Al-induced anemia or hypophosphatemia was observed and serum Al did not exceed 20 ng/ml. Serum triglyceride (TG) was decreased by aluminum. Serum TG was significantly correlated with the serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration in both the Young groups (R = 0.757, n = 22, p less than 0.01) and the Adult groups (R = 0.727, n = 19, p less than 0.01). Neither serum cholesterol nor phospholipids was affected by Al ingestion. Aluminum caused a decrease in hepatic glycogen in all groups, but the decrease was significant only in Adult groups. Glycerol tri[9,10(n)-3H]oleate was administered by gastric tube into rats fed for 81 days with experimental diets. In all the Al-treated groups serum 3H was significantly greater than in control groups at 3 hr after intubation. At 24 hr after intubation, serum 3H did not differ between Control and Al-treated groups. Total 3H at 24 hr found in serum, liver, and epididymal adipose tissue was not changed significantly by Al feeding. These effects were observed without measurable increase of Al in the serum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3396789

Sugawara, C; Sugawara, N; Kiyosawa, H; Miyake, H

1988-05-01

73

Environmental sustainability: Understanding young adults' learning, thinking, and actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis explores the ways in which young-adults' environmental learning and experiences influence their decision to live sustainably. In particular, this thesis focuses on young adults' environmental and sustainability learning. It elaborates on young peoples' views about environmental and sustainability issues, such as climate change, the sources for their learning about these issues, and how young adults' learning encounters, in

Anthony O. Kola-Olusanya

2008-01-01

74

Nutrition support programs for young adult athletes.  

PubMed

After graduating from college and entering the work force, young adult athletes often struggle with the task of fueling themselves optimally for top performance and weight control. The stresses and time constraints of work, family, and social responsibilities often result in eating fast foods on the run. These young adults can benefit from nutrition education programs in the worksite, at health clubs, in the community, and via the media. Dietitians who specialize in sport nutrition have particular appeal to these athletes, who are struggling to each well, exercise well, and stay lean yet put little time or effort into their food program. This article includes two case studies of young adults and the dietary recommendations that taught them how to make wise food choices, fuel themselves well for high energy, and control their weight. PMID:9841961

Clark, N

1998-12-01

75

Young adults remain worse off than adolescents.  

PubMed

On a broad range of indicators pertaining to risk taking and access to care, young adults fare worse than younger adolescents or older adults. Vulnerable groups, such as those facing chronic illness and those with unstable living arrangements, fare especially poorly as they transition to adulthood. Fortunately, a confluence of factors, particularly the changing nature of the transition to adulthood in modern society, has led to renewed interest in this critical period of the life cycle. Health science research is increasingly focused on issues faced by young adults, and public health policies designed specifically to address the health and well-being of young adults-notably the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in the United States-are now being implemented. Successful efforts at improving the health and well-being of adolescents should be mirrored in efforts to support young adults. A new report based on a broad range of United States national datasets lays out the challenges that must be addressed in these efforts. PMID:24138763

Neinstein, Lawrence S; Irwin, Charles E

2013-11-01

76

The N-methyl- d-aspartate receptor modulator GLYX-13 enhances learning and memory, in young adult and learning impaired aging rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activity has been strongly implicated in both in vitro and in vivo learning models and the decline in cognitive function associated with aging and is linked to a decrease in NMDAR functional expression. GLYX-13 is a tetrapeptide (Thr-Pro-Pro-Thr) which acts as a NMDAR receptor partial agonist at the glycine site. GLYX-13 was administered to young adult (3

Jeffrey Burgdorf; Xiao-lei Zhang; Craig Weiss; Elizabeth Matthews; John F. Disterhoft; Patric K. Stanton; Joseph R. Moskal

2011-01-01

77

Within-Session Analysis of Amphetamine-Elicited Rotation Behavior Reveals Differences between Young Adult and Middle-Aged F344/BN Rats with Partial Unilateral Striatal Dopamine Depletion  

PubMed Central

Preclinical modeling of Parkinson's disease using 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) has been valuable in developing and testing therapeutic strategies. Recent efforts have focused on modeling early stages of disease by infusing 6-OHDA into the striatum. The partial DA depletion that follows intrastriatal 6-OHDA is more variable than the near complete depletion following medial forebrain bundle infusion, and behavioral screening assays are not as well characterized in the partial lesion model. We compared relationships between amphetamine-elicited rotation behavior and DA depletion following intrastriatal 6-OHDA (12.5 ?g) in 6 month vs. 18 month F344/BN rats, at 2-weeks and 6-weeks post-lesion. We compared the total number of rotations with within-session (bin-by-bin) parameters of rotation behavior as indicators of DA depletion. Striatal DA depletion was greater in the young adult than in the middle-aged rats at 2 weeks but not at 6 weeks post-lesion. The total number of rotations for the whole session and striatal DA depletion did not differ between the two age groups. Regression analysis revealed a greater relationship between within-session parameters of rotation behavior and DA depletion in the middle-aged group than in the young adult group. These results have implications for estimating DA depletion in preclinical studies using rats of different ages.

Bethel-Brown, Crystal S.; Zhang, Hongyu; Fowler, Stephen C.; Chertoff, Mark E.; Watson, G. Stennis; Stanford, John A.

2011-01-01

78

Informal mentoring and young adult employment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the role of informal mentoring (i.e., developing an important relationship with a non-parental adult) in the transition to full time employment among young adults (age 23–28). Multivariate analysis of the Add Health data reveals that mentoring is positively related to the likelihood of full time employment, and the relationship involves both selection and causation processes. Entrance into

Steve McDonald; Lance D. Erickson; Monica Kirkpatrick Johnson; Glen H. Elder

2007-01-01

79

Caffeine Pharmacokinetics in Young and Adult Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacokinetics of caffeine were studied in young (age: 1 day, 7 days, 14 days, 30–45 days) and adult dogs following a single intravenous dose of 50 mg\\/kg. Mean ( ± SE) plasma elimination half life (T½ was 47.5 ( ± 5.35) h in 1-day-old puppies, as opposed to 6.66 ( ± 0.85) h in adult dogs. A rapid decrease

Ditsa Warszawski; Rafael Gorodischer; Shimon W. Moses; Hylton Bark

1977-01-01

80

Hippocampal protein expression is differentially affected by chronic paroxetine treatment in adolescent and adult rats: a possible mechanism of "paradoxical" antidepressant responses in young persons.  

PubMed

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly recognized as the pharmacological treatment of choice for patients with depressive disorders, yet their use in adolescent populations has come under scrutiny following reports of minimal efficacy and an increased risk of suicidal ideation and behavior in this age group. The biological mechanisms underlying these effects are largely unknown. Accordingly, the current study examined changes in hippocampal protein expression following chronic administration of paroxetine in drinking water (target dose = 10 mg/kg for 22 days) to adult and adolescent rats. Results indicated age-specific changes in protein expression, with paroxetine significantly altering expression of 8 proteins in adolescents only and 10 proteins solely in adults. A further 12 proteins were significantly altered in both adolescents and adults. In adults, protein changes were generally suggestive of a neurotrophic and neuroprotective effect of paroxetine, with significant downregulation of apoptotic proteins Galectin 7 and Cathepsin B, and upregulation of the neurotrophic factor Neurogenin 1 and the antioxidant proteins Aldose reductase and Carbonyl reductase 3. Phosphodiesterase 10A, a signaling protein associated with major depressive disorder, was also downregulated (-6.5-fold) in adult rats. Adolescent rats failed to show the neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects observed in adults, instead displaying upregulation of the proapoptotic protein BH3-interacting domain death agonist (4.3-fold). Adolescent protein expression profiles also suggested impaired phosphoinositide signaling (Protein kinase C: -3.1-fold) and altered neurotransmitter transport and release (Syntaxin 7: 5.7-fold; Dynamin 1: -6.9-fold). The results of the present study provide clues as to possible mechanisms underlying the atypical response of human adolescents to paroxetine treatment. PMID:23847536

Karanges, Emily A; Kashem, Mohammed A; Sarker, Ranjana; Ahmed, Eakhlas U; Ahmed, Selina; Van Nieuwenhuijzen, Petra S; Kemp, Andrew H; McGregor, Iain S

2013-07-08

81

Marriage and Mental Health among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this apparent benefit may vary across the life course. Early marriage, which is nonnormative, could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 11,695),

Jeremy E. Uecker

2012-01-01

82

Young Adult Literature and Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the body of high quality young adult literature (YAL) continues to grow, what role might these texts play in professional development for educators? This article describes ways in which schools can develop book study programs that use this literature to promote meaningful dialogue and understanding of contemporary adolescent issues. Based on…

Bach, Jacqueline; Choate, Laura Hensley; Parker, Bruce

2011-01-01

83

Reading our Bodies in Young Adult Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

What does teenage fiction suggest to us about being a body in time and space? Six popular young adult novels are used to approach this question in this paper. If in the act of reading, the language and text leak into our lives and become an organic part of our relationships, then what happens to us when we read different

Jackie Seidel

84

Young Adult Literature and Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As the body of high quality young adult literature (YAL) continues to grow, what role might these texts play in professional development for educators? This article describes ways in which schools can develop book study programs that use this literature to promote meaningful dialogue and understanding of contemporary adolescent issues. Based on…

Bach, Jacqueline; Choate, Laura Hensley; Parker, Bruce

2011-01-01

85

Young Adult Literature: From Romance to Realism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's young adult (YA) literature is every bit as complex as the audience it's written for, unflinchingly addressing such topics as homosexuality, mental illness, AIDS and drug abuse. In this much expanded revision of his 1996 book, veteran author Michael Cart shows how the best of contemporary YA lit has evolved to tackle such daunting subjects…

Cart, Michael

2010-01-01

86

Young Adult Literature 2.0  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Web 2.0 tools enable today's writers to connect with their audience in unprecedented ways. The advent of social networking and other Web 2.0 tools have changed the rules for how authors and book publishers market and communicate with their audience. Through tools like blogs, Twitter, MySpace, and Facebook, Young Adult (YA) lit authors can choose…

Hamilton, Buffy

2009-01-01

87

Physical Education Waivers and Young Adult Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was to evaluate the relationship between physical activity of young adults who were granted waivers from high school physical education versus those who completed courses in states requiring physical education teacher certification, with curriculum standards and credit requirements for graduation. University students from three…

Mears, Derrick

2010-01-01

88

Sexual Experiences in Childhood: Young Adults' Recollections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood sexuality and children's sexual experiences have become increasingly important to study because our knowledge on the impact of sexually abusive experiences on children's developing sexuality has increased. The main aim of this paper was to study aspects of young adults' recollections of their sexual experiences before the age of 13, solitary and shared, mutual as well as coercive. Anonymous

IngBeth Larsson; Carl-Göran Svedin

2002-01-01

89

Classic Readers Theatre for Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book presents 16 original scripts that have been adapted from classic works of literature for use for readers theatre with young adults and ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Adaptations of the following works are included: "Little Women" (Louisa May Alcott); episodes from "Don Quixote" (Miguel de Cervantes; "The Necklace" (Guy de…

Barchers, Suzanne I.; Kroll, Jennifer L.

90

Alcohol Use Among Adolescents and Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

National surveys of adolescents, college students, and other young adults in the United States reveal high rates of alcohol use among these age groups as well as high rates of dangerous drinking practices such as binge drinking and daily drinking. Additional health-compromising behaviors such as tobacco use and drinking and driving often co-occur with alcohol use in these populations. The

Michael Windle

2003-01-01

91

Young Adult Literature: From Romance to Realism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Today's young adult (YA) literature is every bit as complex as the audience it's written for, unflinchingly addressing such topics as homosexuality, mental illness, AIDS and drug abuse. In this much expanded revision of his 1996 book, veteran author Michael Cart shows how the best of contemporary YA lit has evolved to tackle such daunting…

Cart, Michael

2010-01-01

92

Young Adult Literature and Alternative Assessment Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The principal purpose of assessment, regardless of teaching level, should be to guide instruction. Unlike evaluation, the goal of assessment is not to arrive at a grade for students. Rather, it is to inform the educator as to what needs to be addressed in the classroom. Assessment in a young adult literature (YAL) curriculum is no different. Its…

Comer, Melissa

2011-01-01

93

Physical Education Waivers and Young Adult Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was to evaluate the relationship between physical activity of young adults who were granted waivers from high school physical education versus those who completed courses in states requiring physical education teacher certification, with curriculum standards and credit requirements for graduation. University students from three…

Mears, Derrick

2010-01-01

94

[Mycoplasma pneumoniae meningoencephalitis in a young adult].  

PubMed

Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections have extrapulmonary complications that involve the nervous system. The neurologic manifestations are diverse. Although the prognosis is usually favorable, the patients can undergo severe permanent sequelae. We present a young female adult with acute meningoencephalitis as a complication of a lower respiratory infection, which followed a benign course without neurologic sequelae. PMID:16193713

Del Castillo, Marcelo; D'Giano, Carlos; Goicoechea, María Teresa; Morello, Fernando; Salsamendi, Paz; Mora, Andrea

2005-01-01

95

The Health Status of Young Adults in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health issues of young adulthood have received relatively little attention compared with those of adolescence, although the critical issues in young adulthood parallel those of adolescence. Young adults often fare worse than adolescents on health indicators, with many measures of negative outcomes—including rates of injury, homicide, and substance use—peaking during the young adult years. The contextual factors shaping health

M. Jane Park; Tina Paul Mulye; Sally H. Adams; Claire D. Brindis; Charles E. Irwin

2006-01-01

96

Value Preferences Predicting Narcissistic Personality Traits in Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed at showing how the value preferences of young adults could predict the narcissistic characteristics of young adults according to structural equation modeling. 133 female (59.6%) and 90 male (40.4%), total 223 young adults participated the study (average age: 25.66, ranging from 20 to 38). Ratio group sampling method was used while…

Gungor, Ibrahim Halil; Eksi, Halil; Aricak, Osman Tolga

2012-01-01

97

Financial Literacy of Young Adults: The Importance of Parental Socialization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of young adults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence young adults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which young adults' financial attitudes mediated financial…

Jorgensen, Bryce L.; Savla, Jyoti

2010-01-01

98

2009 YALSA Fabulous Films & Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2009 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the titles that were released in January 2009 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Denver,…

School Library Journal, 2009

2009-01-01

99

2010 YALSA Fabulous Films and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2010 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the list of titles that were released in January 2010 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in…

School Library Journal, 2010

2010-01-01

100

Brief Report: Young Adult Women Resolving Interpersonal Conflicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the social cognitive development of young adults. Furthermore, existing studies of young adults tend to rely on college-age participants. A study of social cognition during interpersonal conflict was conducted with 100 young adult women (mean age = 25 years). The relationship of contextual variables to conflict-resolution strategy was examined. Strategy coding was done according to Selman's

Patricia Flynn Weitzman

2001-01-01

101

Advertisements: interpreting images used to sell to young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to identify images used in advertising directed toward young adults, investigate what young adults thought of these images, and explore how young adults used these images. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A content analysis of 674 apparel and cosmetic advertisements located in four fashion magazines (Elle Girl, Seventeen, YM, and TeenVogue) resulted in eight categories.

Alyssa Dana Adomaitis; Kim P. Johnson

2008-01-01

102

Access to dental care by young South Australian adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite reported concern over the dental care of young adults little research has been done on their use of dental services in Australia. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of dental utilization of young South Australian adults aged 20-24 years. Methods: A random sample of 2300 young adults was selected from the electoral roll. Partial

KF Roberts-Thomson; JF Stewart

2003-01-01

103

Young Adults Deserve the Best: YALSA's Competencies in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As high school enrollment continues to rise, the need for effective librarianship serving young adults is greater than ever before. "Young Adults Deserve the Best: Competencies for Librarians Serving Youth," developed by Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), is a document outlining areas of focus for providing quality library service…

Flowers, Sarah

2010-01-01

104

Addition of the immunostimulatory oligonucleotide IMT504 to a seasonal flu vaccine increases hemagglutinin antibody titers in young adult and elder rats, and expands the anti-hemagglutinin antibody repertoire.  

PubMed

Flu vaccines are partially protective in infants and elder people. New adjuvants such as immunostimulatory oligonucleotides (ODNs) are strong candidates to solve this problem, because a combination with several antigens has demonstrated effectiveness. Here, we report that IMT504, the prototype of a major class of immunostimulatory ODNs, is a potent adjuvant of the influenza vaccine in young adult and elderly rats. Flu vaccines that use virosomes or whole viral particles as antigens were combined with IMT504 and injected in rats. Young adult and elderly animals vaccinated with IMT504-adjuvated preparations reached antibody titers 20-fold and 15-fold higher than controls, respectively. Antibody titers remained high throughout a 120 day-period. Animals injected with the IMT504-adjuvated vaccine showed expansion of the anti-hemagglutinin antibody repertoire and a significant increase in the antibody titer with hemagglutination inhibition capacity when confronted to viral strains included or not in the vaccine. This indicates that the addition of IMT504 in flu vaccines may contribute to the development of significant cross-protective immune response against shifted or drifted flu strains. PMID:21793787

Montaner, Alejandro Daniel; Denichilo, Analía; Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Fló, Juan; López, Ricardo Agustin; Pontoriero, Andrea; Savy, Vilma; Baumeister, Elsa; Frank, Ronald; Zorzopulos, Jorge; Elías, Fernanda

2011-07-05

105

Prepubertal Rats Are More Resistant to Ischemic Renal Injury and Recover More Rapidly than Adult Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilateral clamping of renal pedicles during 60, 75 or 90 min was used to characterize the evolution of ischemic acute renal failure (ARF) in prepubertal rats. To verify the existence of age-conditioned differences in the evolution of ARF, adult rats were exposed to 40, 60 or 75 min of clamping. After 7 days, survival rate was significantly better in young

Marta Fernández; Alberto Medina; Eduardo Carbajo; Fernando Santos; Angeles Cobo; Jesús Álvarez; Julián Rodríguez; Porfirio Fernández

2000-01-01

106

The effect of supplemental food on the growth rates of neonatal, young, and adult cotton rats ( Sigmodon hispidus) in northeastern Kansas, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In food-limited populations, the presence of extra food resources can influence the way individuals allocate energy to growth and reproduction. We experimentally increased food available to cotton rats ( Sigmodon hispidus) near the northern limit of their range over a 2-year period and tested the hypothesis that seasonal growth rates would be enhanced by supplemental food during winter and spring when natural food levels are low. We also examined whether additional food resources were allocated to somatic growth or reproductive effort by pregnant and lactating females. The effect of supplemental food on growth varied with mass and season, but did not influence the growth rates of most cotton rats during spring and winter. In winter, small animals on supplemented grids had higher growth rates than small animals on control grids, but females in spring had lower growth rates under supplemented conditions. Growth rates of supplemented cotton rats were enhanced in summer. Northern cotton rat populations may use season-specific foraging strategies, maximizing energy intake during the reproductive season and minimizing time spent foraging in winter. Adult females invest extra resources in reproduction rather than in somatic growth. Pregnant females receiving supplemental food had higher growth rates than control females, and dependent pups (? 1 month of age) born to supplemented mothers had higher growth rates than those born to control mothers. Increased body size seems to confer an advantage during the reproductive season, but has no concomitant advantage to overwinter survival.

Eifler, Maria A.; Slade, Norman A.; Doonan, Terry J.

2003-09-01

107

Young Adult Smokers: Are They Different?  

Microsoft Academic Search

increased more than those of their non-college peers, but the less well- educated young adults still have the highest rates in this age group. The Prevention Priorities Project has demonstrated that smoking-cessation assistance is one of the most important and cost-effective clinical preven- tive services.4 However, efforts to reduce smoking overall will be unsuc- cessful unless a way can be

Leif I. Solberg; Raymond G. Boyle; Maribet McCarty; Stephen E. Asche; Merry Jo Thoele

108

Methamphetamine use and violence among young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research analyzed the relationship between methamphetamine use and violence among young adults eighteen to twenty-five years old. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 106 respondents. The research was based primarily on in-depth, life-history interviews with individuals who used methamphetamine for a minimum of three months and who resided in Los Angeles County.Of the 106 respondents, 37 (34.9

Arielle Baskin-Sommers; Ira Sommers

2006-01-01

109

Generativity Among Young, Midlife, and Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generativity is conceived as a configuration of psychosocial features constellated around the goal of providing for the next generation. This study used a stratified random sampling of young (ages 22–27), midlife (ages 37–42), and older (ages 67–72) adults to examine age–cohort differences in 4 generativity features: generative concern, commitments, actions, and narration. Although prevailing views on generativity (e.g., Erikson, 1963)

Dan P. McAdams; Ed de St. Aubin; Regina L. Logan

1993-01-01

110

Water turnover in children and young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water homeostasis is essential for life and optimal function and considerable interest surrounds the issue of recommendations\\u000a for water consumption in healthy individuals. Objective data on water turnover in free-living individuals are limited, however.\\u000a The aim of the present work was to measure water turnover in children and young adults using isotopically labeled water to\\u000a provide objective data on magnitude

Elaine C. Rush; Purvi Chhichhia; Andrew E. Kilding; Lindsay D. Plank

2010-01-01

111

Young Adult Outcome of Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

To learn about the lives of young adults with ASD, families with children born 1974–1984, diagnosed as preschoolers and followed\\u000a into adolescence were contacted by mail. Of 76 eligible, 48 (63%) participated in a telephone interview. Global outcome scores\\u000a were assigned based on work, friendships and independence. At mean age 24, half had good to fair outcome and 46% poor.

Linda C. Eaves; Helena H. Ho

2008-01-01

112

Informal Mentoring and Young Adult Employment  

PubMed Central

This study explores the role of informal mentoring (i.e., developing an important relationship with a non-parental adult) in the transition to full time employment among young adults (age 23-28). Multivariate analysis of the Add Health data reveals that mentoring is positively related to the likelihood of full time employment, and the relationship involves both selection and causation processes. Entrance into the world of work facilitates the development of mentoring relationships, especially among youth who identify work-related mentors after adolescence. These relationships have the potential for promoting attachment to the labor force. Mentoring relationships that develop outside of work settings and during adolescence have a positive impact on the odds of full time employment. The receipt of guidance and advice from mentors, as well as access to weak-tied mentoring relationships, teacher mentors, and friend mentors all contribute to the increased odds of employment in young adulthood. However, adolescent mentoring may be less effective among young women than it is among young men.

2007-01-01

113

Informal Mentoring and Young Adult Employment.  

PubMed

This study explores the role of informal mentoring (i.e., developing an important relationship with a non-parental adult) in the transition to full time employment among young adults (age 23-28). Multivariate analysis of the Add Health data reveals that mentoring is positively related to the likelihood of full time employment, and the relationship involves both selection and causation processes. Entrance into the world of work facilitates the development of mentoring relationships, especially among youth who identify work-related mentors after adolescence. These relationships have the potential for promoting attachment to the labor force. Mentoring relationships that develop outside of work settings and during adolescence have a positive impact on the odds of full time employment. The receipt of guidance and advice from mentors, as well as access to weak-tied mentoring relationships, teacher mentors, and friend mentors all contribute to the increased odds of employment in young adulthood. However, adolescent mentoring may be less effective among young women than it is among young men. PMID:19050736

2007-12-01

114

Young Adult Intimate Partner FemicideAn Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study identified risk factors for young adult intimate partner femicide. Secondary analysis of proxies of 23 young adult (ages 18-20 years) femicide victims identified from police or medical examiner records in 11 U.S. cities were interviewed using the Danger Assessment Scale. The femicide cases were compared with 53 abused young women (ages 18-20). Risk factors for young adult intimate

Nancy Glass; Kathryn Laughon; Cynthia Rutto; Jennifer Bevacqua; Jacquelyn C. Campbell

2008-01-01

115

Demographic Demise: The Declining Young Adult Population in New England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Young adult workers provide businesses with the dynamic labor force and fresh ideas they need to innovate and grow. With their contributions to cultural, intellectual and social life, young adults also make New England a vibrant and interesting place to live. Young families support local schools and demand a strong educational system. Yet New…

Gittell, Ross

2007-01-01

116

Adolescents' and Young Adults' Expectations of Parental Responsibilities in Stepfamilies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This current study investigates adolescents' and young adults' expectations of parenting by mothers following remarriage. Based on an earlier qualitative study of parent-child relationships, it was hypothesized that young people expect parents to maintain parenting responsibilities, including warmth\\/support and discipline behaviors, towards children following remarriage. It was also hypothesized that adolescents and young adults expect parents to give them priority

Sharon Moore; Claire Cartwright

2005-01-01

117

Treatment seeking for smoking cessation among young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young adult smokers (18–24 year olds) do not seek treatment for smoking cessation as often as older smokers. Two commonly hypothesized reasons for this are that younger smokers are not aware of treatments or cannot afford them. The State of Vermont provides free smoking cessation treatment, and most young smokers are aware of this; thus, we tested whether young adult

John R. Hughes; Bevin Cohen; Peter W. Callas

2009-01-01

118

Defining Cigarette Smoking Status in Young Adults: A Comparison of Adolescent vs Adult Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To determine the agreement between 2 measures (adult vs adolescent) of current cigarette smoking among young adults. Methods: We examined data from 1007 young adults from the New Jersey Adult Tobacco Survey. The adult measure incorporates lifetime and present use, whereas the adolescent measure assesses past 30-day use. The kappa…

Delnevo, Cristine D.; Lewis, M. Jane; Kaufman, Ira; Abatemarco, Diane J.

2004-01-01

119

Nuclear expression of PG-21, SRC-1, and pCREB in regions of the lumbosacral spinal cord involved in pelvic innervation in young adult and aged rats  

PubMed Central

In rats, ageing results in dysfunctional patterns of micturition and diminished sexual reflexes that may reflect degenerative changes within spinal circuitry. In both sexes the dorsal lateral nucleus and the spinal nucleus of the bulbospongiosus, which lie in the L5-S1 spinal segments, contain motor neurons that innervate perineal muscles, and the external anal and urethral sphincters. Neurons in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus of these segments provide autonomic control of the bladder, cervix and penis and other lower urinary tract structures. Interneurons in the dorsal gray commissure and dorsal horn have also been implicated in lower urinary tract function. This study investigates the cellular localisation of PG-21 androgen receptors, steroid receptor co-activator one (SRC-1) and the phosphorylated form of c-AMP response element binding protein (pCREB) within these spinal nuclei. These are components of signalling pathways that mediate cellular responses to steroid hormones and neurotrophins. Nuclear expression of PG-21 androgen receptors, SRC-1 and pCREB in young and aged rats was quantified using immunohistochemistry. There was a reduction in the number of spinal neurons expressing these molecules in the aged males while in aged females, SRC-1 and pCREB expression was largely unchanged. This suggests that the observed age-related changes may be linked to declining testosterone levels. Acute testosterone therapy restored expression of PG-21 androgen receptor in aged and orchidectomised male rats, however levels of re-expression varied within different nuclei suggesting a more prolonged period of hormone replacement may be required for full restoration.

Ranson, Richard N.; Connelly, Jennifer H.; Watson, Alan H. D.

2012-01-01

120

Healthy Older Adults Better Tolerate Sleep Deprivation Than Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether healthy aging is associated with increased sleepiness, and whether healthy older adults experience more sleepiness when acutely sleep deprived. Design A 5-day inpatient circadian rhythm-sleep study consisting of 3 baseline nights, followed by an extended 26-hour wake episode in constant conditions. Setting Intensive Physiological Monitoring Unit, General Clinical Research Center, Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Participants 37 healthy participants without medical, psychological, and sleep disorders: 26 young (7 women, 19 men; mean age 21.9 ± 3.3 years, range 18–29) and 11 “young-old” adults (3 women, 8 men; mean age 68.1 ± 3.6 years, range 65–76). Intervention An extended 26-hour wake episode in constant conditions. Measurements Electro-encephalographic-verified wakefulness, slow eye movements, sustained attention, subjective sleepiness. Results Across the first 16 hours corresponding to the usual waking day, both groups rated themselves as alert, had similar levels of vigilance, and little evidence of sleepiness. As the wake episode continued, the older subjects were less impaired, showing faster reaction times, fewer performance lapses and attentional failures, and less frequent unintentional sleep episodes. Conclusion This small study suggests that excessive sleepiness is not normal in healthy “young-old” adults. Symptoms of excessive sleepiness in this population, including reliance on caffeine to maintain alertness, should be evaluated and treated. Further study is needed to determine whether increased daytime sleepiness in middle-old (75–84 years) and old-old (85+) adults is normal, or is instead associated with sleep restriction, undiagnosed sleep disorders, medication side effects, mood disorders, and/or other medical disorders that disrupt sleep.

Duffy, Jeanne F.; Willson, Hannah J.; Wang, Wei; Czeisler, Charles A.

2011-01-01

121

Preventing Weight Gain in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Context Weight gain in young adults is an important public health problem and few interventions have been successful. Background This pilot study evaluated the preliminary efficacy of two self-regulation approaches to weight-gain prevention: Small Changes (changes in energy balance of roughly 200 kcal/day) and Large Changes (initial weight loss of 5–10 lbs to buffer against future weight gains). Intervention Participants were enrolled in 8-week programs teaching Small or Large Changes (SC; LC). Both approaches were presented in a self-regulation framework, emphasizing daily self-weighing. Design Randomized controlled pilot study. Setting/participants Young adults (N=52) aged 18–35 years (25.6±4.7 years, BMI of 26.7±2.4 kg/m2) were recruited in Providence RI and Chapel Hill NC. Main outcome measures Adherence to intervention, weight change, and satisfaction/confidence in approach assessed at 0, 8, and 16 weeks. Data were collected in 2008 and analyzed in 2008–2009. Results Participants attended 84% of sessions, and 86.5% and 84.5% of participants completed post-treatment and follow-up assessments, respectively. Participants adhered to their prescriptions. Daily weighing increased markedly in both groups, whereas the eating and exercise changes observed in the SC and LC reflected the specific approach taught. Weight changes were significantly different between groups at 8 weeks (SC= ?0.68±1.5 kg, LC= ?3.2±2.5 kg, p<0.001) and 16 weeks (SC = ?1.5±1.8 kg, LC= ?3.5±3.1 kg, p=0.006). Participants in both groups reported high levels of satisfaction and confidence in the efficacy of the approach they were taught. Conclusions Both Small and Large Change approaches hold promise for weight-gain prevention in young adults; a fully powered trial comparing the long-term efficacy of these approaches is warranted.

LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Tate, Deborah F.; Gorin, Amy A.; Wing, Rena R.

2011-01-01

122

Young Adults and Parental Divorce: Exploring Important Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the potential impact ofparental divorce on the lives of young adult offspring is discussed. Parental divorce may upset both social and psychological aspects of the transition to adulthood process. The family roles young adults are expected to assume could be altered by the break-up, as could opportunities for particularyoung adult pursuits, such as advanced education. Heightened adjustment

Teresa M. Cooney

1988-01-01

123

Secondary Level Re-Entry of Young Canadian Adult Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper illuminates and details some of the traits, pressures and semi-autonomy of the young adult between the ages of 18 and 24 who must confront the barriers and challenges upon returning to secondary school within the high school and the adult education centre context. Focusing on these young adults is fundamentally important to begin to…

MacGregor, Cassandra; Ryan, Thomas G.

2011-01-01

124

Efficacy of Smoking-Cessation Interventions for Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Context Approximately 22% of U.S. young adults (aged 18–24 years) are smokers.1 Young adults typically display an interest in quitting,1,2 but it is unknown whether the evidence-based cessation programs designed for adults will be equally effective for young adults. Purpose This meta-analysis investigated the efficacy of smoking-cessation programs for this population. Evidence acquisition In 2009–2011, studies published between 2004 and 2008 that investigated smoking cessation were first found through the DHHS Clinical Practice Guidelines for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence3 as well as a PubMed search (2009–2010) and were then subjected to a rigorous inclusion process. Authors were contacted to glean young adult raw data. Fourteen studies provided data that were coded for descriptive information and aggregated using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2.04. Evidence synthesis Among young adults, any type of intervention was more effective in producing successful smoking cessation than the control. This was the case for intent-to-treat analyses as well as complete cases. When interventions were effective for the larger adult sample, they were also effective for the younger adult sample. Conclusions While young adults tend to underutilize evidence-based cessation treatments, the current meta-analysis showed that these treatments should be as effective for young adults as they are for the general adult population. Thus, it may be useful to focus on motivating young adults to seek cessation treatment to increase utilization.

Suls, Jerry M.; Luger, Tana M.; Curry, Susan J.; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Sporer, Amy K.; An, Larry C.

2013-01-01

125

Risky Driving in Adolescents and Young Adults with Childhood ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine risky driving behaviors and negative driving outcomes in a large sample of adolescents and adults diagnosed in childhood with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) compared with demographically similar controls without ADHD. Methods 355 adolescents and young adults of the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) (n ¼203 probands; n ¼152 controls) were administered the Young Adult Driving Questionnaire.

Amanda L. Thompson; Brooke S. G. Molina; William Pelham Jr; Elizabeth M. Gnagy

2007-01-01

126

Sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults.  

PubMed

Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195

Bauermeister, José A; Morales, Mercedes; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos

2007-01-01

127

Merchandising Library Materials to Young Adults. Libraries Unlimited Professional Guides for Young Adult Librarians Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By addressing the concept of merchandising, this handbook shows librarians how to turn their young adult collection into one that will attract teenagers. Delivering an introduction to marketing and merchandising concepts, the author shares years of experience as a teen services librarian, combined with the latest studies and research findings on…

Nichols, Mary Anne

128

Merchandising Library Materials to Young Adults. Libraries Unlimited Professional Guides for Young Adult Librarians Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|By addressing the concept of merchandising, this handbook shows librarians how to turn their young adult collection into one that will attract teenagers. Delivering an introduction to marketing and merchandising concepts, the author shares years of experience as a teen services librarian, combined with the latest studies and research findings on…

Nichols, Mary Anne

129

The Many Faces of Life Satisfaction among Finnish Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to measure the levels of general life satisfaction among Finnish young adults, and to clarify the\\u000a way in which life satisfaction is constructed. In order to explore these aims, the following research questions were specified:\\u000a (1) What is the level of general life satisfaction among young Finnish adults?, (2) Which factors in young adults

Liisa Martikainen

2009-01-01

130

Borderline personality traits in nonclinical young adults.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study was to explore the dimensionality of the borderline personality disorder in nonclinical young adults by means of the Borderline Personality Questionnaire (BPQ; Poreh et al., 2006). We also studied the phenotypic expression of the borderline personality traits as a function of participants' gender and age, and the relationship between BPQ subscales and measures of depressive symptoms, anxiety, stress, hallucinatory predisposition, and paranoid ideation. The sample comprised 809 young adults, 562 (69.5%) were women, with a mean age of 20.2 years (SD = 2.9). The results indicate that the BPQ self-report has adequate psychometric properties. The levels of internal consistency for the BPQ subscales ranged between .78 and .93. Analysis of the internal structure of the BPQ subscales yielded a one-dimensional solution. In contrast, second-order principal components analysis at the item level yielded a five-dimensional solution. Likewise, statistically significant differences in the mean scores of the borderline personality traits as a function of participants' gender and age were found. The BPQ subscales correlated significantly with measures of depression, anxiety, stress, paranoid ideation, and hallucinatory predisposition. These results help to improve our understanding of the dimensional structure of the borderline personality in the general population. Future research should continue to identify participants who are at risk for the development of borderline personality disorder and facilitating the development of early detection and prevention programs. PMID:21838568

Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Sierra-Baigrie, Susana; González, Maria Paz García-Portilla; Bobes, Julio; Mu?iz, José

2011-08-01

131

Hepatic fine structure in young and aging rats treated with oxandrolone: a morphometric study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatic fine structural alterations induced by short- term administration of the hypolipidemic drug oxandrolone were evaluated using morphometric techniques. These changes are described in the livers of normolipidemic young adult and hyper- lipidemic'retired breeder male rats. Retired breeder rats, charac- terized by hyperlipidemia and a high incidence of arteriosclero- sis, are thought to undergo premature aging. A previous morpho- metric

Douglas L. Schmucker; Albert L. Jones

132

Young adult smoking cessation: predictors of quit attempts and abstinence.  

PubMed

We examined young adult smoking cessation behaviors, coding cessation behavior as no attempt, quit attempt (< 30 days), or abstinence (? 30 days) during follow-up from July 2005 through December 2008, observed in 592 young adult smokers from the Ontario Tobacco Survey. One in 4 young adults made an attempt; 14% obtained 30-day abstinence. Cessation resources, prior attempts, and intention predicted quit attempts, whereas high self-efficacy, using resources, having support, and low addiction predicted abstinence, indicating that young adult smokers require effective and appropriate cessation resources. PMID:23327264

Diemert, Lori M; Bondy, Susan J; Brown, K Stephen; Manske, Steve

2013-01-17

133

Differences among Adolescent, Young Adult, and Adult Callers of Suicide Help Lines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined data on 165 adolescents, 65 young adults, and 175 adults who called 2 suicide help lines. Adults and young adults reported depression as primary reason for contemplating suicide; adolescents reported interpersonal problems. Although callers reported suicide ideation, very small percentage fell into high-risk categories with regard to…

de Anda, Diane; Smith, Melanie A.

1993-01-01

134

The Growing Problem of Stroke among Young Adults.  

PubMed

Although overall stroke incidence has been declining in developed countries, there is evidence that stroke in the young is increasing. Increasing incidence may be particularly pronounced among minorities in whom historically a higher burden of stroke has been reported. Compared with older adults, time spent with disability is longer for those affected at younger ages, and new data suggests that among 30-day young adult stroke survivors, increased mortality persists for as long as 20 years. Stroke in young adults is often missed by less experienced clinicians due to its unexpectedness, leading to lost opportunities for intervention. The causes and risk factors for stroke in the young are often rare or undetermined, but young adults with stroke also have a high burden of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and substance abuse. Disseminating awareness and promoting research on young adult stroke are steps towards reducing the burden of stroke. PMID:24105640

Sultan, Sally; Elkind, Mitchell S V

2013-12-01

135

HEALTH INDICATORS AMONG UNEMPLOYED AND EMPLOYED YOUNG ADULTS  

PubMed Central

Research on the prevalence of health indicators by employment status among young US adults is limited. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of young adults aged 18 to 24 years to document the prevalence of five health behaviors (cigarette smoking, risky drinking, leisure-time physical activity, and fruit and French fries consumption) by employment status. Unemployed young adults reported higher levels of risky drinking and nonengagement in leisure-time physical activity, while employed young adults had higher levels of smoking, French fries consumption, and low fruit/vegetable consumption. Transportation/material-moving young adult workers reported the highest level of risky drinking (13.5%), and precision production/craft/repair workers reported the highest smoking rates (39.7%). We found an elevated prevalence of risk factors, which places young workers at increased risk for the development of chronic conditions later in life.

Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Lee, David J.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Davila, Evelyn P.; Fleming, Lora E.; LeBlanc, William G.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.; Christ, Sharon L.; Zimmerman, Frederick J.; Muntaner, Carles; Hollenbeck, Julie A

2011-01-01

136

Adult-Young Ratio, a Major Factor Regulating Social Behaviour of Young: A Horse Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAdults play an important role in regulating the social behaviour of young individuals. However, a few pioneer studies suggest that, more than the mere presence of adults, their proportions in social groups affect the social development of young. Here, we hypothesized that aggression rates and social cohesion were correlated to adult-young ratios. Our biological model was naturally-formed groups of Przewalski

Marie Bourjade; Alice de Boyer Des Roches; Martine Hausberger; Martin Giurfa

2009-01-01

137

Morphometric changes in the epiphyseal plate of the growing and young adult male rat after long-term salmon calcitonin administration.  

PubMed

The function of the epiphyseal plate is related to the differentiation and maturation of the chondrocytes, especially of the hypertrophic zone. Salmon calcitonin exerts a positive effect on chondrocytes of different types of cartilage, e.g., articular cartilage, osteochondral callus formation, and the epiphyseal plate. In the present study, the effect of long-term daily salmon calcitonin treatment upon epiphyseal plate function was examined in 80 male Wistar rats aged 12 weeks at the beginning of the experiment. A daily dose of 6 IU of salmon calcitonin enhanced the number of the chondrocytes of the hypertrophic zone of the upper tibial epiphyseal plate, increased the mean thickness of the epiphyseal plate, and accelerated the longitudinal growth of long bones. It was found that the peripheral growth of the epiphyseal plate was delayed after calcitonin treatment in comparison with the placebo-treated animals. The most effective period for calcitonin treatment on epiphyseal plate function seems to be the late accelerated period of growth, i.e., puberty. In conclusion, long-term salmon calcitonin treatment has a beneficial effect on longitudinal skeletal growth and this effect remains throughout the adult life of the animal. Salmon calcitonin does not enlarge the surface of the epiphyseal plate. PMID:15895285

Khaldi, L; Karachalios, Th; Galanos, A; Lyritis, G P

2005-05-19

138

Weight status misperception among Mexican young adults.  

PubMed

Individuals who misperceive their body size are at risk for eating disorders, unhealthy weight control practices, and obesity-related diseases. This study assessed the prevalence and demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial correlates of agreement between perceived (self-reported) and actual (measured) body mass index categories in a sample of Mexican college applicants aged 18-20 years (N=3622; 52% female). Under two thirds (63.1%) accurately reported their weight status categories. Reporting accuracy was lower among overweight and obese participants. In multivariate analyses, overestimating was associated with female gender, younger age, lower level of parent education, and more hours of daily TV viewing; underestimating was associated with male gender and older age. In within-gender analyses, overestimating was associated with hours of TV among men and underestimating was positively associated with depressive symptoms among women. This study adds to a growing international literature on body weight status misperception among adolescents and young adults. PMID:22104126

Andrade, Flavia Cristina Drumond; Raffaelli, Marcela; Teran-Garcia, Margarita; Jerman, Jilber A; Garcia, Celia Aradillas

2011-11-21

139

The brain matrix and multifocal brain damage following a single injection of ketamine in young adult rats: conspicuous changes in old age.  

PubMed

Male rats were seized with lithium and pilocarpine and then injected within 30 min. with either acepromazine or ketamine. These rats as well as age-matched normal rats were observed daily for one year. The rats which had received the ketamine after the seizures were significantly heavier than either the normal rats or the other group of seized rats. The bulk of this increased weight was due to the marked increase in white, extremely dense adipose tissue. Compared to the acepromazine-treated rats, the ketamine-treated rats did not exhibit spontaneous seizures and exhibited cerebral widths comparable to normal rats. These results suggest that the multifocal, graded neuronal loss associated with this seizure model may allow other "configurations" to emerge that can support normal behaviors as well as new characteristics. PMID:12509193

Persinger, M A; St-Pierre, L S

2002-12-01

140

Using Young Adult Literature with Adolescent Learners of English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses (1) a rationale for using young adult literature with adolescent English-as-a-Second-Language learners; (2) an approach to teaching the novel "Make Lemonade" by Virginia Euwer Wolff; (3) activities in which students engaged and samples of their work; and (4) implications for teachers who explore young adult literature with adolescent…

Watts, Elizabeth L.

1999-01-01

141

Intergenerational Relationships and Affectual Solidarity between Grandparents and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines whether both parents' relationships with their offspring, parents, and parents-in-law matter for young adults' perceptions of closeness to grandparents. This study focuses on two groups of grandchildren (ages 18-23) in Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households: young adults with married biological parents (N =…

Monserud, Maria A.

2008-01-01

142

Masseter muscule activity during the whole day in young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the biting function during the entire day in young adults by measuring the masseter muscle activity with a 24-hour electromyography (EMG) system. With this system, the masseter muscle activity for 24 hours was recorded in 20 male and 10 female young adult subjects with acceptable occlusion. For the male subjects, means of the number

Keisuke Miyamoto; Kenjiro Yamada; Yasuo Ishizuka; Noriaki Morimoto; Kazuo Tanne

1996-01-01

143

The Young Adult Novels in the Classroom Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

When former Heinemann-Boynton\\/Cook editor Peter Stillman first conceived the Young Adult Literature (YAL) series in 1990 and asked me to be the series editor, I was excited to be part of such an innovative endeavor. At that time there were few professional books available for teachers who wanted to bring young adult literature into their classrooms, and Heinemann was the

VIRGINIA R. MONSEAU

144

Identifying Correlates of Young Adults' Weight Behavior: Survey Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…

Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.

2011-01-01

145

Identifying Correlates of Young Adults' Weight Behavior: Survey Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…

Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.

2011-01-01

146

Economic Socialization, Saving and Assets in European Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of young adults by parents using data from European young adults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…

Webley, Paul; Nyhus, Ellen K.

2013-01-01

147

Dental Care among Young Adults with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer…

Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

2013-01-01

148

Intergenerational Relationships and Affectual Solidarity between Grandparents and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines whether both parents' relationships with their offspring, parents, and parents-in-law matter for young adults' perceptions of closeness to grandparents. This study focuses on two groups of grandchildren (ages 18-23) in Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households: young adults with married biological parents (N =…

Monserud, Maria A.

2008-01-01

149

Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements: Perceptions of Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Determining optimal methods for preventing suicide continues to be an elusive goal. Aims: The study examines benefits and possible untoward effects of public service announcements (PSAs) for young adults. Methods: Young adult participants (N = 279) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (a) a billboard simulation, (b) a 30-s TV ad simulation, and (c) a no-information condition.

Bonnie Klimes-Dougan; Chih-Yuan Steven Lee

2010-01-01

150

Leaving home: Food choice behavior of young German adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like other western countries, Germany too reports record numbers of overweight and obese individuals with young German adults in a particularly high-risk position. As such, this study sought to investigate if food choice varied by the place of residence (dependent or independent) of these young adults. Using a self-administered questionnaire, analyses of quantitative data from 305 German students between the

Debra Harker; Bishnu Sharma; Michael Harker; Karin Reinhard

2010-01-01

151

Young adults' food motives: an Australian social marketing perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Understanding the drivers of young adults' healthy food choices is vital to addressing the public health issue of obesity. The healthy eating motives that underlay such consumer choice behavior are particularly important to the well-being of society. This research is novel in that it aims to investigate the food motives of young Australian adults in relation to five

Tegan Piggford; Maria Raciti; Debra Harker; Michael Harker

2008-01-01

152

Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…

Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2012-01-01

153

Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…

Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2012-01-01

154

The respiratory effects of cannabis dependence in young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim. To evaluate the relationship between cannabis dependence and respiratory symptoms and lung function in young adults, while controlling for the effects of tobacco smoking. Setting and participants. Nine hundred and forty-three young adults from a birth cohort of 1037 subjects born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972\\/1973 were studied at age 21. Measurements. Standardized respiratory symptom questionnaires were administered.

D. Robin Taylor; Richie Poulton; Terrie E. Moffitt; Padmaja Ramankutty; Malcolm R. Sears

2000-01-01

155

Correlates of Home Smoking Bans Among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariable regression in 1,858 young adults 18-25 years of age was carried out to identify correlates of household smoking bans. Knowledge of tobacco health effects, higher educational attainment, and no reported cigarette smoking were independently associated with smoking bans. Educational interventions to increase household smoking bans in young adults are needed.

Noella A. Dietz; David J. Lee; Kristopher L. Arheart; James D. Wilkinson; John D. Clark; Alberto J. Caban-Martinez

156

Current lifestyle of young adults treated for cancer in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to look at the current lifestyle of young adult survivors of childhood cancer between the ages of 16 and 30 years to document their achievements and expose any psychosocial problems. Sixty six young adult survivors were contacted and asked if they and their siblings (16-30 years) would take part in a lifestyle study; 48

S E Evans; M Radford

1995-01-01

157

Are Two Parent Families Disproportionately Represented in Young Adult Literature?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an evaluation of a cross-section of literature for young adults published in the United States. The books were selected from "Best Books for Young Adults" for the years 1970 to 1990 inclusive. This study shows that when compared to United States census data, there is a disproportionate number of nontraditional family settings in…

Collins, Patricia L.

158

Psychological adjustment and adaptive impairments in young adults with ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compared a group of 25 young adults with ADHD to 23 young adults drawn from the community equated for age (Mean = 25 yrs.) and educational level (Mean 13 yrs.) using a structured psychiatric interview (non-blinded), self-report ratings of psychological distress, and psychological tests of inattention, impulsive responding, working memory, verbal fluency, sense of time, and creativity.

R. A. Barkley; K. Murphy; D. Kwasnik

1996-01-01

159

Smoking behaviour among young adults: beyond youth prevention  

PubMed Central

Objective: There is a widespread assumption that smoking behaviour is largely established by the age of 18 years. As a result, smoking prevention has focused almost exclusively upon youth. However, recent trends suggest that young adulthood may be an important—and largely overlooked—period in the development of regular smoking behaviour. The current study sought to examine patterns of tobacco use among young adults (aged 18–29 years) and to address the implications for tobacco control policy. Design: Data are presented from the 2003 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey, a national survey of smoking behaviour (n = 10 559, response rate 89%). Main outcome measures: Measures of smoking behaviour, smoking initiation, susceptibility to smoking, and occupational status. Results: A total of 1.4 million or 28% of young adults in Canada currently smoke, the highest proportion among all age groups. The prevalence of daily smoking rose from 8% among youth to 22% among young adults, and approximately one fifth of smokers tried their first cigarette after the age of 18 years. Smoking behaviour among young adults was also distinct from older smokers: young adults were more likely to be occasional smokers and reported lower daily consumption. Finally, smoking prevalence and cessation rates varied substantially within subgroups of young adults, as characterised by occupational setting. Conclusions: Dramatic increases in the proportion and intensity of smoking occurs after the age of 18 years. Smoking behaviour among young adults is distinct from both youth and older adults, and warrants immediate attention from the public health community.

Hammond, D

2005-01-01

160

Examining Work Delay in Young Adults with Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work delay as a dimension of work restoration in young adults with schizophrenia has not been explored with much frequency in the vocational rehabilitation literature; and it has never been explored and analyzed from the subjective experience of the person with the disorder. In this exploratory, mixed-method study of 20 first-episode young adults diagnosed with schizophrenia who returned to work,

DEBORAH GIOIA

2006-01-01

161

Social Cognitive Correlates of Young Adult Sport Competitors' Sunscreen Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and…

Berndt, Nadine C.; O'Riordan, David L.; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville

2011-01-01

162

Young Adults of India-Online Surfers or Online Shoppers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the online behavior of young adults of India. A total of 115 Internet users from 18 to 25 years of age were surveyed from the National Capital Region of Delhi, India. Results showed that young adults of India are mainly online surfers and not online shoppers. These people have a lack of

Nirupma Gupta; Meenakshi Handa; Bharat Gupta

2008-01-01

163

Prescription drug misuse among club drug-using young adults.  

PubMed

Nonmedical prescription (Rx) drug use has recently increased, particularly among young adults. Using time-space sampling to generate a probability-based sample of club-going young adults (18-29), 400 subjects provided data on Rx drug misuse. Club-going young adults misuse Rx drugs at high rates. An overwhelming majority of the sample indicated lifetime use of pain killers, sedatives, and stimulants. A majority indicated recent pain killer use. Variations by gender and sexuality exist in this population. Young lesbian/bisexual women emerged as the group most likely to abuse Rx drugs. Research into the contexts influencing these patterns is imperative. PMID:17994483

Kelly, Brian C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

2007-01-01

164

Prescription Drug Misuse Among Club Drug-Using Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Nonmedical prescription (Rx) drug use has recently increased, particularly among young adults. Using time-space sampling to generate a probability-based sample of club-going young adults (18–29), 400 subjects provided data on Rx drug misuse. Club-going young adults misuse Rx drugs at high rates. An overwhelming majority of the sample indicated lifetime use of pain killers, sedatives, and stimulants. A majority indicated recent pain killer use. Variations by gender and sexuality exist in this population. Young lesbian/bisexual women emerged as the group most likely to abuse Rx drugs. Research into the contexts influencing these patterns is imperative.

Kelly, Brian C.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

2009-01-01

165

Quality Books about Bullying in the Young Adult Tradition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Anti-bullying experts employ trade books in dealing with contemporary issues facing young people, including bullying. At least three conceptual strands underpin the application of young adult literature (YAL) in such enterprises: (1) reliance on tested voices appealing to young readers; (2) the potential effect of quality YAL on literacy…

Larson, Joanne; Hoover, John H.

2012-01-01

166

Parents and Their Young Adult Children: Transitions to Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers how parents are affected by and play a role in the lives of their young adult children. The years during which young people make the transition to adulthood has changed significantly in recent years--this transition now takes place over a longer period of time. We describe how young people experience these years; how they…

Gitelson, Idy Barasch; McDermott, Dana

2006-01-01

167

Quality Books about Bullying in the Young Adult Tradition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anti-bullying experts employ trade books in dealing with contemporary issues facing young people, including bullying. At least three conceptual strands underpin the application of young adult literature (YAL) in such enterprises: (1) reliance on tested voices appealing to young readers; (2) the potential effect of quality YAL on literacy…

Larson, Joanne; Hoover, John H.

2012-01-01

168

Parents and Their Young Adult Children: Transitions to Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper considers how parents are affected by and play a role in the lives of their young adult children. The years during which young people make the transition to adulthood has changed significantly in recent years--this transition now takes place over a longer period of time. We describe how young people experience these years; how they…

Gitelson, Idy Barasch; McDermott, Dana

2006-01-01

169

Factors associated with substance use among homeless young adults  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with substance use among homeless young adults. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined the influence of social networks and economic factors among a group of homeless young adults with differing levels of alcohol and drug use. In addition, for those with an alcohol use disorder the role of future time expectancies was examined. A sample (n=185) of homeless young adults aged 18-23 were recruited from a community drop-in center and interviewed utilizing self-report instruments. Findings suggest that social networks, economic factors, and future expectancies are significant predictors of the level of substance use among homeless young adults. Being able to identify those areas that place homeless young adults at risk for substance abuse and dependence has implications for effective intervention.

Gomez, Rebecca; Thompson, Sanna J.; Barczyk, Amanda N.

2010-01-01

170

78 FR 58290 - TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE Young Adult Program Premium Update  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEFENSE Office of the Secretary TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE Young Adult Program...Updated TRICARE Young Adult Premiums for Calendar Year 2014...TRICARE Young Adult program premiums for Calendar Year (CY) 2014. DATES: The CY...

2013-09-23

171

Bidi cigarette use among young adults in 15 states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. There is a paucity of research on bidi use in the US and the few studies conducted have focused solely on adolescents. This article describes patterns and explores factors associated with bidi use among young adults, aged 18–24.Methods. Data from 63,728 adults, including 5,324 young adults, aged 18–24, were derived from an optional tobacco module on the 2001 Behavioral

Cristine D Delnevo; Eric S Pevzner; Mary Hrywna; M. Jane Lewis

2004-01-01

172

Religion, identity and community relations among adults and young adults in Northern Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much has been written on national identity in Northern Ireland, the identity preferences of adults and the young have rarely been compared directly. This paper addresses this omission by examining the relationship between national identity and community relations within both the adult (aged 18 years and above) and the young adult (aged 16 years) population. This study used the

Bernadette C. Hayes; Ian McAllister

2009-01-01

173

Psychological Maturity of At-Risk Juveniles, Young Adults and Adults: Implications for the Justice System  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the justice system assumes adulthood is reached by the age of 18 and given the increase in the number of juveniles being tried within adult court, it is imperative to understand whether young people are as criminally culpable for their actions as adults and where differences may lie in the maturity of young people and their adult counterparts. Psychological

Claire Bryan-Hancock; Sharon Casey

2010-01-01

174

Social participation among young adults with an autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in social activities among young adults who received special education services for autism (ASD group), compared to young adults who received special education for intellectual disability, emotional/behavioral disability, or a learning disability. Young adults with an ASD were significantly more likely to never see friends, never get called by friends, never be invited to activities, and be socially isolated. Among those with an ASD, lower conversation ability, lower functional skills, and living with a parent were predictors of less social participation. PMID:23615687

Orsmond, Gael I; Shattuck, Paul T; Cooper, Benjamin P; Sterzing, Paul R; Anderson, Kristy A

2013-11-01

175

The health status of young adults in the United States.  

PubMed

The health issues of young adulthood have received relatively little attention compared with those of adolescence, although the critical issues in young adulthood parallel those of adolescence. Young adults often fare worse than adolescents on health indicators, with many measures of negative outcomes--including rates of injury, homicide, and substance use--peaking during the young adult years. The contextual factors shaping health status and access to care in young adulthood differ significantly from the context of adolescence. This article synthesizes national data to present a health profile of young adults, reviewing social indicators that describe the context of young adulthood and presenting measures of health status. We examine mortality, morbidity, risky behaviors, and health care access and utilization, identifying the most significant gender and racial/ethnic disparities. The article also identifies limitations of existing data and offers suggestions for future research and health monitoring in this area. We conclude with a discussion of current efforts to address the health and well-being of young adults and argue for creating a national health agenda for young adults that includes research, programs and policies to address health issues during this period of the lifespan. PMID:16919791

Park, M Jane; Paul Mulye, Tina; Adams, Sally H; Brindis, Claire D; Irwin, Charles E

2006-07-10

176

Patterns of Smoking Among Minnesota’s Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey was conducted between November 2002 and June 2003. Findings are based on interviews with 8,821 adults, including 1,205 young adults between 18 and 24 years of age. The purpose of this report is to draw the attention of policy makers, the medical and public health communities, and the general public to the high smoking rates

2004-01-01

177

32 CFR 199.26 - TRICARE Young Adult.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Establishment. The TRICARE Young Adult (TYA) program offers the...Program to qualified unmarried adult children of TRICARE-eligible...provides over 50 percent of the student's financial support), and...for purchase by any qualified adult child as that term is...

2013-07-01

178

Implicit and Explicit Learning in Aged and Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a wealth of evidence that learning ability declines with age. In almost all of the studies however, the performance measures employed are explicit, even though research has consistently indicated that aged adults have well preserved implicit learning ability. This suggests that under certain circumstances aged adults should be at no great learning disadvantage in comparison to young adults.

Richard Midford; Kim Kirsner

2005-01-01

179

Concussion Symptoms May Not Differ in Teen, Young Adult Athletes  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Concussion Symptoms May Not Differ in Teen, Young Adult ... Preidt Tuesday, September 24, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Concussion Sports Injuries Teen Health TUESDAY, Sept. 24 (HealthDay ...

180

Nothing by Net: Basketball Books for Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents 69 brief annotated bibliographies of books (published between 1978 and 1996) on the subject of basketball, available for young adults. Includes autobiography and biography, fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and reference. (SR)

Sullivan, Edward T.

1997-01-01

181

Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Homeless Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Adolescent homelessness has received increasing attention due to its fast growth throughout the United States and the poor mental outcomes experienced by homeless young people. This cross-sectional study (N = 156) identified correlates of depressive symptomatology among homeless young adults and investigated how depressive symptoms are influenced by the coping strategies these young adults employ. The findings are based on analysis of baseline data collected for a hepatitis vaccination intervention pilot study conducted in partnership with a young adult’s drop-in center in Santa Monica, California. Standardized tools assessed drug use history, coping ability, and psychiatric symptomatology. Linear regression modeling was used to identify correlates of depressive symptom severity. Poor perceived physical health, recent crack cocaine use and recent use of tranquilizers were significantly associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. Self-destructive escape, non-disclosure/avoidance, passive problem-solving and thoughts of harming self were also associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms.

Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary; Slagle, Alexandra; Greengold, Barbara; Liu, Yihang; Leake, Barbara

2013-01-01

182

Trends in Lung Cancer Mortality Among Young Adults in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Trends in lung cancer mortality among young adults, which are important for projecting future trends, have not been explored previously in Japan. Methods: Using data from the National Vital Statistics between 1958 and 2003, we compiled lung cancer mortality by sex and 5-year birth cohort among young adults aged 20-49. Results: Mortality among those aged 20-29 has consistently decreased

Tomomi Marugame; Itsuro Yoshimi; Ken-ichi Kamo; Yuka Imamura; Satoshi Kaneko; Shoichi Mizuno; Tomotaka Sobue

183

The Disabled Young Adult: Ready to Leave Home?  

