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|Poses the question of why coming-of-age stories about girls are usually published as juveniles while those about boys originate on adult book lists. Challenges the conventional wisdom on how best to market youngadult literature. (FL)|
Background Youngadults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease youngadult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among youngadults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 youngadults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Youngadults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to youngadults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease youngadult smoking.
Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.
... Trials Cancer Statistics Research & Funding News About NCI Adolescents and YoungAdults with Cancer Adolescents and Young ... YoungAdult (AYA) Cancers Quiz Cancer Research Now: Adolescent and YoungAdult Cancers You will need Adobe ...
The Yolith Omnibus Bill passed during he WHLIS in July 1991, includes oprovisions for six separate grants for children's, school, and youngadult services in libraries. Funding cuts have made developing alternate sources of revenue vital for the survival of existing librarv services and the develooment of new ones. Are children's and youngadult librarians trained in writing grant proposals?
... servingpeople/cancer-statistics/snapshots Selected Advances in AYA Cancer Research • • • • • • Melanoma in adolescents and youngadults (ages 15– ... a Diagnosis, Adolescents and YoungAdults with Cancer. Cancer Research Now: Fertility Issues for Adolescents and YoungAdults ...
|Applies the idea of the theme booktalk to "Wuthering Heights," which serves as a springboard for talking about themes of family rage, confrontation, quarrel and rebellion in other works of literature with relevance to contemporary young people. (JK)|
|Refutes the myth that youngadults won't read about protagonists younger than themselves. Describes novels from which adolescents can benefit that contain candid treatment of the loss of innocence, the search for home, and the complexities of independence, love, and self-knowledge. (EL)|
This final rule implements Section 702 of the Ike Skelton National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE YoungAdult (TYA) program to provide an extended TRICARE Program coverage opportunity to most unmarried children under the age of 26 of uniformed services sponsors. The TYA program is a premium-based program. PMID:23724426
Only a few small studies have examined the effects of recent parental divorce on youngadults, including how it influences attitudes toward marriage and divorce. Results from studies using parental marital status as a predictor of youngadults' attitudes have been inconsistent. Other studies have suggested that parental and family conflict would be stronger predictors of youngadults' marital and
Youngadult suicide rates tripled following the introduction of television into the United States and Canada. To assess whether exposure to television is a risk factor for youngadult suicide (ages 15–24), suicide trends were compared between the U. S., Canada, and South Africa, 1949–1985. Major increases in youngadult suicide rates occurred in all three countries, even though there
|While youngadult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read youngadult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching youngadult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their…
Although myocardial infarction (MI) mainly occurs in patients older than 45, young men or women can suffer MI. Fortunately, its incidence is not common in patients younger than 45 years. However, the disease carries a significant morbidity, psychological effects, and financial constraints for the person and the family when it occurs at a young age. The causes of MI among patients aged less than 45 can be divided into four groups: (1) atheromatous coronary artery disease; (2) non-atheromatous coronary artery disease; (2) hyper-coagulable states; (4) MI related to substance misuse. There is a considerable overlap between all the groups. This article reviews the literature and highlights the practical issues involved in the management of youngadults with MI.
|Discusses youngadult novels and presents a bibliography to acquaint librarians with titles and authors that are suitable for emerging youngadult readers in grades five through nine. Subject categories include realistic fiction, in the news, historical fiction, short stories, legendary characters, mysteries, science fiction/fantasy/horror, and…
|Different forms of chronic observable disability may have differing impacts on adult personality adjustment. Youngadults with cleft lip/palate display fewer personality adjustment problems than those with orthopedic impairment. (Author)|
|This book was born of a desire to provide students, teachers, and all interested readers with a collection of essays that address issues of selection, pedagogy, and worth of the youngadult novel. A primary purpose of the book is to enter the world of youngadult readers through a literary form they know well, the modern youngadult novel.…
Many developmental psycholinguists assume that young children have adult syntactic competence, this assumption being operationalized in the use of adult-like grammars to describe young children's language. This “continuity assumption” has never had strong empirical support, but recently a number of new findings have emerged - both from systematic analyses of children's spontaneous speech and from controlled experiments - that contradict
Many developmental psycholinguists assume that young children have adult syntactic competence, this assumption being operationalized in the use of adult-like grammars to describe young children's language. This ''continuity assumption'' has never had strong empirical support, but recently a number of new findings have emerged - both from systematic analyses of children's spontaneous speech and from controlled experiments - that contradict
|In the selection of multicultural literature for children and youngadults, educators and researchers focus on two main controversial issues--authority and authenticity--that the authors portray in their writing. What type of author can accurately portray realistic pictures of minority cultures in multicultural literature for youngadults? Must…
:Background: Art has been shown to be an empowering and engaging entity with numerous benefits to vulnerable populations, including the homeless persons and youngadults. However, little is known how homeless youngadults perceive the use of art as messages that can communicate the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to
Manuel Cuchilla; Farinaz Kahilifard; Alexandra Slagle; Julie Orser; Glenna Avila; Alexandra Thomas; Adeline Nyamathi; Angela Hudson
Background: Art has been shown to be an empowering and engaging entity with numerous benefits to vulnerable populations, including the homeless persons and youngadults. However, little is known how homeless youngadults perceive the use of art as messages that can communicate the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Objectives: The purpose of this study was
Manuel Cuchilla; Farinaz Kahilifard; Alexandra Slagle; Julie Orser; Glenna Avila; Alexandra Thomas; Adeline Nyamathi; Angela Hudson
Physical and chemical oceanographic data were obtained by seasonal monitoring along a transect (Transect N) in the northern South China Sea (nSCS) during 1976-2004. Fluctuations of DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen), seawater temperature (SST and Tav - average temperature of the water column), N:P ratio and salinity (Sav and S200 - salinity at the 200 m layer) exhibited an increasing trend, while those of T200, DO, P, Si, Si:N and SSS exhibited a decreasing trend. The annual rates of change in DIN, DO, T and S revealed pronounced changes, and the climate trend coefficients, which was defined as the correlation coefficient between the time series of an environmental parameter and the nature number (namely 1,2,3,......n), were 0.38 to 0.89 and significant (p?0.01 to 0.05). Our results also showed that the ecosystem has obviously been influenced by the positive trends of both SST and DIN, and negative trends of both DO and P. For example, before 1997, DIN concentrations in the upper layer were very low and N:P ratios were less than half of the Redfield ratio of 16, indicating potential N limitation. However after 1997, all Si:P ratios were >22 and the Nav:Pav was close to the Redfield ratio, indicating potential P limitation, and therefore N limitation has been reduced after 1997. Ecological investigation shows that there have been some obvious responses of the ecosystems to the long-term environmental changes in the nSCS. Chlorophyll-a concentration, primary production, phytoplankton abundance, benthic biomass, cephalopod catch and demersal trawl catch have increased. But phosphorus depletion in upper layer may be related to the shift in the dominant species from diatoms to dinoflagellates and cyanophytes. The ecosystem response was induced by not only anthropogenic activities, but also global climate change, e.g. ENSO. The effects of climate change on the nSCS were mainly through changes in the monsoon winds, and physical-biological oceanography coupling processes. In this study physical-chemical parameters were systemic maintained, but the contemporaneous biological data were collected from various sources. Regional response to global climate change is clearly a complicated issue, which is far from well understood. This study was made an attempt to tackle this important issue. For the aim these data were valuable.
Ning, X.; Lin, C.; Hao, Q.; Liu, C.; Le, F.; Shi, J.
Physical and chemical oceanographic data were obtained by seasonal monitoring along Transect N in the northern South China Sea (nSCS) during 19762004. Fluctuations of DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen), seawater temperature (SST and Tav average temperature of the water column), N:P ratio and salinity (Sav and S200 salinity at the 200 m layer) exhibited an increasing trend, while those of T200, DO, P, Si, Si:N and SSS exhibited a decreasing trend. The annual rates of change in DIN, DO, T and S revealed pronounced changes, and the climate trend coefficients Rxt, which was defined as the correlation coefficient between the time series of an environmental parameter and the nature number, were 0.38 to 0.89 and significant (p?0.01 to 0.05). Our results also showed that the ecosystem has obviously been influenced by the positive trends of both SST and DIN, and negative trends of both DO and P, e.g. before 1997, DIN concentrations in the upper layer were very low and N:P ratios were less than half of the Redfield ratio of 16, indicating potential N limitation. However, after 1997, all Si:P ratios were >22 and the Nav:Pav was close to the Redfield ratio, indicating potential P limitation, and therefore N limitation has been reduced after 1997. Ecological investigation shows that there have been some improved responses of the ecosystems to the long-term environmental changes in the nSCS, and chlorophyll-a concentration, primary production, phytoplankton abundance, benthic biomass, cephalopod catch and demersal trawl catch have increased. But phosphorus depletion in upper layer may be related to the shift in the dominant species from diatoms to dinoflagellates and cyanophytes. The ecosystem response was induced by not only anthropogenic activities, but also global climate change, e.g. pronounced responses to ENSO. The effects of climate change on the nSCS were mainly through changes in the monsoon winds, and physical-biological oceanography coupling processes.
Ning, X.; Lin, C.; Hao, Q.; Liu, C.; Le, F.; Shi, J.
... its first issue in March 2011. The journal was created by the Society for Adolescent and YoungAdult Oncology. You can learn more about cancer literature in PubMed , a database maintained by the National ...
The 108 articles and books cited in this annotated bibliography are listed under seven major topic headings: (1) training and personality of the youngadult librarian, (2) adolescent psychology and sexuality, (3) sex roles, (4) literature and reading, (5)...
The study defines the adverse reactions associated with primary immunization of youngadults, their frequency and resulting morbidity, develops effective immunizing techniques associated with minimal morbidity, and develops diagnostic techniques permittin...
Asthma is a highly prevalent disease that may affect the lifestyle adopted by youngadults. This study investigated whether asthma status influences fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity level, tobacco smoking, and alcohol drinking behavior of youngadults in Australia. Information of 2619 participants aged 18 to 29 years was extracted from the 2007-2008 Australian National Health Survey database. The level of physical activity and fruit consumption were found to be similar between youngadults with and without asthma. Participants with asthma symptoms in the past 12 months were more likely to achieve the dietary recommendation for vegetable intake, but they tended to smoke tobacco and consume alcohol above safe levels. It may be necessary to develop prevention strategies targeting youngadults with asthma that include screening for harmful use of substances. PMID:22426565
The care of the youngadult with cystic fibrosis is complex, requiring a multidisciplinary input from different carers. Communication with and education of patients covers many areas; topics may include medical and personal problems, transplantation, survival, current scientific breakthroughs and the future. Communicating in these areas with knowledgeable youngadults requires skill, tact and self-education upon the part of the cystic fibrosis team. PMID:7567727
Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on youngadults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asymmetries, correction after body modifying procedures, and facial sculpturing are important issues for youngadults. The implication of aesthetic medicine as part of preventive medicine is a major ethical challenge that differentiates aesthetic medicine from fashion.
As they mature and become sexually active, more young people face serious health risks. Most face these risks with too little factual information, too little guidance about sexual responsibility, and too little access to health care. Meeting youngadults' diverse needs challenges parents, communities, health care providers, and educators. Despite urgent needs, program efforts have been slight and slowed by controversy. PMID:8654883
McCauley, A P; Salter, C; Kiragu, K; Senderowitz, J
Little is known about the health needs of physically handicapped youngadults after they become too old for the paediatric service. To assess these needs 104 young people with physical handicaps were given a medical examination and interviewed. They had diverse physical handicaps, many of which were rare (41 subjects); 45 had cerebral palsy and 18 spina bifida. Mental handicap
This thesis explores the ways in which young-adults' environmental learning and experiences influence their decision to live sustainably. In particular, this thesis focuses on youngadults' environmental and sustainability learning. It elaborates on young peoples' views about environmental and sustainability issues, such as climate change, the sources for their learning about these issues, and how youngadults' learning encounters, in
After graduating from college and entering the work force, youngadult athletes often struggle with the task of fueling themselves optimally for top performance and weight control. The stresses and time constraints of work, family, and social responsibilities often result in eating fast foods on the run. These youngadults can benefit from nutrition education programs in the worksite, at health clubs, in the community, and via the media. Dietitians who specialize in sport nutrition have particular appeal to these athletes, who are struggling to each well, exercise well, and stay lean yet put little time or effort into their food program. This article includes two case studies of youngadults and the dietary recommendations that taught them how to make wise food choices, fuel themselves well for high energy, and control their weight. PMID:9841961
On a broad range of indicators pertaining to risk taking and access to care, youngadults fare worse than younger adolescents or older adults. Vulnerable groups, such as those facing chronic illness and those with unstable living arrangements, fare especially poorly as they transition to adulthood. Fortunately, a confluence of factors, particularly the changing nature of the transition to adulthood in modern society, has led to renewed interest in this critical period of the life cycle. Health science research is increasingly focused on issues faced by youngadults, and public health policies designed specifically to address the health and well-being of youngadults-notably the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in the United States-are now being implemented. Successful efforts at improving the health and well-being of adolescents should be mirrored in efforts to support youngadults. A new report based on a broad range of United States national datasets lays out the challenges that must be addressed in these efforts. PMID:24138763
This study explores the role of informal mentoring (i.e., developing an important relationship with a non-parental adult) in the transition to full time employment among youngadults (age 23–28). Multivariate analysis of the Add Health data reveals that mentoring is positively related to the likelihood of full time employment, and the relationship involves both selection and causation processes. Entrance into
Steve McDonald; Lance D. Erickson; Monica Kirkpatrick Johnson; Glen H. Elder
The pharmacokinetics of caffeine were studied in young (age: 1 day, 7 days, 14 days, 30–45 days) and adult dogs following a single intravenous dose of 50 mg\\/kg. Mean ( ± SE) plasma elimination half life (T½ was 47.5 ( ± 5.35) h in 1-day-old puppies, as opposed to 6.66 ( ± 0.85) h in adult dogs. A rapid decrease
Ditsa Warszawski; Rafael Gorodischer; Shimon W. Moses; Hylton Bark
Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this apparent benefit may vary across the life course. Early marriage, which is nonnormative, could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for youngadults. Using survey data from waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 11,695),
As the body of high quality youngadult literature (YAL) continues to grow, what role might these texts play in professional development for educators? This article describes ways in which schools can develop book study programs that use this literature to promote meaningful dialogue and understanding of contemporary adolescent issues. Based on…
Bach, Jacqueline; Choate, Laura Hensley; Parker, Bruce
What does teenage fiction suggest to us about being a body in time and space? Six popular youngadult novels are used to approach this question in this paper. If in the act of reading, the language and text leak into our lives and become an organic part of our relationships, then what happens to us when we read different
|As the body of high quality youngadult literature (YAL) continues to grow, what role might these texts play in professional development for educators? This article describes ways in which schools can develop book study programs that use this literature to promote meaningful dialogue and understanding of contemporary adolescent issues. Based on…
Bach, Jacqueline; Choate, Laura Hensley; Parker, Bruce
Today's youngadult (YA) literature is every bit as complex as the audience it's written for, unflinchingly addressing such topics as homosexuality, mental illness, AIDS and drug abuse. In this much expanded revision of his 1996 book, veteran author Michael Cart shows how the best of contemporary YA lit has evolved to tackle such daunting subjects…
|Web 2.0 tools enable today's writers to connect with their audience in unprecedented ways. The advent of social networking and other Web 2.0 tools have changed the rules for how authors and book publishers market and communicate with their audience. Through tools like blogs, Twitter, MySpace, and Facebook, YoungAdult (YA) lit authors can choose…
|This study was to evaluate the relationship between physical activity of youngadults who were granted waivers from high school physical education versus those who completed courses in states requiring physical education teacher certification, with curriculum standards and credit requirements for graduation. University students from three…
Childhood sexuality and children's sexual experiences have become increasingly important to study because our knowledge on the impact of sexually abusive experiences on children's developing sexuality has increased. The main aim of this paper was to study aspects of youngadults' recollections of their sexual experiences before the age of 13, solitary and shared, mutual as well as coercive. Anonymous
|This book presents 16 original scripts that have been adapted from classic works of literature for use for readers theatre with youngadults and ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Adaptations of the following works are included: "Little Women" (Louisa May Alcott); episodes from "Don Quixote" (Miguel de Cervantes; "The Necklace" (Guy de…
National surveys of adolescents, college students, and other youngadults in the United States reveal high rates of alcohol use among these age groups as well as high rates of dangerous drinking practices such as binge drinking and daily drinking. Additional health-compromising behaviors such as tobacco use and drinking and driving often co-occur with alcohol use in these populations. The
|Today's youngadult (YA) literature is every bit as complex as the audience it's written for, unflinchingly addressing such topics as homosexuality, mental illness, AIDS and drug abuse. In this much expanded revision of his 1996 book, veteran author Michael Cart shows how the best of contemporary YA lit has evolved to tackle such daunting…
|The principal purpose of assessment, regardless of teaching level, should be to guide instruction. Unlike evaluation, the goal of assessment is not to arrive at a grade for students. Rather, it is to inform the educator as to what needs to be addressed in the classroom. Assessment in a youngadult literature (YAL) curriculum is no different. Its…
This study was to evaluate the relationship between physical activity of youngadults who were granted waivers from high school physical education versus those who completed courses in states requiring physical education teacher certification, with curriculum standards and credit requirements for graduation. University students from three…
Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections have extrapulmonary complications that involve the nervous system. The neurologic manifestations are diverse. Although the prognosis is usually favorable, the patients can undergo severe permanent sequelae. We present a young female adult with acute meningoencephalitis as a complication of a lower respiratory infection, which followed a benign course without neurologic sequelae. PMID:16193713
Del Castillo, Marcelo; D'Giano, Carlos; Goicoechea, María Teresa; Morello, Fernando; Salsamendi, Paz; Mora, Andrea
The health issues of young adulthood have received relatively little attention compared with those of adolescence, although the critical issues in young adulthood parallel those of adolescence. Youngadults often fare worse than adolescents on health indicators, with many measures of negative outcomes—including rates of injury, homicide, and substance use—peaking during the youngadult years. The contextual factors shaping health
M. Jane Park; Tina Paul Mulye; Sally H. Adams; Claire D. Brindis; Charles E. Irwin
This study aimed at showing how the value preferences of youngadults could predict the narcissistic characteristics of youngadults according to structural equation modeling. 133 female (59.6%) and 90 male (40.4%), total 223 youngadults participated the study (average age: 25.66, ranging from 20 to 38). Ratio group sampling method was used while…
Gungor, Ibrahim Halil; Eksi, Halil; Aricak, Osman Tolga
|This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of youngadults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence youngadults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which youngadults' financial attitudes mediated financial…
|The YoungAdult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2009 annual lists of Fabulous Films for YoungAdults and Amazing Audiobooks for YoungAdults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the titles that were released in January 2009 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Denver,…
|The YoungAdult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2010 annual lists of Fabulous Films for YoungAdults and Amazing Audiobooks for YoungAdults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the list of titles that were released in January 2010 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in…
Little is known about the social cognitive development of youngadults. Furthermore, existing studies of youngadults tend to rely on college-age participants. A study of social cognition during interpersonal conflict was conducted with 100 youngadult women (mean age = 25 years). The relationship of contextual variables to conflict-resolution strategy was examined. Strategy coding was done according to Selman's
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to identify images used in advertising directed toward youngadults, investigate what youngadults thought of these images, and explore how youngadults used these images. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A content analysis of 674 apparel and cosmetic advertisements located in four fashion magazines (Elle Girl, Seventeen, YM, and TeenVogue) resulted in eight categories.
Background: Despite reported concern over the dental care of youngadults little research has been done on their use of dental services in Australia. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of dental utilization of young South Australian adults aged 20-24 years. Methods: A random sample of 2300 youngadults was selected from the electoral roll. Partial
|As high school enrollment continues to rise, the need for effective librarianship serving youngadults is greater than ever before. "YoungAdults Deserve the Best: Competencies for Librarians Serving Youth," developed by YoungAdult Library Services Association (YALSA), is a document outlining areas of focus for providing quality library service…
increased more than those of their non-college peers, but the less well- educated youngadults still have the highest rates in this age group. The Prevention Priorities Project has demonstrated that smoking-cessation assistance is one of the most important and cost-effective clinical preven- tive services.4 However, efforts to reduce smoking overall will be unsuc- cessful unless a way can be
Leif I. Solberg; Raymond G. Boyle; Maribet McCarty; Stephen E. Asche; Merry Jo Thoele
The current research analyzed the relationship between methamphetamine use and violence among youngadults eighteen to twenty-five years old. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 106 respondents. The research was based primarily on in-depth, life-history interviews with individuals who used methamphetamine for a minimum of three months and who resided in Los Angeles County.Of the 106 respondents, 37 (34.9
Generativity is conceived as a configuration of psychosocial features constellated around the goal of providing for the next generation. This study used a stratified random sampling of young (ages 22–27), midlife (ages 37–42), and older (ages 67–72) adults to examine age–cohort differences in 4 generativity features: generative concern, commitments, actions, and narration. Although prevailing views on generativity (e.g., Erikson, 1963)
Water homeostasis is essential for life and optimal function and considerable interest surrounds the issue of recommendations\\u000a for water consumption in healthy individuals. Objective data on water turnover in free-living individuals are limited, however.\\u000a The aim of the present work was to measure water turnover in children and youngadults using isotopically labeled water to\\u000a provide objective data on magnitude
Elaine C. Rush; Purvi Chhichhia; Andrew E. Kilding; Lindsay D. Plank
To learn about the lives of youngadults with ASD, families with children born 1974–1984, diagnosed as preschoolers and followed\\u000a into adolescence were contacted by mail. Of 76 eligible, 48 (63%) participated in a telephone interview. Global outcome scores\\u000a were assigned based on work, friendships and independence. At mean age 24, half had good to fair outcome and 46% poor.
This study explores the role of informal mentoring (i.e., developing an important relationship with a non-parental adult) in the transition to full time employment among youngadults (age 23-28). Multivariate analysis of the Add Health data reveals that mentoring is positively related to the likelihood of full time employment, and the relationship involves both selection and causation processes. Entrance into the world of work facilitates the development of mentoring relationships, especially among youth who identify work-related mentors after adolescence. These relationships have the potential for promoting attachment to the labor force. Mentoring relationships that develop outside of work settings and during adolescence have a positive impact on the odds of full time employment. The receipt of guidance and advice from mentors, as well as access to weak-tied mentoring relationships, teacher mentors, and friend mentors all contribute to the increased odds of employment in young adulthood. However, adolescent mentoring may be less effective among young women than it is among young men.
This study explores the role of informal mentoring (i.e., developing an important relationship with a non-parental adult) in the transition to full time employment among youngadults (age 23-28). Multivariate analysis of the Add Health data reveals that mentoring is positively related to the likelihood of full time employment, and the relationship involves both selection and causation processes. Entrance into the world of work facilitates the development of mentoring relationships, especially among youth who identify work-related mentors after adolescence. These relationships have the potential for promoting attachment to the labor force. Mentoring relationships that develop outside of work settings and during adolescence have a positive impact on the odds of full time employment. The receipt of guidance and advice from mentors, as well as access to weak-tied mentoring relationships, teacher mentors, and friend mentors all contribute to the increased odds of employment in young adulthood. However, adolescent mentoring may be less effective among young women than it is among young men. PMID:19050736
The study identified risk factors for youngadult intimate partner femicide. Secondary analysis of proxies of 23 youngadult (ages 18-20 years) femicide victims identified from police or medical examiner records in 11 U.S. cities were interviewed using the Danger Assessment Scale. The femicide cases were compared with 53 abused young women (ages 18-20). Risk factors for youngadult intimate
Nancy Glass; Kathryn Laughon; Cynthia Rutto; Jennifer Bevacqua; Jacquelyn C. Campbell
|Youngadult workers provide businesses with the dynamic labor force and fresh ideas they need to innovate and grow. With their contributions to cultural, intellectual and social life, youngadults also make New England a vibrant and interesting place to live. Young families support local schools and demand a strong educational system. Yet New…
This current study investigates adolescents' and youngadults' expectations of parenting by mothers following remarriage. Based on an earlier qualitative study of parent-child relationships, it was hypothesized that young people expect parents to maintain parenting responsibilities, including warmth\\/support and discipline behaviors, towards children following remarriage. It was also hypothesized that adolescents and youngadults expect parents to give them priority
Youngadult smokers (18–24 year olds) do not seek treatment for smoking cessation as often as older smokers. Two commonly hypothesized reasons for this are that younger smokers are not aware of treatments or cannot afford them. The State of Vermont provides free smoking cessation treatment, and most young smokers are aware of this; thus, we tested whether youngadult
|Objective: To determine the agreement between 2 measures (adult vs adolescent) of current cigarette smoking among youngadults. Methods: We examined data from 1007 youngadults from the New Jersey Adult Tobacco Survey. The adult measure incorporates lifetime and present use, whereas the adolescent measure assesses past 30-day use. The kappa…
Delnevo, Cristine D.; Lewis, M. Jane; Kaufman, Ira; Abatemarco, Diane J.
Objectives To determine whether healthy aging is associated with increased sleepiness, and whether healthy older adults experience more sleepiness when acutely sleep deprived. Design A 5-day inpatient circadian rhythm-sleep study consisting of 3 baseline nights, followed by an extended 26-hour wake episode in constant conditions. Setting Intensive Physiological Monitoring Unit, General Clinical Research Center, Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Participants 37 healthy participants without medical, psychological, and sleep disorders: 26 young (7 women, 19 men; mean age 21.9 ± 3.3 years, range 18–29) and 11 “young-old” adults (3 women, 8 men; mean age 68.1 ± 3.6 years, range 65–76). Intervention An extended 26-hour wake episode in constant conditions. Measurements Electro-encephalographic-verified wakefulness, slow eye movements, sustained attention, subjective sleepiness. Results Across the first 16 hours corresponding to the usual waking day, both groups rated themselves as alert, had similar levels of vigilance, and little evidence of sleepiness. As the wake episode continued, the older subjects were less impaired, showing faster reaction times, fewer performance lapses and attentional failures, and less frequent unintentional sleep episodes. Conclusion This small study suggests that excessive sleepiness is not normal in healthy “young-old” adults. Symptoms of excessive sleepiness in this population, including reliance on caffeine to maintain alertness, should be evaluated and treated. Further study is needed to determine whether increased daytime sleepiness in middle-old (75–84 years) and old-old (85+) adults is normal, or is instead associated with sleep restriction, undiagnosed sleep disorders, medication side effects, mood disorders, and/or other medical disorders that disrupt sleep.
Duffy, Jeanne F.; Willson, Hannah J.; Wang, Wei; Czeisler, Charles A.
Context Weight gain in youngadults is an important public health problem and few interventions have been successful. Background This pilot study evaluated the preliminary efficacy of two self-regulation approaches to weight-gain prevention: Small Changes (changes in energy balance of roughly 200 kcal/day) and Large Changes (initial weight loss of 5–10 lbs to buffer against future weight gains). Intervention Participants were enrolled in 8-week programs teaching Small or Large Changes (SC; LC). Both approaches were presented in a self-regulation framework, emphasizing daily self-weighing. Design Randomized controlled pilot study. Setting/participants Youngadults (N=52) aged 18–35 years (25.6±4.7 years, BMI of 26.7±2.4 kg/m2) were recruited in Providence RI and Chapel Hill NC. Main outcome measures Adherence to intervention, weight change, and satisfaction/confidence in approach assessed at 0, 8, and 16 weeks. Data were collected in 2008 and analyzed in 2008–2009. Results Participants attended 84% of sessions, and 86.5% and 84.5% of participants completed post-treatment and follow-up assessments, respectively. Participants adhered to their prescriptions. Daily weighing increased markedly in both groups, whereas the eating and exercise changes observed in the SC and LC reflected the specific approach taught. Weight changes were significantly different between groups at 8 weeks (SC= ?0.68±1.5 kg, LC= ?3.2±2.5 kg, p<0.001) and 16 weeks (SC = ?1.5±1.8 kg, LC= ?3.5±3.1 kg, p=0.006). Participants in both groups reported high levels of satisfaction and confidence in the efficacy of the approach they were taught. Conclusions Both Small and Large Change approaches hold promise for weight-gain prevention in youngadults; a fully powered trial comparing the long-term efficacy of these approaches is warranted.
In this article, the potential impact ofparental divorce on the lives of youngadult offspring is discussed. Parental divorce may upset both social and psychological aspects of the transition to adulthood process. The family roles youngadults are expected to assume could be altered by the break-up, as could opportunities for particularyoung adult pursuits, such as advanced education. Heightened adjustment
|This paper illuminates and details some of the traits, pressures and semi-autonomy of the youngadult between the ages of 18 and 24 who must confront the barriers and challenges upon returning to secondary school within the high school and the adult education centre context. Focusing on these youngadults is fundamentally important to begin to…
Context Approximately 22% of U.S. youngadults (aged 18–24 years) are smokers.1 Youngadults typically display an interest in quitting,1,2 but it is unknown whether the evidence-based cessation programs designed for adults will be equally effective for youngadults. Purpose This meta-analysis investigated the efficacy of smoking-cessation programs for this population. Evidence acquisition In 2009–2011, studies published between 2004 and 2008 that investigated smoking cessation were first found through the DHHS Clinical Practice Guidelines for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence3 as well as a PubMed search (2009–2010) and were then subjected to a rigorous inclusion process. Authors were contacted to glean youngadult raw data. Fourteen studies provided data that were coded for descriptive information and aggregated using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2.04. Evidence synthesis Among youngadults, any type of intervention was more effective in producing successful smoking cessation than the control. This was the case for intent-to-treat analyses as well as complete cases. When interventions were effective for the larger adult sample, they were also effective for the younger adult sample. Conclusions While youngadults tend to underutilize evidence-based cessation treatments, the current meta-analysis showed that these treatments should be as effective for youngadults as they are for the general adult population. Thus, it may be useful to focus on motivating youngadults to seek cessation treatment to increase utilization.
