Science.gov

Sample records for young adults 1976-2004

  1. Young Adult Library Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Bookmark, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Eight articles in this Spring 1985 issue of The Bookmark focus on young adult library services. In addition to these thematic articles, an introduction and three reports are presented. The issue contains: (1) "In Perspective" (E. J. Josey); (2) "Young Adult Literature in the 1980's--Awesome!" (Ellin Chu); (3) "Young Adult Services' Public…

  2. Hypertension in young adults.

    PubMed

    De Venecia, Toni; Lu, Marvin; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2016-03-01

    Hypertension remains a major societal problem affecting 76 million, or approximately one third, of US adults. While more prevalent in the older population, an increasing incidence in the younger population, including athletes, is being observed. Active individuals, like the young and athletes, are viewed as free of diseases such as hypertension. However, the increased prevalence of traditional risk factors in the young, including obesity, diabetes mellitus, and renal disease, increase the risk of developing hypertension in younger adults. Psychosocial factors may also be contributing factors to the increasing incidence of hypertension in the younger population. Increased left ventricular wall thickness and mass are increasingly found in young adults on routine echocardiograms and predict future cardiovascular events. This increasing incidence of hypertension in the young calls for early surveillance and prompt treatment to prevent future cardiac events. In this review we present the current epidemiological data, potential mechanisms, clinical implications, and treatment of hypertension in young patients and athletes. PMID:26821528

  3. Sexting among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Methods Using an adapted web version of Respondent-Driven Sampling (webRDS) we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (ages 18 to 24; N=3447). We examined participant sexting behavior using 4 categories of sexting: 1) Non-Sexters, 2) Receivers, 3) Senders, and 4) Two-way Sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Results Over half (57%) of respondents were Non-Sexters, 28.2% of the sample were Two-way Sexters, 12.6% were Receivers, and 2% were Senders. Males were more likely to be Receivers than females. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be Two-way Sexters than non-sexually active respondents. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in number of sexual partners, or number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Conclusions Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting. PMID:23299018

  4. Focus on Young Adult Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Union, Bunni; Williams, Sheila

    1996-01-01

    Presents three library youth service programs which focus on "Pizza and Politicians," a public library pizza party which gave high school students and college-aged young adults a chance to meet and question politicians; a young adult "Reading to Seniors" program; "Making Books," a public library journal-making project for middle school students.…

  5. Toward a Young Adult Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amidon, Rick E.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the value of teaching and producing contemporary plays as well as classics in high school. Argues for the superior interest level of challenging, low-budget, relevant dramas recently appearing on the young adult scene, such as those by Jerome McDonough and Hindi Brooks. Includes an annotated bibliography of young adult drama. (JG)

  6. Responding to Young Adult Literature. Young Adult Literature Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monseau, Virginia R.

    This book focuses on how readers respond to the power of young adult literature--negating the assumption that because such literature appeals to adolescents it cannot possibly be worthy of a place in the language arts curriculum. The book serves two purposes: it describes and discusses the oral and written response of adolescents and adults to…

  7. Moral Dilemmas of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rest, James R.

    This study describes moral dilemmas that young adults (ages 18-24) formulate spontaneously and examines the relationship between these dilemmas and the subjects' environment and scores on a standardized test. Fifty-two subjects were tested both in 1976 and 1978, creating 104 subject-oriented dilemmas. Thirty-two were in college, 17 were not, and…

  8. Counseling the Young Adult Lesbian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rhoda

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on problems faced by young adult lesbians. Suggests counselors should: (1) encourage the counselee to "dump"; (2) guide her in a decision on coming out; (3) explain the legal rights and restrictions; (4) provide ongoing support for those who socialize openly; and (5) publicly promote gay rights. (Author)

  9. Raising "Hot Topics" through Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenke, Susan; Maples, Joellen; Henderson, Jill

    2010-01-01

    While young adult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read young adult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching young adult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their

  10. Raising "Hot Topics" through Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenke, Susan; Maples, Joellen; Henderson, Jill

    2010-01-01

    While young adult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read young adult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching young adult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their…

  11. Personality Profiles of Physically Impaired Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Lynn C.; Harper, Dennis C.

    1980-01-01

    Different forms of chronic observable disability may have differing impacts on adult personality adjustment. Young adults with cleft lip/palate display fewer personality adjustment problems than those with orthopedic impairment. (Author)

  12. Reading Their World: The Young Adult Novel in the Classroom. Second Edition. Young Adult Literature Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monseau, Virginia R., Ed.; Salvner, Gary M., Ed.

    This book was born of a desire to provide students, teachers, and all interested readers with a collection of essays that address issues of selection, pedagogy, and worth of the young adult novel. A primary purpose of the book is to enter the world of young adult readers through a literary form they know well, the modern young adult novel. Another…

  13. Developing Public Library Services for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jim

    From November 1992 through May 1993, a series of staff development and training workshops were presented as part of the project, "Developing Library Services for Young Adults." The workshops included: "Redirecting Young Adult Behavior" (Glenna O. Auxier & Bob Perchalski); "The Youth Services Librarian and the Law" (Gary Becker & Julie Law); and…

  14. Film and the Young Adult Novel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Harold M.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses films based on young adult novels and why they are often considered failures. Describes various films about young adults and their problems that have proven to be artistic successes. Gives close attention to film versions of S. E. Hinton's novels and of Robert Cormier's "The Chocolate War." (HB)

  15. Multicultural Literature for Children and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bista, Krishna

    2012-01-01

    In the selection of multicultural literature for children and young adults, educators and researchers focus on two main controversial issues--authority and authenticity--that the authors portray in their writing. What type of author can accurately portray realistic pictures of minority cultures in multicultural literature for young adults? Must it…

  16. Young and Older Adults' Reading of Distracters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Susan; Mcdowd, Joan; Metcalf, Kim; Liu, Chiung-Ju

    2008-01-01

    Eye-tracking technology was employed to examine young and older adults' performance in the reading with distraction paradigm. Distracters of 1, 2, and 4 words that formed meaningful phrases were used. There were marked age differences in fixation patterns. Young adults' fixations to the distracters and targets increased with distracter length.

  17. Best Books for Young Adults. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    This book presents an annotated listing of the Young Adult Library Services Association's "Best Books for Young Adults" (BBYA) from 1966-99. Selected books are listed in topical bibliographies under the following subjects: Too Good To Miss; Adventure; Animals; Family; Fantasy; Friendship; Historical Fiction; The Holocaust; Humor; Mystery; Not…

  18. Marriage and mental health among young adults.

    PubMed

    Uecker, Jeremy E

    2012-03-01

    Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this apparent benefit may vary across the life course. Early marriage, which is nonnormative, could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 11,695), I find that married young adults exhibit levels of psychological distress that are similar to those of young adults in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults also report lower frequency of drunkenness than those who are not in a romantic relationship. Married young adults, especially those who first married at ages 22 to 26, report higher life satisfaction than those in other type of romantic relationships,those in no romantic relationship, and those who married prior to age 22. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed. PMID:22328171

  19. Working with Young Adults. NIACE Lifelines in Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carol

    This document explains how adult educators and others in the United Kingdom can increase levels of participation and achievement in learning for young adults by providing informal learning opportunities for those young people who are least inclined to participate in formal education and training programs. The guide outlines a step-by-step approach…

  20. Strokes in young adults: epidemiology and prevention.

    PubMed

    Smajlović, Dževdet

    2015-01-01

    Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%-15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of stroke in young adults. This is important given the fact that younger stroke patients have a clearly increased risk of death compared with the general population. The prevalence of standard modifiable vascular risk factors in young stroke patients is different from that in older patients. Modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension, are highly prevalent in the young stroke population, with no significant difference in geographic, climatic, nutritional, lifestyle, or genetic diversity. The list of potential stroke etiologies among young adults is extensive. Strokes of undetermined and of other determined etiology are the most common types among young patients according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) criteria. Prevention is the primary treatment strategy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to stroke. Therefore, primary prevention is very important with regard to stroke in young adults, and aggressive treatment of risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, is essential. The best form of secondary stroke prevention is directed toward stroke etiology as well as treatment of additional risk factors. However, there is a lack of specific recommendations and guidelines for stroke management in young adults. In conclusion, strokes in young adults are a major public health problem and further research, with standardized methodology, is needed in order to give us more precise epidemiologic data. Given the increasing incidence of stroke in the young, there is an objective need for more research in order to reduce this burden. PMID:25750539

  1. Strokes in young adults: epidemiology and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Smajlovi?, Devdet

    2015-01-01

    Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of stroke in young adults. This is important given the fact that younger stroke patients have a clearly increased risk of death compared with the general population. The prevalence of standard modifiable vascular risk factors in young stroke patients is different from that in older patients. Modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension, are highly prevalent in the young stroke population, with no significant difference in geographic, climatic, nutritional, lifestyle, or genetic diversity. The list of potential stroke etiologies among young adults is extensive. Strokes of undetermined and of other determined etiology are the most common types among young patients according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) criteria. Prevention is the primary treatment strategy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to stroke. Therefore, primary prevention is very important with regard to stroke in young adults, and aggressive treatment of risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, is essential. The best form of secondary stroke prevention is directed toward stroke etiology as well as treatment of additional risk factors. However, there is a lack of specific recommendations and guidelines for stroke management in young adults. In conclusion, strokes in young adults are a major public health problem and further research, with standardized methodology, is needed in order to give us more precise epidemiologic data. Given the increasing incidence of stroke in the young, there is an objective need for more research in order to reduce this burden. PMID:25750539

  2. Snapshot of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Receptor in Children and Young Adults With Non-neuroblastoma, GD2+ Solid Tumors is testing the feasibility and ... acute myeloid leukemia , non-Hodgkin lymphoma , Hodgkin lymphoma , neuroblastoma , central nervous system cancers, and gonadal cancers. The ...