PubMed Central

The disabled young adult strives to be independent when preparing to leave home and family. This article provides a checklist that can help the disabled young adult and his/her family to make this transition. In some cases, a transitional rehabilitation program may also be of help. The family physician who is familiar with the issues that pertain to adolescent development can play a central part in addressing patient and family problems that present at this time.

Tervo, Raymond; O'Leary, Donal

1986-01-01

184

Intentional weight loss and smoking in young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether current smoking and lifetime snuff use are associated with a lifetime history of major (?5 kg) intentional weight loss in young adults, and to examine the dependence of this association on familial factors.DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based questionnaire survey of young adult Finnish twins participating in the fourth wave of the longitudinal FinnTwin-16-study in 2000–2002.SUBJECTS: A total of

S E Saarni; K Silventoinen; A Rissanen; S Sarlio-Lähteenkorva; J Kaprio

2004-01-01

185

Motion Sensor Reactivity in Physically Active Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine whether young adults changed their physical activity (PA) behavior when wearing motion sensors. PA patterns of 119 young adults (M age = 20.82 years, SD = 1.50, M body mass index = 23.93 kg/m[superscript 2] , SD = 4.05) were assessed during 2 consecutive weeks. In Week 1, participants wore an…

Behrens, Timothy K.; Dinger, Mary K.

2007-01-01

186

Parents and their young adult children: transitions to adulthood.  

PubMed

This paper considers how parents are affected by and play a role in the lives of their young adult children. The years during which young people make the transition to adulthood has changed significantly in recent years--this transition now takes place over a longer period of time. We describe how young people experience these years; how they affect their parents and parent-child relationships; and how this time period is experienced by vulnerable youth. PMID:17168458

Gitelson, Idy Barasch; McDermott, Dana

187

Mortality Decreases among Young Adults in Southern Central Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite the anticipated high impact of HIV and AIDS among young people, AIDS related mortality is not well documented because of the lack of death registration systems in Ethiopia. The objective of this analysis was to investigate the trends in mortality among young adults (aged 10-24 years) in the era of the AIDS epidemic. Methods: We analyzed data for

Mitike Molla; Peter Byass; Yemane Berhane; Bernt Lindtjorn

188

Psychiatric Comorbidity in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports the findings of a study investigating rates and types of comorbid mental disorder evident in adolescents and young adults with autism. A sample of 84 young people (M = 19.5 years, SD = 4.6) with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association,…

Moseley, David S.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Brereton, Avril V.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

2011-01-01

189

Differences Among Aging and Young Adults in Attitudes and Cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although much is known about aging adults in nursing homes, little is known about the attitudes and cognitive skills of those who are psychologically, physically, and financially independent. This study compared 57 aging and 51 young men and women. The young groups attended colleges or participated in college audiences. The seniors, ages 64 to 95, lived independently in separate households

Rawley Silver

1999-01-01

190

Reduced coronary flow reserve in young adults with renal transplant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Some degree of cardiovascular disease should be suspected in young adults who have been paediatric renal transplant recipients also if no systematic data collection is routinely performed in clinical setting. The aim of our work was to evaluate the degree of cardiovascular damage in these young patients, using a minimally invasive technique. We then evaluated coronary flow reserve (CFR)

Maurizio Turiel; Valentina Martina; Elisa Meregalli; Livio Tomasoni; Giuseppe De Blasio; Luigi Delfino; Alberto Edefonti; Paolo Grillo; Mirella Procaccio; Daniele Cusi; Luciana Ghio

2007-01-01

191

SeatBelt Use and Related Behaviors Among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seat-belt use among young adults was examined to identify factors associated with nonuse. This research was part of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, which is a study of the health, development, and behavior of a birth cohort of young New Zealanders (n = 1037). At age 21 years, 948 (93%) members of this cohort were administered a face-to-face

Dorothy J. Begg; John D. Langley

2000-01-01

192

Growing up with Dyslexia: Interviews with Teenagers and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interviews with 75 teenagers and young adults were performed to investigate how young people with dyslexia experienced school in terms of well-being, educational achievement, self-esteem, peer relations and belief in their future. Results from earlier studies suggest that secondary emotional problems are common. The first six grades in school…

Ingesson, S. Gunnel

2007-01-01

193

Environmental sustainability: Understanding young adults' learning, thinking, and actions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis explores the ways in which young-adults' environmental learning and experiences influence their decision to live sustainably. In particular, this thesis focuses on young adults' environmental and sustainability learning. It elaborates on young peoples' views about environmental and sustainability issues, such as climate change, the sources for their learning about these issues, and how young adults' learning encounters, in turn, affect their actions toward environmental protection and decision-making. Through a series of in-depth individual interviews with 18 young adults from three universities in southeastern Ontario, this qualitative study provides in-depth insight into young adults' understanding, learning experiences, and actions in relation to environmental and sustainability issues. Employing a Contextual Model of Learning framework the narratives of the young adults in this study are analyzed and discussed within three overlapping environmental learning contexts: personal, sociocultural, and physical settings. This framework allows for an examination of the complex interactions and relationships that shape how and where environmental learning occurs. The findings in this study suggest that the three overlapping learning contexts, that is the personal, sociocultural, and physical play an important role in shaping young adults' learning about environmental and sustainability issues. The data reveal that despite the unavailability or near-absence of environmental studies and education within the formal school curriculum (particularly at the elementary and high school levels), the young adults rely on other locations for learning, such as the internet, environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs), television, and family. In light of this, the research participants suggest the re-introduction of environmental programs and content in the school curriculum. Finally, the results of this study demonstrate the centrality of knowledge and experience in relation to environmental and sustainability issues in the actions and thoughts of the young adult research participants. This study makes an important contribution to the field of environmental and sustainability education by demonstrating the critical role of learning in a knowledge society. It illuminates the implications of various learning contexts for a sustainable global environment and future. Furthermore, it provides insight into the views of young adults regarding the future of the global environment and current sustainability initiatives in a world that faces ever-greater challenges.

Kola-Olusanya, Anthony O.

194

Life Course Status and Exchanges of Support between Young Adults and Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…

Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

2012-01-01

195

Reference and Information Services for Young Adults: A Research Study of Public Libraries in New Jersey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussion of young adult library services focuses on the results of a survey of New Jersey public libraries. Highlights include job titles; population served; job responsibilities; young adult services; young adult staff; policy of information provision; young adult research preferences; and recommendations for future research. (LRW)|

Winston, Mark; Paone, Kimberly Lione

2001-01-01

196

Life Course Status and Exchanges of Support between Young Adults and Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…

Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

2012-01-01

197

Family of Origin Environment and Adolescent Bullying Predict Young Adult Loneliness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested parental loneliness, family of origin environment, and a history of being bullied as predictors of loneliness in young adults. The role of social skills in young adults’ loneliness was also examined. Participants were 111 young-adult–parent dyads who completed measures of loneliness and the family communication environment. In addition, young adults completed measures of social skills and history

Chris Segrin; Natalie Nevarez; Analisa Arroyo; Jake Harwood

2012-01-01

198

Advocacy skills training for young adult cancer survivors: the Young Adult Survivors Conference at Camp M?k-a-Dream  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goals of the work  This manuscript reports on the design, implementation, and evaluation of the Young Adult Survivor Conference (YASC)—a 4-day retreat designed to provide an educational and support experience for cancer survivors diagnosed as children, adolescents, and young adults. The goals of the program were to address issues of survivorship, provide cancer education and tools for self-advocacy, and build bridges

B. J. Zebrack; K. C. Oeffinger; P. Hou; S. Kaplan

2006-01-01

199

Hypertension in the Young Adult - Come Feel the Pulse  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Hypertension occurring in teenagers and young adults is uncommon. Though the most common form is still essential hypertension, secondary causes are more commonly found here than in older adults. Renal, cardiovascular and endocrine diseases constitute most of these causes. Coarctation of the aorta is the most common cardiovascular cause of hypertension, and its importance lies in the fact that

L F Hsu; K N Sin; Fai Lam; L S Chew

200

Mature Young Adult Books Are Given a Bad Reputation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the viewpoints of a tenth grader on novels for young adults that portray troubled teens dealing with alcoholism, drugs, depression, suicide, sexual abuse, and violence. Suggests that contrary to adult opinions that these novels are not always age-appropriate, they in fact broaden teens' outlooks and prepare them for the real world. (LRW)

Rosen, Julia

1998-01-01

201

Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required…

Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

2009-01-01

202

Mature Young Adult Books Are Given a Bad Reputation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents the viewpoints of a tenth grader on novels for young adults that portray troubled teens dealing with alcoholism, drugs, depression, suicide, sexual abuse, and violence. Suggests that contrary to adult opinions that these novels are not always age-appropriate, they in fact broaden teens' outlooks and prepare them for the real world. (LRW)|

Rosen, Julia

1998-01-01

203

Age and sex differences in the ventilatory response to hypoxia and hypercapnia in awake neonatal, pre-pubertal and young adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence for a “sensitive period” in respiratory development in rats around postnatal age (P) 12–13d. Little is known about sex differences during that time. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of sex on breathing development, specifically around the “sensitive period”. We used whole-body plethysmography to study breathing in normoxic, hypoxic and hypercapnic gases in

Heidi S. Holley; Mary Behan; Julie M. Wenninger

204

Timing of reflexive visuospatial orienting in young, young-old, and old-old adults.  

PubMed

This study examined adult age differences in reflexive orienting to two types of uninformative spatial cues: central arrows and peripheral onsets. In two experiments using a Posner cuing task, young adults (ages 18-28 years), young-old adults (60-74 years), and old-old adults (75-92 years) responded to targets that were preceded 100-1,000 ms earlier by a central arrow or a peripheral abrupt onset. In Experiment 1, the cue remained present upon target onset. Facilitation effects at short cue-target stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) were prolonged in duration for the two older groups relative to the young adults. At longer cue-target SOAs, inhibition of return (IOR) that was initiated by peripheral onset cues was observed in the performance of young adults but not in that of the two older groups. In Experiment 2, the cue was presented briefly and removed prior to target onset. The change in cue duration minimized age differences (particularly for young-old adults) in facilitation effects and led to IOR for all three age groups. The findings are consistent with the idea that attentional control settings change with age, with higher settings for older adults leading to delayed disengagement from spatial cues. PMID:21394555

Langley, Linda K; Friesen, Chris Kelland; Saville, Alyson L; Ciernia, Annie T

2011-07-01

205

Timing of Reflexive Visuospatial Orienting in Young, Young-Old, and Old-Old Adults  

PubMed Central

This study examined adult age differences in reflexive orienting to two types of uninformative spatial cues: central arrows and peripheral onsets. In two experiments using a Posner cuing task, young adults (ages 18 – 28 yrs), young-old adults (ages 60 – 74 yrs), and old-old adults (ages 75 – 92 yrs) responded to targets that were preceded 100–1,000 ms earlier by a central arrow or a peripheral abrupt onset. In Experiment 1, the cue remained present upon target onset. Facilitation effects at early cue-target stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) were prolonged in duration for the two older groups relative to the young adults. At later cue-target SOAs, inhibition of return (IOR) that was initiated by peripheral onset cues was observed in the performance of young adults but not in that of the two older groups. In Experiment 2, the cue was presented briefly and removed prior to target onset. The change in cue duration minimized age differences (particularly for young-old adults) in facilitation effects and led to IOR for all three age groups. The findings are consistent with the idea that attentional control settings change with age, with higher settings for older adults leading to delayed disengagement from spatial cues.

Langley, Linda K.; Friesen, Chris Kelland; Saville, Alyson L.; Ciernia, Annie T.

2012-01-01

206

Effects of ?-adrenergic receptor agonists on drinking and arterial blood pressure in young and old rats  

PubMed Central

These experiments examined water-drinking and arterial blood pressure responses to ?-adrenergic receptor activation in young (4 mo), “middle-aged” adult (12 mo), and old (29 mo) male rats of the Brown-Norway strain. We used isoproterenol to simultaneously activate ?1- and ?2-adrenergic receptors, salbutamol to selectively activate ?2-adrenergic receptors, and the combination of isoproterenol and the ?2-adrenergic receptor antagonist ICI 118,551 to stimulate only ?1-adrenergic receptors. Animals received one of the drug treatments, and water drinking was measured for 90 min. About 1 wk later, animals received the same drug treatment for measurement of arterial blood pressure responses for 90 min. In some rats, levels of renin and aldosterone secretion in response to isoproterenol or salbutamol were measured in additional tests. Old and middle-aged rats drank significantly less after isoproterenol than did young rats and also had greater reductions in arterial blood pressure. Old and middle-aged rats drank significantly less after salbutamol than did young rats, although reductions in arterial blood pressure were equivalent across the ages. The ?2-adrenergic antagonist ICI 118,551 abolished drinking after isoproterenol and prevented most of the observed hypotension. Renin secretion after isoproterenol and salbutamol was greater in young rats than in middle-aged rats, and wholly absent in old rats. Aldosterone secretion was reduced in old rats compared with young and middle-aged rats after treatment with isoproterenol, but not after treatment with salbutamol. In conclusion, there are age-related differences in ?-adrenergic receptor-mediated drinking that can be explained only in part by age-related differences in renin secretion after ?-adrenergic receptor stimulation.

Grobe, Connie L.; Beltz, Terry G.; Johnson, Alan Kim

2011-01-01

207

The pheromonal restoration of cyclic activity in young estrogenized persistent estrus female rats is a vomeronasal effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight sham-operated (SO) and six vomeronasalectomized (VMNX) young adult female rats were used to demonstrate the participation of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in the pheromonal restoration of cyclic activity (PRCA). All rats were normal four-day cycling before and after surgery and they received a single subcutaneous injection of 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB) to induce an anovulatory persistent vaginal

O. A. Mora; M. M. Cabrera

1997-01-01

208

Sexist Attitudes towards Reading and Writing in the Young Adult and Adult Learner Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study examined the masculinity/femininity attitude of students toward reading and writing. Subjects, 91 young adults and adults in high school, adult high school, and community college remedial classes in the fall and spring of the 1994-1995 school year, completed the Mazurkiewicz Masculine Feminine Attitude Survey. Results indicated no…

Winchock, J. M.

209

Acute genistein treatment mimics the effects of estradiol by enhancing place learning and impairing response learning in young adult female rats.  

PubMed

Endogenous estrogens have bidirectional effects on learning and memory, enhancing or impairing cognition depending on many variables, including the task and the memory systems that are engaged. Moderate increases in estradiol enhance hippocampus-sensitive place learning, yet impair response learning that taps dorsal striatal function. This memory modulation likely occurs via activation of estrogen receptors, resulting in altered neural function. Supplements containing estrogenic compounds from plants are widely consumed despite limited information about their effects on brain function, including learning and memory. Phytoestrogens can enter the brain and signal through estrogen receptors to affect cognition. Enhancements in spatial memory and impairments in executive function have been found following treatment with soy phytoestrogens, but no tests of actions on striatum-sensitive tasks have been made to date. The present study compared the effects of acute exposure to the isoflavone genistein with the effects of estradiol on performance in place and response learning tasks. Long-Evans rats were ovariectomized, treated with 17?-estradiol benzoate, genistein-containing sucrose pellets, or vehicle (oil or plain sucrose pellets) for 2 days prior to behavioral training. Compared to vehicle controls, estradiol treatment enhanced place learning at a low (4.5 ?g/kg) but not high dose (45 ?g/kg), indicating an inverted pattern of spatial memory facilitation. Treatment with 4.4 mg of genistein over 2 days also significantly enhanced place learning over vehicle controls. For the response task, treatment with estradiol impaired learning at both low and high doses; likewise, genistein treatment impaired response learning compared to rats receiving vehicle. Overall, genistein was found to mimic estradiol-induced shifts in place and response learning, facilitating hippocampus-sensitive learning and slowing striatum-sensitive learning. These results suggest signaling through estrogen receptor ? and membrane-associated estrogen receptors in learning enhancements and impairments given the preferential binding of genistein to the ER? subtype and affinity for GPER. PMID:22944517

Pisani, Samantha L; Neese, Steven L; Doerge, Daniel R; Helferich, William G; Schantz, Susan L; Korol, Donna L

2012-08-27

210

Acute genistein treatment mimics the effects of estradiol by enhancing place learning and impairing response learning in young adult female rats  

PubMed Central

Endogenous estrogens have bidirectional effects on learning and memory, enhancing or impairing cognition depending on many variables, including the task and the memory systems that are engaged. Moderate increases in estradiol enhance hippocampus-sensitive place learning, yet impair response learning that taps dorsal striatum function. This memory modulation likely occurs via activation of estrogen receptors, resulting in altered neural function. Supplements containing estrogenic compounds from plants are widely consumed despite limited information about their effects on brain function, including learning and memory. Phytoestrogens can enter the brain and signal through estrogen receptors to affect cognition. Enhancements in spatial memory and impairments in executive function have been found following treatment with soy phytoestrogens, but no tests of actions on striatum-sensitive tasks have been made to date. The present study compared the effects of acute exposure to the isoflavone genistein with the effects of estradiol on performance in place and response learning tasks. Long-Evans rats were ovariectomized, treated with 17?-estradiol benzoate, genistein-containing sucrose pellets, or vehicle (oil or plain sucrose pellets) for two days prior to behavioral training. Compared to vehicle controls, estradiol treatment enhanced place learning at a low (4.5 ?g/kg) but not high dose (45 ?g/kg), indicating an inverted pattern of spatial memory facilitation. Treatment with 4.4 mg of genistein over two days also significantly enhanced place learning over vehicle controls. For the response task, treatment with estradiol impaired learning at both the low and high doses; likewise, genistein treatment impaired response learning compared to rats receiving vehicle. Overall, genistein was found to mimic estradiol-induced shifts in place and response learning, facilitating hippocampus-sensitive learning and slowing striatum-sensitive learning. These results suggest signaling through estrogen receptor ? and membrane-associated estrogen receptors in learning enhancements and impairments given the preferential binding of genistein to the ER? subtype and affinity for GPER.

Pisani, Samantha L.; Neese, Steven L.; Doerge, Daniel R.; Helferich, William G.; Schantz, Susan L.; Korol, Donna L.

2012-01-01

211

Evaluation of young and adult dogs' reactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many authors have tested puppies' behavior early to detect adult behavioral disorders. Our pilot study aims to investigate puppies' reactivity toward tolerance of new situations and the consistency of behavior between puppy and adult dog. Seven tests (tunnel, direct looking, sudden noise, retrieving buster-ball, problem solving, bowl removal, and approaching) were used to evaluate the reactivity of 32 German shepherd

E. Sforzini; M. Michelazzi; E. Spada; C. Ricci; C. Carenzi; S. Milani; F. Luzi; M. Verga

2009-01-01

212

Reverse correlating trustworthy faces in young and older adults  

PubMed Central

Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as “facial trustworthiness.”In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Todorov, 2008; Engell et al., 2010). Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Calder et al., 2003; Firestone et al., 2007; Ruffman et al., 2008; Chaby and Narme, 2009). Based on Todorov';s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004) reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment), from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness.

Ethier-Majcher, Catherine; Joubert, Sven; Gosselin, Frederic

2013-01-01

213

Reverse correlating trustworthy faces in young and older adults.  

PubMed

Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as "facial trustworthiness."In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Todorov, 2008; Engell et al., 2010). Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Calder et al., 2003; Firestone et al., 2007; Ruffman et al., 2008; Chaby and Narme, 2009). Based on Todorov';s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004) reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment), from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness. PMID:24046755

Ethier-Majcher, Catherine; Joubert, Sven; Gosselin, Frédéric

2013-09-05

214

Characterizing upper limb muscle volume and strength in older adults: A comparison with young adults  

PubMed Central

Aging is associated with loss of muscle volume (MV) and force leading to difficulties with activities of daily living. However, the relationship between upper limb MV and joint strength has not been characterized for older adults. Quantifying this relationship may help our understanding of the functional upper limb declines older adults experience. Our objective was to assess the relationship between upper limb MV and maximal isometric joint moment-generating capacity (IJM) in a single cohort of healthy older adults (age?65 years) for 6 major functional groups (32 muscles). MV was determined from MRI for 18 participants (75.1±4.3 years). IJM at the shoulder (abduction/adduction), elbow (flexion/extension), and wrist (flexion/extension) was measured. MV and IJM measurements were compared to previous reports for young adults (28.6±4.5 years). On average older adults had 16.5% less total upper limb MV compared to young adults. Additionally, older adult wrist extensors composed a significantly increased percentage of upper limb MV. Older adult IJM was reduced across all joints, with significant differences for shoulder abductors (p<0.0001), adductors (p=0.01), and wrist flexors (p<0.0001). Young adults were strongest at the shoulder, which was not the case for older adults. In older adults, 40.6% of the variation in IJM was accounted for by MV changes (p?0.027), compared to 81.0% in young adults. We conclude that for older adults, MV and IJM are, on average, reduced but the significant linear relationship between MV and IJM is maintained. These results suggest that older adult MV and IJM cannot be simply scaled from young adults.

Vidt, Meghan E.; Daly, Melissa; Miller, Michael E.; Davis, Cralen C.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Saul, Katherine R.

2011-01-01

215

Characterizing upper limb muscle volume and strength in older adults: a comparison with young adults.  

PubMed

Aging is associated with the loss of muscle volume (MV) and force leading to difficulties with activities of daily living. However, the relationship between upper limb MV and joint strength has not been characterized for older adults. Quantifying this relationship may help our understanding of the functional declines of the upper limb that older adults experience. Our objective was to assess the relationship between upper limb MV and maximal isometric joint moment-generating capacity (IJM) in a single cohort of healthy older adults (age ? 65 years) for 6 major functional groups (32 muscles). MV was determined from MRI for 18 participants (75.1±4.3 years). IJM at the shoulder (abduction/adduction), elbow (flexion/extension), and wrist (flexion/extension) was measured. MV and IJM measurements were compared to previous reports for young adults (28.6±4.5 years). On average older adults had 16.5% less total upper limb MV compared to young adults. Additionally, older adult wrist extensors composed a significantly increased percentage of upper limb MV. Older adult IJM was reduced across all joints, with significant differences for shoulder abductors (p<0.0001), adductors (p=0.01), and wrist flexors (p<0.0001). Young adults were strongest at the shoulder, which was not the case for older adults. In older adults, 40.6% of the variation in IJM was accounted for by MV changes (p?0.027), compared to 81.0% in young adults. We conclude that for older adults, MV and IJM are, on average, reduced but the significant linear relationship between MV and IJM is maintained. These results suggest that older adult MV and IJM cannot be simply scaled from young adults. PMID:22047782

Vidt, Meghan E; Daly, Melissa; Miller, Michael E; Davis, Cralen C; Marsh, Anthony P; Saul, Katherine R

2011-11-01

216

Acute and adaptive motor responses to caffeine in adolescent and adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine is a psychostimulant with intake through foods or beverages tending to increase from childhood through adolescence. The goals of the present study were to examine the effects of caffeine on young adolescent Long–Evans rats and to compare the motor-behavioral responses of adolescent and adult rats to acute and chronic caffeine. Adolescent rats had a biphasic dose–response to caffeine comparable

Dennis E. Rhoads; April L. Huggler; Lucas J. Rhoads

2011-01-01

217

THE GEOTROPIC CONDUCT OF YOUNG RATS  

PubMed Central

Young rats, old enough to creep well but before the eyelids are open, orient and move upward upon an inclined surface. The angle of geotropic orientation on such a surface (?) is proportional to the logarithm of the component of gravity parallel to the inclined plane. This result is compared with the scanty information available for other animals; there is indication that it may be generally valid. The precision of the orientation, measured by the percentage dispersion of the individual measurements, also increases in proportion to the logarithm of this component. The cosine of the angle of orientation decreases very nearly in proportion to the sine of the angle of inclination. A possible interpretation of this is given as involving the idea that upward orientation ceases when the differential pull of the body weight upon the opposed legs reaches a threshold value. Attaching weights (W) to the tail causes ? to increase, and in proportion to log W.

Crozier, W. J.; Pincus, G.

1926-01-01

218

Early childhood temperament predicts substance use in young adults  

PubMed Central

Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an important early childhood marker of risk for later psychiatric problems. The current 20-year prospective, longitudinal study focused on individual differences in this early temperament and adolescent brain function. As adolescents, 83 participants initially identified in infancy with the temperament of BI were assessed using functional imaging to examine striatal responses to incentives. Five years later, as young adults, these participants provided self-report of their substance use. Our findings show that children's early temperament interacts with their striatal sensitivity to incentives in adolescence to predict their level of substance use in young adulthood. Those young adults who, as children, showed the highest levels of BI reported the greatest substance use if, as adolescents, they also exhibited striatal hypersensitivity to incentives. These longitudinal data delineate one developmental pathway involving early biology and brain mechanisms for substance use in young adulthood.

Lahat, A; Perez-Edgar, K; Degnan, K A; Guyer, A E; Lejuez, C W; Ernst, M; Pine, D S; Fox, N A

2012-01-01

219

Early childhood temperament predicts substance use in young adults.  

PubMed

Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an important early childhood marker of risk for later psychiatric problems. The current 20-year prospective, longitudinal study focused on individual differences in this early temperament and adolescent brain function. As adolescents, 83 participants initially identified in infancy with the temperament of BI were assessed using functional imaging to examine striatal responses to incentives. Five years later, as young adults, these participants provided self-report of their substance use. Our findings show that children's early temperament interacts with their striatal sensitivity to incentives in adolescence to predict their level of substance use in young adulthood. Those young adults who, as children, showed the highest levels of BI reported the greatest substance use if, as adolescents, they also exhibited striatal hypersensitivity to incentives. These longitudinal data delineate one developmental pathway involving early biology and brain mechanisms for substance use in young adulthood. PMID:22948382

Lahat, A; Pérez-Edgar, K; Degnan, K A; Guyer, A E; Lejuez, C W; Ernst, M; Pine, D S; Fox, N A

2012-09-04

220

Elemental concentration analysis in brain structures from young, adult and old Wistar rats by total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The knowledge of the spatial distribution and the local concentration of trace elements in tissues are of great importance since trace elements are involved in a number of metabolic and physiological processes in the human body, and their deficiency and excess may lead to different metabolic disorders. In this way, the main goal of this work is to compare the elemental concentration in different brain structures, namely temporal cortex, entorhinal cortex, visual cortex and hippocampus, from Wistar female rats ( n = 15) with different ages: 2, 8 and 48 weeks. The measurements were performed at the Synchrotron Light Brazilian Laboratory, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. In the entorhinal cortex, the following elements decreased with age: Zn, S, Cl, K, Ca and Br. In the temporal cortex, Ca, Fe and Br levels increased with aging and on the other hand, P, S, Cl, K and Rb levels decreased with aging. In the visual cortex almost all the elements decreased with aging: Cl, Ca, Fe, Ni and Zn. In the hippocampus, in turn, most of the elements identified, increased with aging: Al, P, S, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. The increase of Fe with aging in the hippocampus is an important fact that will be studied, since it is involved in oxidative stress. It is believed that oxidative stress is the one of the main causes responsible for neuronal death in Parkinson's disease.

Serpa, R. F. B.; de Jesus, E. F. O.; Anjos, M. J.; do Carmo, M. G. T.; Moreira, S.; Rocha, M. S.; Martinez, A. M. B.; Lopes, R. T.

2006-11-01

221

Chronic cannabinoid treatment during young adulthood induces sex-specific behavioural deficits in maternally separated rats.  

PubMed

A combination of early neurodevelopmental disruptions and young-adult cannabis use may lead to the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate in adult Wistar rats (12-14 weeks of age) the long-term 'two hit' behavioural effects of chronic young-adult treatment with the cannabinoid receptor agonist, CP55,940 (0.2 mg/kg, 8-10 weeks of age) in combination with maternal separation (MS) (3 h every day from postnatal days 2-14). Two weeks after chronic CP55,940 treatment had ceased, baseline locomotor activity was reduced in male, but not female rats and irrespective of MS. In male rats only, the combination of MS and cannabinoid exposure, but not either 'hit' alone, induced a significant decrease in sucrose preference. In contrast, in male rats both MS and CP55,940 treatment reduced time spent on the open arms of the plus maze or centre time in the open field and this was most pronounced after a combination of these 'hits'. Prepulse inhibition was reduced by MS in both sexes but there was no additional effect of CP55,940 treatment. Memory performance in the Y-maze and novel object recognition test was not affected by either of the two 'hits'. These results indicate that early developmental disruptions and young-adult cannabis use on their own or in combination can differentially and sex-specifically affect behaviours related to neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22610052

Klug, Maren; van den Buuse, Maarten

2012-05-17

222

Cardiac pacing and defibrillation in children and young adults.  

PubMed

The population of children and young adults requiring a cardiac pacing device has been consistently increasing. The current generation of devices are small with a longer battery life, programming capabilities that can cater to the demands of the young patients and ability to treat brady and tachyarrhythmias as well as heart failure. This has increased the scope and clinical indications of using these devices. As patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) comprise majority of these patients requiring devices, the knowledge of indications, pacing leads and devices, anatomical variations and the technical skills required are different than that required in the adult population. In this review we attempt to discuss these specific points in detail to improve the understanding of cardiac pacing in children and young adults. PMID:23329870

Singh, Harinder R; Batra, Anjan S; Balaji, Seshadri

2013-01-01

223

Perceptions of supportive behavior by young adults with bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

Bipolar disorder is a mental illness with a significant negative impact on quality of life. People with bipolar disorder benefit when family and friends provide social support, but quantity and quality of support are often lacking. We present an exploration of the types of behaviors from support network members that young adults (ages 18 to 30) with bipolar disorder perceived as helpful in coping with the illness. We conducted semistructured ethnographic interviews with young adults (N = 30) with bipolar disorder and analyzed them using qualitative coding methods. We found that young adults with bipolar disorder considered a wide variety of emotion-focused and instrumental behaviors helpful, with some behaviors tailored to the unique characteristics of the illness. These findings also indicate the types of behavior support providers might use to help network members cope with bipolar disorder, and the research needed to better understand social support in the context of chronic mental illness. PMID:23202479

Doherty, Eileen F; MacGeorge, Erina L

2012-11-30

224

Adolescent alcohol use development and young adult outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used latent growth modeling to examine the effects of level of alcohol use and development of alcohol use during adolescence, on young adult outcomes for males and females. Adolescents (N=480; mean=13.03 years, S.D.=1.44; 264 female) were assessed annually over a 4-year period and then 5–6 years later in young adulthood (mean=22.49 years, S.D.=1.50). Chronicity of alcohol use in

Susan C Duncan; Anthony Alpert; Terry E Duncan; Hyman Hops

1997-01-01

225

Psychiatric Comorbidity in Adolescents and Young Adults With Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the findings of a study investigating rates and types of comorbid mental disorder evident in adolescents and young adults with autism. A sample of 84 young people (M?=?19.5 years, SD?=?4.6) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) autistic disorder participated in the study. Comorbid mental disorder was

David S. Moseley; Bruce J. Tonge; Avril V. Brereton; Stewart L. Einfeld

2011-01-01

226

[Differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders in young adults].  