Suls, Jerry M.; Luger, Tana M.; Curry, Susan J.; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Sporer, Amy K.; An, Larry C.
Objective To examine risky driving behaviors and negative driving outcomes in a large sample of adolescents and adults diagnosed in childhood with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) compared with demographically similar controls without ADHD. Methods 355 adolescents and youngadults of the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) (n ¼203 probands; n ¼152 controls) were administered the YoungAdult Driving Questionnaire.
Amanda L. Thompson; Brooke S. G. Molina; William Pelham Jr; Elizabeth M. Gnagy
Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youngadults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195
Bauermeister, José A; Morales, Mercedes; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos
By addressing the concept of merchandising, this handbook shows librarians how to turn their youngadult collection into one that will attract teenagers. Delivering an introduction to marketing and merchandising concepts, the author shares years of experience as a teen services librarian, combined with the latest studies and research findings on…
|By addressing the concept of merchandising, this handbook shows librarians how to turn their youngadult collection into one that will attract teenagers. Delivering an introduction to marketing and merchandising concepts, the author shares years of experience as a teen services librarian, combined with the latest studies and research findings on…
The aim of this study was to measure the levels of general life satisfaction among Finnish youngadults, and to clarify the\\u000a way in which life satisfaction is constructed. In order to explore these aims, the following research questions were specified:\\u000a (1) What is the level of general life satisfaction among young Finnish adults?, (2) Which factors in youngadults’
The main purpose of this study was to explore the dimensionality of the borderline personality disorder in nonclinical youngadults by means of the Borderline Personality Questionnaire (BPQ; Poreh et al., 2006). We also studied the phenotypic expression of the borderline personality traits as a function of participants' gender and age, and the relationship between BPQ subscales and measures of depressive symptoms, anxiety, stress, hallucinatory predisposition, and paranoid ideation. The sample comprised 809 youngadults, 562 (69.5%) were women, with a mean age of 20.2 years (SD = 2.9). The results indicate that the BPQ self-report has adequate psychometric properties. The levels of internal consistency for the BPQ subscales ranged between .78 and .93. Analysis of the internal structure of the BPQ subscales yielded a one-dimensional solution. In contrast, second-order principal components analysis at the item level yielded a five-dimensional solution. Likewise, statistically significant differences in the mean scores of the borderline personality traits as a function of participants' gender and age were found. The BPQ subscales correlated significantly with measures of depression, anxiety, stress, paranoid ideation, and hallucinatory predisposition. These results help to improve our understanding of the dimensional structure of the borderline personality in the general population. Future research should continue to identify participants who are at risk for the development of borderline personality disorder and facilitating the development of early detection and prevention programs. PMID:21838568
Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Sierra-Baigrie, Susana; González, Maria Paz García-Portilla; Bobes, Julio; Mu?iz, José
We examined youngadult smoking cessation behaviors, coding cessation behavior as no attempt, quit attempt (< 30 days), or abstinence (? 30 days) during follow-up from July 2005 through December 2008, observed in 592 youngadult smokers from the Ontario Tobacco Survey. One in 4 youngadults made an attempt; 14% obtained 30-day abstinence. Cessation resources, prior attempts, and intention predicted quit attempts, whereas high self-efficacy, using resources, having support, and low addiction predicted abstinence, indicating that youngadult smokers require effective and appropriate cessation resources. PMID:23327264
Diemert, Lori M; Bondy, Susan J; Brown, K Stephen; Manske, Steve
|Examined data on 165 adolescents, 65 youngadults, and 175 adults who called 2 suicide help lines. Adults and youngadults reported depression as primary reason for contemplating suicide; adolescents reported interpersonal problems. Although callers reported suicide ideation, very small percentage fell into high-risk categories with regard to…
Although overall stroke incidence has been declining in developed countries, there is evidence that stroke in the young is increasing. Increasing incidence may be particularly pronounced among minorities in whom historically a higher burden of stroke has been reported. Compared with older adults, time spent with disability is longer for those affected at younger ages, and new data suggests that among 30-day youngadult stroke survivors, increased mortality persists for as long as 20 years. Stroke in youngadults is often missed by less experienced clinicians due to its unexpectedness, leading to lost opportunities for intervention. The causes and risk factors for stroke in the young are often rare or undetermined, but youngadults with stroke also have a high burden of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and substance abuse. Disseminating awareness and promoting research on youngadult stroke are steps towards reducing the burden of stroke. PMID:24105640
Research on the prevalence of health indicators by employment status among young US adults is limited. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of youngadults aged 18 to 24 years to document the prevalence of five health behaviors (cigarette smoking, risky drinking, leisure-time physical activity, and fruit and French fries consumption) by employment status. Unemployed youngadults reported higher levels of risky drinking and nonengagement in leisure-time physical activity, while employed youngadults had higher levels of smoking, French fries consumption, and low fruit/vegetable consumption. Transportation/material-moving youngadult workers reported the highest level of risky drinking (13.5%), and precision production/craft/repair workers reported the highest smoking rates (39.7%). We found an elevated prevalence of risk factors, which places young workers at increased risk for the development of chronic conditions later in life.
Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Lee, David J.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Davila, Evelyn P.; Fleming, Lora E.; LeBlanc, William G.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.; Christ, Sharon L.; Zimmerman, Frederick J.; Muntaner, Carles; Hollenbeck, Julie A
BackgroundAdults play an important role in regulating the social behaviour of young individuals. However, a few pioneer studies suggest that, more than the mere presence of adults, their proportions in social groups affect the social development of young. Here, we hypothesized that aggression rates and social cohesion were correlated to adult-young ratios. Our biological model was naturally-formed groups of Przewalski
Marie Bourjade; Alice de Boyer Des Roches; Martine Hausberger; Martin Giurfa
Individuals who misperceive their body size are at risk for eating disorders, unhealthy weight control practices, and obesity-related diseases. This study assessed the prevalence and demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial correlates of agreement between perceived (self-reported) and actual (measured) body mass index categories in a sample of Mexican college applicants aged 18-20 years (N=3622; 52% female). Under two thirds (63.1%) accurately reported their weight status categories. Reporting accuracy was lower among overweight and obese participants. In multivariate analyses, overestimating was associated with female gender, younger age, lower level of parent education, and more hours of daily TV viewing; underestimating was associated with male gender and older age. In within-gender analyses, overestimating was associated with hours of TV among men and underestimating was positively associated with depressive symptoms among women. This study adds to a growing international literature on body weight status misperception among adolescents and youngadults. PMID:22104126
|Discusses (1) a rationale for using youngadult literature with adolescent English-as-a-Second-Language learners; (2) an approach to teaching the novel "Make Lemonade" by Virginia Euwer Wolff; (3) activities in which students engaged and samples of their work; and (4) implications for teachers who explore youngadult literature with adolescent…
This study examines whether both parents' relationships with their offspring, parents, and parents-in-law matter for youngadults' perceptions of closeness to grandparents. This study focuses on two groups of grandchildren (ages 18-23) in Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households: youngadults with married biological parents (N =…
This study was conducted to evaluate the biting function during the entire day in youngadults by measuring the masseter muscle activity with a 24-hour electromyography (EMG) system. With this system, the masseter muscle activity for 24 hours was recorded in 20 male and 10 female youngadult subjects with acceptable occlusion. For the male subjects, means of the number
When former Heinemann-Boynton\\/Cook editor Peter Stillman first conceived the YoungAdult Literature (YAL) series in 1990 and asked me to be the series editor, I was excited to be part of such an innovative endeavor. At that time there were few professional books available for teachers who wanted to bring youngadult literature into their classrooms, and Heinemann was the
Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among youngadults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 youngadults. Results: The…
Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.
|Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among youngadults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 youngadults. Results: The…
Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.
|We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of youngadults by parents using data from European youngadults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…
|Dental care among youngadults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among youngadults with and without ID. Significantly fewer…
Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn
|This study examines whether both parents' relationships with their offspring, parents, and parents-in-law matter for youngadults' perceptions of closeness to grandparents. This study focuses on two groups of grandchildren (ages 18-23) in Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households: youngadults with married biological parents (N =…
Background: Determining optimal methods for preventing suicide continues to be an elusive goal. Aims: The study examines benefits and possible untoward effects of public service announcements (PSAs) for youngadults. Methods: Youngadult participants (N = 279) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (a) a billboard simulation, (b) a 30-s TV ad simulation, and (c) a no-information condition.
Like other western countries, Germany too reports record numbers of overweight and obese individuals with young German adults in a particularly high-risk position. As such, this study sought to investigate if food choice varied by the place of residence (dependent or independent) of these youngadults. Using a self-administered questionnaire, analyses of quantitative data from 305 German students between the
Debra Harker; Bishnu Sharma; Michael Harker; Karin Reinhard
Purpose – Understanding the drivers of youngadults' healthy food choices is vital to addressing the public health issue of obesity. The healthy eating motives that underlay such consumer choice behavior are particularly important to the well-being of society. This research is novel in that it aims to investigate the food motives of young Australian adults in relation to five
Tegan Piggford; Maria Raciti; Debra Harker; Michael Harker
|The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in youngadults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of youngadults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…
The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in youngadults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of youngadults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…
Aim. To evaluate the relationship between cannabis dependence and respiratory symptoms and lung function in youngadults, while controlling for the effects of tobacco smoking. Setting and participants. Nine hundred and forty-three youngadults from a birth cohort of 1037 subjects born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972\\/1973 were studied at age 21. Measurements. Standardized respiratory symptom questionnaires were administered.
D. Robin Taylor; Richie Poulton; Terrie E. Moffitt; Padmaja Ramankutty; Malcolm R. Sears
Multivariable regression in 1,858 youngadults 18-25 years of age was carried out to identify correlates of household smoking bans. Knowledge of tobacco health effects, higher educational attainment, and no reported cigarette smoking were independently associated with smoking bans. Educational interventions to increase household smoking bans in youngadults are needed.
Noella A. Dietz; David J. Lee; Kristopher L. Arheart; James D. Wilkinson; John D. Clark; Alberto J. Caban-Martinez
The aim of this study was to look at the current lifestyle of youngadult survivors of childhood cancer between the ages of 16 and 30 years to document their achievements and expose any psychosocial problems. Sixty six youngadult survivors were contacted and asked if they and their siblings (16-30 years) would take part in a lifestyle study; 48
This study is an evaluation of a cross-section of literature for youngadults published in the United States. The books were selected from "Best Books for YoungAdults" for the years 1970 to 1990 inclusive. This study shows that when compared to United States census data, there is a disproportionate number of nontraditional family settings in…
The present study compared a group of 25 youngadults with ADHD to 23 youngadults drawn from the community equated for age (Mean = 25 yrs.) and educational level (Mean 13 yrs.) using a structured psychiatric interview (non-blinded), self-report ratings of psychological distress, and psychological tests of inattention, impulsive responding, working memory, verbal fluency, sense of time, and creativity.
Objective: There is a widespread assumption that smoking behaviour is largely established by the age of 18 years. As a result, smoking prevention has focused almost exclusively upon youth. However, recent trends suggest that young adulthood may be an important—and largely overlooked—period in the development of regular smoking behaviour. The current study sought to examine patterns of tobacco use among youngadults (aged 18–29 years) and to address the implications for tobacco control policy. Design: Data are presented from the 2003 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey, a national survey of smoking behaviour (n = 10 559, response rate 89%). Main outcome measures: Measures of smoking behaviour, smoking initiation, susceptibility to smoking, and occupational status. Results: A total of 1.4 million or 28% of youngadults in Canada currently smoke, the highest proportion among all age groups. The prevalence of daily smoking rose from 8% among youth to 22% among youngadults, and approximately one fifth of smokers tried their first cigarette after the age of 18 years. Smoking behaviour among youngadults was also distinct from older smokers: youngadults were more likely to be occasional smokers and reported lower daily consumption. Finally, smoking prevalence and cessation rates varied substantially within subgroups of youngadults, as characterised by occupational setting. Conclusions: Dramatic increases in the proportion and intensity of smoking occurs after the age of 18 years. Smoking behaviour among youngadults is distinct from both youth and older adults, and warrants immediate attention from the public health community.
Work delay as a dimension of work restoration in youngadults with schizophrenia has not been explored with much frequency in the vocational rehabilitation literature; and it has never been explored and analyzed from the subjective experience of the person with the disorder. In this exploratory, mixed-method study of 20 first-episode youngadults diagnosed with schizophrenia who returned to work,
|Youngadults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among youngadult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and…
The purpose of this study was to examine the online behavior of youngadults of India. A total of 115 Internet users from 18 to 25 years of age were surveyed from the National Capital Region of Delhi, India. Results showed that youngadults of India are mainly online surfers and not online shoppers. These people have a lack of
Nonmedical prescription (Rx) drug use has recently increased, particularly among youngadults. Using time-space sampling to generate a probability-based sample of club-going youngadults (18-29), 400 subjects provided data on Rx drug misuse. Club-going youngadults misuse Rx drugs at high rates. An overwhelming majority of the sample indicated lifetime use of pain killers, sedatives, and stimulants. A majority indicated recent pain killer use. Variations by gender and sexuality exist in this population. Young lesbian/bisexual women emerged as the group most likely to abuse Rx drugs. Research into the contexts influencing these patterns is imperative. PMID:17994483
Nonmedical prescription (Rx) drug use has recently increased, particularly among youngadults. Using time-space sampling to generate a probability-based sample of club-going youngadults (18–29), 400 subjects provided data on Rx drug misuse. Club-going youngadults misuse Rx drugs at high rates. An overwhelming majority of the sample indicated lifetime use of pain killers, sedatives, and stimulants. A majority indicated recent pain killer use. Variations by gender and sexuality exist in this population. Young lesbian/bisexual women emerged as the group most likely to abuse Rx drugs. Research into the contexts influencing these patterns is imperative.
|Anti-bullying experts employ trade books in dealing with contemporary issues facing young people, including bullying. At least three conceptual strands underpin the application of youngadult literature (YAL) in such enterprises: (1) reliance on tested voices appealing to young readers; (2) the potential effect of quality YAL on literacy…
This paper considers how parents are affected by and play a role in the lives of their youngadult children. The years during which young people make the transition to adulthood has changed significantly in recent years--this transition now takes place over a longer period of time. We describe how young people experience these years; how they…
Anti-bullying experts employ trade books in dealing with contemporary issues facing young people, including bullying. At least three conceptual strands underpin the application of youngadult literature (YAL) in such enterprises: (1) reliance on tested voices appealing to young readers; (2) the potential effect of quality YAL on literacy…
|This paper considers how parents are affected by and play a role in the lives of their youngadult children. The years during which young people make the transition to adulthood has changed significantly in recent years--this transition now takes place over a longer period of time. We describe how young people experience these years; how they…
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with substance use among homeless youngadults. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined the influence of social networks and economic factors among a group of homeless youngadults with differing levels of alcohol and drug use. In addition, for those with an alcohol use disorder the role of future time expectancies was examined. A sample (n=185) of homeless youngadults aged 18-23 were recruited from a community drop-in center and interviewed utilizing self-report instruments. Findings suggest that social networks, economic factors, and future expectancies are significant predictors of the level of substance use among homeless youngadults. Being able to identify those areas that place homeless youngadults at risk for substance abuse and dependence has implications for effective intervention.
Gomez, Rebecca; Thompson, Sanna J.; Barczyk, Amanda N.
...DEFENSE Office of the Secretary TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE YoungAdult Program...Updated TRICARE YoungAdult Premiums for Calendar Year 2014...TRICARE YoungAdult program premiums for Calendar Year (CY) 2014. DATES: The CY...
Background. There is a paucity of research on bidi use in the US and the few studies conducted have focused solely on adolescents. This article describes patterns and explores factors associated with bidi use among youngadults, aged 18–24.Methods. Data from 63,728 adults, including 5,324 youngadults, aged 18–24, were derived from an optional tobacco module on the 2001 Behavioral
Cristine D Delnevo; Eric S Pevzner; Mary Hrywna; M. Jane Lewis
While much has been written on national identity in Northern Ireland, the identity preferences of adults and the young have rarely been compared directly. This paper addresses this omission by examining the relationship between national identity and community relations within both the adult (aged 18 years and above) and the youngadult (aged 16 years) population. This study used the
While the justice system assumes adulthood is reached by the age of 18 and given the increase in the number of juveniles being tried within adult court, it is imperative to understand whether young people are as criminally culpable for their actions as adults and where differences may lie in the maturity of young people and their adult counterparts. Psychological
Investigating social participation of youngadults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in social activities among youngadults who received special education services for autism (ASD group), compared to youngadults who received special education for intellectual disability, emotional/behavioral disability, or a learning disability. Youngadults with an ASD were significantly more likely to never see friends, never get called by friends, never be invited to activities, and be socially isolated. Among those with an ASD, lower conversation ability, lower functional skills, and living with a parent were predictors of less social participation. PMID:23615687
Orsmond, Gael I; Shattuck, Paul T; Cooper, Benjamin P; Sterzing, Paul R; Anderson, Kristy A
The health issues of young adulthood have received relatively little attention compared with those of adolescence, although the critical issues in young adulthood parallel those of adolescence. Youngadults often fare worse than adolescents on health indicators, with many measures of negative outcomes--including rates of injury, homicide, and substance use--peaking during the youngadult years. The contextual factors shaping health status and access to care in young adulthood differ significantly from the context of adolescence. This article synthesizes national data to present a health profile of youngadults, reviewing social indicators that describe the context of young adulthood and presenting measures of health status. We examine mortality, morbidity, risky behaviors, and health care access and utilization, identifying the most significant gender and racial/ethnic disparities. The article also identifies limitations of existing data and offers suggestions for future research and health monitoring in this area. We conclude with a discussion of current efforts to address the health and well-being of youngadults and argue for creating a national health agenda for youngadults that includes research, programs and policies to address health issues during this period of the lifespan. PMID:16919791
Park, M Jane; Paul Mulye, Tina; Adams, Sally H; Brindis, Claire D; Irwin, Charles E
The Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey was conducted between November 2002 and June 2003. Findings are based on interviews with 8,821 adults, including 1,205 youngadults between 18 and 24 years of age. The purpose of this report is to draw the attention of policy makers, the medical and public health communities, and the general public to the high smoking rates
...Establishment. The TRICARE YoungAdult (TYA) program offers the...Program to qualified unmarried adult children of TRICARE-eligible...provides over 50 percent of the student's financial support), and...for purchase by any qualified adult child as that term is...
There is a wealth of evidence that learning ability declines with age. In almost all of the studies however, the performance measures employed are explicit, even though research has consistently indicated that aged adults have well preserved implicit learning ability. This suggests that under certain circumstances aged adults should be at no great learning disadvantage in comparison to youngadults.
Presents 69 brief annotated bibliographies of books (published between 1978 and 1996) on the subject of basketball, available for youngadults. Includes autobiography and biography, fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and reference. (SR)
Adolescent homelessness has received increasing attention due to its fast growth throughout the United States and the poor mental outcomes experienced by homeless young people. This cross-sectional study (N = 156) identified correlates of depressive symptomatology among homeless youngadults and investigated how depressive symptoms are influenced by the coping strategies these youngadults employ. The findings are based on analysis of baseline data collected for a hepatitis vaccination intervention pilot study conducted in partnership with a youngadult’s drop-in center in Santa Monica, California. Standardized tools assessed drug use history, coping ability, and psychiatric symptomatology. Linear regression modeling was used to identify correlates of depressive symptom severity. Poor perceived physical health, recent crack cocaine use and recent use of tranquilizers were significantly associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. Self-destructive escape, non-disclosure/avoidance, passive problem-solving and thoughts of harming self were also associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms.
Background: Trends in lung cancer mortality among youngadults, which are important for projecting future trends, have not been explored previously in Japan. Methods: Using data from the National Vital Statistics between 1958 and 2003, we compiled lung cancer mortality by sex and 5-year birth cohort among youngadults aged 20-49. Results: Mortality among those aged 20-29 has consistently decreased
The disabled youngadult strives to be independent when preparing to leave home and family. This article provides a checklist that can help the disabled youngadult and his/her family to make this transition. In some cases, a transitional rehabilitation program may also be of help. The family physician who is familiar with the issues that pertain to adolescent development can play a central part in addressing patient and family problems that present at this time.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether current smoking and lifetime snuff use are associated with a lifetime history of major (?5 kg) intentional weight loss in youngadults, and to examine the dependence of this association on familial factors.DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based questionnaire survey of youngadult Finnish twins participating in the fourth wave of the longitudinal FinnTwin-16-study in 2000–2002.SUBJECTS: A total of
S E Saarni; K Silventoinen; A Rissanen; S Sarlio-Lähteenkorva; J Kaprio
|The purpose of this study was to examine whether youngadults changed their physical activity (PA) behavior when wearing motion sensors. PA patterns of 119 youngadults (M age = 20.82 years, SD = 1.50, M body mass index = 23.93 kg/m[superscript 2] , SD = 4.05) were assessed during 2 consecutive weeks. In Week 1, participants wore an…
This paper considers how parents are affected by and play a role in the lives of their youngadult children. The years during which young people make the transition to adulthood has changed significantly in recent years--this transition now takes place over a longer period of time. We describe how young people experience these years; how they affect their parents and parent-child relationships; and how this time period is experienced by vulnerable youth. PMID:17168458
Background: Despite the anticipated high impact of HIV and AIDS among young people, AIDS related mortality is not well documented because of the lack of death registration systems in Ethiopia. The objective of this analysis was to investigate the trends in mortality among youngadults (aged 10-24 years) in the era of the AIDS epidemic. Methods: We analyzed data for
Mitike Molla; Peter Byass; Yemane Berhane; Bernt Lindtjorn
|This article reports the findings of a study investigating rates and types of comorbid mental disorder evident in adolescents and youngadults with autism. A sample of 84 young people (M = 19.5 years, SD = 4.6) with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association,…
Moseley, David S.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Brereton, Avril V.; Einfeld, Stewart L.
Although much is known about aging adults in nursing homes, little is known about the attitudes and cognitive skills of those who are psychologically, physically, and financially independent. This study compared 57 aging and 51 young men and women. The young groups attended colleges or participated in college audiences. The seniors, ages 64 to 95, lived independently in separate households
Background. Some degree of cardiovascular disease should be suspected in youngadults who have been paediatric renal transplant recipients also if no systematic data collection is routinely performed in clinical setting. The aim of our work was to evaluate the degree of cardiovascular damage in these young patients, using a minimally invasive technique. We then evaluated coronary flow reserve (CFR)
Maurizio Turiel; Valentina Martina; Elisa Meregalli; Livio Tomasoni; Giuseppe De Blasio; Luigi Delfino; Alberto Edefonti; Paolo Grillo; Mirella Procaccio; Daniele Cusi; Luciana Ghio
Seat-belt use among youngadults was examined to identify factors associated with nonuse. This research was part of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, which is a study of the health, development, and behavior of a birth cohort of young New Zealanders (n = 1037). At age 21 years, 948 (93%) members of this cohort were administered a face-to-face
|Interviews with 75 teenagers and youngadults were performed to investigate how young people with dyslexia experienced school in terms of well-being, educational achievement, self-esteem, peer relations and belief in their future. Results from earlier studies suggest that secondary emotional problems are common. The first six grades in school…
This thesis explores the ways in which young-adults' environmental learning and experiences influence their decision to live sustainably. In particular, this thesis focuses on youngadults' environmental and sustainability learning. It elaborates on young peoples' views about environmental and sustainability issues, such as climate change, the sources for their learning about these issues, and how youngadults' learning encounters, in turn, affect their actions toward environmental protection and decision-making. Through a series of in-depth individual interviews with 18 youngadults from three universities in southeastern Ontario, this qualitative study provides in-depth insight into youngadults' understanding, learning experiences, and actions in relation to environmental and sustainability issues. Employing a Contextual Model of Learning framework the narratives of the youngadults in this study are analyzed and discussed within three overlapping environmental learning contexts: personal, sociocultural, and physical settings. This framework allows for an examination of the complex interactions and relationships that shape how and where environmental learning occurs. The findings in this study suggest that the three overlapping learning contexts, that is the personal, sociocultural, and physical play an important role in shaping youngadults' learning about environmental and sustainability issues. The data reveal that despite the unavailability or near-absence of environmental studies and education within the formal school curriculum (particularly at the elementary and high school levels), the youngadults rely on other locations for learning, such as the internet, environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs), television, and family. In light of this, the research participants suggest the re-introduction of environmental programs and content in the school curriculum. Finally, the results of this study demonstrate the centrality of knowledge and experience in relation to environmental and sustainability issues in the actions and thoughts of the youngadult research participants. This study makes an important contribution to the field of environmental and sustainability education by demonstrating the critical role of learning in a knowledge society. It illuminates the implications of various learning contexts for a sustainable global environment and future. Furthermore, it provides insight into the views of youngadults regarding the future of the global environment and current sustainability initiatives in a world that faces ever-greater challenges.
The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to youngadults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 youngadults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single youngadults reported receiving more advice from parents than married youngadults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…
|Discussion of youngadult library services focuses on the results of a survey of New Jersey public libraries. Highlights include job titles; population served; job responsibilities; youngadult services; youngadult staff; policy of information provision; youngadult research preferences; and recommendations for future research. (LRW)|
|The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to youngadults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 youngadults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single youngadults reported receiving more advice from parents than married youngadults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…
This study tested parental loneliness, family of origin environment, and a history of being bullied as predictors of loneliness in youngadults. The role of social skills in youngadults’ loneliness was also examined. Participants were 111 young-adult–parent dyads who completed measures of loneliness and the family communication environment. In addition, youngadults completed measures of social skills and history
Chris Segrin; Natalie Nevarez; Analisa Arroyo; Jake Harwood
Goals of the work This manuscript reports on the design, implementation, and evaluation of the YoungAdult Survivor Conference (YASC)—a 4-day retreat designed to provide an educational and support experience for cancer survivors diagnosed as children, adolescents, and youngadults. The goals of the program were to address issues of survivorship, provide cancer education and tools for self-advocacy, and build bridges
SUMMARY Hypertension occurring in teenagers and youngadults is uncommon. Though the most common form is still essential hypertension, secondary causes are more commonly found here than in older adults. Renal, cardiovascular and endocrine diseases constitute most of these causes. Coarctation of the aorta is the most common cardiovascular cause of hypertension, and its importance lies in the fact that
Presents the viewpoints of a tenth grader on novels for youngadults that portray troubled teens dealing with alcoholism, drugs, depression, suicide, sexual abuse, and violence. Suggests that contrary to adult opinions that these novels are not always age-appropriate, they in fact broaden teens' outlooks and prepare them for the real world. (LRW)
|Forty youngadults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required…
Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois
|Presents the viewpoints of a tenth grader on novels for youngadults that portray troubled teens dealing with alcoholism, drugs, depression, suicide, sexual abuse, and violence. Suggests that contrary to adult opinions that these novels are not always age-appropriate, they in fact broaden teens' outlooks and prepare them for the real world. (LRW)|
This study examined adult age differences in reflexive orienting to two types of uninformative spatial cues: central arrows and peripheral onsets. In two experiments using a Posner cuing task, youngadults (ages 18-28 years), young-old adults (60-74 years), and old-old adults (75-92 years) responded to targets that were preceded 100-1,000 ms earlier by a central arrow or a peripheral abrupt onset. In Experiment 1, the cue remained present upon target onset. Facilitation effects at short cue-target stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) were prolonged in duration for the two older groups relative to the youngadults. At longer cue-target SOAs, inhibition of return (IOR) that was initiated by peripheral onset cues was observed in the performance of youngadults but not in that of the two older groups. In Experiment 2, the cue was presented briefly and removed prior to target onset. The change in cue duration minimized age differences (particularly for young-old adults) in facilitation effects and led to IOR for all three age groups. The findings are consistent with the idea that attentional control settings change with age, with higher settings for older adults leading to delayed disengagement from spatial cues. PMID:21394555
Langley, Linda K; Friesen, Chris Kelland; Saville, Alyson L; Ciernia, Annie T
This study examined adult age differences in reflexive orienting to two types of uninformative spatial cues: central arrows and peripheral onsets. In two experiments using a Posner cuing task, youngadults (ages 18 – 28 yrs), young-old adults (ages 60 – 74 yrs), and old-old adults (ages 75 – 92 yrs) responded to targets that were preceded 100–1,000 ms earlier by a central arrow or a peripheral abrupt onset. In Experiment 1, the cue remained present upon target onset. Facilitation effects at early cue-target stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) were prolonged in duration for the two older groups relative to the youngadults. At later cue-target SOAs, inhibition of return (IOR) that was initiated by peripheral onset cues was observed in the performance of youngadults but not in that of the two older groups. In Experiment 2, the cue was presented briefly and removed prior to target onset. The change in cue duration minimized age differences (particularly for young-old adults) in facilitation effects and led to IOR for all three age groups. The findings are consistent with the idea that attentional control settings change with age, with higher settings for older adults leading to delayed disengagement from spatial cues.
