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The effects of bilateral kidney irradiation were compared in young and adultrats. During a 1 year period after a single dose of 0, 7.5, 10, 12.5, or 15 Gy on both kidneys, renal function (glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow), urine composition, and systolic blood pressure were measured periodically. The first changes after irradiation were observed in the glomerular filtration rate and urine osmolality. One month after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine osmolality had declined below control values in the youngrats. After this initial decline, renal function increased at control rate or even more during the third and fourth month after irradiation but decreased progressively thereafter. In the adultrats, GFR and urine osmolality started to decrease 3 months after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy. A rise in systolic blood pressure and proteinuria started 2-3 months after 12.5 and 15 Gy in both age groups. Early changes in the glomerular filtration rate with a drop in urine osmolality in youngrats, occurring during a period of rapid renal development indicated an irradiation-induced inhibition of glomerular and tubular development. Although renal function deteriorated at a later time in adultrats, dose-response relationships obtained in young and adultrats did not show significant differences.
Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.
Signal transduction cascade, phosphoinositide metabolism, and protein kinases were studied from discrete areas of rat brain like cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brainstem, and diencephalon as well as lymphocytes isolated from three different age groups of rats; young (1 month), youngadult (3–4 months), and adult (12 months) rats. The activities of protein kinase A, protein kinase C, phospholipase A2 and phospholipase
Dermal penetration of [14C] Captan was determined in young (33 day old) and adult (82 day old) female Fischer 344 rats by an in vivo method and two in vitro methods. ermal penetration in vivo at 72 hours was about 9% of the dose in both young and adultrats. o significant differe...
Myogenic factor mRNA expression was examined during muscle regeneration after bupivacaine injection in Fischer 344/Brown Norway F1 rats aged 3, 18, and 31 mo of age (young, adult, and old, respectively). Mass of the tibialis anterior muscle in the youngrats had recovered to control values by 21 days postbupivacaine injection but in adult and old rats remained 40% less than that of contralateral controls at 21 and 28 days of recovery. During muscle regeneration, myogenin mRNA was significantly increased in muscles of young, adult, and old rats 5 days after bupivacaine injection. Subsequently, myogenin mRNA levels in youngrat muscle decreased to postinjection control values by day 21 but did not return to control values in 28-day regenerating muscles of adult and old rats. The expression of MyoD mRNA was also increased in muscles at day 5 of regeneration in young, adult, and old rats, decreased to control levels by day 14 in young and adultrats, and remained elevated in the old rats for 28 days. In summary, either a diminished ability to downregulate myogenin and MyoD mRNAs in regenerating muscle occurs in old rat muscles, or the continuing myogenic effort includes elevated expression of these mRNAs.
Marsh, D. R.; Criswell, D. S.; Carson, J. A.; Booth, F. W.
Articles in this theme issue focus on youngadults and genealogy, music videos, public access microcomputer software selection, literature for and about Black adolescents, library services to reluctant readers, booktalks, historical fiction, the role of youngadult services librarians, and the need for adolescents to find their roots through…
The delivery and pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine A (CyA) given locally to the airways or iv was evaluated in young and adultrats. After intratracheal (i.t.) instillation of saline suspended CyA to adultrats, the CyA plasma levels peaked at 30 min with a bioavailability of 78.1 +/- 6.9%. After the i.t. instillation of CyA with micelles forming surfactant, Cremophor EL, in adult and youngrats, the plasma levels peaked at 5 min with a bioavailability of 77.5 +/- 7.2% and 66.3 +/- 4.5%, respectively. The bioavailability of aerosolized CyA was 80.1 +/- 4.1% in adults. Thus, CyA is absorbed by the lungs into the systemic circulation of the rat in high amounts, independent of age and type of delivery system. Long-term treatment with i.t. instillations did not affect body weight gain in young and adultrats, and no histopathological changes were found in the lungs. It is important to emphasize that CyA plasma clearance in youngrats was lower and elimination half-life longer than in adults. The slow elimination of CyA in youngrats indicated profound pharmacokinetic age differences for this species. PMID:9280398
Taljanski, W; Pierzynowski, S G; Lundin, P D; Westrom, B R; Eirefelt, S; Podlesny, J; Dahlback, M; Siwinska-Golebiowska, H; Karlsson, B W
The binding of lead in the blood of young and adultrats was studied. A single intravenous dose of lead citrate (0.5 mg/kg) labeled with /sup 203/Pb was given to 2-week-old suckling rats and 19-week-old female albino rats. The whole blood content and distribution of lead between plasma and blood cells were measured 24 h later. The chelatable fraction of lead was estimated in vitro by incubating the blood cells of young and adultrats with a combination of chelating agents - EDTA plus BAL (0.4 mmole). This experiment revealed that youngrats accumulated a higher percentage of the lead dose in whole blood in comparison to adults. The results of distribution of lead between plasma and blood cells showed that youngrats had a higher content of lead in plasma. The chelatable fraction of lead bound to blood cells was almost three times greater in immature animals than in adults. It is concluded that lead binding in blood basically differs between young and adultrats probably due to the existence of different lead-binding ligands.
The brain derived peptidergic drug Cerebrolysin has been found to support the survival of neurons in vitro and in vivo. Positive effects on learning and memory have been demonstrated in various animal models and also in clinical trials. In the present study the effects of early postnatal administration of Cerebrolysin (Cere, 10 mg/ml peptides) or an enriched peptide fraction of Cere (E021, 80.6 mg/ml peptides) were investigated in young, youngadult, and old adultrats. Rat pups received the drugs or saline for control on postnatal days 1-7. The animals were tested in the Morris water maze (MWM) either in the 5th week, in the 3rd or the 16th month of life for 6 consecutive days (test days 1-6), eight trials per day. In order to prevent the chance finding of the hidden platform, the rigid underwater platform was replaced by a collapsible island, resting at the bottom of the pool. The platform was raised when the animal stayed in the target area for 2 s. In the young and youngadultrats both Cere and E021 treated rats showed shorter escape latencies than saline treated controls on all 6 test days. No significant differences in the swimming speed were evaluated for the youngrats, although in 3-month-old drug-tested animals a moderate increase of the swimming speed was investigated. For 16-month-old animals no significant differences in either escape latencies or swimming speed was found. Summarizing, early postnatal application of Cere or E021 improved the spatial learning and memory of youngrats and led to long-lasting behavioural effects at least up to 3 months after treatment. PMID:10212063
This study addresses whether the vasculature grows in proportion to the myocardium as the rat heart develops. The volume of myocardium and coronary vessels were estimated from micro-CT images of the hearts injected with Microfil(R) contrast agent. Young (n=5) and adult (n=5) hearts were scanned, resulting in 3D images comprised of 20?m on-a-side cubic voxels. The myocardial muscle and vessel lumen volumes were measured for all vessels 40 to 320?m in diameter by an erosion and dilation method applied to the binary images in which the contrast in the vessels were assigned "1" and all non-opacified entities were assigned "0". The average total muscle volume increases by 50%, 129.4 to 237.4mm3, from young to adultrats, while the luminal volume increases by 10%, 16.6 to 18.6mm3. The vessel volume is 12% of the total muscle volume in young and 8% in adults. For a given vessel volume, the muscle volume in the young is 82% of the muscle volume in adults. We conclude that as the heart matures, the myocardium grows more rapidly than the vasculature. This may result in greater angles of separation between vessel branches, and the increase in myocardial coronary volume. The ratio suggests either higher blood flow velocity or a lower metabolic rate in adults.
Schaefer, Heather M.; Beighley, Patricia E.; Eaker, Diane R.; Vercnocke, Andrew J.; Ritman, Erik L.
To determine if radiation-induced apoptosis occurred in youngadult brain, we exposed 2–3-month old rats to single x-ray doses of 5 or 30 Gy. Apoptosis was quantified using the TdT mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method and a morphologic assessment of nuclear fragmentation. Apoptosis occurred primarily in the subependyma but also in the corpus callosum, peaking 6 h after
Mattia Bellinzona; Glenn T. Gobbel; Chie Shinohara; John R. Fike
Background The physiological and biochemical responses to acute hypoxia have not been fully characterized in neonates. Fatty acids and lipids play an important role in most aspects of cardiac function. Methods We performed comprehensive lipid profiling analysis to survey the changes that occur in heart tissue and plasma of neonatal and youngadultrats exposed to hypoxia for 2 h, and following 2 h of recovery from hypoxia. Results Cardiac and plasma concentrations of short-chain acylcarnitines, and most plasma long-chain fatty acids, were decreased in hypoxic neonates. Following recovery from hypoxia, concentrations of propionylcarnitine, palmitoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine were increased in neonatal hearts, while oleylcarnitine and linoleylcarnitine concentrations were increased in neonatal plasma. The concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain acylcarnitines were increased in the hearts and plasma of hypoxic youngadultrats; these metabolites returned to baseline values following recovery from hypoxia. Conclusion There are differential effects of acute hypoxia on cardiac and plasma lipid profiles with maturation from the neonate to the youngadultrat. Changes to neonatal cardiac and plasma lipid profiles during hypoxia likely allowed for greater metabolic and physiologic flexibility and increased chances for survival. Persistent alterations in the neonatal cardiac lipid profile following recovery from hypoxia may play a role in the development of rhythm disturbances.
The present study examined whether manipulation of the early life experience of rat pups might alter the later ability of an interoceptive challenge to recruit central neural circuits that receive visceral sensory signals and generate stress responses. For this purpose, litters were exposed to daily maternal separation for either 15 min (MS-15) or 180 min (MS-180) from postnatal days (P)1 to P10. Pups in control litters were raised under standard conditions (i.e., no separations). Similar to previous reports in adultrats, adolescent rats (P35–45) with a developmental history of MS-15 displayed less anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus maze compared to control and MS-180 rats. As youngadults (P50–60), rats were anesthetized and perfused with fixative 90 min after viscerosensory stimulation via lithium chloride (LiCl, 0.15M, 1% BW, i.p.) or saline control. In all three rearing groups, Fos activation within brainstem and forebrain regions of interest was significantly enhanced after LiCl vs. saline. MS-15 rats tended to display fewer LiCl-activated neurons in most brain regions compared with rats in the other two rearing groups. This trend reached significance within the dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. The ability of MS-15 to alter limbic forebrain activation in rats after an interoceptive challenge may contribute to the effect of early life experience to modulate physiological and behavioral stress responses more generally.
Background Rosiglitazone (RGZ), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonist, significantly enhances lung maturation without affecting blood biochemical and metabolic profiles in the newborn period. However, whether this exposure to RGZ in neonatal life alters the adult metabolic phenotype is not known. Objective To determine the effects of early postnatal administration of RGZ on the youngadult metabolic phenotype. Methods Newborn rat pups were administered either saline or RGZ for the first 7 days of life. At 11–14 weeks, glucose and insulin tolerance tests and deuterium labeling were performed. Blood and tissues were analyzed for various metabolic parameters. Results Overall, there was no effect of early postnatal RGZ administration on youngadult body weight, glucose and insulin tolerance, plasma cholesterol and triglyceride profiles, insulin, glucagon, cardiac troponin, fatty acid synthesis, or tissue adipogenic differentiation. Conclusions Treatment with RGZ in early neonatal life does not alter later developmental metabolic programming or lead to an altered metabolic phenotype in the youngadult, further re-enforcing the safety of PPAR? agonists as a novel lung-protective strategy.
Truong, Nghia C.; Abbasi, Afshan; Sakurai, Reiko; Lee, W.N. Paul; Torday, John S.; Rehan, Virender K.
These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB). Youngadult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24,...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic nicotine administration on bone mineral homeostasis in rapidly growing youngrats in comparison to effects in adult male rats. Two doses of nicotine (3 and 4.5mg/kg/day, as nicotine hydrogen tartrate) were used and rat treatment was continued for 6 months. In this study, all nicotine-treated rats weighed less than control rats and the effect was dose-dependent. Also, rats treated with nicotine had lower femoral wet weight and showed a significant reduction in femoral mid-shaft cortical width and femoral and lumbar vertebral ash weights. These effects were associated with a significant reduction of ash calcium and phosphorus contents of the femora and lumbar vertebrae. The bone mineral-lowering effects of nicotine were more severe in the lumbar vertebral spongy bone than in the femoral compact bone and these changes were more marked in adultrats than in youngrats. An additional interesting observation was that the femora of youngrats treated with nicotine were significantly shorter than those of control youngrats. Also, the values of the femoral ash weight per unit length were significantly decreased in nicotine-treated adultrats but not in nicotine-treated youngrats. Thus, these results show that nicotine-induced changes in bone vary with age. The clinical relevance of this study is that it may provide justification to insist that all people in general and the risky young group in particular should be warned against the hazards of the negative effects of nicotine on bone. PMID:24211783
Kent EE, Wilder Smith A, Keegan THM, Lynch CF, Kato I, Wu X, Schwartz S, Hamilton A. (in press). Social information needs of adolescent and youngadults with cancer in the Adolescent and YoungAdult Health Outcomes and Patient Experiences (AYA-HOPE) Study. Jounral of Adolescent and YoungAdult Oncology.
Eight articles in this Spring 1985 issue of The Bookmark focus on youngadult library services. In addition to these thematic articles, an introduction and three reports are presented. The issue contains: (1) "In Perspective" (E. J. Josey); (2) "YoungAdult Literature in the 1980's--Awesome!" (Ellin Chu); (3) "YoungAdult Services' Public…
It was demonstrated that systemic injections of metamizol and lysine-acetylsalicylate (LASA) induce inhibition of tail-flick reflex and hot-plate responses and their repeated administration leads to the development of tolerance. However, it has not been established whether these effects can be elicited by other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In this study the authors used other commonly applied analgesics--analgine, ketorolac, xefocam, which are the representatives of the three diverse groups of NSAIDs. In particular, analgine is a derivative of pirozolon, while ketorolac belongs to indoles and xefocam to amoxicams. The authors decided to examine and compare tolerance to analgine, ketorolac and xefocam in groups of young and adultrats. The experiments were carried out on experimental and control rats with saline by the model of tail-flick reflex to the stimulation of focusing light. Latency increase of this reflex indicates the degree of antinociception. The present study has revealed that systemic, intraperitoneal injections of NSAIDs (analgine, ketorolac and xefocam), the equivalent to maximal analgesic doses for humans, induces antinociception in awake rats of young and adult ages and when administered repeatedly, induce tolerance to these drugs and cross-tolerance to morphine. This is in line with results of earlier experiments, in which metamizol or LASA were given intravenously or microinjected into the periaqueductal gray matter. More importantly, the study indicate that the repeated administration of these non-opioid analgesics induces a decrease in antinociceptive effectiveness reminiscent of that induced by opiates. Moreover, the present results paradoxically suggest that analgine, ketorolac and xefocam tolerance is related to the endogenous opioid system. Taken together the present and previous findings the authors support the notion that the contribution of the CNS, particularly of the downstream pain-control system, to the tolerance effects of NSAIDs involve endogenous opioidergic mechanisms. PMID:18560039
In the present acute toxicity studies on MOM, non-crystalline solid, with infant male and female rats (5-day-old) and youngadult male and female rats (5-week-old), it is confirmed as follows: LD50 values were estimated more than 5,000 mg/kg in both cases of subcutaneous and oral administrations. MOM, non-crystalline solid, did not exhibit any toxic effects similarly as previously reported with infant male and female mice and youngadult male and female mice. There might be no definite age difference in toxicity between young and adultrats as LD50 values were estimated more than 5,000 mg/kg in independence upon the age. There might be no definite species difference in toxicity between mice and rats. PMID:6334184
Yokota, M; Takeda, U; Odaki, M; Moriguchi, M; Watanabe, H; Ishiwatari, N; Hata, T; Shindo, Y; Ishii, H; Yamamoto, Y
The prescription of methylphenidate (MPH) has dramatically increased in this decade for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment. The action mechanism of MPH is not completely understood and studies have been demonstrated that MPH can lead to neurochemical adaptations. Superoxide radical anion is not very reactive per se. However, severe species derived from superoxide radical anion mediate most of its toxicity. In this study, the superoxide level in submitochondrial particles was evaluated in response to treatment with MPH in the age-dependent manner in rats. MPH was administrated acutely or chronically at doses of 1, 2 or 10 mg/kg i.p. The results showed that the acute administration of MPH in all doses in youngrats increased the production of superoxide in the cerebellum and only in the high dose (10mg/kg) in the hippocampus, while chronic treatment had no effect. However, acute treatment in adultrats had no effect on production of superoxide, but chronic treatment decreased the production of superoxide in the cerebellum at the lower doses. Our data suggest that the MPH treatment can influence on production of superoxide in some brain areas, but this effect depends on age of animals and treatment regime with MPH. PMID:19716398
Gomes, Karin M; Inácio, Cecília G; Valvassori, Samira S; Réus, Gislaine Z; Boeck, Carina R; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João
Adolescence is characterized by changes in both behavior and neural organization. During this period, the amygdala, a structure that mediates social and emotional behaviors, is changing in terms of neural and glia density. We examined cell proliferation within the amygdala of adolescent (post natal day (PND) 31) and adult (PND 70) male Sprague-Dawley rats using BrdU (bromodeoxyuridine) to label dividing cells. BrdU-labeled cells were distributed throughout the amygdala, often found in fibers surrounding major nuclei. Using two independent cell counting strategies under light and confocal microcopy, respectively, we found significantly more labeled cells in the amygdala in adolescent compared to adult animals (239.3 ± 87.18 vs. 44.75 ± 13.68; n=4/group; p<.05). BrdU/doublecortin (DCX) positive cells constitute approximately 30% of all dividing cells in the amygdala in both adolescents and adults. These data suggest that compared to young adulthood, adolescence is a relatively active period of cell proliferation in the amygdala. Moreover, the normal decline in dividing cells with age does not preferentially affect cells co-containing DCX-immunoreactivity. PMID:23775606
Saul, Michele L; Helmreich, Dana L; Callahan, Linda M; Fudge, Julie L
This study examined the effects of soybean beta-conglycinin, from which phytate was mostly removed, on the plasma lipids in young and adultrats. Male Wistar young (6 week-old) and adult (21 week-old) rats were fed high cholesterol diets containing 20% casein, soy protein isolate (SPI), or soybean beta-conglycinin for 10 days. In youngrats, although the food intake of the beta-conglycinin group was higher than those of the casein and SPI groups, the weight gain was significantly lower than those of the other groups. However, in adultrats, the weight gain was not different among the groups. In young and adultrats, relative liver weights of SPI and beta-conglycinin groups were significantly lower than that of the casein group, and the degree of the reduction was more marked in the beta-conglycinin group than in the SPI group. In youngrats, the plasma triglyceride level was significantly lower in the SPI and beta-conglycinin groups than that in the casein group. In addition, the plasma triglyceride level of the beta-conglycinin group was significantly lower than that of the SPI group. Plasma total cholesterol levels of the SPI and beta-conglycinin groups were significantly lower than that of the casein group. However, there was little difference in the lowering effect between SPI and beta-conglycinin. These results indicate that soybean beta-conglycinin may have lowering functions not only on plasma total cholesterol level, but also on plasma triglyceride level. PMID:11440119
Aoyama, T; Kohno, M; Saito, T; Fukui, K; Takamatsu, K; Yamamoto, T; Hashimoto, Y; Hirotsuka, M; Kito, M
An equal amount (per weight) of /sup 127/m tellurium (Te) was injected IP into weanling and adultrats, some intoxicated with a diet containing Te, others not. The young intoxicated rats presented a segmental demyelination of the sciatic nerve and paralysis of the hind limbs; the adult intoxicated rats did not. Quantitation of 127m Te in nervous and other tissues was done with a gamma counter. Correlative morphological examination of the nervous tissues was done with light and electron microscopy. This study shows that Te crosses the vascular wall without injuring endothelial cells and invades the surrounding sciatic nerve parenchyma following administration of 127m Te to a weanling or adultrat. However, Te damages the endothelium, crosses the vascular wall of endo and perineurial vessels in weanling rats, causes a perivascular oedema, cytoplasmic anomalies in the Schwann cells, destruction of myelin and apparently invades axones--according to autoradiographic studies--following the administration of 127m Te plus the Te-diet. It is concluded that Te penetrates more quickly and in larger amounts the walls of blood vessels in the sciatic nerve of weanling rats intoxicated with Te, than the same nerve in the other weanling and adultsrats. Te in the amounts indicated here penetrates the parenchyma of the CNS but apparently does not cause injury.
Background Youngadults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease youngadult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among youngadults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 youngadults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Youngadults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to youngadults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease youngadult smoking.
Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.
We examined the influence of maternal diet during gestation on the growth and body composition of the progeny. On day 1 of gestation, rat dams were assigned to one of four feeding regimens: free access to standard rodent chow throughout gestation (AL); 20 g feed/day (prebreeding intake) throughout gestation (PB); 10 g feed/day from day 1 to day 14, then ad libitum from day 15 to parturition (RAL); 10 g feed/day from day 1 to 14, then 20 g/day to parturition (RPB). Progeny were fed ad libitum on standard chow diet from 3 to 12 weeks of age; food intake and weight gain were measured over this time. Body composition was measured at 12 weeks. The PB regimen restricted maternal food intake during the third trimester only; the RAL regimen restricted intake by 50% for two trimesters and produced hyperphagia in the third; the RPB regimen restricted intake by 50% for two trimesters, then intake (per unit body weight) was similar to that of AL dams during the third trimester. Litter size and progeny birth, weaning, and 12-week body weights were similar among the four groups. At 12 weeks of age, PB progeny had the highest body fat (per kg fat-free mass), despite similar feed intake during the 9-week postweaning period. The increased fat was proportionally distributed among intra-abdominal and subcutaneous depots. Progeny of RAL, AL, and RPB dams had similar amounts of body fat, but in RAL progeny more fat was present in intra-abdominal depots. The weights of fat-free mass, gastrointestinal tract and hindlimb skeletal muscles were unaffected by maternal diet. Restriction of maternal feed intake during the third week of gestation had subtle effects on the body composition of youngadult progeny that could not be explained on the basis of differences in postweaning voluntary feed intake. PMID:7719959
Fiorotto, M L; Davis, T A; Schoknecht, P; Mersmann, H J; Pond, W G
Youngadult (60 day old) Wistar rats of either sex were orally intubated with 50 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg body weight of aqueous root extract of Clitoria ternatea (CTR) for 30 days, along with age-matched saline controls. These rats were then subjected to passive avoidance tests and the results from these studies showed a significant increase in passive avoidance learning and retention. Subsequent to the passive avoidance tests, these rats were killed by decapitation. The amygdala was processed for Golgi staining and the stained neurons were traced using a camera lucida and analysed. The results showed a significant increase in dendritic intersections, branching points and dendritic processes arising from the soma of amygdaloid neurons in CTR treated rats especially in the 100 mg/kg group of rats, compared with age-matched saline controls. This improved dendritic arborization of amygdaloid neurons correlates with the increased passive avoidance learning and memory in the CTR treated rats as reported earlier. The results suggest that Clitoria ternatea aqueous root extract enhances memory by increasing the functional growth of neurons of the amygdala. PMID:16161034
Rai, Kiranmai S; Murthy, K Dilip; Rao, Muddanna S; Karanth, K Sudhakar
Uterine deciduomas were found in two female virgin rats, a 15-week-old Lewis rat and a 7-week-old Sprague-Dawley rat. The firm white nodules were located at the base of unilateral uterine horns and were approximately 6 mm and 4 mm in diameter. Histopathologically, the nodules were composed of three areas, each with a distinct type of proliferating cells: large epithelioid decidual cells with round nuclei, prominent nucleoli and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm (antimesometrial region); compact spindle-shaped cells with oval nuclei and vacuolar cytoplasm (transitional region); and pleomorphic and spiny cells with round to oval nuclei and compact eosinophilic cytoplasm (mesometrial region). These cells proliferated in sheet-like arrangements and transformed into the other types of cells located in surrounding regions. Immunohistochemically, proliferating cells in all regions were strongly positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The proliferating cells were positive for vimentin, and large decidual cells were positive for common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen 10, a marker of uterine interstitial cells. Large decidual cells were positive for ?-smooth muscle actin and desmin, suggesting differentiation into muscular cells. Progesterone receptor was expressed in all cell types; however, estrogen receptor ? was not expressed in the antimesometrial region. These extremely rare tumor-like nodules represent nonneoplastic lesions referred as decidual reactions of endometrial interstitial cells, and their biological behavior is that of a space-occupying benign tumor in youngrats. Our cases might provide information as a historical control in toxicity and pharmacological studies in rats. PMID:23723570
Little is know about forskolin binding in the rat brain during ontogenetic development. For this paper, we have characterized specific binding sites for [3H]-forskolin in cerebrocortical membranes from young (12-day-old) and adult (90-day-old) rats. High-affinity, as well as super-high-affinity, [3H]-forskolin binding sites were detected in samples from both age groups tested, and the binding parameters of these sites differed significantly. Whereas the number of high-affinity [3H]-forskolin binding sites was higher by about 50% in adult than in youngrats, their affinity was markedly (about 4 times) lower. In the presence of AlF4-, the number high-affinity [3H]-forskolin binding sites in samples from youngrats rose to the level determined in samples from adult animals, and the number of super-high-affinity sites considerably increased in both age groups. The different characteristics of [3H]-forskolin binding found in cerebrocortical membranes from young and adultrats may be closely related to markedly diminished adenyl cyclase activity in preparations from adult animals. Results of our experiments with suramin indicated that this drug may act as a competitive inhibitor of [3H]-forskolin binding. PMID:16091783
Adolescents and YoungAdults with Cancer Adolescents and YoungAdults with Cancer Cancers In Young People Diagnosis Treatment and Clinical Trials Coping ... for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Adolescents and YoungAdults with Cancer: Cancers Affecting Young People Cancers In ...
NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activity has been strongly implicated in both in vitro and in vivo learning models and the decline in cognitive function associated with aging and is linked to a decrease in NMDAR functional expression. GLYX-13 is a tetrapeptide (Thr-Pro-Pro-Thr) which acts as a NMDAR receptor partial agonist at the glycine site. GLYX-13 was administered to youngadult (3 months old) and aged (27-32 months old) Fischer 344 X Brown Norway F1 rats (FBNF1), and behavioral learning tested in trace eye blink conditioning (tEBC), a movable platform version of the Morris water maze (MWM), and alternating t-maze tasks. GLYX-13 (1mg/kg, i.v.) enhanced learning in both youngadult and aging animals for MWM and alternating t-maze, and increased tEBC in aging rats. We previously showed optimal enhancement of tEBC in youngadultrats given GLYX-13 at the same dose. Of these learning tasks, the MWM showed the most robust age related deficit in learning. In the MWM, GLYX-13 enhancement of learning was greater in the old compared to the youngadult animals. Examination of the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in hippocampal slices showed that aged rats showed marked, selective impairment in the magnitude of LTP evoked by a sub-maximal tetanus, and that GLYX-13 significantly enhanced the magnitude of LTP in slices from both youngadult and aged rats without affecting LTD. These data, combined with the observation that the GLYX-13 enhancement of learning was greater in old than in youngadult animals, suggest that GLYX-13 may be a promising treatment for deficits in cognitive function associated with aging. PMID:19446371
Burgdorf, Jeffrey; Zhang, Xiao-lei; Weiss, Craig; Matthews, Elizabeth; Disterhoft, John F; Stanton, Patric K; Moskal, Joseph R
Emerging data indicate that age-related brain changes alter seizure susceptibility, seizure-associated neurodegeneration, and responsiveness to AEDs. The present study assessed long-term animal survival in the Kainic Acid (KA) model along with in-vivo spontaneous seizure frequency, cellular hyperexcitability in CA1 in-vitro and in-vivo in subiculum, and responsiveness of in-vitro CA1 hyperexcitability to topiramate. Sprague-Dawley male rats were given KA to induce convulsive status epilepticus (KA-SE) at 2-3 months of age. The one-month mortality after KA-SE was 27%. One-month survivor rats had 37% sudden unexplained late mortality after KA-SE as compared to none in saline controls during their second year of life. In-vivo seizure frequency was examined prior to terminal experiments. The diurnal average seizure frequency in the KA-SE group at age 2 years was 1.06 ± 0.24 seizures/hour while no seizures were observed in the saline age-matched controls (p<0.001). In-vitro recordings of CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed that depolarizing current injection from -60 mV evoked an increased number of action potentials in the aged KA-SE group compared to controls (p<0.002). Topiramate exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of action potential firing evoked by current injections into CA1 pyramidal neurons of KA-SE rats. In subiculum, KA-SE rats had frequent interictal spikes associated with high frequency oscillations while only rare spontaneous EPSPs were recorded in saline controls. Our experiments revealed that the hippocampal formation of aged epileptic rats shares features of hyperexcitability previously described in youngadult epileptic rats using the KA model. PMID:22396885
Zhang, Kun; Tolstykh, Gleb P; Sanchez, Russell M; Cavazos, Jose E
Background Human Placenta-Derived Adherent Cells (PDAC®) are a novel mesenchymal-like cell population derived from normal human placental tissue. PDA-001 is a clinical formulation of PDAC® developed for intravenous administration. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of PDA-001 treatment in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in youngadult (2–3 month old) and older rats (10–12 months old). Methods To evaluate efficacy and determine the optimal number of transplanted cells, youngadult Wistar rats were subjected to MCAo and treated 1 day post MCAo with 1×106, 4×106 or 8×106 PDA-001 cells (i.v.), vehicle or cell control. 4×106 or 8×106 PDA-001 cells were also tested in older rats after MCAo. Treatment response was evaluated using a battery of functional outcome tests, consisting of adhesive-removal test, modified Neurological Severity Score (mNSS) and foot-fault test. Youngadultrats were sacrificed 56 days after MCAo, older rats were sacrificed 29 days after MCAo, and lesion volumes were measured using H&E. Immunohistochemical stainings for bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and von Willebrand Factor (vWF), and synaptophysin were performed. Results In youngadultrats, treatment with 4×106 PDA-001 cells significantly improved functional outcome after stroke (p<0.05). In older rats, significant functional improvement was observed with PDA-001 cell therapy in both of the 4×106 and 8×106 treatment groups. Functional benefits in youngadult and older rats were associated with significant increases in the number of BrdU immunoreactive endothelial cells, vascular density and perimeter in the ischemic brain, as well as significantly increased synaptophysin expression in the ischemic border zone (p<0.05). Conclusion PDA-001 treatment significantly improved functional outcome after stroke in both youngadult and older rats. The neurorestorative effects induced by PDA-001 treatment may be related to increased vascular density and synaptic plasticity.
Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are youngadults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have...
Purpose Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of youngadults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Methods Using an adapted web version of Respondent-Driven Sampling (webRDS) we recruited a sample of U.S. youngadults (ages 18 to 24; N=3447). We examined participant sexting behavior using 4 categories of sexting: 1) Non-Sexters, 2) Receivers, 3) Senders, and 4) Two-way Sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Results Over half (57%) of respondents were Non-Sexters, 28.2% of the sample were Two-way Sexters, 12.6% were Receivers, and 2% were Senders. Males were more likely to be Receivers than females. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be Two-way Sexters than non-sexually active respondents. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in number of sexual partners, or number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Conclusions Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting.
Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc
\\u000a This chapter examines the living arrangements of youngadults in Latin America in the mid-1970s. Young adulthood is a time\\u000a of life when many end an educational career, begin full-time employment, and start a family of their own. Most youngadults\\u000a marry, whether formally or not, and become parents (even in societies with high rates of never-married individuals). Some\\u000a engage
These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-Dinitrobenzene (M-DNB). oung adult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24, ...