PubMed

Neurodegenerative diseases are relatively common and usually occur in older patients. In young adulthood, neurodegeneration is less common and more frequent due to underlying inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) that typically have a wide range of clinical presentations. In the following overview, we present a case of SSPE and NBIA. The main differential diagnoses, cardinal symptoms, diagnosis and treatment options of neurodegenerative-like disesase in young adults are presented. PMID:19890775

Weih, M; Schaller, G; Degirmenci, U; Hufnagel, M; Kornhuber, J

2009-11-03

227

Young Adult Authors on the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses publishing on the Internet by young authors. Describes "fan-fiction" Web sites where fans write passages that link to characters in popular books, television shows, or movies; fan-fiction inspired by the Disney film "Newsies"; posting short stories on Web pages; poetry, book reviews, and other publications; the attraction of the…

Flench, Chris Ebert

1999-01-01

228

Developmental Antecedents of Young Adult Civic Engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Civic engagement was studied in relation to overall development in adolescence, emerging adulthood, and young adulthood to examine how earlier activity involvement and success in prior and concurrent age-salient domains of competence may contribute to 2 forms of civic engagement in adulthood (citizenship and volunteering). Data on 163 youth were drawn from a longitudinal study of competence in a normative,

Jelena Obradovi?; Ann S. Masten

2007-01-01

229

Young at Heart: Tips for Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... adults should do four types of activities regularly: aerobic (or endurance) exercise and activities to strengthen muscles, ... give you more than just one benefit! Water aerobics with weights gives you strengthening and aerobic benefits. ...

230

Characterization of juvenile and young adult mice following induction of hydrocephalus with kaolin.  

PubMed

Hydrocephalus is a common neurological problem in humans, usually caused by an impairment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow or absorption. A reliable induced model of chronic hydrocephalus in mice would be useful to test hypotheses using genetic mutants. Our goal was to characterize behavioral and histological changes in juvenile and young adult mice with kaolin (aluminum silicate)-induced hydrocephalus. Seven-day old and 7-8 week old mice received injection of kaolin into the cisterna magna. Behavior was assessed repeatedly. Seven or 14 days following kaolin, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to assess ventricle size. In hydrocephalic mice, body weight was significantly lower than in age-matched saline-injected sham controls and the gait and posture score were impaired. Juvenile mice developed severe ventriculomegaly and had reduced corpus callosum thickness with gross white matter destruction by 14 days. Reactive astroglial change in white matter and cortex and reduced cellular proliferation in the subependymal zone were also apparent. Young adult mice developed only moderate ventricular enlargement without overt white matter destruction, although there was corpus callosum atrophy and mild astroglial reaction in white matter. Glial fibrillary acidic protein content was significantly higher in juvenile and young adult hydrocephalic mice at 7 and 14 days, but myelin basic protein content was not significantly altered. In conclusion, hydrocephalus induced by percutaneous injection of kaolin in juvenile and young adult mice is feasible. The associated periventricular alterations are essentially the same as those reported in rats of comparable ages. PMID:19460371

Lopes, Luiza da Silva; Slobodian, Ili; Del Bigio, Marc R

2009-05-19

231

Spatial pattern separation in cognitively normal young and older adults.  

PubMed

This study examined the ability of cognitively normal young adults (n = 30) and older adults (n = 30) to perform a delayed match-to-sample task involving varying degrees of spatial interference to assess spatial pattern separation. Each trial consisted of a sample phase followed by a choice phase. During the sample phase, a circle appeared briefly on a computer screen. The participant was instructed to remember the location of the circle on the screen. During the choice phase, two circles were displayed simultaneously, and the participant was asked to indicate which circle was in the same location as the sample phase circle. The two circles on choice phase trials were separated by one of four possible spatial separations: 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 cm. Smaller separations are likely to create increased overlap among memory representations, which may result in heightened interference and a greater need for pattern separation. Consistent with this hypothesis, performance increased as a function of increased spatial separation in both young and older adults. However, young adults outperformed older adults, suggesting that spatial pattern separation may be less efficient in older adults due to potential age-related changes in the dentate gyrus and CA3 hippocampal subregions. Older adults also were divided into older impaired and older unimpaired groups based on their performance on a standardized test of verbal memory. The older impaired group was significantly impaired relative to both the older unimpaired and young groups, suggesting that pattern separation deficits may be variable in older adults. The present findings may have important implications for designing behavioral interventions for older adults that structure daily living tasks to reduce interference, thus improving memory function. PMID:22467270

Holden, Heather M; Hoebel, Calhuei; Loftis, Kelly; Gilbert, Paul E

2012-03-30

232

Scotopic spatiotemporal sensitivity differences between young and old adults  

PubMed Central

Background Our lab has previously demonstrated losses in contrast sensitivity to low spatial frequencies under scotopic conditions with older adults. It is not clear, however, whether the temporal frequency of a stimulus alters the relation between age and the spatial contrast sensitivity function (sCSF) under scotopic conditions. Methods A maximum-likelihood, two-alternative, temporal forced-choice QUEST procedure was used to measure threshold to spatially and temporally modulated stimuli in both young (mean = 26 years) and old (mean = 75 years) adults. Results In general, the shapes of the spatial and temporal CSFs were low-pass for both young and old observers; contrast sensitivity decreased at approximately the same rate with increasing spatial frequency and temporal frequency for both age groups, although the overall sensitivity of the old group was lower than that of the young group. The high-frequency resolution limit was lower for the old group compared to the young group. Conclusions The differences in contrast sensitivity between the young and old groups suggest a uniform loss in sensitivity of the channels mediating spatial and temporal vision. Because of this loss, the spatial and temporal window of visibility for the older adults is compromised relative to the younger adults.

Clark, Cynthia L.; Hardy, Joseph L.; Volbrecht, Vicki J.; Werner, John S.

2010-01-01

233

Perceived Neighborhood Fear and Drug Use Among Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the association between perceptions of neighborhood safety and drug use, as well as mediation by depression and self-esteem. Methods The sample included 210 inner-city young adults (18 to 25 years) recruited from the Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Results Respondents who indicated greater fear of their neighborhood environment also had significantly greater levels of drug use than did those with lower perceived fear. However, this relationship was not a result of lower self-esteem or higher levels of depressive symptoms. Conclusions Exploratory results point to the need to consider the broader role of the community environment and its impact on drug use among young adults.

Theall, Katherine P.; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

2013-01-01

234

Pulmonary function in healthy young adult Indians in Madras.  

PubMed Central

Forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, functional residual capacity, residual volume, total lung capacity, and single breath diffusing capacity measurements (effective alveolar volume, carbon monoxide transfer factor, and transfer coefficient) were measured in 247 young healthy adults (130 male, 117 female) aged 15-40 years living in Madras. Subjects were of Dravidian stock, living at sea level with rice as their staple diet. Regression equations were derived for men and women for predicting normal pulmonary function for young adults in South India. The values were similar to those reported for subjects from Western India and lower than those reported for North Indians and caucasians.

Vijayan, V K; Kuppurao, K V; Venkatesan, P; Sankaran, K; Prabhakar, R

1990-01-01

235

Developmental pattern of cyclic guanosine monophosphate production stimulated by atrial natriuretic peptide in glomeruli microdissected from kidneys of young rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP) productions by alpha rat atrial natriuretic peptide 1–28 (a-rANP), carbamylcholine or sodium nitroprusside were assessed in isolated glomeruli microdissected from collagenase-treated kidneys of 2- to 34-day-old and adult rats. In both young and adult animals, a-rANP-stimulated cyclic GMP generation was proportional to the number of glomeruli and was enhanced in a dose-dependent and saturable fashion with

Ben Semmekrot; Danielle Chabardès; Sylvie Siaume-Perez; Daniel Butlen

1990-01-01

236

Functional Literacy of Young Guyanese Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the rationale, development, and administration of the test used for measuring levels of achievement in functional literacy in Guyana. Draws attention to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate that is reported for Guyana in international…

Jennings, Zellyne

2000-01-01

237

Functional Literacy of Young Guyanese Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the rationale, development, and administration of the test used for measuring levels of achievement in functional literacy in Guyana. Draws attention to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate that is reported for Guyana in international…

Jennings, Zellyne

2000-01-01

238

College Selectivity and Young Adult Health Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Large literatures have shown important links between the quantity of completed education and health outcomes on one hand and the quality or selectivity of schooling on a host of adult outcomes, such as wages, on the other hand. However, little research attempts to produce evidence of the link between school quality and health. The paper presents…

Fletcher, Jason M.; Frisvold, David E.

2011-01-01

239

Abdominal aortic occlusion of young adults  

PubMed Central

The occlusion of the infrarenal aorta is a rare event, which is potentially life threatening. We present the case of a heavy smoking, 35-year-old woman who was referred to the emergency department of our hospital because of sudden abdominal pain and urinary incontinence. She also complained of a two-year history of bilateral intermittent claudication. A computerized tomography revealed the thrombosis of the abdominal aorta and of both iliac arteries. Treatment consists of an aortoiliac thromboendarterectomy (AITE). For young patients with atheromatous occlusive disease of the infrarenal aorta, AITE is an attractive alternative to bypass grafting.

Bucci, Federico; Fiengo, Leslie; Hamati, Samer; Plagnol, Philippe

2012-01-01

240

Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted…

Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

2010-01-01

241

Cover Art, Consumerism, and YA [Young Adult] Reading Choices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cover art has long been used as a marketing device for books, particularly with books aimed at young adults (YAs) aged 12 to 18. An examination of some of the teen thrillers published by novelist Lois Duncan since the 1970s yields several discoveries about changes in cover art that come with various editions. Many covers have been resigned to…

Kies, Cosette

242

Moving Out and Marriage: What Do Young Adults Expect?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Living independently before marriage is part of a broader pattern of family and demographic change characterizing modern societies since World War II. This study examined expectations about premarital residential independence among young adults. Data were obtained from 28,240 high school seniors who participated in the High School and Beyond study…

Goldscheider, Calvin; Goldscheider, Frances K.

243

Does cannabis use affect prospective memory in young adults?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to examine prospective memory impairments associated with cannabis use in young adults. An independent measures design utilising pre-existing groups of users and non-users was employed in which an opportunity sample of 90 undergraduates studying at universities in the north east of England participated. The number of prospective memory failures reported on the Prospective

Janice Bartholomew; Steve Holroyd; Thomas M Heffernan

2010-01-01

244

Alcohol Consumption and Its Consequences among Adolescents and Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults occurs at high rates, with such use resulting in potentially adverse consequences in many critical domains of life, such as academic and occupational achievement, family and peer relationships, and physical and mental health. A recent economic analysis of alcohol consumption estimated that underage drinkers (aged 12-20 years) account for 19.7% of consumer expenditures

Michael Windle; Rebecca C. Windle

245

Young adult interaction with wine in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to investigate how the 18- to 30-age group currently interacts with wine in a variety of settings. It seeks to establish how young adults in the UK currently perceive, use, purchase and consume wine. This is the next generation of UK wine consumers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of seven focus groups were held throughout England

Caroline Ritchie

2011-01-01

246

Smoking in Movies and Increased Smoking Among Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective This study assessed whether smoking in the movies was associated with smoking in young adults. Methods A national web-enabled cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults, aged 18–25, was performed between September and November 2005. Logistic regression and path analysis using probit regression were used to assess relationships between exposure to smoking in the movies and smoking behavior. Analysis was completed in December 2006. Results Exposure to smoking in the movies predicted current smoking. The adjusted odds of current smoking increased by a factor of 1.21 for each quartile increase in exposure to smoking (p<0.01) in the movies, reaching 1.77 for the top exposure quartile. The unadjusted odds of established smoking (100+ cigarettes with current smoking) increased by 1.23 per quartile (p<0.001) of exposure, reaching 1.86 for the top quartile. This effect on established smoking was mediated by two factors related to smoking in the movies: positive expectations about smoking and exposure to friends and relatives who smoked, with positive expectations accounting for about two thirds of the effect. Conclusions The association between smoking in the movies and young adult smoking behavior exhibited a dose–response relationship; the more a young adult was exposed to smoking in the movies, the more likely he or she would have smoked in the past 30 days or have become an established smoker.

Song, Anna V.; Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

2010-01-01

247

Recognition of Emotion by Mentally Retarded Adolescents and Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study found that mildly mentally retarded adolescents and young adults (N=21) were not able to correctly match photographs of faces to emotionally expressive voices. Results suggest that mentally retarded individuals may have specific deficits in recognizing how bodily expressions of emotion are coordinated with each other. (Author/DB)|

Hobson, R. P.; And Others

1989-01-01

248

Young Adults' Perceptions and Memories of a Televised Woman Hero  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and thirty-nine young adults viewed one of three episodes of a television program about a female action hero titled Xena: Warrior Princess. Programs varied in portrayals of Xena's shadow, the dark but also life-preserving facet of the personality. Participants of both genders who had higher levels of traditionally masculine personality characteristics were most likely to perceive Xena as

Sandra L. Calvert; Tracy A. Kondla; Karen A. Ertel; Douglas S. Meisel

2001-01-01

249

Hit List: Frequently Challenged Books for Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book presents descriptions of 26 young adult titles that have been frequent targets of censorship attempts. Each entry provides an annotation for the book in question; examples of recent challenges; citations to reviews of the book and background articles; a list of awards garnered by the book or its author; references about the author;…

Monks, Merri M.; Pistolis, Donna Reidy

250

Recognize the Signs: Reading Young Adult Literature to Address Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes preservice teachers' experiences in a book club that read young adult literature focused on issues related to bullying. Preservice teachers learned to recognize various incidents of bullying in the books. They also began to consider how they might handle incidents of bullying in their future classrooms. (Contains 2 figures.)

Pytash, Kristine E.; Morgan, Denise N.; Batchelor, Katherine E.

2013-01-01

251

Connecting with Texts: Teacher Candidates Reading Young Adult Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Preparing teachers to understand their students' reading processes so that they can guide their students toward connecting with texts in meaningful and personal ways are goals that can be met through the study of young adult literature. Twenty-first century learners live in an increasingly interconnected world and have access to countless texts…

Bull, Kelly Byrne

2011-01-01

252

CALCIUM INTAKES IN OVERWEIGHT YOUNG ADULTS: THE BOGALUSA HEART STUDY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The youth/adolescent food frequency questionnaire was administered to 1307 young adults ages 20-38 years (73% Euro American (EA) and 27% African American (AA); 39% male and 61 % female). Overweight was calculated as body mass index (BMI) >= 25, waist circumference (WC) > 102 cm in men and > 88 cm i...

253

Recognize the Signs: Reading Young Adult Literature to Address Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article summarizes preservice teachers' experiences in a book club that read young adult literature focused on issues related to bullying. Preservice teachers learned to recognize various incidents of bullying in the books. They also began to consider how they might handle incidents of bullying in their future classrooms. (Contains 2…

Pytash, Kristine E.; Morgan, Denise N.; Batchelor, Katherine E.

2013-01-01

254

Young Adult Capacity Initiative Cross-Site Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This cross-site analysis presents findings about the implementation, impact, and outcomes of the Young Adult Capacity Initiative (YACI), at 13 community-based organizations in New York City. These agencies received technical assistance and small incentive grants from the Fund for the City of New York Youth Development Institute (YDI) to build…

Academy for Educational Development, 2012

2012-01-01

255

Initial College Attendance of Low-Income Young Adults. Portraits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|More than 2.3 million low-income young adults began postsecondary education in 2008. Where these students initially enroll is of greater consequence than it is to their economically better-off peers because the likelihood of completing college for students from low-income backgrounds depends strongly on where they start their studies. This brief…

Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

256

Nonfiction for Young Adults: From Delight to Wisdom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggesting that the vital element nonfiction lacks is professional attention, this book shows the literary qualities of nonfiction as well as defining its importance for young adults. The book discusses seven issues related to information books, each issue making up a single chapter. The first chapter addresses the reading interests of teenagers,…

Carter, Betty; Abrahamson, Richard F.

257

Ways to Join the Living Conversation about Young Adult Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rarely do students and teachers see themselves as people who have the authority to talk back to the gatekeepers; instead, they are on the receiving end of a conversation begun by others. But the conversation about young adult (YA) books--like the authors who write them--is a living thing. Students and teachers can help to shape it. In this…

Buehler, Jennifer

2009-01-01

258

Programs for Children and Young Adults in USA and Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on programs for children and young adults in public libraries in Canada and the United States and discusses implications for Australian libraries. Highlights include budgets; volunteers; government funding; and summer reading programs, including registration, measurements of reading, and programming. (LRW)|

Fisher, Heather

1998-01-01

259

External and Internal Sport Motivations of Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Study aim: To determine and evaluate the spectrum of sport motivation of young adults. Material and methods: A group of 600 subjects, aged 17-19 years, participated in the study. An "ad hoc" questionnaire was applied to assess the 4 motivational factors: competition and success-oriented motivation, external accommodation, physical fitness and…

Bollok, Sandor; Takacs, Johanna; Kalmar, Zsuzsanna; Dobay, Beata

2011-01-01

260

Disability in young adults: the role of injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVES--To describe the prevalence of disability in young adults and estimate the contribution that injuries make to disability. DESIGN--The study uses data from a British longitudinal survey, the National Child Development Study (1958 cohort). Disability at age 23 was ascertained from three questions asked in an interview with cohort members in 1981: these related to longstanding illness that limits

M Barker; C Power

1993-01-01

261

Development of Food Safety Psychosocial Questionnaires for Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Food mishandling is thought to be more acute among young adults; yet little is known about why they may engage in risky food handling behaviors. The purpose of this study was to create valid, reliable instruments for assessing key food safety psychosocial measures. Development of the measures began by examining published studies and behavior…

Byrd-Bredbenner, C.; Wheatley, V.; Schaffner, D.; Bruhn, C.; Blalock, L.; Maurer, J.

2007-01-01

262

Rewriting Eve: Reinserting Ideology in Young Adult Fiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature for older children and young adults (YA fiction) has long been identified as having a didactic tendency to moralise and instruct readers (see, for example, the work of John Stephens, Robyn McCallum, Peter Hollindale and others). Although the didactic tenor of YA fiction has softened in the last several decades, in line with a general decrease in literary didacticism

Georgina Ledvinka

2012-01-01

263

Negotiating Understanding through the Young Adult Literature of Muslim Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although United States citizens generally pride themselves on their understanding and acceptance of diversity, all too many of them harbor a fear of Muslims, which transformed into widespread bigotry after September 11, 2001. Knowing that young adult literature can be a powerful means of negotiating understanding of the other, this article…

Baer, Allison L.; Glasgow, Jacqueline N.

2010-01-01

264

The distinctive biology of cancer in adolescents and young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

One explanation for the relative lack of progress in treating cancer in adolescents and young adults is that the biology of malignant diseases in this age group is different than in younger and older persons, not only in the spectrum of cancers but also within individual cancer types and within the patient (host). Molecular, epidemiological and therapeutic outcome comparisons offer

Ronald Barr; Brandon Hayes-Lattin; David Thomas; Chad Ellis; Barry Anderson; Archie Bleyer

2008-01-01

265

Attitudes and self-efficacy in young adults' computing autobiographies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the formation of people's first perceptions about computers and computer code, yet it is likely that these impressions have a lasting effect on peoples' use of technology in their lives and careers. Brief autobiographical essays about these first impressions were solicited from a diverse population of young adults and these essays were analyzed for factors that

Andrew J. Ko

2009-01-01

266

“Coming Out” Stories of Gay and Lesbian Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gay and lesbian young adults (N = 53) were interviewed about coming out to their parents. Analyses of memory content were conducted. Hypotheses related to disclosure were largely supported. Participants typically first disclosed their sexual orientation to a friend. More participants came out to their mother than their father. When disclosure was made to both parents, mothers were told prior

Nicole E. Rossi

2010-01-01

267

Sex Differences in Relationship Aggression Among Young Adults in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined the prevalence of physical aggression in the relationships of young adults in Germany. A convenience sample of 248 women and 400 men aged between 17 and 29 years provided reports of physical aggression shown toward and experienced by a partner using the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2). Sex differences were found for several physically aggressive behaviors measured

Barbara Krahé; Anja Berger

2005-01-01

268

Experiences of overcoming depression in young adults in psychoanalytic psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims to explore the process of overcoming depression as experienced by young adult psychotherapy patients. Seventeen patients in individual or group psychotherapy with diagnoses within the depression spectrum were interviewed at termination of psychotherapy and at 1.5 years’ follow-up. Grounded theory analysis of transcripts resulted in 15 distinct categories, organized into five general domains: experiences of positive change,

Andrzej Werbart; Susanna Rehnberg

2010-01-01

269

Demand for Cigarettes by Teenagers and Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will provide the first comprehensive analysis of the effects of cigarette prices, cigarette excise taxes, smoke-free air laws, youth access laws, state spending on comprehensive tobacco control programs, socio-economic factors, and demographic characteristics on measures of demand for smoking, especially light and intermittent smoking by teenagers and young adults in a long panel. I will also employ the

Ce Shang

2010-01-01

270

Price, Tobacco Control Policies and Smoking Among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cigarette prices and tobacco control policies (including restrictions on smoking in public places and limits on the availability of tobacco products to youths) on cigarette smoking among youths and young adults are estimated using data from a nationally representative survey of students in U.S. colleges and universities. Smoking participation rates, the quantity of cigarettes smoked by smokers,

Frank J. Chaloupka; Henry Wechsler

1995-01-01

271

Internet Use, Identity Development and Social Anxiety Among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contradictory evidence exists regarding the benefit of the Internet for social and personal wellbeing, with some studies indicating deleterious effects and others possible social enrichment. The potential for increased social isolation from 'over- involvement' in online activities or, conversely, the Internet's possibilities for enhancing social relationships, may be particularly salient during young adult- hood and adolescence because of the special

Dennis Mazalin; Susan Moore

2004-01-01

272

The Effects of Divorce on Young Adults' Relationship Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship competence of young adults was investigated to determine if those who experienced family disruption in childhood, namely divorce or conflict, differed on measures of self esteem, fear of intimacy, romantic relationship satisfaction, and beliefs about marriage. The potential moderating effect and contribution of intimate friendships on relationship competence was examined. The study compared youth who had experienced family

Allison Kirk

2002-01-01

273

Exposure to Interparental Conflict and Psychological Disorder Among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the effect of exposure to interparental conflict on the mental health of young adults. Based on a diverse sample of 649 students from three New England colleges, the authors investigate the association between nonviolent interparental conflict during childhood, subsequent distress and disorder, and identified factors that mediate the relationship. Results indicate that exposure to interparental conflict significantly

Heather A. Turner; Kathleen Kopiec

2006-01-01

274

Exposure to Interparental Conflict and Psychological Disorder among Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the effect of exposure to interparental conflict on the mental health of young adults. Based on a diverse sample of 649 students from three New England colleges, the authors investigate the association between nonviolent interparental conflict during childhood, subsequent distress and disorder, and identified factors that…

Turner, Heather A.; Kopiec, Kathleen

2006-01-01

275

Connecting With Texts: Teacher Candidates Reading Young Adult Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparing teachers to understand their students' reading processes so that they can guide their students toward connecting with texts in meaningful and personal ways are goals that can be met through the study of young adult literature. Twenty-first century learners live in an increasingly interconnected world and have access to countless texts thanks to continual improvements in technologies. Being able

Kelly Byrne Bull

2011-01-01

276

Quality of life in young adult survivors of childhood cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years the necessity of measuring quality of life in childhood cancer survivors has been stressed. This paper gives an overview of the results of studies into the quality of life (QL) of young adult survivors of childhood cancer and suggest areas for future research. The review located 30 empirical studies published up to 2001. The results are described

N. E. Langeveld; H. Stam; M. A. Grootenhuis; B. F. Last

2002-01-01

277

Monstrous Acts: Problematizing Violence in Young Adult Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite a growing body of work that draws attention to the presence of violence in the mass media and its effects on youth, little critical attention has been paid to the role of violence in young adult literature. The authors believe that by bringing violence to the foreground in the study of texts, they can enrich and deepen what these stories…

Franzak, Judith; Noll, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

278

Computing experiences of young adults: An empirical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The High School Beyond study provides the data for an analysis of the computing experiences of young adults. Five types of computing experiences-general, personal and recreational, job, general educational and high school computer usage are examined with respect to selected socio-economic and demographic characteristics. The results suggest that computing experience is related to gender, race, SES, father's education and family

Adele Platter

1988-01-01

279

Exploring Notions of Freedom in and through Young Adult Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article offers teachers a critical framework for use and adaptation in organizing class discussions focused on notions of freedom in young adult literature. The authors open by discussing the notion of freedom, including concepts related to negative and positive freedom and to arguments advocating critical discussion of common assumptions…

Bean, Thomas W.; Harper, Helen J.

2006-01-01

280

Young Adults with Gambling Problems: The Impact of Childhood Maltreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Childhood maltreatment has been thought to be a significant risk factor in the development of gambling problems. Incorporating a developmental psychopathology perspective, 1,324 adolescents and young adults, age 17-22 years completed self-report measures on gambling behaviors, gambling severity, and childhood maltreatment. Problem gamblers…

Felsher, Jennifer R.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina

2010-01-01

281

Motivations for parenthood among young adult college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and sixty three young adult college students responded to openended questions assessing their specific intentions, motives, and plans for having children. The most commonly stated motives for childbearing reflected a strong interest in establishing an identity and social network. Financial, marital, and emotional stability were identified as important factors influencing the timing of parenthood. Several significant sex differences

Anne V. Gormly; John B. Gormly; Helen Weiss

1987-01-01

282

Makeover Madness: Tips for Revamping your Young Adult Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents tips from a project that made modest but significant improvements to the young adult areas and services of 11 rural libraries in the Pioneer Library System in upstate New York. Discusses floor plans, layout and location; furniture and fixtures; collections and displays; technology; and staff. Illustrates changes with before-and-after…

Bolan, Kimberly; Wemett, Lisa C.

1999-01-01

283

Makeover Madness: Tips for Revamping your Young Adult Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents tips from a project that made modest but significant improvements to the young adult areas and services of 11 rural libraries in the Pioneer Library System in upstate New York. Discusses floor plans, layout and location; furniture and fixtures; collections and displays; technology; and staff. Illustrates changes with before-and-after…

Bolan, Kimberly; Wemett, Lisa C.

1999-01-01

284

Relations between Identity Formation and Family Characteristics among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations between identity formation and family characteristics among young adults were examined. The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales II and the Ego Process Questionnaire were administered to 57 male and 94 female college students between the ages of 18 and 25. There were 78 Caucasian and 73 African American youth. Significant relations were found between identity exploration and commitment,

Ronald L. Mullis; John C. Brailsford; Ann K. Mullis

2003-01-01

285

Cancer Research Now: Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Conversation with Matthew Zachary: The Young Adult Cancer Movement HIGHLIGHTS Breast Cancer Cells Found by Immunochemistry in Sentinel Nodes Not Associated with Survival Radiation Plus Short-Term Hormone Therapy Improves Survival of Men with Early-Stage Prostate Cancer In Hodgkin Lymphoma ...

286

Adolescent/Young Adult Literature Titles/Holocaust.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents descriptions of the 10 best young adult novels (and teaching suggestions) appropriate for studying the Holocaust in the middle school. Each description begins with a summary and "hook" that can be used with students, and then ends with discussion for the teacher about reading abilities and applications in the classroom.…

Jones, Darolyn Lyn

287

Investigating the News Seeking Behavior of Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the news-seeking and browsing behaviours of young adults, partly in the context of everyday life information seeking (ELIS), in order to explore their perceptions of and attitudes towards print and online news media. The study is significant because traditional print newspapers face a steady decline in their readership…

Qayyum, M. Asim; Williamson, Kirsty; Liu, Ying-Hsang; Hider, Philip

2010-01-01

288

Speaking Up for Vocabulary: Reading Skill Differences in Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study is part of a broader project aimed at developing cognitive and neurocognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. We explore the relationships among reading-related abilities in participants ages 16 to 24 years spanning a wide…

Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald P.; Mencl, W. Einar

2007-01-01

289

Miranda Rights Comprehension in Young Adults with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method: Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 young adults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific…

Rost, Gwyneth C.; McGregor, Karla K.

2012-01-01

290

Perceived Effectiveness of Tobacco Countermarketing Advertisements among Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objectives: To measure relative effectiveness of tobacco countermarketing advertisements by category and emotive execution style among young adults. Methods: Participants (n = 1011) from 2 US 4-year colleges, one southern and one northern were surveyed before and after viewing advertisements in one of 3 categories: social norms, health…

Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Higbee, Cheryl

2008-01-01

291

Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David

2008-01-01

292

Developing the Social Skills of Young Adult Special Olympics Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to determine if young adult Special Olympics participants could develop, generalize, and maintain target social skills (eye contact, contributing relevant information, and turn taking) as a result of a 14-week Social Skills and Sports (S[superscript 3]) Program that combined classroom instruction with soccer…

Alexander, Melissa G. F.; Dummer, Gail M.; Smeltzer, Ashley; Denton, Stephen J.