Langley, Linda K.; Friesen, Chris Kelland; Saville, Alyson L.; Ciernia, Annie T.
|A study examined the masculinity/femininity attitude of students toward reading and writing. Subjects, 91 youngadults and adults in high school, adult high school, and community college remedial classes in the fall and spring of the 1994-1995 school year, completed the Mazurkiewicz Masculine Feminine Attitude Survey. Results indicated no…
Many authors have tested puppies' behavior early to detect adult behavioral disorders. Our pilot study aims to investigate puppies' reactivity toward tolerance of new situations and the consistency of behavior between puppy and adult dog. Seven tests (tunnel, direct looking, sudden noise, retrieving buster-ball, problem solving, bowl removal, and approaching) were used to evaluate the reactivity of 32 German shepherd
E. Sforzini; M. Michelazzi; E. Spada; C. Ricci; C. Carenzi; S. Milani; F. Luzi; M. Verga
Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as “facial trustworthiness.”In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in youngadults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Todorov, 2008; Engell et al., 2010). Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Calder et al., 2003; Firestone et al., 2007; Ruffman et al., 2008; Chaby and Narme, 2009). Based on Todorov';s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004) reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment), from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: youngadults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in youngadults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness.
Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as "facial trustworthiness."In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in youngadults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Todorov, 2008; Engell et al., 2010). Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Calder et al., 2003; Firestone et al., 2007; Ruffman et al., 2008; Chaby and Narme, 2009). Based on Todorov';s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004) reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment), from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: youngadults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in youngadults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness. PMID:24046755
Aging is associated with loss of muscle volume (MV) and force leading to difficulties with activities of daily living. However, the relationship between upper limb MV and joint strength has not been characterized for older adults. Quantifying this relationship may help our understanding of the functional upper limb declines older adults experience. Our objective was to assess the relationship between upper limb MV and maximal isometric joint moment-generating capacity (IJM) in a single cohort of healthy older adults (age?65 years) for 6 major functional groups (32 muscles). MV was determined from MRI for 18 participants (75.1±4.3 years). IJM at the shoulder (abduction/adduction), elbow (flexion/extension), and wrist (flexion/extension) was measured. MV and IJM measurements were compared to previous reports for youngadults (28.6±4.5 years). On average older adults had 16.5% less total upper limb MV compared to youngadults. Additionally, older adult wrist extensors composed a significantly increased percentage of upper limb MV. Older adult IJM was reduced across all joints, with significant differences for shoulder abductors (p<0.0001), adductors (p=0.01), and wrist flexors (p<0.0001). Youngadults were strongest at the shoulder, which was not the case for older adults. In older adults, 40.6% of the variation in IJM was accounted for by MV changes (p?0.027), compared to 81.0% in youngadults. We conclude that for older adults, MV and IJM are, on average, reduced but the significant linear relationship between MV and IJM is maintained. These results suggest that older adult MV and IJM cannot be simply scaled from youngadults.
Vidt, Meghan E.; Daly, Melissa; Miller, Michael E.; Davis, Cralen C.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Saul, Katherine R.
Aging is associated with the loss of muscle volume (MV) and force leading to difficulties with activities of daily living. However, the relationship between upper limb MV and joint strength has not been characterized for older adults. Quantifying this relationship may help our understanding of the functional declines of the upper limb that older adults experience. Our objective was to assess the relationship between upper limb MV and maximal isometric joint moment-generating capacity (IJM) in a single cohort of healthy older adults (age ? 65 years) for 6 major functional groups (32 muscles). MV was determined from MRI for 18 participants (75.1±4.3 years). IJM at the shoulder (abduction/adduction), elbow (flexion/extension), and wrist (flexion/extension) was measured. MV and IJM measurements were compared to previous reports for youngadults (28.6±4.5 years). On average older adults had 16.5% less total upper limb MV compared to youngadults. Additionally, older adult wrist extensors composed a significantly increased percentage of upper limb MV. Older adult IJM was reduced across all joints, with significant differences for shoulder abductors (p<0.0001), adductors (p=0.01), and wrist flexors (p<0.0001). Youngadults were strongest at the shoulder, which was not the case for older adults. In older adults, 40.6% of the variation in IJM was accounted for by MV changes (p?0.027), compared to 81.0% in youngadults. We conclude that for older adults, MV and IJM are, on average, reduced but the significant linear relationship between MV and IJM is maintained. These results suggest that older adult MV and IJM cannot be simply scaled from youngadults. PMID:22047782
Vidt, Meghan E; Daly, Melissa; Miller, Michael E; Davis, Cralen C; Marsh, Anthony P; Saul, Katherine R
Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an important early childhood marker of risk for later psychiatric problems. The current 20-year prospective, longitudinal study focused on individual differences in this early temperament and adolescent brain function. As adolescents, 83 participants initially identified in infancy with the temperament of BI were assessed using functional imaging to examine striatal responses to incentives. Five years later, as youngadults, these participants provided self-report of their substance use. Our findings show that children's early temperament interacts with their striatal sensitivity to incentives in adolescence to predict their level of substance use in young adulthood. Those youngadults who, as children, showed the highest levels of BI reported the greatest substance use if, as adolescents, they also exhibited striatal hypersensitivity to incentives. These longitudinal data delineate one developmental pathway involving early biology and brain mechanisms for substance use in young adulthood.
Lahat, A; Perez-Edgar, K; Degnan, K A; Guyer, A E; Lejuez, C W; Ernst, M; Pine, D S; Fox, N A
Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an important early childhood marker of risk for later psychiatric problems. The current 20-year prospective, longitudinal study focused on individual differences in this early temperament and adolescent brain function. As adolescents, 83 participants initially identified in infancy with the temperament of BI were assessed using functional imaging to examine striatal responses to incentives. Five years later, as youngadults, these participants provided self-report of their substance use. Our findings show that children's early temperament interacts with their striatal sensitivity to incentives in adolescence to predict their level of substance use in young adulthood. Those youngadults who, as children, showed the highest levels of BI reported the greatest substance use if, as adolescents, they also exhibited striatal hypersensitivity to incentives. These longitudinal data delineate one developmental pathway involving early biology and brain mechanisms for substance use in young adulthood. PMID:22948382
Lahat, A; Pérez-Edgar, K; Degnan, K A; Guyer, A E; Lejuez, C W; Ernst, M; Pine, D S; Fox, N A
The population of children and youngadults requiring a cardiac pacing device has been consistently increasing. The current generation of devices are small with a longer battery life, programming capabilities that can cater to the demands of the young patients and ability to treat brady and tachyarrhythmias as well as heart failure. This has increased the scope and clinical indications of using these devices. As patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) comprise majority of these patients requiring devices, the knowledge of indications, pacing leads and devices, anatomical variations and the technical skills required are different than that required in the adult population. In this review we attempt to discuss these specific points in detail to improve the understanding of cardiac pacing in children and youngadults. PMID:23329870
Bipolar disorder is a mental illness with a significant negative impact on quality of life. People with bipolar disorder benefit when family and friends provide social support, but quantity and quality of support are often lacking. We present an exploration of the types of behaviors from support network members that youngadults (ages 18 to 30) with bipolar disorder perceived as helpful in coping with the illness. We conducted semistructured ethnographic interviews with youngadults (N = 30) with bipolar disorder and analyzed them using qualitative coding methods. We found that youngadults with bipolar disorder considered a wide variety of emotion-focused and instrumental behaviors helpful, with some behaviors tailored to the unique characteristics of the illness. These findings also indicate the types of behavior support providers might use to help network members cope with bipolar disorder, and the research needed to better understand social support in the context of chronic mental illness. PMID:23202479
This study used latent growth modeling to examine the effects of level of alcohol use and development of alcohol use during adolescence, on youngadult outcomes for males and females. Adolescents (N=480; mean=13.03 years, S.D.=1.44; 264 female) were assessed annually over a 4-year period and then 5–6 years later in young adulthood (mean=22.49 years, S.D.=1.50). Chronicity of alcohol use in
Susan C Duncan; Anthony Alpert; Terry E Duncan; Hyman Hops
This article reports the findings of a study investigating rates and types of comorbid mental disorder evident in adolescents and youngadults with autism. A sample of 84 young people (M?=?19.5 years, SD?=?4.6) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) autistic disorder participated in the study. Comorbid mental disorder was
David S. Moseley; Bruce J. Tonge; Avril V. Brereton; Stewart L. Einfeld
Neurodegenerative diseases are relatively common and usually occur in older patients. In young adulthood, neurodegeneration is less common and more frequent due to underlying inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) that typically have a wide range of clinical presentations. In the following overview, we present a case of SSPE and NBIA. The main differential diagnoses, cardinal symptoms, diagnosis and treatment options of neurodegenerative-like disesase in youngadults are presented. PMID:19890775
Weih, M; Schaller, G; Degirmenci, U; Hufnagel, M; Kornhuber, J
|Discusses publishing on the Internet by young authors. Describes "fan-fiction" Web sites where fans write passages that link to characters in popular books, television shows, or movies; fan-fiction inspired by the Disney film "Newsies"; posting short stories on Web pages; poetry, book reviews, and other publications; the attraction of the…
Civic engagement was studied in relation to overall development in adolescence, emerging adulthood, and young adulthood to examine how earlier activity involvement and success in prior and concurrent age-salient domains of competence may contribute to 2 forms of civic engagement in adulthood (citizenship and volunteering). Data on 163 youth were drawn from a longitudinal study of competence in a normative,
... adults should do four types of activities regularly: aerobic (or endurance) exercise and activities to strengthen muscles, ... give you more than just one benefit! Water aerobics with weights gives you strengthening and aerobic benefits. ...
This study examined the ability of cognitively normal youngadults (n = 30) and older adults (n = 30) to perform a delayed match-to-sample task involving varying degrees of spatial interference to assess spatial pattern separation. Each trial consisted of a sample phase followed by a choice phase. During the sample phase, a circle appeared briefly on a computer screen. The participant was instructed to remember the location of the circle on the screen. During the choice phase, two circles were displayed simultaneously, and the participant was asked to indicate which circle was in the same location as the sample phase circle. The two circles on choice phase trials were separated by one of four possible spatial separations: 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 cm. Smaller separations are likely to create increased overlap among memory representations, which may result in heightened interference and a greater need for pattern separation. Consistent with this hypothesis, performance increased as a function of increased spatial separation in both young and older adults. However, youngadults outperformed older adults, suggesting that spatial pattern separation may be less efficient in older adults due to potential age-related changes in the dentate gyrus and CA3 hippocampal subregions. Older adults also were divided into older impaired and older unimpaired groups based on their performance on a standardized test of verbal memory. The older impaired group was significantly impaired relative to both the older unimpaired and young groups, suggesting that pattern separation deficits may be variable in older adults. The present findings may have important implications for designing behavioral interventions for older adults that structure daily living tasks to reduce interference, thus improving memory function. PMID:22467270
Holden, Heather M; Hoebel, Calhuei; Loftis, Kelly; Gilbert, Paul E
Background Our lab has previously demonstrated losses in contrast sensitivity to low spatial frequencies under scotopic conditions with older adults. It is not clear, however, whether the temporal frequency of a stimulus alters the relation between age and the spatial contrast sensitivity function (sCSF) under scotopic conditions. Methods A maximum-likelihood, two-alternative, temporal forced-choice QUEST procedure was used to measure threshold to spatially and temporally modulated stimuli in both young (mean = 26 years) and old (mean = 75 years) adults. Results In general, the shapes of the spatial and temporal CSFs were low-pass for both young and old observers; contrast sensitivity decreased at approximately the same rate with increasing spatial frequency and temporal frequency for both age groups, although the overall sensitivity of the old group was lower than that of the young group. The high-frequency resolution limit was lower for the old group compared to the young group. Conclusions The differences in contrast sensitivity between the young and old groups suggest a uniform loss in sensitivity of the channels mediating spatial and temporal vision. Because of this loss, the spatial and temporal window of visibility for the older adults is compromised relative to the younger adults.
Clark, Cynthia L.; Hardy, Joseph L.; Volbrecht, Vicki J.; Werner, John S.
Objectives To examine the association between perceptions of neighborhood safety and drug use, as well as mediation by depression and self-esteem. Methods The sample included 210 inner-city youngadults (18 to 25 years) recruited from the Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Results Respondents who indicated greater fear of their neighborhood environment also had significantly greater levels of drug use than did those with lower perceived fear. However, this relationship was not a result of lower self-esteem or higher levels of depressive symptoms. Conclusions Exploratory results point to the need to consider the broader role of the community environment and its impact on drug use among youngadults.
Theall, Katherine P.; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.
Forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, functional residual capacity, residual volume, total lung capacity, and single breath diffusing capacity measurements (effective alveolar volume, carbon monoxide transfer factor, and transfer coefficient) were measured in 247 young healthy adults (130 male, 117 female) aged 15-40 years living in Madras. Subjects were of Dravidian stock, living at sea level with rice as their staple diet. Regression equations were derived for men and women for predicting normal pulmonary function for youngadults in South India. The values were similar to those reported for subjects from Western India and lower than those reported for North Indians and caucasians.
Vijayan, V K; Kuppurao, K V; Venkatesan, P; Sankaran, K; Prabhakar, R
|Describes the rationale, development, and administration of the test used for measuring levels of achievement in functional literacy in Guyana. Draws attention to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate that is reported for Guyana in international…
Describes the rationale, development, and administration of the test used for measuring levels of achievement in functional literacy in Guyana. Draws attention to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate that is reported for Guyana in international…
|Large literatures have shown important links between the quantity of completed education and health outcomes on one hand and the quality or selectivity of schooling on a host of adult outcomes, such as wages, on the other hand. However, little research attempts to produce evidence of the link between school quality and health. The paper presents…
The occlusion of the infrarenal aorta is a rare event, which is potentially life threatening. We present the case of a heavy smoking, 35-year-old woman who was referred to the emergency department of our hospital because of sudden abdominal pain and urinary incontinence. She also complained of a two-year history of bilateral intermittent claudication. A computerized tomography revealed the thrombosis of the abdominal aorta and of both iliac arteries. Treatment consists of an aortoiliac thromboendarterectomy (AITE). For young patients with atheromatous occlusive disease of the infrarenal aorta, AITE is an attractive alternative to bypass grafting.
Bucci, Federico; Fiengo, Leslie; Hamati, Samer; Plagnol, Philippe
|Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where youngadults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted…
Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.
|Cover art has long been used as a marketing device for books, particularly with books aimed at youngadults (YAs) aged 12 to 18. An examination of some of the teen thrillers published by novelist Lois Duncan since the 1970s yields several discoveries about changes in cover art that come with various editions. Many covers have been resigned to…
Living independently before marriage is part of a broader pattern of family and demographic change characterizing modern societies since World War II. This study examined expectations about premarital residential independence among youngadults. Data were obtained from 28,240 high school seniors who participated in the High School and Beyond study…
The aim of the present study was to examine prospective memory impairments associated with cannabis use in youngadults. An independent measures design utilising pre-existing groups of users and non-users was employed in which an opportunity sample of 90 undergraduates studying at universities in the north east of England participated. The number of prospective memory failures reported on the Prospective
Janice Bartholomew; Steve Holroyd; Thomas M Heffernan
Alcohol consumption among adolescents and youngadults occurs at high rates, with such use resulting in potentially adverse consequences in many critical domains of life, such as academic and occupational achievement, family and peer relationships, and physical and mental health. A recent economic analysis of alcohol consumption estimated that underage drinkers (aged 12-20 years) account for 19.7% of consumer expenditures
Purpose – This paper aims to investigate how the 18- to 30-age group currently interacts with wine in a variety of settings. It seeks to establish how youngadults in the UK currently perceive, use, purchase and consume wine. This is the next generation of UK wine consumers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of seven focus groups were held throughout England
Objective This study assessed whether smoking in the movies was associated with smoking in youngadults. Methods A national web-enabled cross-sectional survey of 1528 youngadults, aged 18–25, was performed between September and November 2005. Logistic regression and path analysis using probit regression were used to assess relationships between exposure to smoking in the movies and smoking behavior. Analysis was completed in December 2006. Results Exposure to smoking in the movies predicted current smoking. The adjusted odds of current smoking increased by a factor of 1.21 for each quartile increase in exposure to smoking (p<0.01) in the movies, reaching 1.77 for the top exposure quartile. The unadjusted odds of established smoking (100+ cigarettes with current smoking) increased by 1.23 per quartile (p<0.001) of exposure, reaching 1.86 for the top quartile. This effect on established smoking was mediated by two factors related to smoking in the movies: positive expectations about smoking and exposure to friends and relatives who smoked, with positive expectations accounting for about two thirds of the effect. Conclusions The association between smoking in the movies and youngadult smoking behavior exhibited a dose–response relationship; the more a youngadult was exposed to smoking in the movies, the more likely he or she would have smoked in the past 30 days or have become an established smoker.
Song, Anna V.; Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.
|The study found that mildly mentally retarded adolescents and youngadults (N=21) were not able to correctly match photographs of faces to emotionally expressive voices. Results suggest that mentally retarded individuals may have specific deficits in recognizing how bodily expressions of emotion are coordinated with each other. (Author/DB)|
One hundred and thirty-nine youngadults viewed one of three episodes of a television program about a female action hero titled Xena: Warrior Princess. Programs varied in portrayals of Xena's shadow, the dark but also life-preserving facet of the personality. Participants of both genders who had higher levels of traditionally masculine personality characteristics were most likely to perceive Xena as
Sandra L. Calvert; Tracy A. Kondla; Karen A. Ertel; Douglas S. Meisel
|This book presents descriptions of 26 youngadult titles that have been frequent targets of censorship attempts. Each entry provides an annotation for the book in question; examples of recent challenges; citations to reviews of the book and background articles; a list of awards garnered by the book or its author; references about the author;…
This article summarizes preservice teachers' experiences in a book club that read youngadult literature focused on issues related to bullying. Preservice teachers learned to recognize various incidents of bullying in the books. They also began to consider how they might handle incidents of bullying in their future classrooms. (Contains 2 figures.)
Pytash, Kristine E.; Morgan, Denise N.; Batchelor, Katherine E.
|Preparing teachers to understand their students' reading processes so that they can guide their students toward connecting with texts in meaningful and personal ways are goals that can be met through the study of youngadult literature. Twenty-first century learners live in an increasingly interconnected world and have access to countless texts…
The youth/adolescent food frequency questionnaire was administered to 1307 youngadults ages 20-38 years (73% Euro American (EA) and 27% African American (AA); 39% male and 61 % female). Overweight was calculated as body mass index (BMI) >= 25, waist circumference (WC) > 102 cm in men and > 88 cm i...
|This article summarizes preservice teachers' experiences in a book club that read youngadult literature focused on issues related to bullying. Preservice teachers learned to recognize various incidents of bullying in the books. They also began to consider how they might handle incidents of bullying in their future classrooms. (Contains 2…
Pytash, Kristine E.; Morgan, Denise N.; Batchelor, Katherine E.
|This cross-site analysis presents findings about the implementation, impact, and outcomes of the YoungAdult Capacity Initiative (YACI), at 13 community-based organizations in New York City. These agencies received technical assistance and small incentive grants from the Fund for the City of New York Youth Development Institute (YDI) to build…
|More than 2.3 million low-income youngadults began postsecondary education in 2008. Where these students initially enroll is of greater consequence than it is to their economically better-off peers because the likelihood of completing college for students from low-income backgrounds depends strongly on where they start their studies. This brief…
|Suggesting that the vital element nonfiction lacks is professional attention, this book shows the literary qualities of nonfiction as well as defining its importance for youngadults. The book discusses seven issues related to information books, each issue making up a single chapter. The first chapter addresses the reading interests of teenagers,…
|Rarely do students and teachers see themselves as people who have the authority to talk back to the gatekeepers; instead, they are on the receiving end of a conversation begun by others. But the conversation about youngadult (YA) books--like the authors who write them--is a living thing. Students and teachers can help to shape it. In this…
|Reports on programs for children and youngadults in public libraries in Canada and the United States and discusses implications for Australian libraries. Highlights include budgets; volunteers; government funding; and summer reading programs, including registration, measurements of reading, and programming. (LRW)|
|Study aim: To determine and evaluate the spectrum of sport motivation of youngadults. Material and methods: A group of 600 subjects, aged 17-19 years, participated in the study. An "ad hoc" questionnaire was applied to assess the 4 motivational factors: competition and success-oriented motivation, external accommodation, physical fitness and…
STUDY OBJECTIVES--To describe the prevalence of disability in youngadults and estimate the contribution that injuries make to disability. DESIGN--The study uses data from a British longitudinal survey, the National Child Development Study (1958 cohort). Disability at age 23 was ascertained from three questions asked in an interview with cohort members in 1981: these related to longstanding illness that limits
|Food mishandling is thought to be more acute among youngadults; yet little is known about why they may engage in risky food handling behaviors. The purpose of this study was to create valid, reliable instruments for assessing key food safety psychosocial measures. Development of the measures began by examining published studies and behavior…
Literature for older children and youngadults (YA fiction) has long been identified as having a didactic tendency to moralise and instruct readers (see, for example, the work of John Stephens, Robyn McCallum, Peter Hollindale and others). Although the didactic tenor of YA fiction has softened in the last several decades, in line with a general decrease in literary didacticism
Although United States citizens generally pride themselves on their understanding and acceptance of diversity, all too many of them harbor a fear of Muslims, which transformed into widespread bigotry after September 11, 2001. Knowing that youngadult literature can be a powerful means of negotiating understanding of the other, this article…
One explanation for the relative lack of progress in treating cancer in adolescents and youngadults is that the biology of malignant diseases in this age group is different than in younger and older persons, not only in the spectrum of cancers but also within individual cancer types and within the patient (host). Molecular, epidemiological and therapeutic outcome comparisons offer
Ronald Barr; Brandon Hayes-Lattin; David Thomas; Chad Ellis; Barry Anderson; Archie Bleyer
Little is known about the formation of people's first perceptions about computers and computer code, yet it is likely that these impressions have a lasting effect on peoples' use of technology in their lives and careers. Brief autobiographical essays about these first impressions were solicited from a diverse population of youngadults and these essays were analyzed for factors that
Gay and lesbian youngadults (N = 53) were interviewed about coming out to their parents. Analyses of memory content were conducted. Hypotheses related to disclosure were largely supported. Participants typically first disclosed their sexual orientation to a friend. More participants came out to their mother than their father. When disclosure was made to both parents, mothers were told prior
The study examined the prevalence of physical aggression in the relationships of youngadults in Germany. A convenience sample of 248 women and 400 men aged between 17 and 29 years provided reports of physical aggression shown toward and experienced by a partner using the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2). Sex differences were found for several physically aggressive behaviors measured
The study aims to explore the process of overcoming depression as experienced by youngadult psychotherapy patients. Seventeen patients in individual or group psychotherapy with diagnoses within the depression spectrum were interviewed at termination of psychotherapy and at 1.5 years’ follow-up. Grounded theory analysis of transcripts resulted in 15 distinct categories, organized into five general domains: experiences of positive change,
This paper will provide the first comprehensive analysis of the effects of cigarette prices, cigarette excise taxes, smoke-free air laws, youth access laws, state spending on comprehensive tobacco control programs, socio-economic factors, and demographic characteristics on measures of demand for smoking, especially light and intermittent smoking by teenagers and youngadults in a long panel. I will also employ the
The effects of cigarette prices and tobacco control policies (including restrictions on smoking in public places and limits on the availability of tobacco products to youths) on cigarette smoking among youths and youngadults are estimated using data from a nationally representative survey of students in U.S. colleges and universities. Smoking participation rates, the quantity of cigarettes smoked by smokers,
Contradictory evidence exists regarding the benefit of the Internet for social and personal wellbeing, with some studies indicating deleterious effects and others possible social enrichment. The potential for increased social isolation from 'over- involvement' in online activities or, conversely, the Internet's possibilities for enhancing social relationships, may be particularly salient during youngadult- hood and adolescence because of the special
The relationship competence of youngadults was investigated to determine if those who experienced family disruption in childhood, namely divorce or conflict, differed on measures of self esteem, fear of intimacy, romantic relationship satisfaction, and beliefs about marriage. The potential moderating effect and contribution of intimate friendships on relationship competence was examined. The study compared youth who had experienced family
This article examines the effect of exposure to interparental conflict on the mental health of youngadults. Based on a diverse sample of 649 students from three New England colleges, the authors investigate the association between nonviolent interparental conflict during childhood, subsequent distress and disorder, and identified factors that mediate the relationship. Results indicate that exposure to interparental conflict significantly
|This article examines the effect of exposure to interparental conflict on the mental health of youngadults. Based on a diverse sample of 649 students from three New England colleges, the authors investigate the association between nonviolent interparental conflict during childhood, subsequent distress and disorder, and identified factors that…
Preparing teachers to understand their students' reading processes so that they can guide their students toward connecting with texts in meaningful and personal ways are goals that can be met through the study of youngadult literature. Twenty-first century learners live in an increasingly interconnected world and have access to countless texts thanks to continual improvements in technologies. Being able
In recent years the necessity of measuring quality of life in childhood cancer survivors has been stressed. This paper gives an overview of the results of studies into the quality of life (QL) of youngadult survivors of childhood cancer and suggest areas for future research. The review located 30 empirical studies published up to 2001. The results are described
N. E. Langeveld; H. Stam; M. A. Grootenhuis; B. F. Last
|Despite a growing body of work that draws attention to the presence of violence in the mass media and its effects on youth, little critical attention has been paid to the role of violence in youngadult literature. The authors believe that by bringing violence to the foreground in the study of texts, they can enrich and deepen what these stories…
The High School Beyond study provides the data for an analysis of the computing experiences of youngadults. Five types of computing experiences-general, personal and recreational, job, general educational and high school computer usage are examined with respect to selected socio-economic and demographic characteristics. The results suggest that computing experience is related to gender, race, SES, father's education and family
|This article offers teachers a critical framework for use and adaptation in organizing class discussions focused on notions of freedom in youngadult literature. The authors open by discussing the notion of freedom, including concepts related to negative and positive freedom and to arguments advocating critical discussion of common assumptions…
|Childhood maltreatment has been thought to be a significant risk factor in the development of gambling problems. Incorporating a developmental psychopathology perspective, 1,324 adolescents and youngadults, age 17-22 years completed self-report measures on gambling behaviors, gambling severity, and childhood maltreatment. Problem gamblers…
Felsher, Jennifer R.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina
Two hundred and sixty three youngadult college students responded to openended questions assessing their specific intentions, motives, and plans for having children. The most commonly stated motives for childbearing reflected a strong interest in establishing an identity and social network. Financial, marital, and emotional stability were identified as important factors influencing the timing of parenthood. Several significant sex differences
|Presents tips from a project that made modest but significant improvements to the youngadult areas and services of 11 rural libraries in the Pioneer Library System in upstate New York. Discusses floor plans, layout and location; furniture and fixtures; collections and displays; technology; and staff. Illustrates changes with before-and-after…
Presents tips from a project that made modest but significant improvements to the youngadult areas and services of 11 rural libraries in the Pioneer Library System in upstate New York. Discusses floor plans, layout and location; furniture and fixtures; collections and displays; technology; and staff. Illustrates changes with before-and-after…
Relations between identity formation and family characteristics among youngadults were examined. The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales II and the Ego Process Questionnaire were administered to 57 male and 94 female college students between the ages of 18 and 25. There were 78 Caucasian and 73 African American youth. Significant relations were found between identity exploration and commitment,
Ronald L. Mullis; John C. Brailsford; Ann K. Mullis
... Conversation with Matthew Zachary: The YoungAdult Cancer Movement HIGHLIGHTS Breast Cancer Cells Found by Immunochemistry in Sentinel Nodes Not Associated with Survival Radiation Plus Short-Term Hormone Therapy Improves Survival of Men with Early-Stage Prostate Cancer In Hodgkin Lymphoma ...
|This paper presents descriptions of the 10 best youngadult novels (and teaching suggestions) appropriate for studying the Holocaust in the middle school. Each description begins with a summary and "hook" that can be used with students, and then ends with discussion for the teacher about reading abilities and applications in the classroom.…
|This study investigated the news-seeking and browsing behaviours of youngadults, partly in the context of everyday life information seeking (ELIS), in order to explore their perceptions of and attitudes towards print and online news media. The study is significant because traditional print newspapers face a steady decline in their readership…
Qayyum, M. Asim; Williamson, Kirsty; Liu, Ying-Hsang; Hider, Philip
|This study is part of a broader project aimed at developing cognitive and neurocognitive profiles of adolescent and youngadult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. We explore the relationships among reading-related abilities in participants ages 16 to 24 years spanning a wide…
Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald P.; Mencl, W. Einar
|Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method: Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 youngadults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific…
|Objectives: To measure relative effectiveness of tobacco countermarketing advertisements by category and emotive execution style among youngadults. Methods: Participants (n = 1011) from 2 US 4-year colleges, one southern and one northern were surveyed before and after viewing advertisements in one of 3 categories: social norms, health…
|Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and youngadults (age 18-25…
The purpose of the study was to determine if youngadult Special Olympics participants could develop, generalize, and maintain target social skills (eye contact, contributing relevant information, and turn taking) as a result of a 14-week Social Skills and Sports (S[superscript 3]) Program that combined classroom instruction with soccer…
Alexander, Melissa G. F.; Dummer, Gail M.; Smeltzer, Ashley; Denton, Stephen J.