Adenylyl cyclase (AC) in brain cortex from young (12-day-old) rats exhibits markedly higher activity than in adult (90-day-old) animals. In order to find some possibly different regulatory features of AC in these two age groups, here we modulated AC activity by dithiothreitol (DTT), Fe(2+), ascorbic acid and suramin. We did not detect any substantial difference between the effects of all these tested agents on AC activity in cerebrocortical membranes from young and adultrats, and the enzyme activity was always about two-fold higher in the former preparations. Nevertheless, several interesting findings have come out of these investigations. Whereas forskolin- and Mn(2+)-stimulated AC activity was significantly enhanced by the addition of DTT, increased concentrations of Fe(2+) ions or ascorbic acid substantially suppressed the enzyme activity. Lipid peroxidation induced by suitable combinations of DTT/Fe(2+) or by ascorbic acid did not influence AC activity. We have also observed that PKC- or protein tyrosine kinase-mediated phosphorylation apparently does not play any significant role in different activity of AC determined in cerebrocortical preparations from young and adultrats. Our experiments analysing the presumed modulatory role of suramin revealed that this pharmacologically important drug may act as a direct inhibitor of AC. The enzyme activity was diminished to the same extent by suramin in membranes from both tested age groups. Our present data show that AC is regulated similarly in brain cortex from both young and adultrats, but its overall activity is much lower in adulthood. PMID:16364201
Stöhr, Jiri; Novotny, Jiri; Bourova, Lenka; Svoboda, Petr
Feeding rats high-fat diets for 3 months produces a widespread cognitive deficit that affects performance on a wide range of learning and memory tasks. The present study tested the hypothesis that this effect is related to a fat-induced impairment in glucose metabolism. Following 3 months of dietary intervention (20% by weight fat diets, composed primarily of either beef tallow or soybean oil versus standard laboratory chow), male Long-Evans rats were tested on a variable interval delayed alternation (VIDA) task that measures learning and memory functions that differentially involve specific brain regions. Relative to rats fed chow, rats consuming the high-fat diets were impaired on all aspects of VIDA performance. Following baseline testing, rats were maintained on their respective diets and the effect of glucose administration (100 mg/kg BW; i.p.) was examined. For the next 6 days, animals alternately received injections of saline or glucose 30 min prior to VIDA testing. Glucose treatment improved performance, with the effect being most pronounced at the longer intertrial intervals where task performance is sensitive to hippocampal impairment. Importantly, the beneficial effect of glucose were confined to those animals consuming the high-fat diets and were not observed in rats fed chow. These results demonstrate that glucose administration can overcome those deficits associated with hippocampal function in rats fed high-fat diets and are consistent with the hypothesis that high-fat diets, in part, mediate their effect through the development of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. PMID:11222059
Notes that just a few years ago, the death knell of youngadult fiction was ringing steadily. Suggests that the emerging trend may be a redefinition of the genre that divides books into those aimed at 10- to 14-year-olds and those aimed at teens 15 and up. (RS)
This study describes moral dilemmas that youngadults (ages 18-24) formulate spontaneously and examines the relationship between these dilemmas and the subjects' environment and scores on a standardized test. Fifty-two subjects were tested both in 1976 and 1978, creating 104 subject-oriented dilemmas. Thirty-two were in college, 17 were not, and…
...Docket ID: DOD-2011-HA-0029] TRICARE YoungAdult AGENCY: Office of the Secretary...for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE YoungAdult (TYA) program to provide an extended...purchase worldwide. TYA is similar to youngadult coverage under the Patient...
While youngadult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read youngadult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching youngadult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their…
Nutrient restriction in pregnancy has been shown to programme adult obesity. Modulation of feeding behaviour may provide a mechanism through which obesity may be programmed. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed either a control diet or a low-protein (LP) diet throughout gestation. Their offspring were allocated to a self-selected-diet protocol to assess appetite and food preferences at 12 and at 30 weeks of age. Self-selection of high-fat, high-protein or high-carbohydrate foods by 12-week-old rats indicated that the prenatal environment influenced feeding behaviour. Both male and female offspring of LP-fed mothers consumed significantly more of the high-fat (P<0.001) and significantly less (P<0.02) of the high-carbohydrate food than the control animals. Female, but not male, offspring of LP-fed rats failed to adjust food intake to maintain a constant energy intake and had higher fat (P<0.005) and energy intakes (P<0.05) than control female rats. At 30 weeks of age there were no differences in the pattern of food selection between the two groups of animals. Male offspring of LP-fed rats had significantly more gonadal fat than control animals (P<0.05), but analysis of total body fat content indicated that there was no significant difference in overall adiposity. The present study suggests that in youngadults at least, early life exposure to undernutrition determines a preference for fatty foods. Maternal nutrition may thus promote changes in systems that are involved in control of appetite or the perception of palatability. PMID:15469656
Bellinger, Leanne; Lilley, Christina; Langley-Evans, Simon C
In this study age-, circadian rhythm- and methylphenidate administration- effect on open field habituation and object recognition were analyzed. Young and adult male Wistar rats were treated with saline or methylphenidate 2.0 mg/kg for 28 days. Experiments were performed during the light and the dark cycle. Locomotor activity was significantly altered by circadian cycle and methylphenidate treatment during the training session and by drug treatment during the testing session. Exploratory activity was significantly modulated by age during the training session and by age and drug treatment during the testing session. Object recognition memory was altered by cycle at the training session; by age 1.5 h later and by cycle and age 24 h after the training session. These results show that methylphenidate treatment was the major modulator factor on open-field test while cycle and age had an important effect on object recognition experiment. PMID:19807653
Gomes, Karin M; Souza, Renan P; Valvassori, Samira S; Réus, Gislaine Z; Inácio, Cecília G; Martins, Márcio R; Comim, Clarissa M; Quevedo, João
Different forms of chronic observable disability may have differing impacts on adult personality adjustment. Youngadults with cleft lip/palate display fewer personality adjustment problems than those with orthopedic impairment. (Author)
This book was born of a desire to provide students, teachers, and all interested readers with a collection of essays that address issues of selection, pedagogy, and worth of the youngadult novel. A primary purpose of the book is to enter the world of youngadult readers through a literary form they know well, the modern youngadult novel. Another…
This report surveys the literature on cognition and learning in youngadults. First an outline of a theory of the cognition-learning system is presented with particular attention to differences between youngadults and other age groups in information proc...
This paper provides a look at the characteristics of youngadults age 25 to 34, by whether they are living as a child of the householder. The first section presents descriptive statistics about youngadults by living arrangement. The second section shows ...
In the selection of multicultural literature for children and youngadults, educators and researchers focus on two main controversial issues--authority and authenticity--that the authors portray in their writing. What type of author can accurately portray realistic pictures of minority cultures in multicultural literature for youngadults? Must it…
Old and youngadults participated in two experiments involving a standardized, hierarchically organized event. In interviews that assessed memory of the event, older subjects reported fewer event actions than did the young. Memory of old and young was influenced similarly by the hierarchical structure of the event. (RH)
Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this relationship may vary across the life course. Early marriage—which is non-normative—could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for youngadults. Using survey data from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 11,743), I find that married youngadults exhibit similar levels of psychological distress as youngadults who are in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged youngadults report lower rates of drunkenness than others. Married youngadults—especially those who first married at age 22–26—report higher life satisfaction than those in other types of relationships or no relationship at all, as well as those who married at younger ages. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed.
The 108 articles and books cited in this annotated bibliography are listed under seven major topic headings: (1) training and personality of the youngadult librarian, (2) adolescent psychology and sexuality, (3) sex roles, (4) literature and reading, (5)...
... NIDA NIEHS NIGMS NIMH NIMHD NINDS NINR NLM CIT CSR FIC NCATS NCCAM CC OD About NIH ... Youngadults more likely to attend college Federal report finds rate of student debt increases, smoking decreases ...
An outbreak of laboratory confirmed measles involving 30 youngadults and an infant is reported. Of the youngadult cases, 17 (57%) were hospitalised. After a trip to India, the primary case returned to Sydney early in January 2001 and then visited Melbourne infecting several individuals. Secondary spread appears to have occurred at a nightclub. On the basis of RNA typing the measles strain involved is of genotype 'D'. PMID:11280193
The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress plays a role in the adver...
Asperger syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder belonging to autism spectrum disorders. Both children and adults with AS have subjective impairment in the initiation and continuity of sleep, and studies using objective assessment are sparse. Twenty young AS adults with frequent complaints of low sleep quality were compared to 10 age-, gender- and education-matched controls without sleep complaints using polysomnography
Pekka Tani; Nina Lindberg; Taina Nieminen-von Wendt; Lennart von Wendt; Jussi Virkkala; Björn Appelberg; Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen
Previous state-based serosurveys and recent outbreaks have indicated that youngadults may be at risk of measles. To provide a national picture of immunity in adults, we tested 2126 sera from 19-49 year olds that had been opportunistically collected from laboratories across Australia, between July 1996 and November 1998. Sera were stratified into age groups based on expected levels of
Renal adenocarcinoma is rare in young people. The prognosis of the condition would appear to be better in young people justifying a radical treatment rationale even in cases of advanced disease. This report describes a series of patients under the age of 30 with renal adenocarcinoma and a review of the literature. The possible mechanisms for the apparent improved survival
J. G. Noble; A. M. Parikh; C. R. Chapple; P. H. L. Worth; E. J. G. Milroy
Because of changes in welfare eligibility, the education system, and employment and training opportunities, it has become more likely that young people who have had difficulty with the mainstream schooling system and who face a lack of employment options will end up in adult education. Educators in the adult education classroom have an opportunity…
Mixed-heritage people are one of the fastest-growing groups in the United States, yet culturally they have been largely invisible, especially in youngadult literature. "Mixed Heritage in YoungAdult Literature" is a critical exploration of how mixed-heritage characters (those of mixed race, ethnicity, religion, and/or adoption) and real-life…
N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction has long been implicated in schizophrenia and NMDARs on ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons are proposed to play an essential role in the pathogenesis. However, controversial results have been reported regarding the regulation of NMDAR expression, and direct evidence of how NMDAR antagonists act on specific subpopulations of prefrontal interneurons is missing. We investigated the effects of the NMDAR antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) on the expression of NMDAR subtypes in the identified interneurons in youngadultrat prefrontal cortex (PFC) by using laser microdissection and real-time polymerase chain reaction, combined with Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. We found that MK-801 induced distinct changes of NMDAR subunits in the parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-ir) interneurons vs. pyramidal neurons in the PFC circuitry. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of all NMDAR subtypes, including NR1 and NR2A to 2D, exhibited inverted-? dose-dependent changes in response to MK-801 treatment in the PFC. In contrast, subunit mRNAs of NMDARs in PV-ir interneurons were significantly down-regulated at low doses, unaltered at medium doses, and significantly decreased again at high doses, suggesting a biphasic dose response to MK-801. The differential effects of MK-801 in mRNA expression of NMDAR subunits were consistent with the protein expression of NR2A and NR2B subunits revealed with Western blotting and double immunofluorescent staining. These results suggest that PV-containing interneurons in the PFC exhibit a distinct responsiveness to NMDAR antagonism and that NMDA antagonist can differentially and dose-dependently regulate the functions of pyramidal neurons and GABAergic interneurons in the prefrontal cortical circuitry.
Renal adenocarcinoma is rare in young people. The prognosis of the condition would appear to be better in young people justifying a radical treatment rationale even in cases of advanced disease. This report describes a series of patients under the age of 30 with renal adenocarcinoma and a review of the literature. The possible mechanisms for the apparent improved survival of patients in this age group is discussed. PMID:7974885
Noble, J G; Parikh, A M; Chapple, C R; Worth, P H; Milroy, E J
On a broad range of indicators pertaining to risk taking and access to care, youngadults fare worse than younger adolescents or older adults. Vulnerable groups, such as those facing chronic illness and those with unstable living arrangements, fare especially poorly as they transition to adulthood. Fortunately, a confluence of factors, particularly the changing nature of the transition to adulthood in modern society, has led to renewed interest in this critical period of the life cycle. Health science research is increasingly focused on issues faced by youngadults, and public health policies designed specifically to address the health and well-being of youngadults--notably the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in the United States--are now being implemented. Successful efforts at improving the health and well-being of adolescents should be mirrored in efforts to support youngadults. A new report based on a broad range of United States national datasets lays out the challenges that must be addressed in these efforts. PMID:24138763
This study explores the role of informal mentoring (i.e., developing an important relationship with a non-parental adult) in the transition to full time employment among youngadults (age 23–28). Multivariate analysis of the Add Health data reveals that mentoring is positively related to the likelihood of full time employment, and the relationship involves both selection and causation processes. Entrance into
Steve McDonald; Lance D. Erickson; Monica Kirkpatrick Johnson; Glen H. Elder
The principal purpose of assessment, regardless of teaching level, should be to guide instruction. Unlike evaluation, the goal of assessment is not to arrive at a grade for students. Rather, it is to inform the educator as to what needs to be addressed in the classroom. Assessment in a youngadult literature (YAL) curriculum is no different. Its function is
The cultural orientation curriculum for youngadults in the International Catholic Migration Commission's Philippine Refugee Processing Center is discussed and outlined. The program's goals for emotional and character development (self-awareness and self-esteem, cultural awareness, pro-activity, personal responsibility), knowledge of cultural…
Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.
Presents three examples of YoungAdult novels in which death is addressed, including: Angela Johnson's "Toning the Sweep" (1993), Paula Fox's "The Eagle Kite" (1995), and Cynthia Rylant's "Missing May" (1992). Considers how these three novels portray adolescents anticipating death, facing death, and dealing with its aftermath. (SC)
As the body of high quality youngadult literature (YAL) continues to grow, what role might these texts play in professional development for educators? This article describes ways in which schools can develop book study programs that use this literature to promote meaningful dialogue and understanding of contemporary adolescent issues. Based on…
Bach, Jacqueline; Choate, Laura Hensley; Parker, Bruce
Attacks the trend in recent youngadult novels to focus on individual adolescents and their self-centered concerns without having these characters confront the consequences of their actions and their effects on other people. Specifically examines the novels of Judy Blume and Alice Bach. (RBW)
Forty years ago, when the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded, alcoholism was considered an adult disease driven principally by physiological determinants. As NIAAA expanded its research portfolio, new data and insights were obtained that led to an increased focus on underage and youngadult drinking. Fostered by interdisciplinary research, etiologic models were developed that recognized the multiplicity of relevant genetic and environmental influences. This shift in conceptualizing alcohol use disorders also was based on findings from large-scale, national studies indicating that late adolescence and early young adulthood were peak periods for the development of alcohol dependence and that early initiation of alcohol use (i.e., before age 15) was associated with a fourfold increase in the probability of subsequently developing alcohol dependence. In recent years, developmental studies and models of the initiation, escalation, and adverse consequences of underage and early youngadult drinking have helped us to understand how alcohol use may influence, and be influenced by, developmental transitions or turning points. Major risk and protective factors are being identified and integrated into screening, prevention, and treatment programs to optimize interventions designed to reduce drinking problems among adolescents and youngadults. In addition, regulatory policies, such as the minimum drinking age and zero-tolerance laws, are being implemented and evaluated for their impact on public health.
The activities presented in this handbook are designed to help students envision the locations and landmarks of sites along journeys described in popular youngadult literature (e.g., "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,""Born Free,""The Call of the Wild,""Catcher in the Rye,""I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings,""The Island of the Blue…
Twenty-five normal youngadult speakers tracked sinusoidal and unpredictable target signals using lower lip and jaw movement and fundamental frequency modulation. Tracking accuracy varied as a function of target frequency and articulator used to track. Results show the potential of visuomotor tracking tasks in the assessment of speech articulatory…
This study was to evaluate the relationship between physical activity of youngadults who were granted waivers from high school physical education versus those who completed courses in states requiring physical education teacher certification, with curriculum standards and credit requirements for graduation. University students from three…
As proponents of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) publish lists of "Exemplar Texts" that are said to represent the degree of textual complexity appropriate for the different grade levels, and that are overwhelmingly canonical, those who value youngadult literature and recognize a place for it in the high school literature…
Different forms of generativity described in the writings of E. H. Erikson (1950\\/1963) and J. Kotre (1984) were related to agentic and communal motives in a sample of youngadults (M = 28 years old). For women, the power motive related to parenting, whereas the achievement motive was associated with forms of generative expression outside of the household. The opposite
Childhood sexuality and children's sexual experiences have become increasingly important to study because our knowledge on the impact of sexually abusive experiences on children's developing sexuality has increased. The main aim of this paper was to study aspects of youngadults' recollections of their sexual experiences before the age of 13, solitary and shared, mutual as well as coercive. Anonymous
... diseases. Do AYAs have better results when their treatment follows a pediatric or an adult protocol? It depends on the cancer. For example, researchers recently found that young people with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) greatly improved their survival when they were ...
This paper reports the results of a pilot study that investigated the prevalence of lisping in a cohort of youngadults. The motivation for the study was the observation that a substantial number of incoming students in speech language pathology at the Ghent University (Belgium), still presented with frontal lisping of the /s/, /z/ and sometimes…
Van Borsel, John; Van Rentergem, Sigrid; Verhaeghe, Leen
Web 2.0 tools enable today's writers to connect with their audience in unprecedented ways. The advent of social networking and other Web 2.0 tools have changed the rules for how authors and book publishers market and communicate with their audience. Through tools like blogs, Twitter, MySpace, and Facebook, YoungAdult (YA) lit authors can choose…
This book presents 16 original scripts that have been adapted from classic works of literature for use for readers theatre with youngadults and ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Adaptations of the following works are included: "Little Women" (Louisa May Alcott); episodes from "Don Quixote" (Miguel de Cervantes; "The Necklace" (Guy de…
This study aimed at showing how the value preferences of youngadults could predict the narcissistic characteristics of youngadults according to structural equation modeling. 133 female (59.6%) and 90 male (40.4%), total 223 youngadults participated the study (average age: 25.66, ranging from 20 to 38). Ratio group sampling method was used while…
Gungor, Ibrahim Halil; Eksi, Halil; Aricak, Osman Tolga
The long?term survival of nonprofit charitable organizations depends on the recruitment and retention of today's youngadults. A segmentation strategy proposed for retirees which was consistent with previous research on volunteer motivation was found to also be relevant for the youngadult market, especially if implemented with consideration of this segment's unique interests and characteristics. In addition, youngadults were
The YoungAdult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2009 annual lists of Fabulous Films for YoungAdults and Amazing Audiobooks for YoungAdults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the titles that were released in January 2009 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Denver,…
This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of youngadults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence youngadults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which youngadults' financial attitudes mediated financial…
A retrospective study was conducted on a youngadults population affected by permanent symptoms of cerebral focal ischemia. Within 6 years, 24 patients between the ages of twenty and fifty were admitted to the Neurological and Medical department of our Hospital because of cerebral ischemic stroke. In 7 (29.2%) there was a previous history of common or classic migraine. No patients suffered headache at the time of neurologic deficit onset. In the other 17 patients in the study, 6 (25%) had valvular heart disease, 2 (8.3%) had signs suggestive of vasculitis, 2 (8.3%) had a story of head and neck injury, and in the remaining 7 (29.2%) patients no discernible etiology was demonstrated. Our data confirm the hypothesis that migraine may be considered an etiologic factor for persistent cerebral ischemia in youngadults. PMID:3775193
Degenerative changes in the spine can result in the formation of osteophytes on the anterior surface of the cervical spine. Depending on their site, osteophytes can bring on clinical manifestations such as dysphagia, hoarseness, and stridor. We discuss an interesting case of a youngadult patient who presented with dysphagia along with neck discomfort, and on investigation was found to be suffering from diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. Here, we briefly portray the presenting features, radiographic findings, and management options. PMID:21212923
Abbas, Mazhar; Khan, Abdul Q; Siddiqui, Yasir S; Khan, Bashir R
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has key roles in neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity and is implicated in affective disorders such as anxiety and depression. The aim of the present study was to use BDNF heterozygous mutant rats (HET) and wildtype controls (WT) to investigate the effect of BDNF downregulation on affective behaviours. We also assessed the longterm effects of young-adult stress, here simulated by chronic corticosterone (CORT) treatment. This treatment reduced anxiety-like behaviour in BDNF HET rats on the plus-maze but not in the open-field. There were no genotype or CORT effects on immobility time in the forced swim test. These results show differential effects of CORT treatment on anxiety-like behaviour in BDNF HET rats which were dependent on the experimental paradigms used. While these results do not negate the potential of BDNF HET rats in studies on the role of BDNF in affective disorders, caution is needed about experimental details and the choice of paradigms used. PMID:24907687
Gururajan, Anand; Hill, Rachel; van den Buuse, Maarten
Objective: To determine the agreement between 2 measures (adult vs adolescent) of current cigarette smoking among youngadults. Methods: We examined data from 1007 youngadults from the New Jersey Adult Tobacco Survey. The adult measure incorporates lifetime and present use, whereas the adolescent measure assesses past 30-day use. The kappa…
Delnevo, Cristine D.; Lewis, M. Jane; Kaufman, Ira; Abatemarco, Diane J.
Background Adults play an important role in regulating the social behaviour of young individuals. However, a few pioneer studies suggest that, more than the mere presence of adults, their proportions in social groups affect the social development of young. Here, we hypothesized that aggression rates and social cohesion were correlated to adult-young ratios. Our biological model was naturally-formed groups of Przewalski horses, Equus f. przewalskii, varying in composition. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the social interactions and spatial relationships of 12 one- and two-year-old Przewalski horses belonging to five families with adult-young ratios (AYR) ranging from 0.67 to 1.33. We found striking variations of aggression rates and spatial relationships related to the adult-young ratio: the lower this ratio, the more the young were aggressive, the more young and adults segregated and the tighter the young bonded to other young. Conclusion/Significance This is the first study demonstrating a correlation between adult-young ratios and aggression rates and social cohesion of young individuals in a naturalistic setting. The increase of aggression and the emergence of social segregation in groups with lower proportions of adults could reflect a related decrease of the influence of adults as regulators of the behaviour of young. This social regulation has both theoretical and practical implications for understanding the modalities of the influence of adults during ontogeny and for recommending optimal settings, as for instance, for schooling or animal group management.
Bourjade, Marie; de Boyer des Roches, Alice; Hausberger, Martine
This paper reports the results of a pilot study that investigated the prevalence of lisping in a cohort of youngadults. The motivation for the study was the observation that a substantial number of incoming students in speech language pathology at the Ghent University (Belgium), still presented with frontal lisping of the /s/, /z/ and sometimes other alveolar sounds too. Seven hundred and forty eight students (374 females, 374 males), native speakers of Dutch, were video-recorded while reading aloud the Dutch version of the text "The north wind and the sun..." from the International Phonetic Association (1974). Analysis of the samples yielded an overall prevalence of lisping of 23.3%. Significantly less participants presented with lisping among students of humanities than among students of natural sciences or social sciences. No significant difference was found between males and females. It remains to be determined if this high prevalence of lisping in adults represents a recent trend or if the persistence of the pattern of lisping into adulthood in some individuals is perhaps quite normal. Learning outcomes: As a result of this activity, the participant will be able to (1) discuss the nature and prevalence of residual phonological errors in general and (2) to discuss the prevalence of lisping in youngadult native speakers of Dutch in particular. PMID:17223125
Van Borsel, John; Van Rentergem, Sigrid; Verhaeghe, Leen
In rats, ageing results in dysfunctional patterns of micturition and diminished sexual reflexes that may reflect degenerative changes within spinal circuitry. In both sexes the dorsal lateral nucleus and the spinal nucleus of the bulbospongiosus, which lie in the L5-S1 spinal segments, contain motor neurons that innervate perineal muscles, and the external anal and urethral sphincters. Neurons in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus of these segments provide autonomic control of the bladder, cervix and penis and other lower urinary tract structures. Interneurons in the dorsal gray commissure and dorsal horn have also been implicated in lower urinary tract function. This study investigates the cellular localisation of PG-21 androgen receptors, steroid receptor co-activator one (SRC-1) and the phosphorylated form of c-AMP response element binding protein (pCREB) within these spinal nuclei. These are components of signalling pathways that mediate cellular responses to steroid hormones and neurotrophins. Nuclear expression of PG-21 androgen receptors, SRC-1 and pCREB in young and aged rats was quantified using immunohistochemistry. There was a reduction in the number of spinal neurons expressing these molecules in the aged males while in aged females, SRC-1 and pCREB expression was largely unchanged. This suggests that the observed age-related changes may be linked to declining testosterone levels. Acute testosterone therapy restored expression of PG-21 androgen receptor in aged and orchidectomised male rats, however levels of re-expression varied within different nuclei suggesting a more prolonged period of hormone replacement may be required for full restoration.
Ranson, Richard N.; Connelly, Jennifer H.; Watson, Alan H. D.
In response to the growing suicide rate among adolescents and youngadults, researchers have noted the importance of peer responses to suicidal disclosures in this population. The most adaptive response is to inform a responsible adult about the suicidal peer, but existing data indicate that most adolescents and youngadults choose to talk to the…
Tumors affecting adolescents and youngadults often differ from those affecting pediatric and older adult populations (1). For this reason, a classification scheme has been proposed for tumors diagnosed in adolescents and youngadults (2). This classification scheme was updated based on site and histology codes of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition (3).
This paper illuminates and details some of the traits, pressures and semi-autonomy of the youngadult between the ages of 18 and 24 who must confront the barriers and challenges upon returning to secondary school within the high school and the adult education centre context. Focusing on these youngadults is fundamentally important to begin to…
An infant's optimal development is determined to a great extent by the adequate and sensitive responses of the caregiver. The adequacy and sensitivity of a reaction to an infant in distress (i.e. crying) will partly depend on the causal attributions of the crying and on the individual's sympathy for the infant. Being female, prior caring experiences, and multiparity have shown to be linked to more sympathetic, tolerant and less hostile emotional responses to crying. However, little is known about other factors explaining inexperienced future caregivers' reactions to infant crying. The present paper's goal is to shed more light on the subject by looking at how personality factors, caregiving interest, sex, promptness of the reaction, and gender identity are related to emotional reactions and causal attributions to crying in a population of youngadults without children. One hundred and ninety-one childless university students participated (126 females; ages 18-35 years). The participants completed questionnaires on personality, gender identity and caregiving interest, and listened to an audio sample of an infant crying, reporting their emotions and their causal attributions to the crying. The results showed that experiencing anger was associated with more child-blaming attributions to the crying, while quickness of response and feelings of sympathy predicted more child-oriented attributions. The latter was stronger in males. Explicit care interest decreased child-blaming causal attributions more for men than for the women. Interestingly, solely in the females' personality factors neuroticism and conscientiousness played a role in child blaming attributions together with anger. These findings suggest that the motives that youngadults attribute to a crying infant depend in males on the emotions triggered by the crying, responsiveness and care interest. While in females, emotions, responsiveness and personality affect the causal attribution to the crying. Future research is needed in order to determine whether these attributions are also linked to youngadults' actual behaviour towards a crying infant. PMID:24463036
Cohen-Bendahan, C C C; van Doornen, L J P; de Weerth, C
In the USA, youngadults are most likely to be uninsured and least likely to report a usual source of medical care than any age group. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) recognizes the critical need for expanded insurance coverage for this age group, and multiple provisions of the ACA address insurance coverage and health care utilization in youngadults. This paper presents a brief overview of the challenges of maintaining health insurance coverage and accessing health care in youngadults, provisions of the ACA relevant to youngadults, and early impact of the ACA on youngadult health insurance status and health care access and utilization. We offer policy suggestions for behavioral health providers to address continued challenges related to health care for youngadults. PMID:24904700
By addressing the concept of merchandising, this handbook shows librarians how to turn their youngadult collection into one that will attract teenagers. Delivering an introduction to marketing and merchandising concepts, the author shares years of experience as a teen services librarian, combined with the latest studies and research findings on…
Past research has linked both emotion regulation and impulsivity with the development and maintenance of addictions. However, no research has investigated the relationship between emotion regulation and impulsivity within youngadults. In the present study, we analyzed 194 youngadults (27.8% female; 21.3 ± 3.32 years old; 91.8% single; 85.1% Caucasian), grouping them as low, average, or high emotionally dysregulated, and compared self-reported impulsivity, impulsive behaviors (such as alcohol and substance use and gambling) and cognitive impulsivity. We hypothesized that those with high levels of emotion dysregulation would score higher on self-reported and cognitive impulsivity, and report more impulsive behaviors. Analysis indicated that compared to low, the high emotion dysregulation group scored significantly higher on two self-report measures of impulsivity, harm avoidance, and cognitive reasoning. No significant differences were found between groups in impulsive behaviors and cognitive impulsivity. Overall, this study highlights the relationship between emotion dysregulation and impulsivity, suggesting that emotion regulation may be an important factor to consider when assessing individuals at a higher risk for developing an addiction.
Schreiber, Liana R.N.; Grant, Jon E.; Odlaug, Brian L.
Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to the controlled hemorrhagic hypotension was studied in youngadult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, 3.4 months of age) and aged SHR (20.3 months). There were no differences in average values for mean arterial pressure and baseline CBF between two groups of rats. During hypotension, however, CBF was more reduced in aged SHR than in
M. Fujishima; S. Sadoshima; J. Ogata; F. Yoshida; O. Shiokawa; S. Ibayashi; T. Omae
Research on the prevalence of health indicators by employment status among young US adults is limited. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of youngadults aged 18 to 24 years to document the prevalence of five health behaviors (cigarette smoking, risky drinking, leisure-time physical activity, and fruit and French fries consumption) by employment status. Unemployed youngadults reported higher levels of risky drinking and nonengagement in leisure-time physical activity, while employed youngadults had higher levels of smoking, French fries consumption, and low fruit/vegetable consumption. Transportation/material-moving youngadult workers reported the highest level of risky drinking (13.5%), and precision production/craft/repair workers reported the highest smoking rates (39.7%). We found an elevated prevalence of risk factors, which places young workers at increased risk for the development of chronic conditions later in life.
Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Lee, David J.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Davila, Evelyn P.; Fleming, Lora E.; LeBlanc, William G.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.; Christ, Sharon L.; Zimmerman, Frederick J.; Muntaner, Carles; Hollenbeck, Julie A
Ambulatory chemotherapy allows high-dose chemotherapy to be delivered in an outpatient facility with multidisciplinary planning and management. At University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, this model of care has been successfully applied to a teenage and youngadult population. A mobile infusion device, CADD-Solis VIP pump has allowed chemotherapy and supportive therapy administration in the ambulatory setting. Continuous and intermittent therapies have been delivered. Patients attend the ambulatory care unit daily for assessment and treatment set up. Overnight, they reside in nearby accommodation. Patients are educated to self-manage, promoting independence and empowerment; however, they also have 24-hour access to nursing and medical advice. Clear communication and patient education, adopting a multidisciplinary team approach and clear assessment guidance for patients and staff, is essential to make this model of care successful. PMID:24619053
Rationale: Psychologic factors are increasingly recognized to influence the onset and course of asthma. Previous cross-sectional community-based studies have provided evidence for a relatively specific association between asthma and panic. Objectives: To examine concurrent and longitudinal associations between asthma and panic in youngadults. Measurements and Main Results: Prospective community-based cohort study of youngadults (n = 591) followed between ages 19 and 40. Information was derived from six subsequent semistructured diagnostic interviews conducted by professionals. Cross-sectionally (over the whole study period), asthma was more strongly associated with panic disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7, 9.3) than with any panic, which included panic disorder and panic attacks (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1, 4.5). Longitudinally, after adjusting for potentially confounding variables, active asthma predicted subsequent panic disorder (OR = 4.5; 95% CI, 1.1, 20.1), and the presence of panic disorder predicted subsequent asthma activity (OR = 6.3; 95% CI, 2.8, 14.0). Asthma predicted any panic (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1, 7.1), whereas any panic did not predict subsequent asthma activity. Associations were stronger in smokers than in nonsmokers, and stronger in women than in men. Smoking, early-childhood anxiety, and a family history of allergy were important confounders of the asthma–panic association. Conclusions: This is the first long-term follow-up study on asthma and panic. It showed dose–response-type relationships between panic and asthma, and bidirectional longitudinal associations between the two conditions. It provided evidence for familial factors and smoking as possible shared etiologic explanations.
Hasler, Gregor; Gergen, Peter J.; Kleinbaum, David G.; Ajdacic, Vladeta; Gamma, Alex; Eich, Dominique; Rossler, Wulf; Angst, Jules
Like other western countries, Germany too reports record numbers of overweight and obese individuals with young German adults in a particularly high-risk position. As such, this study sought to investigate if food choice varied by the place of residence (dependent or independent) of these youngadults. Using a self-administered questionnaire, analyses of quantitative data from 305 German students between the
Debra Harker; Bishnu Sharma; Michael Harker; Karin Reinhard
Purpose – Understanding the drivers of youngadults' healthy food choices is vital to addressing the public health issue of obesity. The healthy eating motives that underlay such consumer choice behavior are particularly important to the well-being of society. This research is novel in that it aims to investigate the food motives of young Australian adults in relation to five
Tegan Piggford; Maria Raciti; Debra Harker; Michael Harker
The present study compared a group of 25 youngadults with ADHD to 23 youngadults drawn from the community equated for age (Mean = 25 yrs.) and educational level (Mean 13 yrs.) using a structured psychiatric interview (non-blinded), self-report ratings of psychological distress, and psychological tests of inattention, impulsive responding, working memory, verbal fluency, sense of time, and creativity.
Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among youngadults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 youngadults. Results: The…
Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.
Aim. To evaluate the relationship between cannabis dependence and respiratory symptoms and lung function in youngadults, while controlling for the effects of tobacco smoking. Setting and participants. Nine hundred and forty-three youngadults from a birth cohort of 1037 subjects born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972\\/1973 were studied at age 21. Measurements. Standardized respiratory symptom questionnaires were administered.
D. Robin Taylor; Richie Poulton; Terrie E. Moffitt; Padmaja Ramankutty; Malcolm R. Sears
Youngadults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among youngadult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis…
The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in youngadults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of youngadults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…
This study analyzed ethnic authenticity with regard to language use in 16 books for children and youngadults used in Central Michigan University's English 582 course, "Cultural Pluralism in Children and YoungAdult Literature." Four ethnic groups were included: Native American, African American, Asian American, and Hispanic American. To evaluate…
Objective Individuals born before 33?weeks' gestation (very preterm, VPT) have an increased likelihood of neurological abnormality, impaired cognitive function, and reduced academic performance in childhood. It is currently not known whether neurological signs detected in VPT children persist into adulthood or become attenuated by maturation of the CNS. Method We assessed 153 VPT individuals and 71 term?born controls at 17–18?years old, using a comprehensive neurological examination. This examination divides neurological signs into primary and integrative domains, the former representing the localising signs of classical neurology, and the latter representing signs requiring integration between different neural networks or systems. Integrative signs are sub?divided into three groups: sensory integration, motor confusion, and sequencing. The VPT individuals have been followed up since birth, and neonatal information is available on them, along with the results of neurological assessment at 4 and 8?years of age and neuropsychological assessment at 18?years of age. Results The total neurology score and primary and integrative scores were significantly increased in VPT youngadults compared to term?born controls. Within the integrative domain, sensory integration and motor confusion scores were significantly increased in the VPT group, but sequencing was not significantly different between the VPT and term groups. Integrative neurological abnormalities at 18 were strongly associated with reduced IQ but primary abnormalities were not. Conclusions Neurological signs are increased in VPT adults compared to term?born controls, and are strongly associated with reduced neuropsychological function.