2011-01-01

293

Homeless Young Adults and Behavioral HealthAn Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young adults (ages 18-24) are especially vulnerable to homelessness in the United States, and those experiencing homelessness exhibit high prevalence for many kinds of abuse and negative health outcomes. This article reviews common behavioral health issues facing homeless youth and assesses collective wisdom on effective treatments and services for this vulnerable population. On the whole, the research remains focused on

Suzanne Zerger; Aaron J. Strehlow; Adi V. Gundlapalli

2008-01-01

294

Hedonic and utilitarian shopping motivations among Portuguese young adult consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the main factors that explained the shopping motivations among Portuguese consumers and to categorize possible groups based on those dimensions. The paper also intends to confirm the results obtained in previous studies carried out in the USA, applying their measure instruments to a sample of young adult Portuguese consumers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

Paulo Ribeiro Cardoso; Sara Carvalho Pinto

2010-01-01

295

Imitation or Exploration? Young Infants' Matching of Adults' Oral Gestures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies examined the tongue protrusion (TP) behaviors of young infants in response to visual stimuli. Infants produced TPs in response to objects within reach before but not after the onset of reaching behavior. The results suggest that infants' TPs in response to a tongue-protruding adult reflect very early attempts at oral exploration of…

Jones, Susan S.

1996-01-01

296

Parental Attachment, Interparental Conflict, and Young Adults' Emotional Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study extends Engels et al.'s model of emotional adjustment to young adults and includes the constructs of interparental conflict and conflict resolution. Results indicate that parental attachment is better conceived as a two-factor construct of mother and father attachment and that although attachment to both mothers and fathers directly…

Ross, Jennifer; Fuertes, Jairo

2010-01-01

297

Off the Shelves: Poetry and Verse Novels for Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Of all the material in the English language arts curricula, poetry seems to cause the most consternation among teachers. For a number of teachers, and many students, poetry continues to be a difficult topic to teach and learn. In this article, the author focuses on the ways that young adult literature can help teachers expose their students to…

Letcher, Mark, Ed.

2010-01-01

298

Using Young Adult Literature To End Discrimination against Mental Illness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to inform junior and senior high school students about mental illness, this document provides educators with an annotated bibliography of young adult fiction and a set of supporting activities. Included in the bibliography are nearly 100 current fiction titles, grouped according to the following topics: anorexia, drugs and alcohol,…

Perez, Kathy

299

Cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in the young rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Repeated psychostimulant treatment has been shown to sensitize the locomotor activity of young rats, but there is conflicting\\u000a evidence suggesting that this sensitized response will persist across only a few drug abstinence days. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether: (a) young rats are capable of expressing a sensitized locomotor\\u000a response after an extended drug

A. R. Zavala; A. Nazarian; C. A. Crawford; S. A. McDougall

2000-01-01

300

Muscle dissatisfaction in young adult men  

PubMed Central

Backround Appearance concerns are of increasing importance in young men's lives. We investigated whether muscle dissatisfaction is associated with psychological symptoms, dietary supplement or anabolic steroid use, or physical activity in young men. Methods As a part of a questionnaire assessment of health-related behaviors in the population-based FinnTwin16 study, we assessed factors associated with muscle dissatisfaction in 1245 men aged 22–27 using logistic regression models. Results Of men, 30% experienced high muscle dissatisfaction, while 12% used supplements/steroids. Of highly muscle-dissatisfied men, 21.5% used supplements/steroids. Mean body mass index, waist circumference, or leisure aerobic activity index did not differ between individuals with high/low muscle dissatisfaction. Muscle dissatisfaction was significantly associated with a psychological and psychosomatic problems, alcohol and drug use, lower height satisfaction, sedentary lifestyle, poor subjective physical fitness, and lower life satisfaction. Conclusion Muscle dissatisfaction and supplement/steroid use are relatively common, and are associated with psychological distress and markers of sedentary lifestyle.

2006-01-01

301

Recruiting young adult cancer survivors for behavioral research.  

PubMed

Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies. PMID:22810954

Rabin, Carolyn; Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

2013-03-01

302

The experience of uncertainty in young adults with cancer.  

PubMed

The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to describe the experience of uncertainty in young adults with cancer. A purposeful sample of 6 young adults between the ages of 19 and 30 years undergoing chemotherapy treatment was recruited. Participants were interviewed twice using semistructured interviews. The investigators used constant comparison to examine the content of the transcript for common words, phrases, statements, or units of text that related to uncertainty. Findings revealed 3 major emerging themes. The first one being "types of uncertainty," which includes uncertainty and efforts at the right place, uncertainty and aspects of treatment, uncertainty and personal abilities, and uncertainty and the feasibility of plans related to life goals. Uncertainty was also found to trigger the development of certainties, which led to the second theme, "certainties: helpful or not?" A third emerging theme, dealing with uncertainty, described a variety of strategies used by young adults that included living on a day-to-day basis, being selfish, believing, getting information, trusting the physician, concentrating on positive things, keeping energy by pacing oneself, choosing social support, and trying to live a normal life. A consequence of dealing with the uncertainty and the cancer journey is the "enlightened path." It emerged and revealed how the cancer journey changed their lives. A number of implications for nursing practice therefore warrant consideration, especially fostering a sense of normalcy by identifying common behaviors, feelings, or needs among these young adults with cancer. Sharing this information and facilitating interactions with other young adults with cancer has the potential to promote coping with uncertainty. PMID:19661789

Corbeil, Amélie; Laizner, Andréa Maria; Hunter, Patricia; Hutchison, Nancy

303

Extraordinary moral commitment: young adults involved in social organizations.  

PubMed

The personality of exemplary young adults was studied in an effort to paint a portrait of moral excellence that expanded upon the traditional emphasis on moral reasoning maturity. These young adults were nominated based on their extraordinary moral commitment towards various social organizations. The sample included 40 moral exemplars and 40 matched comparison individuals who responded to a battery of questionnaires and participated in a semistructured interview. It was found that moral exemplars, in contrast to comparison individuals, were more agreeable, more advanced in their faith and moral reasoning development, further along in forming an adult identity, and more willing to enter into close relationships. These findings are discussed in the context of describing moral excellence from a multifaceted, personality perspective. PMID:15016070

Matsuba, M Kyle; Walker, Lawrence J

2004-04-01

304

Smallpox Vaccination is Not Associated with Infertility in a Healthy Young Adult Population.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concerns exist regarding reproductive health, including potential infertility, among young adults with military-related occupational exposures. This study evaluated infertility diagnoses in a large population of healthy young adults in relation to prior s...

C. J. Sevick G. R. Gumbs I. G. Jacobson M. A. Ryan T. C. Smith

2008-01-01

305

Relationship Between Cigarette Smoking and Other Poor Health Behaviors in a Young Adult Population.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines the relationship between smoking and other poor health behaviors in a young adult population. This study hypothesizes that, for a young adult population, there is no correlation between smoking and other bad health behaviors. The popul...

W. M. Matthews

2000-01-01

306

Beliefs and attitudes regarding smoking among young adult Latinos: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTobacco use interventions for young adult Latinos have not yet been developed. This qualitative pilot study employed semistructured interviews to assess beliefs and attitudes regarding tobacco use interventions among young adult Latinos.

Randi E. Foraker; Christi A. Patten; Keila N. Lopez; Ivana T. Croghan; Janet L. Thomas

2005-01-01

307

Food stealing by young Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six experiments were undertaken to explore factors affecting young rats' (Rattus norvegicus) frequencies of stealing food from conspecifics when identical food is available in surplus. It was found that (a) rats would walk across a bed of pellets to steal the particular pellet a peer was eating, (b) frequency of stealing within a pair did not decrease over days, (c)

Cecile A. Marczinksi; Kerry A. Murray; Elaine E. Whiskin

2001-01-01

308

Food Stealing by Young Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six experiments were undertaken to explore factors affecting young rats' (Rattus norvegicus) frequencies of stealing food from conspecifics when identical food is available in surplus. It was found that (a) rats would walk across a bed of pellets to steal the particular pellet a peer was eating, (b) frequency of stealing within a pair did not decrease over days, (c)

Bennett G. Galef Jr; Cecile A. Marczinski; Kerry A. Murray; Elaine E. Whiskin

2001-01-01

309

Stimulus-specific adaptation in auditory thalamus of young and aged awake rats.  

PubMed

Novel stimulus detection by single neurons in the auditory system, known as stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA), appears to function as a real-time filtering/gating mechanism in processing acoustic information. Particular stimulus paradigms allowing for quantification of a neuron's ability to detect novel or deviant stimuli have been used to examine SSA in the inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body (MGB), and auditory cortex of anesthetized rodents. However, the study of SSA in awake animals is limited to auditory cortex. The present study used individually advanceable tetrodes to record single-unit responses from auditory thalamus (MGB) of awake young adult and aged Fischer Brown Norway (FBN) rats to 1) examine the presence of SSA in the MGB of awake rats and 2) determine whether SSA is altered by aging in MGB. MGB single units in awake FBN rats displayed SSA in response to two stimulus paradigms: the oddball paradigm and a random blocked/interleaved presentation of a set of frequencies. SSA levels were modestly, but nonsignificantly, increased in the nonlemniscal regions of the MGB and at lower stimulus intensities, where 27 of 57 (47%) young adult MGB units displayed SSA. The present findings provide the initial description of SSA in the MGB of awake rats and support SSA as being qualitatively independent of arousal level or anesthetized state. Finally, contrary to previous studies in auditory cortex of anesthetized rats, MGB units in aged rats showed SSA levels indistinguishable from SSA levels in young adult rats, suggesting that SSA in MGB was not impacted by aging in an awake preparation. PMID:23904489

Richardson, Ben D; Hancock, Kenneth E; Caspary, Donald M

2013-07-31

310

Glucose enhancement of a facial recognition task in young adults.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have reported that glucose administration enhances memory processes in both elderly and young adult subjects. Although these studies have utilized a variety of procedures and paradigms, investigations of both young and elderly subjects have typically used verbal tasks (word list recall, paragraph recall, etc.). In the present study, the effect of glucose consumption on a nonverbal, facial recognition task in young adults was examined. Lemonade sweetened with either glucose (50 g) or saccharin (23.7 mg) was consumed by college students (mean age of 21.1 years) 15 min prior to a facial recognition task. The task consisted of a familiarization phase in which subjects were presented with "target" faces, followed immediately by a recognition phase in which subjects had to identify the targets among a random array of familiar target and novel "distractor" faces. Statistical analysis indicated that there were no differences on hit rate (target identification) for subjects who consumed either saccharin or glucose prior to the test. However, further analyses revealed that subjects who consumed glucose committed significantly fewer false alarms and had (marginally) higher d-prime scores (a signal detection measure) compared to subjects who consumed saccharin prior to the test. These results parallel a previous report demonstrating glucose enhancement of a facial recognition task in probable Alzheimer's patients; however, this is believed to be the first demonstration of glucose enhancement for a facial recognition task in healthy, young adults. PMID:10713296

Metzger, M M

2000-02-01

311

Psychological, social, and behavioral issues for young adults with cancer.  

PubMed

Theories of human development suggest that, although all cancer patients experience a common set of life disruptions, they experience them differently, focus on different issues, and attach different levels of importance to different aspects of the experience depending on the time in life at which they were diagnosed. During the critical developmental transition from childhood to adulthood, older adolescents and young adults in particular have typical concerns with establishing identity, developing a positive body image and sexual identity, separating from parents, increasing involvement with peers and dating, and beginning to make decisions about careers or employment, higher education, and/or family. Accordingly, cancer-related issues such as premature confrontation with mortality, changes in physical appearance, increased dependence on parents, disruptions in social life and school/employment because of treatment, loss of reproductive capacity, and health-related concerns about the future may be particularly distressing for adolescents and young adults. Psychosocial and behavioral interventions for young adult cancer patients and survivors often involve assisting these individuals in retaining or returning to function in significant social roles, such as spouse, parent, student, worker, or friend. Successful interventions will enable these young people to overcome the detrimental impact of a health crisis and strengthen the internal and external coping resources available to them. PMID:21523748

Zebrack, Brad J

2011-05-15

312

Young adult weight trajectories through midlife by body mass category.  

PubMed

Objective: To estimate the expected weight gain through midlife for those in a given BMI category in young adulthood. Design and Methods: Group-based trajectory modeling and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data from 1990 to 2008 were used to quantify weight trajectories through midlife for 10,038 young adult men and women stratified by BMI category. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of trajectory membership with obesity-related conditions (hypertension, diabetes, arthritis) in middle age. Results: Annual weight gain averaged 0.53 kg (1.17 lb) across the entire sample. However, there was considerable variation by and within BMI categories. More than 98% of men and 92% of women were on upward-sloping trajectories, generally moving into a higher BMI category by middle age. Those who experienced early and rapid weight gain during young adulthood were most likely to be on a steeper trajectory and had greater risks for obesity-related conditions. Conclusion: This study points to the health and weight benefits of entering young adulthood with a normal BMI, but further reveals that this is no guarantee of maintaining a healthy weight through midlife. For those who are young adults today, weight maintenance is unlikely to occur without significant environmental or technical innovation. PMID:23408493

Malhotra, Rahul; Ostbye, Truls; Riley, Crystal M; Finkelstein, Eric A

2013-05-24

313

Addiction Treatment Experience among a Cohort of Street-Involved Youths and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Very little is known about the accessibility and potential barriers to addiction treatment among street youths and young adults. We sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of enrollment in addiction treatment among a cohort of street-involved youths and young adults in Vancouver, Canada. Street-involved youths and young adults who use…

Wong, Jellena; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Kerr, Thomas; Lai, Calvin; Wood, Evan

2009-01-01

314

The choice between a married or unmarried first union by young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the choice between marriage and unmarried cohabitation as a first union by young adults is studied. A hazard analysis is performed on a sample of 590 26-year-old men and women from the Netherlands. Students are much less likely to start a union in general, and marriage in particular, than are other categories of young adults. Young adults

Aart C. Liefbroer

1991-01-01

315

The Effects of Framing Vocational Choices on Young Adults' Sets of Career Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The present paper examines the effects of two decision-framing inductions on young adults' set of career options: first, whether young adults use abilities or interests as the grounds for their vocational choices and, second, whether young adults approach the decision-making task by including all career options to which they feel…

Feldman, Daniel C.; Whitcomb, Kathleen M.

2005-01-01

316

The Musical Culture of Young Adults and Its Relevance to Education for Librarianship.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because of the important role music plays in the lives of young adults, the graduate education of young adult librarians should include a study of the music and the musical behavior of young adults. A formal course might include reviews of research in the...

G. Stevenson

1978-01-01

317

Direct Effects of Assets and Savings on the College Progress of Black Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Descriptive data indicate that 62% of White young adults between the ages of 17 and 23 years were on course (i.e., either in college or have graduated from college) in 2007, compared with only 37% of Black young adults. Given this, finding novel and promising ways to promote college progress among Black young adults, in particular, is a growing…

Elliott, William; Nam, Ilsung

2012-01-01

318

The Effect of Support for Action Against the Tobacco Industry on Smoking Among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We investigated associations between tobacco industry denor- malization attitudes and the smoking behavior of young adults (aged 18 to 29 years). Methods. We analyzed data from 9455 young adults in the 2002 California Tobacco Survey. Results. The data showed that 27.4% of young adults were \\

Pamela M. Ling; Torsten B. Neilands; Stanton A. Glantz

2007-01-01

319

Tobacco industry research on smoking cessation - Recapturing young adults and other recent quitters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Smoking rates are declining in the United States, except for young adults (age 18 to 24). Few organized programs target smoking cessation specifically for young adults, except programs for pregnant women. In contrast, the tobacco industry has invested much time and money studying young adult smoking patterns. Some of these data are now available in documents released through litigation.

P M Ling; S A Glantz

2004-01-01

320

Persistence of one-trial cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in young rats: regional differences in Fos immunoreactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Unlike adult rats, young rats exhibit context-dependent and context-independent behavioral sensitization when assessed after\\u000a a single pretreatment injection of cocaine.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  The purpose of this study was to determine whether: (1) the context-dependent and context-independent sensitization of young\\u000a rats can be dissociated based on the persistence of the sensitized response and (2) the expression of behavioral sensitization\\u000a is associated with region-specific

Sanders A. McDougall; Sergios Charntikov; Anthony M. Cortez; Dionisio A. Amodeo; Cynthia E. Martinez; Cynthia A. Crawford

2009-01-01

321

Motorsports involvement among adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD.  

PubMed

Although children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined nonsubstance, use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent engagement in motorsports, a collection of risky driving-related activities associated with elevated rates of physical injury. Path analyses tested whether persistent impulsivity, comorbid conduct disorder or antisocial personality disorder (CD/ASP), and heavy alcohol use mediated this association. Analyses also explored whether frequent motorsporting was associated with unsafe and alcohol-influenced driving. Two hundred twenty-one adolescent and young adult males (16-25 years old) diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 139 demographically similar males without ADHD histories reported their motorsports involvement. Persistent impulsivity, CD/ASP, heavy drinking, and hazardous driving were also measured in adolescence/young adulthood. Adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely to report frequent motorsports involvement than those without childhood ADHD. Impulsivity, CD/ASP, and heavy drinking partially mediated this association, such that individuals with ADHD histories, who had persistent impulsivity or CD/ASP diagnoses, were more likely to engage in heavy drinking, which was positively associated with frequent motorsporting. Motorsports involvement was associated with more unsafe and alcohol-influenced driving, and this association was more often found among those with, than without, ADHD histories. Adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories, especially those with persisting impulsivity, comorbid CD/ASP and heavy drinking tendencies, are more likely to engage in motorsports, which may heighten risk of injury. PMID:23347139

Wymbs, Brian T; Molina, Brooke S G; Belendiuk, Katherine A; Pedersen, Sarah L; Walther, Christine A P; Cheong, Jee Won; McGinley, James S; Marshal, Michael P; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E

2013-01-25

322

“You’re too young for this”: adolescent and young adults’ perspectives on cancer survivorship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors face unique challenges not systematically addressed by cancer clinicians. Four focus groups and two individual interviews were conducted with 19 survivors to profile experiences and identify key concerns for future interventions. The resultant themes reflect cancer care continuum challenges (such as delays in diagnosis, problems with adherence), psychosocial concerns (such as infertility and

Erin E. Kent; Carla Parry; Michael J. Montoya; Leonard S. Sender; Rebecca A. Morris; Hoda Anton-Culver

2012-01-01

323

A young adult Jehovah's Witness with severe anemia.  

PubMed

Two of the most ethically complex situations in pediatrics are those involving families whose religious beliefs preclude the provision of life-sustaining treatment and those involving young adults who have reached the age of legal majority and who face decisions about life-sustaining treatment. This month's "Ethics Rounds" presents a case in which these 2 complexities overlapped. An 18-year-old Jehovah's Witness with sickle cell disease has life-threatening anemia. She is going into heart failure. Her doctors urgently recommend blood transfusions. The young woman and her family adamantly refuse. Should the doctors let her die? Is there any alternative? PMID:23958767

Ukachi, Nnenna; Morrison, Wynne; Vanhorn, Samantha; Sundaram, Revathy; Lantos, John D

2013-08-19

324

Caring for young adults on a paediatric ward.  

PubMed

The need for adolescents and young adults (AYA) to have suitable age-specific inpatient facilities has been recognised for many years, yet has received relatively little attention. This article reports the successful introduction of an inpatient facility for AYA, aged 17-24 years, on a general paediatric ward in a small district general hospital. From December 2010, a young person's unit (YPU) consisting of an 8-bed area was opened within a 24-bed children's ward. Nursing care was provided by the ward staff, all of whom had been trained in the care of young adults. Policies regarding admission criteria, safeguarding, patient choice, visiting and 'house rules' were drafted, implemented and modified as necessary. Discussions with the adult clinicians (for medical care) and site managers were held to ensure smooth running of the system, and to address any concerns or difficulties. Paediatric patients had priority of admission at times of bed crisis. During 2012, there were a total of 2351 inpatient admissions to the paediatric ward, of whom 379 (16%) were YPU patients aged from 17-24 years. Median length of stay was 2 days for patients aged 17-24 years as compared with 1 day for patients aged less than or equal to 16 years. Patients who chose admission to the paediatric ward tended to be younger, in transition from paediatric to adult services for chronic conditions, or with special needs. Patient surveys showed a high level of satisfaction with the facility. Young adults can be cared for safely and effectively on a paediatric ward with minimal additional costs. The essential ingredients for success include discussion with affected parties to address specific concerns, and the establishment of a clear, simple and unambiguous admission policy. PMID:24165407

Aj Heaton, Paul; Routley, Christine; Prosad Paul, Siba

2013-10-23

325

Relationship between utilization of fat and synthesis of cholesterol and total lipid in young female rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young adult female rats were fed diets containing 2% of calories from corn oil plus 20, 40, 60 or 80% of calories as beef\\u000a tallow or diets containing 2% corn oil and the calorie allowance restricted to 80, 60, 40 or 20% of ad libitum consumption.\\u000a Incorporation of C14-acetate into cholesterol and total fat was determined as an indication of

Jacqueline Dupont

1965-01-01

326

Stimulation of tumor growth in adult rats in vivo during acute streptozotocin-induced diabetes.  

PubMed

The effects of acute diabetes mellitus on the growth of Morris hepatoma 7288CTC and Jensen sarcoma were studied in fed, young (less than 200 g), and adult (greater than 250 g) rats. Animals were matched for tumor size and growth; the rates of tumor growth were the same in fed, young and adult nondiabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by the i.v. injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg total body weight) into tumor-bearing rats and changes in arterial blood nutrient concentrations were compared to changes in the rates of tumor growth and DNA synthesis. In young rats acute diabetes did not increase the blood concentrations of the fat store-derived nutrients and did not increase the rate of tumor growth. In adult rats, however, acute diabetes raised the arterial blood free fatty acid, glycerol, triglyceride, and ketone body concentrations to high levels and increased the rate of tumor growth about three times over that observed in untreated rats. Progress curves for the mobilization of host fat stores and for incorporation of [methyl-3H]thymidine into tumor DNA during the onset of diabetes showed that these activities were closely correlated in adult rats. Both processes began to increase 2 to 4 h after streptozotocin treatment, reached an initial peak at 12 to 16 h, decreased to a low point at 18 to 20 h, and then increased again to the new steady state after 23 to 24 h. The results indicate that the rate of tumor growth in rats in vivo is limited by the availability of a substance(s) present in the hyperlipemic blood of adult diabetic rats. The tight relationship between host lipolysis and tumor growth suggests that the substance(s) is derived from host fat stores. PMID:3815372

Sauer, L A; Dauchy, R T

1987-04-01

327

Prolonged local neurotrophin-3 infusion reduces ipsilateral collateral sprouting of spared corticospinal axons in adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corticospinal tract is widely used to study regeneration and is essential for voluntary movements in humans. In young rats, corticospinal axons on the uninjured side sprout and grow into the denervated side. Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) induces such crossed collateral sprouting in adults. We investigated whether local intraspinal NT-3 infusions would promote collateral sprouting of spared corticospinal terminals from within a

T. Hagg; K. A. Baker; J. G. Emsley; W. Tetzlaff

2005-01-01

328

Involvement of unusual glutamate release in kainate-induced seizures in zinc-deficient adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced susceptibility to kainate-induced seizures is linked to a lack of increase in GABA release in zinc-deficient young rats. In the present study, susceptibility to kainate-induced seizures was examined in adult (12-week-old) rats fed a zinc-deficient diet for 4 weeks to evaluate the relationship between the dysfunction of GABAergic neurotransmitter system and seizure susceptibility in zinc deficiency. Susceptibility to kainate-induced

Atsushi Takeda; Haruna Tamano; Naoto Oku

2005-01-01

329

Multisensory integration across the senses in young and old adults  

PubMed Central

Stimuli are processed concurrently and across multiple sensory inputs. Here we directly compared the effect of multisensory integration (MSI) on reaction time across three paired sensory inputs in eighteen young (M=19.17 yrs) and eighteen old (M=76.44 yrs) individuals. Participants were determined to be non-demented and without any medical or psychiatric conditions that would affect their performance. Participants responded to randomly presented unisensory (auditory, visual, somatosensory) stimuli and three paired sensory inputs consisting of auditory-somatosensory (AS) auditory-visual (AV) and visual-somatosensory (VS) stimuli. Results revealed that reaction time (RT) to all multisensory pairings was significantly faster than those elicited to the constituent unisensory conditions across age groups; findings that could not be accounted for by simple probability summation. Both young and old participants responded the fastest to multisensory pairings containing somatosensory input. Compared to younger adults, older adults demonstrated a significantly greater RT benefit when processing concurrent VS information. In terms of co-activation, older adults demonstrated a significant increase in the magnitude of visual-somatosensory co-activation (i.e., multisensory integration), while younger adults demonstrated a significant increase in the magnitude of auditory-visual and auditory-somatosensory co-activation. This study provides first evidence in support of the facilitative effect of pairing somatosensory with visual stimuli in older adults.

Mahoney, Jeannette R.; Li, Po Ching Clara; Oh-Park, Mooyeon; Verghese, Joe; Holtzer, Roee

2011-01-01

330

Binge Drinking Effects on EEG in Young Adult Humans  

PubMed Central

Young adult (N = 96) university students who varied in their binge drinking history were assessed by electroencephalography (EEG) recording during passive viewing. Groups consisted of male and female non-binge drinkers (>1 to 5/4 drinks/ounces in under two hours), low-binge drinkers (5/4–7/6 drinks/ounces in under two hours), and high-binge drinkers (? 10 drinks/ounces in under two hours), who had been drinking alcohol at their respective levels for an average of 3 years. The non- and low-binge drinkers exhibited less spectral power than the high-binge drinkers in the delta (0–4 Hz) and fast-beta (20–35 Hz) bands. Binge drinking appears to be associated with a specific pattern of brain electrical activity in young adults that may reflect the future development of alcoholism.

Courtney, Kelly E.; Polich, John

2010-01-01

331

Contextual profiles of young adult Ecstasy users: a multisite study  

PubMed Central

These analyses assess contextual profiles of 612 young adult Ecstasy users, 18–30 years of age, from St. Louis (USA), Miami (USA) and Sydney (Australia). Bivariate analyses revealed different contextual factors influencing Ecstasy use. Friends were the most common sources of Ecstasy at all sites and most used with friends. St. Louis and Miami use mostly occurred in residences, whereas in Sydney use was mostly at clubs, bars or restaurants. Ecstasy consumption at public places and in cars, trains or ferries was significantly higher in Miami (89% and 77%) than in St. Louis (67% and 65%) and Sydney (67% and 61%). At all sites, simultaneous use of LSD/mushroom and nitrous oxide with Ecstasy was common; concurrent amphetamines predominated in Sydney and heroin/opiates in St. Louis Contextual factors influencing Ecstasy use among young adults vary by geographic region. Their inclusion may help tailor effective prevention programs to reduce or ameliorate Ecstasy use.

Ramtekkar, Ujjwal P.; Striley, Catherine W; Cottler, Linda B

2010-01-01

332

Body piercings and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in young adults.  

PubMed

Body piercing, which is prevalent in young adults, has been suggested to be associated with features usually related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) such as high-risk behaviours and psychopathological symptoms and might be motivated by a wish to deal with prior traumatic experiences. However, to date, no research has investigated the relationship between this practice and PTSD symptoms. The present research aims to investigate the possible relationship between body piercing and PTSD symptoms in French-speaking young adults. According to our results, having two or more body piercings was associated with a twofold increased risk for scoring above the cut-off score for PTSD on the PTSD checklist. Our findings suggest that two or more body piercings might serve as an identifiable marker for PTSD symptoms and may have important implications for clinical screening. PMID:22499241

Bui, Eric; Rodgers, Rachel; Simon, Naomi M; Jehel, Louis; Metcalf, Christina A; Birmes, Philippe; Schmitt, Laurent

2012-04-12

333

Daily activities and sleep quality in young adults.  

PubMed

Daily activity levels were investigated as related to sleep quality in young adult college students aged 18 to 30 years. 85 participants (20 men, 65 women) completed the Young Adult Daily Activity Scale (YADAS). This 37-item checklist has 34 items based on focus group discussion points of college students' typical daily activities and three blank items for students to include their daily activities if not in the listing. The tabulation of type and amount of waking daily activities represents a unique measurement of factors that may affect sleep quality. The participants also rated their typical sleep quality using a standard 5-point scale (low indicating poor sleep). Correlations of sleep ratings and activities were not significant. PMID:21667753

Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Pichler-Mowry, Rene

2011-04-01

334

Violence and delayed social independence among young adult British men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To explain why a subgroup of young men aged 20–24 years do not follow the general trend within the adult general population,\\u000a of declining violence with age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A cross-sectional survey of 8,397 adults in households in Great Britain in 2000. Computer-assisted interviews to measure self-reported\\u000a violence and psychiatric morbidity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Young men age 20–24 years had the same high prevalence of self-reported violence

Jeremy Coid; Min Yang

2010-01-01

335

Adolescent alcohol use, sociability and income as a young adult.  

PubMed

We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to study how sociability and adolescent alcohol use impact personal income as a young adult. We find that factors which enhance not only individual sociability but also social interaction at the community level are positively linked to future earnings of adolescents. Adolescents whose friends and friends of friends have greater sociability reap long-term labor market rewards into adulthood. After adjusting for individual and community sociability, the effect of teenage alcohol consumption on labor market earnings as young adults is reduced. Our results suggest that earnings premiums associated with adolescent alcohol consumption may be partially explained by social network dynamics. PMID:22984291

Mundt, Marlon P; French, Michael T

2012-08-01

336

Abdominal obesity and coronary artery calcification in young adults: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Whether abdominal obesity is related to coronary artery calcification (CAC) is not known. Objective:Weinvestigatedtherelationsofwaistgirthandwaist-hip ratio (WHR) to CAC in 2951 African American and white young adultsfromtheCoronaryArteryRiskDevelopmentinYoungAdults Study. Design: The present study was a cross-sectional and observational cohort study. Using standardized protocols, we measured CAC in 2001-2002byusingcomputedtomographyandmeasuredwaistand hipgirthsin1985-1986(baseline),1995-1996(year10),and2001- 2002 (year 15, waist girth only). CAC was classified as present or

Chong-Do Lee; David R Jacobs Jr; Pamela J Schreiner; Carlos Iribarren; Arlene Hankinson

337

Sudden unexpected death in young adults with chronic hydrocephalus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present four cases of sudden unexpected death in young adults with chronic hydrocephalus. The patients were between 20\\u000a and 28 years of age and had suffered from aqueduct stenosis (two patients), spina bifida in combination with Arnold-Chiari\\u000a malformation (type II) and fragile X-syndrome. The patients suddenly collapsed with cardiorespiratory failure and could not\\u000a be resuscitated and none had a

C. H. Rickert; F. Grabellus; K. Varchmin-Schultheiß; H. Stöß; W. Paulus

2001-01-01

338

Does young adult suicide cluster geographically in Scotland?  