  3. Communicating with young adults with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Webb, A K

    1995-07-01

    The care of the young adult with cystic fibrosis is complex, requiring a multidisciplinary input from different carers. Communication with and education of patients covers many areas; topics may include medical and personal problems, transplantation, survival, current scientific breakthroughs and the future. Communicating in these areas with knowledgeable young adults requires skill, tact and self-education upon the part of the cystic fibrosis team. PMID:7567727

  4. Literature for Today's Young Adults. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Donelson, Kenneth L.

    Designed to help teachers open young minds to literature, this book presents criteria for evaluating books in all genres and their suggested classroom uses, an examination of hotly debated topics, and an overview of the significance of young adult literature. The fourth edition of the book features 30 boxed inserts containing essays by some of the…

  5. Increasing Employment Opportunities for Disadvantaged Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Farhana; Terwelp, Emily

    2015-01-01

    In the past four decades, profound changes in the U.S. economy--including falling wages, widening inequality, and the polarization of jobs at the top and bottom of the education and wage distributions--have had dramatic implications for the labor-market fortunes of young adults. Only about half of young people ages 16 to 24 held jobs in 2014, and…

  6. Meeting the needs of young adults.

    PubMed

    McCauley, A P; Salter, C; Kiragu, K; Senderowitz, J

    1995-10-01

    As they mature and become sexually active, more young people face serious health risks. Most face these risks with too little factual information, too little guidance about sexual responsibility, and too little access to health care. Meeting young adults' diverse needs challenges parents, communities, health care providers, and educators. Despite urgent needs, program efforts have been slight and slowed by controversy. PMID:8654883

  7. From Insider to Outsider: The Evolution of Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cart, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses changes in the field of young adult literature since the 1980s. Examines how the definition of "young adult" has evolved. Offers a brief overview of the history of young adult literature from the 1940s. Considers the rise of awards for merit in young adult publishing, noting three in particular. Concludes this is a golden age of young…

  8. HIV Testing Rates Still Low Among Teens, Young Adults: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... 156776.html HIV Testing Rates Still Low Among Teens, Young Adults: CDC Half of infected young people don't ... strategies are needed to boost testing rates among teens and young adults. Her research group, for example, has explored HIV ...

  9. Mixed Heritage in Young Adult Literature. Scarecrow Studies in Young Adult Literature #32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Nancy Thalia

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-heritage people are one of the fastest-growing groups in the United States, yet culturally they have been largely invisible, especially in young adult literature. "Mixed Heritage in Young Adult Literature" is a critical exploration of how mixed-heritage characters (those of mixed race, ethnicity, religion, and/or adoption) and real-life

  10. Mixed Heritage in Young Adult Literature. Scarecrow Studies in Young Adult Literature #32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Nancy Thalia

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-heritage people are one of the fastest-growing groups in the United States, yet culturally they have been largely invisible, especially in young adult literature. "Mixed Heritage in Young Adult Literature" is a critical exploration of how mixed-heritage characters (those of mixed race, ethnicity, religion, and/or adoption) and real-life…

  11. Quantification of biological aging in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate; Cohen, Harvey J.; Corcoran, David L.; Danese, Andrea; Harrington, HonaLee; Israel, Salomon; Levine, Morgan E.; Schaefer, Jonathan D.; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Ben; Yashin, Anatoli I.; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2015-01-01

    Antiaging therapies show promise in model organism research. Translation to humans is needed to address the challenges of an aging global population. Interventions to slow human aging will need to be applied to still-young individuals. However, most human aging research examines older adults, many with chronic disease. As a result, little is known about aging in young humans. We studied aging in 954 young humans, the Dunedin Study birth cohort, tracking multiple biomarkers across three time points spanning their third and fourth decades of life. We developed and validated two methods by which aging can be measured in young adults, one cross-sectional and one longitudinal. Our longitudinal measure allows quantification of the pace of coordinated physiological deterioration across multiple organ systems (e.g., pulmonary, periodontal, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, and immune function). We applied these methods to assess biological aging in young humans who had not yet developed age-related diseases. Young individuals of the same chronological age varied in their “biological aging” (declining integrity of multiple organ systems). Already, before midlife, individuals who were aging more rapidly were less physically able, showed cognitive decline and brain aging, self-reported worse health, and looked older. Measured biological aging in young adults can be used to identify causes of aging and evaluate rejuvenation therapies. PMID:26150497

  12. Quantification of biological aging in young adults.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate; Cohen, Harvey J; Corcoran, David L; Danese, Andrea; Harrington, HonaLee; Israel, Salomon; Levine, Morgan E; Schaefer, Jonathan D; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Ben; Yashin, Anatoli I; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2015-07-28

    Antiaging therapies show promise in model organism research. Translation to humans is needed to address the challenges of an aging global population. Interventions to slow human aging will need to be applied to still-young individuals. However, most human aging research examines older adults, many with chronic disease. As a result, little is known about aging in young humans. We studied aging in 954 young humans, the Dunedin Study birth cohort, tracking multiple biomarkers across three time points spanning their third and fourth decades of life. We developed and validated two methods by which aging can be measured in young adults, one cross-sectional and one longitudinal. Our longitudinal measure allows quantification of the pace of coordinated physiological deterioration across multiple organ systems (e.g., pulmonary, periodontal, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, and immune function). We applied these methods to assess biological aging in young humans who had not yet developed age-related diseases. Young individuals of the same chronological age varied in their "biological aging" (declining integrity of multiple organ systems). Already, before midlife, individuals who were aging more rapidly were less physically able, showed cognitive decline and brain aging, self-reported worse health, and looked older. Measured biological aging in young adults can be used to identify causes of aging and evaluate rejuvenation therapies. PMID:26150497

  13. Aplastic Anemia in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    DeZern, Amy E.; Guinan, Eva C.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent and young adult patient presentations of aplastic anemia require a particular perspective on both diagnosis and treatment. This unique age group necessitates a thorough diagnostic evaluation to ensure the etiology, acquired or inherited, is sufficiently determined. The treatment options include human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling hematopoietic cell transplantation or immunosuppressive therapy, and both require attention to the specific medical and social needs of these adolescents and young adults. Longitudinal surveillance throughout life for the development of late complications of the disease and treatment is mandatory. PMID:25228559

  14. Classic Readers Theatre for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barchers, Suzanne I.; Kroll, Jennifer L.

    This book presents 16 original scripts that have been adapted from classic works of literature for use for readers theatre with young adults and ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Adaptations of the following works are included: "Little Women" (Louisa May Alcott); episodes from "Don Quixote" (Miguel de Cervantes; "The Necklace" (Guy de

  15. The Prevalence of Lisping in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Borsel, John; Van Rentergem, Sigrid; Verhaeghe, Leen

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a pilot study that investigated the prevalence of lisping in a cohort of young adults. The motivation for the study was the observation that a substantial number of incoming students in speech language pathology at the Ghent University (Belgium), still presented with frontal lisping of the /s/, /z/ and sometimes

  16. Recreation for Retarded Teenagers and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Bernice Wells; Ginglend, David R.