Allin, M; Rooney, M; Griffiths, T; Cuddy, M; Wyatt, J; Rifkin, L; Murray, R
Functional literacy is interpreted as the ability of the individual to apply skills in reading, writing, calculation and basic problem-solving in those activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning in his/her own group and community. The paper describes the rationale, development and administration of the test used for measuring levels (high, moderate, low) of achievement in functional literacy in three domains (document, prose and quantitative). An assumption of the study was that a high level of functional literacy was required for the individual to function effectively in his/her own group and community. The context of the study is Guyana the most underdeveloped and impoverished country in the English-speaking Caribbean. The subjects are out of school youth in Guyana aged 14-25. Amongst the main findings are: only approximately 11% of the young people show a high level of functional literacy; females tend to have a higher level of functional literacy than males: and most of those at the low level never went beyond primary and low status secondary schools and usually end up unemployed or in semi- or unskilled jobs. Attention is drawn to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate which is reported for Guyana in international statistics. While they credit Guyana with an adult literacy rate of 97.5%, the study suggests that a more realistic figure is in the 70s. The importance of adult and continuing education is underscored in view of the need to help those who are out of school to meet the ever-changing demands of society for improved skills in literacy and numeracy.
Describes a seven-step process that uses youngadult literature to help teenagers understand and deal with their troubles. Offers brief annotations of five youngadult titles in each of nine areas: alienation and identity; divorce; dropouts, delinquency, and gangs; poverty; teenage pregnancy; abused children; alcohol and drugs; homosexuality; and…
...Secretary TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE YoungAdult Program Premium Update AGENCY: Office...DoD. ACTION: Notice of Updated TRICARE YoungAdult Premiums for Calendar Year 2014...This notice provides the updated TRICARE YoungAdult program premiums for Calendar...
While much has been written on national identity in Northern Ireland, the identity preferences of adults and the young have rarely been compared directly. This paper addresses this omission by examining the relationship between national identity and community relations within both the adult (aged 18 years and above) and the youngadult (aged 16 years) population. This study used the
Three experiments are reported in which a total of 182 old and 193 youngadults recalled sequences of digits presented visually\\u000a in silence or accompanied by office noise. In each experiment, an effect of irrelevant sound was found—that is, a reduction\\u000a of serial recall due to auditory distraction. Old adults exhibited poorer serial recall than did youngadults, but the
Marijuana use remains strikingly high among young users in the U.S., and yet few studies have assessed the effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in adolescents compared to adults. This study measured the effects of THC on male adolescent and adultrats in the Morris water maze. In Experiment 1, adolescent (PD=30–32) and adult (PD=65–70) rats were treated acutely with 5.0 mg\\/kg THC
Young May Cha; Aaron M. White; Cynthia M. Kuhn; Wilkie A. Wilson; H. S. Swartzwelder
BACKGROUNDImpaired fetal growth may be a risk factor for asthma although evidence in children is conflicting and there are few data in adults. Little is known about risk factors which may influence asthma in late childhood or early adult life. Whilst there are clues that fatness may be important, this has been little studied in youngadults. The relations between
Seif O Shaheen; Jonathan A C Sterne; Scott M Montgomery; Hossain Azima
Rat liver undergoes a phase of rapid growth during weaning. We followed the changes in polyamine metabolism occurring during this period of natural growth, and compared them with changes in DNA and RNA accumulation. There was a 2.5-fold increase in the number of cells per liver between suckling (18--19 days old) and weaning (30--32 days old) rats. Ornithine decarboxylase activity increased from the low value in 18-day-old rat pups and remained significantly higher (approx. 5--10-fold) than that in adultrats from day 21 to day 34. Putrescine-dependent S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity was slightly but significantly increased during most of this period. Spermidine and RNA concentrations fluctuated in concert, whereas spermine content per cell doubled during the period from day 23 to day 30.
Brosnan, M E; Symonds, G W; Hall, D E; Symonds, D L
This study investigates the implications of residential independence, enrollment in postsecondary education, employment, marital status, and parenthood for contact with, and closeness to, grandparents. Data come from 1,507 youngadults interviewed in Wave 3 of the National Survey of Families and Households. Findings suggest that adult roles can be either negatively or positively associated with grandparent-grandchild ties, depending on specific configurations among such factors as the adult role in question, a particular dimension of intergenerational solidarity, lineage, and grandchild’s and grandparent’s gender. Youngadults’ ties to parents can mediate the adverse consequences of residential independence for contact with grandparents.
Little attention has been paid to hearing abilities and the effects of noise on the normal adolescent and youngadult population. A series of studies will be presented on the prevalence of hearing loss and reported effects of hearing loss and tinnitus in adolescents and youngadults from different cultural backgrounds. Adolescents and youngadults from different backgrounds may tend to seek or avoid various noise environments that could be detrimental to their hearing and cause tinnitus. Attitudes and exposures to noise environments were evaluated to see if these may be correlated with their hearing losses and/or tinnitus. In addition, these adolescent and youngadult subjects reported how often they used hearing protection in various noise environments. Finally, the issues of quality of life and the need for hearing conservation programs with these populations will be presented.
... Hispanic black youngadults aged 20–29 years. Keywords: health insurance, access to medical care, National Health ... Health Interview Statistics. References Agency for Health Care Research and Quality. National Health Disparities Report 2009 . AHRQ ...
... encourage youth and youngadults to initiate and sustain tobacco use. This is the first time tobacco ... products that appeal to youth ......................................................................... 11 Creating a package that appeals to youth ....................................................................... 11 Retail marketing ................................................................................................................ 12 ...
Compared to younger and older aged cancer populations, the adolescent and youngadult (AYA) population between the ages of 15 and 39 years has seen little or no improvement in cancer survival rates for decades.
Background. Motor vehicle injury is the major cause of mortality among youngadults. Information about the individual characteristics of those who drive dangerously could enhance traffic safety programs. The goal of this research was to examine the association between various personality-related characteristics and risky driving behaviors.Methods. Youngadults in Michigan, USA (n = 5,362) were surveyed by telephone regarding several
Sujata M. Patil; Jean Thatcher Shope; Trivellore E. Raghunathan; C. Raymond Bingham
In order to determine bowel patterns and perceptions of diarrhea and constipation in youngadults not seeking health care, we surveyed 1128 youngadults about their bowel habits. The mean number of stools varied by race and sex. Whites reported more frequent stools than nonwhites (7.8 vs 6.0 stools per week, P<0.0001) and men reported more frequent stools than women
Evidence from lesion and inactivation studies suggests that the hippocampus (HPC) and dorsal striatum compete for control over navigation behavior, and there is some evidence in males that the structure with greater relative activation controls behavior. Estradiol has been shown to enhance HPC-dependent place learning and impair dorsal striatum-dependent response learning in female rats, possibly by increasing hippocampal activation and/or decreasing striatal activation. We used Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) to examine the activation of several subregions of the HPC and striatum in ovariectomized female rats with or without estradiol replacement 30 min after place or response learning. In 4-month-old rats, neither task nor estradiol increased Fos-IR above explore control levels in any subregion analyzed, even though estradiol impaired response learning. In 12-month-old rats, estradiol increased Fos-IR in the dentate gyrus, dorsal medial striatum, and dorsal lateral striatum in place task learners, while the absence of estradiol increased Fos-IR in these regions in response task learners. However, learning rate was not affected by estradiol in either task. We also included a group of long-term ovariectomized 12-month-old rats that displayed impaired place learning and altered Fos-IR in CA1 of the HPC. These results suggest that task-specific effects of estradiol on hippocampal and striatal activation emerge across age but that relative hippocampal and striatal activation are not related to learning rate during spatial navigation learning.
Notes that with so many multivoice novels accessible to teens, there is a great opportunity to expand students' reading repertoire. Proposes that youngadult novels are an excellent transition to classic literature that may seem remote or difficult. Offers advice on teaching multivoice novels. Concludes that multivoice novels show young readers…
Although much is known about aging adults in nursing homes, little is known about the attitudes and cognitive skills of those who are psychologically, physically, and financially independent. This study compared 57 aging and 51 young men and women. The young groups attended colleges or participated in college audiences. The seniors, ages 64 to 95, lived independently in separate households
Is young people's sexuality becoming more fluid and less tied to steady, stable identity patterns? Are we developing into a society where sexual relationships between individuals of the same sex are no longer reserved for the small minority of gay men and lesbian women? Adherents of so-called queer theory have promulgated such views. Using a population-based sample of youngadults
This article reports the findings of a study investigating rates and types of comorbid mental disorder evident in adolescents and youngadults with autism. A sample of 84 young people (M = 19.5 years, SD = 4.6) with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association,…
Moseley, David S.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Brereton, Avril V.; Einfeld, Stewart L.
More than a decade ago, the popular topic of discussion in higher education and in pop culture concerned the character traits of what was then called "Generation X" or "GenX" for short. One lasting impact of this focus has been a renewed effort on the part of higher education to define young adulthood and to reassess youngadult education. In the…
\\u000a \\u000a Objective: The incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the young is increasing recently. Among the young patients, some of them\\u000a do not have detectable aneurysms, so the cause of the disease may be non-aneurysmal. In this study, we analyzed some clinical\\u000a cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage in youngadults and discussed the possible causes other than present aneurysm and arteriovenous\\u000a malformation
Tradition in Egypt indicates that anise oil damages testicular development in boys. This study compares the effect of fennel oil and anise oil on the histopathology and immunology of the testes of youngadultrats. Sections from testicular tissue of rats treated with fennel oil showed no histopathological changes relative to control animals in all testicular cell types. On the
This manual provides strategies for developing youngadult collections, outlines a reading club designed specifically for youngadults, suggests promotional ideas for the youngadult reading club and youngadult programming in general, and provides age-appropriate ideas for both formal and passive programming. Specific topics covered in the…
This study examined support for clean indoor air (CIA) laws among 2044 youngadults in Minnesota during 2006 and 2007. Two-thirds of youngadult participants supported restaurant CIA laws and 40% supported bar\\/club CIA laws. A higher proportion of youngadults living with CIA laws supported the laws compared with youngadults living without them. Nonsmokers, college students, those with
Debra H. Bernat; Elizabeth G. Klein; Lindsey E. A. Fabian; Jean L. Forster
In food-limited populations, the presence of extra food resources can influence the way individuals allocate energy to growth and reproduction. We experimentally increased food available to cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) near the northern limit of their range over a 2-year period and tested the hypothesis that seasonal growth rates would be enhanced by supplemental food during winter and spring when
...Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS); TRICARE YoungAdult AGENCY: Office of the Secretary...for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE YoungAdult (TYA) program to provide an extended...uniformed services sponsors. The TRICARE Young [[Page 23480
Presents the viewpoints of a tenth grader on novels for youngadults that portray troubled teens dealing with alcoholism, drugs, depression, suicide, sexual abuse, and violence. Suggests that contrary to adult opinions that these novels are not always age-appropriate, they in fact broaden teens' outlooks and prepare them for the real world. (LRW)
Forty youngadults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…
Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois
Recent work from our laboratory demonstrates that both young and adultrats show a preference for directional responding over place navigation in the Morris water task. Based on these findings, previous studies on the postnatal development of spatial learning have most likely assessed the ontogeny of directional responding instead of true place navigation. Here, we examined the development of directional
Katherine G. Akers; Felicha T. Candelaria-Cook; James P. Rice; Travis E. Johnson; Derek A. Hamilton
Tumors affecting adolescents and youngadults often differ from those affecting pediatric and older adult populations1. For this reason, a classification scheme has been proposed for tumors diagnosed in adolescents and youngadults2. This classification scheme was updated based on site and histology codes of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition3. Effective 2001, all cases reported to SEER were required to have an ICD-O-3 histology and behavior code and all previous cases were converted to ICD-O-34.
Tumors affecting adolescents and youngadults often differ from those affecting pediatric and older adult populations1. For this reason, a classification scheme has been proposed for tumors diagnosed in adolescents and youngadults2. This classification scheme was updated based on site and histology codes of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition3. Effective 2001, all cases reported to SEER were required to have an ICD-O-3 histology and behavior code and all previous cases were converted to ICD-O-34.
Tumors affecting adolescents and youngadults often differ from those affecting pediatric and older adult populations1. For this reason, a classification scheme has been proposed for tumors diagnosed in adolescents and youngadults2. This classification scheme was updated based on site and histology codes of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition3. Effective 2001, all cases reported to SEER were required to have an ICD-O-3 histology and behavior code and all previous cases were converted to ICD-O-34.
Memory for news stories was studied in 48 young and 48 old adults (20-40 and 60-80 years of age, respectively). Three stories selected from actual news programs were presented in print, audio, and TV formats for study. Youngadults recalled a higher proportion of news content than old adults and performed better on source recognition tests. Presentation of the information in a TV format led to better performance than in an audio format for both young and old adults. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that approximately 86% of the age-related variance in news recall was mediated by measures of sensory acuity and processing speed, and commonality analysis revealed that 75% of the age-related variance was mediated jointly by acuity and speed. Findings support common-cause and generalized slowing views of memory impairment in old age. PMID:10224634
... the United States Sexual Health of Adolescents and YoungAdults in the United States Mar 28, 2013 The ... and sexually transmitted infections (STI) remain higher for youngadults than older adults and higher than the rates ...
Purpose: Listening in noisy situations is a challenging experience for many older adults. The authors hypothesized that older adults exert more listening effort compared with youngadults. Listening effort involves the attention and cognitive resources required to understand speech. The purpose was (a) to quantify the amount of listening effort…
Adolescent and youngadult male health receives little attention, despite the potential for positive effects on adult quality and length of life and reduction of health disparities and social inequalities. Pediatric providers, as the medical home for adolescents, are well positioned to address young men's health needs. This review has 2 primary objectives. The first is to review the literature on young men's health, focusing on morbidity and mortality in key areas of health and well-being. The second is to provide a clinically relevant review of the best practices in young men's health. This review covers male health issues related to health care access and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Healthy 2020 objectives for adolescents and youngadults, focusing on the objectives for chronic illness, mortality, unintentional injury and violence, mental health and substance use, and reproductive and sexual health. We focus, in particular, on gender-specific issues, particularly in reproductive and sexual health. The review provides recommendations for the overall care of adolescent and youngadult males. PMID:23940241
Limited information exists on how adolescents decide to use complementary/alternative medicine (CAM). There are also no instruments specific to CAM, for the youngadult population, which makes it difficult to explore knowledge in this area. The purpose of this study was to develop and examine the psychometric properties of the CAM Questionnaire for YoungAdults which measures youngadults’ attitudes about CAM. Participants for this cross-sectional survey were selected from enrolled undergraduate students at an urban university. Factor analysis identified three subscales: 1) positive beliefs about CAM; 2) environmental influence; and 3) psychological comfort. The scale has good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.79) and shows beginning demonstration of validity. Its use in this sample revealed that youngadults who are female and have used CAM in the past for preventing or treating illness have the most positive attitude towards CAM and the greatest likelihood for continued use. The implication that prevention may play a role in youngadults’ attitudes about CAM is a potential focus for future research.
OBJECTIVE--To determine the life and health insurability and employability of youngadults with congenital heart disease. DESIGN--Questionnaire study. SETTING--Cardiac department of a tertiary referral hospital for children. PATIENTS--Youngadults 18-30 years old with a variety of congenital heart defects, both simple and complex, including postoperative patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Availability of insurance at normal or high rates, with or without special conditions or exclusions. Prospects for employment. RESULTS--Questionnaires were sent to eight large life insurance companies, five health insurance companies and, 15 employers, and 26 replies were received (93%). The consensus for life insurability was that youngadults with mitral valve prolapse without regurgitation, postoperative ductus arteriosus, and aortic coarctation were insurable at standard rates. Those with any of the other heart defects listed were either insurable at high rates, or in the case of many lesions, not insurable at all. The consensus for health insurance was that insurance was available, but with complete exclusion of benefit for the cardiac disorder. Employment prospects were good for those with simple defects, but poorer for those with complex lesions. CONCLUSIONS--Prospects for insurance and employment for youngadults with complex congenital heart lesions are poor. Inconsistencies found in insurance and job policies may be due to lack of appropriate guidelines for the outcome of youngadults with corrected and uncorrected congenital heart disease.
Pulmonary edema secondary to postextubation laryn gospasm is a potentially life-threatening problem, de manding early diagnosis and prompt treatment. We believe that this problem has been grossly underesti mated in its incidence, as only seven adults have been reported in the English literature, whereas seven adults have been observed at our institution in only a 24 month period. All were
James R. Holmes; Robert N. Hensinger; Edward W. Wojtys
Aging is associated with loss of muscle volume (MV) and force leading to difficulties with activities of daily living. However, the relationship between upper limb MV and joint strength has not been characterized for older adults. Quantifying this relationship may help our understanding of the functional upper limb declines older adults experience. Our objective was to assess the relationship between upper limb MV and maximal isometric joint moment-generating capacity (IJM) in a single cohort of healthy older adults (age?65 years) for 6 major functional groups (32 muscles). MV was determined from MRI for 18 participants (75.1±4.3 years). IJM at the shoulder (abduction/adduction), elbow (flexion/extension), and wrist (flexion/extension) was measured. MV and IJM measurements were compared to previous reports for youngadults (28.6±4.5 years). On average older adults had 16.5% less total upper limb MV compared to youngadults. Additionally, older adult wrist extensors composed a significantly increased percentage of upper limb MV. Older adult IJM was reduced across all joints, with significant differences for shoulder abductors (p<0.0001), adductors (p=0.01), and wrist flexors (p<0.0001). Youngadults were strongest at the shoulder, which was not the case for older adults. In older adults, 40.6% of the variation in IJM was accounted for by MV changes (p?0.027), compared to 81.0% in youngadults. We conclude that for older adults, MV and IJM are, on average, reduced but the significant linear relationship between MV and IJM is maintained. These results suggest that older adult MV and IJM cannot be simply scaled from youngadults.
Vidt, Meghan E.; Daly, Melissa; Miller, Michael E.; Davis, Cralen C.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Saul, Katherine R.
Increased levels of neurotoxic amyloid-beta in the brain are a prominent feature of Alzheimer’s disease. FG-Loop (FGL), a neural cell adhesion molecule-derived peptide that corresponds to its second fibronectin type III module, has been shown to provide neuroprotection against a range of cellular insults. In the present study impairments in social recognition memory were seen 24 days after a 5 mg/15 µl amyloid-beta(25–35) injection into the right lateral ventricle of the youngadultrat brain. This impairment was prevented if the animal was given a systemic treatment of FGL. Unbiased stereology was used to investigate the ability of FGL to alleviate the deleterious effects on CA1 pyramidal cells of the amyloid-beta(25–35) injection. NeuN, a neuronal marker (for nuclear staining) was used to identify pyramidal cells, and immunocytochemistry was also used to identify inactive glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3?) and to determine the effects of amyloid-beta(25–35) and FGL on the activation state of GSK3?, since active GSK3? has been shown to cause a range of AD pathologies. The cognitive deficits were not due to hippocampal atrophy as volume estimations of the entire hippocampus and its regions showed no significant loss, but amyloid-beta caused a 40% loss of pyramidal cells in the dorsal CA1 which was alleviated partially by FGL. However, FGL treatment without amyloid-beta was also found to cause a 40% decrease in CA1 pyramidal cells. The action of FGL may be due to inactivation of GSK3?, as an increased proportion of CA1 pyramidal neurons contained inactive GSK3? after FGL treatment. These data suggest that FGL, although potentially disruptive in non-pathological conditions, can be neuroprotective in disease-like conditions.
Corbett, Nicola J.; Gabbott, Paul L.; Klementiev, Boris; Davies, Heather A.; Colyer, Frances M.; Novikova, Tatiana; Stewart, Michael G.
Endogenous estrogens have bidirectional effects on learning and memory, enhancing or impairing cognition depending on many variables, including the task and the memory systems that are engaged. Moderate increases in estradiol enhance hippocampus-sensitive place learning, yet impair response learning that taps dorsal striatal function. This memory modulation likely occurs via activation of estrogen receptors, resulting in altered neural function. Supplements containing estrogenic compounds from plants are widely consumed despite limited information about their effects on brain function, including learning and memory. Phytoestrogens can enter the brain and signal through estrogen receptors to affect cognition. Enhancements in spatial memory and impairments in executive function have been found following treatment with soy phytoestrogens, but no tests of actions on striatum-sensitive tasks have been made to date. The present study compared the effects of acute exposure to the isoflavone genistein with the effects of estradiol on performance in place and response learning tasks. Long-Evans rats were ovariectomized, treated with 17?-estradiol benzoate, genistein-containing sucrose pellets, or vehicle (oil or plain sucrose pellets) for 2 days prior to behavioral training. Compared to vehicle controls, estradiol treatment enhanced place learning at a low (4.5 ?g/kg) but not high dose (45 ?g/kg), indicating an inverted pattern of spatial memory facilitation. Treatment with 4.4 mg of genistein over 2 days also significantly enhanced place learning over vehicle controls. For the response task, treatment with estradiol impaired learning at both low and high doses; likewise, genistein treatment impaired response learning compared to rats receiving vehicle. Overall, genistein was found to mimic estradiol-induced shifts in place and response learning, facilitating hippocampus-sensitive learning and slowing striatum-sensitive learning. These results suggest signaling through estrogen receptor ? and membrane-associated estrogen receptors in learning enhancements and impairments given the preferential binding of genistein to the ER? subtype and affinity for GPER. PMID:22944517
Pisani, Samantha L; Neese, Steven L; Doerge, Daniel R; Helferich, William G; Schantz, Susan L; Korol, Donna L
Endogenous estrogens have bidirectional effects on learning and memory, enhancing or impairing cognition depending on many variables, including the task and the memory systems that are engaged. Moderate increases in estradiol enhance hippocampus-sensitive place learning, yet impair response learning that taps dorsal striatum function. This memory modulation likely occurs via activation of estrogen receptors, resulting in altered neural function. Supplements containing estrogenic compounds from plants are widely consumed despite limited information about their effects on brain function, including learning and memory. Phytoestrogens can enter the brain and signal through estrogen receptors to affect cognition. Enhancements in spatial memory and impairments in executive function have been found following treatment with soy phytoestrogens, but no tests of actions on striatum-sensitive tasks have been made to date. The present study compared the effects of acute exposure to the isoflavone genistein with the effects of estradiol on performance in place and response learning tasks. Long-Evans rats were ovariectomized, treated with 17?-estradiol benzoate, genistein-containing sucrose pellets, or vehicle (oil or plain sucrose pellets) for two days prior to behavioral training. Compared to vehicle controls, estradiol treatment enhanced place learning at a low (4.5 ?g/kg) but not high dose (45 ?g/kg), indicating an inverted pattern of spatial memory facilitation. Treatment with 4.4 mg of genistein over two days also significantly enhanced place learning over vehicle controls. For the response task, treatment with estradiol impaired learning at both the low and high doses; likewise, genistein treatment impaired response learning compared to rats receiving vehicle. Overall, genistein was found to mimic estradiol-induced shifts in place and response learning, facilitating hippocampus-sensitive learning and slowing striatum-sensitive learning. These results suggest signaling through estrogen receptor ? and membrane-associated estrogen receptors in learning enhancements and impairments given the preferential binding of genistein to the ER? subtype and affinity for GPER.
Pisani, Samantha L.; Neese, Steven L.; Doerge, Daniel R.; Helferich, William G.; Schantz, Susan L.; Korol, Donna L.
Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as “facial trustworthiness.”In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in youngadults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Todorov, 2008; Engell et al., 2010). Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Calder et al., 2003; Firestone et al., 2007; Ruffman et al., 2008; Chaby and Narme, 2009). Based on Todorov';s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004) reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment), from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: youngadults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in youngadults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness.
The knowledge of the spatial distribution and the local concentration of trace elements in tissues are of great importance since trace elements are involved in a number of metabolic and physiological processes in the human body, and their deficiency and excess may lead to different metabolic disorders. In this way, the main goal of this work is to compare the elemental concentration in different brain structures, namely temporal cortex, entorhinal cortex, visual cortex and hippocampus, from Wistar female rats ( n = 15) with different ages: 2, 8 and 48 weeks. The measurements were performed at the Synchrotron Light Brazilian Laboratory, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. In the entorhinal cortex, the following elements decreased with age: Zn, S, Cl, K, Ca and Br. In the temporal cortex, Ca, Fe and Br levels increased with aging and on the other hand, P, S, Cl, K and Rb levels decreased with aging. In the visual cortex almost all the elements decreased with aging: Cl, Ca, Fe, Ni and Zn. In the hippocampus, in turn, most of the elements identified, increased with aging: Al, P, S, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. The increase of Fe with aging in the hippocampus is an important fact that will be studied, since it is involved in oxidative stress. It is believed that oxidative stress is the one of the main causes responsible for neuronal death in Parkinson's disease.
Serpa, R. F. B.; de Jesus, E. F. O.; Anjos, M. J.; do Carmo, M. G. T.; Moreira, S.; Rocha, M. S.; Martinez, A. M. B.; Lopes, R. T.
Discusses publishing on the Internet by young authors. Describes "fan-fiction" Web sites where fans write passages that link to characters in popular books, television shows, or movies; fan-fiction inspired by the Disney film "Newsies"; posting short stories on Web pages; poetry, book reviews, and other publications; the attraction of the Internet…
Objectives To examine the association between perceptions of neighborhood safety and drug use, as well as mediation by depression and self-esteem. Methods The sample included 210 inner-city youngadults (18 to 25 years) recruited from the Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Results Respondents who indicated greater fear of their neighborhood environment also had significantly greater levels of drug use than did those with lower perceived fear. However, this relationship was not a result of lower self-esteem or higher levels of depressive symptoms. Conclusions Exploratory results point to the need to consider the broader role of the community environment and its impact on drug use among youngadults.
Theall, Katherine P.; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.
Background Nationwide surveys identify food service workers as heavy alcohol users. Objectives This article analyzes dimensions and correlates of problem drinking among youngadult food service workers. Methods A telephone survey of national restaurant chain employees yielded 1294 completed surveys. Results Hazardous alcohol consumption patterns were seen in 80% of men and 64% of women. Multivariate analysis showed that different dimensions of problem drinking measured by the AUDIT were associated with workers' demographic characteristics, smoking behavior and job category. Conclusions & Scientific Significance These findings offer evidence of extremely high rates of alcohol misuse among youngadult restaurant workers.
Moore, Roland S.; Cunradi, Carol B.; Duke, Michael R.; Ames, Genevieve M.
The differential impact of youngadult diagnosis on families during the period of transition from school to adult life was examined. Participants were parents of 246 youngadults with severe learning disability aged 18-26. Youngadults were classified into four diagnostic groups: autism (N = 30), Down's syndrome (N = 68), cerebral palsy (N = 95) and an undifferentiated learning
This annotated bibliography includes adult mysteries that appeal to teen readers under the categories of Sherlock Holmes; reference sources; private investigators; amateur sleuths; historical sleuths; suspense and thrillers; police procedurals; mystery blends; and anthologies. (LRW)
Youngadults offer advice to Canadian educators (in English and French) to help them improve the education system for students today. Seven diverse young men and women reflect on their school experiences and discuss encouraging students to develop leadership skills, improving teacher/student relationships, listening to students, and exposing youth…
Study aim: To determine and evaluate the spectrum of sport motivation of youngadults. Material and methods: A group of 600 subjects, aged 17-19 years, participated in the study. An "ad hoc" questionnaire was applied to assess the 4 motivational factors: competition and success-oriented motivation, external accommodation, physical fitness and…
More than 2.3 million low-income youngadults began postsecondary education in 2008. Where these students initially enroll is of greater consequence than it is to their economically better-off peers because the likelihood of completing college for students from low-income backgrounds depends strongly on where they start their studies. This brief…
The study aims to explore the process of overcoming depression as experienced by youngadult psychotherapy patients. Seventeen patients in individual or group psychotherapy with diagnoses within the depression spectrum were interviewed at termination of psychotherapy and at 1.5 years’ follow-up. Grounded theory analysis of transcripts resulted in 15 distinct categories, organized into five general domains: experiences of positive change,
Participation in the arts is a form of practical reason and as such has the potential to form and transform the faith of individuals. The findings from Katherine M. Douglass's 2011 study on the role of the arts in the faith lives of youngadults provides examples of the transformative potential of the arts as they foster expression,…
Rarely do students and teachers see themselves as people who have the authority to talk back to the gatekeepers; instead, they are on the receiving end of a conversation begun by others. But the conversation about youngadult (YA) books--like the authors who write them--is a living thing. Students and teachers can help to shape it. In this…
Examines youngadults (N=360) in terms of their perceptions of having assumed a parentified role in their family of origin as a function of academic status and classification as children of alcoholics or nonalcoholics. Low academic status participants reported having greater caretaking responsibilities and worries in their families. Children of…
Chase, Nancy D.; Wells, Marolyn C.; Deming, Mary P.
The authors investigate the question of how Chinese youngadults (18-26 years old) in Sheffield seek employment information, and what sources and channels they use. Data collection was via a semi-structured questionnaire (78 responses) and via nine follow-up interviews with respondents to the questionnaire. Fifty-five percent felt that they had…
Suggesting that the vital element nonfiction lacks is professional attention, this book shows the literary qualities of nonfiction as well as defining its importance for youngadults. The book discusses seven issues related to information books, each issue making up a single chapter. The first chapter addresses the reading interests of teenagers,…
In recent years the necessity of measuring quality of life in childhood cancer survivors has been stressed. This paper gives an overview of the results of studies into the quality of life (QL) of youngadult survivors of childhood cancer and suggest areas for future research. The review located 30 empirical studies published up to 2001. The results are described
N. E. Langeveld; H. Stam; M. A. Grootenhuis; B. F. Last
Living independently before marriage is part of a broader pattern of family and demographic change characterizing modern societies since World War II. This study examined expectations about premarital residential independence among youngadults. Data were obtained from 28,240 high school seniors who participated in the High School and Beyond study…
The objective was to determine the influence of consuming 50 g flaxseed\\/d for 4 wk on several indexes of nutrition in young healthy adults. During flaxseed consump- tion, ct-linolenate was increased significantly in adipose tissue, and n - 3 polyunsaturates were increased in plasma lipids. Plasma LDL cholesterol was also reduced by up to 8%, and total urinary lignan excretion
Stephen C Cunnane; Mazen J Hamadeh; Andrea C Liede; Lilian U Thompson; David JA Jenkins
Plans are provided for developing a youngadult program both in the library and in the community. Community investigation methods are described--where to look for information, organizations to contact, places where youth congregate and may be reached, ways to cooperate with schools, and how to survey the target group. Suggestions are made for…
American Library Association, Chicago, IL. Young Adult Services Div.
Noting that youngadult literature is especially vulnerable to censorship, this guide maintains that every teacher should have a written rationale for every book that is required reading in the classroom. It presents 19 guidelines for writing a theoretical rationale for any book used in the classroom. Twenty references and a list of where to get…
In an effort to inform junior and senior high school students about mental illness, this document provides educators with an annotated bibliography of youngadult fiction and a set of supporting activities. Included in the bibliography are nearly 100 current fiction titles, grouped according to the following topics: anorexia, drugs and alcohol,…
This book presents descriptions of 26 youngadult titles that have been frequent targets of censorship attempts. Each entry provides an annotation for the book in question; examples of recent challenges; citations to reviews of the book and background articles; a list of awards garnered by the book or its author; references about the author;…
Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug among youngadults in the United States, with 27.8 percent of persons aged 18 to 25 using marijuana at least once in the past year and 4.3 percent using marijuana on a daily basis in the past year. The Nati...
Exercise seems a simple and widely practised behaviour that activates molecular and cellular signalling cascades involved in various central nervous system processes. Despite impressive results obtained in animal studies, fitness interventions have produced less reliable effects in humans, particularly in youngadults. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that an individually adapted exercise training consisting of three running
Sanna Stroth; Katrin Hille; Manfred Spitzer; Ralf Reinhardt
Youngadults with (n=34) and without (n=41) mental retardation completed a sequence-learning and identification task. For some, sequences were constructed following an artificial grammar. Explicit learning was determined by ability to learn and identify random sequences, implicit learning by the tendency to identify incorrectly new grammatical…
Atwell, Julie A.; Conners, Frances A.; Merrill, Edward C.