PubMed Central

Background Suicide rose dramatically among young adults in Scotland between 1980–1982 and 1999–2001, especially among those living in deprived areas. Objective To determine whether there are statistically significant geographical clusters of suicide and undetermined deaths among those aged 15 to 44 years in Scotland, and whether these persist through time. Methods Deaths from suicide and undetermined causes by young adults in Scotland for three periods—1980 to 1982, 1990 to 1992, and 1999 to 2001—were aggregated into 10?058 small areas for Scotland. Tests for significant (p<0.05) geographical clustering of suicide were carried out for each period separately. Methods of suicide inside the identified clusters were compared with those in the rest of Scotland. Results A significant geographical cluster of suicide among young adults was identified in east Glasgow in all three time periods (involving 92, 159, and 245 cases). Compared with the rest of Scotland, significantly more deaths in these clusters were caused by poisoning from liquids or solids over the entire period, but this was not the case in the most recent period (1999 to 2001). All three clusters could be explained by the concentration of socioeconomic deprivation in this part of Scotland. Conclusions One interpretation of this large, persistent, and statistically significant cluster of suicides among young adults in east Glasgow is that suicide is geographically contagious, but the present results suggest that it is explained by the concentration of deprivation in this area. Suicide prevention strategies targeting at?risk populations living in east Glasgow are necessary to reduce the suicide burden in Scotland.

Exeter, Daniel J; Boyle, Paul J

2007-01-01

339

Vegetarian and Weight-Loss Diets among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Young adults frequently experiment with vegetarian and weight-loss diets. Comparisons of their experiences on these two different diets may help in the development of approaches to improve long-term adherence to weight-loss regimens. In the current study vegetarian and weight-loss diets were compared on how long and how strictly they were followed, and reasons why they were initiated and discontinued.Research

Cheryl F. Smith; Lora E. Burke; Rena R. Wing

2000-01-01

340

Ecstasy-induced recurrent toxic hepatitis in a young adult  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), otherwise known as “ecstasy,” is a synthetic amphetamine that produces euphoria, increases sociability and energy, and is often used as a “weekend” recreational drug by young adults.CASE SUMMARY: A 23-year-old male (height, 184 cm; weight, 68 kg) presented to the emergency department of Marmara University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, with jaundice and nausea lasting for 6

Ozlem Guneysel; Ozge Ecmel Onur; Haldun Akoglu; Arzu Denizbasi

2008-01-01

341

Effects of glucose on memory processes in young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest that glucose enhances memory in rodents and humans. The present experiment investigated the effects of glucose on memory performance and blood glucose changes in young adults (19–25 years). Subjects ingested (300 ml beverage) three doses of glucose (0, 30, 100 g) in a random, double-blind, triple crossover design. Thirty minutes post-glucose, subjects were shown nouns on a

Nina P. Azari

1991-01-01

342

Head-in-motion contusions in young adults.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of contusions was studied in a series of acute fatal closed head injuries. Important factors include: 1. whether the head was in motion or stationary; 2. the direction and magnitude of the force; 3. the presence of depressed fractures and lacerations; and 4. roughness of the overlying bone. In the young adult group, the frequent high velocity motor vehicle accidents create a dominant pattern of injury to the frontal and temporal lobes, usually sparing the occipital lobes and cerebellum. PMID:6581699

Kirkpatrick, J B

1983-01-01

343

Delay of gratification in young adults with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-one young adults (17-23 years of age) with Down syndrome participated in two self-imposed delay of gratifi cation trials. Thirty-six and forty-eight percent waited for the experimenter to return (15 minutes) on Trials 1 and 2 respectively, and thirty-six percent waited for the experimenter on both occasions. Expressive language differentiated those who waited from those who did not. A discriminant

Monica Cuskelly; Maria Einam; Anne Jobling

2001-01-01

344

Dark adapted thresholds in young RCS rats.  

PubMed

The dark adapted thresholds of black-eyed RCS rats and cogenic controls were measured using a new psychophysical procedure that permits determination of thresholds at earlier ages than previously possible. Rats were tested longitudinally between about ages 1 and 3 months. At all ages, thresholds of RCS rats were higher than those of controls. Thresholds did not change systematically with age for either RCS rats or controls. At age 3 months, when the RCS rats' b-wave is no longer recordable, RCS thresholds are about 2.2 log units higher than those of controls. PMID:1843765

Kurylo, D D; Hansen, R M; Fulton, A B

1991-01-01

345

Genetic susceptibility of intervertebral disc degeneration among young Finnish adults  

PubMed Central

Background Disc degeneration (DD) is a common condition that progresses with aging. Although the events leading to DD are not well understood, a significant genetic influence has been found. This study was undertaken to assess the association between relevant candidate gene polymorphisms and moderate DD in a well-defined and characterized cohort of young adults. Focusing on young age can be valuable in determining genetic predisposition to DD. Methods We investigated the associations of existing candidate genes for DD among 538 young adults with a mean age of 19 belonging to the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort. Nineteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 16 genes were genotyped. We evaluated lumbar DD using the modified Pfirrmann classification and a 1.5-T magnetic resonance scanner for imaging. Results Of the 538 individuals studied, 46% had no degeneration, while 54% had DD and 51% of these had moderate DD. The risk of DD was significantly higher in subjects with an allele G of IL6 SNPs rs1800795 (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.07-1.96) and rs1800797 (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.02-1.85) in the additive inheritance model. The role of IL6 was further supported by the haplotype analysis, which resulted in an association between the GGG haplotype (SNPs rs1800797, rs1800796 and rs1800795) and DD with an OR of 1.51 (95% CI 1.11-2.04). In addition, we observed an association between DD and two other polymorphisms, SKT rs16924573 (OR 0.27 95% CI 0.07-0.96) and CILP rs2073711 in women (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.07-3.89). Conclusion Our results indicate that IL6, SKT and CILP are involved in the etiology of DD among young adults.

2011-01-01

346

Mineralocorticoid receptor activation: a major contributor to salt-induced renal injury and hypertension in young rats.  

PubMed

Excessive salt intake is known to preferentially increase blood pressure (BP) and promote kidney damage in young, salt-sensitive hypertensive human and animal models. We have suggested that mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation plays a major role in kidney injury in young rats. BP and urinary protein were compared in young (3-wk-old) and adult (10-wk-old) uninephrectomized (UNx) Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high (8.0%)-salt diet for 4 wk. The effects of the MR blocker eplerenone on BP and renal injury were examined in the high-salt diet-fed young UNx rats. Renal expression of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system components and of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers was also measured. The effects of the angiotensin receptor blocker olmesartan with or without low-dose aldosterone infusion, the aldosterone synthase inhibitor FAD286, and the antioxidant tempol were also studied. Excessive salt intake induced greater hypertension and proteinuria in young rats than in adult rats. The kidneys of young salt-loaded rats showed marked histological injury, overexpression of RAA system components, and an increase in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. These changes were markedly ameliorated by eplerenone treatment. Olmesartan also ameliorated salt-induced renal injury but failed to do so when combined with low-dose aldosterone infusion. FAD286 and tempol also markedly reduced urinary protein. UNx rats exposed to excessive salt at a young age showed severe hypertension and renal injury, likely primarily due to MR activation and secondarily due to angiotensin receptor activation, which may be mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:21478481

Kawarazaki, Hiroo; Ando, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Megumi; Matsui, Hiromitsu; Nagae, Ai; Muraoka, Kazuhiko; Kawarasaki, Chiaki; Fujita, Toshiro

2011-04-06

347

Personality predictors of intelligence: Differences between young and cognitively healthy older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous investigations of personality–intelligence relationships have sampled mainly young adults. The present study compared young and older groups in identifying personality predictors of cognitive abilities. A sample of 381 adults was administered the Woodcock–Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and the Big Five Inventory-44. Participants were separated into three groups: young adults (aged 19–60), older adults that were cognitively comparable

Thomas J. Baker; Jacqueline Bichsel

2006-01-01

348

Coronary risk factors measured in childhood and young adult life are associated with coronary artery calcification in young adults: The muscatine study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of coronary artery calcification in young adult men and women and to examine the association between the presence of coronary artery calcification and coronary risk factors measured in childhood and young adult life.Background. Electron beam computed tomography is a sensitive, noninvasive method for detecting coronary artery calcification, a marker of the

Larry T. Mahoney; Trudy L. Burns; William Stanford; Brad H. Thompson; John D. Witt; Catherine A. Rost; Ronald M. Lauer

1996-01-01

349

Ultimate erythropoietic repopulating abilities of fetal, young adult, and old adult cells compared using repeated irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythropoietic repopulating abilities of fetal liver cells and young and old adult marrow cells were compared as follows: Equal numbers of cells from a donor of each age were mixed with a constant portion of cells pooled from genetically distinguishable competitors. These mixtures were transplanted into stem cell-depleted recipients, and the proportions of recipient hemoglobin that were donor type measured

DAVID E. HARRISON; CLINTON M. ASTLE; CHARLES LERNER

1984-01-01

350

Vowel perception by noise masked normal-hearing young adults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined vowel perception by young normal-hearing (YNH) adults, in various listening conditions designed to simulate mild-to-moderate sloping sensorineural hearing loss. YNH listeners were individually age- and gender-matched to young hearing-impaired (YHI) listeners tested in a previous study [Richie et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2923-2933 (2003)]. YNH listeners were tested in three conditions designed to create equal audibility with the YHI listeners; a low signal level with and without a simulated hearing loss, and a high signal level with a simulated hearing loss. Listeners discriminated changes in synthetic vowel tokens /smcapi e ? invv æ/ when F1 or F2 varied in frequency. Comparison of YNH with YHI results failed to reveal significant differences between groups in terms of performance on vowel discrimination, in conditions of similar audibility by using both noise masking to elevate the hearing thresholds of the YNH and applying frequency-specific gain to the YHI listeners. Further, analysis of learning curves suggests that while the YHI listeners completed an average of 46% more test blocks than YNH listeners, the YHI achieved a level of discrimination similar to that of the YNH within the same number of blocks. Apparently, when age and gender are closely matched between young hearing-impaired and normal-hearing adults, performance on vowel tasks may be explained by audibility alone.

Richie, Carolyn; Kewley-Port, Diane; Coughlin, Maureen

2005-08-01

351

Drinking motives, drinking restraint and drinking behaviour among young adults.  

PubMed

Motives to drink alcohol are widely thought to be the proximal cognitive factors involved in the decision to consume alcohol beverages. However it has also been argued that the ability to restrain drinking may be a more proximal predictor of drinking behaviour. The current study aimed to examine the relationships between drinking motives, drinking restraint and both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems in a sample of young adults. A sample of 221 young adults (aged 17-34 years) completed self-report measures assessing drinking behaviour, motives for drinking and drinking restraint. Multiple regression analyses revealed that coping, enhancement and social motives were related to alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, while Cognitive and Emotional Preoccupation with drinking was related to all criterion variables. Further, the relationship between coping motives and drinking behaviour was mediated by preoccupation with drinking. The results are discussed in light of the roles of drinking motives and drinking restraint in risky drinking among young people, and implications for prevention and early intervention are presented. PMID:19775821

Lyvers, Michael; Hasking, Penelope; Hani, Riana; Rhodes, Madolyn; Trew, Emily

2009-09-11

352

Moon orientation in adult and young sandhoppers under artificial light  

PubMed Central

Our experiments, carried out at night and during the day on adults and laboratory-born young of the sandhopper Talitrus saltator, deal with the identification and use of the moon as an orientating factor. Sandhoppers were released in an apparatus (a Plexiglas dome) that produced a scenario similar to the natural one (with artificial sky, moon or sun illuminated at different intensities). When tested at night, the adult and young sandhoppers used the artificial moon like the natural one, independently of the intensity of illumination of the artificial sky and moon. In other words, sandhoppers tested at night always identified the artificial moon as the moon and never as the sun. In daytime releases, the seaward orientation failed at low intensities of artificial sky and sun illumination (3.07 and 1.55??W?cm2, respectively), whereas the sun compass was used effectively at higher levels of artificial sun and sky illumination. The innate ability of moon compass orientation in inexpert young sandhoppers was demonstrated even under artificial light.

Ugolini, Alberto; Boddi, Vieri; Mercatelli, Luca; Castellini, Carlo

2005-01-01

353

Psychiatric and Addictive Symptoms of Young Adult Female Indoor Tanners.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose . Indoor tanning (IT) increases risk for melanoma and is particularly common among young adult women. IT has also been linked with some psychiatric symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction) associated with endorphin release during ultraviolet radiation exposure. The objective of the current study was to investigate associations between IT, tanning dependence, and psychiatric and substance use symptoms in young adult women. Design . Cross-sectional survey and psychiatric interview. Setting . Online, except for the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), which was completed over the telephone. Subjects . Participants were 306 female university students aged 18 to 25 years. Measures . MINI, Seasonal Scale Index, tanning dependence scales, reporting ever having used a tanning bed or booth with tanning lamps (single item), reporting smoking a cigarette in the last 30 days (single item). Analysis . Descriptive statistics, ?(2) analysis, multivariate logistic regression. Results . Forty-six percent of the sample reported a history of IT, and 25% were classified as tanning dependent. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that IT was significantly associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders, generalized anxiety, and not having social anxiety. Tanning dependence was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders. Conclusion . Tanning is of concern not only for its association with skin cancer but for its association with psychiatric and substance use symptoms. Young women with certain psychological problems may seek relief from their symptoms by IT. These findings suggest that indoor tanners may benefit from health behavior and other psychosocial interventions. PMID:23621780

Heckman, Carolyn J; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Darlow, Susan; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Manne, Sharon L; Munshi, Teja

2013-04-26

354

Overwhelmed and Immobilized: Raising the Consciousness of Privileged Young Adults about World Hunger and Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, I compared the shifts in worldview of affluent young adults participating in a course on social justice issues to a control group of similar young adults. In this course, participating students learned about the size, scope, causes, and impact of world hunger and global poverty. However, an analysis of pre- and postsurvey data revealed that the young

Scott Seider

2009-01-01

355

School Ecologies and Attitudes about Exclusionary Behavior among Adolescents and Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of 643 adolescents and 474 young adults explored relationships among young people's observations and opinions of exclusionary behavior and their reports of whether exclusion affects their social and academic adjustment. Findings indicated that, unlike young adults, adolescents' perceptions of, and attitudes about, school ecologies…

Thorkildsen, Theresa A.; Reese, Deborah; Corsino, Alison

2002-01-01

356

Elder respect among young adults: A cross-cultural study of Americans and Koreans  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been little research on the way in which the young respect the elderly, let alone on the issue of cross-cultural differences in elder respect. This study, comparing young adults in the United States and young Korean adults in East Asia, explores the specific behavioral forms of elder respect that are cross-culturally equivalent and other forms that are culture

Kyu-taik Sung

2004-01-01

357

Young adults with learning disabilities: a study of psychosocial functioning at transition to adult services.  

PubMed

A study of the psychosocial functioning of young adults with a history of learning disability (LD) in childhood is reported. The design was a non-clinic community follow-up investigation of a cohort of children who had received special education, the sample frame for which was a birth-period cohort survey. Participants were 149 young adults (89 males and 60 females derived from a survey of the 33,800 children born in the Cambridge Health District between 1967 and 1973) at the stage of transition to adult services (age 18-22y), whose measured IQ scores in childhood were <80, and who had received special education during school years. Most of the young adults were living at home (n=108) and many were in full-time employment (independent employment n=41, sheltered employment n=20), this survey having been carried out in an area of high employment. A strong correlation was found between the child IQ score and subsequent adult Vineland Scale Score. Greater efforts should be made to detect and assess LD and its attendant problems in children in order to plan future care and transition to adulthood, especially for those with more severe disabilities. PMID:16483395

O'Brien, Gregory

2006-03-01

358

Psychosocial Correlates of Sunburn among Young Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement), lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ.

Heckman, Carolyn J.; Darlow, Susan; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Munshi, Teja; Perlis, Clifford S.

2012-01-01

359

Transitioning to adult health care facilities for young adults with a chronic condition.  

PubMed

Youth with chronic conditions and special health care needs are surviving into adulthood. In certain circumstances, these youth may choose to remain with their pediatricians for their health care needs. However, most youth will require complex coordinated care in order for them to live full and productive lives to the best that they are able. Issues such as independence and dependence, educational and vocational choices, and insurance are important in transitioning to an adult-focused system of health care. This article addresses strategies that will assist young adults with the process of transitioning from pediatric care centers to adult health care centers. Despite the importance of providing a transition program, few transition programs exist for young people with chronic conditions (Sawyer, Blair, & Bowes, 1997). This article will also discuss barriers to the transition process. PMID:12025316

Lewis-Gary, M D

360

Personal motivation, exercise, and smoking behaviors among young adults.  

PubMed

This study explored the motivational factors that influence individuals across the stages of change for exercise. The authors compared physically active nonsmokers with physically active smokers in a college student population. Half of regular exercisers identified themselves as smokers. Compared with their nonsmoking peers, young smokers have higher rates of physical and emotional distress. Those participants who exercise and do not smoke are more likely to exhibit intrinsic factors for exercise. Undergraduate psychology students (N = 614) completed an Internet survey on exercise and smoking behavior as well as motivational factors for exercise. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that intrinsic motivational factors for exercise were significantly higher for the active nonsmokers than for the active smokers. Interventions promoting consistent exercise and smoking abstinence should continue to be directed toward young adults, focusing on fostering intrinsic motivational factors for exercise. PMID:19433377

Scioli, Erica Rose; Biller, Henry; Rossi, Joseph; Riebe, Deborah

2009-01-01

361

Sedative Music Facilitates Deep Sleep in Young Adults.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives: To investigate the effect of sedative music on the different stages of the sleep cycle in young adults with various sleep latencies by using polysomnography (PSG). Design: Prospective, randomized, controlled, crossover study. Setting: Sleep center of a teaching hospital. Participants: Young adults with different sleep latencies. Poor sleepers (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score ?5) were excluded. Interventions: Each participant stayed one night in the sleep center for adaptation and on each of the following two nights was assigned to (1) music and (2) control (without music) conditions in random order. In the music condition, sedative music composed by certified music therapists was played on a compact disc player for the first hour the participant was in bed. Outcome measures: Sleep measures recorded with PSG, including sleep latency and durations of sleep stages. Results: Twenty-four young adults (mean±standard deviation, 24.5±2.6 years) participated. They were classified into the short sleep latency (SL) group if the baseline SL of the adaptation night was shorter than 10 minutes or into the long SL group if the baseline SL was 10 minutes or longer. Sedative music did not alter the SL in either group. Sedative music reduced stage II sleep in both SL groups (main effect of music, p=0.03; interaction effect, p=0.87) but increased the duration of deep sleep (stages III and IV) only in the long SL group (main effect of music, p=0.15; interaction effect, p=0.02). Conclusions: In participants with long SL, sedative music improved the quality of sleep by prolonging the duration of deep sleep. This effect provides an alternative and noninvasive way to improve sleep in selected persons experiencing sleep problems. PMID:23663079

Chen, Chih-Kuang; Pei, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Ning-Hung; Huang, Li-Ting; Chou, Shih-Wei; Wu, Katie P; Ko, Pei-Chih; Wong, Alice M K; Wu, Chih-Kuan

2013-05-10

362

Dimensions of Self-Report about Everyday Memory in Young and Older Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigated relationship between aspects of memory self-report, objective memory, attitude toward intellectual aging, self-rated health, and self-rated depression in young and older adults. Older adults reported significantly more frequent failures in everyday memory, but less discomfort with failures, than did young adults. Frequency,…

Erber, Joan T.; And Others

1992-01-01

363

Math and Numeracy in Young Adults With Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developmental stability of poor math skill was studied in 31 young adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH), a neurodevelopmental disorder involving mal- formations of the brain and spinal cord. Longitudinally, individuals with poor math problem solving as children grew into adults with poor problem solving and limited functional numeracy. As a group, young adults with SBH had poor

Maureen Dennis; Marcia Barnes

2002-01-01

364

Dimensions of Self-Report about Everyday Memory in Young and Older Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated relationship between aspects of memory self-report, objective memory, attitude toward intellectual aging, self-rated health, and self-rated depression in young and older adults. Older adults reported significantly more frequent failures in everyday memory, but less discomfort with failures, than did young adults. Frequency,…

Erber, Joan T.; And Others

1992-01-01

365

Recollections of Being Loved: Implications of Childhood Experiences with Parents for Young Adults' Romantic Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the extent to which young adults recollections of their childhood experiences with parents were associated with their reported feelings and behavior in romantic relationships. Participants were 205 young adults. Based on a question from the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996), participants wrote…

Black, Katherine A.; Schutte, Emily D.

2006-01-01

366

Young Adults with Behavioral DisordersA Comparison with Peers with Mild Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adult adjustment 3 years after graduation of individuals with mild disabilities, with specific emphasis on individuals with behavioral disorders, was investigated in this study. Of the initial statewide random sample of 561 graduates from resource programs, 473 were interviewed: 24 young adults with behavioral disorders, 374 young adults with learning disabilities, and 75 individuals with mental disabilities. Data are

Alan R. Frank; Patricia L. Sitlington; Rori R. Carson

1995-01-01

367

National Survey Results on Drug Use from the Monitoring the Future Study, 1975-1995. Volume 2. College Students and Young Adults.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction to Volume II; Overview of Key Findings; Study Design and Procedures; Prevalence of Drug Use Among Young Adults; Trends in Drug Use among Young Adults; Attitudes and Beliefs About Drugs Among Young Adults; The Social Milieu for Young...

L. D. Johnston P. M. O'Malley J. G. Bachman

1997-01-01

368

Need for Health Behavior Interventions for Young Adult Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the relationship between modifiable health risks (eg, unhealthy diet) and interest in interventions in a sample of young adult cancer survivors (YACS). Methods Sixty YACS, aged 18 to 40, completed surveys. Results Few met recommendations for diet, exercise, or weight (ie, body mass index, BMI). Participants expressed interest in several health behavior programs, and there was a significant relationship between BMI and interest in weight loss. Conclusions Findings suggest that YACS are interested in and may benefit from healthy lifestyle interventions.

Rabin, Carolyn; Politi, Mary

2010-01-01

369

Celiac Disease: Similar Presentations in the Elderly and Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims  Studies have shown that celiac disease can affect individuals in all age groups. However, few studies have described the disease\\u000a in the elderly. The goal of this study is to characterize celiac disease in the elderly by comparing to a population of young\\u000a adults with celiac disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Review of a tertiary center database of patients with celiac disease was performed

Rupa Mukherjee; Ikenna Egbuna; Pardeep Brar; Lincoln Hernandez; Donald J. McMahon; Elizabeth J. Shane; Govind Bhagat; Peter H. R. Green

2010-01-01

370

Melanoma in Pediatric, Adolescent, and Young Adult Patients  

PubMed Central

The family practitioner, pediatrician, and dermatologist each have potential roles in the primary prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of localized thin melanomas. Surgical and medical oncologists are often involved when controversy arises over the nature of the skin lesion or whether sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsies and adjuvant therapy are to be contemplated. This overview of melanoma will deal with the primary and nodal pathology, surgery, and medical therapy of melanoma in pediatric, adolescent, and young adult patients—and will raise areas of controversy that are only recently being addressed in databases of cases from this age group.

Kirkwood, John M.; Jukic, Drazen; Averbook, Bruce J.; Sender, Leonard S.

2009-01-01

371

Factors associated with condom use among young adult ecstasy users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  This paper examines the prevalence of and the factors associated with condom use in a sample of 283 young adult ecstasy users.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study, which relied upon targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping, took place between 2002 and 2004. It entailed conducting\\u000a two-hour-long, face-to-face interviews in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Condom use was inconsistent; only 35.2% of all sex acts

Kirk W. Elifson; Hugh Klein; Claire E. Sterk

2010-01-01

372

Glutaric acid induces oxidative stress in brain of young rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of glutaric acid, which predominantly accumulates in glutaric acidemia type I, on some in vitro parameters of oxidative stress in brain of young rats. We evaluated chemiluminescence, total radical–antioxidant potential (TRAP) and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in brain tissue homogenates in the presence of glutaric acid at

Fernanda de Oliveira Marques; Martine Elisabeth Kienzle Hagen; Carolina Didonet Pederzolli; Angela Malysz Sgaravatti; Karina Durigon; Carla Giordani Testa; Clóvis Milton Duval Wannmacher; Angela Terezinha de Souza Wyse; Moacir Wajner; Carlos Severo Dutra-Filho

2003-01-01

373

Conservative Management of a Young Adult with Hip Arthrosis  

PubMed Central

Study Design Case report Background Clinical practice guidelines regarding the conservative management of degenerative hip conditions in older adults routinely incorporate therapeutic exercise and manual therapy. However, the application of these recommendations to young, active adults is less clear. The purpose of this case report is to describe the management of a young adult with advanced hip arthrosis using a multi-faceted rehabilitation program. Case Description A 28-year old female with severe left hip degeneration per diagnostic imaging was referred to physical therapy. Reduced hip range of motion and strength, sacroiliac joint asymmetries, and a modified Harris Hip Score of 76 were observed. She was seen for 12 visits over a 3-month period and treated with an individualized program including manual therapy, therapeutic exercise, and neuromuscular re-education. Outcome Substantial improvements were noted in pain, hip range of motion and strength and function (modified Harris Hip Score of 97). In addition, she discontinued the use of anti-inflammatory medications and returned to her prior level of activity. Improvements were maintained at a 3 month follow up, with symptom recurrence managed using a self mobilization technique to the left hip and massage to the left iliopsoas. Discussion Degenerative hip conditions are common among older adults but are relatively rare in the younger population. Although it is likely that this patient will experience a return of her symptoms and functional limitations as her hip disease progresses, the immediate improvements may delay the need for eventual surgical management. These outcomes suggest that physical therapy management should be considered in those with an early onset of degenerative hip disease and are consistent with results previously reported in the older population. Level of Evidence Therapy, Level 4

Cook, Kyle M.; Heiderscheit, Bryan

2010-01-01

374

Melatonin improves glucose homeostasis in young Zucker diabetic fatty rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on glucose homeostasis in young male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, an experimental model of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ZDF rats (n=30) and lean littermates (ZL) (n=30) were used. At 6wk of age, both lean and fatty animals were subdivided into three groups, each composed of ten rats: naive (N), vehicle treated (V), and melatonin treated (M) (10mg/kg/day) for 6wk. Vehicle and melatonin were added to the drinking water. ZDF rats developed DM (fasting hyperglycemia, 460±39.8mg/dL; HbA(1) c 8.3±0.5%) with both insulin resistance (HOMA-IR 9.28±0.9 versus 1.2±0.1 in ZL) and decreased ?-cell function (HOMA1-%B) by 75%, compared with ZL rats. Melatonin reduced fasting hyperglycemia by 18.6% (P<0.05) and HbA(1) c by 11% (P<0.05) in ZDF rats. Also, melatonin lowered insulinemia by 15.9% (P<0.05) and HOMA-IR by 31% (P<0.01) and increased HOMA1-%B by 14.4% (P<0.05). In addition, melatonin decreased hyperleptinemia by 34% (P<0.001) and raised hypoadiponectinemia by 40% (P<0.001) in ZDF rats. Moreover, melatonin reduced serum free fatty acid levels by 13.5% (P<0.05). These data demonstrate that oral melatonin administration ameliorates glucose homeostasis in young ZDF rats by improving both insulin action and ?-cell function. These observations have implications on melatonin's possible use as a new pharmacologic therapy for improving glucose homeostasis and of obesity-related T2DM, in young subjects. PMID:21883445

Agil, Ahmad; Rosado, Isaac; Ruiz, Rosario; Figueroa, Adriana; Zen, Nourahouda; Fernández-Vázquez, Gumersindo

2011-08-25

375

Impact of Breakfast Consumption on Nutritional Adequacy of the Diets of Young Adults in Bogalusa, Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the impact of breakfast consumption patterns on the nutritional adequacy of diets of young adults and determine possible ethnic and gender differences.Design and setting Cross-sectional survey of young adults in Bogalusa, La.Subjects Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected from October 1988 through October 1991 on 504 young adults (mean age=23 years, 58% women, 70% white).Statistics Analysis of variance

THERESA A NICKLAS; LEANN MYERS; CHRISTINA REGER; BETTINA BEECH; GERALD S BERENSON

1998-01-01

376

Does Breakfast Consumption Affect Nutritional Adequacy of the Diets of Young Adults?  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe the impact of breakfast consumption on the nutritional adequacy of the diets of young adults.Breakfast consumption patterns of 504 young adults (x age: 23yrs.; 58% female, 70% white) were examined using the 24-hour dietary recall. Consumption patterns were then related to mean daily nutrient intake. Thirty-seven percent of young adults skipped breakfast. For those who ate

C. Reger; T. Nicklas; L. Myers; B. Beech; G. Berenson

1997-01-01

377

Examining Representations of Young Adult Female Protagonists through Critical Race Feminism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the ways in which the professional literature—by scholars, educators and reviewers—represents young adult female protagonists and approaches sexism. Drawing on critical race feminist theory, the author finds that recommended young adult female protagonists are still overwhelmingly white, middle?class and heterosexual. Despite descriptors such as ‘strong’, ‘gutsy’, ‘feisty’ and ‘independent’, the young adult female protagonists that are recommended

2007-01-01

378

Cognitive Flexibility as a Mediator of Family Communication Environments and Young Adults' Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, cognitive flexibility was tested as a mediator of family communication environments (i.e., family expressiveness, structural traditionalism, and avoidance of conflict) and young adults' well-being (i.e., self-esteem, mental health, and physical health). Participants included 395 young adults from first-marriage and postdivorce families. Using structural equation modeling, the results revealed that family expressiveness positively predicted young adults' cognitive flexibility,

Joy Koesten; Paul Schrodt; Debra J. Ford

2009-01-01

379

Perceived History of Anaphylaxis and Parental Overprotection, Autonomy, Anxiety, and Depression in Food Allergic Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined autonomy, anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior in 86 food allergic young adults and\\u000a 344 healthy young adults between the ages of 18 and 22. Participants completed an online survey measuring self-reported autonomy,\\u000a anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior. Results indicated that, as a group, food allergic young adults\\u000a did not differ from healthy peers.