    Intended for recreational leaders, classroom teachers, volunteers, and parents, the text presents guidelines for planning and conducting activities for mentally retarded youth and young adults. Consideration of understanding the maturing retardate and his social needs includes different kinds of beneficial social experiences, the maturing…

  17. Reducing Underage and Young Adult Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Windle, Michael; Zucker, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Forty years ago, when the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded, alcoholism was considered an adult disease driven principally by physiological determinants. As NIAAA expanded its research portfolio, new data and insights were obtained that led to an increased focus on underage and young adult drinking. Fostered by interdisciplinary research, etiologic models were developed that recognized the multiplicity of relevant genetic and environmental influences. This shift in conceptualizing alcohol use disorders also was based on findings from large-scale, national studies indicating that late adolescence and early young adulthood were peak periods for the development of alcohol dependence and that early initiation of alcohol use (i.e., before age 15) was associated with a fourfold increase in the probability of subsequently developing alcohol dependence. In recent years, developmental studies and models of the initiation, escalation, and adverse consequences of underage and early young adult drinking have helped us to understand how alcohol use may influence, and be influenced by, developmental transitions or turning points. Major risk and protective factors are being identified and integrated into screening, prevention, and treatment programs to optimize interventions designed to reduce drinking problems among adolescents and young adults. In addition, regulatory policies, such as the minimum drinking age and zero-tolerance laws, are being implemented and evaluated for their impact on public health. PMID:23579934

  18. Challenging Perspectives on Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    As proponents of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) publish lists of "Exemplar Texts" that are said to represent the degree of textual complexity appropriate for the different grade levels, and that are overwhelmingly canonical, those who value young adult literature and recognize a place for it in the high school literature…

  19. Young Adult Outcome of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Linda C.; Ho, Helena H.

    2008-01-01

    To learn about the lives of young adults with ASD, families with children born 1974-1984, diagnosed as preschoolers and followed into adolescence were contacted by mail. Of 76 eligible, 48 (63%) participated in a telephone interview. Global outcome scores were assigned based on work, friendships and independence. At mean age 24, half had good to…

  20. Cultural Orientation. Young Adult Curriculum: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.

    The cultural orientation curriculum for young adults in the International Catholic Migration Commission's Philippine Refugee Processing Center is discussed and outlined. The program's goals for emotional and character development (self-awareness and self-esteem, cultural awareness, pro-activity, personal responsibility), knowledge of cultural…

  1. Young Adult Literature: From Romance to Realism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cart, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Today's young adult (YA) literature is every bit as complex as the audience it's written for, unflinchingly addressing such topics as homosexuality, mental illness, AIDS and drug abuse. In this much expanded revision of his 1996 book, veteran author Michael Cart shows how the best of contemporary YA lit has evolved to tackle such daunting subjects

  2. Classic Readers Theatre for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barchers, Suzanne I.; Kroll, Jennifer L.

    This book presents 16 original scripts that have been adapted from classic works of literature for use for readers theatre with young adults and ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Adaptations of the following works are included: "Little Women" (Louisa May Alcott); episodes from "Don Quixote" (Miguel de Cervantes; "The Necklace" (Guy de…

  3. Iron Deficiency in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, William L.; Risser, Jan M. H.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the prevalence, natural history, causes, impact on performance, diagnosis, and treatment of iron deficiency in adolescent and young adult athletes. All athletes should be screened and treated. The best diagnosis involves determining serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. Treatment requires therapeutic doses of oral ferrous iron for several

  4. 78 FR 32116 - TRICARE Young Adult

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    .... Overview An interim final rule was published in the Federal Register on April 27, 2011 (76 FR 23479-23485... (76 FR 23479-23485). No comments were received. OMB approved the TYA application form and assigned the... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 199 RIN 0720-AB48 TRICARE Young Adult AGENCY: Office of the...

  5. Young Adult Literature 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Buffy

    2009-01-01

    Web 2.0 tools enable today's writers to connect with their audience in unprecedented ways. The advent of social networking and other Web 2.0 tools have changed the rules for how authors and book publishers market and communicate with their audience. Through tools like blogs, Twitter, MySpace, and Facebook, Young Adult (YA) lit authors can choose…

  6. Iron Deficiency in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, William L.; Risser, Jan M. H.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the prevalence, natural history, causes, impact on performance, diagnosis, and treatment of iron deficiency in adolescent and young adult athletes. All athletes should be screened and treated. The best diagnosis involves determining serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. Treatment requires therapeutic doses of oral ferrous iron for several…

  7. Young Adult Outcome of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Linda C.; Ho, Helena H.

    2008-01-01

    To learn about the lives of young adults with ASD, families with children born 1974-1984, diagnosed as preschoolers and followed into adolescence were contacted by mail. Of 76 eligible, 48 (63%) participated in a telephone interview. Global outcome scores were assigned based on work, friendships and independence. At mean age 24, half had good to

  8. Young Adult Literature and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Jacqueline; Choate, Laura Hensley; Parker, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    As the body of high quality young adult literature (YAL) continues to grow, what role might these texts play in professional development for educators? This article describes ways in which schools can develop book study programs that use this literature to promote meaningful dialogue and understanding of contemporary adolescent issues. Based on…

  9. Young Adult Books: "Watch Out for #1."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Jack

    1985-01-01

    Attacks the trend in recent young adult novels to focus on individual adolescents and their self-centered concerns without having these characters confront the consequences of their actions and their effects on other people. Specifically examines the novels of Judy Blume and Alice Bach. (RBW)

  10. Young Adult Literature: From Romance to Realism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cart, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Today's young adult (YA) literature is every bit as complex as the audience it's written for, unflinchingly addressing such topics as homosexuality, mental illness, AIDS and drug abuse. In this much expanded revision of his 1996 book, veteran author Michael Cart shows how the best of contemporary YA lit has evolved to tackle such daunting subjects…

  11. Literary Maps for Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Mary Ellen

    The activities presented in this handbook are designed to help students envision the locations and landmarks of sites along journeys described in popular young adult literature (e.g., "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,""Born Free,""The Call of the Wild,""Catcher in the Rye,""I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings,""The Island of the Blue…

  12. Physical Education Waivers and Young Adult Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2010-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the relationship between physical activity of young adults who were granted waivers from high school physical education versus those who completed courses in states requiring physical education teacher certification, with curriculum standards and credit requirements for graduation. University students from three…

  13. Lesson Plans for Teaching Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    Intended for teachers, this book is a collection of lesson plans created by 28 teachers in North Carolina to provide opportunities that support integrated learning. Using recommended young adult literature, the book presents activities which promote the integration of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and viewing. The book provides two or…

  14. Spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage in a young adult

    PubMed Central

    Baksi, Aditya; Gupta, Shahana; Ray, Udipta; Ghosh, Shibajyoti

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of a primary adrenal cortical malignancy presenting with spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage in a young adult. To the best of our knowledge, this is the thirteenth such case to be reported in the English literature. PMID:24658522

  15. Financial Literacy of Young Adults: The Importance of Parental Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Bryce L.; Savla, Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of young adults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence young adults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which young adults' financial attitudes mediated financial

  16. Bare Bones Young Adult Services: Tips for Public Library Generalists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillancourt, Renee J.

    This book is a hands-on guide to the philosophy and practice of young adult services in the public libraries. The following chapters are included: (1) "Young Adult Services Philosophy," including reasons to serve teens, why teens are the way they are, who serves young adults, and how to interact with teens; (2) "Youth Participation," including…

  17. Financial Literacy of Young Adults: The Importance of Parental Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Bryce L.; Savla, Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of young adults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence young adults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which young adults' financial attitudes mediated financial…

  18. Connecting the Canon to Current Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybakova, Katie; Roccanti, Rikki

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the respective roles of young adult literature and literary texts in the secondary level English Language Arts classroom and explore the connections that can be made between popular young adult books and the traditional canon. We provide examples showing how young adult literature bestsellers such as "The Book…

  19. 2010 YALSA Fabulous Films and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Journal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2010 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the list of titles that were released in January 2010 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Boston,

  20. 2010 YALSA Fabulous Films and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Journal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2010 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the list of titles that were released in January 2010 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Boston,…

  1. Young Adults Deserve the Best: YALSA's Competencies in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    As high school enrollment continues to rise, the need for effective librarianship serving young adults is greater than ever before. "Young Adults Deserve the Best: Competencies for Librarians Serving Youth," developed by Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), is a document outlining areas of focus for providing quality library service…

  2. Value Preferences Predicting Narcissistic Personality Traits in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungor, Ibrahim Halil; Eksi, Halil; Aricak, Osman Tolga

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at showing how the value preferences of young adults could predict the narcissistic characteristics of young adults according to structural equation modeling. 133 female (59.6%) and 90 male (40.4%), total 223 young adults participated the study (average age: 25.66, ranging from 20 to 38). Ratio group sampling method was used while…

  3. Defining Success in Young Adults with Emotional Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrescia, Susanne G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a definition of success by constructing a portrait of successful young adults with emotional disabilities. Nine young adults with emotional disabilities were interviewed individually after graduating from high school. The research questions that guided the study centered on the young adults'…

  4. Measles immunity among young adults in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Kelly, H A; Riddell, M A; Lambert, S B; Leydon, J A; Catton, M G

    2001-08-01

    Measles outbreaks in Victoria in 1999 and 2001 have suggested that a substantial proportion of young Victorian adults may be susceptible to measles infection. We performed a serosurvey of 300 18-30-year-old healthy blood donors and 312 sera retrieved after diagnostic testing for a non-rash illness in patients of the same age group, with the aim of estimating the proportion of young adults in Victoria immune to measles. We also aimed to define more precisely the birth cohorts at risk of measles infection, with cohorts reflecting the measles immunisation policies of previous years. There was no significant difference in measles immunity between the 300 blood donors (79.0%, 95% confidence interval 73.9-83.5) and the 312 patients whose sera had been stored (84.0%, 95% CI 79.4-87.9, p=0.11). There was, however, a significant difference in immunity by birth cohort. In the combined results from both samples, the proportion of people born between 1968 and 1974 who were immune to measles was 88.4 per cent (95% CI 84.1-91.6) while the proportion of those born between 1975 and 1981 was 74.1 per cent (95% CI 68.7-79.1). This study confirms that a substantial proportion of young Victorian adults are susceptible to measles, but also demonstrates that those born between 1975 and 1981 are more likely to be non-immune than those born before 1975. A review of published Australian data supports this conclusion and confirms the need for a measles control program aimed at young adults. PMID:11596714

  5. [Atraumatic hip pain in young adults].