Describes the use of focus groups to determine youngadult needs in public libraries, based on experiences at the Johnson County Library system in Kansas City. Highlights include the benefits of focus groups over surveys, time involvement, how to design questions to ask, and compiling data. (LRW)
The content of Weblogs ranges from personal diary entries to interactive content from news organizations. Employing the uses and gratifications framework, this study examined how much time youngadults spend with blogs and how well traditional predictors of media trust fit a model of overall blog trust. Findings from data collections in 2005 and 2007 indicate that information seekers trust
Three studies examined the tongue protrusion (TP) behaviors of young infants in response to visual stimuli. Infants produced TPs in response to objects within reach before but not after the onset of reaching behavior. The results suggest that infants' TPs in response to a tongue-protruding adult reflect very early attempts at oral exploration of…
Background The antecedents and epidemiology of heart failure in youngadults are poorly under- stood. Methods We prospectively assessed the incidence of heart failure over a 20-year period among 5115 blacks and whites of both sexes who were 18 to 30 years of age at baseline. Using Cox models, we examined predictors of hospitalization or death from heart failure. Results
Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo; Mark J. Pletcher; Feng Lin; Eric Vittinghoff; Julius M. Gardin; Alexander Arynchyn; Cora E. Lewis; O. Dale Williams; Stephen B. Hulley
Gay and lesbian youngadults (N = 53) were interviewed about coming out to their parents. Analyses of memory content were conducted. Hypotheses related to disclosure were largely supported. Participants typically first disclosed their sexual orientation to a friend. More participants came out to their mother than their father. When disclosure was made to both parents, mothers were told prior
This article describes a university affiliated summer program which provided 16 youngadults with Williams Syndrome with a creative dramatics program highlighting their language and musical talents. The article discusses the characteristic strengths and weaknesses of people with Williams syndrome, meeting students' interests and learning styles,…
This study examines students' perceptions of the outcomes and processes of engaged reading in classrooms prioritizing engagement through self-selected, self-paced reading of compelling youngadult literature. The primary data were 71 end-of-year student interviews, supported by end-of-year teacher interviews, biweekly observational data,…
... The YoungAdult Cancer Movement HIGHLIGHTS Breast Cancer Cells Found by Immunochemistry in Sentinel Nodes Not Associated with Survival Radiation Plus Short-Term Hormone Therapy Improves Survival of Men with Early-Stage Prostate Cancer In Hodgkin Lymphoma Study, Side Effects Distinguish Treatments ...
Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and youngadults (age 18-25…
Purpose: The primary goal of this study was to test the reliability of the Partner Violence Interview and examine validity by measuring differential correlates of partner violence.Methods: Sixty youngadults (30 males and 30 females) housed in an urban shelter participated in this study. All participants were between the ages of 18 and 21 years and the majority were African-American.
Neil W Boris; Sherryl Scott Heller; Tonya Sheperd; Charles H Zeanah
Objectives: To measure relative effectiveness of tobacco countermarketing advertisements by category and emotive execution style among youngadults. Methods: Participants (n = 1011) from 2 US 4-year colleges, one southern and one northern were surveyed before and after viewing advertisements in one of 3 categories: social norms, health…
Despite a growing body of work that draws attention to the presence of violence in the mass media and its effects on youth, little critical attention has been paid to the role of violence in youngadult literature. The authors believe that by bringing violence to the foreground in the study of texts, they can enrich and deepen what these stories…
Service to youngadults in German public libraries expanded under the Nazis because of their idealization of youth. The elaborate structure created to propagate Nazi views determined the types of books and services available. Progress resulted from the accommodation to a totalitarian creed that was essentially evil. (EM)
Food mishandling is thought to be more acute among youngadults; yet little is known about why they may engage in risky food handling behaviors. The purpose of this study was to create valid, reliable instruments for assessing key food safety psychosocial measures. Development of the measures began by examining published studies and behavior…
A new survey has found that most youngadults in the United States have difficulty identifying Iraq on an unlabeled map of the Middle East, or are unaware that the population of China is more than four times that of the United States. This lack of geographic literacy goes beyond simple gaps in knowledge and skills for most of these people do not…
Casual sex is often associated with the youngadult stage in the life course. Most recent research on the prevalence, motives, and consequences of heterosexual casual sex has relied on samples of college students, yet students are only a small and advantaged subset of the youngadult population. The current study drew on the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, which was collected in 2006-2007 and included youngadults (ages 18-24 years) whose trajectories reflected a wider spectrum of educational experiences (N = 1,023). We moved beyond prior work by examining both frequency and type of heterosexual casual sex: lifetime vaginal, lifetime oral, and recent vaginal sex. We found that youngadults enrolled or who graduated from 4-year educational institutions reported fewer casual sex partners on all three measures compared to participants without a high school degree and those with some college experience. Sexual attitudes were key factors mediating the association between educational status and casual sex behavior. These results indicate that programs aimed at encouraging healthy sexual behavior should target individuals who are at risk of not graduating high school because they are at greatest risk of frequent casual sex partners. PMID:23297151
Preparing teachers to understand their students' reading processes so that they can guide their students toward connecting with texts in meaningful and personal ways are goals that can be met through the study of youngadult literature. Twenty-first century learners live in an increasingly interconnected world and have access to countless texts…
June 10, 2014 A Day in the Life of YoungAdults: Substance Use Facts In Brief This issue of The CBHSQ Report presents facts about ... for substance use "on an average or typical day." 9 Data in this report are for persons ...
Presents tips from a project that made modest but significant improvements to the youngadult areas and services of 11 rural libraries in the Pioneer Library System in upstate New York. Discusses floor plans, layout and location; furniture and fixtures; collections and displays; technology; and staff. Illustrates changes with before-and-after…
The purpose of our research was to explore the differences between youngadult moral exemplars and comparison individuals by studying their life stories. Moral exemplars were nominated for their extraordinary moral commitment to the social organizations where they volunteered or worked. Forty moral exemplars, along with 40 matched comparison…
Casual sex is often associated with the youngadult stage in the life course. Most recent research on the prevalence, motives, and consequences of heterosexual casual sex has relied on samples of college students, yet students are only a small and advantaged subset of the youngadult population. The current study drew on the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, which was collected in 2006–2007 and included youngadults (ages 18–24 years) whose trajectories reflected a wider spectrum of educational experiences (N = 1,023). We moved beyond prior work by examining both frequency and type of heterosexual casual sex: lifetime vaginal, lifetime oral, and recent vaginal sex. We found that youngadults enrolled or who graduated from 4-year educational institutions reported fewer casual sex partners on all three measures compared to participants with-out a high school degree and those with some college experience. Sexual attitudes were key factors mediating the association between educational status and casual sex behavior. These results indicate that programs aimed at encouraging healthy sexual behavior should target individuals who are at risk of not graduating high school because they are at greatest risk of frequent casual sex partners.
Chronic renal failure as consequence of renal dysplasia was diagnosed in three youngadult Dutch kooiker dogs (Dutch decoy dogs). Two animals were anorectic from an early age and were thinner than healthy dogs of the same breed. All three were presented because of apathy and weakness. Laboratory examination revealed anaemia and uraemia. One dog was presented with severe dehydration
C. Schulze; H. P. Meyer; A. L. Blok; K. Schipper; T. S. G. A. M. van den Ingh
THE DATA FROM PREVIOUS STUDIES WERE USED TO DETERMINE IF THERE WERE DIFFERENTIAL NONINTELLECTUAL (PERSONALITY) CHANGES IN YOUNGADULTS WHO DIFFERED MARKEDLY IN MEASURED ACADEMIC APTITUDE. THREE OF THE FORMER STUDIES WERE FOR A 2-YEAR TEST AND RETEST TIME PERIOD, AND TWO WERE FOR A 4-YEAR TEST AND RETEST TIME PERIOD. COMPARISONS OF NONINTELLECTUAL…
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method: Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 youngadults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language…
Four vertical and three horizontal measurements were taken to assess the validity of neoclassical facial canons in 500 (272 female, 228 male) healthy, youngadults between the ages of 18 and 25 years from Turkey and to compare them with a different population. The measurements were made by a millimetric compass. The special head height was longer than the special face
The monograph consists of seven related papers written during the past five years focusing on measuring the vocational interests of youngadults. Its stated purpose is to provide both a conceptual framework and a practical foundation for interpreting the world of work to students in terms of their own characteristics and vocational interests. The…
Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in our society with dyslipidemia contributing significantly to atherosclerosis. Thus measurement of plasma lipids would help in identifying people at risk for CVD. The goal of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of Dyslipidemia among youngadult population in urban India. Material and Methods : The study
Childhood maltreatment has been thought to be a significant risk factor in the development of gambling problems. Incorporating a developmental psychopathology perspective, 1,324 adolescents and youngadults, age 17-22 years completed self-report measures on gambling behaviors, gambling severity, and childhood maltreatment. Problem gamblers…
Felsher, Jennifer R.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina
This article summarizes preservice teachers' experiences in a book club that read youngadult literature focused on issues related to bullying. Preservice teachers learned to recognize various incidents of bullying in the books. They also began to consider how they might handle incidents of bullying in their future classrooms. (Contains 2 figures.)
Pytash, Kristine E.; Morgan, Denise N.; Batchelor, Katherine E.
This pilot study tested the efficacy of a brief intervention using motivational interviewing (MI) plus mindfulness meditation (MM) to reduce marijuana use among youngadult females. Thirty-four female marijuana users between the ages of 18 and 29 were randomized to either the intervention group (n = 22), consisting of two sessions of MI-MM, or an assessment-only control group (n =
Marcel A. de Dios; Debra S. Herman; Willoughby B. Britton; Claire E. Hagerty; Bradley J. Anderson; Michael D. Stein
Recent studies indicate that performance of motor skills is influenced by a diversity of physiological parameters, such as weight status, aerobic capacity, endurance and muscular strength, but the scientific determinants of physical performance are very specific. The aim was to identify the anthropometric and physiological determinants of motor skills in youngadults. The authors studied anthropometric and physiological factors (as
E I Iconaru; C Ciucurel; M M Ciucurel; L Georgescu; S Toma; M I Tudor
This manual is designed to assist public libraries in Alabama with setting up "Tsunami Summer!," a summer program for youngadults, i.e., students in grades 6 through 12. The manual contains the following sections: (1) Publicity and Promotion; (2) Working with Schools; (3) Involving the Students, including teen volunteers, teen advisory councils,…
Purpose: To examine resource allocation and sentence processing, this study examined the effects of auditory distraction on grammaticality judgment (GJ) of sentences varied by semantics (reversibility) and short-term memory requirements. Method: Experiment 1: Typical youngadult females (N = 60) completed a whole-sentence GJ task in distraction…
Discussions were held with 252 respondents (state and local officials, service providers, educators, parents) in 28 states concerning the problems in transition from school to adult services for developmentally disabled youngadults. Transition issues were seen to include questions of where to live, what to do, and how to obtain support. The…
Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.
Youngadults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by youngadults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies. PMID:22810954
The dynamic aspect of early life growth is not fully captured by typical analyses, which focus on one specific time period. To better understand how infant and young child growth relate to the development of adult body composition, the authors characterized body mass index (BMI) trajectories using latent class growth analysis (LCGA) and evaluated their association with adult body composition. Data are from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, which followed a birth cohort to age 22 years (n=1749). In both males and females, LCGA identified seven subgroups of respondents with similar BMI trajectories from 0 to 24 months (assessed with bimonthly anthropometrics). Trajectory groups were compared with conventional approaches: (1) accelerated growth between two time points (0–4 months), (2) continuous BMI gain between two points (0–4 months and 0–24 months) and (3) BMI measured at one time point (24 months) as predictors of youngadult body composition measures. The seven trajectory groups were distinguished by age-specific differences in tempo and timing of BMI gain in infancy. Infant BMI trajectories were better than accelerated BMI gain between 0 and 4 months at predicting youngadult body composition. After controlling for BMI at age 2 years, infant BMI trajectories still explained variation in adult body composition. Using unique longitudinal data and methods, we find that distinct infant BMI trajectories have long-term implications for the development of body composition.
Slining, M. M.; Herring, A. H.; Popkin, B. M.; Mayer-Davis, E. J.; Adair, L. S.
ABSTRACT There is a growing body of research on the modifiability of executive functions in different stages of life. Previous studies demonstrate robust training effects but limited transfer in younger and particularly in older adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a theoretically derived intervention for executive functioning, addressing several basic processes (updating, shifting, and inhibition), can induce transfer effects in early and late adulthood. Fifty-nine healthy adults, 29 young and 30 older adults, were randomly assigned to either training or no-contact control groups. The training groups received 15 sessions of executive process training for about 45 min/session during 5 weeks. A test battery including a criterion task and near, intermediate, and far transfer tasks was administered before and after training. Results showed pronounced age-equivalent gains on the criterion task. Near transfer was seen to non-trained updating and inhibition tasks for the young and older trained participants. However, only the youngadults showed intermediate transfer to two complex working memory tasks. No far transfer effects were seen for either age group. These findings provide additional evidence for age-related constraints in the ability to generalize acquired executive skills, and specifically show that training of multiple executive processes is not sufficient to foster transfer beyond the very near in older adults. PMID:24148093
Sandberg, Petra; Rönnlund, Michael; Nyberg, Lars; Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
Concerns exist regarding reproductive health, including potential infertility, among youngadults with military-related occupational exposures. This study evaluated infertility diagnoses in a large population of healthy youngadults in relation to prior s...
C. J. Sevick G. R. Gumbs I. G. Jacobson M. A. Ryan T. C. Smith
In this paper the choice between marriage and unmarried cohabitation as a first union by youngadults is studied. A hazard analysis is performed on a sample of 590 26-year-old men and women from the Netherlands. Students are much less likely to start a union in general, and marriage in particular, than are other categories of youngadults. Youngadults
Because of the important role music plays in the lives of youngadults, the graduate education of youngadult librarians should include a study of the music and the musical behavior of youngadults. A formal course might include reviews of research in the...
Aims Young adulthood represents a period of continued smoking progression and the establishment of regular and long-term smoking practices. Our understanding of the psychological processes that facilitate and solidify regular smoking patterns in this developmental period is limited. We sought to evaluate the role of depression symptoms in youngadult smoking uptake and to evaluate whether non-smoking related alternative reinforcers was a mechanism by which depression symptoms influence smoking. Participants The sample was composed of 834 youngadults who participated in a longitudinal study of smoking adoption (age 18 – 22 years old). Design and measurements In this prospective cohort study, smoking, depression, alternative reinforcers and several covariates were measured annually via telephone from emerging adulthood (age 18) to young adulthood (age 22). Findings Results of a parallel processes latent growth curve model showed that depression symptoms level (baseline age 18) had a significant negative effect on substitute alternative reinforcers trend (? = ?.01, z=?3.17, p=.002) and that substitute reinforcers trend had a significant negative effect on smoking trend (? = ?.62, z= ?2.99, p=.003). An assessment of indirect effects revealed that depression symptoms level had a significant positive indirect effect on smoking trend through substitute alternative reinforcers trend (B = .01, z = 2.09, p=.04, 99% CI = .001, .02), such that greater depression symptoms at baseline predicted decreases in substitute reinforcers across time which in turn predicted increases in smoking uptake/rate from emerging to young adulhood. Conclusions Depression symptoms in emerging adulthood indirectly influence smoking and mitigating declines and/or promoting greater alternative reinforcers to smoking may prevent smoking uptake and further increases in smoking rate among youngadults.
... health conditions and treatment on older adolescents and youngadults Recently released data shows that older adolescents and youngadults with emotional and behavioral health conditions are much ...
The primary objective of this review was to update and discuss the current concepts and the results of the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in adolescents and youngadults (AYA). After a brief consideration of the epidemiologic and clinicobiologic characteristics of ALL in the AYA population, the main retrospective comparative studies stating the superiority of pediatric over adult-based protocols were reviewed. The most important prospective studies in youngadults using pediatric inspired or pediatric unmodified protocols were also reviewed emphasizing their feasibility at least up to the age of 40 yr and their promising results, with event-free survival rates of 60–65% or greater. Results of trials from pediatric groups have shown that the unfavourable prognosis of adolescents is no more adequate. The majority of the older adolescents with ALL can be cured with risk-adjusted and minimal residual disease-guided intensive chemotherapy, without stem cell transplantation. However, some specific subgroups, which are more frequent in adolescents than in children (e.g., early pre-T, iAMP21, and BCR-ABL-like), deserve particular attention. In summary, the advances in treatment of ALL in adolescents have been translated to youngadults, and that explains the significant improvement in survival of these patients in recent years.
At the crossroads between pediatric and older adult groups, youngadults with cancer may be underserved or inadequately or inappropriately served by existing support services. Empirical evidence has not established well the extent to which utilization of psychosocial support services delivered throughout a continuum of care results in desired outcomes. If self-efficacy is demonstrated to play a significant role in promoting quality of life and psychological well-being in youngadult cancer patients, then a cancer-specific self-efficacy model can serve as an evidence-based framework for developing, implementing, and testing new interventions. A focus on self-efficacy has the potential to promote youngadults' abilities to remain active and independent, seek and understand medical information, manage stress, cope with treatment-related side effects, maintain a "positive attitude," regulate emotions, and seek social support. Future research should aim to identify which patients represent at-risk targets for intervention, as well as the most appropriate time points along the continuum of care at which patients/survivors are most likely to benefit from delivery/utilization of psychosocial support services. PMID:19835742
The need for adolescents and youngadults (AYA) to have suitable age-specific inpatient facilities has been recognised for many years, yet has received relatively little attention. This article reports the successful introduction of an inpatient facility for AYA, aged 17-24 years, on a general paediatric ward in a small district general hospital. From December 2010, a young person's unit (YPU) consisting of an 8-bed area was opened within a 24-bed children's ward. Nursing care was provided by the ward staff, all of whom had been trained in the care of youngadults. Policies regarding admission criteria, safeguarding, patient choice, visiting and 'house rules' were drafted, implemented and modified as necessary. Discussions with the adult clinicians (for medical care) and site managers were held to ensure smooth running of the system, and to address any concerns or difficulties. Paediatric patients had priority of admission at times of bed crisis. During 2012, there were a total of 2351 inpatient admissions to the paediatric ward, of whom 379 (16%) were YPU patients aged from 17-24 years. Median length of stay was 2 days for patients aged 17-24 years as compared with 1 day for patients aged less than or equal to 16 years. Patients who chose admission to the paediatric ward tended to be younger, in transition from paediatric to adult services for chronic conditions, or with special needs. Patient surveys showed a high level of satisfaction with the facility. Youngadults can be cared for safely and effectively on a paediatric ward with minimal additional costs. The essential ingredients for success include discussion with affected parties to address specific concerns, and the establishment of a clear, simple and unambiguous admission policy. PMID:24165407
Heaton, Paul A J; Routley, Christine; Paul, Siba Prosad
This study examined the possible contribution of vagal stretch receptor activity to the increased power of the Hering-Breuer reflex in hyperthermia in rats during the early postnatal period. Experiments were performed on 10 anesthetized (pentobarbital 40 mg/kg, i.p.) 3 to 10-day-old (body weight of 16 +/- 1 g; SE) and, for comparison, 18 adult Sprague-Dawley rats (body weight of 336 +/- 35 g). Animals were tracheostomized and artificially ventilated with oxygen. The left vagus nerve was cut. In adult animals, single receptor fibers or a bundle of a few fibers were recorded using a bipolar stainless-steel electrode under mineral oil. In the youngrats, a suction electrode filled with normal saline was used. Positive pressure of either 5 or 10 cmH2O was applied to the trachea when the respirator was turned off. The vagal activity was amplified and monitored on a storage oscilloscope for calculation of the frequency of vagal afferent activity during a given pressure application at different rectal temperatures (T(R); range 28 to 42 degrees C). In total, 30 and 31 sets of vagal activity in the young and adultrats, respectively, were analyzed. In all cases, an increase in tracheal pressure (P(TR)) from 5 to 10 cmH2O increased the frequency of vagal firing. The increase was greater in the adult versus the young animals; at 36 degrees C the increase was 49 +/- 11% and 16 +/- 3% in the adult and youngrats, respectively (P < 0.01). In all animals, vagal receptors showed temperature-sensitivity, but less so in the young than in the adultrats (P < 0.0004 and P < 0.003; for P(TR) of 5 and 10 cmH2O, respectively). In addition, the relationship between temperature-sensitivity and T(R) had significant slopes (P < 0.001 for both inflation pressures) in the adults but not in the youngrats, indicating that in the latter the temperature-sensitivity of vagal receptors is independent of TR. These results imply that temperature-sensitivity of vagal receptors could have contributed to the increased power of the Hering-Breuer reflex in rats during the early postnatal period in the warmer environment. PMID:11332507
Background:Maternal tobacco smoke (MTS) predisposes human and rat offspring to visceral obesity in early adulthood. Glucocorticoid excess also causes visceral obesity. We hypothesized that in utero MTS would increase visceral adiposity and alter the glucocorticoid pathway in youngadultrats.Methods:We developed a novel model of in utero MTS exposure in pregnant rats by exposing them to cigarette smoke from E11.5 to term. Neonatal rats were cross-fostered to control dams and weaned to standard rat chow through young adulthood (postnatal day 60).Results:We demonstrated increased visceral adiposity (193%)*, increased visceral adipose 11-? hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 mRNA (204%)*, increased serum corticosterone (147%)*, and no change in glucocorticoid receptor protein in adult male MTS rat offspring. Female rats exposed to MTS in utero demonstrated no change in visceral or subcutaneous adiposity, decreased serum corticosterone (60%)*, and decreased adipose glucocorticoid receptor protein (66%)*. *P < 0.05.Conclusion:We conclude that in utero MTS exposure increased visceral adiposity and altered in the glucocorticoid pathway in a sex-specific manner. We speculate that in utero MTS exposure programs adipose dysfunction in adult male rat offspring via alteration in the glucocorticoid pathway. PMID:24727947
Zinkhan, Erin K; Lang, Brook Y; Yu, Baifeng; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Chengshe; Fitzhugh, Melanie; Dahl, Marjanna; Campbell, Michael S; Fung, Camille; Malleske, Daniel; Albertine, Kurt H; Joss-Moore, Lisa; Lane, Robert H
A 23-year-old woman who had worked as a hostess at a nightclub was found dead in her house. The cause of death was diagnosed as miliary tuberculosis from the findings of medico-legal autopsy. Recently, tuberculosis (TB) has re-emerged as a health problem due to recurrence in the aged, and infections among health care workers and youngadults like the present case. Currently, the common source of TB transmission is recurrence in the aged, but global migration, difficulty to achieve permanent immunity by BCG vaccination, immunodeficiency such as HIV infection, and drug abuse and/or sexual intercourse are also thought to be associated with tuberculosis in youngadults. Forensic pathologists should be aware of such connections with TB, and should take care not to become mediators of TB infections. PMID:12935641
Objective To explain why a subgroup of young men aged 20–24 years do not follow the general trend within the adult general population,\\u000a of declining violence with age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method A cross-sectional survey of 8,397 adults in households in Great Britain in 2000. Computer-assisted interviews to measure self-reported\\u000a violence and psychiatric morbidity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results Young men age 20–24 years had the same high prevalence of self-reported violence
These analyses assess contextual profiles of 612 youngadult Ecstasy users, 18–30 years of age, from St. Louis (USA), Miami (USA) and Sydney (Australia). Bivariate analyses revealed different contextual factors influencing Ecstasy use. Friends were the most common sources of Ecstasy at all sites and most used with friends. St. Louis and Miami use mostly occurred in residences, whereas in Sydney use was mostly at clubs, bars or restaurants. Ecstasy consumption at public places and in cars, trains or ferries was significantly higher in Miami (89% and 77%) than in St. Louis (67% and 65%) and Sydney (67% and 61%). At all sites, simultaneous use of LSD/mushroom and nitrous oxide with Ecstasy was common; concurrent amphetamines predominated in Sydney and heroin/opiates in St. Louis Contextual factors influencing Ecstasy use among youngadults vary by geographic region. Their inclusion may help tailor effective prevention programs to reduce or ameliorate Ecstasy use.
Ramtekkar, Ujjwal P.; Striley, Catherine W; Cottler, Linda B
The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in youngadults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of youngadults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic selection task was used to assess how participants implicitly extracted reinforcement history from the environment based on probabilistic positive/negative feedback. The findings showed impaired RL in individuals with DLI, indicating an altered gating function of the striatum in testing. However, they exploited similar learning strategies as comparison participants at the beginning of training, reflecting relatively intact functions of the prefrontal cortex to rapidly update reinforcement information. Within the context of Frank's model, these results can be interpreted as evidence for alterations in the basal ganglia of individuals with DLI. PMID:22921956
The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in youngadults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank et al., 2004). Two groups of youngadults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic selection task was used to assess how participants implicitly extracted reinforcement history from the environment based on probabilistic positive/negative feedback. The findings showed impaired RL in individuals with DLI, indicating an altered gating function of the striatum in testing. However, they exploited similar learning strategies as comparison participants at the beginning of training, reflecting relatively intact functions of the prefrontal cortex to rapidly update reinforcement information. Within the context of Frank’s model, these results can be interpreted as evidence for alterations in the basal ganglia of individuals with DLI.
Youngadult (N = 96) university students who varied in their binge drinking history were assessed by electroencephalography (EEG) recording during passive viewing. Groups consisted of male and female non-binge drinkers (>1 to 5/4 drinks/ounces in under two hours), low-binge drinkers (5/4–7/6 drinks/ounces in under two hours), and high-binge drinkers (? 10 drinks/ounces in under two hours), who had been drinking alcohol at their respective levels for an average of 3 years. The non- and low-binge drinkers exhibited less spectral power than the high-binge drinkers in the delta (0–4 Hz) and fast-beta (20–35 Hz) bands. Binge drinking appears to be associated with a specific pattern of brain electrical activity in youngadults that may reflect the future development of alcoholism.
In the present study, we examined the link between goal and problem-solving strategy preferences in 130 young and older adults using hypothetical family problem vignettes. At baseline, youngadults preferred autonomy goals, whereas older adults preferred generative goals. Imagining an expanded future time perspective led older adults to show…
The present work has a two-fold aim: (a) to verify the difference in civic behavior enacted by socially engaged young people in a lasting and structured form, sealed by membership in an organization, on the one hand, and in non-engaged young people, on the other hand; (b) to identify a pattern of characteristics (personal, social, and familial) able to explain civic behavior. Participants, 577 youngadults from ages 19 to 29, filled out a self-report questionnaire. The results of the t test for independent samples confirm the presence of the difference between means of scores on the civic behavior. Moreover, data confirm a model in which civic behavior is predicted by personal identity, engagement values, family discussion of current events, the quality of previous membership experiences in socially oriented groups (membership), and finally, in a mediator position, by sense of community. The present study has many implications for researchers and practitioners. PMID:22242781
BackgroundIn patients with heart failure from acquired cardiomyopathy, respiratory and skeletal muscle weakness is common and is an independent predictor for adverse events. Despite a different underlying pathology, many youngadults with congenital heart disease (CHD) develop a syndrome comparable to heart failure from acquired cardiomyopathy and may be at risk for a similar skeletal muscle weakness.ObjectivesTo assess respiratory and
Matthias Greutmann; Thao Lan Le; Daniel Tobler; Patric Biaggi; Erwin N Oechslin; Candice K Silversides; John T Granton
Tufted angioma (TA) is a rare benign vascular neoplasm, localized to the skin and subcutaneous tissues, occurring primarily on the trunk and extremities of children. The lesions are usually asymptomatic but, rarely, paroxysmal painful episodes may be associated. The occurrence of eruptive TA is still rarer and had been described almost exclusively in association with immunocompromised states. We report here a case of acquired painful multifocal tufted angiomas on the face and neck in an immunocompetent youngadult.
The purpose of the study was to examine how youngadults' beliefs about marriage related to past, self-reported family-of-origin variables, including parental marriage characteristics and parental support. A sample of 527 college students completed a survey about their beliefs about marriage and the nature of their family relationships while growing up. Parental variables differentially predicted multiple dimensions of marital beliefs
Although numerous homeless youth report trading sex, few studies have examined risk factors associated with trading sex and\\u000a even fewer have employed multivariate analyses to examine this relationship, even though trading sex is associated with many\\u000a negative health outcomes. Based on a sample of 151 homeless youngadults in the midwestern United States, logistic regression\\u000a analyses revealed that for each
Thank you for participating in the Adolescent and YoungAdult Health Outcomes and Patient Experience (AYA HOPE) Survey. The survey is about your experiences with the medical care you receive in the first year following your cancer diagnosis and how your cancer has influenced different areas of your life. Survey results will be used to help improve medical care and support services for cancer patients like you. The survey should take about 15 minutes to complete.
BACKGROUND: The drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), otherwise known as “ecstasy,” is a synthetic amphetamine that produces euphoria, increases sociability and energy, and is often used as a “weekend” recreational drug by youngadults.CASE SUMMARY: A 23-year-old male (height, 184 cm; weight, 68 kg) presented to the emergency department of Marmara University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, with jaundice and nausea lasting for 6
Background: In some inherited connective tissue diseases with involvement of the cardiovascular system, for example, Marfan syndrome, early impairment of left ventricular function, which have been described as Marfan-related cardiomyopathy has been reported. Our aim was to evaluate the left ventricular function in youngadults with mitral valve prolapse without significant mitral regurgitation using two-dimensional strain imaging and to determine the possible role of the transforming growth factor-? pathway in its deterioration. Methods: We studied 78 youngadults with mitral valve prolapse without mitral regurgitation in comparison with 80 sex-matched and age-matched healthy individuals. Longitudinal strain and strain rates were defined using spackle tracking. Concentrations of transforming growth factor-?1 and ?2 in serum were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: In 29 patients, classic relapse was identified with a leaflet thickness of ? 5 mm; 49 patients had a non-classic mitral valve prolapse. Despite the similar global systolic function, a significant reduction in global strain was found in the classic group (-15.5 ± 2.9%) compared with the non-classic group (-18.7 ± 3.8; p = 0.0002) and the control group (-19.6 ± 3.4%; p < 0.0001). In youngadults with non-classic prolapse, a reduction in longitudinal deformation was detected only in septal segments. Transforming growth factor-?1 and ?2 serum levels were elevated in patients with classic prolapse as compared with the control group and the non-classic mitral valve prolapse group. Conclusions: These changes in the deformations may be the first signs of deterioration of the left ventricular function and the existence of primary cardiomyopathy in youngadults with mitral valve prolapse, which may be caused by increased transforming growth factor-? signalling. PMID:23880103
We investigated cultural influences on the distribution of character strengths, gender differences in character strengths,\\u000a and the relationship of happiness to character strengths. Youngadults from the United States (n=1099) and Japan (n=308) completed the English or Japanese versions of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths. American and Japanese showed\\u000a similar distributions of the 24 strengths measured: Higher strengths
Satoshi Shimai; Keiko Otake; Christopher Peterson; Martin E. P. Seligman
Objective: Youngadults frequently experiment with vegetarian and weight-loss diets. Comparisons of their experiences on these two different diets may help in the development of approaches to improve long-term adherence to weight-loss regimens. In the current study vegetarian and weight-loss diets were compared on how long and how strictly they were followed, and reasons why they were initiated and discontinued.Research
Treatment approaches for adolescents and youngadults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have evolved considerably in\\u000a the past 5–7 years. One of the major changes has been the widespread adoption of pediatric-based protocols, which appears\\u000a to have significantly improved survival and probably renders allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) unnecessary\\u000a in most standard-risk patients. However, high-risk patients, such as those with
To date, there has been relatively little work on gene-environment contributions to human sexuality, especially molecular\\u000a analyses examining the potential contributions of specific polymorphisms in conjunction with life experiences. Using Wave\\u000a III data from 717 heterozygous youngadult sibling pairs included in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health,\\u000a this article examined the combined contributions of attendance at religious services
Carolyn T. Halpern; Christine E. Kaestle; Guang Guo; Denise D. Hallfors
The multidimensional personality questionnaire-brief form (MPQ-BF) (Patrick, Curtin, & Tellegen, 2002; Tellegen, 1982) was administered to a sample of adolescents ranging from 13 to 17years of age and a sample of youngadults ranging from 19 to 23years of age. The MPQ-BF is believed to provide a richer understanding of key personality traits and dimensions but is less widely used;
African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) are small to medium sized, long-lived, and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN) correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of 1 year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin). Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis), social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae), and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean rodents. PMID:24904308
Amrein, Irmgard; Becker, Anton S; Engler, Stefanie; Huang, Shih-Hui; Müller, Julian; Slomianka, Lutz; Oosthuizen, Maria K
African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) are small to medium sized, long-lived, and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN) correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of 1 year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin). Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis), social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae), and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean rodents.
Amrein, Irmgard; Becker, Anton S.; Engler, Stefanie; Huang, Shih-hui; Muller, Julian; Slomianka, Lutz; Oosthuizen, Maria K.