Linda J. Herbert; Lynnda M. Dahlquist

2008-01-01

380

Young adult stimulant users' increased striatal activation during uncertainty is related to impulsivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Young adults who use stimulants (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines) are at particular risk of transitioning to dependence. Previously, we demonstrated increased risk-taking in young adults who had used stimulants (Leland, D.S., Paulus, M.P., 2005. Increased risk-taking decision-making but not altered response to punishment in stimulant-using young adults. Drug. Alcohol Depend. 78, 83-90). Since outcome uncertainty is a critical element of

David S. Leland; Estibaliz Arce; Justin S. Feinstein; Martin P. Paulus

2006-01-01

381

Glutathione system in young spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Glutathione (GSH) forms a part of the antioxidant system that plays a vital role in preventing oxidative stress, and an imbalance in the oxidant/antioxidant system has been linked to the pathogenesis of hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of the GSH system in the kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Components of the GSH system, including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and total GSH content, were measured in the kidneys of 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 weeks old SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Systolic blood pressure of SHR was significantly higher from the age of 6 weeks onwards compared with age-matched WKY rats. GPx activity in the SHR was significantly lower from the age of 8 weeks onwards when compared to that in age-matched WKY rats. No significant differences were evident in the GPx-1 protein abundance, and its relative mRNA levels, GR, GST activity, and total GSH content between SHR and age-matched WKY rats. The lower GPx activity suggests of an impairment of the GSH system in the SHR, which might be due to an abnormality in its protein rather than non-availability of a cofactor. Its role in the development of hypertension in SHR however remains unclear. PMID:20680541

Lee, S K; Arunkumar, Sundaram; Sirajudeen, K N S; Singh, H J

2010-08-03

382

Major depressive disorder symptoms in male and female young adults.  

PubMed

This research aimed to compare the prevalence rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) and to differentiate the presence and severity of depressive symptoms between women and men aged 18-24?years. In this population-based, cross-sectional study (n?=?1560), young adults were screened with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for MDD (n?=?137). Participants then completed a self-report questionnaire to gather sociodemographic data, and the presence of each symptom of depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. The proportion of women (12.2%) with MDD was higher than that of men (5.3%). The symptoms of depression found to be significantly more prevalent in women were sadness, crying, difficulty making decisions, and lack of energy, as well as self-criticism, irritability, changes in self-image, work difficulty, and loss of interest in sex. Sadness and self-criticism were significantly more severe in women than in men. The presentation of depressive symptoms in young adults with MDD differed between men and women. PMID:23651450

Molina, Mariane Acosta Lopez; Jansen, Karen; Drews, Cláudio; Pinheiro, Ricardo; Silva, Ricardo; Souza, Luciano

2013-05-01

383

The Role of Personality Characteristics in Young Adult Driving  

PubMed Central

Background Motor vehicle injury is the major cause of mortality among young adults. Information about the individual characteristics of those who drive dangerously could enhance traffic safety programs. The goal of this research was to examine the association between various personality-related characteristics and risky driving behaviors. Methods Young adults in Michigan, USA (n = 5,362) were surveyed by telephone regarding several personality factors (risk-taking, hostility, aggression, tolerance of deviance, achievement expectations) and driving behaviors (competitive driving, risk-taking driving, high-risk driving, aggressive driving, and drink/driving). Michigan driver records were obtained to examine offenses, serious offenses, driving offense points, crashes and serious crashes in the three pre-interview years. Multivariate regression analyses, adjusting for age, race, and marital status were conducted separately by sex to identify personality factors related to driving. Results For men and women, greater risk-taking propensity, physical/verbal hostility, aggression, and tolerance of deviance were significant predictors of a competitive attitude toward driving, risk-taking driving, high-risk driving, driving aggression, and drink/driving. Greater risk-taking propensity, physical/verbal hostility, aggression, and to a small degree, expectations for achievement predicted higher numbers of offenses, serious offenses, and points. Conclusion Traffic safety policies and programs could be enhanced through recognition of the role personality factors play in driving behavior and the incorporation of this knowledge into the design and implementation of interventions that modify the behaviors associated with them.

PATIL, SUJATA M.; SHOPE, JEAN THATCHER; RAGHUNATHAN, TRIVELLORE E.; BINGHAM, C. RAYMOND

2007-01-01

384

Young adult drinking-driving: behavioral and psychosocial correlates.  

PubMed

Behavioral and psychosocial correlates of drinking and driving were examined in two independent samples of licensed drivers aged 18 to 25 selected from the Colorado Division of Motor Vehicles database. Mail questionnaires were returned by 2,300 young adults (1,196 in Sample 1; 1,104 in Sample 2). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relation of a latent-variable measure of drinking-driving to latent-variable measures of other driving behaviors, problem behaviors and psychosocial variables. Drinking-driving, drug-driving and risky driving were found to comprise a more general, second-order factor of problem driving behavior. Drinking-driving was also found to constitute one aspect of a larger second-order latent variable that included problem drinking, marijuana use, other illicit drug use and delinquent-type behavior. In combination, the variables of problem driving, other problem behaviors, psychosocial unconventionality, risk-taking and hostility/aggression accounted for 57% of the variance in young adult drinking-driving. All of these Sample 1 findings were buttressed by confirmatory analyses in the independent Sample 2 data. The conclusion can be drawn that drinking-driving is part of a more general lifestyle involving behavior and psychosocial unconventionality. PMID:8412150

Donovan, J E

1993-09-01

385

Motivational and mindfulness intervention for young adult female marijuana users.  

PubMed

This pilot study tested the efficacy of a brief intervention using motivational interviewing (MI) plus mindfulness meditation (MM) to reduce marijuana use among young adult females. Thirty-four female marijuana users between the ages of 18 and 29 were randomized to either the intervention group (n = 22), consisting of two sessions of MI-MM, or an assessment-only control group (n = 12). The participants' marijuana use was assessed at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 months posttreatment. Fixed-effects regression modeling was used to analyze treatment effects. Participants randomized to the intervention group were found to use marijuana on 6.15 (z = -2.42, p = .015), 7.81 (z = -2.78, p = .005), and 6.83 (z = -2.23, p = .026) fewer days at Months 1, 2, and 3, respectively, than controls. Findings from this pilot study provide preliminary evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of a brief MI-MM for young adult female marijuana users. PMID:21940136

de Dios, Marcel A; Herman, Debra S; Britton, Willoughby B; Hagerty, Claire E; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

2011-09-21

386

Psychological predictors of young adults' use of social networking sites.  

PubMed

Young people are increasingly using social networking sites (SNSs) like MySpace and Facebook to engage with others. The use of SNSs can have both positive and negative effects on the individual; however, few studies identify the types of people who frequent these Internet sites. This study sought to predict young adults' use of SNSs and addictive tendency toward the use of SNSs from their personality characteristics and levels of self-esteem. University students (N = 201), aged 17 to 24 years, reported their use of SNSs and addictive tendencies for SNSs use and completed the NEO Five-Factor Personality Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Multiple regression analyses revealed that, as a group, the personality and self-esteem factors significantly predicted both level of SNS use and addictive tendency but did not explain a large amount of variance in either outcome measure. The findings indicated that extroverted and unconscientious individuals reported higher levels of both SNS use and addictive tendencies. Future research should attempt to identify which other psychosocial characteristics explain young people's level of use and propensity for addictive tendencies for these popular Internet sites. PMID:20528274

Wilson, Kathryn; Fornasier, Stephanie; White, Katherine M

2010-04-01

387

A Closer Look at Smoking Among Young Adults: Where Tobacco Control Should Focus Its Attention  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to fill gaps in knowledge of smoking behaviors among college-educated and non–college-educated young adults. Methods. We used data from the 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey to analyze smoking behaviors among young adults aged 18–24 years and older young adults aged 25–34 years by college status (enrolled, or with a degree, but not enrolled) and other measures of socioeconomic position. Results. Current smoking prevalence among US young adults aged 18–24 years who are not enrolled in college or who do not have a college degree was 30%. This was more than twice the current smoking prevalence among college-educated young adults (14%). Non–college-educated young adults were more likely than were college-educated young adults to start smoking at a younger age and were less likely to have made a quit attempt, although no differences were found in their intentions to quit. Higher rates of smoking in the non–college-educated population were also evident in the slightly older age group. Conclusions. Non–college-educated young adults smoke at more than twice the rate of their college-educated counterparts. Targeted prevention and cessation efforts are needed for non–college-educated young adults to prevent excess morbidity and mortality in later years.

Green, Molly P.; McCausland, Kristen L.; Xiao, Haijun; Duke, Jennifer C.; Vallone, Donna M.; Healton, Cheryl G.

2007-01-01

388

Educational and Recreational Services of the Public Library for Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the concept of young adult services in public libraries, concentrating on lack of adequate professional personnel and training, administrative rigidity, and future directions for these services. (CWM)|

Chelton, Mary K.

1978-01-01

389

Ischemic stroke in young adults: classification and risk factors.  

PubMed

Our aim was to analyze an important subgroup represented by young adult patients (19-45 years) with acute ischemic stroke according to stroke classification (including the novel ASCO score), infarct types and risk factors. All patients up to 45 years of age with an acute ischemic stroke confirmed by MRI and treated in our stroke unit from 2006 to 2009 were recruited for this study. Patients were neurologically examined and underwent thorough stroke work-up. One hundred four patients (58 women, 46 men) with a mean age of 38 ± 6.9 years were evaluated. The mean NIHSS score (±SD) was 3 ± 5 on admission and 1 ± 4 on discharge. The classification using TOAST/ASCO (grade 1) was as follows: Macroangiopathic 10.6%/8.7%, cardiac origin 21.2%/10.6%, microangiopathic 9.6%/9.6%, other causes 19.2%/13.5% and undetermined 39.4%/19.2% (for A0S0C0O0). The most common risk factors were smoking (55.2%), hypertension (31.4%) and hyperlipidemia (27.6%). Twenty nine of 74 patients with TEE (39.2%) had a patent foramen ovale (PFO). Hypoplastic posterior circulation (21.9%) and migraine (21.0%) were also quite common. Young adult ischemic stroke patients share many of the characteristic risk factors with the general elderly ischemic stroke population. If regular work-up includes TEE, a high percentage of young patients reveal comorbidities with PFO, hypoplasia of the posterior circulation and migraine. The ASCO classification should be favored for a better classification of coexisting stroke subtypes and lower number of undetermined etiologies in this patient group. PMID:21927959

Chatzikonstantinou, Anastasios; Wolf, Marc E; Hennerici, Michael G

2011-09-17

390

Young Adult Eating and Food-Purchasing Patterns  

PubMed Central

Background Young adulthood is a critical age for weight gain, yet scant research has examined modifiable contextual influences on weight that could inform age-appropriate interventions. Purpose The aims of this research included: (1) describing where young adults eat and purchase food, including distance from home, and (2) estimating the percentage of eating/purchasing locations contained within GIS-generated buffers traditionally used in research. Methods Forty-eight participants (aged 18–23 years, n=27 women) represented diverse lifestyle groups. Participants logged characteristics of all eating/drinking occasions (including location) occurring over 7 days (n=1237) using PDAs. Participants recorded addresses for stores where they purchased food to bring home. Using GIS, estimates were made of distances between participants’ homes and eating/purchasing locations. Data collection occurred in 2008–2009 and data analysis occurred in 2010. Results Among participants living independently or with family (n=36), 59.1% of eating occasions were at home. Away-from-home eating locations averaged 6.7 miles from home; food- shopping locations averaged 3.1 miles from home. Only 12% of away-from-home eating occasions fell within ½-mile residential buffers, versus 17% within 1 mile and 34% within 2 miles. Additionally, 12%, 19%, and 58% of shopping trips fell within these buffers, respectively. Results were similar for participants residing in dormitories. Conclusions Young adults often purchase and eat food outside of commonly used GIS-generated buffers around their homes. This suggests the need for a broader understanding of their food environments.

Laska, Melissa Nelson; Graham, Dan J.; Moe, Stacey G.; Van Riper, David

2010-01-01

391

Moderate high fat diet increases sucrose self-administration in young rats.  

PubMed

We have previously reported that a moderately high fat diet increases motivation for sucrose in adult rats. In this study, we tested the motivational, neurochemical, and metabolic effects of the high fat diet in male rats transitioning through puberty, during 5-8 weeks of age. We observed that the high fat diet increased motivated responding for sucrose, which was independent of either metabolic changes or changes in catecholamine neurotransmitter metabolites in the nucleus accumbens. However, AGRP mRNA levels in the hypothalamus were significantly elevated. We demonstrated that increased activation of AGRP neurons is associated with motivated behavior, and that exogenous (third cerebroventricular) AGRP administration resulted in significantly increased motivation for sucrose. These observations suggest that increased expression and activity of AGRP in the medial hypothalamus may underlie the increased responding for sucrose caused by the high fat diet intervention. Finally, we compared motivation for sucrose in pubertal vs. adult rats and observed increased motivation for sucrose in the pubertal rats, which is consistent with previous reports that young animals and humans have an increased preference for sweet taste, compared with adults. Together, our studies suggest that background diet plays a strong modulatory role in motivation for sweet taste in adolescent animals. PMID:23023044

Figlewicz, Dianne P; Jay, Jennifer L; Acheson, Molly A; Magrisso, Irwin J; West, Constance H; Zavosh, Aryana; Benoit, Stephen C; Davis, Jon F

2012-09-27

392

Battle on the Gender Homefront: Depictions of the American Civil War in Contemporary Young-Adult Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The American Civil War has been a popular topic for young-adult writers for years, with new books now being written from young women's perspectives. In this paper, I will examine the gender ideologies that infiltrate contemporary Civil War books for young adults. I will examine four recent young-adult Civil-War novels: G. Clifton Wisler's "Mr.…

Clapp-Itnyre, Alisa

2007-01-01

393

Daily family interactions among young adults in the United States from Latin American, Filipino, East Asian, and European backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to the abundant research on family relationships during adolescence, the nature of family interactions during young adulthood remains comparatively unexamined. The current study explored ethnic differences in young adults’ interactions with parents and siblings, the role of other activities in young adults’ family interactions, and the association of family interactions with young adults’ psychological distress and well-being. A

Andrew Fuligni; Carrie L. Masten

2010-01-01

394

Discordance in National Estimates of Hypertension Among Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background In the U.S., where coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality, CHD risk assessment is a priority and accurate blood pressure (BP) measurement is essential. Methods Hypertension estimates in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), Wave IV (2008)—a nationally-representative field study of 15,701 participants aged 24–32—was referenced against NHANES (2007–2008) participants of the same age. We examined discordances in hypertension, and estimated the accuracy and reliability of blood pressure in the Add Health study. Results Hypertension rates (BP ? 140/90 mm Hg) were higher in Add Health compared with NHANES (19% versus 4%), but self-reported history was similar (11% versus 9%) among adults aged 24–32. Survey weights and adjustments for differences in participant characteristics, examination time, use of anti-hypertensive medications, and consumption of food/caffeine/cigarettes before blood pressure measurement had little effect on between-study differences in hypertension estimates. Among Add Health participants interviewed and examined twice (full and abbreviated interviews), blood pressure was similar, as was blood pressure at the in-home and in-clinic exams conducted by NHANES III (1988–1994). In Add Health, there was minimal digit preference in blood pressure measurements; mean bias never exceeded 2 mm Hg; and reliability (estimated as intra-class correlation coefficients) was 0.81 and 0.68 for systolic and diastolic BPs, respectively. Conclusions The proportion of young adults in NHANES reporting a history of hypertension was twice that with measured hypertension, whereas the reverse was found in Add Health. Between-survey differences were not explained by digit preference, low validity, or reliability of Add Health blood pressure data, or by salient differences in participant selection, measurement context, or interview content. The prevalence of hypertension among Add Health Wave IV participants suggests an unexpectedly high risk of cardiovascular disease among U.S. young adults and warrants further scrutiny.

Nguyen, Quynh C.; Tabor, Joyce W.; Entzel, Pamela P.; Lau, Yan; Suchindran, Chirayath; Hussey, Jon M.; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Whitsel, Eric A.

2011-01-01

395

Effects of infantile and adult shock-trauma upon learning in the adult white rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats given severe traumatizing electrical shock during infancy show more effective escape learning with shock motivation and slower extinction as adults. The effect of the infantile trauma appears restricted to adult traumatic situations.

Alan Baron; Kenneth H. Brookshire; Richard A. Littman

1957-01-01

396

Neuroimaging in children, adolescents and young adults with psychological trauma.  

PubMed

Childhood psychological trauma is a strong predictor of psychopathology. Preclinical research points to the influence of this type of trauma on brain development. However, the effects of psychological trauma on the developing human brain are less known and a challenging question is whether the effects can be reversed or even prevented. The aim of this review is to give an overview of neuroimaging studies in traumatized juveniles and young adults up till 2012. Neuroimaging studies in children and adolescents with traumatic experiences were found to be scarce. Most studies were performed by a small number of research groups in the United States and examined structural abnormalities. The reduction in hippocampal volume reported in adults with PTSD could not be confirmed in juveniles. The most consistent finding in children and adolescents, who experienced psychological trauma are structural abnormalities of the corpus callosum. We could not identify any studies investigating treatment effects. Neuroimaging studies in traumatized children and adolescents clearly lag behind studies in traumatized adults as well as studies on ADHD and autism. PMID:23553572

Rinne-Albers, Mirjam A W; van der Wee, Nic J A; Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

2013-04-01

397

Expanding dependent coverage for young adults: lessons from state initiatives.  

PubMed

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires that adults up to age twenty-six be permitted to enroll as dependents on their parents' health plans. This article examines the experiences of states that enacted dependent expansion laws. Drawing on public information from thirty-one enacting states and case studies of four diverse reform states, it derives lessons that are pertinent to the implementation of this ACA provision. Dependent coverage laws vary across the states, but most impose residency, marital status, and other restrictions. The federal Employee Retirement Income Security Act further limits the reach of state laws. Eligibility for expanded coverage under the ACA is much broader. Rules in some states requiring or allowing separate premiums for adult dependents may also discourage enrollment compared with rules in other states (and the ACA), where these costs must be factored into family premiums. Business opposition in some states led to more restrictive regulations, especially for how premiums are charged, which in turn raised greater implementation challenges. Case study states did not report substantial young adult dependent coverage take-up, but early enrollment experience under ACA appears to be more positive. Long-term questions remain about the implications of this policy for risk pooling and the distribution of premium costs. PMID:22273776

Cantor, Joel C; Belloff, Dina; Monheit, Alan C; Delia, Derek; Koller, Margaret

2012-02-01

398

Adolescents with Hodgkin lymphoma: old children or young adults?  

PubMed

Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a malignancy of the lymphatic system with an incidence of 2-3/100,000/year in Europe and North America. The disease generally occurs in all age groups, but young adults are most often affected. Thus, adolescents aged 15 or 16 to 21 represent a relevant portion of patients. The optimum treatment for this age group is undefined. Both pediatric protocols such as OEPA (vincristine, etoposide, prednisone, adriamycin) or ABVE-PC (adriamycin, bleomycin, vincristine, etoposide, prednisone, cyclophosphamide) and adult regimens such as ABVD (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) or BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone) have been shown to be safe and active, resulting in long-term survival rates of 80% and more. However, a prospective comparison of pediatric and adult treatment strategies in terms of efficacy and other important questions such as treatment-related acute and long-term toxicity has not been undertaken so far. This review aims at shedding some light on potential treatment approaches for adolescents with HL and includes more recent analyses in this patient group. PMID:22168275

Eichenauer, Dennis A; Borchmann, Peter; Engert, Andreas

2012-01-31

399

Patterns of Tobacco Use and Dual Use in US Young Adults: The Missing Link between Youth Prevention and Adult Cessation  

PubMed Central

Few studies address the developmental transition from youth tobacco use uptake to regular adulthood use, especially for noncigarette tobacco products. The current study uses online panel data from the Legacy Young Adult Cohort Study to describe the prevalence of cigarette, other tobacco product, and dual use in a nationally representative sample of young adults aged 18–34 (N = 4,201). Of the 23% of young adults who were current tobacco users, 30% reported dual use. Ever use, first product used, and current use were highest for cigarettes, cigars, little cigars, and hookah. Thirty-two percent of ever tobacco users reported tobacco product initiation after the age of 18 and 39% of regular users reported progressing to regular use during young adulthood. This study highlights the need for improved monitoring of polytobacco use across the life course and developing tailored efforts for young adults to prevent progression and further reduce overall population prevalence.

Rath, Jessica M.; Villanti, Andrea C.; Abrams, David B.; Vallone, Donna M.

2012-01-01

400

Opiates inhibit neurogenesis in the adult rat hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work implicates regulation of neurogenesis as a form of plasticity in the adult rat hippocampus. Given the known effects of opiates such as morphine and heroin on hippocampal function, we examined opiate regulation of neurogenesis in this brain region. Chronic administration of morphine decreased neurogenesis by 42% in the adult rat hippocampal granule cell layer. A similar effect was

Amelia J. Eisch; Michel Barrot; Christina A. Schad; David W. Self; Eric J. Nestler

2000-01-01

401

The Experiences of Mothers of Young Adults with an Intellectual Disability Transitioning from Secondary School to Adult Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The transition from school to adulthood for young adults with an intellectual disability involves movement from a generally secure and supported school environment to an emerging adult life that may be characterised by a wide variation in adoption of adult roles related to employment, independent living, friendships, and day…

Dyke, Paula; Bourke, Jenny; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Leonard, Helen

2013-01-01

402

The Experiences of Mothers of Young Adults with an Intellectual Disability Transitioning from Secondary School to Adult Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The transition from school to adulthood for young adults with an intellectual disability involves movement from a generally secure and supported school environment to an emerging adult life that may be characterised by a wide variation in adoption of adult roles related to employment, independent living, friendships, and day…

Dyke, Paula; Bourke, Jenny; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Leonard, Helen

2013-01-01

403

PERSONAL MEANINGS OF DEATH IN OLDER ADULTS AND YOUNG ADULTS IN RELATION TO THEIR FEARS OF DEATH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age and gender differences in personal meanings of death have been noted from late childhood to middle adulthood but have been little studied in older adults, for whom death is less remote. Also, such meanings have not been related to their fears of death. Groups of 78 young adults (aged 19–29) and 68 older adults (aged 70–97) were compared on

VICTOR G. CICIRELLI

2001-01-01

404

Dietary iron concentration may influence aging process by altering oxidative stress in tissues of adult rats.  

PubMed

Iron is an essential element. However, in its free form, iron participates in redox-reactions, leading to the production of free radicals that increase oxidative stress and the risk of damaging processes. Living organisms have an efficient mechanism that regulates iron absorption according to their iron content to protect against oxidative damage. The effects of restricted and enriched-iron diets on oxidative stress and aging biomarkers were investigated. Adult Wistar rats were fed diets containing 10, 35 or 350 mg/kg iron (adult restricted-iron, adult control-iron and adult enriched-iron groups, respectively) for 78 days. Rats aged two months were included as a young control group. Young control group showed higher hemoglobin and hematocrit values, lower levels of iron and lower levels of MDA or carbonyl in the major studied tissues than the adult control group. Restricted-iron diet reduced iron concentrations in skeletal muscle and oxidative damage in the majority of tissues and also increased weight loss. Enriched-iron diet increased hematocrit values, serum iron, gamma-glutamyl transferase, iron concentrations and oxidative stress in the majority of tissues. As expected, young rats showed higher mRNA levels of heart and hepatic L-Ferritin (Ftl) and kidneys SMP30 as well as lower mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and interleukin-1 beta (Il1b) and also lower levels of liver protein ferritin. Restricted-iron adult rats showed an increase in heart Ftl mRNA and the enriched-iron adult rats showed an increase in liver nuclear factor erythroid derived 2 like 2 (Nfe2l2) and Il1b mRNAs and in gut divalent metal transporter-1 mRNA (Slc11a2) relative to the control adult group. These results suggest that iron supplementation in adult rats may accelerate aging process by increasing oxidative stress while iron restriction may retards it. However, iron restriction may also impair other physiological processes that are not associated with aging. PMID:23593390

Arruda, Lorena Fernandes; Arruda, Sandra Fernandes; Campos, Natália Aboudib; de Valencia, Fernando Fortes; Siqueira, Egle Machado de Almeida

2013-04-12

405

Kin discrimination in prepubescent and adult Long-Evans rats.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the preference of prepubescent and adult rats for an unrelated conspecific over a closely related conspecific (e.g., father, mother). Preference was measured by the amount of time spent in the vicinity of the stimulus animals as well as who was visited first. To prevent mating behavior, stimulus animals were housed behind wire-mesh. Experiment 1 determined if adult female offspring prefer an unrelated, unfamiliar adult male or their father. The preference of adult female rats was independent of kinship. Experiment 2 evaluated the preference of prepubescent female and male offspring for an unrelated, unfamiliar adult male or their father. The preference of prepubescent female and male rats was also independent of kinship. Experiment 3 evaluated the preference of adult male offspring for an unrelated, unfamiliar adult female or their mother. The preference of adult male rats was independent of kinship. In summary, prepubescent and adult rats do not demonstrate preference for kin vs. non-kin (as measured by time spent near stimulus animals or who was visited first). Although kin recognition provides a mechanism for inbreeding avoidance (Wilson, 1987), in the present study adult rats show no evidence of inbreeding avoidance. PMID:22579440

Bolton, Jessica L; Winland, Carissa; Ford, Brittany; Burbey, Alexandra; Zewail-Foote, Maha; Guarraci, Fay A

2012-05-02

406

Illicit drug use in young adults and subsequent decline in general health: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The long-term health consequences of drug use among healthy young adults in the general population are not well described. We assessed whether drug use predicted decline in general self-rated health (GSRH) in a community-based cohort, healthy at baseline.\\u000aMETHODS: A prospective cohort of 3124 young adults (20-32 years old) from four US cities, the Coronary Artery Risk Development in

Stefan G. Kertesz; Mark J. Pletcher; Monika M. Safford; Jewell H. Halanych; Katharine Kirk; Joseph Schumacher; Stephen Sidney; Catarina I. Kiefe

2006-01-01

407

Parental smoking and vascular damage in young adult offspring: is early life exposure critical? The Atherosclerosis Risk in Young Adults study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective—Our purpose was to study the association between familial and particularly fetal tobacco smoke exposure and vascular damage in young adulthood. Methods and Results—From a cohort of 732 young adults, birth data were collected and in young adulthood ultrasound measurement of common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) was performed. Data on parental smoking were obtained by standardized questionnaires. Twenty-nine percent

Caroline C. Geerts; D. E. Grobbee; M. L. Bots; Cuno S. P. M. Uiterwaal

2007-01-01

408

Gait Analysis of Adult Paraplegic Rats after Spinal Cord Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a novel detailed method of analysis of rat gait and uses this method to demonstrate recovery of forward locomotion patterns in adult rats made paraplegic by surgical spinal cord transection and subjected to a novel strategy for spinal cord repair. Six normal rats were compared to five animals in which the cord was transected at T8–T9, and

Henrich Cheng; Susanne Almström; Lydia Giménez-Llort; Robert Chang; Sven Ove Ögren; Barry Hoffer; Lars Olson

1997-01-01

409

Fractalkine and CX 3CR1 regulate hippocampal neurogenesis in adult and aged rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microglia have neuroprotective capacities, yet chronic activation can promote neurotoxic inflammation. Neuronal fractalkine (FKN), acting on CX3CR1, has been shown to suppress excessive microglia activation. We found that disruption in FKN\\/CX3CR1 signaling in young adult rodents decreased survival and proliferation of neural progenitor cells through IL-1?. Aged rats were found to have decreased levels of hippocampal FKN protein; moreover, interruption

Adam D. Bachstetter; Josh M. Morganti; Jennifer Jernberg; Andrea Schlunk; Staten H. Mitchell; Kaelin W. Brewster; Charles E. Hudson; Michael J. Cole; Jeffrey K. Harrison; Paula C. Bickford; Carmelina Gemma

2011-01-01

410

Gonadectomy Impairs T-Maze Acquisition in Adult Male Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that chronic gonadectomy increases the density of dopaminergic axons in prefrontal but not sensorimotor cortices in adult male rats. Since supranormal prefrontal cortical dopamine stimulation is known to impair rats' performance in T-maze delayed alternation paradigms, we tested whether long-term gonadectomy might also impair T-maze performance. For comparison, sensorimotor functions were also assessed. Adult male rats

M. F. Kritzer; P. J. McLaughlin; T. Smirlis; J. K. Robinson

2001-01-01

411

Neuropsychological rehabilitation after closed head injury in young adults.  

PubMed Central

Cognitive and personality disturbances following severe closed head injury in young adults are associated with poor rehabilitation outcome. Yet systematic programmes for dealing with these disturbances have generally not appeared. The present report briefly describes the Neuropsychological Rehabilitation Program (NRP) at Presbyterian Hospital in Oklahoma City and the initial outcome data on eighteen closed head injury patients and seventeen untreated controls. Greater improvement in neuropsychological functioning occurred in the NRP patient group on selected variables, but generally the effects were modest. Emotional distress, however, substantially decreased in treated patients. Fifty percent of the NRP patients maintained productivity 75% of the time or more following rehabilitation, compared to 36% of the controls. Treatment successes showed less personality disturbances than treatment failures and better learning and memory scores post-treatment.