Youngadults (ages 18-24) are especially vulnerable to homelessness in the United States, and those experiencing homelessness exhibit high prevalence for many kinds of abuse and negative health outcomes. This article reviews common behavioral health issues facing homeless youth and assesses collective wisdom on effective treatments and services for this vulnerable population. On the whole, the research remains focused on
Suzanne Zerger; Aaron J. Strehlow; Adi V. Gundlapalli
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the main factors that explained the shopping motivations among Portuguese consumers and to categorize possible groups based on those dimensions. The paper also intends to confirm the results obtained in previous studies carried out in the USA, applying their measure instruments to a sample of youngadult Portuguese consumers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach
Three studies examined the tongue protrusion (TP) behaviors of young infants in response to visual stimuli. Infants produced TPs in response to objects within reach before but not after the onset of reaching behavior. The results suggest that infants' TPs in response to a tongue-protruding adult reflect very early attempts at oral exploration of…
This study extends Engels et al.'s model of emotional adjustment to youngadults and includes the constructs of interparental conflict and conflict resolution. Results indicate that parental attachment is better conceived as a two-factor construct of mother and father attachment and that although attachment to both mothers and fathers directly…
|Of all the material in the English language arts curricula, poetry seems to cause the most consternation among teachers. For a number of teachers, and many students, poetry continues to be a difficult topic to teach and learn. In this article, the author focuses on the ways that youngadult literature can help teachers expose their students to…
In an effort to inform junior and senior high school students about mental illness, this document provides educators with an annotated bibliography of youngadult fiction and a set of supporting activities. Included in the bibliography are nearly 100 current fiction titles, grouped according to the following topics: anorexia, drugs and alcohol,…
Backround Appearance concerns are of increasing importance in young men's lives. We investigated whether muscle dissatisfaction is associated with psychological symptoms, dietary supplement or anabolic steroid use, or physical activity in young men. Methods As a part of a questionnaire assessment of health-related behaviors in the population-based FinnTwin16 study, we assessed factors associated with muscle dissatisfaction in 1245 men aged 22–27 using logistic regression models. Results Of men, 30% experienced high muscle dissatisfaction, while 12% used supplements/steroids. Of highly muscle-dissatisfied men, 21.5% used supplements/steroids. Mean body mass index, waist circumference, or leisure aerobic activity index did not differ between individuals with high/low muscle dissatisfaction. Muscle dissatisfaction was significantly associated with a psychological and psychosomatic problems, alcohol and drug use, lower height satisfaction, sedentary lifestyle, poor subjective physical fitness, and lower life satisfaction. Conclusion Muscle dissatisfaction and supplement/steroid use are relatively common, and are associated with psychological distress and markers of sedentary lifestyle.
Youngadults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by youngadults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies. PMID:22810954
The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to describe the experience of uncertainty in youngadults with cancer. A purposeful sample of 6 youngadults between the ages of 19 and 30 years undergoing chemotherapy treatment was recruited. Participants were interviewed twice using semistructured interviews. The investigators used constant comparison to examine the content of the transcript for common words, phrases, statements, or units of text that related to uncertainty. Findings revealed 3 major emerging themes. The first one being "types of uncertainty," which includes uncertainty and efforts at the right place, uncertainty and aspects of treatment, uncertainty and personal abilities, and uncertainty and the feasibility of plans related to life goals. Uncertainty was also found to trigger the development of certainties, which led to the second theme, "certainties: helpful or not?" A third emerging theme, dealing with uncertainty, described a variety of strategies used by youngadults that included living on a day-to-day basis, being selfish, believing, getting information, trusting the physician, concentrating on positive things, keeping energy by pacing oneself, choosing social support, and trying to live a normal life. A consequence of dealing with the uncertainty and the cancer journey is the "enlightened path." It emerged and revealed how the cancer journey changed their lives. A number of implications for nursing practice therefore warrant consideration, especially fostering a sense of normalcy by identifying common behaviors, feelings, or needs among these youngadults with cancer. Sharing this information and facilitating interactions with other youngadults with cancer has the potential to promote coping with uncertainty. PMID:19661789
The personality of exemplary youngadults was studied in an effort to paint a portrait of moral excellence that expanded upon the traditional emphasis on moral reasoning maturity. These youngadults were nominated based on their extraordinary moral commitment towards various social organizations. The sample included 40 moral exemplars and 40 matched comparison individuals who responded to a battery of questionnaires and participated in a semistructured interview. It was found that moral exemplars, in contrast to comparison individuals, were more agreeable, more advanced in their faith and moral reasoning development, further along in forming an adult identity, and more willing to enter into close relationships. These findings are discussed in the context of describing moral excellence from a multifaceted, personality perspective. PMID:15016070
Concerns exist regarding reproductive health, including potential infertility, among youngadults with military-related occupational exposures. This study evaluated infertility diagnoses in a large population of healthy youngadults in relation to prior s...
C. J. Sevick G. R. Gumbs I. G. Jacobson M. A. Ryan T. C. Smith
This study examines the relationship between smoking and other poor health behaviors in a youngadult population. This study hypothesizes that, for a youngadult population, there is no correlation between smoking and other bad health behaviors. The popul...
BackgroundTobacco use interventions for youngadult Latinos have not yet been developed. This qualitative pilot study employed semistructured interviews to assess beliefs and attitudes regarding tobacco use interventions among youngadult Latinos.
Randi E. Foraker; Christi A. Patten; Keila N. Lopez; Ivana T. Croghan; Janet L. Thomas
Numerous studies have reported that glucose administration enhances memory processes in both elderly and youngadult subjects. Although these studies have utilized a variety of procedures and paradigms, investigations of both young and elderly subjects have typically used verbal tasks (word list recall, paragraph recall, etc.). In the present study, the effect of glucose consumption on a nonverbal, facial recognition task in youngadults was examined. Lemonade sweetened with either glucose (50 g) or saccharin (23.7 mg) was consumed by college students (mean age of 21.1 years) 15 min prior to a facial recognition task. The task consisted of a familiarization phase in which subjects were presented with "target" faces, followed immediately by a recognition phase in which subjects had to identify the targets among a random array of familiar target and novel "distractor" faces. Statistical analysis indicated that there were no differences on hit rate (target identification) for subjects who consumed either saccharin or glucose prior to the test. However, further analyses revealed that subjects who consumed glucose committed significantly fewer false alarms and had (marginally) higher d-prime scores (a signal detection measure) compared to subjects who consumed saccharin prior to the test. These results parallel a previous report demonstrating glucose enhancement of a facial recognition task in probable Alzheimer's patients; however, this is believed to be the first demonstration of glucose enhancement for a facial recognition task in healthy, youngadults. PMID:10713296
Theories of human development suggest that, although all cancer patients experience a common set of life disruptions, they experience them differently, focus on different issues, and attach different levels of importance to different aspects of the experience depending on the time in life at which they were diagnosed. During the critical developmental transition from childhood to adulthood, older adolescents and youngadults in particular have typical concerns with establishing identity, developing a positive body image and sexual identity, separating from parents, increasing involvement with peers and dating, and beginning to make decisions about careers or employment, higher education, and/or family. Accordingly, cancer-related issues such as premature confrontation with mortality, changes in physical appearance, increased dependence on parents, disruptions in social life and school/employment because of treatment, loss of reproductive capacity, and health-related concerns about the future may be particularly distressing for adolescents and youngadults. Psychosocial and behavioral interventions for youngadult cancer patients and survivors often involve assisting these individuals in retaining or returning to function in significant social roles, such as spouse, parent, student, worker, or friend. Successful interventions will enable these young people to overcome the detrimental impact of a health crisis and strengthen the internal and external coping resources available to them. PMID:21523748
Objective: To estimate the expected weight gain through midlife for those in a given BMI category in young adulthood. Design and Methods: Group-based trajectory modeling and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data from 1990 to 2008 were used to quantify weight trajectories through midlife for 10,038 youngadult men and women stratified by BMI category. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of trajectory membership with obesity-related conditions (hypertension, diabetes, arthritis) in middle age. Results: Annual weight gain averaged 0.53 kg (1.17 lb) across the entire sample. However, there was considerable variation by and within BMI categories. More than 98% of men and 92% of women were on upward-sloping trajectories, generally moving into a higher BMI category by middle age. Those who experienced early and rapid weight gain during young adulthood were most likely to be on a steeper trajectory and had greater risks for obesity-related conditions. Conclusion: This study points to the health and weight benefits of entering young adulthood with a normal BMI, but further reveals that this is no guarantee of maintaining a healthy weight through midlife. For those who are youngadults today, weight maintenance is unlikely to occur without significant environmental or technical innovation. PMID:23408493
Malhotra, Rahul; Ostbye, Truls; Riley, Crystal M; Finkelstein, Eric A
|Very little is known about the accessibility and potential barriers to addiction treatment among street youths and youngadults. We sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of enrollment in addiction treatment among a cohort of street-involved youths and youngadults in Vancouver, Canada. Street-involved youths and youngadults who use…
In this paper the choice between marriage and unmarried cohabitation as a first union by youngadults is studied. A hazard analysis is performed on a sample of 590 26-year-old men and women from the Netherlands. Students are much less likely to start a union in general, and marriage in particular, than are other categories of youngadults. Youngadults
Purpose: The present paper examines the effects of two decision-framing inductions on youngadults' set of career options: first, whether youngadults use abilities or interests as the grounds for their vocational choices and, second, whether youngadults approach the decision-making task by including all career options to which they feel…
Because of the important role music plays in the lives of youngadults, the graduate education of youngadult librarians should include a study of the music and the musical behavior of youngadults. A formal course might include reviews of research in the...
|Descriptive data indicate that 62% of White youngadults between the ages of 17 and 23 years were on course (i.e., either in college or have graduated from college) in 2007, compared with only 37% of Black youngadults. Given this, finding novel and promising ways to promote college progress among Black youngadults, in particular, is a growing…
Objectives. We investigated associations between tobacco industry denor- malization attitudes and the smoking behavior of youngadults (aged 18 to 29 years). Methods. We analyzed data from 9455 youngadults in the 2002 California Tobacco Survey. Results. The data showed that 27.4% of youngadults were \\
Pamela M. Ling; Torsten B. Neilands; Stanton A. Glantz
Background: Smoking rates are declining in the United States, except for youngadults (age 18 to 24). Few organized programs target smoking cessation specifically for youngadults, except programs for pregnant women. In contrast, the tobacco industry has invested much time and money studying youngadult smoking patterns. Some of these data are now available in documents released through litigation.
Although children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined nonsubstance, use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and youngadults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent engagement in motorsports, a collection of risky driving-related activities associated with elevated rates of physical injury. Path analyses tested whether persistent impulsivity, comorbid conduct disorder or antisocial personality disorder (CD/ASP), and heavy alcohol use mediated this association. Analyses also explored whether frequent motorsporting was associated with unsafe and alcohol-influenced driving. Two hundred twenty-one adolescent and youngadult males (16-25 years old) diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 139 demographically similar males without ADHD histories reported their motorsports involvement. Persistent impulsivity, CD/ASP, heavy drinking, and hazardous driving were also measured in adolescence/young adulthood. Adolescents and youngadults with ADHD histories were more likely to report frequent motorsports involvement than those without childhood ADHD. Impulsivity, CD/ASP, and heavy drinking partially mediated this association, such that individuals with ADHD histories, who had persistent impulsivity or CD/ASP diagnoses, were more likely to engage in heavy drinking, which was positively associated with frequent motorsporting. Motorsports involvement was associated with more unsafe and alcohol-influenced driving, and this association was more often found among those with, than without, ADHD histories. Adolescents and youngadults with ADHD histories, especially those with persisting impulsivity, comorbid CD/ASP and heavy drinking tendencies, are more likely to engage in motorsports, which may heighten risk of injury. PMID:23347139
Wymbs, Brian T; Molina, Brooke S G; Belendiuk, Katherine A; Pedersen, Sarah L; Walther, Christine A P; Cheong, Jee Won; McGinley, James S; Marshal, Michael P; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E
Adolescent and youngadult (AYA) cancer survivors face unique challenges not systematically addressed by cancer clinicians. Four focus groups and two individual interviews were conducted with 19 survivors to profile experiences and identify key concerns for future interventions. The resultant themes reflect cancer care continuum challenges (such as delays in diagnosis, problems with adherence), psychosocial concerns (such as infertility and
Erin E. Kent; Carla Parry; Michael J. Montoya; Leonard S. Sender; Rebecca A. Morris; Hoda Anton-Culver
Two of the most ethically complex situations in pediatrics are those involving families whose religious beliefs preclude the provision of life-sustaining treatment and those involving youngadults who have reached the age of legal majority and who face decisions about life-sustaining treatment. This month's "Ethics Rounds" presents a case in which these 2 complexities overlapped. An 18-year-old Jehovah's Witness with sickle cell disease has life-threatening anemia. She is going into heart failure. Her doctors urgently recommend blood transfusions. The young woman and her family adamantly refuse. Should the doctors let her die? Is there any alternative? PMID:23958767
Ukachi, Nnenna; Morrison, Wynne; Vanhorn, Samantha; Sundaram, Revathy; Lantos, John D
The need for adolescents and youngadults (AYA) to have suitable age-specific inpatient facilities has been recognised for many years, yet has received relatively little attention. This article reports the successful introduction of an inpatient facility for AYA, aged 17-24 years, on a general paediatric ward in a small district general hospital. From December 2010, a young person's unit (YPU) consisting of an 8-bed area was opened within a 24-bed children's ward. Nursing care was provided by the ward staff, all of whom had been trained in the care of youngadults. Policies regarding admission criteria, safeguarding, patient choice, visiting and 'house rules' were drafted, implemented and modified as necessary. Discussions with the adult clinicians (for medical care) and site managers were held to ensure smooth running of the system, and to address any concerns or difficulties. Paediatric patients had priority of admission at times of bed crisis. During 2012, there were a total of 2351 inpatient admissions to the paediatric ward, of whom 379 (16%) were YPU patients aged from 17-24 years. Median length of stay was 2 days for patients aged 17-24 years as compared with 1 day for patients aged less than or equal to 16 years. Patients who chose admission to the paediatric ward tended to be younger, in transition from paediatric to adult services for chronic conditions, or with special needs. Patient surveys showed a high level of satisfaction with the facility. Youngadults can be cared for safely and effectively on a paediatric ward with minimal additional costs. The essential ingredients for success include discussion with affected parties to address specific concerns, and the establishment of a clear, simple and unambiguous admission policy. PMID:24165407
Aj Heaton, Paul; Routley, Christine; Prosad Paul, Siba
Stimuli are processed concurrently and across multiple sensory inputs. Here we directly compared the effect of multisensory integration (MSI) on reaction time across three paired sensory inputs in eighteen young (M=19.17 yrs) and eighteen old (M=76.44 yrs) individuals. Participants were determined to be non-demented and without any medical or psychiatric conditions that would affect their performance. Participants responded to randomly presented unisensory (auditory, visual, somatosensory) stimuli and three paired sensory inputs consisting of auditory-somatosensory (AS) auditory-visual (AV) and visual-somatosensory (VS) stimuli. Results revealed that reaction time (RT) to all multisensory pairings was significantly faster than those elicited to the constituent unisensory conditions across age groups; findings that could not be accounted for by simple probability summation. Both young and old participants responded the fastest to multisensory pairings containing somatosensory input. Compared to younger adults, older adults demonstrated a significantly greater RT benefit when processing concurrent VS information. In terms of co-activation, older adults demonstrated a significant increase in the magnitude of visual-somatosensory co-activation (i.e., multisensory integration), while younger adults demonstrated a significant increase in the magnitude of auditory-visual and auditory-somatosensory co-activation. This study provides first evidence in support of the facilitative effect of pairing somatosensory with visual stimuli in older adults.
Youngadult (N = 96) university students who varied in their binge drinking history were assessed by electroencephalography (EEG) recording during passive viewing. Groups consisted of male and female non-binge drinkers (>1 to 5/4 drinks/ounces in under two hours), low-binge drinkers (5/4–7/6 drinks/ounces in under two hours), and high-binge drinkers (? 10 drinks/ounces in under two hours), who had been drinking alcohol at their respective levels for an average of 3 years. The non- and low-binge drinkers exhibited less spectral power than the high-binge drinkers in the delta (0–4 Hz) and fast-beta (20–35 Hz) bands. Binge drinking appears to be associated with a specific pattern of brain electrical activity in youngadults that may reflect the future development of alcoholism.
These analyses assess contextual profiles of 612 youngadult Ecstasy users, 18–30 years of age, from St. Louis (USA), Miami (USA) and Sydney (Australia). Bivariate analyses revealed different contextual factors influencing Ecstasy use. Friends were the most common sources of Ecstasy at all sites and most used with friends. St. Louis and Miami use mostly occurred in residences, whereas in Sydney use was mostly at clubs, bars or restaurants. Ecstasy consumption at public places and in cars, trains or ferries was significantly higher in Miami (89% and 77%) than in St. Louis (67% and 65%) and Sydney (67% and 61%). At all sites, simultaneous use of LSD/mushroom and nitrous oxide with Ecstasy was common; concurrent amphetamines predominated in Sydney and heroin/opiates in St. Louis Contextual factors influencing Ecstasy use among youngadults vary by geographic region. Their inclusion may help tailor effective prevention programs to reduce or ameliorate Ecstasy use.
Ramtekkar, Ujjwal P.; Striley, Catherine W; Cottler, Linda B
Body piercing, which is prevalent in youngadults, has been suggested to be associated with features usually related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) such as high-risk behaviours and psychopathological symptoms and might be motivated by a wish to deal with prior traumatic experiences. However, to date, no research has investigated the relationship between this practice and PTSD symptoms. The present research aims to investigate the possible relationship between body piercing and PTSD symptoms in French-speaking youngadults. According to our results, having two or more body piercings was associated with a twofold increased risk for scoring above the cut-off score for PTSD on the PTSD checklist. Our findings suggest that two or more body piercings might serve as an identifiable marker for PTSD symptoms and may have important implications for clinical screening. PMID:22499241
Bui, Eric; Rodgers, Rachel; Simon, Naomi M; Jehel, Louis; Metcalf, Christina A; Birmes, Philippe; Schmitt, Laurent
Daily activity levels were investigated as related to sleep quality in youngadult college students aged 18 to 30 years. 85 participants (20 men, 65 women) completed the YoungAdult Daily Activity Scale (YADAS). This 37-item checklist has 34 items based on focus group discussion points of college students' typical daily activities and three blank items for students to include their daily activities if not in the listing. The tabulation of type and amount of waking daily activities represents a unique measurement of factors that may affect sleep quality. The participants also rated their typical sleep quality using a standard 5-point scale (low indicating poor sleep). Correlations of sleep ratings and activities were not significant. PMID:21667753
Objective To explain why a subgroup of young men aged 20–24 years do not follow the general trend within the adult general population,\\u000a of declining violence with age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method A cross-sectional survey of 8,397 adults in households in Great Britain in 2000. Computer-assisted interviews to measure self-reported\\u000a violence and psychiatric morbidity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results Young men age 20–24 years had the same high prevalence of self-reported violence
We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to study how sociability and adolescent alcohol use impact personal income as a youngadult. We find that factors which enhance not only individual sociability but also social interaction at the community level are positively linked to future earnings of adolescents. Adolescents whose friends and friends of friends have greater sociability reap long-term labor market rewards into adulthood. After adjusting for individual and community sociability, the effect of teenage alcohol consumption on labor market earnings as youngadults is reduced. Our results suggest that earnings premiums associated with adolescent alcohol consumption may be partially explained by social network dynamics. PMID:22984291
Background: Whether abdominal obesity is related to coronary artery calcification (CAC) is not known. Objective:Weinvestigatedtherelationsofwaistgirthandwaist-hip ratio (WHR) to CAC in 2951 African American and white young adultsfromtheCoronaryArteryRiskDevelopmentinYoungAdults Study. Design: The present study was a cross-sectional and observational cohort study. Using standardized protocols, we measured CAC in 2001-2002byusingcomputedtomographyandmeasuredwaistand hipgirthsin1985-1986(baseline),1995-1996(year10),and2001- 2002 (year 15, waist girth only). CAC was classified as present or
Chong-Do Lee; David R Jacobs Jr; Pamela J Schreiner; Carlos Iribarren; Arlene Hankinson
We present four cases of sudden unexpected death in youngadults with chronic hydrocephalus. The patients were between 20\\u000a and 28 years of age and had suffered from aqueduct stenosis (two patients), spina bifida in combination with Arnold-Chiari\\u000a malformation (type II) and fragile X-syndrome. The patients suddenly collapsed with cardiorespiratory failure and could not\\u000a be resuscitated and none had a
C. H. Rickert; F. Grabellus; K. Varchmin-Schultheiß; H. Stöß; W. Paulus
Background Suicide rose dramatically among youngadults in Scotland between 1980–1982 and 1999–2001, especially among those living in deprived areas. Objective To determine whether there are statistically significant geographical clusters of suicide and undetermined deaths among those aged 15 to 44 years in Scotland, and whether these persist through time. Methods Deaths from suicide and undetermined causes by youngadults in Scotland for three periods—1980 to 1982, 1990 to 1992, and 1999 to 2001—were aggregated into 10?058 small areas for Scotland. Tests for significant (p<0.05) geographical clustering of suicide were carried out for each period separately. Methods of suicide inside the identified clusters were compared with those in the rest of Scotland. Results A significant geographical cluster of suicide among youngadults was identified in east Glasgow in all three time periods (involving 92, 159, and 245 cases). Compared with the rest of Scotland, significantly more deaths in these clusters were caused by poisoning from liquids or solids over the entire period, but this was not the case in the most recent period (1999 to 2001). All three clusters could be explained by the concentration of socioeconomic deprivation in this part of Scotland. Conclusions One interpretation of this large, persistent, and statistically significant cluster of suicides among youngadults in east Glasgow is that suicide is geographically contagious, but the present results suggest that it is explained by the concentration of deprivation in this area. Suicide prevention strategies targeting at?risk populations living in east Glasgow are necessary to reduce the suicide burden in Scotland.
Objective: Youngadults frequently experiment with vegetarian and weight-loss diets. Comparisons of their experiences on these two different diets may help in the development of approaches to improve long-term adherence to weight-loss regimens. In the current study vegetarian and weight-loss diets were compared on how long and how strictly they were followed, and reasons why they were initiated and discontinued.Research
BACKGROUND: The drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), otherwise known as “ecstasy,” is a synthetic amphetamine that produces euphoria, increases sociability and energy, and is often used as a “weekend” recreational drug by youngadults.CASE SUMMARY: A 23-year-old male (height, 184 cm; weight, 68 kg) presented to the emergency department of Marmara University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, with jaundice and nausea lasting for 6
Recent studies suggest that glucose enhances memory in rodents and humans. The present experiment investigated the effects of glucose on memory performance and blood glucose changes in youngadults (19–25 years). Subjects ingested (300 ml beverage) three doses of glucose (0, 30, 100 g) in a random, double-blind, triple crossover design. Thirty minutes post-glucose, subjects were shown nouns on a
To study the possible age-dependent ototoxic effects of tobramycin a subacute toxicity study was performed. To youngadult (3 months) and old (27–30 months) female Wag-Rij rats 0, 10, 40, and 160 mg tobramycin sulfate\\/kg was administered subcutaneously in two doses a day. After 14 days all animals were autopsied. The cochlea was fixed by perfusion through the opened oval
J. A. M. A. Dormans; G. W. M. Peters-Volleberg; P. M. Dortant; G. J. A. Speijers
The pathogenesis of contusions was studied in a series of acute fatal closed head injuries. Important factors include: 1. whether the head was in motion or stationary; 2. the direction and magnitude of the force; 3. the presence of depressed fractures and lacerations; and 4. roughness of the overlying bone. In the youngadult group, the frequent high velocity motor vehicle accidents create a dominant pattern of injury to the frontal and temporal lobes, usually sparing the occipital lobes and cerebellum. PMID:6581699
Thirty-one youngadults (17-23 years of age) with Down syndrome participated in two self-imposed delay of gratifi cation trials. Thirty-six and forty-eight percent waited for the experimenter to return (15 minutes) on Trials 1 and 2 respectively, and thirty-six percent waited for the experimenter on both occasions. Expressive language differentiated those who waited from those who did not. A discriminant
Background Disc degeneration (DD) is a common condition that progresses with aging. Although the events leading to DD are not well understood, a significant genetic influence has been found. This study was undertaken to assess the association between relevant candidate gene polymorphisms and moderate DD in a well-defined and characterized cohort of youngadults. Focusing on young age can be valuable in determining genetic predisposition to DD. Methods We investigated the associations of existing candidate genes for DD among 538 youngadults with a mean age of 19 belonging to the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort. Nineteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 16 genes were genotyped. We evaluated lumbar DD using the modified Pfirrmann classification and a 1.5-T magnetic resonance scanner for imaging. Results Of the 538 individuals studied, 46% had no degeneration, while 54% had DD and 51% of these had moderate DD. The risk of DD was significantly higher in subjects with an allele G of IL6 SNPs rs1800795 (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.07-1.96) and rs1800797 (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.02-1.85) in the additive inheritance model. The role of IL6 was further supported by the haplotype analysis, which resulted in an association between the GGG haplotype (SNPs rs1800797, rs1800796 and rs1800795) and DD with an OR of 1.51 (95% CI 1.11-2.04). In addition, we observed an association between DD and two other polymorphisms, SKT rs16924573 (OR 0.27 95% CI 0.07-0.96) and CILP rs2073711 in women (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.07-3.89). Conclusion Our results indicate that IL6, SKT and CILP are involved in the etiology of DD among youngadults.
Previous investigations of personality–intelligence relationships have sampled mainly youngadults. The present study compared young and older groups in identifying personality predictors of cognitive abilities. A sample of 381 adults was administered the Woodcock–Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and the Big Five Inventory-44. Participants were separated into three groups: youngadults (aged 19–60), older adults that were cognitively comparable
Objectives. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of coronary artery calcification in youngadult men and women and to examine the association between the presence of coronary artery calcification and coronary risk factors measured in childhood and youngadult life.Background. Electron beam computed tomography is a sensitive, noninvasive method for detecting coronary artery calcification, a marker of the
Larry T. Mahoney; Trudy L. Burns; William Stanford; Brad H. Thompson; John D. Witt; Catherine A. Rost; Ronald M. Lauer
Erythropoietic repopulating abilities of fetal liver cells and young and old adult marrow cells were compared as follows: Equal numbers of cells from a donor of each age were mixed with a constant portion of cells pooled from genetically distinguishable competitors. These mixtures were transplanted into stem cell-depleted recipients, and the proportions of recipient hemoglobin that were donor type measured
DAVID E. HARRISON; CLINTON M. ASTLE; CHARLES LERNER
This study examined vowel perception by young normal-hearing (YNH) adults, in various listening conditions designed to simulate mild-to-moderate sloping sensorineural hearing loss. YNH listeners were individually age- and gender-matched to young hearing-impaired (YHI) listeners tested in a previous study [Richie et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2923-2933 (2003)]. YNH listeners were tested in three conditions designed to create equal audibility with the YHI listeners; a low signal level with and without a simulated hearing loss, and a high signal level with a simulated hearing loss. Listeners discriminated changes in synthetic vowel tokens /smcapi e ? invv æ/ when F1 or F2 varied in frequency. Comparison of YNH with YHI results failed to reveal significant differences between groups in terms of performance on vowel discrimination, in conditions of similar audibility by using both noise masking to elevate the hearing thresholds of the YNH and applying frequency-specific gain to the YHI listeners. Further, analysis of learning curves suggests that while the YHI listeners completed an average of 46% more test blocks than YNH listeners, the YHI achieved a level of discrimination similar to that of the YNH within the same number of blocks. Apparently, when age and gender are closely matched between young hearing-impaired and normal-hearing adults, performance on vowel tasks may be explained by audibility alone.
Motives to drink alcohol are widely thought to be the proximal cognitive factors involved in the decision to consume alcohol beverages. However it has also been argued that the ability to restrain drinking may be a more proximal predictor of drinking behaviour. The current study aimed to examine the relationships between drinking motives, drinking restraint and both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems in a sample of youngadults. A sample of 221 youngadults (aged 17-34 years) completed self-report measures assessing drinking behaviour, motives for drinking and drinking restraint. Multiple regression analyses revealed that coping, enhancement and social motives were related to alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, while Cognitive and Emotional Preoccupation with drinking was related to all criterion variables. Further, the relationship between coping motives and drinking behaviour was mediated by preoccupation with drinking. The results are discussed in light of the roles of drinking motives and drinking restraint in risky drinking among young people, and implications for prevention and early intervention are presented. PMID:19775821
Our experiments, carried out at night and during the day on adults and laboratory-born young of the sandhopper Talitrus saltator, deal with the identification and use of the moon as an orientating factor. Sandhoppers were released in an apparatus (a Plexiglas dome) that produced a scenario similar to the natural one (with artificial sky, moon or sun illuminated at different intensities). When tested at night, the adult and young sandhoppers used the artificial moon like the natural one, independently of the intensity of illumination of the artificial sky and moon. In other words, sandhoppers tested at night always identified the artificial moon as the moon and never as the sun. In daytime releases, the seaward orientation failed at low intensities of artificial sky and sun illumination (3.07 and 1.55??W?cm2, respectively), whereas the sun compass was used effectively at higher levels of artificial sun and sky illumination. The innate ability of moon compass orientation in inexpert young sandhoppers was demonstrated even under artificial light.