We report our experience with photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in youngadult patients. This was a retrospective study of youngadults with CNV treated with PDT. Data collected included age, diagnosis, type and size of CNV, number of treatments, visual outcome, and side effects. Ten patients (11 eyes) were included in the study (mean age 27.2 +/- 13.3 years). Etiologies included multifocal choroiditis (3 eyes), idiopathic CNV (5 eyes), central serous chorioretinopathy (1 eye), and toxoplasma (2 eye). The mean number of treatments was 2 +/- 0.7 and the mean follow-up time was 13.1 +/- 9.5 months. Initial visual acuity (VA) ranged from 20/25 to 20/1,200 (mean logMAR 0.6 +/- 0.5), and improved to 20/20 to 20/250 (mean logMAR 0.46 +/- 0.4) (P = 0.51). Of the four eyes that received additional treatment with oral steroids, one of which also received intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) injections, all had visual acuity improvement of 2 or more lines, while only two of seven eyes that received PDT alone showed such improvement. PDT can improve visual outcome in a subgroup of young patients with subfoveal CNV especially when supplemented with oral steroid and bevacizumab injections. PMID:20127140
Gaze-following behaviour is considered crucial for social interactions which are influenced by social similarity. We investigated whether the degree of similarity, as indicated by the perceived age of another person, can modulate gaze following. Participants of three different age-groups (18–25; 35–45; over 65) performed an eye movement (a saccade) towards an instructed target while ignoring the gaze-shift of distracters of different age-ranges (6–10; 18–25; 35–45; over 70). The results show that gaze following was modulated by the distracter face age only for youngadults. Particularly, the over 70 year-old distracters exerted the least interference effect. The distracters of a similar age-range as the youngadults (18–25; 35–45) had the most effect, indicating a blurred own-age bias (OAB) only for the young age group. These findings suggest that face age can modulate gaze following, but this modulation could be due to factors other than just OAB (e.g., familiarity).
Ciardo, Francesca; Marino, Barbara F. M.; Actis-Grosso, Rossana; Rossetti, Angela; Ricciardelli, Paola
Our experiments, carried out at night and during the day on adults and laboratory-born young of the sandhopper Talitrus saltator, deal with the identification and use of the moon as an orientating factor. Sandhoppers were released in an apparatus (a Plexiglas dome) that produced a scenario similar to the natural one (with artificial sky, moon or sun illuminated at different intensities). When tested at night, the adult and young sandhoppers used the artificial moon like the natural one, independently of the intensity of illumination of the artificial sky and moon. In other words, sandhoppers tested at night always identified the artificial moon as the moon and never as the sun. In daytime releases, the seaward orientation failed at low intensities of artificial sky and sun illumination (3.07 and 1.55??W?cm2, respectively), whereas the sun compass was used effectively at higher levels of artificial sun and sky illumination. The innate ability of moon compass orientation in inexpert young sandhoppers was demonstrated even under artificial light.
Ugolini, Alberto; Boddi, Vieri; Mercatelli, Luca; Castellini, Carlo
This longitudinal study extended work from Wiesner and Windle (2004) by examining youngadult outcomes (i.e., alcohol and illicit drug use, depression) of middle-adolescent trajectories of delinquent behavior for a community sample of 724 young women and men (at average ages 23.8 years). Each domain of youngadult adjustment problems was assessed…
Arguing that youngadult programing can provide benefits for the young people who participate as well as for the library, this article offers suggestions for youngadult programs together with practical guidance for planning, publicizing and implementing youth services. (three references, six recommended readings) (LAE)
Purpose: To establish the clinical profile of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) in adults younger than 40 years and correlate the clinical manifestation with their immune status. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed of patients younger than 40 years who presented with HZO. Data were collected on demographics, medical history, clinical presentation, results of serological investigations, and visual outcome. Results: The study cohort comprised 18 subjects with a mean age of 29.7 ± 6.2 years. Ophthalmic features included lid edema, ptosis, cicatricial lid deformities, sclerokeratitis, peripheral ulcerative keratitis, neuroparalytic keratitis, keratouveitis with concomitant glaucoma, secondary bacterial keratitis and superficial punctate keratitis with dry eye, optic neuritis, and trochlear nerve palsy. Eight of 18 (44.4%) subjects were found to be positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Disseminated herpetic lesions were seen present in 5 (63%) of these 8 subjects. Postherpetic neuralgia was noted in 6 (75%) of 8 HIV-positive subjects and in 1 HIV-negative patient. Final visual acuity was 20/40 or better in 90% of the immunocompetent subjects and 20/200 or worse in 100% of the HIV-positive subjects. Conclusions: Immunocompetent youngadults do present with features of HZO. However, the disease spectrum in HIV-negative patients is localized, less severe, and more amenable to therapy as compared with youngadults with HIV.
Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among youngadult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement), lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ. PMID:22829801
Young, novice drivers constitute a disproportionate percentage of fatalities and injuries in road traffic accidents around the world. This study, attempts to identify motivational factors behind risky driving behavior, and examines the role of personality, especially sensation seeking, impulsivity and sensitivity to punishment/reward in predicting negative driving outcomes (accident involvement and traffic offences) among young drivers. Gender and driver's age are additional factors examined in relation to driving outcomes and personality. Adopting the contextual mediated model of traffic accident involvement (Sümer, 2003), the study is based on the theory that personality, age and gender represent distal factors that predict accident involvement indirectly through their relationship with stable tendencies towards aberrant driving behavior. Results from correlations and Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS 6 indicated that direct personality effects on driving outcomes were few, whereas personality had significant correlations with aberrant driving behavior, showing that personality is a distal but important predictor of negative driving outcomes. These high risk traits appear to be at a peak among young male drivers. Thus, personality is important in understanding aggressive and risky driving by youngadults and needs to be taken into consideration in designing targeted accident prevention policies. PMID:21545861
Constantinou, Elena; Panayiotou, Georgia; Konstantinou, Nikos; Loutsiou-Ladd, Anthi; Kapardis, Andreas
This study focuses on the experience of youngadults employed in the tertiary sector in Brasília. The results show that young people are prepared for work by on-the-job training and nonformal education; schooling is mainly an indicator of trainability. Entry into the labour force reinforces social differences in family background and schooling. The results tend to support the moderate version of classical theory with regard to the nature of school/work relationships. In the context of the conflict paradigm, the data run contrary to both reproductionism and the radical critique of this view. From the comparative standpoint youth is an underprivileged group in the labour market, regardless of sex, socioeconomic status and country of residence. Despite these variations, societies are stratified by age groups.
Aims Youth cultures play a key role in the social organisation of drug trends among young people; the current prescription drug misuse trend is no different. The authors evaluated whether patterns of prescription drug misuse differed across several youth cultures. Methods Using field survey methods and time-space sampling during 2011, the authors assessed the patterns and prevalence of prescription drug misuse among youngadults who are socially active in various urban youth cultures (n = 1781). Findings The prevalence of lifetime prescription drug misuse is highest within indie rock scenes (52.5%), electronic dance music scenes (52.1%), lesbian parties (53.8%) and alt scenes (50.9%). Prescription drug misuse was lowest among youngadults in hip-hop scenes (25.0%). These findings were upheld in logistic regression analyses that accounted for demographic differences across youth cultures: indie rock scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.11), electronic dance music scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.20), lesbian parties (adjusted odds ratio = 2.30) and alt scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.65) all reported statistically significant (P < 0.05) higher odds of misuse than college bar scenes. Recent prescription drug misuse mirrored patterns for lifetime misuse. Conclusions: The differing prevalence of prescription drug misuse across distinct youth cultures suggests that the trend has not diffused equally among young people. The differing prevalence across youth cultures indicates that the most efficacious strategies for youth intervention may be targeted approaches that account for the subculturally rooted differences in attitudes and social norms.
Kelly, Brian C; Wells, Brooke E; LeClair, Amy; Tracy, Daniel; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit A
Background Emerging evidence from general population studies suggests that lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adults are more likely to experience adverse cardiovascular outcomes relative to heterosexuals. No studies have examined whether sexual orientation disparities exist in biomarkers of early cardiovascular disease risk. Purpose To determine whether sexual orientation disparities in biomarkers of early cardiovascular risk are present among youngadults. Methods Data come from Wave IV (2008–2009) of the National Longitudinal Study for Adolescent Health (N=12,451), a prospective nationally representative study of U.S. adolescents followed into young adulthood (mean age: 28.9 years). A total of 520 respondents identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Biomarkers included C-reactive protein, glycosylated hemoglobin, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Results In gender-stratified models adjusted for demographics (age, race/ethnicity); SES (income, education); health behaviors (smoking, regular physical activity, alcohol consumption); and BMI, gay and bisexual men had significant elevations in C-reactive protein, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate, compared to heterosexual men. Despite having more risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, and higher BMI, lesbians and bisexual women had lower levels of C-reactive protein than heterosexual women in fully adjusted models. Conclusions Evidence was found for sexual orientation disparities in biomarkers of cardiovascular risk among youngadults, particularly in gay and bisexual men. These findings, if confirmed in other studies, suggest that disruptions in core physiologic processes that ultimately confer risk for cardiovascular disease may occur early in the life course for sexual minority men.
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Kate A.; Slopen, Natalie
Abstract Objectives: To investigate the effect of sedative music on the different stages of the sleep cycle in youngadults with various sleep latencies by using polysomnography (PSG). Design: Prospective, randomized, controlled, crossover study. Setting: Sleep center of a teaching hospital. Participants: Youngadults with different sleep latencies. Poor sleepers (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score ?5) were excluded. Interventions: Each participant stayed one night in the sleep center for adaptation and on each of the following two nights was assigned to (1) music and (2) control (without music) conditions in random order. In the music condition, sedative music composed by certified music therapists was played on a compact disc player for the first hour the participant was in bed. Outcome measures: Sleep measures recorded with PSG, including sleep latency and durations of sleep stages. Results: Twenty-four youngadults (mean±standard deviation, 24.5±2.6 years) participated. They were classified into the short sleep latency (SL) group if the baseline SL of the adaptation night was shorter than 10 minutes or into the long SL group if the baseline SL was 10 minutes or longer. Sedative music did not alter the SL in either group. Sedative music reduced stage II sleep in both SL groups (main effect of music, p=0.03; interaction effect, p=0.87) but increased the duration of deep sleep (stages III and IV) only in the long SL group (main effect of music, p=0.15; interaction effect, p=0.02). Conclusions: In participants with long SL, sedative music improved the quality of sleep by prolonging the duration of deep sleep. This effect provides an alternative and noninvasive way to improve sleep in selected persons experiencing sleep problems. PMID:23663079
Background\\/Aims Studies have shown that celiac disease can affect individuals in all age groups. However, few studies have described the disease\\u000a in the elderly. The goal of this study is to characterize celiac disease in the elderly by comparing to a population of young\\u000a adults with celiac disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Review of a tertiary center database of patients with celiac disease was performed
Rupa Mukherjee; Ikenna Egbuna; Pardeep Brar; Lincoln Hernandez; Donald J. McMahon; Elizabeth J. Shane; Govind Bhagat; Peter H. R. Green
Multiple periarticular structures are present around the hip joint: tendons, bursae, muscles and entheses, fascias, nerves and vessels. Periarticular diseases of the hip in youngadults include, in decreasing order of functional impairment: posttraumatic lesions of muscles and tendons that should not be overlooked because of the risk of functional sequelae, enthesopathy detected on plain films and ultrasound, snapping hip syndrome frequent in athletes and tunnel syndromes (such as compression of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve where ultrasound is valuable). The main pitfalls to avoid are the stress fracture, trauma to a pelvic muscle and calcium deposition. PMID:21704247
Marijuana use remains strikingly high among young users in the U.S., and yet few studies have assessed the effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in adolescents compared to adults. This study measured the effects of THC on male adolescent and adultrats in the Morris water maze. In Experiment 1, adolescent (PD=30-32) and adult (PD=65-70) rats were treated acutely with 5.0 mg/kg THC or vehicle while trained on the spatial version of the water maze on five consecutive days. In Experiment 2, adolescent and adultrats were treated acutely with 2.5 or 10.0 mg/kg THC or vehicle while trained on either the spatial and non-spatial versions of the water maze. In Experiment 3, adolescent and adultrats were treated with 5.0 mg/kg THC or vehicle daily for 21 days, and were trained on the spatial and then the non-spatial versions of the water maze task four weeks later in the absence of THC. THC impaired both spatial and nonspatial learning more in adolescents than in adults at all doses tested. However, there were no long-lasting significant effects on either spatial or non-spatial learning in rats that had been previously exposed to THC for 21 days. This developmental sensitivity is analogous to the effects of ethanol, another commonly used recreational drug. PMID:16631921
Cha, Young May; White, Aaron M; Kuhn, Cynthia M; Wilson, Wilkie A; Swartzwelder, H S
Study Design Case report Background Clinical practice guidelines regarding the conservative management of degenerative hip conditions in older adults routinely incorporate therapeutic exercise and manual therapy. However, the application of these recommendations to young, active adults is less clear. The purpose of this case report is to describe the management of a youngadult with advanced hip arthrosis using a multi-faceted rehabilitation program. Case Description A 28-year old female with severe left hip degeneration per diagnostic imaging was referred to physical therapy. Reduced hip range of motion and strength, sacroiliac joint asymmetries, and a modified Harris Hip Score of 76 were observed. She was seen for 12 visits over a 3-month period and treated with an individualized program including manual therapy, therapeutic exercise, and neuromuscular re-education. Outcome Substantial improvements were noted in pain, hip range of motion and strength and function (modified Harris Hip Score of 97). In addition, she discontinued the use of anti-inflammatory medications and returned to her prior level of activity. Improvements were maintained at a 3 month follow up, with symptom recurrence managed using a self mobilization technique to the left hip and massage to the left iliopsoas. Discussion Degenerative hip conditions are common among older adults but are relatively rare in the younger population. Although it is likely that this patient will experience a return of her symptoms and functional limitations as her hip disease progresses, the immediate improvements may delay the need for eventual surgical management. These outcomes suggest that physical therapy management should be considered in those with an early onset of degenerative hip disease and are consistent with results previously reported in the older population. Level of Evidence Therapy, Level 4
Young adulthood is a period renowned for engagement in impulsive and risky behaviors, including gambling. There are some indications\\u000a that youngadults exhibit higher gambling rates in comparison to older adults. Problem gambling has also been linked to ADHD.\\u000a This longitudinal study examines the relationship between gambling and ADHD among an epidemiological sample of youngadults\\u000a (n = 235; males = 179, females = 56) aged
Jessie L. Breyer; Andria M. Botzet; Ken C. Winters; Randy D. Stinchfield; Gerald August; George Realmuto
Young male rats were maintained continuously in a hyperoxic environment for periods up to 8 weeks. During this time, the animals were subjected to an oxygen partial pressure of 369 mm. Hg (97.1%) at a simulated altitude of 380 mm. Hg (18,000 ft). The para...
There are several anthropometric studies regarding the nose, however none of them involves data about a statistical shape analysis. In this study, a landmark-based geometric morphometric technique was used to analyze the nasal shapes in a young Turkish adult population.A population of 75 female and 75 male volunteer Turkish youngadults whose ages ranged 18-39 years (24.82 +/- 5.64 year) was examined. The stratified sampling method was used to determine the subjects according to the seven main geographic regions of Turkey. All data was obtained from standardized digital photographic images taken from anterior, lateral and inferior aspects by using standard anthropometric measurement methods. Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis (EDMA) is used to calculate all possible linear distances among landmarks by creating matrixes for each subject.Today, the anthropometric methods and surgical practice intersected at a point to treat the congenital or post-traumatic facial disfigurements in various racial or ethnic groups. Rhinoplasty surgeons require access to facial databases based on accurate anthropometric measurements to perform optimum correction in both sexes. There should be some points brought to mind during the cosmetic nasal surgery for men because of different expectations, which is not technically different from the one for women. This study is a way to clarify these important points and a basis for further clinical studies enhancing the plans of the corrective surgery. PMID:17251867
Purpose Smoking restrictions in recreational settings are established to promote anti-smoking norms and to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke. Outdoor smoke-free policies are increasing, yet little is known about the perceptions of such restrictions. Methods Data were collected from a population-based sample of youngadults (n=2,289) in upper Midwestern United States. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression was used to assess predictors of the perceived difficulty to smoke in outdoor park areas. Results Living in an area with a smoke-free park policy was associated with a 1.4 times higher odds of perceiving difficulty to smoke compared to those living in an area without such a policy, after controlling for past month smoking, physical activity, age, and gender. Both smokers and non-smokers living in an area with a smoke-free park policy had higher odds of perceiving difficulty to smoking in park areas (OR=1.6 and 1.3, respectively) compared to smokers and non-smokers living in areas without such policies. Conclusion Banning smoking in parks areas was associated with a heightened perception of difficulty in smoking for youngadult smokers and non-smokers.
Klein, Elizabeth G.; Bernat, Debra H.; Forster, Jean L.
The aims of this study were to compare the perceived health of youngadults with spina bifida with a population without disability, and to determine the effect of the disease characteristics and resulting impairments on perceived health. This cross-sectional study is part of the Adolescents with Spina Bifida in the Netherlands study. Data were collected by physical examination and a questionnaire. In total, 179 patients (age range 16-25y) participated in the study and perceived health data were completed for 164 participants (92 females, 72 males; mean age 20y 7mo [SD 2y 9mo]). Twenty-six participants had spina bifida occulta and 138 had spina bifida aperta, of whom 115 also had hydrocephalus. Perceived health was measured with the Medical Outcome Study 36-item Short-form Health Survey (SF-36), a generic health status measure. SF-36 scores of youngadults with spina bifida were below those of an age-matched population group for six of the eight domains. This difference was largest for the physical functioning domain. Although these differences were statistically significant they were small. Findings for the emotional health domains (vitality, mental health, role problems due to emotional problems) did not differ at all from the population group. PMID:17355475
Verhoef, M; Post, M W M; Barf, H A; van Asbeck, F W A; Gooskens, R H J M; Prevo, A J H
Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy youngadult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression (CES-D) scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-hour recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in youngadult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors.
Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J.; Kwiterovich, Peter O.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Longacre, Margaret L.; Dorgan, Joanne F.
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been established as a very successful and commonly performed procedure for primary and secondary osteoarthritis, and also for inflammatory arthropathies of the knee in all age groups and both genders. It has predominantly been used as a procedure in the age group of patients 65 years and above. Consequently, the literature is replete with data relevant to various issues associated with TKA in the above 65 years age group population. Although there is reasonable clarity and consensus on the broad parameters of the use of TKA in the above 65 years age group (older), this cannot be said for the same issue as relevant to the below 65 years age group (youngadults). Over the last 2 decades there has been an increasing tendency toward the use of TKA in youngadults, with some countries reporting a 5-fold increase in the last 10 years . The present article is designed to review the most recent literature specific to this subject and assess it vis-à-vis various issues as listed in the subsequent text, with the aim of highlighting evolving thoughts and trends, which could be useful for decision making by clinicians practicing in the community. PMID:24677185
Two youngadults underwent resection of large hypervascular vestibular schwannomas (acoustic neuromas) via two-stage surgery. The first patient, a 27-year-old woman with hydrocephalus, had a large hypervascular vestibular tumor in the left cerebellopontine angle (CPA) supplied by the left anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) and posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). The second patient, a 34-year-old woman, had a large AICA-supplied hypervascular vestibular tumor in the left CPA that displaced the brain stem significantly. At the initial stage, only the lateral aspect of the tumor was debulked due to excessive bleeding from the tumor bed. Angiography 1 or 2 months after the initial operation showed that the tumor was hypovascular. At the second stage, the remnant medial aspect of the tumor was relatively avascular and nonadherent to the brain stem. Without blood transfusion during the second stage, the tumor was removed totally in the first patient and subtotally in the second patient. Pathological examination revealed that dilatated blood vessels were prominently increased at the first surgery; however, at the second surgery, the number of blood vessels had decreased, showing necrosis and degeneration. Although there are no absolute indications for the staged resection of vestibular schwannomas, this procedure may represent one of the safest options for these difficult lesions in youngadults. ImagesFigure 1p201-bFigure 1p202-bFigure 2p203-bFigure 2p204-b
In 75 youngadults with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM 1) we have performed a cross-sectional study to gain more information about their adrenocortical function. We have found in a surprisingly large portion of patients (25%) a subnormal response (<500 nmol/L, low responders) of the serum cortisol during low-dose Synacthen test, accompanied by significantly decreased stimulated values of aldosterone and salivary cortisol. Basal serum cortisol, aldosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (in women only) were significantly reduced in low responders as well, while ACTH, cortisol binding globulin, plasma renin activity, urinary free cortisol/24h, and salivary cortisol did not differ. The results indicate that the disorder of adrenocortical function in low responders occurs in all adrenocortical zones. The patients with the highest risk in respect to revealed hypocorticalism were DM 1 with autoimmune thyroiditis, 13 out of 36 in contrast to 5 out of 39 suffered from isolated form of DM 1, with onset around 30 years, independently on sex. The biorhythm of salivary cortisol in low responders under real-life conditions did not significantly differ from normal responders, except of the decreased values in the morning. Antibodies against 21-hydroxylase and adrenal cortex were negative in the entire group of diabetics studied. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate in as much as 25% of youngadults with DM 1 patients without any signs of adrenal autoimmunity decreased both basal and stimulated serum cortisol and aldosterone levels, implying existence of subclinical primary hypocorticalism. PMID:20433924
Simunkova, Katerina; Hampl, Richard; Hill, Martin; Kriz, Lubomir; Hrda, Pavlina; Janickova-Zdarska, Denisa; Zamrazil, Vaclav; Vrbikova, Jana; Vondra, Karel
This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy youngadults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p?=?0.009; effect size r?=?0.20) and SDS (p?=?0.034; r?=?0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in youngadults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise. PMID:24949870
Regterschot, G Ruben H; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Zeinstra, Edzard B; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A
This pilot study tested the efficacy of a brief intervention using motivational interviewing (MI) plus mindfulness meditation (MM) to reduce marijuana use among youngadult females. Thirty-four female marijuana users between the ages of 18 and 29 were randomized to either the intervention group (n = 22), consisting of two sessions of MI-MM, or an assessment-only control group (n = 12). The participants' marijuana use was assessed at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 months posttreatment. Fixed-effects regression modeling was used to analyze treatment effects. Participants randomized to the intervention group were found to use marijuana on 6.15 (z = -2.42, p = .015), 7.81 (z = -2.78, p = .005), and 6.83 (z = -2.23, p = .026) fewer days at Months 1, 2, and 3, respectively, than controls. Findings from this pilot study provide preliminary evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of a brief MI-MM for youngadult female marijuana users. PMID:21940136
de Dios, Marcel A; Herman, Debra S; Britton, Willoughby B; Hagerty, Claire E; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D
This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy youngadults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p?=?0.009; effect size r?=?0.20) and SDS (p?=?0.034; r?=?0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in youngadults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.
Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A.
identifying the cause of ischemic stroke in youngadults is of major importance to prevent stroke recurrence. However, given the wide variety of potential underlying causes, the etiological workup of stroke in youngadults requires a different approach from that in the elderly The purpose of this article is to provide a sequential diagnostic workup in order to optimize the yield of diagnostic tests, and to reduce their cost and risks for the patient. The first line screening mainly includes contemporary MRI of the brain and its vessels, and cardiac investigations which will assess the most frequent causes of stroke in this age group: arterial dissection and cardioembolism. The second line screening should be guided by context and clinical suspicion: lumbar puncture and immunological tests in case of angeitis suspicion; lumbar puncture, blood culture and serologies in case of infectious context; antiphospholipid syndrome, Holter-ECG, transoesophageal echocardiography, HIV and syphilis serologies in absence of context. Finally, the third line screening may include more invasive tests such as angiography and leptomeningeal biopsy in case of angeitis suspicion or genetic analyses. Despite such a comprehensive workup, about one third of cases will remain unexplained, leading to the diagnosis of idiopathic ischemic stroke. PMID:24167893
Individuals born very preterm (VPT) are at increased risk of perinatal brain injury and long-term cognitive and behavioral problems. Executive functioning, in particular, has been shown to be impaired in VPT children and adolescents. This study prospectively assessed executive function in youngadults who were born VPT (<33 weeks of gestation) [n = 61; mean age, 22.25 (+/-1.07) years; range, 20.62-24.78 years] and controls [n = 64; mean age, 23.20 (+/-1.48) years; range, 19.97-25.46 years]. Tests used comprised the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), the Hayling Sentence Completion Test (HSCT), the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), the Animal and Object test, the Trail-Making Test (TMT), and the Test of Attentional Performance (TAP). VPT participants showed specific executive function impairments in tasks involving response inhibition and mental flexibility, even when adjusting for IQ, gender, and age. No significant associations were observed between executive function test scores and perinatal variables or neonatal ultrasound classification. The results suggest that, although free from major physical disability, VPT youngadults perform worse than controls on tasks involving selective aspects of executive processing, such as mental flexibility and response inhibition. PMID:17521479
Nosarti, Chiara; Giouroukou, Elena; Micali, Nadia; Rifkin, Larry; Morris, Robin G; Murray, Robin M
Purpose The purpose of this study was to document results of a less invasive technique of open wedge proximal tibial osteotomy (PTO) for the varus knee in youngadults using an intramedullary tibial nail. Materials and Methods We prospectively studied 24 knees in 16 young patients with varus knee deformity. The mean follow-up was 54 months (range, 36 to 107 months) and the mean age of patients at the time of operation was 25.8 years (range, 18 to 40 years). The open wedge PTO was performed below tibial tuberosity using a percutaneous multiple drill-hole technique. Conventional intramedullary tibial nail was used for fixation without bone graft. Radiographic evaluations were made using mechanical alignment (MA), posterior tibial slope angle, and Insall-Salvati ratio. Union time, loss of correction, implant failure, and associated complications were also investigated. Results The mean MA was significantly changed from -9.7° preoperatively to 1.1° at the final follow-up (p<0.001). There was no significant change in the proximal tibial anatomy and patellar height. All patients achieved radiographic bony union at an average of 3.1 months without loss of correction. The only complication was knee pain due to nail prominence in 3 patients. Conclusions Radiographic evaluation indicated that PTO using an intramedullary tibial nail leads to significant improvement in radiographic parameters without changes in posterior tibial slope or patellar height. We found that this technique could be a less invasive and effective alternative for correction of the varus knee in youngadults.
Kim, Kang-Il; Thaller, Peter H.; Ramteke, Alankar; Lee, Seung-Hyuk
Background Young adulthood is a critical age for weight gain, yet scant research has examined modifiable contextual influences on weight that could inform age-appropriate interventions. Purpose The aims of this research included: (1) describing where youngadults eat and purchase food, including distance from home, and (2) estimating the percentage of eating/purchasing locations contained within GIS-generated buffers traditionally used in research. Methods Forty-eight participants (aged 18–23 years, n=27 women) represented diverse lifestyle groups. Participants logged characteristics of all eating/drinking occasions (including location) occurring over 7 days (n=1237) using PDAs. Participants recorded addresses for stores where they purchased food to bring home. Using GIS, estimates were made of distances between participants’ homes and eating/purchasing locations. Data collection occurred in 2008–2009 and data analysis occurred in 2010. Results Among participants living independently or with family (n=36), 59.1% of eating occasions were at home. Away-from-home eating locations averaged 6.7 miles from home; food- shopping locations averaged 3.1 miles from home. Only 12% of away-from-home eating occasions fell within ½-mile residential buffers, versus 17% within 1 mile and 34% within 2 miles. Additionally, 12%, 19%, and 58% of shopping trips fell within these buffers, respectively. Results were similar for participants residing in dormitories. Conclusions Youngadults often purchase and eat food outside of commonly used GIS-generated buffers around their homes. This suggests the need for a broader understanding of their food environments.
Laska, Melissa Nelson; Graham, Dan J.; Moe, Stacey G.; Van Riper, David
Retention of bile acids within the liver is a primary factor in the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver disorders, which are more common in human infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate developmental changes in mitochondrial factors involved in bile acid-induced hepatocyte injury. Hepatic mitochondria from adultrats (aged 9 weeks) underwent a mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and release of cytochrome c upon exposure to glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC). In contrast, mitochondria from youngrats (age 6–36 days) were resistant to MPT induction and cytochrome c release. Neither mitochondrial levels of MPT-associated proteins (voltage-dependent anion channel, cyclophilin D, or adenine nucleotide translocase), Bcl-2 family proteins, nor antioxidant enzymes explained this resistance. Mitochondria from youngrats contained 2–3-fold higher ?-tocopherol (?-TH). In vivo ?-TH enrichment of adult hepatic mitochondria increased their MPT resistance. Tetra-linoleoyl cardiolipin (TL-CL), the primary molecular species of cardiolipin (CL), was reduced in mitochondria of the youngrat; however, enrichment with CL and TL-CL only modestly increased their MPT susceptibility. In conclusion, we observed an unexpected resistance in youngrats to bile acid induction of mitochondrial cell death pathways, which may be related to developmental differences in membrane composition.
Gumpricht, Eric; Devereaux, Michael W.; Dahl, Rolf; Soden, Jason S.; Sparagna, Genevieve C.; Leonard, Scott W.; Traber, Maret G.; Sokol, Ronald J.
The intraperitoneal injection of standard youngrats of race A with 2/5 cc. of adrenalin chloride 1:50,000 results in increased speed of geotropically oriented creeping upon an inclined surface. It was expected that the effect of such increased frequency of stepping must be analogous to that due to imposition of added loads carried by the rats during geotropic progression. This is verified. The curve connecting ? with log sin ? is distorted, under adrenalin, so as to be comparable to that obtained with an added mass of approximately 2.5 gm. upon the youngrat's saddle; the threshold slope of surface for orientation is accordingly lowered, from ? = 20° to ? = 12.5°; at the new threshold slope of surface the mean orientation angle ? is the same as in the absence of adrenalin at the corresponding threshold slope of surface. The total variation of performance is significantly increased in the injected rats, and at given slope of surface the variation is slightly increased. The proportionate modifiable variation of response is quite unaffected by the distortion of the ? – ? curve, and is the same as in standard young A rats untreated or carrying additional loads. It is pointed out that for the consideration of the problem as to whether a given experimental treatment, or a given natural situation, affects in any way the variation of performance of a living system, it is necessary to obtain indices of variability which involve the expression of variation of performance as a function of measured conditions governing the performance.
BACKGROUND: This study represents the first attempt to perform a profiling analysis of the intergenerational differences in the microRNAs (miRNAs) of primary cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms in youngadult and older age groups. The data emphasize the importance of these master regulators in the transcriptional machinery of melanocytic neoplasms and suggest that differential levels of expressions of these miRs may contribute
Drazen M Jukic; Uma N. M. Rao; Lori Kelly; Jihad S Skaf; Laura M Drogowski; John M Kirkwood; Monica C Panelli
We investigated the effects of the introduction of foreign adults on the behavior of young horses. First, we observed the behavior of 1- and 2-year-old domestic horses housed in same-age and same-sex groups (a standard housing system, but different from a natural situation). Then, two same-sex adults were introduced into each experimental group. Observations made before, during and after an introduction indicated that young horses reared in homogeneous groups of young had different behaviors compared to other domestic horses reared under more socially natural conditions. After the introduction of adults, young horses expressed new behaviors, preferential social associations emerged, positive social behavior increased and agonistic interactions decreased. These results have important implications both for understanding the influence that adults may have on the behavior of young horses, and in terms of husbandry, indicating the importance of keeping young horses with adults, although further studies are still necessary. PMID:18393282
We have previously reported that a moderately high fat diet increases motivation for sucrose in adultrats. In this study, we tested the motivational, neurochemical, and metabolic effects of the high fat diet in male rats transitioning through puberty, during 5-8 weeks of age. We observed that the high fat diet increased motivated responding for sucrose, which was independent of either metabolic changes or changes in catecholamine neurotransmitter metabolites in the nucleus accumbens. However, AGRP mRNA levels in the hypothalamus were significantly elevated. We demonstrated that increased activation of AGRP neurons is associated with motivated behavior, and that exogenous (third cerebroventricular) AGRP administration resulted in significantly increased motivation for sucrose. These observations suggest that increased expression and activity of AGRP in the medial hypothalamus may underlie the increased responding for sucrose caused by the high fat diet intervention. Finally, we compared motivation for sucrose in pubertal vs. adultrats and observed increased motivation for sucrose in the pubertal rats, which is consistent with previous reports that young animals and humans have an increased preference for sweet taste, compared with adults. Together, our studies suggest that background diet plays a strong modulatory role in motivation for sweet taste in adolescent animals. PMID:23023044
Figlewicz, Dianne P; Jay, Jennifer L; Acheson, Molly A; Magrisso, Irwin J; West, Constance H; Zavosh, Aryana; Benoit, Stephen C; Davis, Jon F
We have previously reported that a moderately high fat diet increases motivation for sucrose in adultrats. In this study, we tested the motivational, neurochemical, and metabolic effects of the high fat diet in male rats transitioning through puberty, during 5-8 weeks of age. We observed that the high fat diet increased motivated responding for sucrose, which was independent of either metabolic changes or changes in catecholamine neurotransmitter metabolites in the nucleus accumbens. However, AGRP mRNA levels in the hypothalamus were significantly elevated. We demonstrated that increased activation of AGRP neurons is associated with motivated behavior, and that exogenous (third cerebroventricular) AGRP administration resulted in significantly increased motivation for sucrose. These observations suggest that increased expression and activity of AGRP in the medial hypothalamus may underlie the increased responding for sucrose caused by the high fat diet intervention. Finally, we compared motivation for sucrose in pubertal vs. adultrats and observed increased motivation for sucrose in the pubertal rats, which is consistent with previous reports that young animals and humans have an increased preference for sweet taste, compared with adults. Together, our studies suggest that background diet plays a strong modulatory role in motivation for sweet taste in adolescent animals.