    PubMed

    González Murillo, M; Turcu, V; De Nicolás Navas, M B; Yeguas Bermejo, A

    2016-01-01

    Hip pain in the young adult is a disabling pathophysiological process may be related to multiple etiologies. The process must be determined in order to make a diagnosis and follow-up treatment. The case is presented of a 29 year old woman with anemia, atraumatic hip pain on the right side, and a limp of one month onset. The differential diagnosis includes infectious, rheumatological, tumor, avascular necrosis of hip, hip impingement, hip dysplasia, osteoarthritis and other syndromes. PMID:25239887

  6. Defining Cigarette Smoking Status in Young Adults: A Comparison of Adolescent vs Adult Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delnevo, Cristine D.; Lewis, M. Jane; Kaufman, Ira; Abatemarco, Diane J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the agreement between 2 measures (adult vs adolescent) of current cigarette smoking among young adults. Methods: We examined data from 1007 young adults from the New Jersey Adult Tobacco Survey. The adult measure incorporates lifetime and present use, whereas the adolescent measure assesses past 30-day use. The kappa…

  7. The young adult chronic patient: population overview.

    PubMed

    Pepper, B

    1985-06-01

    Uninstitutionalized young adults with chronic mental disorders and social disabilities pose a new challenge in community psychiatry. These attention-seeking, help-rejecting young men and women spend most of their lives in the community and differ markedly from older deinstitutionalized chronic psychiatric patients. Many confound identification by their abuse of drugs and/or alcohol. Most deny their mental illness and make inappropriate use of mental health services available to them. Because of the different problems and aspirations of these patients compared to older chronic patients, treatment programs must be age segregated to address these differences. Young adult chronic patients are best helped via flexible, accessible, nonstigmatizing, team-oriented treatment programs. Some patients require long-term neuroleptic therapy at low maintenance doses. In addition to their role as the primary provider of psychiatric care to these patients, psychiatrists must act as advisors to families and community planners and as political activists to focus additional attention on community-based (rather than state hospital-oriented) programs. PMID:2860140

  8. Cystic fibrosis in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Nasr, S Z

    2000-10-01

    Advances in knowledge and medical science have resulted in an increased life span and quality of life of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The median age of survival for CF patients is 32.3 years of age and patients 18 years of age or older now constitute one third of the total patients with CF. Because of these advances, a new patient population has emerged: the adolescents and young adults with CF. Adolescence is normally a time of great cognitive, social and developmental changes. Adolescents with CF not only have to deal with the normal changes expected, but also have to deal with the transition of assuming responsibility for their care from the parents and transitioning their care from a pediatric to an adult care team. Moreover, many of these young adults have to deal with the impact of the progressive deterioration of their CF disease. This review discusses issues of significance to this emerging patient population, including medical care, issues of disability, and psychosocial and other medical conditions associated with an increased life expectancy. PMID:11060556

  9. Does Vocational Training Matter for Young Adults in the Labour Market?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Asa; Skarlind, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The impact of vocational training on employment and income is investigated for young adults. Young adults without further education and training are compared to young adults with two-years and young adults with three-years of vocational training. The sample consists of 41 000 Swedish young adults born in 1974. The employment of these young adults…

  10. Young Adults' Support Strategies when Peers Disclose Suicidal Intent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    In response to the growing suicide rate among adolescents and young adults, researchers have noted the importance of peer responses to suicidal disclosures in this population. The most adaptive response is to inform a responsible adult about the suicidal peer, but existing data indicate that most adolescents and young adults choose to talk to the…

  11. Reading Newspapers: The Practices of America's Young Adults. A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Irwin S.; And Others

    Using the data base provided by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) through its literacy assessment of young adults, researchers probed the newspaper reading practices of 21-25 year olds. The 1985 survey used home interviews of 3,600 young adults in the 48 contiguous states, representative of the 21 million adults in this age…

  12. Secondary Level Re-Entry of Young Canadian Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Cassandra; Ryan, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper illuminates and details some of the traits, pressures and semi-autonomy of the young adult between the ages of 18 and 24 who must confront the barriers and challenges upon returning to secondary school within the high school and the adult education centre context. Focusing on these young adults is fundamentally important to begin to…

  13. Sexual Prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos

    2014-01-01

    Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195

  14. Merchandising Library Materials to Young Adults. Libraries Unlimited Professional Guides for Young Adult Librarians Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Mary Anne

    By addressing the concept of merchandising, this handbook shows librarians how to turn their young adult collection into one that will attract teenagers. Delivering an introduction to marketing and merchandising concepts, the author shares years of experience as a teen services librarian, combined with the latest studies and research findings on…

  15. Emotion regulation and impulsivity in young adults.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L

    2012-05-01

    Past research has linked both emotion regulation and impulsivity with the development and maintenance of addictions. However, no research has investigated the relationship between emotion regulation and impulsivity within young adults. In the present study, we analyzed 194 young adults (27.8% female; 21.3 ± 3.32 years old; 91.8% single; 85.1% Caucasian), grouping them as low, average, or high emotionally dysregulated, and compared self-reported impulsivity, impulsive behaviors (such as alcohol and substance use and gambling) and cognitive impulsivity. We hypothesized that those with high levels of emotion dysregulation would score higher on self-reported and cognitive impulsivity, and report more impulsive behaviors. Analysis indicated that compared to low, the high emotion dysregulation group scored significantly higher on two self-report measures of impulsivity, harm avoidance, and cognitive reasoning. No significant differences were found between groups in impulsive behaviors and cognitive impulsivity. Overall, this study highlights the relationship between emotion dysregulation and impulsivity, suggesting that emotion regulation may be an important factor to consider when assessing individuals at a higher risk for developing an addiction. PMID:22385661

  16. Genetics of ischaemic stroke in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Terni, Eva; Giannini, Nicola; Brondi, Marco; Montano, Vincenzo; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Mancuso, Michelangelo

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke may be a clinical expression of several inherited disorders in humans. Recognition of the underlined genetic disorders causing stroke is important for a correct diagnosis, for genetic counselling and, even if rarely, for a correct therapeutic management. Moreover, the genetics of complex diseases such the stroke, in which multiple genes interact with environmental risk factors to increase risk, has been revolutionized by the Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) approach. Scope of review Here we review the single-gene causes of ischemic stroke, bringing the reader from the candidate gene method toward the exciting new horizons of genetic technology. Major conclusions The aetiological diagnosis of ischemic stroke in young adults is more complex than in the elderly. The identification of a genetic cause is important to provide appropriate counseling and to start a correct therapy, when available. The advent of GWAS technology, such as for other complex pathological conditions, has contributed enormously to the understanding of many of these genetic bases. For success large, well phenotyped case cohorts are required, and international collaborations are essential. General significance This review focuses on the main causes of genetically-based ischemic stroke in young adults, often classified as indeterminate, investigating also the recent findings of the GWAS, in order to improve diagnostic and therapeutic management. PMID:26672892

  17. Emotion Regulation and Impulsivity in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Liana R.N.; Grant, Jon E.; Odlaug, Brian L.