Ugolini, Alberto; Boddi, Vieri; Mercatelli, Luca; Castellini, Carlo
Abstract Purpose . Indoor tanning (IT) increases risk for melanoma and is particularly common among youngadult women. IT has also been linked with some psychiatric symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction) associated with endorphin release during ultraviolet radiation exposure. The objective of the current study was to investigate associations between IT, tanning dependence, and psychiatric and substance use symptoms in youngadult women. Design . Cross-sectional survey and psychiatric interview. Setting . Online, except for the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), which was completed over the telephone. Subjects . Participants were 306 female university students aged 18 to 25 years. Measures . MINI, Seasonal Scale Index, tanning dependence scales, reporting ever having used a tanning bed or booth with tanning lamps (single item), reporting smoking a cigarette in the last 30 days (single item). Analysis . Descriptive statistics, ?(2) analysis, multivariate logistic regression. Results . Forty-six percent of the sample reported a history of IT, and 25% were classified as tanning dependent. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that IT was significantly associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders, generalized anxiety, and not having social anxiety. Tanning dependence was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders. Conclusion . Tanning is of concern not only for its association with skin cancer but for its association with psychiatric and substance use symptoms. Young women with certain psychological problems may seek relief from their symptoms by IT. These findings suggest that indoor tanners may benefit from health behavior and other psychosocial interventions. PMID:23621780
In this study, I compared the shifts in worldview of affluent youngadults participating in a course on social justice issues to a control group of similar youngadults. In this course, participating students learned about the size, scope, causes, and impact of world hunger and global poverty. However, an analysis of pre- and postsurvey data revealed that the young
|A study of 643 adolescents and 474 youngadults explored relationships among young people's observations and opinions of exclusionary behavior and their reports of whether exclusion affects their social and academic adjustment. Findings indicated that, unlike youngadults, adolescents' perceptions of, and attitudes about, school ecologies…
There has been little research on the way in which the young respect the elderly, let alone on the issue of cross-cultural differences in elder respect. This study, comparing youngadults in the United States and young Korean adults in East Asia, explores the specific behavioral forms of elder respect that are cross-culturally equivalent and other forms that are culture
A study of the psychosocial functioning of youngadults with a history of learning disability (LD) in childhood is reported. The design was a non-clinic community follow-up investigation of a cohort of children who had received special education, the sample frame for which was a birth-period cohort survey. Participants were 149 youngadults (89 males and 60 females derived from a survey of the 33,800 children born in the Cambridge Health District between 1967 and 1973) at the stage of transition to adult services (age 18-22y), whose measured IQ scores in childhood were <80, and who had received special education during school years. Most of the youngadults were living at home (n=108) and many were in full-time employment (independent employment n=41, sheltered employment n=20), this survey having been carried out in an area of high employment. A strong correlation was found between the child IQ score and subsequent adult Vineland Scale Score. Greater efforts should be made to detect and assess LD and its attendant problems in children in order to plan future care and transition to adulthood, especially for those with more severe disabilities. PMID:16483395
Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among youngadult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement), lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ.
Youth with chronic conditions and special health care needs are surviving into adulthood. In certain circumstances, these youth may choose to remain with their pediatricians for their health care needs. However, most youth will require complex coordinated care in order for them to live full and productive lives to the best that they are able. Issues such as independence and dependence, educational and vocational choices, and insurance are important in transitioning to an adult-focused system of health care. This article addresses strategies that will assist youngadults with the process of transitioning from pediatric care centers to adult health care centers. Despite the importance of providing a transition program, few transition programs exist for young people with chronic conditions (Sawyer, Blair, & Bowes, 1997). This article will also discuss barriers to the transition process. PMID:12025316
This study explored the motivational factors that influence individuals across the stages of change for exercise. The authors compared physically active nonsmokers with physically active smokers in a college student population. Half of regular exercisers identified themselves as smokers. Compared with their nonsmoking peers, young smokers have higher rates of physical and emotional distress. Those participants who exercise and do not smoke are more likely to exhibit intrinsic factors for exercise. Undergraduate psychology students (N = 614) completed an Internet survey on exercise and smoking behavior as well as motivational factors for exercise. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that intrinsic motivational factors for exercise were significantly higher for the active nonsmokers than for the active smokers. Interventions promoting consistent exercise and smoking abstinence should continue to be directed toward youngadults, focusing on fostering intrinsic motivational factors for exercise. PMID:19433377
Abstract Objectives: To investigate the effect of sedative music on the different stages of the sleep cycle in youngadults with various sleep latencies by using polysomnography (PSG). Design: Prospective, randomized, controlled, crossover study. Setting: Sleep center of a teaching hospital. Participants: Youngadults with different sleep latencies. Poor sleepers (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score ?5) were excluded. Interventions: Each participant stayed one night in the sleep center for adaptation and on each of the following two nights was assigned to (1) music and (2) control (without music) conditions in random order. In the music condition, sedative music composed by certified music therapists was played on a compact disc player for the first hour the participant was in bed. Outcome measures: Sleep measures recorded with PSG, including sleep latency and durations of sleep stages. Results: Twenty-four youngadults (mean±standard deviation, 24.5±2.6 years) participated. They were classified into the short sleep latency (SL) group if the baseline SL of the adaptation night was shorter than 10 minutes or into the long SL group if the baseline SL was 10 minutes or longer. Sedative music did not alter the SL in either group. Sedative music reduced stage II sleep in both SL groups (main effect of music, p=0.03; interaction effect, p=0.87) but increased the duration of deep sleep (stages III and IV) only in the long SL group (main effect of music, p=0.15; interaction effect, p=0.02). Conclusions: In participants with long SL, sedative music improved the quality of sleep by prolonging the duration of deep sleep. This effect provides an alternative and noninvasive way to improve sleep in selected persons experiencing sleep problems. PMID:23663079
|Investigated relationship between aspects of memory self-report, objective memory, attitude toward intellectual aging, self-rated health, and self-rated depression in young and older adults. Older adults reported significantly more frequent failures in everyday memory, but less discomfort with failures, than did youngadults. Frequency,…
The developmental stability of poor math skill was studied in 31 youngadults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH), a neurodevelopmental disorder involving mal- formations of the brain and spinal cord. Longitudinally, individuals with poor math problem solving as children grew into adults with poor problem solving and limited functional numeracy. As a group, youngadults with SBH had poor
Investigated relationship between aspects of memory self-report, objective memory, attitude toward intellectual aging, self-rated health, and self-rated depression in young and older adults. Older adults reported significantly more frequent failures in everyday memory, but less discomfort with failures, than did youngadults. Frequency,…
|This study examined the extent to which youngadults recollections of their childhood experiences with parents were associated with their reported feelings and behavior in romantic relationships. Participants were 205 youngadults. Based on a question from the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996), participants wrote…
The adult adjustment 3 years after graduation of individuals with mild disabilities, with specific emphasis on individuals with behavioral disorders, was investigated in this study. Of the initial statewide random sample of 561 graduates from resource programs, 473 were interviewed: 24 youngadults with behavioral disorders, 374 youngadults with learning disabilities, and 75 individuals with mental disabilities. Data are
Alan R. Frank; Patricia L. Sitlington; Rori R. Carson
Contents: Introduction to Volume II; Overview of Key Findings; Study Design and Procedures; Prevalence of Drug Use Among YoungAdults; Trends in Drug Use among YoungAdults; Attitudes and Beliefs About Drugs Among YoungAdults; The Social Milieu for Young...
Objectives To assess the relationship between modifiable health risks (eg, unhealthy diet) and interest in interventions in a sample of youngadult cancer survivors (YACS). Methods Sixty YACS, aged 18 to 40, completed surveys. Results Few met recommendations for diet, exercise, or weight (ie, body mass index, BMI). Participants expressed interest in several health behavior programs, and there was a significant relationship between BMI and interest in weight loss. Conclusions Findings suggest that YACS are interested in and may benefit from healthy lifestyle interventions.
Background\\/Aims Studies have shown that celiac disease can affect individuals in all age groups. However, few studies have described the disease\\u000a in the elderly. The goal of this study is to characterize celiac disease in the elderly by comparing to a population of young\\u000a adults with celiac disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Review of a tertiary center database of patients with celiac disease was performed
Rupa Mukherjee; Ikenna Egbuna; Pardeep Brar; Lincoln Hernandez; Donald J. McMahon; Elizabeth J. Shane; Govind Bhagat; Peter H. R. Green
The family practitioner, pediatrician, and dermatologist each have potential roles in the primary prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of localized thin melanomas. Surgical and medical oncologists are often involved when controversy arises over the nature of the skin lesion or whether sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsies and adjuvant therapy are to be contemplated. This overview of melanoma will deal with the primary and nodal pathology, surgery, and medical therapy of melanoma in pediatric, adolescent, and youngadult patients—and will raise areas of controversy that are only recently being addressed in databases of cases from this age group.
Kirkwood, John M.; Jukic, Drazen; Averbook, Bruce J.; Sender, Leonard S.
Objective This paper examines the prevalence of and the factors associated with condom use in a sample of 283 youngadult ecstasy users.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The study, which relied upon targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping, took place between 2002 and 2004. It entailed conducting\\u000a two-hour-long, face-to-face interviews in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results Condom use was inconsistent; only 35.2% of all sex acts
Study Design Case report Background Clinical practice guidelines regarding the conservative management of degenerative hip conditions in older adults routinely incorporate therapeutic exercise and manual therapy. However, the application of these recommendations to young, active adults is less clear. The purpose of this case report is to describe the management of a youngadult with advanced hip arthrosis using a multi-faceted rehabilitation program. Case Description A 28-year old female with severe left hip degeneration per diagnostic imaging was referred to physical therapy. Reduced hip range of motion and strength, sacroiliac joint asymmetries, and a modified Harris Hip Score of 76 were observed. She was seen for 12 visits over a 3-month period and treated with an individualized program including manual therapy, therapeutic exercise, and neuromuscular re-education. Outcome Substantial improvements were noted in pain, hip range of motion and strength and function (modified Harris Hip Score of 97). In addition, she discontinued the use of anti-inflammatory medications and returned to her prior level of activity. Improvements were maintained at a 3 month follow up, with symptom recurrence managed using a self mobilization technique to the left hip and massage to the left iliopsoas. Discussion Degenerative hip conditions are common among older adults but are relatively rare in the younger population. Although it is likely that this patient will experience a return of her symptoms and functional limitations as her hip disease progresses, the immediate improvements may delay the need for eventual surgical management. These outcomes suggest that physical therapy management should be considered in those with an early onset of degenerative hip disease and are consistent with results previously reported in the older population. Level of Evidence Therapy, Level 4
Objective To evaluate the impact of breakfast consumption patterns on the nutritional adequacy of diets of youngadults and determine possible ethnic and gender differences.Design and setting Cross-sectional survey of youngadults in Bogalusa, La.Subjects Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected from October 1988 through October 1991 on 504 youngadults (mean age=23 years, 58% women, 70% white).Statistics Analysis of variance
THERESA A NICKLAS; LEANN MYERS; CHRISTINA REGER; BETTINA BEECH; GERALD S BERENSON
LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe the impact of breakfast consumption on the nutritional adequacy of the diets of youngadults.Breakfast consumption patterns of 504 youngadults (x age: 23yrs.; 58% female, 70% white) were examined using the 24-hour dietary recall. Consumption patterns were then related to mean daily nutrient intake. Thirty-seven percent of youngadults skipped breakfast. For those who ate
C. Reger; T. Nicklas; L. Myers; B. Beech; G. Berenson
This article analyses the ways in which the professional literature—by scholars, educators and reviewers—represents youngadult female protagonists and approaches sexism. Drawing on critical race feminist theory, the author finds that recommended youngadult female protagonists are still overwhelmingly white, middle?class and heterosexual. Despite descriptors such as ‘strong’, ‘gutsy’, ‘feisty’ and ‘independent’, the youngadult female protagonists that are recommended
In this study, cognitive flexibility was tested as a mediator of family communication environments (i.e., family expressiveness, structural traditionalism, and avoidance of conflict) and youngadults' well-being (i.e., self-esteem, mental health, and physical health). Participants included 395 youngadults from first-marriage and postdivorce families. Using structural equation modeling, the results revealed that family expressiveness positively predicted youngadults' cognitive flexibility,
This study examined autonomy, anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior in 86 food allergic youngadults and\\u000a 344 healthy youngadults between the ages of 18 and 22. Participants completed an online survey measuring self-reported autonomy,\\u000a anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior. Results indicated that, as a group, food allergic youngadults\\u000a did not differ from healthy peers.
Background: Youngadults who use stimulants (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines) are at particular risk of transitioning to dependence. Previously, we demonstrated increased risk-taking in youngadults who had used stimulants (Leland, D.S., Paulus, M.P., 2005. Increased risk-taking decision-making but not altered response to punishment in stimulant-using youngadults. Drug. Alcohol Depend. 78, 83-90). Since outcome uncertainty is a critical element of
David S. Leland; Estibaliz Arce; Justin S. Feinstein; Martin P. Paulus
This research aimed to compare the prevalence rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) and to differentiate the presence and severity of depressive symptoms between women and men aged 18-24?years. In this population-based, cross-sectional study (n?=?1560), youngadults were screened with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for MDD (n?=?137). Participants then completed a self-report questionnaire to gather sociodemographic data, and the presence of each symptom of depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. The proportion of women (12.2%) with MDD was higher than that of men (5.3%). The symptoms of depression found to be significantly more prevalent in women were sadness, crying, difficulty making decisions, and lack of energy, as well as self-criticism, irritability, changes in self-image, work difficulty, and loss of interest in sex. Sadness and self-criticism were significantly more severe in women than in men. The presentation of depressive symptoms in youngadults with MDD differed between men and women. PMID:23651450
Background Motor vehicle injury is the major cause of mortality among youngadults. Information about the individual characteristics of those who drive dangerously could enhance traffic safety programs. The goal of this research was to examine the association between various personality-related characteristics and risky driving behaviors. Methods Youngadults in Michigan, USA (n = 5,362) were surveyed by telephone regarding several personality factors (risk-taking, hostility, aggression, tolerance of deviance, achievement expectations) and driving behaviors (competitive driving, risk-taking driving, high-risk driving, aggressive driving, and drink/driving). Michigan driver records were obtained to examine offenses, serious offenses, driving offense points, crashes and serious crashes in the three pre-interview years. Multivariate regression analyses, adjusting for age, race, and marital status were conducted separately by sex to identify personality factors related to driving. Results For men and women, greater risk-taking propensity, physical/verbal hostility, aggression, and tolerance of deviance were significant predictors of a competitive attitude toward driving, risk-taking driving, high-risk driving, driving aggression, and drink/driving. Greater risk-taking propensity, physical/verbal hostility, aggression, and to a small degree, expectations for achievement predicted higher numbers of offenses, serious offenses, and points. Conclusion Traffic safety policies and programs could be enhanced through recognition of the role personality factors play in driving behavior and the incorporation of this knowledge into the design and implementation of interventions that modify the behaviors associated with them.
PATIL, SUJATA M.; SHOPE, JEAN THATCHER; RAGHUNATHAN, TRIVELLORE E.; BINGHAM, C. RAYMOND
Behavioral and psychosocial correlates of drinking and driving were examined in two independent samples of licensed drivers aged 18 to 25 selected from the Colorado Division of Motor Vehicles database. Mail questionnaires were returned by 2,300 youngadults (1,196 in Sample 1; 1,104 in Sample 2). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relation of a latent-variable measure of drinking-driving to latent-variable measures of other driving behaviors, problem behaviors and psychosocial variables. Drinking-driving, drug-driving and risky driving were found to comprise a more general, second-order factor of problem driving behavior. Drinking-driving was also found to constitute one aspect of a larger second-order latent variable that included problem drinking, marijuana use, other illicit drug use and delinquent-type behavior. In combination, the variables of problem driving, other problem behaviors, psychosocial unconventionality, risk-taking and hostility/aggression accounted for 57% of the variance in youngadult drinking-driving. All of these Sample 1 findings were buttressed by confirmatory analyses in the independent Sample 2 data. The conclusion can be drawn that drinking-driving is part of a more general lifestyle involving behavior and psychosocial unconventionality. PMID:8412150
This pilot study tested the efficacy of a brief intervention using motivational interviewing (MI) plus mindfulness meditation (MM) to reduce marijuana use among youngadult females. Thirty-four female marijuana users between the ages of 18 and 29 were randomized to either the intervention group (n = 22), consisting of two sessions of MI-MM, or an assessment-only control group (n = 12). The participants' marijuana use was assessed at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 months posttreatment. Fixed-effects regression modeling was used to analyze treatment effects. Participants randomized to the intervention group were found to use marijuana on 6.15 (z = -2.42, p = .015), 7.81 (z = -2.78, p = .005), and 6.83 (z = -2.23, p = .026) fewer days at Months 1, 2, and 3, respectively, than controls. Findings from this pilot study provide preliminary evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of a brief MI-MM for youngadult female marijuana users. PMID:21940136
de Dios, Marcel A; Herman, Debra S; Britton, Willoughby B; Hagerty, Claire E; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D
Young people are increasingly using social networking sites (SNSs) like MySpace and Facebook to engage with others. The use of SNSs can have both positive and negative effects on the individual; however, few studies identify the types of people who frequent these Internet sites. This study sought to predict youngadults' use of SNSs and addictive tendency toward the use of SNSs from their personality characteristics and levels of self-esteem. University students (N = 201), aged 17 to 24 years, reported their use of SNSs and addictive tendencies for SNSs use and completed the NEO Five-Factor Personality Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Multiple regression analyses revealed that, as a group, the personality and self-esteem factors significantly predicted both level of SNS use and addictive tendency but did not explain a large amount of variance in either outcome measure. The findings indicated that extroverted and unconscientious individuals reported higher levels of both SNS use and addictive tendencies. Future research should attempt to identify which other psychosocial characteristics explain young people's level of use and propensity for addictive tendencies for these popular Internet sites. PMID:20528274
Wilson, Kathryn; Fornasier, Stephanie; White, Katherine M
Objectives. We sought to fill gaps in knowledge of smoking behaviors among college-educated and non–college-educated youngadults. Methods. We used data from the 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey to analyze smoking behaviors among youngadults aged 18–24 years and older youngadults aged 25–34 years by college status (enrolled, or with a degree, but not enrolled) and other measures of socioeconomic position. Results. Current smoking prevalence among US youngadults aged 18–24 years who are not enrolled in college or who do not have a college degree was 30%. This was more than twice the current smoking prevalence among college-educated youngadults (14%). Non–college-educated youngadults were more likely than were college-educated youngadults to start smoking at a younger age and were less likely to have made a quit attempt, although no differences were found in their intentions to quit. Higher rates of smoking in the non–college-educated population were also evident in the slightly older age group. Conclusions. Non–college-educated youngadults smoke at more than twice the rate of their college-educated counterparts. Targeted prevention and cessation efforts are needed for non–college-educated youngadults to prevent excess morbidity and mortality in later years.
Green, Molly P.; McCausland, Kristen L.; Xiao, Haijun; Duke, Jennifer C.; Vallone, Donna M.; Healton, Cheryl G.
|Examines the concept of youngadult services in public libraries, concentrating on lack of adequate professional personnel and training, administrative rigidity, and future directions for these services. (CWM)|
Our aim was to analyze an important subgroup represented by youngadult patients (19-45 years) with acute ischemic stroke according to stroke classification (including the novel ASCO score), infarct types and risk factors. All patients up to 45 years of age with an acute ischemic stroke confirmed by MRI and treated in our stroke unit from 2006 to 2009 were recruited for this study. Patients were neurologically examined and underwent thorough stroke work-up. One hundred four patients (58 women, 46 men) with a mean age of 38 ± 6.9 years were evaluated. The mean NIHSS score (±SD) was 3 ± 5 on admission and 1 ± 4 on discharge. The classification using TOAST/ASCO (grade 1) was as follows: Macroangiopathic 10.6%/8.7%, cardiac origin 21.2%/10.6%, microangiopathic 9.6%/9.6%, other causes 19.2%/13.5% and undetermined 39.4%/19.2% (for A0S0C0O0). The most common risk factors were smoking (55.2%), hypertension (31.4%) and hyperlipidemia (27.6%). Twenty nine of 74 patients with TEE (39.2%) had a patent foramen ovale (PFO). Hypoplastic posterior circulation (21.9%) and migraine (21.0%) were also quite common. Youngadult ischemic stroke patients share many of the characteristic risk factors with the general elderly ischemic stroke population. If regular work-up includes TEE, a high percentage of young patients reveal comorbidities with PFO, hypoplasia of the posterior circulation and migraine. The ASCO classification should be favored for a better classification of coexisting stroke subtypes and lower number of undetermined etiologies in this patient group. PMID:21927959
Chatzikonstantinou, Anastasios; Wolf, Marc E; Hennerici, Michael G
Background Young adulthood is a critical age for weight gain, yet scant research has examined modifiable contextual influences on weight that could inform age-appropriate interventions. Purpose The aims of this research included: (1) describing where youngadults eat and purchase food, including distance from home, and (2) estimating the percentage of eating/purchasing locations contained within GIS-generated buffers traditionally used in research. Methods Forty-eight participants (aged 18–23 years, n=27 women) represented diverse lifestyle groups. Participants logged characteristics of all eating/drinking occasions (including location) occurring over 7 days (n=1237) using PDAs. Participants recorded addresses for stores where they purchased food to bring home. Using GIS, estimates were made of distances between participants’ homes and eating/purchasing locations. Data collection occurred in 2008–2009 and data analysis occurred in 2010. Results Among participants living independently or with family (n=36), 59.1% of eating occasions were at home. Away-from-home eating locations averaged 6.7 miles from home; food- shopping locations averaged 3.1 miles from home. Only 12% of away-from-home eating occasions fell within ½-mile residential buffers, versus 17% within 1 mile and 34% within 2 miles. Additionally, 12%, 19%, and 58% of shopping trips fell within these buffers, respectively. Results were similar for participants residing in dormitories. Conclusions Youngadults often purchase and eat food outside of commonly used GIS-generated buffers around their homes. This suggests the need for a broader understanding of their food environments.
Laska, Melissa Nelson; Graham, Dan J.; Moe, Stacey G.; Van Riper, David
|The American Civil War has been a popular topic for young-adult writers for years, with new books now being written from young women's perspectives. In this paper, I will examine the gender ideologies that infiltrate contemporary Civil War books for youngadults. I will examine four recent young-adult Civil-War novels: G. Clifton Wisler's "Mr.…
In contrast to the abundant research on family relationships during adolescence, the nature of family interactions during young adulthood remains comparatively unexamined. The current study explored ethnic differences in youngadults’ interactions with parents and siblings, the role of other activities in youngadults’ family interactions, and the association of family interactions with youngadults’ psychological distress and well-being. A
Background In the U.S., where coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality, CHD risk assessment is a priority and accurate blood pressure (BP) measurement is essential. Methods Hypertension estimates in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), Wave IV (2008)—a nationally-representative field study of 15,701 participants aged 24–32—was referenced against NHANES (2007–2008) participants of the same age. We examined discordances in hypertension, and estimated the accuracy and reliability of blood pressure in the Add Health study. Results Hypertension rates (BP ? 140/90 mm Hg) were higher in Add Health compared with NHANES (19% versus 4%), but self-reported history was similar (11% versus 9%) among adults aged 24–32. Survey weights and adjustments for differences in participant characteristics, examination time, use of anti-hypertensive medications, and consumption of food/caffeine/cigarettes before blood pressure measurement had little effect on between-study differences in hypertension estimates. Among Add Health participants interviewed and examined twice (full and abbreviated interviews), blood pressure was similar, as was blood pressure at the in-home and in-clinic exams conducted by NHANES III (1988–1994). In Add Health, there was minimal digit preference in blood pressure measurements; mean bias never exceeded 2 mm Hg; and reliability (estimated as intra-class correlation coefficients) was 0.81 and 0.68 for systolic and diastolic BPs, respectively. Conclusions The proportion of youngadults in NHANES reporting a history of hypertension was twice that with measured hypertension, whereas the reverse was found in Add Health. Between-survey differences were not explained by digit preference, low validity, or reliability of Add Health blood pressure data, or by salient differences in participant selection, measurement context, or interview content. The prevalence of hypertension among Add Health Wave IV participants suggests an unexpectedly high risk of cardiovascular disease among U.S. youngadults and warrants further scrutiny.
Nguyen, Quynh C.; Tabor, Joyce W.; Entzel, Pamela P.; Lau, Yan; Suchindran, Chirayath; Hussey, Jon M.; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Whitsel, Eric A.
Childhood psychological trauma is a strong predictor of psychopathology. Preclinical research points to the influence of this type of trauma on brain development. However, the effects of psychological trauma on the developing human brain are less known and a challenging question is whether the effects can be reversed or even prevented. The aim of this review is to give an overview of neuroimaging studies in traumatized juveniles and youngadults up till 2012. Neuroimaging studies in children and adolescents with traumatic experiences were found to be scarce. Most studies were performed by a small number of research groups in the United States and examined structural abnormalities. The reduction in hippocampal volume reported in adults with PTSD could not be confirmed in juveniles. The most consistent finding in children and adolescents, who experienced psychological trauma are structural abnormalities of the corpus callosum. We could not identify any studies investigating treatment effects. Neuroimaging studies in traumatized children and adolescents clearly lag behind studies in traumatized adults as well as studies on ADHD and autism. PMID:23553572
Rinne-Albers, Mirjam A W; van der Wee, Nic J A; Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Vermeiren, Robert R J M
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires that adults up to age twenty-six be permitted to enroll as dependents on their parents' health plans. This article examines the experiences of states that enacted dependent expansion laws. Drawing on public information from thirty-one enacting states and case studies of four diverse reform states, it derives lessons that are pertinent to the implementation of this ACA provision. Dependent coverage laws vary across the states, but most impose residency, marital status, and other restrictions. The federal Employee Retirement Income Security Act further limits the reach of state laws. Eligibility for expanded coverage under the ACA is much broader. Rules in some states requiring or allowing separate premiums for adult dependents may also discourage enrollment compared with rules in other states (and the ACA), where these costs must be factored into family premiums. Business opposition in some states led to more restrictive regulations, especially for how premiums are charged, which in turn raised greater implementation challenges. Case study states did not report substantial youngadult dependent coverage take-up, but early enrollment experience under ACA appears to be more positive. Long-term questions remain about the implications of this policy for risk pooling and the distribution of premium costs. PMID:22273776
Cantor, Joel C; Belloff, Dina; Monheit, Alan C; Delia, Derek; Koller, Margaret
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a malignancy of the lymphatic system with an incidence of 2-3/100,000/year in Europe and North America. The disease generally occurs in all age groups, but youngadults are most often affected. Thus, adolescents aged 15 or 16 to 21 represent a relevant portion of patients. The optimum treatment for this age group is undefined. Both pediatric protocols such as OEPA (vincristine, etoposide, prednisone, adriamycin) or ABVE-PC (adriamycin, bleomycin, vincristine, etoposide, prednisone, cyclophosphamide) and adult regimens such as ABVD (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) or BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone) have been shown to be safe and active, resulting in long-term survival rates of 80% and more. However, a prospective comparison of pediatric and adult treatment strategies in terms of efficacy and other important questions such as treatment-related acute and long-term toxicity has not been undertaken so far. This review aims at shedding some light on potential treatment approaches for adolescents with HL and includes more recent analyses in this patient group. PMID:22168275
Eichenauer, Dennis A; Borchmann, Peter; Engert, Andreas
Few studies address the developmental transition from youth tobacco use uptake to regular adulthood use, especially for noncigarette tobacco products. The current study uses online panel data from the Legacy YoungAdult Cohort Study to describe the prevalence of cigarette, other tobacco product, and dual use in a nationally representative sample of youngadults aged 18–34 (N = 4,201). Of the 23% of youngadults who were current tobacco users, 30% reported dual use. Ever use, first product used, and current use were highest for cigarettes, cigars, little cigars, and hookah. Thirty-two percent of ever tobacco users reported tobacco product initiation after the age of 18 and 39% of regular users reported progressing to regular use during young adulthood. This study highlights the need for improved monitoring of polytobacco use across the life course and developing tailored efforts for youngadults to prevent progression and further reduce overall population prevalence.
Rath, Jessica M.; Villanti, Andrea C.; Abrams, David B.; Vallone, Donna M.