Figlewicz, Dianne P.; Jay, Jennifer L.; Acheson, Molly A.; Magrisso, Irwin J.; West, Constance H.; Zavosh, Aryana; Benoit, Stephen C.; Davis, Jon F.
Few studies address the developmental transition from youth tobacco use uptake to regular adulthood use, especially for noncigarette tobacco products. The current study uses online panel data from the Legacy YoungAdult Cohort Study to describe the prevalence of cigarette, other tobacco product, and dual use in a nationally representative sample of youngadults aged 18–34 (N = 4,201). Of the 23% of youngadults who were current tobacco users, 30% reported dual use. Ever use, first product used, and current use were highest for cigarettes, cigars, little cigars, and hookah. Thirty-two percent of ever tobacco users reported tobacco product initiation after the age of 18 and 39% of regular users reported progressing to regular use during young adulthood. This study highlights the need for improved monitoring of polytobacco use across the life course and developing tailored efforts for youngadults to prevent progression and further reduce overall population prevalence.
Rath, Jessica M.; Villanti, Andrea C.; Abrams, David B.; Vallone, Donna M.
Adolescents and youngadults (AYAs [15 to 29 years of age]) with cancer have a distinct cancer epidemiology, evolving hormonal milieu, maturing development, transitions in autonomy, increasing demands in education, entry into the workplace and family responsibilities. The prevalence of epithelial cancers in AYA patients represents a major shift from the embryonal cancers that predominate in early childhood. Thus, one would expect a specialized expertise to be required in caring for these patients, who typically fall between paediatric and oncology spheres of practice. Complex issues contribute to the lower survival rates noted for AYAs compared with those of younger patients, even with the same cancer. Cooperative group clinical trial participation has been crucial in advancing the excellent outcomes accomplished in paediatric oncology, yet participation by adolescents in clinical trials (either adult or paediatric) is typically low. There is increasing evidence that both appropriate location of care and access to specialists in paediatric or adult oncology contribute to favourable outcomes. Issues specific to AYA patients should be studied rigorously so that evidence-based approaches may be used to reduce waiting times, ensure prompt referral to appropriate centres, increase accrual to clinical trials, foster compliance, provide comprehensive supportive care and promote programs designed to enhance survivorship. PMID:19030262
Childhood psychological trauma is a strong predictor of psychopathology. Preclinical research points to the influence of this type of trauma on brain development. However, the effects of psychological trauma on the developing human brain are less known and a challenging question is whether the effects can be reversed or even prevented. The aim of this review is to give an overview of neuroimaging studies in traumatized juveniles and youngadults up till 2012. Neuroimaging studies in children and adolescents with traumatic experiences were found to be scarce. Most studies were performed by a small number of research groups in the United States and examined structural abnormalities. The reduction in hippocampal volume reported in adults with PTSD could not be confirmed in juveniles. The most consistent finding in children and adolescents, who experienced psychological trauma are structural abnormalities of the corpus callosum. We could not identify any studies investigating treatment effects. Neuroimaging studies in traumatized children and adolescents clearly lag behind studies in traumatized adults as well as studies on ADHD and autism. PMID:23553572
Rinne-Albers, Mirjam A W; van der Wee, Nic J A; Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Vermeiren, Robert R J M
Housing stability is a key component of rehabilitation for individuals with severe mental illnesses but remains a challenge for mental health service providers, particularly with youngadults experiencing early mental health difficulties. The aim of this study is to explore perceptions of housing and home-leaving processes among youngadults with emerging psychotic disorders and to compare it to the perceptions of youngadults without psychotic disorders. A qualitative, grounded theory based, multiple case study was conducted among 52 adults aged 18-30 years old. Two core categories emerged in relation with perception of housing: choice/control over the residential environment, and housing opportunities over time. Difference between the groups include more coerced home-leaving for youngadults with first-episode psychosis and low levels of choice, control and opportunities for a sub-group of participants living in group homes. The housing situation of youngadults is analyzed and discussed from a systemic perspective. PMID:22837105
One parallel between humans and most songbirds is the fact that young require social interactions with an adult to acquire specific vocalizations. Songbirds are considered good models for comparative studies, although reports to date concern almost exclusively male songbirds. In addition, adult influence on vocal communication is generally investigated only in restricted social contexts (usually dyads). Here, the authors analyzed song learning and spatial associations among young female starlings that were maintained for 1 year in dyads (1 adult, 1 young), triads (2 adults, 1 young) or a larger group (7 young, 2 adults). Segregation by age was seen in the triads and in the larger group. The influence of adults (proportion of songs copied from adults) decreased as the youngadult ratio increased. Unusual temporal features were observed in young maintained in triads and young neglected copying adult songs in the presence of peers. These results are among the first to explore the circumstances under which females learn and from whom they learn. They also add new insight to a wide range of questions about social influences on learning. PMID:19450026
Teens and youngadults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) meet the criteria of teen and adult learners chronologically, but may be deficient in many other areas of teen and adult learning. The spectrum of intellectual and adaptive capabilities among teens and adults with ID is vast, with each individual being unique. There are specific teaching…
Iron is an essential element. However, in its free form, iron participates in redox-reactions, leading to the production of free radicals that increase oxidative stress and the risk of damaging processes. Living organisms have an efficient mechanism that regulates iron absorption according to their iron content to protect against oxidative damage. The effects of restricted and enriched-iron diets on oxidative stress and aging biomarkers were investigated. Adult Wistar rats were fed diets containing 10, 35 or 350 mg/kg iron (adult restricted-iron, adult control-iron and adult enriched-iron groups, respectively) for 78 days. Rats aged two months were included as a young control group. Young control group showed higher hemoglobin and hematocrit values, lower levels of iron and lower levels of MDA or carbonyl in the major studied tissues than the adult control group. Restricted-iron diet reduced iron concentrations in skeletal muscle and oxidative damage in the majority of tissues and also increased weight loss. Enriched-iron diet increased hematocrit values, serum iron, gamma-glutamyl transferase, iron concentrations and oxidative stress in the majority of tissues. As expected, youngrats showed higher mRNA levels of heart and hepatic L-Ferritin (Ftl) and kidneys SMP30 as well as lower mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and interleukin-1 beta (Il1b) and also lower levels of liver protein ferritin. Restricted-iron adultrats showed an increase in heart Ftl mRNA and the enriched-iron adultrats showed an increase in liver nuclear factor erythroid derived 2 like 2 (Nfe2l2) and Il1b mRNAs and in gut divalent metal transporter-1 mRNA (Slc11a2) relative to the control adult group. These results suggest that iron supplementation in adultrats may accelerate aging process by increasing oxidative stress while iron restriction may retards it. However, iron restriction may also impair other physiological processes that are not associated with aging.
Arruda, Lorena Fernandes; Arruda, Sandra Fernandes; Campos, Natalia Aboudib; de Valencia, Fernando Fortes; Siqueira, Egle Machado de Almeida
This study presents a novel detailed method of analysis of rat gait and uses this method to demonstrate recovery of forward locomotion patterns in adultrats made paraplegic by surgical spinal cord transection and subjected to a novel strategy for spinal cord repair. Six normal rats were compared to five animals in which the cord was transected at T8–T9, and
Henrich Cheng; Susanne Almström; Lydia Giménez-Llort; Robert Chang; Sven Ove Ögren; Barry Hoffer; Lars Olson
Viral infections of the CNS and their accompanying inflammation can cause long-term neurological effects, including increased risk for seizures. To examine the effects of CNS inflammation, we infused polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, intracerebroventricularly to mimic a viral CNS infection in 14 day-old rats. This caused fever and an increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-1? in the brain. As youngadults, these animals
M. A. Galic; K. Riazi; A. K. Henderson; S. Tsutsui; Q. J. Pittman
Chronic phase shifts is a common feature in modern societies, which may induce sleep alterations and other health problems. The effects of phase shift on the circadian rhythms have been described to be more pronounced in old than in young animals. However, few works address the effects of chronic phase shifts during adolescence. Here we tested the development of the motor activity circadian rhythm of youngrats under chronic phase shifts, which consisted on 6-h advances (A), 6h delays (D) or 6h advances and delays alternated every 5 days (AD) during the first 60 days after weaning. Moreover, the rhythmic pattern was compared to that of adultrats under the same lighting conditions. Results indicate that adolescent rats, independently on the lighting environment, developed a clear circadian rhythm, whose amplitude increased the first 50 days after weaning and showed a more stable circadian rhythm than adults under the same lighting conditions. In the case of A and AD groups, circadian disruption was observed only in adultrats. In all groups, the offset of activity correlated with light pattern better than the onset, and this correlation was always higher in the case of the rhythm of the pubertal rats. When AD groups were transferred to constant darkness, the group submitted to this condition during adolescence showed shorter period than that submitted in their adulthood. In conclusion, differently from adultrats, adolescent rats submitted to chronic phase shifts did not show circadian disruption and developed a single circadian rhythm, suggesting permanent changes in the circadian system. PMID:23792134
Albert, Nerea; da Silva, Crhistiane; Díez-Noguera, Antoni; Cambras, Trinitat
Chronic stress in youngadults has become a growing problem within recent decades and many are unable to find cost-effective and accessible treatment for psychological stress in their daily lives. We analyze the market of using a mobile application, Positive Technology, as a solution. Eleven participants, aged between 18 and 24, participated in the exercise. Self-reported stress reduction was measured via an online marketing survey, while physiological measurements were monitored via peripheral devices. Secondary goals assessed the app's ease-of-use, accessibility, and cost. Results indicate that participants enjoyed the availability of the mobile solution and found the app to be fun and easy to learn. Stress levels were reduced in 73% of the participants, with higher effects in females and in participants aged 18-24. We conclude that the mobile platform is an effective means of delivering psychological stress reduction, and could provide an accessible, cost-effective solution. PMID:24875697
Gao, Kenneth; Boyd, Chelsie; Wiederhold, Mark D; Wiederhold, Brenda K
The study assessed cultural orientation in a group of 188 Southeast Asian American American-born and early-arriving (by age 5) youngadults using the General Ethnicity Questionnaire--Southeast Asian and American versions. The sample included 98 Vietnamese, 45 Cambodian, and 45 Hmong college students in California. As hypothesized and in support of the bidimensional model, overall orientation to ethnic and American cultures were independent of each other, and predicted, respectively, by ethnic and American cultural domains. The three ethnic groups did not vary on level of cultural orientation, but their endorsement of ethnic and American cultures differed across domains. Specifically, they enjoyed American mass media and cultural activities more than ethnic media and activities, and were more fluent in English than their ethnic language. However, they expressed greater ethnic pride and a stronger overall Southeast Asian orientation than American pride and orientation. PMID:18229998
We report a case of right optic neuritis caused by Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC) in a youngadult. A 15-year-old boy presented with reduced visual acuity in the right eye. He was diagnosed with optic neuritis in the right eye 4 years earlier at other clinics before he was referred to our department. During our one-year examinations, the cause of the reduced vision in his right eye could not be determined conclusively. At the age of 17 years, a RCC was detected by a neurosurgeon who specialized in hypophyseal diseases. He underwent microscopic transsphenoidal resection of the cyst, and his vision recovered to 1.2 and he has had no recurrence for at least 9 months. We suggest that repeated rupturing of the RCC was the cause of the optic neuritis, and a RCC can be successfully treated by surgery even after 3 years of optic neuritis.
The NCCN Guidelines Insights on Adolescent and YoungAdult (AYA) Oncology discuss the fertility and endocrine issues that are relevant to the management of AYA patients with cancer. Fertility preservation should be an essential part in the treatment of AYA patients with cancer. The NCCN Guidelines recommend discussion of fertility preservation and contraception before the start of treatment. Oophoropexy and embryo cryopreservation are the 2 established options for fertility preservation in women. Semen cryopreservation before the start of treatment is the most reliable and well-established method of preserving fertility in men. AYA women with cancer also have unique contraception needs, depending on the type of cancer, its treatment, and treatment-related complications. Management of cancer during pregnancy poses significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for both the patient and the physician. AYA women diagnosed with cancer during pregnancy require individualized treatment from a multidisciplinary team involving medical, surgical, radiation, and gynecologic oncologists; obstetricians; and perinatologists. PMID:24453290
Coccia, Peter F; Pappo, Alberto S; Altman, Jessica; Bhatia, Smita; Borinstein, Scott C; Flynn, Joseph; Frazier, A Lindsay; George, Suzanne; Goldsby, Robert; Hayashi, Robert; Huang, Mary S; Johnson, Rebecca H; Beaupin, Lynda Kwon; Link, Michael P; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Orr, Kathleen M; Reed, Damon; Spraker, Holly L; Thomas, Deborah A; von Mehren, Margaret; Wechsler, Daniel S; Whelan, Kimberly F; Zebrack, Brad; Shead, Dorothy A; Sundar, Hema
When two or more people witness an event together, the event report from one person can influence others' reports. In the current study we examined the role of age and motivational factors on peer influence regarding event reports in adolescents and youngadults. Participants (N=249) watched a short video of a robbery then answered questions with no co-witness information or with information believed to be from a co-witness. Public and private response conditions were included to explore motivations for peer influence. Co-witness information influenced participants' responses, although the effect was equally strong in the private and the public co-witness conditions. Peer influence on event reports was steady across a large age range (11- to 25-year-olds). PMID:21919594
McGuire, Katherine; London, Kamala; Wright, Daniel B
Spina bifida is generally accompanied by a high incidence of foot deformities. The goal of management is to achieve a plantigrade foot. Deformities are related to the level of the lesion. With thoracic lesions, the most frequent deformity is an equinus lesion (55%), a club foot with mid-lumbar lesion (87%) and a calcaneal foot with sacral lesions (34%). No deformity was present in 56% of feet in sacral lesion children. Club foot surgery before the age of 2 years entails a high rate of recurrence (78%), necessitating redo surgery. A calcaneo-valgus deformity developed in 45% of ambulating patients with sacral lesions requiring operative stabilization of the foot. Patients with sacral lesions were almost the only ones who remained ambulators. Ambulation was not seen to be related to foot deformities in adolescents and youngadults. PMID:10904902
Frischhut, B; Stöckl, B; Landauer, F; Krismer, M; Menardi, G
A young immunocompetent patient was admitted for a febrile illness with malaise, arthralgias, painful leg swelling, and polyserositis. Shortly prior to becoming ill, the patient had traveled to the Northern African desert. The symptoms disappeared during treatment with antibiotics (doxycycline and ceftriaxone) but recurred twice after stopping therapy. A motile gram-negative fusiform rod was isolated from a blood culture taken on the first admission. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of the blood culture isolate revealed close similarity with Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (99.9% identity), a species that was previously reported as “Flexispira rappini.” This is the first reported case of a recurrent Helicobacter sp. flexispira bacteremia in an adult, immunocompetent patient.
Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 youngadults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language impairment (SLI). A correlational analysis of the relationship between language scores and Miranda rights comprehension was conducted, as were tests of differences between individuals with SLI (n = 17) and individuals without SLI. Results Language ability was positively correlated with overall performance on the Miranda measure. As a group, individuals with SLI were significantly poorer than their peers with normal language at defining Miranda vocabulary and applying Miranda rights in hypothetical situations. The group with SLI was also marginally less able to paraphrase Miranda sentences. Conclusion Language impairment limits comprehension of Miranda warnings. As a result, citizens with language impairment are at risk of being denied their constitutional rights.
Youngadults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (YoungAdult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns. PMID:23899430
Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert
The purpose of this study is to identify and categorize the perceptions of youngadults before we allocate the resources to design, develop, and implement digital game-based learning in higher education institutions in Taiwan. Q-methodology was conducted for this study because it is a quantitative analysis of subjective data. Thirty youngadults…
Chen, Liwen; Chen, Tung-Liang; Liu, Hsu-Kuan Jonathan
There has been little research on how young people respect, or disrespect, older adults. This study explored the ways in which youngadults connote elder respect by utilizing two different forms of data. Based on quantitative data from a survey of 521 college students, a set of 11 behavioral forms of elder respect was obtained. Out of these forms,…
Sung, Kyu-Taik; Kim, Bum Jung; Torres-Gil, Fernando
The purpose of this study was to ascertain vocational interests and self-estimated work-relevant abilities of youngadults with disabilities. Results showed that youngadults with both low incidence and high incidence disabilities have a wide range of interests and self-estimated work-relevant abilities that are comparable to those in the general…
Social inclusion enhances the quality of life of youngadults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Youngadults with ID continue to face prejudice and discrimination that limit their social inclusion. They experience limited social inclusion because there are not enough appropriate activities available and they have limited opportunities to…
Background: Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless youngadults. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining competitive employment; yet few examples exist to date with homeless youngadults with mental…
Identifying English Education courses focused on youngadult literature as apposite sites for exploring teacher conceptions of youth and the texts aimed for youths' consumptions, this article addresses the multiple sources of tension--and pedagogical potential--of teaching a youngadult literature course centrally framed around controversial…
Marital attitudes and perceived readiness for marriage of youngadult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) were investigated. Never-married youngadults (N = 943) completed the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST) to determine whether they were ACOAs. Other instruments were completed to measure family dysfunction, marital attitudes, and perceived readiness for marriage. ACOAs were found to be significantly more negative in
In an era of rising college costs and stagnant grant-based student aid, many youngadults rely on their parents' resources and student loans to pay for their postsecondary education. In this study I ask how parents' income and education are linked to youngadults' student loan debt. I develop and test two perspectives regarding the…
The problem novel has long been a staple of youngadult literature, so it is no surprise that the issue of “cutting,” a primarily adolescent affliction, is addressed in this literature. Adolescents who purposely cut themselves with sharp objects in order to feel pleasure, to deal with pain, or to feel release have appeared in youngadult fiction since the
The route to residential independence is not a one-way street; many youngadults who leave their parents' homes subsequently return. Data from the (U.S.) National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 are used to study youngadults' returns to the parental home, to test hypotheses about the influences on these residential decisions and to examine the likely
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the family of origin on whether migrant and Dutch youngadults live in the parental home. Using a sample of 1,678 youngadults aged between 15 and 30 years from 847 families with five different ethnic backgrounds, we identified patterns of co-residence and investigated how and to what extent
The perceived leadership abilities of youngadults residing in rural areas of North Dakota were assessed. Data were collected by use of a mail questionnaire sent to 578 youngadults aged 18 to 40 residing in cities with a population of fewer than 2,500 and in those areas outside of towns and cities. About three-fourths of the respondents were…
Aims To determine whether parental marital status and marital quality in adolescence are associated with cannabis use disorders in youngadults. Design Prospective birth cohort study. Setting A 21 year follow-up of 4815 mothers and their children who participated at 14 years after the child's birth in Queensland, Australia. Participants Cohort of 2303 youngadults who completed the life-time version
Mohammad R. Hayatbakhsh; Jake M. Najman; Konrad Jamrozik; Abdullah A. Mamun; Rosa Alati
Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American youngadults began smoking in young adulthood and what…
Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege youngadults. Participants: Time-location samples of youngadult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque…
While many adolescents and youngadults experiment with substances (e.g., alcohol, cigarette smoking, marijuana), recent research suggests that rural youth and youngadults may be more at risk for substance use than their urban counterparts. This study was designed to examine the longitudinal relationships between rural adolescents' prosocial…
Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Beal, Sarah J.
The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the physical fitness performance of youngadults with and without cognitive impairments. Participants were 75 youngadults, including 41 without disabilities (23 females, 18 males; M of age = 21.88) and 34 with mild cognitive impairments (14 females, 20 males; M of age = 21.79). They received…
Zhang, Jiabei; Piwowar, Nathan; Reilly, Coleen Jennifer
This study sought variables associated with current smoking for youngadult males and females in college compared with those not in college. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by a cohort of 1,270 youngadults (ages 20-24) who have been followed from grade 6 for 10 years. Both bivariate and multivariable analyses of demographic…
Youngadult information needs related to HIV/AIDS persist. However, in recent years, little has been written in either the research or the professional literature in library and information science about the HIV/AIDS information needs of youth. This article reports on a content analysis of youngadult novels written in English between 1995 and…
To determine which variables impact developmental task attainment for youngadults from divorced families, respondents completed demographic questions, the youngadult version of the Personal Authority in the Family System Questionnaire, and the three family relationship subscales of the Family Environment Scale. Of the factors assessed, results suggest that the quality of post-divorce family functioning is the most salient predictor
The aim of this work was the psychometric study of six scales designed to assess the familial relationships of youngadult children of separated parents. The analyzed constructs are interparental conflict, loyalty conflict, coalition, parentification, children's perceptions of the parent–child relationships, and youngadult perception of the separation–individuation process. Internal consistency and factorial validity was studied through a sample of
Clara Valls-Vidal; Carles Pérez-Testor; Joan Guardia-Olmos; Raffaella Iafrate
Purpose: To gain a better understanding of language abilities, the expressive macrostructural narrative language abilities of verbally expressive adolescents and youngadults with Down syndrome (DS) and those with fragile X syndrome (FXS) were examined. Method: The authors evaluated 24 adolescents and youngadults with DS, 12 male adolescents and…
Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Palmer, Meghan; Abbeduto, Leonard
Introduction: Little research has been reported on all aspects of sexuality as it pertains to individuals with visual impairments. This article analyzes data on the sexual experiences of youngadults who are visually impaired and youngadults without disabilities. Methods: The authors conducted a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal…
Magical realism as a literary mode is often subversive and transgressive, questioning the values and assumptions of the dominant society that it depicts. Youngadult literature, by contrast, is typically thought to serve a socializing function, helping to integrate young readers into adult society. What then is the cultural work of magical realism…
Study examines the effect of parental divorce and various dimensions of functioning in the family of origin on youngadult development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning significantly affect differentiation levels of youngadults. Implications of the results for counselors and future researchers are provided. (Contains…
Johnson, Patrick; Throngren, Jill M.; Smith, Adina J.
Objective: To examine whether age of first use or frequency of use of cannabis is associated with anxiety and depression (AD) in youngadults, independent of known potential confounders, including the use of other illicit drugs. Method: A cohort of 3,239 Australian youngadults was followed from birth to the age of 21 when data on AD were obtained…
Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad R.; Najman, Jake M.; Jamrozik, Konrad; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Alati, Rosa; Bor, William
As citizens, youngadults should be supported and encouraged to enact their basic rights and responsibilities to partake in decision-making that affects their lives and development. Recent studies in several Western countries, including Australia, have suggested that levels of political and community activities among youngadults have significantly decreased. This study tested a theoretically and empirically based explanatory model of
As citizens, youngadults should be supported and encouraged to enact their basic rights and responsibilities to partake in decision-making that affects their lives and development. Recent studies in several Western countries, including Australia, have suggested that levels of political and community activities among youngadults have significantly decreased. This study tested a theoretically and empirically based explanatory model of
Youngadults are at risk for Hepatitis B infection. Little is known about their attitudes and beliefs concerning Hepatitis B, which are determinants of getting immunized. This investigation examined risk perceptions and behavioral intentions concerning Hepatitis B among a convenience sample of 1070 youngadults, 18-24 years old who participated in…
Gonzales, R. M.; Glik, D. C.; Prelip, M.; Bourque, L.; Yuen, J.; Ang, A.; Jones, M. C.
Background: Hyperactive/ADHD children are believed to be a greater risk for adolescent and youngadult antisocial activity and drug use/abuse, particularly that subset having comorbid conduct problems/disorder. Method: We report on the lifetime antisocial activities and illegal drug use self-reported at youngadult follow-up (mean age 20-21 years;…
Barkley, Russell A.; Fischer, Mariellen; Smallish, Lori; Fletcher, Kenneth
Contextual action theory was used to frame an exploratory qualitative study of youngadult couples' experiences of transitioning from post-secondary education into the labor force, addressing the specific research question ''What kinds of projects for future work and life together do youngadult couples jointly construct and pursue as they…
Domene, Jose F.; Nee, Jessica J.; Cavanaugh, Ashley K.; McLelland, Serita; Stewart, Becky; Stephenson, Michelle; Kauffman, Bradley; Tse, Christopher K.; Young, Richard A.
... millions of youngadults use illicit substances every day According to SAMHSA’s data, on an average day, 3.2 million youngadults used marijuana, 57, ... 20. Underage drinkers drank on average 5.7 days per month and consumed an average of 4. ...
This study contributes to the body of research on the educational outcomes of youngadults who were formerly placed in foster care. Telephone interviews were conducted with 359 youngadults (a 54.6% response rate). Participants must have been served for at least one year by one private foster care agency in one of its twenty-two offices. Results…
Havalchak, Anne; White, Catherine Roller; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Sepulveda, Martin
Teaching for social responsibility should be one of the vital aims of our schools. Youngadult literature offers an authentic, meaningful, and critical way to teach for social responsibility. This article offers an overview of the different elements of social responsibility and some youngadult novels and graphic novels that could be used to teach…
We examined whether behavioral problems in childhood and adolescence are associated with youngadults' BMI and obesity, and tested whether childhood behavioral problems have a greater impact on youngadults' obesity than adolescent behavioral problems. The data were from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) and Its Outcomes, a population-based birth cohort study commenced in Brisbane, Australia, in
Abdullah A. Mamun; Michael J. O'Callaghan; Susanna M. Cramb; Jake M. Najman; Gail M. Williams; William Bor
The purpose of this study was to describe the meanings of good nonresidential fathering from the recollections of youngadults with a childhood experience of divorce. An additional purpose was to identify barriers and contributions to good nonresidential fathering from the viewpoint of youngadults. A phenomenological perspective was used to…
This article explores the psychosocial and behavioral adjustment outcomes associated with verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse among homeless youngadults as well as the associations among abuse types. Convenience sampling was used to select 28 homeless youngadults (ages 18 to 24) from one drop-in center. Overall, subjects experienced…
A 1996 report recognized the benefits of effective learning provision and the impact that mental health difficulties can have on quality of life of youngadults in the United Kingdom. The range of mental health difficulties experienced by youngadults in the United Kingdom and elsewhere is similar to that experienced by the older population and…
National Inst. of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester (England).
Adolescent dating violence (ADV) is a significant community problem. In this study, we examine the perspectives of two groups (youngadults who experienced ADV as teens and professionals who work with teens) on ADV prevention/intervention in a community context. We interviewed 88 youngadults and 20 professionals. Our research team used Thorne's…
Martsolf, Donna S.; Colbert, Crystal; Draucker, Claire B.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are differences in technique between youngadults with and without musculoskeletal symptoms when using a mobile phone for texting and whether there are differences in muscle activity and kinematics between different texting techniques. A total of 56 youngadults performed a standardised texting task on a mobile phone. Their texting
Ewa Gustafsson; Peter W. Johnson; Agneta Lindegård; Mats Hagberg
The purpose of this study was to determine if youngadults, or others interested in literature for teens, have access through public libraries to novels with homosexual content. A random sample of 40 English language youngadult novels with gay\\/lesbian content was checked against the holdings of 40 medium and large Canadian public libraries having remotely accessible catalogs. The average
We studied the acceptability and feasibility of delivering sun protection messages via electronic media such as short message services (SMS) to people aged 18-40 years. An online survey was conducted using a pre-established panel of volunteers. We compared the characteristics of those who indicated that they would like to be alerted to the UV index, with those who would not, using bivariate logistic regression. Characteristics found to be associated with a desire to receive such advice were entered into a multivariate logistic regression analysis. The median age of the 141 participants was 34 years. Overall, 80% of participants agreed that they would like to receive some form of sun protection advice. Of these, 20% preferred to receive it via SMS and 42% via email. Willingness to receive electronic messages about the UV index was associated with being unsure about whether a suntanned person would look healthy and greater use of sun protection in the past. Careful attention to message framing and timing of message delivery, and focus on the short-term effects of sun exposure such as sunburn and skin ageing should increase the acceptability of such messages to young people. Sun protection messages delivered to youngadults via electronic media appear to be feasible and acceptable. PMID:22302765
Elevatedlean (skeletal muscle)mass is associated with increased muscle strength and anaerobic exercise performance, whereas low levels of lean mass are associated with insulin resistance and, sarcopenia. Therefore, studies aimed at obtaining an improved understanding of mechanisms related to the quantity of lean mass are of interest. Percent lean mass (total lean mass/body weight x 100) in 77 young subjects (18-35y) was measured withdual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Twenty analytes and two-hundred ninety six metabolites were evaluated with use of the standard chemistry screen and mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomic profiling, respectively. Sex-adjusted multivariable linear regression was used to determine serum analytes and metabolites significantly (p?0.05 and q?0.30) associated with percent lean mass.Two enzymes (ALP and SGOT) and, twenty-nine metaboliteswere found to be significantly associated with percent lean mass, including metabolites related to microbial metabolism, uremia, inflammation, oxidative stress, branched chain and amino acid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, glycerolipid metabolism and xenobiotics. Use of sex-adjusted stepwise regressionto obtain a final covariate predictor model identified the combination of five analytes and metabolites as overall predictors of percent lean mass (model R =82.5%). Collectively, these data suggest that a complex interplay of various metabolic processes underlies the maintenance of lean mass in young, healthy adults. PMID:23774283
Lustgarten, Michael S; Price, Lori Lyn; Phillips, Edward M; Kirn, Dylan; Mills, John; Fielding, Roger A
The purpose of this study was to establish broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA: dB/MHz) as bone mineral density (BMD) norms for healthy young Japanese and to evaluate the standard values for an ultrasonic bone analyzer (Cuba Clinical, McCue Ultrasonics Ltd., Winchester, England), which facilitates BMD measurement without exposure to radiation. The subjects were 472 healthy young individuals with no endocrine or skeletal disorders, 197 males (mean age 16 y 5 m) and 275 females (mean age 15 y 7 m) aged from 5 to 29 years. BUA was measured at the left calcaneus. The subjects were divided into five age-stratified different age groups of five years intervals. The mean BUA values (dB/MHz) obtained were 40.6, 60.9, 78.0, 90.4 and 86.0 for males, and 41.9, 61.0, 73.4, 68.4 and 70.8 for females in the 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-24 and 25-29 age groups, respectively. A significant positive correlation was observed between BUA and age in both males and females except in the male 25-29 age group and the female 20-24 and 25-29 age groups. A significantly different BUA between males and females was found in the 20-24 and 25-29 age groups (p < 0.001). The BUA values obtained in this study may serve as BMD norms for children and youngadults. It might be thought that measuring BUA from childhood through early adulthood made it possible to determine peak values and peak periods of BMD, providing useful information for assessment of growth and development. PMID:12013820
This collaborative practitioner research study emerged from music therapists' concerns about the value of improvisational, music-centred music therapy for youngadults with severe learning disabilities (SLDs), given the long-term nature of such work. Concerns included the relevance, in this context, of formulating, and reporting on, therapeutic aims, development, change; and working in 'goal-oriented' way. Focus groups with the youngadults' families and a range of professionals suggest that, rather than leading to developmental change, long-term shared therapeutic musicking provides youngadults with ongoing opportunities for experiencing confidence and self-esteem, with feelings of shared acceptance and success, and also provides youngadults and their families with opportunities for developing and sustaining friendships. In addition, families experienced meeting other parents and carers in the communal reception area as supportive and countering their isolation. Focus groups assigned intrapersonal, relational and social values to long-term music therapy for youngadults with SLDs. PMID:24196841
While many adolescents and youngadults experiment with substances (e.g., alcohol, cigarette smoking, marijuana), recent research\\u000a suggests that rural youth and youngadults may be more at risk for substance use than their urban counterparts. This study\\u000a was designed to examine the longitudinal relationships between rural adolescents’ prosocial behaviors and substance use in\\u000a young adulthood. Furthermore, we examined the potential
Gustavo CarloLisa; Lisa J. Crockett; Jamie L. Wilkinson; Sarah J. Beal
Objectives. To improve tobacco control campaigns, we analyzed tobacco industry strategies that encourage youngadults (aged 18 to 24) to smoke. Methods. Initial searches of tobacco industry documents with keywords (e.g., “youngadult”) were extended by using names, locations, and dates. Results. Approximately 200 relevant documents were found. Transitions from experimentation to addiction, with adult levels of cigarette consumption, may take years. Tobacco marketing solidifies addiction among youngadults. Cigarette advertisements encourage regular smoking and increased consumption by integrating smoking into activities and places where youngadults' lives change (e.g., leaving home, college, jobs, the military, bars). Conclusions. Tobacco control efforts should include both adults and youths. Life changes are also opportunities to stop occasional smokers' progress to addiction. Clean air policies in workplaces, the military, bars, colleges, and homes can combat tobacco marketing. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:908–916)
Our previous studies have shown that Plasmodium berghei infection induces distinct clinical, parasitological and immunological states in young susceptible rats versus adult resistant rats. This susceptibility was mainly found to be related to inadequate cellular responses. In this study we first identified the altered genes in young susceptible rats. Unexpectedly, transcriptome analysis did not reveal any alteration of effector cytokines or their receptors. At day 13?p.i., six transcripts corresponding to faim3, mesothelin, gas3 (PMP22), gas7, CD24 and P2Y6R were significantly decreased in young infected rats when compared with adult infected rats. Because CD24 and P2Y6R participate in cellular immune responses, we next evaluated their role in the course of infection. Adoptive transfer experiments showed a transient but robust participation of CD24+ cells in the control of parasitaemia. The role of P2Y6R was investigated via its specific ability to be activated by Uridine di-Phosphate (UDP). Youngrats treated with UDP partially restored the expression of P2Y6R, controlled parasitaemia and survived thereafter. In conclusion, this study contributes to the discovery of novel biomarkers in young susceptible rats and suggests that the decrease in their expression could be among the reasons for the development of severe pathology in malaria. PMID:21323829
Pierrot, Christine; dit Vampouille, Aurore Acroute; Vandomme, Audrey; Lafitte, Sophia; Pierce, Raymond J; Hot, David; Khalife, Jamal
... May 3, 2012 Major Depressive Episode among Full-Time College Students and Other YoungAdults, Aged 18 ... among college students and other youngadults (part-time college students and those not currently enrolled in ...