    2012-01-01

    Past research has linked both emotion regulation and impulsivity with the development and maintenance of addictions. However, no research has investigated the relationship between emotion regulation and impulsivity within young adults. In the present study, we analyzed 194 young adults (27.8% female; 21.3 ± 3.32 years old; 91.8% single; 85.1% Caucasian), grouping them as low, average, or high emotionally dysregulated, and compared self-reported impulsivity, impulsive behaviors (such as alcohol and substance use and gambling) and cognitive impulsivity. We hypothesized that those with high levels of emotion dysregulation would score higher on self-reported and cognitive impulsivity, and report more impulsive behaviors. Analysis indicated that compared to low, the high emotion dysregulation group scored significantly higher on two self-report measures of impulsivity, harm avoidance, and cognitive reasoning. No significant differences were found between groups in impulsive behaviors and cognitive impulsivity. Overall, this study highlights the relationship between emotion dysregulation and impulsivity, suggesting that emotion regulation may be an important factor to consider when assessing individuals at a higher risk for developing an addiction. PMID:22385661

  18. Stroke in young adults: about 128 cases

    PubMed Central

    Chraa, Mohamed; Louhab, Nesrine; Kissani, Najib

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is rare in young adults, but it is genuinely a serious situation giving the fact that it touch a very active part of our society. We report a series of 128 cases. The purpose is to analyze the risk factors, etiologies and outcomes of ischemic stroke in young adults in Marrakesh. Retrospective study performed at the Neurology department Mohammed VI universitary hospital in Marrakesh interesting 128 patients. The diagnosis of ischemic stroke was assessed through clinical and radiological confrontation. Results: The age of our patients varied from 18 to 45 years old, 76 males and 52 females giving a male: female ratio of 1:46. Hypertension was the first risk factor involved with 63 (49.2%) cases, followed by smoking with 52 (40.6%) patients. The causes of ischemic stroke were characterized by the predominance of the cardio embolic origin with 43 (33.5%) cases, the existence of 14 (11%) cases of syphilitic arthritis, and the 52 (40.6%) cases of unknown etiologies. The authors stress the difficulties faced on supporting ischemic stroke in southern Morocco in particular when concerned by the etiological finding and the rehabilitation after the acute phase of the stroke. Our study points out the high incidence of embolic heart disease in our context. The lack of neurologists, low coverage of the population and the underestimation by physicians are factors that can explain why ischemic stroke remain undiagnosed. PMID:24932348

  19. The Role of the Elderly Adult in Recent Young Adult Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Janette

    Selected recent adolescent novels which center on a young adult's relationship with an older adult are analyzed. In these novels which feature older adults and young adults as main characters, the older character has qualities that the teenager examines, then accepts or rejects. In today's nuclear family, teenagers sometimes have very little

  20. Differences among Adolescent, Young Adult, and Adult Callers of Suicide Help Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Anda, Diane; Smith, Melanie A.

    1993-01-01

    Examined data on 165 adolescents, 65 young adults, and 175 adults who called 2 suicide help lines. Adults and young adults reported depression as primary reason for contemplating suicide; adolescents reported interpersonal problems. Although callers reported suicide ideation, very small percentage fell into high-risk categories with regard to…

  1. Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most

    MedlinePlus

    ... E-cigarettes Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most Substance Use in Women and Men Monitoring the Future 2015 Survey Results Drug and Alcohol Use in College-Age Adults in 2014 View ...

  2. Both young and older adults discount suggestions from older adults on a social memory test.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sara D; Meade, Michelle L

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the impacts of participant age and confederate age on social memory processes. During a collaborative recall phase, young and older adult participants were exposed to the erroneous memory reports of a young or an older adult confederate. On a subsequent individual recall test, young and older adult participants were equally likely to incorporate the confederates' erroneous suggestions into their memory reports, suggesting that participant age had a minimal effect on social memory processes. However, confederate age did have a marked effect: Young adult participants were less likely to incorporate misleading suggestions from older adult confederates and less likely to report "remembering" items suggested by older adult confederates. Critically, older adult participants were also less likely to incorporate misleading information from fellow older adult confederates. Both young and older adult participants discounted older adult confederates' contributions to a memory test. PMID:23397236

  3. Trust and trustworthiness in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Phoebe E; Slessor, Gillian; Rieger, Matthias; Rendell, Peter G; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Ruffman, Ted

    2015-12-01

    In a series of 1-shot economic trust games in which participants could make real monetary profits, but also risked losing money, 2 studies compared young and older adults' trust (amount invested with trustees) and trustworthiness (amount returned to investors by trustees). In Study 1, young (n = 35) and older (n = 32) participants acted as investors, and the age of simulated trustees (young, older) was manipulated. In Study 2, young (n = 61) and older (n = 67) participants acted in real life as both investors and trustees. They completed 2 face-to-face trust games with same- and other-age partners, and 3 anonymous trust games with same-, other-, and unknown-age partners. Study 1 found that young and older participants rate older trustees as appearing more trustworthy than young trustees, but neither group invest more with older than young trustees. Rather, older participants were more likely than young participants to invest money averaged across trustee age. In Study 2, there were no age-related differences in trust, but older adults were more trustworthy than young adults in anonymous games with same- and unknown-age partners. It was also found that young adults demonstrate greater reputational concerns than older adults by reciprocating more trust when face-to-face than anonymous. We discuss the complex influences of age on trust game investing and reciprocation, as well as the implications for older adults' wellbeing and financial security. PMID:26389525

  4. Dental Care among Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2013-01-01

    Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer…

  5. Language Use in Multiethnic Literature For Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christianson, Darcy

    This study analyzed ethnic authenticity with regard to language use in 16 books for children and young adults used in Central Michigan University's English 582 course, "Cultural Pluralism in Children and Young Adult Literature." Four ethnic groups were included: Native American, African American, Asian American, and Hispanic American. To evaluate…

  6. Well Researched, Yet Little Understood: Young Adults and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cothran, Donetta; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2005-01-01

    The authors present two beginning studies. One investigated the teaching-style preferences of young adults, and the other looked at physical activity trends within this age group. One key to understanding young adults and physical activity is to recognize the importance of participant cognition on physical activity patterns. From this…

  7. Deficits in Working Memory in Young Adults with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mimran, Ravit; Sapir, Shimon

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the extent to which reading disabilities (RD) in young adults are related to deficits in specific aspects of temporary storage of verbal information, namely, memory span and the central executive (CE) component of working memory. Thirty-two native Hebrew-speaking young adults with and without RD were…

  8. 32 CFR 199.26 - TRICARE Young Adult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false TRICARE Young Adult. 199.26 Section 199.26 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CIVILIAN HEALTH AND MEDICAL PROGRAM OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES (CHAMPUS) § 199.26 TRICARE Young Adult. (a) Establishment. The TRICARE...

  9. List Memory in Young Adults with Language Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method: Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list

  10. Identifying Correlates of Young Adults' Weight Behavior: Survey Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…

  11. Serving Adolescents' Reading Interests through Young Adult Literature. Fastback 258.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lucy

    Intended to help parents and teachers select books for young people that reflect the actual interests of adolescents, this booklet discusses titles that both appeal to teenagers and help adults gain insight into their needs, their concerns, and their values. Titles of chapters in the booklet are as follows: (1) "Are Young Adult Books Literature?";…

  12. Social Cognitive Correlates of Young Adult Sport Competitors' Sunscreen Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Nadine C.; O'Riordan, David L.; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville

    2011-01-01

    Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis…

  13. Dental Care among Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2013-01-01

    Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer

  14. Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…

  15. Perceptions of Resiliency and Coping: Homeless Young Adults Speak Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,

  16. Intergenerational Relationships and Affectual Solidarity between Grandparents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monserud, Maria A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether both parents' relationships with their offspring, parents, and parents-in-law matter for young adults' perceptions of closeness to grandparents. This study focuses on two groups of grandchildren (ages 18-23) in Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households: young adults with married biological parents (N =…

  17. List Memory in Young Adults with Language Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method: Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list…

  18. Sexual Behaviors and AIDS Concerns among Young Adult Heterosexual Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Sherry C.; Vergare, Michael J.

    As the human immunodeficiency virus spreads beyond homosexuals and intravenous drug users into the heterosexual community, there is heightened interest in the sexual behavior of sexually active young adults. There is little information on young adult black males, who may be at increased risk, since blacks in this country are contracting Acquired…

  19. Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most Email Facebook Twitter Text Description of Infographic Young adults (age 18 to 25) are the biggest abusers of prescription (Rx) opioid pain relievers, ADHD stimulants, and anti-anxiety drugs. They do it for all kinds of ...

  20. Economic Socialization, Saving and Assets in European Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webley, Paul; Nyhus, Ellen K.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of young adults by parents using data from European young adults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…

  1. History and Heritage: Multicultural Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Mary E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of multicultural literature for young adults; the role of publishers and others in making more multicultural materials available; and issues involved in authoring books with such themes. A bibliography of 8 selection tools and an annotated bibliography of 88 works for young adults are appended. (KRN)

  2. Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic

  3. Appalachian Literature for Young Adults: The Contributions of Rebecca Caudill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Describes the life and work of Rebecca Caudill, an author of young adult and children's literature, and discusses how she captures major characteristics of Appalachian culture. Examines four young adult novels: (1) "Tree of Freedom"; (2) "The Far-Off Land"; (3) "Barrie and Daughter"; and (4) "Susan Cornish." Contains teaching guides and writing…

  4. Young Adult Literature in the Malaysian Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govindarajoo, Mallika V.; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the experience of the Malaysian secondary school student with Young Adult Literature in the English language classroom. The study aimed to determine the extent to which the Malaysian secondary school student identified with the young adult protagonists and issues in the novels which have been…

  5. Perceptions of Resiliency and Coping: Homeless Young Adults Speak Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,…

  6. Excellence in Library Services to Young Adults. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chelton, Mary K., Ed.