Prigatano, G P; Fordyce, D J; Zeiner, H K; Roueche, J R; Pepping, M; Wood, B C

1984-01-01

412

Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability Among Young Adults in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high prevalence setting of South Africa—where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. In 2007, we conducted six focus groups (n=42) with South Africans aged 18-24 years old. We used a deductive framework approach to identify key motivators and barriers to future HIV vaccine uptake. Participants identified HIV testing, HIV stigma, mistrust of the health care system, and concerns about sexual disinhibition as barriers to vaccine uptake. For women, family members and friends were strong motivators for vaccine uptake, while men were more likely to see vaccines as an opportunity to stop using HIV prevention strategies such as condoms and partner reductions. Implications of these findings for developing HIV vaccine dissemination strategies and policy in South Africa are discussed.

Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

2010-01-01

413

Miranda Rights Comprehension in Young Adults With Specific Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 young adults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language impairment (SLI). A correlational analysis of the relationship between language scores and Miranda rights comprehension was conducted, as were tests of differences between individuals with SLI (n = 17) and individuals without SLI. Results Language ability was positively correlated with overall performance on the Miranda measure. As a group, individuals with SLI were significantly poorer than their peers with normal language at defining Miranda vocabulary and applying Miranda rights in hypothetical situations. The group with SLI was also marginally less able to paraphrase Miranda sentences. Conclusion Language impairment limits comprehension of Miranda warnings. As a result, citizens with language impairment are at risk of being denied their constitutional rights.

Rost, Gwyneth C.; McGregor, Karla K.

2013-01-01

414

Evaluation of an AIDS education programme for young adults.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVES--To evaluate the impact of an AIDS education programme designed for young adults. DESIGN--A randomised trial with a pre-post test design. SETTING--Participants were drawn from six youth training centres in the city of Nottingham, England. STUDY POPULATION--All trainees aged 16-19 years attending the six centres were included in the sample and centres were randomly allocated to experimental (n = 173) and control (n = 164) groups. The response rate to both questionnaires was high (71%). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Data on sexual behaviour, knowledge, and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS were obtained by confidential questionnaire. Two thirds of the sample were sexually active. There were no differences between groups at pre-test and no differences by sex. The experimental group had a significantly higher level of knowledge than the control group post-test. Significantly more experimental than control trainees knew post-test that HIV could be transmitted via anal sex and through broken skin. In addition, twice as many experimental (53%) as control trainees (25%; p < 0.001) were aware that a cure for AIDS was unlikely in the near future. There were no observed effects on sexual behaviour, intentions, or attitudes. CONCLUSIONS--The Streetwize UK educational programme had a significant impact on young adults' knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention in the short term. If community based AIDS education is to do more than merely inform, however, resources must be made available for peer led interventions and skills training.

Bellingham, K; Gillies, P

1993-01-01

415

Physical activity, fitness, and metabolic syndrome in young adults.  

PubMed

Purpose: Our objective was to analyze the association between different intensities of physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and metabolic syndrome (MS) in young adults. Methods: Cross-sectional study including 275 university students, 18-30 years old, from Cuenca, Spain. We evaluated (a) physical activity using accelerometry, (b) aerobic capacity (VO2max), and (c) muscle strength, by a muscle strength index calculated as the sum of the standardized z score of handgrip dynamometry/weight and standing broad jump. An MS index was estimated by summing standardized z scores of waist circumference, ratio of triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein, mean arterial blood pressure, and HOMA-IR. Results: The mean scores of MS index and HOMA-IR were significantly higher and the VO2max significantly lower for individuals who did not perform 20 min or more per week of vigorous physical activity. However, those who performed 250 min/week of moderate physical activity showed no significant differences in either VO2max or the MS index when compared with individuals who did not perform this level of activity. The MS index was lower in those with medium-high levels of aerobic capacity. In addition, individuals with medium-high levels of muscular fitness showed lower waist circumference and a lower MS index. Conclusions: VO2max and muscle strength are negatively associated with metabolic risk. 20-min/week of vigorous physical activity was associated with lower cardiometabolic risk in young adults; moderate physical activity did not show association with lower cardiometabolic risk. PMID:23994896

López-Martínez, Sara; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Solera-Martinez, Montserrat; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Fuentes-Chacón, Rosa M; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

2013-08-01

416

Isometric training of young rats — Effects upon hind limb muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soleus, reetus femoris, and gastrocnemius muscles of young rats trained isometrically for 4 weeks were studied by light and electron microscopy.—The percentage of fast-twitch oxidative muscle fibers decreased at the cost of the fast-twitch glycolytic fibers in the rectus femoris muscle. The percentages of the slow-twitch oxidative fibers did not change significantly in any of the muscles studied. The

Werner Mtiller; W. Vogell

1975-01-01

417

Proline impairs energy metabolism in cerebral cortex of young rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we investigated the effect of acute hyperprolinemia on some parameters of energy metabolism, including\\u000a the activities of succinate dehydrogenase and cytocrome c oxidase and 14CO2 production from glucose and acetate in cerebral cortex of young rats. Lipid peroxidation determined by the levels of thiobarbituric\\u000a acid-reactive substances, as well as the influence of the antioxidants ?-tocopherol plus

Andréa G. K. Ferreira; Daniela D. Lima; Débora Delwing; Vanize Mackedanz; Bárbara Tagliari; Janaína Kolling; Patrícia F. Schuck; Moacir Wajner; Angela T. S. Wyse

2010-01-01

418

The Cultural Work of Magical Realism in Three Young Adult Novels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Magical realism as a literary mode is often subversive and transgressive, questioning the values and assumptions of the dominant society that it depicts. Young adult literature, by contrast, is typically thought to serve a socializing function, helping to integrate young readers into adult society. What then is the cultural work of magical realism…

Latham, Don

2007-01-01

419

The Learning Needs of Young Adults with Mental Health Difficulties. NIACE Briefing Sheet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A 1996 report recognized the benefits of effective learning provision and the impact that mental health difficulties can have on quality of life of young adults in the United Kingdom. The range of mental health difficulties experienced by young adults in the United Kingdom and elsewhere is similar to that experienced by the older population and…

National Inst. of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester (England).

420

Reactive and Proactive Control in Incarcerated and Community Adolescents and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compared the cognitive control skills of male incarcerated adolescents (n = 44), male control adolescents (n = 33), male incarcerated young adults (n = 41), and male control young adults (n = 35) using the AX-continuous performance test (AX-CPT). This test measures proactive control (the ability to maintain a mental representation of…

Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

2009-01-01

421

Effectiveness of a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Young Adults with Cystic Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral intervention for young adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Four young adults were referred for the therapy by medical staff because of perceived problems with anxiety, anger, or coping. Treatment impact was assessed on measures of anxiety, anger, perceptions of functional disability, and coping. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used.

Anthony A. Hains; W. Hobart Davies; Darcia Behrens; Mary Ellen Freeman; Julie A. Biller

2001-01-01

422

Risk Perceptions and Behavioral Intentions for Hepatitis B: How Do Young Adults Fare?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Young adults are at risk for Hepatitis B infection. Little is known about their attitudes and beliefs concerning Hepatitis B, which are determinants of getting immunized. This investigation examined risk perceptions and behavioral intentions concerning Hepatitis B among a convenience sample of 1070 young adults, 18-24 years old who participated…

Gonzales, R. M.; Glik, D. C.; Prelip, M.; Bourque, L.; Yuen, J.; Ang, A.; Jones, M. C.

2006-01-01

423

UK young adults' safety awareness online – is it a ‘girl thing’?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a recent research project undertaken in the UK that investigated young adults' perception of potentially risky behaviour online. The research was undertaken through the use of an online survey associated with the UK teen soap opera Being Victor. The findings of the project suggest that this sample of British young adults was mostly aware of the

Sarah Pedersen

2012-01-01

424

On the Border: Young Adults with LGBQ Parents Navigate LGBTQ Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Little research has examined the perspectives of young adults with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) parents, particularly in relation to their identification with the LGBTQ community. To address this gap, we conducted a qualitative study of 42 young adults (ages 18-29) who were raised by LGBQ parents. We found that…

Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Richardson, Hannah B.; Downing, Jordan B.

2012-01-01

425

Leadership Ability of Young Rural Adults in North Dakota. Report No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perceived leadership abilities of young adults residing in rural areas of North Dakota were assessed. Data were collected by use of a mail questionnaire sent to 578 young adults aged 18 to 40 residing in cities with a population of fewer than 2,500 and in those areas outside of towns and cities. About three-fourths of the respondents were…

Luft, Vernon D.

426

Relationships Between Certain Background Factors of Young Adults and Their Expressed Attitudes Toward Selected Ethical Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between background characteristics of young adults such as sex, marital status, parenthood, income level, age, educational background, occupational level, and church participation were studied as to their influence on the ethical values of marital fidelity, honesty, and goodwill. Of 400 young adults in 52 Protestant congregations…

Johnstone, William Milton

427

Renal, cardiovascular and hormonal characteristics of young adults with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal, cardiovascular and hormonal characteristics of young adults with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. We studied young adults with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) to determine the characteristics that precede renal impairment. Nineteen affected (A) and 20 unaffected (U) offspring from families with ADPKD showed no significant differences in basal glomerular filtration rate (A: mean 97, SD 19; U:

Stephen B Harrap; David L Davies; Ann M Macnicol; Anna F Dominiczak; Robert Fraser; Alan F Wright; Michael L Watson; J Douglas Briggs

1991-01-01

428

Healthy Behaviors and Lifestyles in Young Adults with a History of Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Measure select Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators in young adults with and without a history of developmental disabilities (DD) using a population-based cohort. Methods: Young adults were interviewed to assess the prevalence of seven Leading Health Indicators: physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance…

Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Schendel, Diana; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

2006-01-01

429

Education, Employment, and Independent Living of Young Adults Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information is available on the education, employment, and independent living status of young deaf and hard of hearing adults who have transitioned from high school. The present article reports post-secondary outcomes of 46 young adults who had attended for at least 4 years a non–public agency school in the northwestern United States specializing in deaf education. School administrators had

Karen I. Appelman; Judy Ottren Callahan; Margaret H. Mayer; Barbara S. Luetke; Deborah S. Stryker

2012-01-01

430

Cannabis and Anxiety and Depression in Young Adults: A Large Prospective Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To examine whether age of first use or frequency of use of cannabis is associated with anxiety and depression (AD) in young adults, independent of known potential confounders, including the use of other illicit drugs. Method: A cohort of 3,239 Australian young adults was followed from birth to the age of 21 when data on AD were…

Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad R.; Najman, Jake M.; Jamrozik, Konrad; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Alati, Rosa; Bor, William

2007-01-01

431

The Longitudinal Relationships between Rural Adolescents' Prosocial Behaviors and Young Adult Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While many adolescents and young adults experiment with substances (e.g., alcohol, cigarette smoking, marijuana), recent research suggests that rural youth and young adults may be more at risk for substance use than their urban counterparts. This study was designed to examine the longitudinal relationships between rural adolescents' prosocial…

Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Beal, Sarah J.

2011-01-01

432

FOOD PATTERNS ASSOCIATED WITH COMPONENTS OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN YOUNG ADULTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Young adults are a nutritionally vulnerable, poorly studied group; little is known about their risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Dietary intake data were collected in 1995-1996 on 1,012 young adults (20-38 years) (61% female; 21% black) using the youth/adolescent questionnaire, a semi-quantitativ...

433

Macrostructural Narrative Language of Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome or Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To gain a better understanding of language abilities, the expressive macrostructural narrative language abilities of verbally expressive adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) and those with fragile X syndrome (FXS) were examined. Method: The authors evaluated 24 adolescents and young adults with DS, 12 male adolescents and…

Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Palmer, Meghan; Abbeduto, Leonard

2012-01-01

434

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND HEALTH ENHANCING DIETARY BEHAVIORS IN YOUNG ADULTS: BOGALUSA HEART STUDY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Obesity results from energy imbalance. This study used data from the Bogalusa Heart Study to examine relationships between the dietary and physical activity behaviors of young adults. One thousand one hundred ninety-one young adults (76% Euro-American, 24% African-American, 61% female) completed a f...

435

Reading for a Better World: Teaching for Social Responsibility with Young Adult Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teaching for social responsibility should be one of the vital aims of our schools. Young adult literature offers an authentic, meaningful, and critical way to teach for social responsibility. This article offers an overview of the different elements of social responsibility and some young adult novels and graphic novels that could be used to…

Wolk, Steven

2009-01-01

436

The Relationship among Alcohol Consumption, Dietery Intake, and Body Mass Index in Young Adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Little is known about the relationship of diet and weight to alcohol consumption in young adults. Dietary intake data were collected in 1995–1996 on 1,335 young adults (20–38 years) (62% female; 27% black) using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (YAQ), and the Health Lifestyle-Behavio...

437

Transitions from School for Young Adults with Intellectual Disability: Parental Perspectives on "Life as an Adjustment"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Few studies have investigated transition programs and outcomes for young adults with disabilities as viewed from the parent perspective. The current Australian study provided a voice for parents to report on the experiences of and outcomes for young adults following their recent transition from school into post-school life. Method: A…

Davies, Michael D.; Beamish, Wendi

2009-01-01

438

Predictors of Work Participation of Young Adults with Mild Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among young adults with ID is lacking altogether.…

Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

2013-01-01

439

Intergenerational Contact and the Life Course Status of Young Adult Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined how the life course status of young adults--whether they have a romantic partner and whether they have children--is related to how often they have contact with their parents. Hypotheses were tested using recent data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study. The main sample included 1,911 young adults between the ages of 18 and…

Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie; Hagendoorn, Louk

2008-01-01

440

Career Interests and Self-Estimated Abilities of Young Adults with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to ascertain vocational interests and self-estimated work-relevant abilities of young adults with disabilities. Results showed that young adults with both low incidence and high incidence disabilities have a wide range of interests and self-estimated work-relevant abilities that are comparable to those in the general…

Turner, Sherri; Unkefer, Lesley Craig; Cichy, Bryan Ervin; Peper, Christine; Juang, Ju-Ping

2011-01-01

441

Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention and Intervention in a Community Setting: Perspectives of Young Adults and Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adolescent dating violence (ADV) is a significant community problem. In this study, we examine the perspectives of two groups (young adults who experienced ADV as teens and professionals who work with teens) on ADV prevention/intervention in a community context. We interviewed 88 young adults and 20 professionals. Our research team used Thorne's…

Martsolf, Donna S.; Colbert, Crystal; Draucker, Claire B.

2012-01-01

442

Sexual Activity of Young Adults Who Are Visually Impaired and the Need for Effective Sex Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduction: Little research has been reported on all aspects of sexuality as it pertains to individuals with visual impairments. This article analyzes data on the sexual experiences of young adults who are visually impaired and young adults without disabilities. Methods: The authors conducted a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal…

Kelly, Stacy M.; Kapperman, Gaylen

2012-01-01

443

Adapting the Individual Placement and Support Model with Homeless Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless young adults. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining competitive employment; yet few examples exist to date with homeless young adults with mental…

Ferguson, Kristin M.; Xie, Bin; Glynn, Shirley

2012-01-01

444

Civic Engagement in Relation to Outcome Expectations among African American Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study examined civic engagement--volunteering and political activism--among 129 African American young adults from an urban community. The proposed model considered factors that motivate young adults to participate in civic activities as well as barriers that might inhibit involvement. Drawing upon social cognitive theory, this study…

Chung, He Len; Probert, Stephanie

2011-01-01

445

Sexual behavior and drug consumption among young adults in a shantytown in Lima, Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Risky sexual behaviors of young adults have received increasing attention during the last decades. However, few studies have focused on the sexual behavior of young adults in shantytowns of Latin America. Specifically, studies on the association between sexual behaviors and other risk factors for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV\\/AIDS transmission, such as the consumption of illicit drugs or

Juan A Gálvez-Buccollini; Suzanne DeLea; Phabiola M Herrera; Robert H Gilman; Valerie Paz-Soldan

2009-01-01

446

Being Close and Being Social: Peer Ratings of Distinct Aspects of Young Adult Social Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study had three main objectives: (1) to develop and validate scales of young adult social competence in two domains, close relationships and social groups, using peer ratings of California Q-sort (Block, 1974; Kremen & Block, 2002) items; (2) to test the hypothesis that social competence is associated with young adult well-being and ego development; (3) to test the

Justine J. Larson; Sarah W. Whitton; Stuart T. Hauser; Joseph P. Allen

2007-01-01

447

Meanings of Good Nonresidential Fathering: The Recollections of Young Adults with a Childhood Experience of Divorce  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to describe the meanings of good nonresidential fathering from the recollections of young adults with a childhood experience of divorce. An additional purpose was to identify barriers and contributions to good nonresidential fathering from the viewpoint of young adults. A phenomenological perspective was used to…

Wages, Alan, Jr.

2010-01-01

448

Factors Associated with herb and dietary supplement use by young adults in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between use of herbs and dietary supplements (HDS) and lifestyle\\/behavior factors in young adults in the US. METHODS: Analyzing the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we examined the patterns of HDS (excluding vitamins\\/minerals) use among young adults in the United States using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. RESULTS: In our sample of

Paula Gardiner; Kathi J Kemper; Anna Legedza; Russell S Phillips

2007-01-01

449

Parents Raising Young Adults on the Autism Spectrum: Perspectives on Advocacy and Occupational Balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an investigation of parents’ perspectives on advocacy actions and occupational balance raising young adults on the autism spectrum. Previous findings on parent advocacy have focused on mothers (1) and young children with autism (2); however data are sparse regarding parenting the older adult child on the autism spectrum. As children transition to adulthood, at

SherwinAndreaB

2009-01-01

450

Childhood Behavioral Problems Predict Young Adults' BMI and Obesity: Evidence From a Birth Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether behavioral problems in childhood and adolescence are associated with young adults' BMI and obesity, and tested whether childhood behavioral problems have a greater impact on young adults' obesity than adolescent behavioral problems. The data were from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) and Its Outcomes, a population-based birth cohort study commenced in Brisbane, Australia, in

Abdullah A. Mamun; Michael J. O'Callaghan; Susanna M. Cramb; Jake M. Najman; Gail M. Williams; William Bor

2009-01-01

451

Reading for a Better World: Teaching for Social Responsibility with Young Adult Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching for social responsibility should be one of the vital aims of our schools. Young adult literature offers an authentic, meaningful, and critical way to teach for social responsibility. This article offers an overview of the different elements of social responsibility and some young adult novels and graphic novels that could be used to teach…

Wolk, Steven

2009-01-01

452

Tensions in Teaching Adolescence/ts: Analyzing Resistances in a Young Adult Literature Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Identifying English Education courses focused on young adult literature as apposite sites for exploring teacher conceptions of youth and the texts aimed for youths' consumptions, this article addresses the multiple sources of tension--and pedagogical potential--of teaching a young adult literature course centrally framed around controversial…

Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

2012-01-01

453

Smoking and Attitudes on Smoke-Free Air Laws Among Club-Going Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report assesses smoking rates and support for indoor smoking bans among club-going young adults in New York City. Nearly half of the sample were smokers. Gay, lesbian, and bisexual young adults were more likely to smoke than were heterosexual participants. No differences in smoking rates were found between sexes or between Whites and non-Whites. Support for the smoking ban

Jonathan Weiser; Jeffrey Parsons

2009-01-01

454

PASSIVE SMOKING AND IMPAIRED ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT ARTERIAL DILATATION IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Passive smoking has been linked to an increased risk of dying from atherosclerotic heart disease. Since endothelial dysfunction is an early feature of atherogenesis and occurs in young adults who actively smoke cigarettes, we hypothesized that passive smoking might also be associated with endothelial dam- age in healthy young-adult nonsmokers. Methods. We studied 78 healthy subjects (39 male and

D AVID S. C ELERMAJER; M ARK R. A DAMS; P ETER C LARKSON; J ACQUI R OBINSON; J OHN

2010-01-01

455

Variables related to tobacco use among young adults: Are there differences between males and females?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to determine the association of four categories (chunks) of variables: (1) demographic characteristics, (2) family and friends smoking and other drug use, (3) psychosocial factors and attitude, and (4) lifestyle factors to current smoking as compared to never smoking among Canadian young adults. A cohort of 1270 young adults, followed for 10 years, completed a self-administered questionnaire. In multivariable

Linda L. Pederson; John J. Koval; Stella S. H. Chan; Xiaohe Zhang

2007-01-01

456

Prevalence of alternative forms of tobacco use in a population of young adult military recruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence suggests that the popularity of certain alternative forms of tobacco may be increasing in adolescents. Little is known, however, about the use of these products among young adults. This study examined the use of alternative tobacco products including bidis, cigars, kreteks (clove cigarettes), pipes, and smokeless tobacco in a large sample of young adult military recruits (N=31107). Overall,

Mark W. Vander Weg; Alan L. Peterson; Jon O. Ebbert; Margaret DeBon; Robert C. Klesges; C. Keith Haddock

2008-01-01

457

Young adults with head and neck cancer express increased susceptibility to mutagen-induced chromosome damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors that contribute to an increased prevalence of squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract among young adults in the United States remain unknown. A potential etiologic factor may relate to a genetically controlled sensitivity to environmental carcinogens. This study, therefore, examined 20 young adult patients who had squamous cell carcinoma for mutagen-induced chromosome sensitivity. Lymphocytes from respective patients

S. P. Schantz; T. C. Hsu; N. Ainslie; R. P. Moser

1989-01-01

458

Purchase of clothing and its linkage to family communication and lifestyles among young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how family communication patterns and lifestyles are linked to purchases of sports shoes and casual clothing for young adults. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The survey was conducted in 2005, and total valid samples were 576. Differences in purchasing decisions among various segments of young adults are analysed for two product categories: sports

Jane Lu Hsu; Kai-Ming Chang

2008-01-01

459

Characteristics and psychological correlates of young adult men's and women's subjective age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined young adult men's and women's subjective perceptions of their age along several dimensions including how old they felt, looked, acted, desired to be, and thought they were regarded by others. The relationship between young adults' subjective age identities and other perceptions of the self were also examined. It was found that both men and women felt and

Joann M. Montepare

1991-01-01

460

Risk perceptions and behavioral intentions for Hepatitis B: how do young adults fare?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young adults are at risk for Hepatitis B in- fection. Little is known about their attitudes and beliefs concerning Hepatitis B, which are determinants of getting immunized. This inves- tigation examined risk perceptions and behav- ioral intentions concerning Hepatitis B among a convenience sample of 1070 young adults, 18-24 years old who participated in a Hepati- tis B campaign that

R. M. Gonzales; D. C. Glik; M. Prelip; L. Bourque; J. Yuen; A. Ang; M. C. Jones

2006-01-01

461

Young Adult Follow-Up of Hyperactive Children: Antisocial Activities and Drug Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Hyperactive/ADHD children are believed to be a greater risk for adolescent and young adult antisocial activity and drug use/abuse, particularly that subset having comorbid conduct problems/disorder. Method: We report on the lifetime antisocial activities and illegal drug use self-reported at young adult follow-up (mean age 20-21…

Barkley, Russell A.; Fischer, Mariellen; Smallish, Lori; Fletcher, Kenneth

2004-01-01

462

More Than Kids Stuff: Can News and Information Web Sites Mobilize Young Adults?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many young adults are not politically active. Since 1972, their participation and interest levels have declined not only in absolute terms but also relative to other voting-age groups. This paper examines how the Internet can reverse this trend. It focuses on how leading news and political information Web sites affected young adults during the…

Lupia, Arthur; Philpot, Tasha S.

463

Funding Challenges During Transition to Adulthood for Young Adults Who Use Medical Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes some issues related to financing school and postschool needs for young adults who use medical technology, and the challenges families, professionals, and students face in planning for life after school. These descriptions are based on a study of young adults who use ventilators and gastrostomy tubes (g-tubes) as medical technologies to replace or supplement lost physiological functions.

Gardner T. Umbarger; H. Rutherford Turnbull; Mary E. Morningstar; Amanda Reichard; Rebecca L. Moberly

2001-01-01

464

Perception of asthma as a factor in career choice among young adults with asthma  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/AIM: Asthma is a common chronic condition that can be aggravated by workplace exposures. Young adults with asthma should know how their future occupation might affect their asthma, and potentially, their quality of life. The aim of the present study was to assess the awareness of young adults to occupational risks for asthma and high-risk occupations, as well as their perception of the role of asthma in career choice. METHODS: Young adults 16 to 22 years of age with reported physician-diagnosed asthma were recruited to complete a questionnaire eliciting information regarding asthma control, career choice and awareness of occupational exposure risks. RESULTS: A small majority of the study cohort (56.4%) could identify occupations that cause or exacerbate asthma, and 34.7% indicated that asthma was an important factor in their career plans. Family physicians were most responsible for asthma management (80.2%), but young adults were more likely to discuss asthma and career plans with their parents (43.6%) or friends (29.7%) than with their family physician (13.9%; P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Young adults with asthma have suboptimal awareness of potential work-related asthma risks. Family physicians most commonly provide asthma care to these young adults. However, few young adults are talking to their family physicians about career choices and asthma. This observation represents an area of asthma care that needs to be explored in young adults with asthma.

Bhinder, Sacha; Cicutto, Lisa; Abdel-Qadir, Husam M; Tarlo, Susan M

2009-01-01

465

Identifying Clinically Distinct Subgroups of Self-Injurers among Young Adults: A Latent Class Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|High rates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI; 14%-17%) in adolescents and young adults suggest that some self-injurers may exhibit more or different psychiatric problems than others. In the present study, the authors utilized a latent class analysis to identify clinically distinct subgroups of self-injurers. Participants were 205 young adults with…

Klonsky, E. David; Olino, Thomas M.

2008-01-01

466

INTERGENERATIONAL SHARING SEMINARS: THEIR IMPACT ON YOUNG ADULT COLLEGE STUDENTS AND SENIOR GUEST STUDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3?month intergenerational program was developed on the premise that it is important for young adults, who are in the formative period of career development and direction, to experience the benefits of positive interaction with older persons. Program evaluation findings showed that participation not only influenced the young adults’ interest in gerontology, but also increased their willingness to accept older

Lynda Fowler; Donna Lambert; Dorothy Fruit; Rhonda Richardson

1994-01-01

467

Physical activity levels and determinants of change in young adults: a longitudinal panel study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is growing concern about physical inactivity in adolescents and young adults. Identifying determinants that are associated with low levels of physical activity and with changes in physical activity levels will help to develop specific prevention strategies. The present study describes the prevalence and potential determinants of physical activity behavior and behavior changes of young adults. The study is

Dorith Zimmermann-Sloutskis; Miriam Wanner; Erwin Zimmermann; Brian W Martin

2010-01-01

468

The Learning Needs of Young Adults with Mental Health Difficulties. NIACE Briefing Sheet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 1996 report recognized the benefits of effective learning provision and the impact that mental health difficulties can have on quality of life of young adults in the United Kingdom. The range of mental health difficulties experienced by young adults in the United Kingdom and elsewhere is similar to that experienced by the older population and…

National Inst. of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester (England).

469

What Do Young Adult Novels Say about HIV/AIDS? A Second Look  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adult information needs related to HIV/AIDS persist. However, in recent years, little has been written in either the research or the professional literature in library and information science about the HIV/AIDS information needs of youth. This article reports on a content analysis of young adult novels written in English between 1995 and…

Gross, Melissa; Goldsmith, Annette; Carruth, Debi

2008-01-01

470

My Scars Tell a Story: Self-Mutilation in Young Adult Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem novel has long been a staple of young adult literature, so it is no surprise that the issue of “cutting,” a primarily adolescent affliction, is addressed in this literature. Adolescents who purposely cut themselves with sharp objects in order to feel pleasure, to deal with pain, or to feel release have appeared in young adult fiction since the

Jennifer. Miskec; Chris. McGee

2007-01-01

471

Teaching Adolescent/Young Adult Literature: Course Handbook II--Education L535.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook presents two core units for a distance education course that provides an introduction to the genre of texts targeted for adolescent/young adult readers. The first core unit in the handbook discusses the teaching of literary aspects of using adolescent/young adult literature. The second core unit addresses alternative approaches to…

Mikulecky, Larry, Comp.; And Others

472

Social Influences Are Associated With BMI and Weight Loss Intentions in Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Christakis and colleagues have shown that health behaviors cluster in social networks and suggest social norms may account for the clustering. This study examined: (i) whether obesity clusters among young adults and whether social norms do in fact account for the clustering, and (ii) among overweight\\/obese (OW\\/OB) young adults, whether number of social contacts trying to lose weight is associated

Tricia M. Leahey; Jessica Gokee LaRose; Joseph L. Fava; Rena R. Wing

2011-01-01

473

Determinants of body fatness in young adults living in a Dutch community  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1979, the Department of Human Nutrition of the Agricultural University at Wageningen began a research project on obesity in young adults. The main objectives of this project are the investigation of aetiological aspects and health consequences of obesity. It is a prospective study and is being carried out in a young adult population of three age groups (19-21, 24-26

J. A. H. Baecke

1982-01-01

474

The Influence of Changes in Marital Status on Developmental Trajectories of Alcohol Use in Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective. Multiple group latent curve analysis was used to assess the impact of changes in marital status on alcohol use trajecto- ries in young adults and to test if these effects varied across ethnicity and gender. Method: Four years of data were obtained from a sample of young adults (N = 4,052; 54% male) drawn from the National Longitudinal

Patrick J. Curran; Bengt O. Muthin; Thomas C. Harford

475

Using Alcohol to Sell Cigarettes to Young Adults: A Content Analysis of Cigarette Advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Advertising influences the health-related behaviors of college-aged individuals. Cigarette manufacturers aggressively market to young adults and may exploit their affinity for alcohol when creating advertisements designed to increase cigarettes' appeal. Internal tobacco industry documents reveal that cigarette manufacturers understood the popularity of alcohol among young adults and sought to produce pertinent marketing strategies. Methods: The authors conducted a content

Sarah A. Belstock; Gregory N. Connolly; Carrie M. Carpenter; Lindsey Tucker

2008-01-01

476

Stuttering, attractiveness and romantic relationships: The perception of adolescents and young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible negative impact of stuttering on romantic opportunities for adolescents and young adults who stutter. The first part of the study investigated if being a person who stutters affects the attractiveness of adolescents and young adults to their peers. To this end, 343 males and 393 females were shown age-matched pictures

John Van Borsel; Marie Brepoels; Janne De Coene

2011-01-01