Background: The transition from school to adulthood for youngadults with an intellectual disability involves movement from a generally secure and supported school environment to an emerging adult life that may be characterised by a wide variation in adoption of adult roles related to employment, independent living, friendships, and day…
Dyke, Paula; Bourke, Jenny; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Leonard, Helen
|Background: The transition from school to adulthood for youngadults with an intellectual disability involves movement from a generally secure and supported school environment to an emerging adult life that may be characterised by a wide variation in adoption of adult roles related to employment, independent living, friendships, and day…
Dyke, Paula; Bourke, Jenny; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Leonard, Helen
Age and gender differences in personal meanings of death have been noted from late childhood to middle adulthood but have been little studied in older adults, for whom death is less remote. Also, such meanings have not been related to their fears of death. Groups of 78 youngadults (aged 19–29) and 68 older adults (aged 70–97) were compared on
BACKGROUND: The long-term health consequences of drug use among healthy youngadults in the general population are not well described. We assessed whether drug use predicted decline in general self-rated health (GSRH) in a community-based cohort, healthy at baseline.\\u000aMETHODS: A prospective cohort of 3124 youngadults (20-32 years old) from four US cities, the Coronary Artery Risk Development in
Stefan G. Kertesz; Mark J. Pletcher; Monika M. Safford; Jewell H. Halanych; Katharine Kirk; Joseph Schumacher; Stephen Sidney; Catarina I. Kiefe
Objective—Our purpose was to study the association between familial and particularly fetal tobacco smoke exposure and vascular damage in young adulthood. Methods and Results—From a cohort of 732 youngadults, birth data were collected and in young adulthood ultrasound measurement of common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) was performed. Data on parental smoking were obtained by standardized questionnaires. Twenty-nine percent
Caroline C. Geerts; D. E. Grobbee; M. L. Bots; Cuno S. P. M. Uiterwaal
Cognitive and personality disturbances following severe closed head injury in youngadults are associated with poor rehabilitation outcome. Yet systematic programmes for dealing with these disturbances have generally not appeared. The present report briefly describes the Neuropsychological Rehabilitation Program (NRP) at Presbyterian Hospital in Oklahoma City and the initial outcome data on eighteen closed head injury patients and seventeen untreated controls. Greater improvement in neuropsychological functioning occurred in the NRP patient group on selected variables, but generally the effects were modest. Emotional distress, however, substantially decreased in treated patients. Fifty percent of the NRP patients maintained productivity 75% of the time or more following rehabilitation, compared to 36% of the controls. Treatment successes showed less personality disturbances than treatment failures and better learning and memory scores post-treatment.
Prigatano, G P; Fordyce, D J; Zeiner, H K; Roueche, J R; Pepping, M; Wood, B C
Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high prevalence setting of South Africa—where youngadults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. In 2007, we conducted six focus groups (n=42) with South Africans aged 18-24 years old. We used a deductive framework approach to identify key motivators and barriers to future HIV vaccine uptake. Participants identified HIV testing, HIV stigma, mistrust of the health care system, and concerns about sexual disinhibition as barriers to vaccine uptake. For women, family members and friends were strong motivators for vaccine uptake, while men were more likely to see vaccines as an opportunity to stop using HIV prevention strategies such as condoms and partner reductions. Implications of these findings for developing HIV vaccine dissemination strategies and policy in South Africa are discussed.
Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.
Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 youngadults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language impairment (SLI). A correlational analysis of the relationship between language scores and Miranda rights comprehension was conducted, as were tests of differences between individuals with SLI (n = 17) and individuals without SLI. Results Language ability was positively correlated with overall performance on the Miranda measure. As a group, individuals with SLI were significantly poorer than their peers with normal language at defining Miranda vocabulary and applying Miranda rights in hypothetical situations. The group with SLI was also marginally less able to paraphrase Miranda sentences. Conclusion Language impairment limits comprehension of Miranda warnings. As a result, citizens with language impairment are at risk of being denied their constitutional rights.
STUDY OBJECTIVES--To evaluate the impact of an AIDS education programme designed for youngadults. DESIGN--A randomised trial with a pre-post test design. SETTING--Participants were drawn from six youth training centres in the city of Nottingham, England. STUDY POPULATION--All trainees aged 16-19 years attending the six centres were included in the sample and centres were randomly allocated to experimental (n = 173) and control (n = 164) groups. The response rate to both questionnaires was high (71%). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Data on sexual behaviour, knowledge, and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS were obtained by confidential questionnaire. Two thirds of the sample were sexually active. There were no differences between groups at pre-test and no differences by sex. The experimental group had a significantly higher level of knowledge than the control group post-test. Significantly more experimental than control trainees knew post-test that HIV could be transmitted via anal sex and through broken skin. In addition, twice as many experimental (53%) as control trainees (25%; p < 0.001) were aware that a cure for AIDS was unlikely in the near future. There were no observed effects on sexual behaviour, intentions, or attitudes. CONCLUSIONS--The Streetwize UK educational programme had a significant impact on youngadults' knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention in the short term. If community based AIDS education is to do more than merely inform, however, resources must be made available for peer led interventions and skills training.
Purpose: Our objective was to analyze the association between different intensities of physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and metabolic syndrome (MS) in youngadults. Methods: Cross-sectional study including 275 university students, 18-30 years old, from Cuenca, Spain. We evaluated (a) physical activity using accelerometry, (b) aerobic capacity (VO2max), and (c) muscle strength, by a muscle strength index calculated as the sum of the standardized z score of handgrip dynamometry/weight and standing broad jump. An MS index was estimated by summing standardized z scores of waist circumference, ratio of triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein, mean arterial blood pressure, and HOMA-IR. Results: The mean scores of MS index and HOMA-IR were significantly higher and the VO2max significantly lower for individuals who did not perform 20 min or more per week of vigorous physical activity. However, those who performed 250 min/week of moderate physical activity showed no significant differences in either VO2max or the MS index when compared with individuals who did not perform this level of activity. The MS index was lower in those with medium-high levels of aerobic capacity. In addition, individuals with medium-high levels of muscular fitness showed lower waist circumference and a lower MS index. Conclusions: VO2max and muscle strength are negatively associated with metabolic risk. 20-min/week of vigorous physical activity was associated with lower cardiometabolic risk in youngadults; moderate physical activity did not show association with lower cardiometabolic risk. PMID:23994896
López-Martínez, Sara; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Solera-Martinez, Montserrat; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Fuentes-Chacón, Rosa M; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente
Magical realism as a literary mode is often subversive and transgressive, questioning the values and assumptions of the dominant society that it depicts. Youngadult literature, by contrast, is typically thought to serve a socializing function, helping to integrate young readers into adult society. What then is the cultural work of magical realism…
|A 1996 report recognized the benefits of effective learning provision and the impact that mental health difficulties can have on quality of life of youngadults in the United Kingdom. The range of mental health difficulties experienced by youngadults in the United Kingdom and elsewhere is similar to that experienced by the older population and…
National Inst. of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester (England).
|This study compared the cognitive control skills of male incarcerated adolescents (n = 44), male control adolescents (n = 33), male incarcerated youngadults (n = 41), and male control youngadults (n = 35) using the AX-continuous performance test (AX-CPT). This test measures proactive control (the ability to maintain a mental representation of…
This study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral intervention for youngadults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Four youngadults were referred for the therapy by medical staff because of perceived problems with anxiety, anger, or coping. Treatment impact was assessed on measures of anxiety, anger, perceptions of functional disability, and coping. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used.
Anthony A. Hains; W. Hobart Davies; Darcia Behrens; Mary Ellen Freeman; Julie A. Biller
|Youngadults are at risk for Hepatitis B infection. Little is known about their attitudes and beliefs concerning Hepatitis B, which are determinants of getting immunized. This investigation examined risk perceptions and behavioral intentions concerning Hepatitis B among a convenience sample of 1070 youngadults, 18-24 years old who participated…
Gonzales, R. M.; Glik, D. C.; Prelip, M.; Bourque, L.; Yuen, J.; Ang, A.; Jones, M. C.
This article reports on a recent research project undertaken in the UK that investigated youngadults' perception of potentially risky behaviour online. The research was undertaken through the use of an online survey associated with the UK teen soap opera Being Victor. The findings of the project suggest that this sample of British youngadults was mostly aware of the
|Little research has examined the perspectives of youngadults with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) parents, particularly in relation to their identification with the LGBTQ community. To address this gap, we conducted a qualitative study of 42 youngadults (ages 18-29) who were raised by LGBQ parents. We found that…
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Richardson, Hannah B.; Downing, Jordan B.
The perceived leadership abilities of youngadults residing in rural areas of North Dakota were assessed. Data were collected by use of a mail questionnaire sent to 578 youngadults aged 18 to 40 residing in cities with a population of fewer than 2,500 and in those areas outside of towns and cities. About three-fourths of the respondents were…
The relationship between background characteristics of youngadults such as sex, marital status, parenthood, income level, age, educational background, occupational level, and church participation were studied as to their influence on the ethical values of marital fidelity, honesty, and goodwill. Of 400 youngadults in 52 Protestant congregations…
The rates of restitution of skeletal muscle, heart, and brain creatine phosphate and brain ATP, following experimental depletion, were compared in young (3–5 month), adult (12 month) and old (24 month) rats. In skeletal muscle, restitution of creatine phosphate after 3 min of recovery was greatest in the young rats, minimal in the adult animals, and absent in the old
Renal, cardiovascular and hormonal characteristics of youngadults with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. We studied youngadults with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) to determine the characteristics that precede renal impairment. Nineteen affected (A) and 20 unaffected (U) offspring from families with ADPKD showed no significant differences in basal glomerular filtration rate (A: mean 97, SD 19; U:
Stephen B Harrap; David L Davies; Ann M Macnicol; Anna F Dominiczak; Robert Fraser; Alan F Wright; Michael L Watson; J Douglas Briggs
|Objective: Measure select Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators in youngadults with and without a history of developmental disabilities (DD) using a population-based cohort. Methods: Youngadults were interviewed to assess the prevalence of seven Leading Health Indicators: physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance…
Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Schendel, Diana; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn
Little information is available on the education, employment, and independent living status of young deaf and hard of hearing adults who have transitioned from high school. The present article reports post-secondary outcomes of 46 youngadults who had attended for at least 4 years a nonâ€“public agency school in the northwestern United States specializing in deaf education. School administrators had
Karen I. Appelman; Judy Ottren Callahan; Margaret H. Mayer; Barbara S. Luetke; Deborah S. Stryker
|Objective: To examine whether age of first use or frequency of use of cannabis is associated with anxiety and depression (AD) in youngadults, independent of known potential confounders, including the use of other illicit drugs. Method: A cohort of 3,239 Australian youngadults was followed from birth to the age of 21 when data on AD were…
Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad R.; Najman, Jake M.; Jamrozik, Konrad; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Alati, Rosa; Bor, William
|While many adolescents and youngadults experiment with substances (e.g., alcohol, cigarette smoking, marijuana), recent research suggests that rural youth and youngadults may be more at risk for substance use than their urban counterparts. This study was designed to examine the longitudinal relationships between rural adolescents' prosocial…
Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Beal, Sarah J.
Youngadults are a nutritionally vulnerable, poorly studied group; little is known about their risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Dietary intake data were collected in 1995-1996 on 1,012 youngadults (20-38 years) (61% female; 21% black) using the youth/adolescent questionnaire, a semi-quantitativ...
|Purpose: To gain a better understanding of language abilities, the expressive macrostructural narrative language abilities of verbally expressive adolescents and youngadults with Down syndrome (DS) and those with fragile X syndrome (FXS) were examined. Method: The authors evaluated 24 adolescents and youngadults with DS, 12 male adolescents and…
Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Palmer, Meghan; Abbeduto, Leonard
Obesity results from energy imbalance. This study used data from the Bogalusa Heart Study to examine relationships between the dietary and physical activity behaviors of youngadults. One thousand one hundred ninety-one youngadults (76% Euro-American, 24% African-American, 61% female) completed a f...
|Teaching for social responsibility should be one of the vital aims of our schools. Youngadult literature offers an authentic, meaningful, and critical way to teach for social responsibility. This article offers an overview of the different elements of social responsibility and some youngadult novels and graphic novels that could be used to…
Little is known about the relationship of diet and weight to alcohol consumption in youngadults. Dietary intake data were collected in 1995–1996 on 1,335 youngadults (20–38 years) (62% female; 27% black) using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (YAQ), and the Health Lifestyle-Behavio...
|Background: Few studies have investigated transition programs and outcomes for youngadults with disabilities as viewed from the parent perspective. The current Australian study provided a voice for parents to report on the experiences of and outcomes for youngadults following their recent transition from school into post-school life. Method: A…
|Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of youngadults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among youngadults with ID is lacking altogether.…
Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra
|This study examined how the life course status of youngadults--whether they have a romantic partner and whether they have children--is related to how often they have contact with their parents. Hypotheses were tested using recent data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study. The main sample included 1,911 youngadults between the ages of 18 and…
Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie; Hagendoorn, Louk
|The purpose of this study was to ascertain vocational interests and self-estimated work-relevant abilities of youngadults with disabilities. Results showed that youngadults with both low incidence and high incidence disabilities have a wide range of interests and self-estimated work-relevant abilities that are comparable to those in the general…
|Adolescent dating violence (ADV) is a significant community problem. In this study, we examine the perspectives of two groups (youngadults who experienced ADV as teens and professionals who work with teens) on ADV prevention/intervention in a community context. We interviewed 88 youngadults and 20 professionals. Our research team used Thorne's…
Martsolf, Donna S.; Colbert, Crystal; Draucker, Claire B.
|Introduction: Little research has been reported on all aspects of sexuality as it pertains to individuals with visual impairments. This article analyzes data on the sexual experiences of youngadults who are visually impaired and youngadults without disabilities. Methods: The authors conducted a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal…
|Background: Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless youngadults. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining competitive employment; yet few examples exist to date with homeless youngadults with mental…
|The present study examined civic engagement--volunteering and political activism--among 129 African American youngadults from an urban community. The proposed model considered factors that motivate youngadults to participate in civic activities as well as barriers that might inhibit involvement. Drawing upon social cognitive theory, this study…
BACKGROUND: Risky sexual behaviors of youngadults have received increasing attention during the last decades. However, few studies have focused on the sexual behavior of youngadults in shantytowns of Latin America. Specifically, studies on the association between sexual behaviors and other risk factors for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV\\/AIDS transmission, such as the consumption of illicit drugs or
Juan A Gálvez-Buccollini; Suzanne DeLea; Phabiola M Herrera; Robert H Gilman; Valerie Paz-Soldan
The present study had three main objectives: (1) to develop and validate scales of youngadult social competence in two domains, close relationships and social groups, using peer ratings of California Q-sort (Block, 1974; Kremen & Block, 2002) items; (2) to test the hypothesis that social competence is associated with youngadult well-being and ego development; (3) to test the
Justine J. Larson; Sarah W. Whitton; Stuart T. Hauser; Joseph P. Allen
|The purpose of this study was to describe the meanings of good nonresidential fathering from the recollections of youngadults with a childhood experience of divorce. An additional purpose was to identify barriers and contributions to good nonresidential fathering from the viewpoint of youngadults. A phenomenological perspective was used to…
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between use of herbs and dietary supplements (HDS) and lifestyle\\/behavior factors in youngadults in the US. METHODS: Analyzing the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we examined the patterns of HDS (excluding vitamins\\/minerals) use among youngadults in the United States using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. RESULTS: In our sample of
Paula Gardiner; Kathi J Kemper; Anna Legedza; Russell S Phillips
This paper presents the results of an investigation of parents’ perspectives on advocacy actions and occupational balance raising youngadults on the autism spectrum. Previous findings on parent advocacy have focused on mothers (1) and young children with autism (2); however data are sparse regarding parenting the older adult child on the autism spectrum. As children transition to adulthood, at
We examined whether behavioral problems in childhood and adolescence are associated with youngadults' BMI and obesity, and tested whether childhood behavioral problems have a greater impact on youngadults' obesity than adolescent behavioral problems. The data were from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) and Its Outcomes, a population-based birth cohort study commenced in Brisbane, Australia, in
Abdullah A. Mamun; Michael J. O'Callaghan; Susanna M. Cramb; Jake M. Najman; Gail M. Williams; William Bor
Teaching for social responsibility should be one of the vital aims of our schools. Youngadult literature offers an authentic, meaningful, and critical way to teach for social responsibility. This article offers an overview of the different elements of social responsibility and some youngadult novels and graphic novels that could be used to teach…
|Identifying English Education courses focused on youngadult literature as apposite sites for exploring teacher conceptions of youth and the texts aimed for youths' consumptions, this article addresses the multiple sources of tension--and pedagogical potential--of teaching a youngadult literature course centrally framed around controversial…
This report assesses smoking rates and support for indoor smoking bans among club-going youngadults in New York City. Nearly half of the sample were smokers. Gay, lesbian, and bisexual youngadults were more likely to smoke than were heterosexual participants. No differences in smoking rates were found between sexes or between Whites and non-Whites. Support for the smoking ban
Background. Passive smoking has been linked to an increased risk of dying from atherosclerotic heart disease. Since endothelial dysfunction is an early feature of atherogenesis and occurs in youngadults who actively smoke cigarettes, we hypothesized that passive smoking might also be associated with endothelial dam- age in healthy young-adult nonsmokers. Methods. We studied 78 healthy subjects (39 male and
D AVID S. C ELERMAJER; M ARK R. A DAMS; P ETER C LARKSON; J ACQUI R OBINSON; J OHN
We sought to determine the association of four categories (chunks) of variables: (1) demographic characteristics, (2) family and friends smoking and other drug use, (3) psychosocial factors and attitude, and (4) lifestyle factors to current smoking as compared to never smoking among Canadian youngadults. A cohort of 1270 youngadults, followed for 10 years, completed a self-administered questionnaire. In multivariable
Linda L. Pederson; John J. Koval; Stella S. H. Chan; Xiaohe Zhang
Recent evidence suggests that the popularity of certain alternative forms of tobacco may be increasing in adolescents. Little is known, however, about the use of these products among youngadults. This study examined the use of alternative tobacco products including bidis, cigars, kreteks (clove cigarettes), pipes, and smokeless tobacco in a large sample of youngadult military recruits (N=31107). Overall,
Mark W. Vander Weg; Alan L. Peterson; Jon O. Ebbert; Margaret DeBon; Robert C. Klesges; C. Keith Haddock
Factors that contribute to an increased prevalence of squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract among youngadults in the United States remain unknown. A potential etiologic factor may relate to a genetically controlled sensitivity to environmental carcinogens. This study, therefore, examined 20 youngadult patients who had squamous cell carcinoma for mutagen-induced chromosome sensitivity. Lymphocytes from respective patients
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how family communication patterns and lifestyles are linked to purchases of sports shoes and casual clothing for youngadults. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The survey was conducted in 2005, and total valid samples were 576. Differences in purchasing decisions among various segments of youngadults are analysed for two product categories: sports
This research examined youngadult men's and women's subjective perceptions of their age along several dimensions including how old they felt, looked, acted, desired to be, and thought they were regarded by others. The relationship between youngadults' subjective age identities and other perceptions of the self were also examined. It was found that both men and women felt and
Youngadults are at risk for Hepatitis B in- fection. Little is known about their attitudes and beliefs concerning Hepatitis B, which are determinants of getting immunized. This inves- tigation examined risk perceptions and behav- ioral intentions concerning Hepatitis B among a convenience sample of 1070 youngadults, 18-24 years old who participated in a Hepati- tis B campaign that
R. M. Gonzales; D. C. Glik; M. Prelip; L. Bourque; J. Yuen; A. Ang; M. C. Jones
|Background: Hyperactive/ADHD children are believed to be a greater risk for adolescent and youngadult antisocial activity and drug use/abuse, particularly that subset having comorbid conduct problems/disorder. Method: We report on the lifetime antisocial activities and illegal drug use self-reported at youngadult follow-up (mean age 20-21…
Barkley, Russell A.; Fischer, Mariellen; Smallish, Lori; Fletcher, Kenneth
|Many youngadults are not politically active. Since 1972, their participation and interest levels have declined not only in absolute terms but also relative to other voting-age groups. This paper examines how the Internet can reverse this trend. It focuses on how leading news and political information Web sites affected youngadults during the…
This paper describes some issues related to financing school and postschool needs for youngadults who use medical technology, and the challenges families, professionals, and students face in planning for life after school. These descriptions are based on a study of youngadults who use ventilators and gastrostomy tubes (g-tubes) as medical technologies to replace or supplement lost physiological functions.
Gardner T. Umbarger; H. Rutherford Turnbull; Mary E. Morningstar; Amanda Reichard; Rebecca L. Moberly
BACKGROUND/AIM: Asthma is a common chronic condition that can be aggravated by workplace exposures. Youngadults with asthma should know how their future occupation might affect their asthma, and potentially, their quality of life. The aim of the present study was to assess the awareness of youngadults to occupational risks for asthma and high-risk occupations, as well as their perception of the role of asthma in career choice. METHODS: Youngadults 16 to 22 years of age with reported physician-diagnosed asthma were recruited to complete a questionnaire eliciting information regarding asthma control, career choice and awareness of occupational exposure risks. RESULTS: A small majority of the study cohort (56.4%) could identify occupations that cause or exacerbate asthma, and 34.7% indicated that asthma was an important factor in their career plans. Family physicians were most responsible for asthma management (80.2%), but youngadults were more likely to discuss asthma and career plans with their parents (43.6%) or friends (29.7%) than with their family physician (13.9%; P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Youngadults with asthma have suboptimal awareness of potential work-related asthma risks. Family physicians most commonly provide asthma care to these youngadults. However, few youngadults are talking to their family physicians about career choices and asthma. This observation represents an area of asthma care that needs to be explored in youngadults with asthma.
Bhinder, Sacha; Cicutto, Lisa; Abdel-Qadir, Husam M; Tarlo, Susan M
|High rates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI; 14%-17%) in adolescents and youngadults suggest that some self-injurers may exhibit more or different psychiatric problems than others. In the present study, the authors utilized a latent class analysis to identify clinically distinct subgroups of self-injurers. Participants were 205 youngadults with…
A 3?month intergenerational program was developed on the premise that it is important for youngadults, who are in the formative period of career development and direction, to experience the benefits of positive interaction with older persons. Program evaluation findings showed that participation not only influenced the youngadults’ interest in gerontology, but also increased their willingness to accept older
Lynda Fowler; Donna Lambert; Dorothy Fruit; Rhonda Richardson
BACKGROUND: There is growing concern about physical inactivity in adolescents and youngadults. Identifying determinants that are associated with low levels of physical activity and with changes in physical activity levels will help to develop specific prevention strategies. The present study describes the prevalence and potential determinants of physical activity behavior and behavior changes of youngadults. The study is
Dorith Zimmermann-Sloutskis; Miriam Wanner; Erwin Zimmermann; Brian W Martin
A 1996 report recognized the benefits of effective learning provision and the impact that mental health difficulties can have on quality of life of youngadults in the United Kingdom. The range of mental health difficulties experienced by youngadults in the United Kingdom and elsewhere is similar to that experienced by the older population and…
National Inst. of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester (England).