    For every librarian who seeks to better serve the new and unique young adult market, this completely revised edition presents 30 library programs as examples of this service. By studying the examples set by award-winning initiatives around the country, librarians should be able to answer these questions for their young adult programs: What is the…

  7. Parents and Their Young Adult Children: Transitions to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitelson, Idy Barasch; McDermott, Dana

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers how parents are affected by and play a role in the lives of their young adult children. The years during which young people make the transition to adulthood has changed significantly in recent years--this transition now takes place over a longer period of time. We describe how young people experience these years; how they…

  8. Quality Books about Bullying in the Young Adult Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Joanne; Hoover, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Anti-bullying experts employ trade books in dealing with contemporary issues facing young people, including bullying. At least three conceptual strands underpin the application of young adult literature (YAL) in such enterprises: (1) reliance on tested voices appealing to young readers; (2) the potential effect of quality YAL on literacy…

  9. Treatment Seeking for Smoking Cessation Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, John R.; Cohen, Bevin; Callas, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    Young adult smokers (18-24 yr olds) do not seek treatment for smoking cessation as often as older smokers. Two commonly hypothesized reasons for this are that younger smokers are not aware of treatments or cannot afford them. The State of Vermont provides free smoking cessation treatment and most young smokers are aware of this; thus, we tested whether young adult smokers from VT would still underutilize treatment via a secondary analysis of the population-based 2005 VT Adult Tobacco Survey. Young adult VT smokers were less likely to have used medication (24% vs 58%; RR = .42) or psychosocial (28% vs 53%; RR = .54) treatment than middle-aged smokers (25-44 yr olds). We conclude that reasons other than awareness and cost cause young adult smokers to not seek treatment. PMID:19195814

  10. Treatment seeking for smoking cessation among young adults.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R; Cohen, Bevin; Callas, Peter W

    2009-09-01

    Young adult smokers (18-24 year olds) do not seek treatment for smoking cessation as often as older smokers. Two commonly hypothesized reasons for this are that younger smokers are not aware of treatments or cannot afford them. The State of Vermont provides free smoking cessation treatment, and most young smokers are aware of this; thus, we tested whether young adult smokers from Vermont would still underutilize treatment via a secondary analysis of the population-based 2005 VT Adult Tobacco Survey. Young adult smokers from Vermont were less likely to have used medication (24% vs. 58%; relative risk = 0.42) or psychosocial (28% vs. 53%; relative risk = 0.54) treatment than middle-aged smokers (25-44 year olds). We conclude that reasons other than awareness and cost cause young adult smokers to not seek treatment. PMID:19195814

  11. Factors associated with substance use among homeless young adults.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Rebecca; Thompson, Sanna J; Barczyk, Amanda N

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with substance use among homeless young adults. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined the influence of social networks and economic factors among a group of homeless young adults with differing levels of alcohol and drug use. In addition, for those with an alcohol use disorder, the role of future time expectancies was examined. A sample (n = 185) of homeless young adults aged 18 to 23 were recruited from a community drop-in center and interviewed utilizing self-report instruments. Findings suggest that social networks, economic factors, and future expectancies are significant predictors of the level of substance use among homeless young adults. Being able to identify those areas that place homeless young adults at risk for substance abuse and dependence has implications for effective intervention. PMID:20391267

  12. Functional literacy of Young Guyanese Adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Zellyne

    2000-05-01

    Functional literacy is interpreted as the ability of the individual to apply skills in reading, writing, calculation and basic problem-solving in those activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning in his/her own group and community. The paper describes the rationale, development and administration of the test used for measuring levels (high, moderate, low) of achievement in functional literacy in three domains (document, prose and quantitative). An assumption of the study was that a high level of functional literacy was required for the individual to function effectively in his/her own group and community. The context of the study is Guyana the most underdeveloped and impoverished country in the English-speaking Caribbean. The subjects are out of school youth in Guyana aged 14-25. Amongst the main findings are: only approximately 11% of the young people show a high level of functional literacy; females tend to have a higher level of functional literacy than males: and most of those at the low level never went beyond primary and low status secondary schools and usually end up unemployed or in semi- or unskilled jobs. Attention is drawn to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate which is reported for Guyana in international statistics. While they credit Guyana with an adult literacy rate of 97.5%, the study suggests that a more realistic figure is in the 70s. The importance of adult and continuing education is underscored in view of the need to help those who are out of school to meet the ever-changing demands of society for improved skills in literacy and numeracy.

  13. A Book, a Place, a Time: Using Young Adult Novels in a Reading Workshop (Young Adult Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Harold M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes Patti Cleary, an eighth-grade teacher, and her students. Discusses their perceptions of young adult literature and the reading workshop. Lists and describes new young adult titles that may appeal to fans of romances, S. E. Hinton, short books, and sports novels. (TB)

  14. Using Young Adult Realistic Literature to Help Troubled Teenagers: Something New, Tried and True, and Recommended Nonfiction (Young Adult Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaywell, Joan F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a seven-step process that uses young adult literature to help teenagers understand and deal with their troubles. Offers brief annotations of five young adult titles in each of nine areas: alienation and identity; divorce; dropouts, delinquency, and gangs; poverty; teenage pregnancy; abused children; alcohol and drugs; homosexuality; and…

  15. Neighborhood Environment and Marijuana Use in Urban Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.; Lee, Myong Hwa; Milam, Adam J; Duncan, Alexandra; Reboussin, Beth A.; Leaf, Philip J; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for marijuana use in older adolescents and young adults have focused primarily on family environment and peer affiliation. A growing body of work has examined the relationship between environmental context and young adult substance use. This study builds on previous research linking neighborhood environment to young adult marijuana use by exploring two distinct features of neighborhoods, namely the physical (e.g. broken windows) and social environment (e.g. adults watching youth). Data were obtained from a longitudinal sample of 398 predominately African American young adults living in an urban environment. The data also included observational measures of physical and social order and disorder collected on the young adult's residential block. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was utilized to test hypothesized relationships between these two features of the neighborhood environment and past year young adult marijuana use. A two-factor model of neighborhood environment with good fit indices was selected (CFI=0.97, RMSEA=0.037). There was a positive and significant direct effect from neighborhood physical disorder to marijuana use (0.219, p<0.05) controlling for gender, race, and free and reduced meals status. The direct effect from neighborhood social environment to marijuana use was not significant. These results converge with previous research linking vacant housing with young adult marijuana use but do not provide empirical support for the neighborhood social environment as a determinant of drug taking. Better explication of the social environment is needed to understand it's relationship to drug use. PMID:25005818

  16. Social participation among young adults with an autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Orsmond, Gael I; Shattuck, Paul T; Cooper, Benjamin P; Sterzing, Paul R; Anderson, Kristy A

    2013-11-01

    Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in social activities among young adults who received special education services for autism (ASD group), compared to young adults who received special education for intellectual disability, emotional/behavioral disability, or a learning disability. Young adults with an ASD were significantly more likely to never see friends, never get called by friends, never be invited to activities, and be socially isolated. Among those with an ASD, lower conversation ability, lower functional skills, and living with a parent were predictors of less social participation. PMID:23615687

  17. Young Adults, Technology, and Weight Loss: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have very little knowledge on the use of Smartphone technology for weight loss but would like to use this type of technology to help them lose weight. Results also indicated that young adults struggle to make healthy food choices and have priorities that outweigh exercise and they need support and guidance to make better decisions. In conclusion, young adults would be open to using Smartphone technology for weight loss but also need feedback and guidance to help make healthy decisions. PMID:25789170

  18. Young adults, technology, and weight loss: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Janna; Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have very little knowledge on the use of Smartphone technology for weight loss but would like to use this type of technology to help them lose weight. Results also indicated that young adults struggle to make healthy food choices and have priorities that outweigh exercise and they need support and guidance to make better decisions. In conclusion, young adults would be open to using Smartphone technology for weight loss but also need feedback and guidance to help make healthy decisions. PMID:25789170

  19. Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Seibel, Nita L.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Stedman, Margaret R.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent and young adults (AYAs) face challenges in having their cancers recognized, diagnosed, treated, and monitored. Monitoring AYA cancer survival is of interest because of the lack of improvement in outcome previously documented for these patients as compared with younger and older patient outcomes. AYA patients 15–39 years old, diagnosed during 2000–2008 with malignant cancers were selected from the SEER 17 registries data. Selected cancers were analyzed for incidence and five-year relative survival by histology, stage, and receptor subtypes. Hazard ratios were estimated for cancer death risk among younger and older ages relative to the AYA group. AYA survival was worse for female breast cancer (regardless of estrogen receptor status), acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AYA survival for AML was lowest for a subtype associated with a mutation of the nucleophosmin 1 gene (NPM1). AYA survival for breast cancer and leukemia remain poor as compared with younger and older survivors. Research is needed to address disparities and improve survival in this age group. PMID:25417236

  20. [Pulmonary embolism in young adults. Think of homocysteine].