The purposes of the study presented were to compare the health-promoting behaviors of older adults with those of young and middle-aged adults, to examine the relationship of age and other sociodemographic characteristics to life style throughout adulthood, and to identify differing life-style patterns among older adults. Six dimensions of life style were measured by the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile in 452 adults aged 18 to 88. Older adults had higher scores in overall health-promoting life style and in the dimensions of health responsibility, nutrition, and stress management than both young and middle-aged adults. Sociodemographic variables accounted for only 13.4% of the variance in life style and for 5.2% to 18.6% in its six dimensions. Five major health-promoting life-style patterns were identified among older adults, depicting a heterogeneous group with varying needs for health promotion programming. PMID:3140723
Walker, S N; Volkan, K; Sechrist, K R; Pender, N J
Maintaining contact with services will help improve clinical and social outcomes as children with epilepsy move into their adult lives. This study has collated evidence on the extent to which youngadults with epilepsy are supported by health and social care services posttransition, and the costs of such support. UK prevalence and service use data were taken from policy and research literature, as well as national data sets and reports. Costs were attached to these data to arrive at agency and overall total costs. There are approximately 42,000 youngadults (18-25 years) with epilepsy costing the UK health and social care budgets 715.3 pound million per annum, on average 17,000 found per youngadult with epilepsy. A further 61 pound million falls to the social security budget. Most youngadults with epilepsy will rarely use these services, but those with additional health needs have high and often long-term support needs, including supported accommodation and personal care. Current resources used by these youngadults are summarised but deficits in service availability can mean long waiting times and sub-optimal treatment. Youngadults also want more support to help them take advantage of education and employment opportunities and more information about managing the impacts of epilepsy on their lives. Improving services will cost money, but has the potential to lead to better outcomes for youngadults. PMID:20491967
Beecham, Jennifer; Snell, Tom; Perkins, Margaret; Knapp, Martin
Background and Purpose—We sought to evaluate the predictors of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) progression in youngadults and to determine whether they differed between the sexes. Although risk factors for the progression of atherosclerosis in middle-aged and elderly adults are well known, they are less well understood in youngadults. CIMT is a validated measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods—B-mode ultrasound
Heather M. Johnson; Pamela S. Douglas; Sathanur R. Srinivasan; M. Gene Bond; Rong Tang; Shengxu Li; Wei Chen; Gerald S. Berenson; James H. Stein
Prospective memory involves remembering to perform intended actions in the future. Previous work with the multinomial model of event-based prospective memory indicated that adult age-related differences in prospective-memory performance were due to the prospective (not the retrospective) component of the task (Smith & Bayen, 2006). However, ongoing-task performance was also lower in older adults in that study. In the current study with young and older adults, the difficulty of the ongoing task was manipulated by varying the number of colors per trial to create easier and harder versions of the ongoing task for each age group. The easier version included 2 colors per trial for older adults and 4 colors for youngadults. The harder version included 4 colors for older adults and 6 colors for youngadults. By adjusting the ongoing-task difficulty, older adults were able to perform the ongoing task as well or better than the youngadults. Analyses with the multinomial model revealed that making the ongoing task easier for older adults (or more difficult for youngadults) did not eliminate age-related differences in prospective-memory performance and the underlying prospective component.
Smith, Rebekah E.; Horn, Sebastian S.; Bayen, Ute J.
Purpose: To assess the impact of aging on the radiation response in the adultrat brain. Methods and Materials: Male rats 8, 18, or 28 months of age received a single 10-Gy dose of whole-brain irradiation (WBI). The hippocampal dentate gyrus was analyzed 1 and 10 weeks later for sensitive neurobiologic markers associated with radiation-induced damage: changes in density of proliferating cells, immature neurons, total microglia, and activated microglia. Results: A significant decrease in basal levels of proliferating cells and immature neurons and increased microglial activation occurred with normal aging. The WBI induced a transient increase in proliferation that was greater in older animals. This proliferation response did not increase the number of immature neurons, which decreased after WBI in youngrats, but not in old rats. Total microglial numbers decreased after WBI at all ages, but microglial activation increased markedly, particularly in older animals. Conclusions: Age is an important factor to consider when investigating the radiation response of the brain. In contrast to youngadults, older rats show no sustained decrease in number of immature neurons after WBI, but have a greater inflammatory response. The latter may have an enhanced role in the development of radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction in older individuals.
Schindler, Matthew K. [Program in Neuroscience, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)], E-mail: email@example.com; Forbes, M. Elizabeth [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Robbins, Mike E. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Riddle, David R. [Program in Neuroscience, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)
Background Young adulthood is an important transitional period during which there is a higher risk of individuals engaging in behaviours which could have a lasting impact on their health. Research has shown that youngadults are the lowest responders to surveys about healthcare experiences and are also the least satisfied with the care they receive. However, the factors contributing to this reduced satisfaction are not clear. The focus of our research was to explore the needs and experiences of youngadults around healthcare services with an aim of finding out possible reasons for lower satisfaction. Methods Twenty youngadults were interviewed at GP surgeries and at a local youngadult advice agency, exploring their experiences and use of primary care services. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Results The use of primary care services varied amongst the youngadult interviewees. Many interviewees reported positive experiences; those who did not linked their negative experiences to difficulties in negotiating their care with the health care system, and reported issues with trust, and communication difficulties. Most of the interviewees were unaware of the use of patient surveys to inform healthcare planning and delivery and were not inclined to take part, mainly because of the length of surveys and lack of interest in the topic area. Conclusions In order to effectively address the health needs of youngadults, youngadults need to be educated about their rights as patients, and how to most efficiently use primary care services. GPs should be alert to effective means of approaching and handling the healthcare needs of youngadults. A flexible, varied approach is needed to gathering high quality data from this group in order to provide services with information on the changes necessary for making primary care services more accessible for youngadults.
While some elderly show deteriorations in cognitive performance, others achieve performance levels comparable to youngadults. To examine whether age-related changes in brain activity varied with working memory performance efficiency, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) from young and older healthy adults during performance on an n-back task with two loads (0- and 1-back) and two versions (identity and integrated). Youngadults showed a typical P3 amplitude pattern with a parietal-maximum. Compared to youngadults, the P3 amplitude of older adults was characterized by frontal hyperactivity coupled with posterior hypoactivity. Moreover, P3 amplitude in young and older adults varied with working memory performance efficiency. Among youngadults, more efficient performance correlated with a larger P3 amplitude at parietal sites. In contrast, a higher P3 amplitude at midline electrode sites in older adults correlated with less efficient performance. Particularly, the enhanced frontal midline EEG activity in older adults during working memory performance seems to reflect inefficient use of neural resources due to frontal lobe dysfunction.
Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Maurits, Natasha M.
The labor market prospects of out-of-school youngadults and options for improving the employment and earnings potential of all youngadults were examined. The following issues were among those considered: demographic and social factors affecting youngadults' employment prospects; employment trends and labor market problems in the United States…
Background: There is limited information about predictors of outcome and recurrence of ischaemic stroke affecting youngadults. Objective: To assess the predictive value of the presenting characteristics for both outcome and recurrence in young stroke victims. Methods: Clinical and radiological data for 203 patients aged 16 to 45 years were collected prospectively; they comprised 11% of 1809 consecutive patients with ischaemic stroke. The National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS), the Bamford criteria, and the trial of ORG 10172 in acute stroke treatment (TOAST) classification were used to define stroke severity, subtype, and aetiology. The clinical outcome of 198 patients (98%) was assessed using the modified Rankin scale (mRS) and categorised as favourable (score 0–1) or unfavourable (score 2–6). Results: Stroke was caused by atherosclerotic large artery disease in 4%, cardioembolism in 24%, small vessel disease in 9%, another determined aetiology in 30%, and undetermined aetiology in 33%. Clinical outcome at three months was favourable in 68%, unfavourable in 29%, and lethal in 3%. Thirteen non-fatal stroke, two fatal strokes, and six transient ischaemic attacks (TIA) occurred during a mean (SD) follow up of 26 (17) months. High NIHSS score, total anterior circulation stroke, and diabetes mellitus were independent predictors of unfavourable outcome or death (p<0.0001, p = 0.011, and p = 0.023). History of TIA predicted stroke recurrence (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Severe neurological deficits at presentation, total anterior circulation stroke, and diabetes mellitus predict unfavourable outcome. Previous TIA are associated with increased risk of recurrence.
Nedeltchev, K; der Maur, T A; Georgiadis, D; Arnold, M; Caso, V; Mattle, H; Schroth, G; Remonda, L; Sturzenegger, M; Fischer, U; Baumgartner, R
This study models culture of poverty explanations, earlier experiences that tend to restrict opportunities, demographic effects representing differential rates of participation by social groups, and health and marijuana use variables indicating the influence of individual life- style differences as predictors of the rate of labor market entry, promotion, and dismissal among subjects from early adolescence to young adulthood. The data are drawn from the 1st and 4th waves of a 4-wave panel of half the 1971 Houston, Texas, Independent School District 7th grade born in 1958. The findings indicate that those who believe most in the efficacy of alternatives to conventional social and economic institutions and those who expect to benefit least are most likely to have higher rates of participation. This higher rate of participation is significantly greater for earlier years and contradicts predictions of a culture of poverty theory. 1 opportunity-structure variable, poor grades, significantly increases the rate of entry into the labor market primarily because it represents the inability of individuals to pursue advanced education prior to labor market entry. Education reduces overall rates of labor market entry for a youngadult cohort by delaying labor market entry. The strong relationship between drug use and unemployment may be due to motivation, impaired ability, probability of failure, or increased time to use drugs. The findings also indicate that females are more capable overall of performing their jobs and getting along with co-workers but are less likely to be promoted. Finally, those who have been sanctioned or disadvantaged within the institutions that define and enforce the norms of the economic opportunity structure are significantly more likely to enter the labor market earlier and continue to have higher rates of negative experiences, such as dismissal, within those institutions. PMID:12316383
Although youngadults in the United Kingdom increasingly defer economic independence, they are still "adult" in other respects. Family and household formation often occur before economic independence is achieved. Parents have increased power to influence their adult children's early partnership behaviour, by providing or withholding economic…
Age-related impairments in episodic memory have been related to a deficiency in semantic processing, based on the finding that elderly adults typically benefit less than youngadults from deep, semantic as opposed to shallow, nonsemantic processing of study items. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that elderly adults are not able to perform certain cognitive operations under deep
Sander M. Daselaar; Dick J. Veltman; Serge A. R. B. Rombouts; Jeroen G. W. Raaijmakers; Cees Jonker
In 2 experiments, adultrats have shown cerebral effects of environmental complexity and training that are comparable to effects previously observed among younger animals. These effects cannot, therefore, be attributed solely to alterations in early growth and development.
Mark R. Rosenzweig; Edward L. Bennett; David Krech
Donepezil hydrochloride (donepezil: E2020: (±)-2-[(1-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl]-5,6-dimethoxy-indan-1-one monohydrochloride)) is a centrally acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, its inhibitory effect on the activity of cholinesterase ex vivo was evaluated in the brain, plasma, erythrocytes, heart, small intestine, liver and pectoral muscle of youngadult as well as aged rats, in comparison with that of
This study elucidated differences in predisposition to the gastrointestinal adverse effects of ketoprofen between young and adult cats. Ketoprofen was administered subcutaneously (2.0 mg/kg, s.c.) once a day for 3 days. The animals were sacrificed 24 hr after final injection to allow examination of gastrointestinal mucosal lesions. Ketoprofen caused gastric lesions in adult cats (>6 months) but not in young cats (<3 months). Ketoprofen caused more severe small intestinal lesions in adult cats than in young cats. In the study of prevention of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hyperthermia using ketoprofen, young and adult cats of both sexes were administered LPS (0.3 ?g/kg, intravenously), and body temperature was measured 24 hr later. Ketoprofen was administered subcutaneously 30 min before LPS injection. LPS-induced hyperthermia was almost completely inhibited by pretreatment with ketoprofen in both adult and young cats. In the pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen, plasma concentrations were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. No significant differences were observed in plasma concentrations of two mirror-image R(-) and S(+) ketoprofen between young and adult cats from 0.5-4 hr after injection. As observed in a previous study using flunixin, the degree of gastrointestinal damage was unrelated to plasma concentrations of ketoprofen. The results of this study demonstrated that ketoprofen is safer for use in young cats than in adult cats from the viewpoint of gastrointestinal adverse effects. PMID:22785617
Depression is a common disease among young and older adults. Although it can be treated, non-adherence is very common among individuals of different ages. The aim of the present paper is to review and summarize research findings regarding depression among young and older adults, with a special focus on the phenomenon of treatment non-adherence among young and older adults with depression. The first section of the review focuses on describing the characteristics of depression in young and older adults. The second section focuses on treatment non-adherence of young and older adults, the prevalence of this phenomenon, and its consequences. The third section focuses on several factors (illness beliefs, treatment beliefs, self-stigma, and self-esteem) that were identified as having a significant association with treatment non-adherence of individuals with depression, with special attention focused on age differences. Results of the review of the literature reveal that research in the area of depression treatment non-adherence and its predictors among young and older adults has received, to date, very minor and limited attention. Thus, there is a need to expand the current body of knowledge and promote future interventions geared towards the unique characteristics of depression among young and older adults, in order to increase their treatment adherence.
Depression is a common disease among young and older adults. Although it can be treated, non-adherence is very common among individuals of different ages. The aim of the present paper is to review and summarize research findings regarding depression among young and older adults, with a special focus on the phenomenon of treatment non-adherence among young and older adults with depression. The first section of the review focuses on describing the characteristics of depression in young and older adults. The second section focuses on treatment non-adherence of young and older adults, the prevalence of this phenomenon, and its consequences. The third section focuses on several factors (illness beliefs, treatment beliefs, self-stigma, and self-esteem) that were identified as having a significant association with treatment non-adherence of individuals with depression, with special attention focused on age differences. Results of the review of the literature reveal that research in the area of depression treatment non-adherence and its predictors among young and older adults has received, to date, very minor and limited attention. Thus, there is a need to expand the current body of knowledge and promote future interventions geared towards the unique characteristics of depression among young and older adults, in order to increase their treatment adherence. PMID:24307966
Recent work implicates regulation of neurogenesis as a form of plasticity in the adultrat hippocampus. Given the known effects of opiates such as morphine and heroin on hippocampal function, we examined opiate regulation of neurogenesis in this brain region. Chronic administration of morphine decreased neurogenesis by 42% in the adultrat hippocampal granule cell layer. A similar effect was seen in rats after chronic self-administration of heroin. Opiate regulation of neurogenesis was not mediated by changes in circulating levels of glucocorticoids, because similar effects were seen in rats that received adrenalectomy and corticosterone replacement. These findings suggest that opiate regulation of neurogenesis in the adultrat hippocampus may be one mechanism by which drug exposure influences hippocampal function.
Eisch, Amelia J.; Barrot, Michel; Schad, Christina A.; Self, David W.; Nestler, Eric J.
This study investigated whether discourse context affected the intelligibility of synthesized sentences for youngadult and older adult listeners. Findings indicated a significant facilitating effect of context wherein previous words and sentences are related to later sentences for both listener groups. Results have direct implications for…
ABSTRACT. Objective: This study examines the association between youngadult drinking partnerships (ages 18-26 years) and later alcohol-related problems and consequences, alcohol use, relationship quality, and relationship dissolution in adult relationships (ages 26-35). Method: Data came from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; Waves III and IV) with 1,347 youngadults and their partners at Wave III, including dating, cohabiting, and married couples, and individual adult behaviors at Wave IV, 6 years later. Drinking partnerships were based on alcohol use frequency, quantity, heavy episodic drinking, and getting drunk. Results: Four clusters included (a) congruent light and infrequent, (b) discrepant male heavy and frequent, (c) discrepant female heavy and frequent, and (d) congruent heavy and frequent drinkers. Youngadult discrepant partnerships reported more alcohol-related problems and consequences 6 years later. Youngadults in the congruent heavy drinking partnership indicated more separation/divorce and alcohol use as adults. Youngadult married men who drank discrepantly and higher compared to their wives reported higher rates of adult drinking and problems than other men. There were a number of negative effects from congruent heavy drinking, especially for women. Conclusions: These findings demonstrated that there are multiple types of youngadult drinking partnerships based on couples' alcohol use behaviors. Men may be at risk for serious alcohol-related problems later in adulthood, especially when paired with discrepant drinking partners and congruent heavy drinking partners. Women are at risk when in congruent, heavy and frequent drinking partnerships. Studying romantic relationships and drinking has implications for broad aspects of youngadult and adult development. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 75, 704-712, 2014). PMID:24988269
Background Despite the high prevalence of mental health concerns, few youngadults access treatment. While much research has focused on understanding the barriers to service access, few studies have explored unbiased accounts of the experiences of youngadults with mental health concerns. It is through hearing these experiences and gaining an in-depth understanding of what is being said by youngadults that improvements can be made to interventions focused on increasing access to care. Objective To move beyond past research by using an innovative qualitative research method of analyzing the blogs of youngadults (18–25 years of age) with mental health concerns to understand their experiences. Methods We used an enhanced Internet search vehicle, DEVONagent, to extract Internet blogs using primary keywords related to mental health. Blogs (N = 8) were selected based on age of authors (18–25 years), gender, relevance to mental health, and recency of the entries. Blogs excerpts were analyzed using a combination of grounded theory and consensual qualitative research methods. Results Two core categories emerged from the qualitative analysis of the bloggers accounts: I am powerless (intrapersonal) and I am utterly alone (interpersonal). Overall, the youngadult bloggers expressed significant feelings of powerlessness as a result of their mental health concerns and simultaneously felt a profound sense of loneliness, alienation, and lack of connection with others. Conclusions The present study suggests that one reason youngadults do not seek care might be that they view the mental health system negatively and feel disconnected from these services. To decrease youngadults’ sense of powerlessness and isolation, efforts should focus on creating and developing resources and services that allow youngadults to feel connected and empowered. Through an understanding of the experiences of youngadults with mental health problems, and their experiences of and attitudes toward receiving care, we provide some recommendations for improving receptivity and knowledge of mental health care services.
Westra, Henny A; Eastwood, John D; Barnes, Kirsten L
Cholesterol plays an important role in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. To better explore how dietary cholesterol contributes to learning and memory and the related changes in synaptic structural plasticity, rats were categorized into a regular diet (RD) group and a cholesterol-enriched diet (CD) group, and were fed with respective diet for 2 months. Dietary cholesterol impacts on learning and memory, hippocampal synaptic ultrastructure, expression levels of postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95), synaptophysin (SYP) and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) were investigated. We found CD rats had better performances in learning and memory using Morris water maze and object recognition test than RD rats. The memory improvement was accompanied with alterations of synaptic ultrastructure in the CA1 area of the hippocampus evaluated by electron microscopy, enhanced immunoreactivity of SYP, a presynaptic marker in hippocampus detected by immunocytochemistry, as well as increased levels of PSD-95, SYP and decreased level of CB1R in brains of CD rats determined by Western blot. Taken together, the results suggest that the improvement of learning and memory abilities of the youngadultrats induced by dietary cholesterol may be linked with changes in synaptic structural plasticity in the brain. PMID:23187788
Ya, Bai-liu; Liu, Wen-yan; Ge, Feng; Zhang, Yan-xia; Zhu, Bao-liang; Bai, Bo
Objective To describe time-related beliefs and behaviors regarding healthful eating, indicators of dietary intake, and their associations with the number of weekly hours of paid work among youngadults. Methods Population-based study in a diverse cohort (N=2287). Results Working > 40 hours per week was associated with time-related barriers to healthful eating most persistently among youngadult men. Associations were found among females working both part-time and > 40 hours per week with both time-related barriers and dietary intake. Conclusions Findings indicate that intervention strategies, ideally those addressing time burden, are needed to promote healthful eating among young, working adults.
Escoto, Kamisha Hamilton; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.
This study examined the utilization of the Internet by youngadults as a source of information for the non-medical use of prescription drugs. Collected during 2008 and 2009, the data presented here comes from semi-structured interviews (N=62) conducted in a northwestern city of the United States through support from the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Previous studies have characterized youngadults as particularly vulnerable to online prescription drug information which analysts portray as having a significant, invariably detrimental, impact on youth drug use behaviors. The results presented here suggest that youngadults are more skeptical and information-savvy than many substance abuse analysts acknowledge.
This study evaluated readiness to change drug use in youngadult patients aged 18-25 years who were provided screening and brief intervention as part of a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Treatment Capacity Expansion Project. Non-treatment-seeking youngadults at risk for drug problems (n = 1,560) were assessed for readiness to change. Structural equation modeling examined latent constructs: emotional distress, age, drug use severity, criminal behavior, gender, and race/ethnicity. Drug use severity fully mediated the relationship between emotional distress and readiness. In addition, females and youngadults with more severe drug problems may be more amenable to behavior change. PMID:23971893
Background. Despite increasing attention toward forest therapy as an alternative medicine, very little evidence continues to be available on its therapeutic effects. Therefore, this study was focused on elucidating the health benefits of forest walking on cardiovascular reactivity. Methods. Within-group comparisons were used to examine the cardiovascular responses to walking in forest and urban environments. Forty-eight youngadult males participated in the two-day field research. Changes in heart rate variability, heart rate, and blood pressure were measured to understand cardiovascular reactivity. Four different questionnaires were used to investigate the changes in psychological states after walking activities. Results. Forest walking significantly increased the values of ln(HF) and significantly decreased the values of ln(LF/HF) compared with the urban walking. Heart rate during forest walking was significantly lower than that in the control. Questionnaire results showed that negative mood states and anxiety levels decreased significantly by forest walking compared with urban walking. Conclusion. Walking in the forest environment may promote cardiovascular relaxation by facilitating the parasympathetic nervous system and by suppressing the sympathetic nervous system. In addition, forest therapy may be effective for reducing negative psychological symptoms. PMID:24660018
Objectives. We examined interrelationships among the 3 dimensions of sexual orientation—self-identity, sexual attraction, and sexual experience—and their associations with substance use among adolescents and youngadults. Methods. To estimate total and net associations of sexual identity, attraction, and experience with use of tobacco, drugs, and alcohol, we applied logistic regression to cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Family Growth Cycle 6. Results. We found a lack of concordance among the different dimensions of sexual orientation. More youths reported same-gender sexual attraction and same-gender sexual experiences than identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Estimates of substance use prevalence differed significantly by gender and across dimensions of sexual orientation. Sexual experience was the most consistent predictor of substance use. Women and men with no sexual experience had the lowest odds of all forms of substance use; those reporting sexual experience with partners of both genders had the highest odds. Conclusions. Our findings indicate that sexual identity was less strongly associated with substance use than sexual experience and attraction were, pointing to the need for more nuanced indicators of sexual orientation in public health studies.
Background Case reports suggest a link between methamphetamine abuse and acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but no epidemiologic studies have examined this link. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that youngadults who abuse amphetamines are at higher risk for AMI. Methods In this study of 3,148,165 discharges from Texas hospitals in a quality indicators database during 2000 to 2003, among persons aged 18 to 44 years we identified 11,011 AMIs, defined according to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s AMI mortality inpatient quality indicator. Results In a multiple logistic regression analysis—while controlling for cocaine abuse, alcohol abuse, tobacco use, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, lipid disorders, obesity, congenital defects, and coagulation defects—amphetamine abuse was significantly associated with AMI (adjusted odds ratio = 1.61; 95% confidence interval = 1.24—2.04, p=0.0004). The rate of AMIs among amphetamine abusers increased significantly from 2000 to 2003. The population attributable risk suggests that amphetamine abuse is responsible for 0.2% of AMIs in the state of Texas. The geographical distribution of amphetamine abuse varied by region, with the prevalence being highest in the North Texas and Panhandle regions of Texas. Conclusions This modest, though statistically robust, association suggests that amphetamine abuse may play a role in AMI.
Westover, Arthur N.; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Haley, Robert W.
Objective The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate the caries risk in youngadults using Cariogram and (2) compare the efficiency of Cariogram with the regression risk models created using the same variables in Cariogram by examining the actual caries progression over a 2-year period. Methods: This study included 100 subjects that were either twenty or twenty-one years-old. Data on general health, diet, oral hygiene and use of fluoride were obtained. Saliva analyses were performed, including mutans streptococci and lactobacilli counts, secretion rate and buffer capacity. DMFT and DMFS values were calculated by clinical examinations and radiographs. The participants were divided into 5 groups according to their Cariogram caries risk scores at baseline. Re-examination for caries was done after 2-years. The data were analyzed using Kruskall Wallis, Mann Whitney-U, and logistic regression analyses. Results: Diet frequency, plaque amount and secretion rate were significantly associated with caries increment (P<.05). Cariogram and the regression risk models explained the caries formation at a higher rate than single-variables. However, the regression risk model developed by diet frequency, plaque amount and secretion rate explained the caries formation similar to Cariogram, while the other regression model developed by all variables used in Cariogram explained the caries formation at a higher rate than this computer program. Conclusions: Cariogram is effective and can be used for caries risk assessment instead of single variables; however, it is possible to develop simplier models with regression analyses to determine caries risk.
This study is part of a broader project aimed at developing cognitive and neurocognitive profiles of adolescent and youngadult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. We explore the relationships among reading-related abilities in participants ages 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range of reading ability. Two specific questions are addressed: (a) Does the simple view of reading capture all nonrandom variation in reading comprehension? (b) Does orally assessed vocabulary knowledge account for variance in reading comprehension, as predicted by the lexical quality hypothesis? A comprehensive battery of cognitive and educational tests was employed to assess phonological awareness, decoding, verbal working memory, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, word knowledge, and experience with print. In this heterogeneous sample, decoding ability clearly played an important role in reading comprehension. The simple view of reading gave a reasonable fit to the data, although it did not capture all of the reliable variance in reading comprehension as predicted. Orally assessed vocabulary knowledge captured unique variance in reading comprehension even after listening comprehension and decoding skill were accounted for. We explore how a specific connectionist model of lexical representation and lexical access can account for these findings. PMID:17518215
Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald P; Mencl, W Einar
The objective of this study was to describe the temperament dimension profiles assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) among youngadults with the DSM-III-R personality disorder (PD). Our hypothesis was that PD clusters and separate PDs can be distinguished from one another by their specific temperament profiles. As a part of the 31-year follow-up survey of the prospective Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, the cohort members living in the city of Oulu at the age of 31 years (n=1609) were invited to participate in a two-phase field study. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R for PDs (SCID-II) was used as diagnostic instrument. The final study sample consisted of the 1311 subjects who had completed the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25 questionnaire for screening and had given a written informed consent. Of the 321 SCID interviewed subjects, 74 met the criteria for at least one PD and had completed the TCI. The mean TCI scores of subjects with PD and control subjects without PD (n=910) were compared. Low Novelty Seeking, high Harm Avoidance and low Reward Dependence characterized cluster A and C PDs. Subjects with a cluster B PD did not differ from controls, except for Novelty Seeking, which was high. The temperament dimensions could not distinguish different PDs very well, with the only exception of persons with obsessive-compulsive PD. PD clusters were associated with different profiles of temperament, lending some support for Cloninger's typology. PMID:18839387
Kantojärvi, Liisa; Miettunen, Jouko; Veijola, Juha; Läksy, Kristian; Karvonen, Juha T; Ekelund, Jesper; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lichtermann, Dirk; Joukamaa, Matti
Adult CBA mice may be made tolerant of August rat tail skin grafts by short intensive treatments with antilymphocyte serum followed by massive (?100 × 106 cells) injections of August rat lymphoid cells. Prolonged tolerance can be achieved only in thymectomized mice, and is accompanied by lymphoid cell chimerism and the manufacture of rat protein. The rat lymphoid cell donors must be treated beforehand with antirat ALS to avoid complications associated with graft versus host reactions. Rejection of rat skin grafts is accompanied by the formation of high titres of antirat hemolysins and lymphocytotoxins, but in “tolerant” mice the rat skin survives in the continual presence of antirat antibodies. Under certain circumstances, however, passive transfusion of high titre mouse antirat serum can precipitate the breakdown of rat skin grafts. It is doubtful if this represents the primary mechanism of rejection. The reaction of normal mice against rat skin is essentially an intensified allograft reaction; it is at all events wholly immunological in character.
Lance, E. M.; Levey, R. H.; Medawar, P. B.; Ruszkiewicz, M.
Motor activity and neuromotor function were examined in adult CD rats exposed to either carbaryl or propoxur, and behavioral effects were compared with the time course of cholinesterase inhibition. Rats received an IP injection of either 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 m...
The oral toxicity of the pesticide mirex which is used in the control of fire ants, was studied in Sherman strain rats. The single-dose LD50 was 365 mg/kg and the 90-dose LD50, 6.0 mg/kg in adult female rats. The chronicity factor, which is the ratio of s...
This study explored the roles and psychological experiences identified as defining adult moments using mixed methods with a racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse sample of youngadults both enrolled and not enrolled in college (N = 726; ages 18-35). First, we evaluated results from a single survey item that asked participants to rate how adult they feel. Consistent with previous research, the majority of participants (56.9%) reported feeling “somewhat like an adult,” and older participants had significantly higher subjective adulthood, controlling for other demographic variables. Next, we analyzed responses from an open-ended question asking participants to describe instances in which they felt like an adult. Responses covered both traditional roles (e.g., marriage, childbearing; 36.1%) and nontraditional social roles and experiences (e.g., moving out of parent’s home, cohabitation; 55.6%). Although we found no differences by age and college status in the likelihood of citing a traditional or nontraditional role, participants who had achieved more traditional roles were more likely to cite them in their responses. In addition, responses were coded for psychological experiences, including responsibility for self (19.0%), responsibility for others (15.3%), self-regulation (31.1%), and reflected appraisals (5.1%). Older participants were significantly more likely to include self-regulation and reflected appraisals, whereas younger participants were more likely to include responsibility for self. College students were more likely than noncollege students to include self-regulation and reflected appraisals. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Lowe, Sarah R.; Dillon, Colleen O.; Rhodes, Jean E.; Zwiebach, Liza
Long-term administration of antiepileptic drugs may be connected with the risk of impairment of bone remodeling. Contrary to the reported unfavorable effect of classic antiepileptic drugs on bone metabolism, little is known about the effect of the next generation antiepileptics on bone remodeling. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of vigabatrin, as a representative of new antiepileptics, on the skeletal system of youngrats, in comparison with conventional drugs--phenytoin and valproic acid. The experiments were carried out on 4-week-old male Wistar rats, divided into the control rats, and rats receiving vigabatrin (250 mg/kg p.o. daily), phenytoin (20 mg/kg p.o. daily) or valproic acid (250 mg/kg p.o. daily). The drugs were administered for 28 days. Histomorphometric parameters of the tibia and femur, mechanical properties of the femur, and bone length, diameter, mass, content of mineral substances and calcium were examined. After administration of phenytoin or valproic acid, the investigated bone parameters did not significantly differ from those observed in the control rats. Administration of vigabatrin caused profound impairment of bone accrual with impairment of bone histomorphometric parameters, along with the significant decrease in the body mass gain. PMID:22568048
The objective of the current study was to find out whether thyroid hormone influences antioxidant defense parameters of rat brain. Several oxidative stress and antioxidant defense parameters of mitochondrial (MF) and post-mitochondrial (PMF) fractions of cerebral cortex (CC) of adultrats were compared among euthyroid (control), hypothyroid [6-n-propylthiouracil (PTU)-challenged], and hyperthyroid (T3-treatment to PTU-challenged rats) states. Oxidative stress parameters, such
Interparental conflict is a known risk factor for child adjustment problems; yet few studies have examined its long-term effects. This study tests the following hypotheses: Interparental conflict has both longitudinal and concurrent influences on the functioning of youngadult children, and the relationship between youngadults and their parents mediates these influences. We assessed a community sample (N = 243) of families when the target child was in early to middle adolescence. We then reassessed them 6 years later during young adulthood. The links of interparental conflict measured at the two time points to youngadults' general psychopathology and antisocial behavior were examined using multiple regression analyses. The quality of the relationship between youngadults and each parent was added to each equation as a potential mediating variable. Results showed that concurrent, but not earlier, interparental conflict predicted males' antisocial behavior. No support was found for the mediational model, but support was found for an alternate model positing direct effects for interparental conflict and the parent-youngadult relationship on youngadult functioning. For females and males, problematic relationships with mothers and father predicted greater general psychopathology, while problems in paternal relationships predicted higher levels of antisocial behavior only for females. PMID:9089130
Trimethyltin (TMT) is a limbic-system toxicant which also produces sensory dysfunction in adult animals. In the present experiment, the authors examined the effects of TMT on the acoustic startle response. Adult male, Long-Evans rats (N=12/dose) received a single i.p. injection o...