Youngadult information needs related to HIV/AIDS persist. However, in recent years, little has been written in either the research or the professional literature in library and information science about the HIV/AIDS information needs of youth. This article reports on a content analysis of youngadult novels written in English between 1995 and…
The problem novel has long been a staple of youngadult literature, so it is no surprise that the issue of “cutting,” a primarily adolescent affliction, is addressed in this literature. Adolescents who purposely cut themselves with sharp objects in order to feel pleasure, to deal with pain, or to feel release have appeared in youngadult fiction since the
This handbook presents two core units for a distance education course that provides an introduction to the genre of texts targeted for adolescent/youngadult readers. The first core unit in the handbook discusses the teaching of literary aspects of using adolescent/youngadult literature. The second core unit addresses alternative approaches to…
Christakis and colleagues have shown that health behaviors cluster in social networks and suggest social norms may account for the clustering. This study examined: (i) whether obesity clusters among youngadults and whether social norms do in fact account for the clustering, and (ii) among overweight\\/obese (OW\\/OB) youngadults, whether number of social contacts trying to lose weight is associated
Tricia M. Leahey; Jessica Gokee LaRose; Joseph L. Fava; Rena R. Wing
In 1979, the Department of Human Nutrition of the Agricultural University at Wageningen began a research project on obesity in youngadults. The main objectives of this project are the investigation of aetiological aspects and health consequences of obesity. It is a prospective study and is being carried out in a youngadult population of three age groups (19-21, 24-26
ABSTRACT. Objective. Multiple group latent curve analysis was used to assess the impact of changes in marital status on alcohol use trajecto- ries in youngadults and to test if these effects varied across ethnicity and gender. Method: Four years of data were obtained from a sample of youngadults (N = 4,052; 54% male) drawn from the National Longitudinal
Patrick J. Curran; Bengt O. Muthin; Thomas C. Harford
Objective: Advertising influences the health-related behaviors of college-aged individuals. Cigarette manufacturers aggressively market to youngadults and may exploit their affinity for alcohol when creating advertisements designed to increase cigarettes' appeal. Internal tobacco industry documents reveal that cigarette manufacturers understood the popularity of alcohol among youngadults and sought to produce pertinent marketing strategies. Methods: The authors conducted a content
Sarah A. Belstock; Gregory N. Connolly; Carrie M. Carpenter; Lindsey Tucker
The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible negative impact of stuttering on romantic opportunities for adolescents and youngadults who stutter. The first part of the study investigated if being a person who stutters affects the attractiveness of adolescents and youngadults to their peers. To this end, 343 males and 393 females were shown age-matched pictures
Chinese participation in the catering industry is conspicuous in Britain, but there also appears to be an emergence of young Chinese adults diversifying into other occupations and sectors in the British labour market. This paper seeks to gain an understanding of where young Chinese adults are positioned in the occupational structure, why they are situated there, and their attitudes towards
|Uses the author's own novels and those of Chris Crutcher to explore the harm that is sometimes done to literature labeled YoungAdult. Explores a disturbing trend in the publishing, packaging, and attitudes toward such novels: packaging and cover art which panders, and the refusal to hold youngadult literature to high standards. (SR)|
|The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the physical fitness performance of youngadults with and without cognitive impairments. Participants were 75 youngadults, including 41 without disabilities (23 females, 18 males; M of age = 21.88) and 34 with mild cognitive impairments (14 females, 20 males; M of age = 21.79). They received…
Zhang, Jiabei; Piwowar, Nathan; Reilly, Coleen Jennifer
Objective: To investigate temporal trends of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obesity among hospitalized US children, adolescents, and youngadults over the past 2 decades and to examine potential sex disparities in NAFLD hospitalizations. Methods: Hospitalization discharges with NAFLD or obesity were identified among children and youngadults (6-25 years, weighted n ¼ 91,687,413) from the 1986 to 2006
Corinna Koebnick; Darios Getahun; Kristi Reynolds; Karen J. Coleman; Amy H. Porter; Jean M. Lawrence; Mark Punyanitya; Virginia P. Quinn; Steven J Jacobsen
|This article explores the psychosocial and behavioral adjustment outcomes associated with verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse among homeless youngadults as well as the associations among abuse types. Convenience sampling was used to select 28 homeless youngadults (ages 18 to 24) from one drop-in center. Overall, subjects experienced…
Elevatedlean (skeletal muscle)mass is associated with increased muscle strength and anaerobic exercise performance, whereas low levels of lean mass are associated with insulin resistance and, sarcopenia. Therefore, studies aimed at obtaining an improved understanding of mechanisms related to the quantity of lean mass are of interest. Percent lean mass (total lean mass/body weight x 100) in 77 young subjects (18-35y) was measured withdual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Twenty analytes and two-hundred ninety six metabolites were evaluated with use of the standard chemistry screen and mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomic profiling, respectively. Sex-adjusted multivariable linear regression was used to determine serum analytes and metabolites significantly (p?0.05 and q?0.30) associated with percent lean mass.Two enzymes (ALP and SGOT) and, twenty-nine metaboliteswere found to be significantly associated with percent lean mass, including metabolites related to microbial metabolism, uremia, inflammation, oxidative stress, branched chain and amino acid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, glycerolipid metabolism and xenobiotics. Use of sex-adjusted stepwise regressionto obtain a final covariate predictor model identified the combination of five analytes and metabolites as overall predictors of percent lean mass (model R =82.5%). Collectively, these data suggest that a complex interplay of various metabolic processes underlies the maintenance of lean mass in young, healthy adults. PMID:23774283
Lustgarten, Michael S; Price, Lori Lyn; Phillips, Edward M; Kirn, Dylan; Mills, John; Fielding, Roger A
We studied the acceptability and feasibility of delivering sun protection messages via electronic media such as short message services (SMS) to people aged 18-40 years. An online survey was conducted using a pre-established panel of volunteers. We compared the characteristics of those who indicated that they would like to be alerted to the UV index, with those who would not, using bivariate logistic regression. Characteristics found to be associated with a desire to receive such advice were entered into a multivariate logistic regression analysis. The median age of the 141 participants was 34 years. Overall, 80% of participants agreed that they would like to receive some form of sun protection advice. Of these, 20% preferred to receive it via SMS and 42% via email. Willingness to receive electronic messages about the UV index was associated with being unsure about whether a suntanned person would look healthy and greater use of sun protection in the past. Careful attention to message framing and timing of message delivery, and focus on the short-term effects of sun exposure such as sunburn and skin ageing should increase the acceptability of such messages to young people. Sun protection messages delivered to youngadults via electronic media appear to be feasible and acceptable. PMID:22302765
This literature review focuses on what matters to youngadults when they access primary care services in the United Kingdom. Patients' access to and experience of primary care services differs across age groups. Existing research has largely focused on the needs and experiences of children, adolescents, and adults. There is some evidence to suggest the views of youngadults (aged 18-25 years) that may differ from the views of other age groups, and research has not previously reported specifically on the views of this group of the population. The literature was reviewed to identify the views and priorities of young UK adults regarding primary healthcare provision, and furthermore, to identify those related topics that would benefit from further research. Relevant academic publications and grey literature published from 2000 onwards was reviewed and synthesised. We identified and reported emerging themes that were of importance to youngadults in respect of the UK primary care provision. A total of 19 papers met our inclusion criteria. Youngadults access primary care services less frequently than other age groups; this may be because of their experience of primary care throughout childhood and adolescence. Five aspects of primary care provision emerged as being of importance to youngadults--the accessibility and availability of services, the confidentiality of health-related information, issues relating to communication with healthcare professionals, continuity of care, and behaviours and attitudes expressed towards youngadults by healthcare professionals. There is a lack of focus of current research on the expectations, needs, and primary healthcare experiences of youngadults. Youngadults may hold views that are distinct from other age groups. Further research is needed to better understand the needs of a youngadult population as their needs may impact the future use of services. PMID:23092551
There are still relatively few studies in the world on cancer incidence and mortality in youngadults. The current study aimed to explore cancer distribution in youngadults in Brazil. A descriptive study was conducted on cancer incidence (selected State capitals), hospital morbidity, and mortality (Brazil and selected capitals) in the 20-24-year age strata in 2000-2002, and trends in cancer mortality rates in Brazil in 1980-2008 in the same population. Testicular cancer was the principal anatomical site in youngadult males; in youngadult women, the main sites were thyroid, uterine cervix, and Hodgkin disease. Brain cancer was the principal cause of death from cancer in both sexes, and time trends in mortality showed an increase in mortality from brain cancer in men and from lymphocytic leukemia in both sexes. As a whole, the results show an epidemiological pattern of cancer in youngadults with regional distribution characteristics. PMID:23703008
PURPOSE: HIV\\/AIDS poses a serious threat to young people, both in Malaysia and throughout the world. A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HIV\\/AIDS among the Malaysian public. This article reports the findings of knowledge about HIV\\/AIDS among youngadults. METHODS: A total of 1075 youngadult respondents aged 15–24 years participated in
Objectives: To evaluate in a pilot study the usefulness of measures of health and psychosocial status for use with young people with physical and complex disability. Also to test empirically a conceptual model of the factors determining key outcomes in young disabled adults, in particular, participation (handicap).Design: A cross-sectional study involving face-to-face interviews with youngadults aged 16–28 years (n
N. Bent; A. Jones; I. Molloy; M. A. Chamberlain; A. Tennant
In 2 experiments, young and older adults demonstrated modality effects of similar magnitude in perceptual identification tasks. That is, both young and older adults demonstrated more repetition priming when study and test modalities matched than when they were different, suggesting that contextual information was equally available across age. However, when asked explicitly to retrieve modality information, older adults were less accurate than youngadults. These results constitute evidence for a dissociation between direct and indirect measures of memory for modality information. They call into question hypotheses that memory impairment in old age is due to deficient encoding of contextual information and challenge current accounts of modality effects in repetition priming. PMID:1447552
Light, L L; LaVoie, D; Valencia-Laver, D; Owens, S A; Mead, G
Ten youngadults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and family, and considered their families as a resource for their empowerment and development of resilience. The study participants' informal networks were composed of only a few individuals who, moreover, were mostly of dissimilar age and also included support professionals. The participants typically described themselves as excluded from others, an experience that was articulated most conspicuously in their narratives about the special schools they were attending. PMID:23834213
Reality monitoring refers to a person's ability to distinguish between perceived and imagined events. Prior research has demonstrated that youngadults show a reality-monitoring advantage for negative arousing information as compared with neutral information. The present research examined whether this reality-monitoring benefit extends to positive information in youngadults and whether older adults show a reality-monitoring advantage for emotional information
Elizabeth A. Kensinger; Jacqueline L. OBrien; Kelley Swanberg; Rachel J. Garoff-Eaton; Daniel L. Schacter
The objective of this study was to compare the three-dimensional lower extremity running kinematics of youngadult runners and elderly runners. Seventeen elderly adults (age 67–73 years) and 17 youngadults (age 26–36 years) ran at 3.1 m · s on a treadmill while the movements of the lower extremity during the stance phase were recorded at 120 Hz using three-dimensional video. The three-dimensional
This study investigated whether real-time biofeedback of angular trunk displacement could alter balance performance among healthy older and youngadults. Healthy community-dwelling older adults (n=32) and healthy youngadults (n=32) were included in the randomized control trial study. The intervention group received combined vibrotactile, auditory and visual biofeedback of angular trunk displacement in real-time during training on a battery of
Justin R. Davis; Mark G. Carpenter; Roger Tschanz; Simon Meyes; Daniel Debrunner; Juergen Burger; John H. J. Allum
The purposes of the study presented were to compare the health-promoting behaviors of older adults with those of young and middle-aged adults, to examine the relationship of age and other sociodemographic characteristics to life style throughout adulthood, and to identify differing life-style patterns among older adults. Six dimensions of life style were measured by the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile in 452 adults aged 18 to 88. Older adults had higher scores in overall health-promoting life style and in the dimensions of health responsibility, nutrition, and stress management than both young and middle-aged adults. Sociodemographic variables accounted for only 13.4% of the variance in life style and for 5.2% to 18.6% in its six dimensions. Five major health-promoting life-style patterns were identified among older adults, depicting a heterogeneous group with varying needs for health promotion programming. PMID:3140723
Walker, S N; Volkan, K; Sechrist, K R; Pender, N J
Theory of mind (ToM) refers to humans' ability to recognize the existence of mental states, such as beliefs, emotions, and desires. The literature on ToM in aging and on the relationship between ToM and other cognitive functions, like executive functions, is not homogenous. The aim of the present study was to explore the course of ToM and to investigate the role of working memory, inhibition, and language on the possible age differences in ToM. To address these issues, we examined ToM using the Strange Stories task and executive function task in three age groups. Results showed that youngadults outperform both old groups on the ToM stories. This difference remains significant also when controlling for working memory and inhibitory control. Our findings suggest a specific impairment in inferring mental states starting from 60 years of age that seems to be independent of changes in executive functions. PMID:23781702
This study models culture of poverty explanations, earlier experiences that tend to restrict opportunities, demographic effects representing differential rates of participation by social groups, and health and marijuana use variables indicating the influence of individual life- style differences as predictors of the rate of labor market entry, promotion, and dismissal among subjects from early adolescence to young adulthood. The data are drawn from the 1st and 4th waves of a 4-wave panel of half the 1971 Houston, Texas, Independent School District 7th grade born in 1958. The findings indicate that those who believe most in the efficacy of alternatives to conventional social and economic institutions and those who expect to benefit least are most likely to have higher rates of participation. This higher rate of participation is significantly greater for earlier years and contradicts predictions of a culture of poverty theory. 1 opportunity-structure variable, poor grades, significantly increases the rate of entry into the labor market primarily because it represents the inability of individuals to pursue advanced education prior to labor market entry. Education reduces overall rates of labor market entry for a youngadult cohort by delaying labor market entry. The strong relationship between drug use and unemployment may be due to motivation, impaired ability, probability of failure, or increased time to use drugs. The findings also indicate that females are more capable overall of performing their jobs and getting along with co-workers but are less likely to be promoted. Finally, those who have been sanctioned or disadvantaged within the institutions that define and enforce the norms of the economic opportunity structure are significantly more likely to enter the labor market earlier and continue to have higher rates of negative experiences, such as dismissal, within those institutions. PMID:12316383
The objective is to examine the association between calcium intake and dairy product consumption with overweight and obesity in youngadults. The sample used in this study consisted of 1306 youngadults, ages 19–38 years, who participated in the 1995–1996 youngadult survey. Analysis was performed w...
Background The epidemiology of heart failure (HF) in youngadults is poorly understood. Methods The Coronary Artery Risk Development in YoungAdults (CARDIA) study evaluated 5115 black and white men and women, age 18–30 at baseline, for the development of heart disease over 20 years. We examined predictors of hospitalization or death from HF using Cox models. Results In 20 years, 27 participants developed HF (mean age, 39±6). All but one were black, with a cumulative incidence before age 50 in black women of 1.1% (0.6–1.7%), black men=0.9% (0.5–1.4%), white women=0.08% (0.0–0.5%), white men=0.0% (0.0–0.4%; p=0.001 for blacks vs. whites). In blacks, independent predictors at age 18–30 of HF occurring 15 years later included higher diastolic blood pressure (HR per 10.0 mmHg=2.1, 1.4–3.1), higher body mass index (HR per 5.7 kg/m2=1.4, 1.0–1.9), lower HDL cholesterol (HR per 13.3 mg/dL=0.6, 0.4–1.0), and kidney disease (HR 20, 4.5–87). Three quarters of those who subsequently developed HF had hypertension by age 40; one quarter had depressed systolic function on study echocardiogram at age 23–35. Systolic function was associated with subsequent HF 10 years later (abnormal: HR=37, 6.9–200; borderline: HR=3.5, 1.2–10). Myocardial infarction, drug use, or alcohol use were not associated with HF risk. Conclusions Incident HF before age 50 is substantially more common among blacks than whites and is not rare. Hypertension, obesity, kidney disease, and systolic dysfunction before age 35 are antecedents of HF 1–2 decades later and may be important for screening and treatment aimed at HF prevention.
Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Pletcher, Mark J.; Lin, Feng; Vittinghoff, Eric; Gardin, Julius M.; Arynchyn, Alexander; Lewis, Cora; Williams, O. Dale; Hulley, Stephen B.
Background Previous studies involving adults suggest that Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) increases the prevalence of cannabis use disorders (CUD)(cannabis dependence and cannabis abuse). However, little work with PTSD and CUD has been conducted involving adolescents, despite the fact that CUD typically have their onset during adolescence. This study addresses the effect of PTSD on CUD among teenagers transitioning to young adulthood. Method The subjects in this ongoing study were the offspring of adult men with a lifetime history of a Substance Use Disorder (SUD) (SUD + probands, N=343) versus those with no lifetime history of a SUD (SUD ? probands, N=350). The participants were initially recruited when the index sons of these fathers were 10-12 years of age, and subsequent assessments were conducted at age 12-14, 16, 19, 22, and 25. Other variable examined were an index of behavioral undercontrol associated with future risk for developing SUD, known as the Transmissible Liability Index, or TLI, and affiliation with deviant peers. Multivariate logistic regression and path analyses were conducted. Results Of these 693 subjects, 31 subjects were diagnosed with PTSD, and 161 were diagnosed with a CUD. The CUD subjects included 136 male participants and 25 female participants, including 103 (64%) Caucasian participants and 58 (36%) participants of other races. Logistic regression demonstrated that the development of a CUD was associated with deviance of peers (Wald=63.4, p=0.000), the TLI (Wald=28.8, p=0.000), African American race (Wald=14.2, p=0.000), PTSD (Wald=12.7, p=0.000), male gender (Wald=12.0, p=0.001), household SES (Wald=9.2, p=0.002), and being an offspring of a SUD+ proband (Wald=6.9, 0.009). Path analyses demonstrated that PTSD is directly associated with the presence of a CUD and with peer deviance, that higher peer deviance is associated with the presence of a CUD, and that PTSD mediated the association between peer deviance and CUD. Conclusions These findings suggest that PTSD contributes to the etiology of CUD among teenagers making the transition to young adulthood beyond the effects of deviant peers, the TLI (Transmissible Liability Index, a measure of risk for SUD), and demographic factors.
Cornelius, Jack R.; Kirisci, Levent; Reynolds, Maureen; Clark, Duncan B.; Hayes, Jeanine; Tarter, Ralph
Background: There are very few data on normal ciliary beat frequency, beat pattern, and ultrastructure in healthy children and adults. A study was undertaken to define ciliary structure, beat frequency and beat pattern in a healthy paediatric and youngadult population.Methods: Ciliated epithelial samples were obtained from 76 children and adult volunteers aged 6 months to 43 years by brushing
Although youngadults in the United Kingdom increasingly defer economic independence, they are still "adult" in other respects. Family and household formation often occur before economic independence is achieved. Parents have increased power to influence their adult children's early partnership behaviour, by providing or withholding economic…
This study elucidated differences in predisposition to the gastrointestinal adverse effects of ketoprofen between young and adult cats. Ketoprofen was administered subcutaneously (2.0 mg/kg, s.c.) once a day for 3 days. The animals were sacrificed 24 hr after final injection to allow examination of gastrointestinal mucosal lesions. Ketoprofen caused gastric lesions in adult cats (>6 months) but not in young cats (<3 months). Ketoprofen caused more severe small intestinal lesions in adult cats than in young cats. In the study of prevention of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hyperthermia using ketoprofen, young and adult cats of both sexes were administered LPS (0.3 ?g/kg, intravenously), and body temperature was measured 24 hr later. Ketoprofen was administered subcutaneously 30 min before LPS injection. LPS-induced hyperthermia was almost completely inhibited by pretreatment with ketoprofen in both adult and young cats. In the pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen, plasma concentrations were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. No significant differences were observed in plasma concentrations of two mirror-image R(-) and S(+) ketoprofen between young and adult cats from 0.5-4 hr after injection. As observed in a previous study using flunixin, the degree of gastrointestinal damage was unrelated to plasma concentrations of ketoprofen. The results of this study demonstrated that ketoprofen is safer for use in young cats than in adult cats from the viewpoint of gastrointestinal adverse effects. PMID:22785617
Youngadults (YA) are underrepresented in behavioral weight loss programs and achieve poorer outcomes than older adults (OA). There has been a call to develop programs specifically targeting this age group. This study examined the performance of YA enrolled in a low intensity, team-based weight loss campaign and compared their outcomes to OA to determine the utility of such an approach for weight loss in this population. Shape Up Rhode Island 2009 was a 12-week online team-based weight loss and exercise competition (N=6795, 81% female, 94% White, age=44.7±11.2, BMI=29.4±5.9). YA was defined as 18–35 years and OA as >35 years; YA and OA were compared on enrollment, retention, weight loss and change in steps. A total of 1562 YA enrolled and 715 completed the program. Fewer YA completed compared with OA (46% vs. 62%, p<.001). However, among completers, YA achieved greater percent weight loss (?4.5±4.0% vs. ?3.8±3.2%) and greater daily step change (+1578.2±3877.2 vs. +1342.2±3645.7) than OA (p’s<.001). Further, more YA completers achieved a ?5% weight loss (40% vs. 29%, p<.001). Findings were consistent in the overweight/obese subsample, and using ?25 years of age as the cut off for YA. Weight losses among YA in this low-intensity weight loss campaign were quite promising, with over 700 YA completing the program and on average achieving a 4.5% weight loss. Indeed, the potential public health impact of such an approach is substantial; future efforts to develop programs for this age group may benefit from using a low intensity, team-based approach.
LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Leahey, Tricia M.; Weinberg, Brad M.; Kumar, Rajiv; Wing, Rena R.
Little is known about the relationship between relative body weight and transition from experimentation to regular smoking in youngadult women. In the current study, data from 2494 participants in wave 4 of the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study (aged 18-29 years) who reported ever smoking a cigarette were analyzed using logistic regression. Body mass index (BMI) at time of interview was categorized according to CDC adult guidelines, and regular smoking was defined as having ever smoked 100 or more cigarettes and having smoked at least once a week for two months in a row. Since the OR’s for the overweight and obese groups did not differ significantly from one another in any model tested, these groups were combined. Forty-five percent of women who had ever smoked had become regular smokers. Testing of interactions between potential covariates and levels of the categorical BMI variable revealed a significant interaction between overweight/obesity and childhood sexual abuse (CSA; p<0.001) associated with regular smoking. Among women reporting CSA, the association between overweight/obesity and having become a regular smoker was negative (n=374; OR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.28-0.81). Both underweight and overweight/obesity were positively associated with transition to regular smoking among women who did not report CSA (n=2076; OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.05-2.35 and OR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.35-2.20, respectively). These results suggest that experiencing CSA alters the association between BMI and regular smoking in women who have experimented with cigarettes.
Duncan, Alexis E.; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.
Background Alcohol consumption is strongly associated with cigarette smoking in youngadults.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the acceptability and estimate the magnitude of the effect of a novel-integrated smoking\\u000a cessation and binge-drinking intervention for youngadults compared with standard treatment control.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Participants were 41 youngadult smokers (?10 cigarettes per day) who regularly (?2 times per month)
Steven C. Ames; Chudley E. Werch; Gretchen E. Ames; Lori J. Lange; Darrell R. Schroeder; Andrew C. Hanson; Christi A. Patten
Over a period of 6 years, only twelve cases of dilated cardiomyopathy were clinically diagnosed in Nigerians between the ages of 11-30 years at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Eleven presented with heart failure, while the twelfth patient presented with a cerebrovascular accident. Two other patients also had a cerebrovascular accident. A history of febrile illness was obtained in seven, but in only three was fever unresponsive to antimalarials, documented on admission. Antistreptolysin-O titre was normal and erythrocyte sedimentation rates elevated in each of the patients. Leucocytosis was present in six, three had a four-fold rise or fall in antibody titres against Coxsackie-B viruses and one, a four-fold rise or fall against Toxoplasma gondii. Histological evidences of myopericarditis were found in three of the six patients who died. It is concluded that dilated cardiomyopathy is rare in youngadult Nigerians, and that constitutional upset is common, as in children, but prognosis is poorer. Infections by Coxsackie-B viruses, T. gondii and possibly other viruses appear to be of major aetiological factors PMID:6291352
Garlic and garlic extracts are used as seasonings and are generally considered beneficial to human health, which include antioxidant and neuroprotective properties in neurological disorders. In the present study, we examined the effects of garlic sulfur components on the proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and hippocampal neurogenesis. Of the sulfur compounds extracted, diallyl disulfide (DADS) significantly suppressed the proliferation of NPCs, whereas other sulfur containing components had no effect. In order to investigate the effect of DADS on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, DADS was administered orally to young (6 week-old) male C57BL/6 mice for 2 weeks. It was found that 10 mg/kg of DADS significantly decreased the proliferation of NPCs in the dentate gyrus without affecting the survival of newly generated cells. Furthermore, DADS decreased levels of hippocampal BDNF, phosphorylated CREB signaling, and phosphorylated ERKs, which are known to be related to hippocampal neurogenesis and NPCs proliferation. In addition, DADS induced significant memory defects as compared with controls. We report that DADS may have adverse effects on hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive functions by modulating ERK and BDNF-CREB signaling, and suggest that the advisability of consuming large amounts of garlic products should be considered, particularly during the period of neural growth. PMID:23732363
Ji, Seung Taek; Kim, Min-Sun; Park, Hee Ra; Lee, Eunjin; Lee, Yujeong; Jang, Young Jung; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jaewon
Summary Substantial differences exist in the cognitive styles of liberals and conservatives on psychological measures . Variability in political attitudes reflects genetic influences and their interaction with environmental factors [2, 3]. Recent work has shown a correlation between liberalism and conflict-related activity measured by event-related potentials originating in the anterior cingulate cortex . Here we show that this functional correlate of political attitudes has a counterpart in brain structure. In a large sample of youngadults, we related self-reported political attitudes to gray matter volume using structural MRI. We found that greater liberalism was associated with increased gray matter volume in the anterior cingulate cortex, whereas greater conservatism was associated with increased volume of the right amygdala. These results were replicated in an independent sample of additional participants. Our findings extend previous observations that political attitudes reflect differences in self-regulatory conflict monitoring  and recognition of emotional faces  by showing that such attitudes are reflected in human brain structure. Although our data do not determine whether these regions play a causal role in the formation of political attitudes, they converge with previous work [4, 6] to suggest a possible link between brain structure and psychological mechanisms that mediate political attitudes.
Background Case reports suggest a link between methamphetamine abuse and acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but no epidemiologic studies have examined this link. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that youngadults who abuse amphetamines are at higher risk for AMI. Methods In this study of 3,148,165 discharges from Texas hospitals in a quality indicators database during 2000 to 2003, among persons aged 18 to 44 years we identified 11,011 AMIs, defined according to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s AMI mortality inpatient quality indicator. Results In a multiple logistic regression analysis—while controlling for cocaine abuse, alcohol abuse, tobacco use, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, lipid disorders, obesity, congenital defects, and coagulation defects—amphetamine abuse was significantly associated with AMI (adjusted odds ratio = 1.61; 95% confidence interval = 1.24—2.04, p=0.0004). The rate of AMIs among amphetamine abusers increased significantly from 2000 to 2003. The population attributable risk suggests that amphetamine abuse is responsible for 0.2% of AMIs in the state of Texas. The geographical distribution of amphetamine abuse varied by region, with the prevalence being highest in the North Texas and Panhandle regions of Texas. Conclusions This modest, though statistically robust, association suggests that amphetamine abuse may play a role in AMI.
Westover, Arthur N.; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Haley, Robert W.
Acute myocardial infarction (MI) in youngadults is rare. Clinicopathological conditions such as nephrotic syndrome, antiphospholipid syndrome, spontaneous coronary artery spasms or embolism can be attributed to such events. In this case report, we present a 30-year-old male who had his first MI at the age of 20 years. He received percutaneous intervention as initial treatment. Despite aggressive risk factor management, he continued to have acute coronary events and was later diagnosed with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). At the same time, he was diagnosed with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and severe tricuspid regurgitation. He underwent pulmonary endartererectomy, tricuspid annuloplasty and radial artery bypass graft to the first obtuse marginal artery. Warfarin therapy was initiated upon the diagnosis of APS. Despite being therapeutic on warfarin and aggressive risk factor management, he had yet another MI. Coronary angiogram at this time showed fresh occlusion of the right coronary artery at the mid-segment, and the patient received two overlapping stents that achieved a good effect. This case emphasizes the importance of awareness, early recognition and aggressive management of patients with APS presenting chest pain or acute coronary events. Despite appropriate treatment, such as risk factor management and percutaneous interventions, recurrence of an acute coronary event is high. The presentation of younger patients with recurrent coronary events but no significant risk factors of atherosclerosis should evoke the suspicion of APS-related coronary artery disease, and all risk factors should be aggressively managed. PMID:22932774
Thapamagar, Suman B; Aung, Thein T; Mascarenhas, Daniel
We have monitored the ontogeny of several behaviors performed by young Drosophila melanogasteradults. Very young flies are less active than older flies and are less responsive to gravity, light, an odorant, and sucrose applied to their tarsi. In addition, very young males do not consume sucrose or perform any courtship behaviors in response to virgin females, which provide chemical and
Suzanne C. Ford; Lisa M. Napolitano; Scott P. McRobert; Laurie Tompkins
Developmental and life course studies of youngadult identities have focused on two dimensions, subjective age and psychosocial maturity. This study examines the developmental synchrony of these two processes. In a longitudinal sample of youngadults from Add Health (18 to 22), a person-centered analysis of indicators of these dimensions identified four identity profiles. Two depict early and late patterns of identity; the others represent contrasting types of discordance, “pseudo-adult”, subjective age more advanced than maturation level and “anticipatory”, with subjective age less advanced than maturational level. The profiles vary by gender, socioeconomic status, and race-ethnicity as well as by adolescent (ages12–16) pubertal maturation, psychosocial adjustment, and family context. These results provide support for a more holistic, interdisciplinary understanding of adult identity, and show that youngadult identities in the Add Health sample follow differentiated paths into the adult years, with largely unknown consequences for the subsequent life course.
This study explored the roles and psychological experiences identified as defining adult moments using mixed methods with a racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse sample of youngadults both enrolled and not enrolled in college (N = 726; ages 18-35). First, we evaluated results from a single survey item that asked participants to rate how adult they feel. Consistent with previous research, the majority of participants (56.9%) reported feeling “somewhat like an adult,” and older participants had significantly higher subjective adulthood, controlling for other demographic variables. Next, we analyzed responses from an open-ended question asking participants to describe instances in which they felt like an adult. Responses covered both traditional roles (e.g., marriage, childbearing; 36.1%) and nontraditional social roles and experiences (e.g., moving out of parent’s home, cohabitation; 55.6%). Although we found no differences by age and college status in the likelihood of citing a traditional or nontraditional role, participants who had achieved more traditional roles were more likely to cite them in their responses. In addition, responses were coded for psychological experiences, including responsibility for self (19.0%), responsibility for others (15.3%), self-regulation (31.1%), and reflected appraisals (5.1%). Older participants were significantly more likely to include self-regulation and reflected appraisals, whereas younger participants were more likely to include responsibility for self. College students were more likely than noncollege students to include self-regulation and reflected appraisals. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Lowe, Sarah R.; Dillon, Colleen O.; Rhodes, Jean E.; Zwiebach, Liza
Aging impairs the control of many skilled movements including speech. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether young and older adults adapt to lower lip perturbations during speech differently. Twenty men (10 young, 26 ± 3 years of age; 10 older, 60 ± 9 years of age) were requested to repeat the word (“papa”) 300 times. In 15% of the trials, the subjects experienced a mechanical perturbation on the lower lip. Displacement and neural activation (EMG) of the upper and lower lips were evaluated. Perturbations to the lower lip caused a greater increase in the maximum displacement of the lower lip for older adults compared with youngadults (34.7 ± 19% vs. 13.4 ± 17%; P = 0.017). Furthermore, youngadults exhibited significantly greater 30–100 Hz normalized EMG power for the lower lip compared to the upper lip (P < 0.005). In youngadults, changes from normal to perturbed trials in the 30–50 Hz frequency band of the EMG were negatively correlated to the changes from normal to perturbed trials in the lower lip maximum displacement (R2 = 0.48; P = 0.025). It is concluded that youngadults adapt better to lower lip perturbations compared with older adults and that the associated neural activation strategy of the involved muscle is different for the two age groups.
de Miranda Marzullo, Ana Carolina; Neto, Osmar Pinto; Ballard, Kirrie J.; Robin, Donald A.; Chaitow, Lauren
Background. Guidelines state that youngadults' (aged 18–55 years) rehabilitation needs and priorities following stroke are different from older adults'. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding youngadults' perspectives of their needs and priorities. Aim. To gain an understanding of youngadults' experience of stroke and associated rehabilitation needs, priorities, and desired outcomes. Methods. A qualitative approach was adopted, based on the phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty. Longitudinal data were gathered using unstructured interviews and analysed using phenomenological reduction. Results. Ten youngadults took part in up to four interviews over two years. An overarching theme, Embodied Disorientation, and three subthemes: Mortal Body, Situated Body, and Embodied Perception of Difference, described the youngadults' experience. A subsequent iterative process enabled tabulation of patient-centred rehabilitation needs, priorities, and outcomes. Conclusion. Rehabilitation professionals can use the evidence-based outcomes table to work with youngadults to develop meaningful patient-centred goals and select appropriate interventions which align with identified needs and outcomes throughout the stroke recovery trajectory.
Background This study represents the first attempt to perform a profiling analysis of the intergenerational differences in the microRNAs (miRNAs) of primary cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms in youngadult and older age groups. The data emphasize the importance of these master regulators in the transcriptional machinery of melanocytic neoplasms and suggest that differential levels of expressions of these miRs may contribute to differences in phenotypic and pathologic presentation of melanocytic neoplasms at different ages. Methods An exploratory miRNA analysis of 666 miRs by low density microRNA arrays was conducted on formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissues (FFPE) from 10 older adults and 10 youngadults including conventional melanoma and melanocytic neoplasms of uncertain biological significance. Age-matched benign melanocytic nevi were used as controls. Results Primary melanoma in patients greater than 60 years old was characterized by the increased expression of miRs regulating TLR-MyD88-NF-kappaB pathway (hsa-miR-199a), RAS/RAB22A pathway (hsa-miR-204); growth differentiation and migration (hsa-miR337), epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) (let-7b, hsa-miR-10b/10b*), invasion and metastasis (hsa-miR-10b/10b*), hsa-miR-30a/e*, hsa-miR-29c*; cellular matrix components (hsa-miR-29c*); invasion-cytokinesis (hsa-miR-99b*) compared to melanoma of younger patients. MiR-211 was dramatically downregulated compared to nevi controls, decreased with increasing age and was among the miRs linked to metastatic processes. Melanoma in youngadult patients had increased expression of hsa-miR-449a and decreased expression of hsa-miR-146b, hsa-miR-214*. MiR-30a* in clinical stages I-II adult and pediatric melanoma could predict classification of melanoma tissue in the two extremes of age groups. Although the number of cases is small, positive lymph node status in the two age groups was characterized by the statistically significant expression of hsa-miR-30a* and hsa-miR-204 (F-test, p-value < 0.001). Conclusions Our findings, although preliminary, support the notion that the differential biology of melanoma at the extremes of age is driven, in part, by deregulation of microRNA expression and by fine tuning of miRs that are already known to regulate cell cycle, inflammation, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)/stroma and more specifically genes known to be altered in melanoma. Our analysis reveals that miR expression differences create unique patterns of frequently affected biological processes that clearly distinguish old age from young age melanomas. This is a novel characterization of the miRnomes of melanocytic neoplasms at two extremes of age and identifies potential diagnostic and clinico-pathologic biomarkers that may serve as novel miR-based targeted modalities in melanoma diagnosis and treatment.