    PubMed

    Fakhry, A; Redonnet-Vernhet, I; Sabourdy, F; Elbaz, M; Caussé, E

    2014-04-01

    Two cases of severe pulmonary embolism in young adults are presented. Biological investigation disclosed hyperhomocysteinemia. This highlights the great interest of homocysteine quantification in such clinical events. PMID:24613005

  1. Adult Female Walruses on Ice Floe with Young

    Adult female walruses on ice floe with young.  Notice the radio tag borne on her her upper mid back.  This tag will monitor resting and foraging behavior and convey the information back to USGS scientists....

  2. Joan Lowery Nixon: The Grande Dame of Young Adult Mystery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavonetti, Linda M.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the writing of Joan Lowery Nixon, award-winning author of young adult mystery novels. Discusses telling a good story, narrative form, characterization, stereotypes, social commentary, classroom implications, and caring for an audience. (SR)

  3. Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... report in 1964, today nearly one in four high school seniors and one in three young adults under ... tobacco use when they start smoking. Because most high school smokers are not able to break free from ...

  4. Five Invaluable Resources for Young Adult Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winings, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    More than a decade ago, the popular topic of discussion in higher education and in pop culture concerned the character traits of what was then called "Generation X" or "GenX" for short. One lasting impact of this focus has been a renewed effort on the part of higher education to define young adulthood and to reassess young adult education. In the…

  5. Multiple Voices, Multiple Genres: Fiction for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida

    2002-01-01

    Notes that with so many multivoice novels accessible to teens, there is a great opportunity to expand students' reading repertoire. Proposes that young adult novels are an excellent transition to classic literature that may seem remote or difficult. Offers advice on teaching multivoice novels. Concludes that multivoice novels show young readers…

  6. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, David S.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Brereton, Avril V.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study investigating rates and types of comorbid mental disorder evident in adolescents and young adults with autism. A sample of 84 young people (M = 19.5 years, SD = 4.6) with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association,…

  7. Social Participation among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in…

  8. Weight-Related Dietary Behaviors in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Partridge, Stephanie R; Roy, Rajshri

    2016-03-01

    The origins of the obesogenic environment date back to the early 1980s. This means that young adults i.e., those aged 18 to 35 years, have only ever experienced a food milieu that promotes obesity. Indeed, younger generations are becoming heavier sooner than their parents in developed countries, such as the USA. Young adults demonstrate food consumption patterns and dietary behaviors implicated in an excessive gain of body fat. They are the highest consumers of fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages among adult age groups and the lowest consumers of fruit and vegetables. Younger adults are meal skippers but may consume more energy from snacks than older adults. So that the gains made in stemming obesity in childhood are not undone during young adulthood, prevention programs are needed. This review highlights areas for consideration in planning such programs. PMID:26811006

  9. Food insecurity and increased BMI in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Holly C; Walls, Courtney E; Richmond, Tracy K

    2012-09-01

    Food insecurity has been associated with weight status in children and adults although results have been mixed. We aimed to identify whether food insecurity was associated with BMI in young adults and whether this association differed by gender and was modified by food stamp use and the presence of children in the home. Cross-sectional data from wave 4 (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate the association between food insecurity and BMI in gender stratified models of young adult women (n = 7,116) and men (n = 6,604) controlling for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, the presence of children in the home, and food stamp use in young adulthood and/or adolescence. Food insecurity was more common in young adult women (14%) than young adult men (9%). After controlling for a variety of individual variables, food insecure women had a BMI that was on average 0.9 kg/m(2) units higher than women who were food secure. This difference in BMI persisted after controlling for recent or past food stamp use and was not different among women with or without children in the household. No relationship was found between food insecurity and BMI in young adult men. Providers should inquire about food insecurity, especially when treating obesity, and policy initiatives should address the role of access to healthy food in those facing food insecurity. PMID:21779092

  10. Environmental sustainability: Understanding young adults' learning, thinking, and actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kola-Olusanya, Anthony O.

    This thesis explores the ways in which young-adults' environmental learning and experiences influence their decision to live sustainably. In particular, this thesis focuses on young adults' environmental and sustainability learning. It elaborates on young peoples' views about environmental and sustainability issues, such as climate change, the sources for their learning about these issues, and how young adults' learning encounters, in turn, affect their actions toward environmental protection and decision-making. Through a series of in-depth individual interviews with 18 young adults from three universities in southeastern Ontario, this qualitative study provides in-depth insight into young adults' understanding, learning experiences, and actions in relation to environmental and sustainability issues. Employing a Contextual Model of Learning framework the narratives of the young adults in this study are analyzed and discussed within three overlapping environmental learning contexts: personal, sociocultural, and physical settings. This framework allows for an examination of the complex interactions and relationships that shape how and where environmental learning occurs. The findings in this study suggest that the three overlapping learning contexts, that is the personal, sociocultural, and physical play an important role in shaping young adults' learning about environmental and sustainability issues. The data reveal that despite the unavailability or near-absence of environmental studies and education within the formal school curriculum (particularly at the elementary and high school levels), the young adults rely on other locations for learning, such as the internet, environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs), television, and family. In light of this, the research participants suggest the re-introduction of environmental programs and content in the school curriculum. Finally, the results of this study demonstrate the centrality of knowledge and experience in relation to environmental and sustainability issues in the actions and thoughts of the young adult research participants. This study makes an important contribution to the field of environmental and sustainability education by demonstrating the critical role of learning in a knowledge society. It illuminates the implications of various learning contexts for a sustainable global environment and future. Furthermore, it provides insight into the views of young adults regarding the future of the global environment and current sustainability initiatives in a world that faces ever-greater challenges.

  11. No Limits--READ! Young Adult Reading Club and Programming Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngblood, Lisa

    This manual provides strategies for developing young adult collections, outlines a reading club designed specifically for young adults, suggests promotional ideas for the young adult reading club and young adult programming in general, and provides age-appropriate ideas for both formal and passive programming. Specific topics covered in the…

  12. Life Course Status and Exchanges of Support between Young Adults and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…

  13. Life Course Status and Exchanges of Support between Young Adults and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.

  14. Neighborhood environment and marijuana use in urban young adults.

    PubMed

    Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Lee, Myong Hwa; Johnson, Renee; Milam, Adam J; Duncan, Alexandra; Reboussin, Beth A; Leaf, Philip J; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2015-02-01

    Risk factors for marijuana use in older adolescents and young adults have focused primarily on family environment and peer affiliation. A growing body of work has examined the relationship between environmental context and young adult substance use. This study builds on previous research linking neighborhood environment to young adult marijuana use by exploring two distinct features of neighborhoods, namely the physical (e.g., broken windows) and social environment (e.g., adults watching youth). Data were obtained from a longitudinal sample of 398 predominately African American young adults living in an urban environment. The data also included observational measures of physical and social order and disorder collected on the young adult's residential block. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was utilized to test hypothesized relationships between these two features of the neighborhood environment and past year young adult marijuana use. A two-factor model of neighborhood environment with good fit indices was selected (CFI = 0.97, RMSEA = 0.037). There was a positive and significant direct effect from neighborhood physical disorder to marijuana use (0.219, p < 0.05) controlling for gender, race, and free and reduced price meal (FARPM) status. The direct effect from neighborhood social environment to marijuana use was not significant. These results converge with previous research linking vacant housing with young adult marijuana use but do not provide empirical support for the neighborhood social environment as a determinant of drug taking. Better explication of the social environment is needed to understand its relationship to drug use. PMID:25005818

  15. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  16. Trends in Publishing for Children and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minudri, Regina U.