Using prospective, longitudinal data from 467 youth over a 13-year period (late adolescence and young adulthood), the present study investigates three research questions: (1) to what extent do elevations in depressed mood continue (homotypic continuity) from adolescence to young adulthood, (2) to what extent do youngadults’ socioeconomic attainments and failures sustain the depressed mood from adolescence to young adulthood and (3) to what extent do youngadults’ socioeconomic attainments or failures mediate the continuity and discontinuity of depressive symptoms across this period? The results from our structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses suggest that continuity of depressive symptoms from late adolescence to young adulthood is mediated in part by economic and work achievements or failures of youngadults after controlling for adolescent conduct disorder/antisocial behavior, parents’ psychopathology and family adversity. Additionally, the results indicate that the continuity of depressed mood across the early life course is conditioned (stabilized or disrupted) by youngadult socioeconomic achievements or failures.
Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Rand D.; Lorenz, Federick O.; Martin, Monica
Background This study represents the first attempt to perform a profiling analysis of the intergenerational differences in the microRNAs (miRNAs) of primary cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms in youngadult and older age groups. The data emphasize the importance of these master regulators in the transcriptional machinery of melanocytic neoplasms and suggest that differential levels of expressions of these miRs may contribute to differences in phenotypic and pathologic presentation of melanocytic neoplasms at different ages. Methods An exploratory miRNA analysis of 666 miRs by low density microRNA arrays was conducted on formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissues (FFPE) from 10 older adults and 10 youngadults including conventional melanoma and melanocytic neoplasms of uncertain biological significance. Age-matched benign melanocytic nevi were used as controls. Results Primary melanoma in patients greater than 60 years old was characterized by the increased expression of miRs regulating TLR-MyD88-NF-kappaB pathway (hsa-miR-199a), RAS/RAB22A pathway (hsa-miR-204); growth differentiation and migration (hsa-miR337), epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) (let-7b, hsa-miR-10b/10b*), invasion and metastasis (hsa-miR-10b/10b*), hsa-miR-30a/e*, hsa-miR-29c*; cellular matrix components (hsa-miR-29c*); invasion-cytokinesis (hsa-miR-99b*) compared to melanoma of younger patients. MiR-211 was dramatically downregulated compared to nevi controls, decreased with increasing age and was among the miRs linked to metastatic processes. Melanoma in youngadult patients had increased expression of hsa-miR-449a and decreased expression of hsa-miR-146b, hsa-miR-214*. MiR-30a* in clinical stages I-II adult and pediatric melanoma could predict classification of melanoma tissue in the two extremes of age groups. Although the number of cases is small, positive lymph node status in the two age groups was characterized by the statistically significant expression of hsa-miR-30a* and hsa-miR-204 (F-test, p-value < 0.001). Conclusions Our findings, although preliminary, support the notion that the differential biology of melanoma at the extremes of age is driven, in part, by deregulation of microRNA expression and by fine tuning of miRs that are already known to regulate cell cycle, inflammation, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)/stroma and more specifically genes known to be altered in melanoma. Our analysis reveals that miR expression differences create unique patterns of frequently affected biological processes that clearly distinguish old age from young age melanomas. This is a novel characterization of the miRnomes of melanocytic neoplasms at two extremes of age and identifies potential diagnostic and clinico-pathologic biomarkers that may serve as novel miR-based targeted modalities in melanoma diagnosis and treatment.
The rate of urinary albumin excretion is an important risk factor for kidney failure, stroke, and cardiovascular disease, perhaps because higher albumin excretion reflects endothelial cell dysfunction. The authors characterized urinary albumin excretion according to blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and other factors in 2,582 Black and White participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in YoungAdults (CARDIA) Study who were aged 18-30 years in 1985-1986. Urinary albumin and creatinine concentrations were determined using single untimed samples 10 and 15 years later. The albumin:creatinine ratio was analyzed as a continuous variable and a dichotomous variable (higher albumin excretion, including microalbuminuria (25-249 mg/g) and macroalbuminuria (>or=250 mg/g)). Seventy percent of persons with increased albumin excretion were both normoglycemic and normotensive (systolic/diastolic blood pressure <140/90 mmHg and no use of antihypertensive drugs). Even when diabetic subjects, who have greater risk, were excluded, albumin excretion rose continuously as blood pressure increased among Blacks; increases started at systolic/diastolic blood pressures of 130/85 mmHg among Whites. Furthermore, blood pressure measured up to 15 years earlier predicted incident higher albumin excretion at year 15. These findings persisted after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, and blood lipid and plasma insulin levels. A risk of higher urinary albumin excretion exists at blood pressure levels below those commonly regarded as hypertension, with a greater risk among Blacks than among Whites. PMID:14507604
Murtaugh, Maureen A; Jacobs, David R; Yu, Xinhua; Gross, Myron D; Steffes, Michael
Presents two lists of youngadult literature titles totaling 100 works. Notes that the first list includes books with lasting appeal and the second list includes some new and notable books to fill a summer reading list. (SG)
Objectives. We examined the association between moderate alcohol use and depressive mood among youngadults before and after adjustment for demographic, health, and socioeconomic factors that may act as confounders. Methods. We analyzed 2 waves of interview data collected from 13892 youngadults who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to compare frequency of depressive symptoms in moderate drinkers with frequency of symptoms in youngadults in other alcohol use categories. Results. With adjustment for health and socioeconomic factors, frequency of depressive symptoms were similar among moderate drinkers, lifetime and long-term abstainers, and heavy/heavier moderate drinkers but remained significantly higher among heavy drinkers. Conclusions. Moderate alcohol use may have no effect on depression in youngadults relative to abstinence from alcohol use.
Paschall, Mallie J.; Freisthler, Bridget; Lipton, Robert I.
Presents an annotated list of the 10 best fiction and the 10 best nonfiction youngadult literature published in the 1980s. Notes that the books mix popularity and quality into a cake of reading motivation. (RS)
Adolescents and youngadults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia lived longer when treated with an intensified multi-drug chemotherapy regimen that is used to treat younger children, according to the November 1, 2009, Journal of Clinical Oncology.
The present study had three main objectives: (1) to develop and validate scales of youngadult social competence in two domains, close relationships and social groups, using peer ratings of California Q-sort (Block, 1974; Kremen & Block, 2002) items; (2) to test the hypothesis that social competence is associated with youngadult well-being and ego development; (3) to test the hypothesis that close relationship competence aligns more closely than social group competence with youngadult functioning. Psychometric data on peer ratings of social competence are presented. For 133 youngadults, peer ratings of social competence were correlated in expected directions with indices of functioning (e.g., self-worth, education, psychological distress, criminal behavior, and ego development). Associations were generally stronger for competence in close relationships than in social groups.
Larson, Justine J.; Whitton, Sarah W.; Hauser, Stuart T.; Allen, Joseph P.
Objective Mental health problems are highly prevalent in youngadults. Despite possibilities for effective treatment, only about one-third\\u000a of youngadults with mental health problems seek professional help. Little knowledge exists of which groups of youngadults\\u000a are underusing mental health services and for what reasons. The present study examined socio-demographic inequalities in the\\u000a use of mental health services by young
Kathleen Vanheusden; Jan van der Ende; Cornelis L. Mulder; Frank J. van Lenthe; Frank C. Verhulst; Johan P. Mackenbach
An adult passenger has been known to facilitate young drivers' safe driving. This study examined whether the adult passenger's effect is produced by the simple presence of an adult passenger or by the driving tips offered by the passenger. Further, we examined whether the effect would be transferred to when a young driver drives alone without the adult passenger in the following session. Three groups of participants drove on expressway in a driving simulator, either alone, with a silent adult passenger, or with an adult passenger who gave advice on driving safety. After a break, participants in all three conditions drove on the same expressway alone. Results showed that participants who drove with an adult passenger providing driving tips drove more safely than the other groups, and the effect was transferred to even when they drove alone afterwards. PMID:24594361
Background—Cardiovascular mortality is excessive in youngadults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The factors contributing to ESRD-related vascular disease are incompletely understood. Youngadults with childhood-onset chronic renal failure (CRF) are uniquely suited for risk factor assessment because of their long-term exposure at an age when vascular pathology in the general population is still minimal. Methods and Results—We used novel
Jun Oh; Rainer Wunsch; Martin Turzer; Malte Bahner; Paolo Raggi; Uwe Querfeld; Otto Mehls; Franz Schaefer
We assessed the non-academic and academic functioning of youngadults with DCD, and investigated the emotional influences and the role of strategy use within this population. A random sample of 2379 adolescents and youngadults aged 19-25 (1081 males [45.4%]; mean age = 20.68, SD = 3.42) was used to develop the instruments. From this sample, three…
This is the first empirical research into prevalence rates of and motivations for antigay harassment and violence by noncriminal youngadults. In an anonymous survey of 484 youngadults, 1 in 10 admitted physical violence or threats against presumed homosexuals, and another 24% acknowledged name-calling. Factor analyses revealed four motivational themes: peer dynamics, antigay ideology, thrill-seeking, and perceived self-defense. Compared
Background: During development and aging, as well as under hypoxia, many cells can adapt to a stressful environment, while others are damaged and die by apoptosis. In particular, intermittent hypoxia, i.e., hypoxia followed by reoxygenation, determines different responses in young and adult myocardia. Objective: In the rat myocardium exposed to hypoxia, the roles played by p53 and p66 Shc proteins
Context: Self-ear-cleaning has been reported to be common from several hospital-based studies and it has been associated with some diseases of the ear. Aims: To determine community-based prevalence of self-ear-cleaning and its sociodemographic correlates among educated youngadults in Nigeria. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey conducted in a National Youth Service Corps camp in Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Semistructured questionnaires were administered on a randomly selected sample of 1280 respondents. The outcome variable was self-ear-cleaning. Independent variables were sociodemographic variables, materials used and ear-cleaning habits. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15 was utilized for univariate, bivariate, and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: There were 1012 respondents (M: F = 1.05:1). Mean age was 25.3 (standard deviation, 2.34). Prevalence of self-ear-cleaning was 93.4%. Mean age at first cleaning was 7.6 years. Cotton buds were the most frequently used objects (in 85.1%). Prevalence was high irrespective of sociodemographic class, significantly higher among females (?2 = 4.549, P = 0.033), those who believed the habit was beneficial (?2 = 114.185, P < 0.001) and those whose parents and siblings practiced the habit. Significant predictive factors were self-ear-cleaning in respondent's father [odds ratio (OR) P = 0.011) and owning cotton buds (OR = 0.192, P = 0.007). Conclusions: Self-ear-cleaning is almost universal. Most of the population is, therefore, at risk of possible harmful effects. Also, medical advice against self-ear-cleaning is not widely known. Rather, the erroneous perception that self-ear-cleaning is beneficial is common. Collaborative health education efforts targeted at families and schools and campaigns and advocacy for legislation regulating the sale of cotton buds are recommended.
In recent years the necessity of measuring quality of life in childhood cancer survivors has been stressed. This paper gives an overview of the results of studies into the quality of life (QL) of youngadult survivors of childhood cancer and suggest areas for future research. The review located 30 empirical studies published up to 2001. The results are described in terms of the following QL dimensions: physical functioning (QL, general health), psychological functioning (overall emotional functioning, depression and anxiety, self-esteem), social functioning (education, employment, insurance, living situation, marital status and family), and sexual functioning. Factors related to survivors' QL are reported: demographics and illness- and treatment related variables. Although the literature yields some inconsistent findings, a number of clear trends can be identified: (a) most survivors reported being in good health, with the exception of some bone tumour survivors; (b) most survivors function well psychologically; (c) survivors of CNS tumours and survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) are at risk for educational deficits; (d) job discrimination, difficulties in obtaining work and problems in obtaining health and life insurance were reported; (e) survivors have lower rates of marriage and parenthood; (f) survivors worry about their reproductive capacity and/or about future health problems their children might experience as a result of their cancer history. There is a need for methodological studies that measure QL among survivors of childhood cancer more precisely by taking into account the effects of the severity of the cancer and the long-term impact of different treatments. Additional data are needed to help us understand the needs of survivors and to identify those subgroups of survivors who are at greatest risk for the adverse sequelae of the disease and its treatment. PMID:12436217
Langeveld, N E; Stam, H; Grootenhuis, M A; Last, B F
Theories about ambivalence, as well as quantitative and qualitative empirical approaches, are applied to obtain an understanding of recycling among youngadults. A questionnaire was mailed to 422 Swedish young people. Regression analyses showed that a mix of negative emotions (worry) and positive emotions (hope and joy) about the environmental…
During young adulthood the suicide rate among Blacks rises dramatically and approaches that of the U.S. general population, requiring that prevention efforts include a focus on Black youngadults. Although most research on suicidality among Blacks has focused on risk factors observed in the dominant culture, in this study the authors examined…
Background Prior studies have found that family meals and other aspects of meal structure are associated with dietary intake during adolescence, but little research has characterized meals in young adulthood. Objective This study was designed to describe attitudes regarding the social nature of meals, time constraints on meals, and meal regularity in youngadults. In addition, this study aimed to
NICOLE I. LARSON; MELISSA C. NELSON; DIANNE NEUMARK-SZTAINER; MARY STORY; PETER J. HANNAN
This article examines how developmental bibliotherapy featuring youngadult literature can be an effective strategy to address emotional issues of gifted teenagers. It describes how one high school English class responded to the novel, "The Mosquito Test," in a bibliotherapeutic fashion. Also provided is an annotated bibliography of current young…
Presents a specific procedure for obtaining reliable pupillometric measurements from infants and young children and adults. Discussion of the data and previous studies indicate that pupillometry holds promise as an objective measure of visual sensitivity for infants and young children. (Author/SDH)
This brief takes a broad look at low-income youngadults in an effort to contribute to the national discussion on improving degree completion by increasing participation among all disadvantaged populations--especially those who attempt to succeed in postsecondary settings under financial stress. Understanding the linkages between low-income young…
Youngadults leave their parents' home at a higher rate in Northern Europe and the United States than in Southern Europe, with broad implications on labor mobility, intergenerational sharing of resources and on fertility. This paper assesses if differences in household structure can be traced back to restricted access to credit for the young. To study the causal impact of
In this article, the author discusses that there is an abundance of quality LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) literature for youngadults, filled with complexly rendered and experiences that mirror the often difficult and often exciting lives that young LGBT people live today. English language arts teachers work in a genuinely new and…
A young person's first consensual sexual intercourse experience is often a remarkable and memorable experience. However, little systematic information exists regarding contextual factors of first intercourse, the affective salience of the experience, possible effects on sexual attitudes and beliefs, and subsequent sexual development and adjustment. This retrospective study aimed to examine these in a sample of 475 youngadults. Overall,
Elke D. Reissing; Heather L. Andruff; Jocelyn J. Wentland
A young person's first consensual sexual intercourse experience is often a remarkable and memorable experience. However, little systematic information exists regarding contextual factors of first intercourse, the affective salience of the experience, possible effects on sexual attitudes and beliefs, and subsequent sexual development and adjustment. This retrospective study aimed to examine these in a sample of 475 youngadults. Overall,
Elke D. Reissing; Heather L. Andruff; Jocelyn J. Wentland
Unhealthy and risky behaviors among adolescents and youngadults, such as poor nutrition, lack of physical activity, smoking, and sexual practices, can lead to long-term negative health outcomes. Individuals with chronic diseases in these age groups are also more prone to nonadherence in the management of their diseases. Positively influencing the voluntary aspect of unhealthy behaviors in adolescents and young
Karen E. Preston; Tara A. Walhart; Ann L. OSullivan
Objective: Tobacco smoking is known to increase lung cancer occurrence beginning in young adulthood, although age-specific rates have not been used to monitor the early consequences of tobacco control efforts in the United States. We evaluated state trends in lung cancer death rates among youngadults in relation to an index of state tobacco control activities and conventional indices of
Ahmedin Jemal; Vilma E. Cokkinides; Omar Shafey; Michael J. Thun
The phenomenon called "aging out" includes approximately 20,000 young people who enter adulthood directly from foster care each year (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2005). The number of youth and youngadults who aged out of care in the U.S. in 2005, the year for which the most current statistics are available, increased 48 percent…
It is widely accepted that young people residing in residential care transition to independence and adult responsibilities earlier than peers living within their family of origin. There has been a lack of literature examining the way young people in care construct this transition. In response, in-depth qualitative interviews, guided by grounded…
Advocates have long argued that an increased role for youngadult literature in the classroom would help students' reading development. At first glance, the widely adopted Common Core State Standards might seem in opposition to an increased role for such literature. A closer examination of the common core documents suggests, however, that young…
How is young childrens' intellectual culture of perceiving nature different from adults'? What types of linguistic and gender characteristics appear in that phenomenon? What should be considered in pedagogical practice for young children given this understanding? Based on field-based vignettes collected from multiple sites and situations that are…
In contrast to the educational research and policy literature depicting urban adolescents as reluctant and struggling readers and writers, young people in recent youngadult novels claim writing as an efficacious practice for self-discovery and social understanding. Analysis of the images of writers and writing in "Locomotion" and "Call Me Maria"…
Depression often emerges early in the lifecourse and is consistently shown to be associated with poor self-esteem. The 3 main objectives of the current study are to (1) evaluate the association between a history major depression and self-esteem in young adulthood, (2) assess the relationship between timing of depression onset and youngadult…
This is a humanistic study into philosophy of religious education that explores the integration of the sexual and the spiritual in the lives of single young Roman Catholic women. The central thesis of this study argues: that the integration of the spiritual and sexual in youngadult women's lives is indispensable for living a meaningful and wholistic life. The work
This study sought to identify the degree of social mobility across generations and to develop causal models of the sponsors of this mobility. The sample for the study consisted of 7,835 youngadult males from the Fourth Follow-Up survey of the National Longitudinal Study. The study analyzed the relationship between mobility and such antecedents as…
Objectives. We investigated associations between tobacco industry denormalization attitudes and the smoking behavior of youngadults (aged 18 to 29 years). Methods. We analyzed data from 9455 youngadults in the 2002 California Tobacco Survey. Results. The data showed that 27.4% of youngadults were “ever smokers” (smoked ? 100 cigarettes in their lifetime), of whom 66.9% were current smokers (18.3% of youngadults). Denormalization attitudes formed 2 major factors: support for anti–tobacco industry action and mistrust of tobacco companies. In multivariate logistic regression, support for action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with current smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.16; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.13, 0.19) and susceptibility to smoking, after we controlled for demographics, exposure to smokers, and advertising receptivity. Mistrust of tobacco companies was associated with smoking behavior, with anti-industry support acting as a mediating variable. Among current smokers, support for anti–tobacco industry action was strongly associated with intentions to quit (OR=4.64; 95% CI=3.15, 6.84) after we controlled for demographics, exposure to smokers, and advertising receptivity. Conclusions. Support for anti–tobacco industry action protects against smoking and is associated with intentions to quit among youngadults. Encouraging involvement in tobacco control and against the tobacco industry may decrease smoking among youngadults.
Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.
Background Validated measures that can accurate describe youngadults’ HPV vaccination attitudes and how these relate to vaccination intention and receipt are needed for developing interventions to improve low HPV vaccination levels. The Carolina HPV Immunization Attitudes Scale (CHIAS) is a validated measure of these outcomes that was originally designed for parents. Objective To assess the performance of the CHIAS among youngadult women using an exploratory factor analysis. Methods A convenience sample of 139 youngadult women (age 18–26 years) were given the CHIAS measure at baseline. Factor analysis was used to determine attitudinal factor groupings and the association of these factors with HPV vaccination intention. A 6-month follow up assessment examined the stability of the CHIAS over time and the association of baseline vaccine factors with vaccine receipt. Results Five factors loaded on to the CHIAS in youngadults - “Barriers,” “Harms,” “Effectiveness,” “Risk Denial” and “Uncertainty,” - which was similar to the factor loadings of CHIAS for parents. “Harms” was the factor most consistently associated with vaccination intention at all time points assessed. Only 5 women had received or made an appointment to receive the vaccine at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusions In terms of categorizing HPV vaccination attitudes, the CHIAS appears to have similar performance among youngadults as in parents. However, additional studies are needed to assess the utility of the CHIAS for predicting HPV vaccine receipt among the youngadult population.
Dempsey, Amanda F.; Fuhrel-Forbis, Andrea; Konrath, Sara
The antidepressant drug fluoxetine (Prozac) has been increasingly prescribed to children and adolescents with depressive disorders despite a lack of thorough understanding of its therapeutic effects in the paediatric population and of its putative neurodevelopmental effects. Within the framework of PRIOMEDCHILD ERA-NET, we investigated; a) effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a structural readout relevant for antidepressant action and hippocampal development; b) effects on tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) expression, a measure of serotonin synthesis; c) whether treatment effects during adolescence differed from treatment at an adult age, and d) whether they were subregion-specific. Stereological quantification of the number of proliferating (Ki-67+) cells and of the number of young migratory neurons (doublecortin+), revealed a significant age-by-treatment interaction effect, indicating that fluoxetine affects both proliferation and neurogenesis in adolescent-treated rats differently than it does in adult-treated rats. In terms of subregional differences, fluoxetine enhanced proliferation mainly in the dorsal parts of the hippocampus, and neurogenesis in both the suprapyramidal and infrapyramidal blades of the dentate gyrus in adolescent-treated rats, while no such differences were seen in adult-treated rats. Fluoxetine exerted similar age-by-treatment interaction effects on TPH cells mainly in the ventral portion of the dorsal raphe nucleus. We conclude that fluoxetine exerts divergent effects on structural plasticity and serotonin synthesis in adolescent versus adult-treated rats. These preliminary data indicate a differential sensitivity of the adolescent brain to this drug and thus warrant further research into their behavioural and translational aspects. Together with recent related findings, they further call for caution in prescribing these drugs to the adolescent population.
Background Methamphetamine (METH) use has increased substantially in the last 10 years and poses a serious health concern, especially for young populations. Drug abuse primarily begins during adolescence, when uninhibited and excessive and drug intake is a common occurrence; thus, understanding the developmental patterns of addiction during this critical period is an essential step in its prevention. In the present study, the effect of age on the vulnerability to METH abuse was examined using a rat model of bingeing (i.e., escalation). Methods Adolescent and adultrats were compared during short (ShA, 2-h) and long-access (LgA, 6-h) to METH self-administration. On postnatal (PN) days 23 (adolescents) and 90 (adults), rats were implanted with i.v. catheters and trained to lever press for infusions of METH (0.05 mg/kg) during 2-h sessions. Once the rats reached a steady rate of METH self-administration, they were divided into ShA or LgA groups and allowed to self-administer METH for 15 additional days. Results Results indicated that adolescent rats earned significantly more infusions than adults under the LgA condition, but the age groups did not differ during ShA. Adolescents, but not adults, also significantly increased (i.e., escalated) METH self-administration across the 15 days of testing under the LgA condition. Further analysis indicated excessive responding during infusions in the LgA METH-exposed adolescents compared to the other groups, suggesting elevated impulsivity or motivation for drug. Conclusion These results demonstrate that adolescents are more vulnerable to the escalation of METH than adults during LgA.
Anker, Justin J.; Baron, Thomas R.; Zlebnik, Natalie E.; Carroll, Marilyn E.
To study the effects of commonly used non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium on the kidneys of young albino rats after therapeutic dose. Early clinical and pharmacological studied of oral and parental forms of diclofenac sodium began shortly after the drug was discovered. However there is scanty information about the toxicities of normal dose of diclofenac in young albino rats.
The locus coeruleus (LC) plays an important role in central chemoreception. In youngrats (P9 or younger), 85% of LC neurons increase firing rate in response to hypercapnia vs. only about 45% of neurons from rats P10 or older. Carbenoxolone (CARB - gap junction blocker) does not affect the % of LC neurons responding in youngrats but it decreases the % responding by half in older animals. We evaluated the participation of gap junctions in the CO2 ventilatory response in unanesthetized adultrats by bilaterally microinjecting CARB (300?M, 1mM or 3mM/100nL), glycyrrhizic acid (GZA, CARB analog, 3mM) or vehicle (aCSF - artificial cerebrospinal fluid) into the LC of Wistar rats. Bilateral gap junction blockade in LC neurons did not affect resting ventilation; however, the increase in ventilation produced by hypercapnia (7% CO2) was reduced by ?25% after CARB 1mM or 3mM injection (1939.7±104.8mLkg(-1)min(-1) for the aCSF group and 1468.3±122.2mLkg(-1)min(-1) for 1mM CARB, P<0.05; 1939.7±104.8mLkg(-1)min(-1) for the aCSF group and 1540.9±68.4mLkg(-1)min(-1) for the 3mM CARB group, P<0.05) due largely to a decrease in respiratory frequency. GZA injection or CARB injection outside the LC (peri-LC) had no effect on ventilation under any conditions. The results suggest that gap junctions in the LC modulate the hypercapnic ventilatory response of adultrats. PMID:24035835
Patrone, Luis G A; Bícego, Kênia Cardoso; Hartzler, Lynn K; Putnam, Robert W; Gargaglioni, Luciane H
Introduction: While youngadults have the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking of any adult age group, studies of tobacco and other substance use have reported challenges in recruiting this age group. The Internet may be a useful tool for reaching youngadult smokers. The present study compared three Internet-based recruitment methods for youngadult smokers to complete a survey about tobacco and other substance use: Craigslist advertisements, other Internet advertisements, and E-mail invitations through a survey sampling service. Methods: Recruitment campaigns invited youngadults aged 18–25 years who had smoked at least one cigarette in the past 30 days to complete an online survey. Recruitment methods were compared across recruitment numbers, costeffectiveness, and demographic and smoking characteristics of recruited participants. Results: In 6 months, 920 people gave online consent to determine eligibility to complete the survey, of which 336 (36.5%) were eligible, and 201 (59.8%) completed the survey. While Internet advertisements yielded the largest proportion of recruited participants and completed surveys overall, Craigslist and sampling strategies were more successful at targeting youngadult smokers who went on to complete the survey and were more costeffective. Participants differed in demographic and substance use characteristics across the three recruitment mechanisms. Discussion: We identified success at reaching youngadults who have smoked cigarettes recently through the Internet, though costs, participant eligibility, proportion of completed surveys, and respondent characteristics differed among the three methods. A multipronged approach to Internet recruitment is most likely to generate a broad diverse sample of youngadult smokers.
Assessing the prevalence of relevant risk factors among youngadults is a critical step in the process of preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD) later in life. The Israel Defense Force Periodic Health Examination Center performs a routine check-up for subjects aged 25–45 years. Medical history, physical examination notes, laboratory results and ECG tracings are recorded, computerized and processed to form
Y. Sharabi; I. Grotto; M. Huerta; A. Eldad; M. S. Green
In contrast to the abundant research on family relationships during adolescence, the nature of family interactions during young adulthood remains comparatively unexamined. The current study explored ethnic differences in youngadults' interactions with parents and siblings, the role of other activities in youngadults' family interactions, and the…
Earlier age of first drink (AFD) of alcohol is associated with higher rates of alcohol abuse and dependence as well as a range of other externalizing problems. This study tested the hypotheses that in youngadults earlier AFD is associated with  the common variance among externalizing problems (lifetime alcohol, marijuana, other drug, childhood conduct, and adult antisocial behavior problems)
Kristin A. Zernicke; Hope Cantrell; Peter R. Finn; Jesolyn Lucas
Complaints of xerostomia and salivary hypofunction are common in older adults. However, recent studies reported that dehydration-induced salivary hypofunction caused fewer xerostomic complaints in older compared with youngadults. This may predispose older adults to developing oral problems that will subsequently not receive attention from health care providers. Since many medications are known to inhibit salivation, this study attempted to determine if an anticholinergic drug (glycopyrrolate) had a differential effect on xerostomic complaints in young vs. older adults. Eighteen young (age 20-38 yrs) and 18 older (age 60-77 yrs) healthy adults were given a 4.0 micrograms/kg dose of i.v. glycopyrrolate. For 6 hrs after drug administration, stimulated parotid salivary flow was collected, and an eight-item Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) subjective xerostomia test was given. At several time points post-i.v. glycopyrrolate, salivary flow rates were consistently lower in older compared with youngadults. For some measures of xerostomic complaint (time to first complaint; time to maximum complaint; mean maximum complaint), there were no age-related differences for all VAS items. However, a trend for increased xerostomic complaints in older adults was demonstrated (time to recovery; total duration of complaint; number xerostomic at 6 hrs). These findings suggest that, given equal doses of an anti-sialogogue, salivary hypofunction is greater in healthy older adults, while increased complaints of xerostomia are not as consistent. PMID:11803641
Adult benefits for participants in Project CARE were compared with those of the Abecedarian Project, a closely related randomized study of early childhood educational intervention for children from low-income families who were at risk of developmental delays and school failure. CARE replicated Abecedarian's youngadult treatment-related educational and vocational attainment gains. CARE data also supported the Abecedarian reduction in marijuana
Frances A. Campbell; Barbara H. Wasik; Elizabeth Pungello; Margaret Burchinal; Oscar Barbarin; Kirsten Kainz; Joseph J. Sparling; Craig T. Ramey
The purpose of the study was to compare the discharge characteristics of biceps brachii motor units of young and old adults when they performed steady, submaximal contractions while the arm supported different inertial loads. Young (28 ± 4 yr; n = 16) and old (75 ± 4 yr; n = 14) adults performed steady contractions with the elbow flexors at target forces set at either small (11.7 ± 4.4% maximum) or large (17.8 ± 6.5% maximum) differences below the recruitment threshold force of the motor unit (n = 40). The task was to maintain an elbow angle at 1.57 rad until the motor unit was recruited and discharged action potentials for ?120 s. Time to recruitment was longer for the larger target force difference (187 ± 227 s vs. 23 ± 46 s, P < 0.001). Once recruited, motor units discharged action potentials either repetitively or intermittently, with a greater proportion of motor units exhibiting the repetitive pattern for old adults. Discharge rate at recruitment and during the steady contraction was similar for the two target force differences for old adults but was greater for the small target force difference for youngadults. Discharge variability was similar at recruitment for the two age groups but less for the old adults during the steady contraction. The greatest difference between the present results and those reported previously when the arm pulled against a rigid restraint was that old adults modulated discharge rate less than youngadults across the two contraction intensities for both load types.
Adult benefits for participants in Project CARE were compared with those of the Abecedarian Project, a closely related randomized study of early childhood educational intervention for children from low-income families who were at risk of developmental delays and school failure. CARE replicated Abecedarian's youngadult treatment-related…
Campbell, Frances A.; Wasik, Barbara H.; Pungello, Elizabeth; Burchinal, Margaret; Barbarin, Oscar; Kainz, Kirsten; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.
There is a general lack of information about the economic impact of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), particularly regarding adults and those with high-functioning ASD. In this study, the societal economic consequences of ASD were investigated using a sample of young high-functioning adults in need of employment support. A methodology for the…
Jarbrink, Krister; McCrone, Paul; Fombonne, Eric; Zanden, Hakan; Knapp, Martin
This study considers whether type of placement (foster care versus institutional care) is related to patterns of attachment representation and the quality of psychological adjustment in a sample of 48 youngadults, who grew up either in foster care or in institutions. The subjects were interviewed using the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996, ) and their psychological
Objective: To investigate gender differences in beliefs about condom use among young, sexually active, heterosexual Australian adults. Design: Cross-sectional survey of 1,113 adults aged 18-26 years. Setting: Higher education institutions across New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Method: Participants were recruited during higher-education…
Newton, Fiona J.; Newton, Joshua D.; Windisch, Lydia; Ewing, Michael T.
Background: Most physical activity recall questionnaires assess activity over a 7-day period. However, questionnaires have been validated in adolescents and adults using shorter recall timeframes. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a self-administered 3-day physical activity recall instrument (3DR) in youngadults.…
This report examines youngadults' states of mind regarding their early attachment experiences in relation to the observed and perceived quality of their sibling relationships. Sixty sibling pairs (18-25 years of age) were (a) administered the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1985), (b) videotaped during a conflict resolution…
Fortuna, Keren; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Groh, Ashley M.; Holland, Ashley S.
Functions served by self-disclosure may vary depending upon the adults' gender and stage in the life span. Studies such issues in regard to the elderly, middle-aged, and youngadults' use of four functions of self-disclosure: self-expression, self-clarification, social control, and social validation. Findings support the claim that greater…
Recent findings have revealed age-related changes in neural recruitment during the processing of emotional information. The present study examined whether these age-related changes would be more pronounced for words, thought to be processed in a controlled manner versus relatively automatically processed pictures. Compared to youngadults, older adults showed less amygdala activation, and more medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation, for