Hostility has been associated with coronary heart disease mortality. To assess possible mechanisms linking hostility to coronary heart disease risk, the authors conducted analyses in a cross-sectional study from data collected in 1985 and 1986 on 5,115 youngadults, aged 18-30 years, black and white, male and female, in four large urban areas of the United States. The results show that higher levels of hostility as determined by the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale were strongly associated with tobacco and marijuana smoking, increased alcohol consumption, and greater caloric intake in both blacks and whites and in both men and women. The increased caloric consumption was evident in the higher waist/hip ratios, particularly in men (p less than 0.05). The associations were particularly strong (p less than 0.001) for tobacco cigarette smoking and marijuana smoking, with roughly a 1.5 times higher prevalence in the top hostility quartile compared with the bottom quartile after adjusting for age and education. Hostility levels were not related to the percentage of calories from fat or from sucrose intake, to plasma cholesterol levels, or to physical fitness (except for a weak association in the latter in white women). The results describe relations between hostility and health behaviors that may be detrimental to health. The findings provide a possible explanation for the association between hostility and coronary heart disease mortality. PMID:1415137
Scherwitz, L W; Perkins, L L; Chesney, M A; Hughes, G H; Sidney, S; Manolio, T A
...Evaluating Disability in YoungAdults AGENCY: Social Security Administration...Notice of Social Security Ruling (SSR...SUMMARY: In accordance with...benefits was provided in Section 301 of the Social Security Disability...
BackgroundThis study aimed to assess adolescent (aged 14–18 years) and youngadult (aged 19–24 years) women's knowledge of and attitudes toward intrauterine devices (IUDs) before and after a brief educational intervention.
Amy K. Whitaker; Lisa M. Johnson; Bryna Harwood; Laurel Chiappetta; Mitchell D. Creinin; Melanie A. Gold
This study evaluated whether or not medication usage among youngadult women differed across three countries. An additional aim was to evaluate the association between medication use and sociodemographic factors and exercise habits. A sample of 1098 youngadult women were selected in Sweden, the USA, and Greece. Consistent medication usage by youngadult women in the three countries related to oral contraceptives and vitamins; nevertheless, there were differences. The main differences were found in the use of laxatives, iron supplements, analgesics, antidepressants, and antacid medication. The most outstanding differences were the frequent use of laxatives in Sweden and vitamins in the USA. Different association patterns were found between medication use and culture, sociodemographic factors, and exercise. The assessment of medication use among youngadult women can be performed very easily and provides an immediate indication of their well-being and needs for preventative care. PMID:18257825
A prison reading club can provide motivation to learn to read and write, reinforce conventional learning, and support individual development. The literate environment created is a tool for resocialization of incarcerated youth and youngadults. (SK)
This study examined associations between the gambling attitudes and behavior of 213 youngadults and their perceptions of the gambling attitudes and behavior of their closest grandparent. Regression analyses showed that youngadult gambling attitudes mediated the relations between perceived grandparent gambling attitudes and behavior and youngadult gambling behavior. Grandparent-grandchild relationship quality experienced while growing up did not moderate the relations between youngadult and perceived grandparent gambling attitudes and behavior. Men experienced gambling at a younger age and reported more positive gambling attitudes, more frequent gambling activity, higher levels of gambling pathology, and higher levels of gambling affinity than women. Implications of results and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:22628170
|Presents an annotated list of the 10 best fiction and the 10 best nonfiction youngadult literature published in the 1980s. Notes that the books mix popularity and quality into a cake of reading motivation. (RS)|
ObjectiveChronic stress has been associated with impaired response to influenza vaccination in the elderly. This study investigated whether mild, intermittent stress experienced by young, healthy adults has a similar effect.
Victoria E Burns; Douglas Carroll; Mark Drayson; Martin Whitham; Christopher Ring
The American Civil War has been a popular topic for young-adult writers for years, with new books now being written from young\\u000a women’s perspectives. In this paper, I will examine the gender ideologies that infiltrate contemporary Civil War books for\\u000a youngadults. I will examine four recent young-adult Civil-War novels: G. Clifton Wisler’s Mr. Lincoln’s Drummer (1995); Maureen Stack Sappy’s
Objective Mental health problems are highly prevalent in youngadults. Despite possibilities for effective treatment, only about one-third\\u000a of youngadults with mental health problems seek professional help. Little knowledge exists of which groups of youngadults\\u000a are underusing mental health services and for what reasons. The present study examined socio-demographic inequalities in the\\u000a use of mental health services by young
Kathleen Vanheusden; Jan van der Ende; Cornelis L. Mulder; Frank J. van Lenthe; Frank C. Verhulst; Johan P. Mackenbach
This study examined relationships between wine preference and selected health determinants in a U.S. national sample of youngadults to improve understanding of the association between light-moderate wine consumption and long-term morbidity and mortality risk. Interview data collected from 12,958 youngadults who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed to determine whether wine preference was
ObjectiveTo assess the safety and efficacy of different endovascular treatment modalities in youngadults with acute ischemic stroke (AIS).BackgroundStroke in youngadults is less common compared to the elderly but forms a significant burden in terms of morbidity and mortality. Endovascular therapies for AIS are relatively new modalities showing great promise. Data regarding their efficacy in this population is scant.Design\\/MethodsRetrospective
S Mehta; J Sharma; H Masoud; S Chowdhry; A Nanda; C Sila; K Blackham
The objectives of this study were to describe and compare the characteristics of pain experienced by children and youngadults with sickle cell disease (SCD) in inpatient and outpatient settings. The Adolescent Pediatric Pain Tool (APPT), a multidimensional self-report pain assessment, was completed by African American children and youngadults (mean age 15.39 ± 4.32) with SCD during a clinic
Linda S Franck; Marsha Treadwell; Eufemia Jacob; Elliott Vichinsky
Youngadults engage in risky eating behaviors like eating raw\\/undercooked foods of animal origin that put them at increased risk for foodborne disease. This cross-sectional survey assessed the self-reported risky eating behaviors of youngadults enrolled in higher education as a part of a large-scale survey administered over 10 months. Par- ticipants (N4,343) completed a risky eating question- naire by
CAROL BYRD-BREDBENNER; JACLYN MAURER ABBOT; VIRGINIA WHEATLEY; DONALD SCHAFFNER; CHRISTINE BRUHN; LYDIA BLALOCK
Objective: The Internet offers many potential benefits to conducting smoking and other health behavior research with youngadults. Questions, however, remain regarding the psychometric properties of online self-reported smoking behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of self-reported smoking and smoking-related cognitions obtained from an online survey. Methods: Youngadults (N = 248) age
Danielle E. Ramo; Sharon M. Hall; Judith J. Prochaska
India is experiencing an epidemic of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in youngadults. This study reports the prevalence of glucose intolerance, and insulin profiles, and their relationship to lifestyle factors in 2218 youngadults (aged 26–32 years; 997 urban, 1221 rural) in south India. They were drawn from a cohort of 10,691 individuals born during 1969–1973 in Vellore and
Palany Raghupathy; Belavendra Antonisamy; Caroline H. D. Fall; Finney S. Geethanjali; Samantha D. Leary; Julia Saperia; G. Priya; Abel Rajaratnam; Joseph Richard
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of tobacco use among young Norwegian adults, 1973-1995. DESIGN: Cross sectional personal and telephone surveys. SETTING: Norway, 1973-1995. PARTICIPANTS: Population based samples of Norwegians aged 16-74 years. RESULTS: A trend to a decline in tobacco use among youngadult Norwegians during the 1960s and 1970s levelled out during the 1980s. Hence, the total prevalence of
We investigated the influence of repeated exposure to orangeades with added sucrose and different concentrations of citric acid, on the taste preferences of 6- to-11-year-old children and youngadults.During an intervention study of 8 days, 59 children (9.2±0.9 years) and 46 youngadults (22±2.0 years) received, each day, either an orangeade with a sweet taste, a sour taste, or no
Each year, millions of people worldwide suffer from food-borne diseases and illnesses. Therefore, food-related infection is an important health problem in many countries. The study was conducted in Ankara Province of Turkey to determine food safety and food preparation practices of young and adult consumers. The sampling group was composed of randomly-selected 646 young and 815 adult individuals and questionnaires
OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of clinical eating disorders and lesser degrees of disturbed eating in youngadults with insulin dependent diabetes and a matched sample of non-diabetic female controls. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey of eating habits and attitudes in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. SETTING--Outpatient clinic catering for youngadults with diabetes; community sample of non-diabetic women drawn from the lists of
C G Fairburn; R C Peveler; B Davies; J I Mann; R A Mayou
The aim of this study was to examine corticomotor excitability and plasticity following repetitive thumb abduction training\\u000a in left and right hands of young and old adults. Electromyographic recordings were obtained from the abductor pollicis brevis\\u000a (APB) muscle of 12 young (aged 18–27 years) and 14 old (aged 63–75 years) adults. Motor training consisted of 300 ballistic\\u000a abductions of the thumb to
It is imperative that youngadult cancer survivors address any modifiable risk factors, given their increased health risks.\\u000a Unfortunately, few behavioral interventions have been developed for this population. The literature on physical activity,\\u000a smoking, and alcohol and drug use among youngadult cancer survivors was reviewed in order to identify the behaviors most\\u000a in need of intervention, the most vulnerable
OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of recruiting and retaining youngadults in a brief behavioral weight loss intervention tailored for this age group, and to assess the preliminary efficacy of an intervention that emphasizes daily self-weighing within the context of a self-regulation model. METHODS: Forty youngadults (29.1 ± 3.9 years, range 21–35, average BMI of 33.36 ± 3.4) were
Background—Cardiovascular mortality is excessive in youngadults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The factors contributing to ESRD-related vascular disease are incompletely understood. Youngadults with childhood-onset chronic renal failure (CRF) are uniquely suited for risk factor assessment because of their long-term exposure at an age when vascular pathology in the general population is still minimal. Methods and Results—We used novel
Jun Oh; Rainer Wunsch; Martin Turzer; Malte Bahner; Paolo Raggi; Uwe Querfeld; Otto Mehls; Franz Schaefer
Background African Americans have higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality than other ethnic groups. Youngadults are prime\\u000a targets for intervention strategies to prevent and reduce disease risk. The study purpose was to determine the level of knowledge\\u000a of lifestyle risk factors for CVD among young African American adults in Phoenix. The results will be used to guide the development
The present study investigated demographic and psychosocial correlates of smoking status and predictors of smoking cessation among youngadults, ages 18–30years old. Youngadults (n=294) completed a self-report survey regarding their health habits and smokers were offered the opportunity to enroll in a smoking cessation program. Substitute reinforcers were greater among ex-smokers compared to nontreatment-seeking smokers, treatment-seeking smokers who did
Janet Audrain-McGovern; Daniel Rodriguez; Leonard H. Epstein; Kelli Rodgers; Jocelyn Cuevas; E. Paul Wileyto
High rates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI; 14%–17%) in adolescents and youngadults suggest that some self-injurers may exhibit more or different psychiatric problems than others. In the present study, the authors utilized a latent class analysis to identify clinically distinct subgroups of self-injurers. Participants were 205 youngadults with a history of 1 or more NSSI behaviors. Latent classes were
Bryant PR, Pandian G. Acquired limb deficiencies. 1. Acquired limb deficiencies in children and youngadults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82 Suppl 1:S3-8. This self-directed learning module highlights prosthetic treatment considerations and challenges in children and youngadults. It is part of the chapter on acquired limb deficiencies in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical
INTRODUCTION. This work explores two issues related with the appearance of subjective memory complaints in youngadults: on the one hand, the possibility of the complaints being a result of attentional and executive deficits and, on the other, whether certain characteristics of the personality favour and modulate the clinical expression of these complaints. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. The Memory Failures of Everyday questionnaire, Spanish version, the Prefrontal Syndromes Inventory and the Revised Temperament and Character Inventory were administered to a sample of 1132 participants (900 from the general population and 232 on treatment for drug addiction). The correlation among the variables of the memory complaints, of prefrontal functioning in daily life and of the dimensions of personality proposed by Cloninger was explored. The causal relationships among the variables were studied using structural methods. RESULTS. A strong correlation was observed between cognitive complaints and prefrontal symptoms, suggesting that the complaints are, in fact, a result of an inadequate management of the attentional and executive functions that favours daily errors. A relationship with a large effect size is also observed between the cognitive complaints and low self-management. This dimension of the personality offers an important predictive capacity regarding the appearance and the intensity of the complaints, either directly or modulated by other dimensions, especially harm avoidance. CONCLUSIONS. The data back the idea that memory complaints are the result of the self-perception of daily faults and errors that are produced at the attentional and executive level -although they are taken as instances of mnemonic oversight- and that the clinical expression of these complaints is modulated by a profile of the personality. PMID:24052439
Popular concern about widespread damage to the hearing from exposure to amplified music continues, although there has been little firm evidence of permanent effects in casual listeners. Measurement of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) provides a sensitive technique for testing outer hair cell (OHC) function, and was used in this study of 28 youngadults aged 18-25 years, whose only significant source of noise exposure was loud music, to look for evidence of poorer cochlear function in those of greater exposure; they provided 27 right ears and 27 left ears suitable for measurement of TEOAE strength. Estimates of subjects' total noise dose were obtained from self-reports of the duration and intensity of their exposure to music and other sources of noise. Ears with greater exposure to loud music showed significantly weaker TEOAEs than less exposed ears in response to a 4 kHz tone burst, or in response to a saturating (82 dBSPL) click if the response was treated with a high-frequency bandpass filter (2-4 kHz) (p<0.05). Differences between more exposed and less exposed groups of ears were most marked in the 2 kHz half-octave band for right ears, and in the 2.8 kHz half-octave band for left ears. A hypothesis is proposed that weakness in TEOAEs as a result of exposure to loud music is seen first in the 2 kHz region of the emission spectrum, and later at higher frequencies; and that for a given amount of exposure, TEOAE weakness (or OHC damage) is more advanced in left ears than in right. PMID:10509856
To evaluate Pentacam-Scheimpflug imaging of anterior segment parameters in young Indian adults. In this prospective study 120 eyes of 60 normal Indian subjects with a mean age of 25.93 ± 6.58 years (range 17-39 years) were assessed by Pentacam. Main outcome measures were central corneal thickness (CCT), thinnest corneal thickness (TCT), apex corneal thickness (apex CT), peripheral corneal thickness at 2, 4, 6 and 8 mm from the thinnest point, location of the thinnest pachymetry, corneal volume (CV), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV) and anterior chamber angle (ACA). Independent samples t test, dependent samples t test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used for statistical analysis. The mean CCT, TCT, Apex CT and CV were 544.95 ± 35.42, 542 ± 35.19, 545.43 ± 35.45 and 61.64 ± 4.17 ?m, respectively. There was a gradual increase in CT from the thinnest point to the periphery. The mean ACD was 3.14 ± 0.33 mm, mean ACV was 177.77 ± 29.02 mm(3), and mean ACA was 39.36° ± 5.42°. There was no significant difference between CCT, TCT and Apex CT. A significant positive correlation was found between CCT and peripheral CT and also between anterior chamber parameters. TCT was mainly located in the inferotemporal and superotemporal zone. No significant difference was found in parameters between the right and left eyes and also between genders. This study provided information about a wide range of parameters in the anterior segment of healthy Indian eyes. These results could be helpful in assessment of patients with corneal diseases, glaucoma and screening for refractive surgeries. PMID:23456513
The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of secondary impairments in youngadults with spina bifida and to relate the prevalence to the type of spina bifida and the level of lesion. This cross-sectional study is part of the ASPINE (Adolescents with Spina Bifida in the Netherlands) study. Data were collected on medical history, hydrocephalus (shunt: yes/no), neurological level of lesion (International Standards for Neurological and Functional Classification of Spinal Cord Injury), visual acuity (Landolt rings), spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale), contractures (range of motion), scoliosis (deviation from perpendicular), ambulation (Hoffer criteria), pressure sores and blood pressure (physical examination), epilepsy, pain, incontinence and sexuality (questionnaire), and cognitive functioning (Raven Standard Progressive Matrices). In total, 179 patients with spina bifida participated (41% male, age range 16 to 25 years, mean 20 years 9 months, SD 2 years 11 months). These were 37 patients with spina bifida occulta, 119 patients with spina bifida aperta and hydrocephalus (AHC+) and 23 patients with spina bifida aperta without hydrocephalus (AHC-). Of our patient group, 73 had a high-level lesion (L2 and above), 68 a mid-level lesion (L3 to L5), and 38 a low-level lesion (S1 and below). Both subdivisions were strongly related with patients with higher lesions more often having hydrocephalus. Most secondary impairments were found for patients with AHC+, and patients with AHC- were mostly comparable to patients with spina bifida occulta. According to level of lesion, most medical problems were found in the high-level lesion group. However, all subgroups suffered from health problems. PMID:15174535
Verhoef, M; Barf, H A; Post, M W M; van Asbeck, F W A; Gooskens, R H J M; Prevo, A J H
|This issue of the "News Research Bulletin" contains reports on two studies of media use by contemporary youngadults. The first study analyzes the media behavior of 447 randomly selected respondents in Virginia Beach, Virginia in the summer of 1973. Some of the highlights of the study were that about 90 percent of the young people report doing at…
American Newspaper Publishers Association, Washington, DC.
There are numerous financial planning and money management handbooks, but few focus on the needs of youngadults between 16 and 25 years of age. Colleges and some high schools are increasingly offering courses covering money management, but the materials are more "economics-focused" than "real-world" focused. Young people are huge consumers who…
Relations between maternal employment and youngadults' work and family expectations, and self-efficacy were examined with 721 college students (mean age = 21 years). Young men expected more work hours per day and older retirement age, whereas women expected full-time work at a younger age and more time with spouse and children each week. Individuals with employed mothers reported less
The authors investigated whether general and domain-specific control beliefs were related to stigmatizing physical appearance qualities in young, middle-aged, and older adults. Being babyfaced, unattractive, or short was associated with dimin- ished control beliefs in young and middle adulthood, whereas being overweight was not. Those who were less attractive, more babyfaced, shorter, or heavier sometimes perceived more rather than less
Carrie Andreoletti; Leslie A. Zebrowitz; Margie E. Lachman
|This article examines how developmental bibliotherapy featuring youngadult literature can be an effective strategy to address emotional issues of gifted teenagers. It describes how one high school English class responded to the novel, "The Mosquito Test," in a bibliotherapeutic fashion. Also provided is an annotated bibliography of current young…
SUMMARY To explore the forensic implications of 'verbal overshadowing' in young and older eyewitnesses, we examined the effects of providing a verbal face description on subsequent performance in a lineup task. Young (18-30 years) and older (60-80 years) adults viewed a videotaped crime and performed some unrelated cognitive tasks. Participants in the experimental condition were then asked to supply a
|This book contains a collection of 14 original essays. The purpose of the book is to inform teachers, librarians, and other professionals working with young people about aspects of African-American literature and to stimulate further thinking about this literature. After an introduction, chapters in the book are: (1) "African-American YoungAdult…
|Depression often emerges early in the lifecourse and is consistently shown to be associated with poor self-esteem. The 3 main objectives of the current study are to (1) evaluate the association between a history major depression and self-esteem in young adulthood, (2) assess the relationship between timing of depression onset and youngadult…
|Advocates have long argued that an increased role for youngadult literature in the classroom would help students' reading development. At first glance, the widely adopted Common Core State Standards might seem in opposition to an increased role for such literature. A closer examination of the common core documents suggests, however, that young…
|This brief takes a broad look at low-income youngadults in an effort to contribute to the national discussion on improving degree completion by increasing participation among all disadvantaged populations--especially those who attempt to succeed in postsecondary settings under financial stress. Understanding the linkages between low-income young…
|Children with multiple handicaps, including cerebral palsy (CP), often lose or regress in their functional ability through adolescence and young adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine functional and psychosocial changes in children, adolescents, and youngadults with CP. A retrospective chart review and a prospective telephone…
Krakovsky, Gina; Huth, Myra Martz; Lin, Li; Levin, Ron S.
ObjectiveAlthough there is growing evidence that symptoms of depression influence the development of coronary artery disease, information on the underlying subclinical atherosclerotic process is scant in youngadults. The study examined the association between symptoms of depression and subclinical atherosclerosis, determined by carotid intima–media thickness in asymptomatic young individuals.
Azad A. Kabir; Sathanur R. Srinivasan; Aqfa Sultana; Wei Chen; Christine Y. Wei; Gerald S. Berenson
This paper reports on two studies with Turkish youngadults that used the Turkish version of the Identity Processing Style Q-Sort (IPSQ). The IPSQ is based on Berzonsky's informational, normative, and diffused identity styles. Participants sort descriptors of the styles into columns ranging from most to least like them. Patterns in Turkish young…
A young person's first consensual sexual intercourse experience is often a remarkable and memorable experience. However, little systematic information exists regarding contextual factors of first intercourse, the affective salience of the experience, possible effects on sexual attitudes and beliefs, and subsequent sexual development and adjustment. This retrospective study aimed to examine these in a sample of 475 youngadults. Overall,
Elke D. Reissing; Heather L. Andruff; Jocelyn J. Wentland
A young person's first consensual sexual intercourse experience is often a remarkable and memorable experience. However, little systematic information exists regarding contextual factors of first intercourse, the affective salience of the experience, possible effects on sexual attitudes and beliefs, and subsequent sexual development and adjustment. This retrospective study aimed to examine these in a sample of 475 youngadults. Overall,
Elke D. Reissing; Heather L. Andruff; Jocelyn J. Wentland
|There are numerous financial planning and money management handbooks, but few focus on the needs of youngadults between 16 and 25 years of age. Colleges and some high schools are increasingly offering courses covering money management, but the materials are more "economics-focused" than "real-world" focused. Young people are huge consumers who…
This paper reports one aspect of a study of 28 youngadults (18–26 years) engaging with the uncertain (contested) science of a television news report about recent research into mobile phone health risks. The aim of the study was to examine these young people’s ‘accounts of scientific knowledge’ in this context. Seven groups of friends responded to the news report,
This paper uses the metaphor of the movie classic the Wizard of Oz to represent the online experiences of youngadults. Just like the twister that turns Dorothy’s world upside, down the Internet has arrived to transform our black and white lives into the Technicolor hyper-reality of the Land of Oz. What are the consequences for young Dorothies of today
|Theories about ambivalence, as well as quantitative and qualitative empirical approaches, are applied to obtain an understanding of recycling among youngadults. A questionnaire was mailed to 422 Swedish young people. Regression analyses showed that a mix of negative emotions (worry) and positive emotions (hope and joy) about the environmental…
The aim of this research was to examine personal and situational influences on drink-drive and sober-drive incidents among youngadults. This study was part of a multidisciplinary, longitudinal study of the health and development of a birth cohort of young New Zealanders. Traffic safety has been included in this study, and when the cohort was aged 26 years, 969 (95%)
Despite the increasing use ofreproductive technologies the world over,anthropological studies have paid remarkablylimited attention to the ethical dilemmasinvolved in people's choices of suchtechnologies. Against this background, theauthor analyzes moral perceptions of inducedabortion among unmarried youngadults in urbanNorth Vietnam. While the ethical aspects ofabortion are shrouded in silence in public lifein Vietnam, the young people participating inthe study expressed strong
BACKGROUND: Male hormonal contraceptive methods (HCM) are in Phase I clinical trials in the USA. Interna- tional studies report that adults have positive attitudes regarding male HCM, but little is known about US minority young peoples' attitudes—a population that experiences high unintended pregnancy rates. METHODS: Thirty urban African American young persons (50% males; mean age = 18.8 (SD = 2.5))
Arik V. Marcell; Keith Plowden; Shameeka M. Bowman
With a sample of 116, the authors asked how characteristics of the family, rated by adolescents, predicted health risk behavior at young adulthood 6 years later and whether adolescent and youngadult personal and emotional functioning mediated these relationships. The authors also explored the consistency of relationships among these variables across 4 types of families: balanced, traditional, disconnected, and emotionally
|This study investigates the relation of youngadult identities (ages 18-22 years), reflecting subjective age and psychosocial maturity, to educational and career attainment in young adulthood (ages 25-29 years). Add Health data show that having an older subjective age alone does not curtail attainment; the critical issue is the level of…
Benson, Janel E.; Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Elder, Glen H., Jr.
Background: Citizenship participation by youngadults has reciprocal benefits both for the individual and for society. This paper provides an insight into the ways young people with cerebral palsy (CP) perceive their citizenship experiences, and also examines factors which may influence citizenship participation for this group. Method: Qualitative…
Yeung, Polly H. Y.; Passmore, Anne E.; Packer, Tanya L.
Background Prior studies have found that family meals and other aspects of meal structure are associated with dietary intake during adolescence, but little research has characterized meals in young adulthood. Objective This study was designed to describe attitudes regarding the social nature of meals, time constraints on meals, and meal regularity in youngadults. In addition, this study aimed to
NICOLE I. LARSON; MELISSA C. NELSON; DIANNE NEUMARK-SZTAINER; MARY STORY; PETER J. HANNAN
|The phenomenon called "aging out" includes approximately 20,000 young people who enter adulthood directly from foster care each year (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2005). The number of youth and youngadults who aged out of care in the U.S. in 2005, the year for which the most current statistics are available, increased 48 percent…
We examined the long-term effects of prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) on the behavior problems and smoking behavior of 22-year-old offspring. The mothers of these offspring were interviewed about their tobacco and other drug use during pregnancy at the fourth and seventh gestational months, and at delivery. Data on the offspring are from interviews at age 22 (n=608). Behavior problems were measured by the Adult Self-Report (ASR) with the following outcome scales: total behavior problems, externalizing, internalizing, attention, anxiety/depression, withdrawn, thought, intrusive, aggression, somatic and rule breaking behavioral problems. Youngadult smoking behavior was measured using self-reported average daily cigarettes, and was validated with urine cotinine. Nicotine dependence was measured with the Fagerström Tobacco and Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scale. Regression analyses tested the relations between trimester-specific PCSE and youngadult's behavioral problems and smoking behavior, adjusting for demographic and maternal psychological characteristics, and other prenatal substance exposures. Exposed youngadults had significantly higher scores on the externalizing, internalizing, aggression, and somatic scales of the ASR. These youngadults were also more likely to have a history of arrests. Youngadults with PCSE also had a higher rate of smoking and nicotine dependence. Our previous findings of the relations between PCSE and aggressive behavior in early childhood and PCSE and smoking behavior in early adolescence extend into young adulthood. PMID:23000289
Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L
Coronary atherosclerotic plaques were revealed by light microscopy in 12% of adolescents and in 28% of youngadults. All the plaques of adolescents and one-third of the plaques of youngadults escaped recognition on ordinary gross inspection, even after Sudan staining. A centrifugal extention of plaques, from the branching areas to the proximal segment of the main coronary arteries took place, starting from adolscence. During early adulthood this centrifugal extension continued involving the intermediate segments of the anterior descending and right coronary arteries. In undistended vessels, the coronary atherosclerotic plaques narrowed the lumenal diameter up to 55% in adolescents and up to 65% in youngadults. Histologically, the mucoid type of plaque, rich in areas of edema, insudate and depolymerized ground substance, prevailed in the coronary arteries of adolescents; in youngadults, the prevalent plaque was the lipid-rich variety, containing many clusters of lipid-filled and foam cells. In addition, necrotic plaques or atheromas have been revealed for the first time in youngadults. A positive association appeared on our material between cigarette smoking and the presence of mucoid plaques in the proximal segment of the main coronary arteries of adolescents. On the other hand, no relation could be established between risk factors and the accumulation of lipid-filled and foam cells in the atherosclerotic plaques of youngadults. PMID:7417364
Objective Health care access is associated with improved control of multiple chronic diseases, but the association between health care access and weight change is unclear. This study aims to test the association between health care access and weight change. Design The Coronary Artery Risk Development in YoungAdults (CARDIA) study is a multi-center population-based prospective study. Weight change was calculated at 3 and 13 years after CARDIA year 7 (1992–1993). Health care access was defined as no barriers or one or more barriers to access (health insurance gap, no usual source of care, not seeking care due to expense). Intermediary variables evaluated included history of dieting, and use of diet pills, meal replacements, or weight control programs. Setting Four cities in the United States. Subjects Participants were aged 18–30 years at baseline (1985–1986). Analyses include 3922 black and white men and women with relevant data from CARDIA years 7, 10, and 20 (1992–1993, 1995–1996, and 2005–2006, respectively). Results Mean weight change was +4.9 pounds by 3 years and +18.7 pounds by 13 years, with no differences by health care access. Being on a weight-reducing diet was not consistently associated with health care access across examinations. Use of diet pills, meal replacements or organized weight control programs was low, and did not vary by health care access. Conclusions Weight gain was high irrespective of health care access. Public health and clinical approaches are needed to address weight gain.
Tang, Joyce W.; Allen, Norrina; de Chavez, Peter; Goff, David C.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Lewis, Cora E.; Carnethon, Mercedes
The impact of parental divorce and remarriage and youngadults' gender on second-order personality traits, such as extraversion, anxiety, tough poise and independence, was examined. The responses of 227 youngadults on the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF; Cattell, Eber, & Tatsuoka, 1970) were subjected to a parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Results revealed significant differences between the anxiety scores of the young men and women as well as between those of the three different family-structure groups, but divorce and remarriage was not associated with either positive or negative personality development in this sample. PMID:1403973