    1986-01-01

    Contrasts world of the 1970s with that of today with special reference to publications for children and young adults. Discussion covers adult and adolescent best sellers, librarian selection and review of new materials by librarians, trends in juvenile publishing, use of paperback books, reading interests, minority representation, and the…

  17. Mature Young Adult Books Are Given a Bad Reputation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Julia

    1998-01-01

    Presents the viewpoints of a tenth grader on novels for young adults that portray troubled teens dealing with alcoholism, drugs, depression, suicide, sexual abuse, and violence. Suggests that contrary to adult opinions that these novels are not always age-appropriate, they in fact broaden teens' outlooks and prepare them for the real world. (LRW)

  18. Young Children's Attributions: Pink and Blue Are for Adults Only.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotten-Huston, Annie L.; Lunney, G. Sparks

    The present study compares the attributions of young children 5 to 6.5 years of age with those of adult subjects 20 to 30 years of age, who were engaged in the same competitive situation. It was hypothesized that sex differences would occur in the sample of adults but not in the sample of children. Believing outcomes to be determined by either…

  19. Young Children's Attributions: Pink and Blue Are for Adults Only.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotten-Huston, Annie L.; Lunney, G. Sparks

    The present study compares the attributions of young children 5 to 6.5 years of age with those of adult subjects 20 to 30 years of age, who were engaged in the same competitive situation. It was hypothesized that sex differences would occur in the sample of adults but not in the sample of children. Believing outcomes to be determined by either

  20. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to

  1. Correlates of depressive symptoms among homeless young adults.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary; Slagle, Alexandra; Greengold, Barbara; Liu, Yihang; Leake, Barbara

    2012-02-01

    Adolescent homelessness has received increasing attention because of its fast growth throughout the United States and the poor mental outcomes experienced by homeless young people. This cross-sectional study (N = 156) identified correlates of depressive symptomatology among homeless young adults and investigated how depressive symptoms are influenced by the coping strategies these young adults use. The findings are based on analysis of baseline data collected for a hepatitis vaccination intervention pilot study conducted in partnership with a young adult's drop-in center in Santa Monica, California. Standardized tools assessed drug use history, coping ability, and psychiatric symptomatology. Linear regression modeling was used to identify correlates of depressive symptom severity. Poor perceived physical health, recent crack cocaine use, and recent use of tranquilizers were significantly associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. Self-destructive escape, nondisclosure/avoidance, passive problem solving, and thoughts of harming self were also associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:21131507

  2. Health insurance status of young adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    McManus, M A; Greaney, A M; Newacheck, P W

    1989-10-01

    Sociodemographic and health characteristics of young adults who are uninsured, publicly insured, and privately insured were examined using the 1984 National Health Interview Survey. The results indicated that 26% of 19 to 24-year-old persons had no health insurance protection, 65% were privately insured, 7% were publicly insured, and 1% had both private and public coverage. Young adults at greatest risk for being uninsured were male, Hispanic and black, poor and near-poor, unemployed, high school dropouts, living with others, and residing in the South and West. All young adults predictably lose or change health insurance as they move from dependence to independence. It was concluded that greater use of new and existing transitional insurance options should be offered as well as targeted educational and communication strategies to assure that all young persons enter adulthood with some basic insurance protection. PMID:2780134

  3. The Young Adult Literature Course: Young Readers Teach Prospective Teachers about Reading Interests and Reader Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Marjorie

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the problems inherent in the teaching of young adult literature courses. Describes a collaborative project designed to allow preservice English teachers access to younger students to get a better idea of student reading interests. (HB)

  4. Older Adults Expend More Listening Effort than Young Adults Recognizing Speech in Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Penny Anderson; Gagne, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Listening in noisy situations is a challenging experience for many older adults. The authors hypothesized that older adults exert more listening effort compared with young adults. Listening effort involves the attention and cognitive resources required to understand speech. The purpose was (a) to quantify the amount of listening effort…

  5. Disability Pensions Among Young Adults in Vocational Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Myhr, Arnhild; Haugan, Tommy; Espnes, Geir A; Lillefjell, Monica

    2016-03-01

    Objectives Lack of work-participation and early disability pensions (DP's) among young adults are increasing public health problems in most western European countries. The present study investigated determinants of early DP in young adults in vocational rehabilitation. Methods Data from 928 young adults (aged 18-40 years) attending a vocational rehabilitation program was linked to DP's recorded in the Norwegian Labor and Welfare Organization registries (1992-2010) and later compared to a group of 65 employees (workers). We used logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio for entitlement to DP following rehabilitation, adjusting for socio-demographical, psychosocial and health-behavior factors. Results Significant differences in socio-demographical, psychosocial and health-behavior factors were found between the rehabilitation group and workers. A total of 60 individuals (6.5 %) were granted a DP during follow-up. Increase in age, teenage parenthood, single status, as well as low education level and not being employed were found to be the strongest independent determinants of DP. Conclusion Poor social relations (being lone), early childbearing and weak connection to working life contributed to increase in risk of DP's among young adults in vocational rehabilitation, also after adjusting for education level. These findings are important in the prevention of early disability retirements among young adults and should be considered in the development of targeted interventions aimed at individuals particularly at risk of not being integrated into future work lives. PMID:26141951

  6. Reverse correlating trustworthy faces in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Ethier-Majcher, Catherine; Joubert, Sven; Gosselin, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as "facial trustworthiness."In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Todorov, 2008; Engell et al., 2010). Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Calder et al., 2003; Firestone et al., 2007; Ruffman et al., 2008; Chaby and Narme, 2009). Based on Todorov';s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004) reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment), from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness. PMID:24046755

  7. Community Adjustment of Young Adults with Mental Retardation: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ittenbach, Richard F.; And Others

    This literature review on young adults with mental retardation brings together two previously disparate areas of research, community integration and young adult development. After a discussion of various theories addressing the young adulthood stage of development, the paper summarizes research on young adults with mental retardation in the

  8. Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Homeless Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary; Slagle, Alexandra; Greengold, Barbara; Liu, Yihang; Leake, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent homelessness has received increasing attention due to its fast growth throughout the United States and the poor mental outcomes experienced by homeless young people. This cross-sectional study (N = 156) identified correlates of depressive symptomatology among homeless young adults and investigated how depressive symptoms are influenced by the coping strategies these young adults employ. The findings are based on analysis of baseline data collected for a hepatitis vaccination intervention pilot study conducted in partnership with a young adult’s drop-in center in Santa Monica, California. Standardized tools assessed drug use history, coping ability, and psychiatric symptomatology. Linear regression modeling was used to identify correlates of depressive symptom severity. Poor perceived physical health, recent crack cocaine use and recent use of tranquilizers were significantly associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. Self-destructive escape, non-disclosure/avoidance, passive problem-solving and thoughts of harming self were also associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:21131507

  9. A measles outbreak among young adults in Victoria, February 2001.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Natasha; Andrews, Ross; Riddell, Michaela; Leydon, Jennie; Lynch, Pauline

    2002-01-01

    In January 2001 a 19-year-old Sydney resident, who had recently returned from India, visited Melbourne for 4 days while infectious with measles. A further 50 measles cases were subsequently identified, mainly among young adults. Thirty-eight cases (75%) were in the same birth cohort (born between 1968 and 1981). This cohort was identified as being at high risk of measles infection after a previous outbreak in Victoria involving 75 cases. These individuals are now aged between 20 and 33 years. A high proportion of cases, 22 (43%) were hospitalised after multiple visits to various healthcare providers. None of the cases had documentation of receiving the recommended number of doses of measles-containing vaccine for their age. Repeated outbreaks clearly demonstrate that young adults remain the group at highest risk of measles infection in Victoria. More targeted strategies for young adults and healthcare workers are required to better protect these groups against measles. PMID:12206382

  10. Risky sex behavior and substance use among young adults.

    PubMed

    Staton, M; Leukefeld, C; Logan, T K; Zimmerman, R; Lynam, D; Milich, R; Martin, C; McClanahan, K; Clayton, R

    1999-05-01

    Many young adults, despite widespread prevention and education efforts that target this age group, engage in behaviors that place them at risk of HIV infection. These behaviors include frequent experimentation with alcohol and other drugs before sex, sexual activity with different partners, and inconsistent safe-sex practices. The combination of these risky behaviors causes increased concern about the spread of HIV among this age group. The study discussed in this article examined the relationship between substance use during adolescence and HIV risk behavior among young adults ages 19 to 21 with and without a college education. Results indicated that increased use of alcohol and marijuana at younger ages is related to riskier sexual activity and increased use of alcohol and marijuana as young adults. Recommendations for interventions are made. PMID:10340165

  11. Developmental Antecedents of Young Adult Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obradovic, Jelena; Masten, Ann S.

    2007-01-01

    Civic engagement was studied in relation to overall development in adolescence, emerging adulthood, and young adulthood to examine how earlier activity involvement and success in prior and concurrent age-salient domains of competence may contribute to 2 forms of civic engagement in adulthood (citizenship and volunteering). Data on 163 youth were…

  12. Young Adult Authors on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flench, Chris Ebert

    1999-01-01

    Discusses publishing on the Internet by young authors. Describes "fan-fiction" Web sites where fans write passages that link to characters in popular books, television shows, or movies; fan-fiction inspired by the Disney film "Newsies"; posting short stories on Web pages; poetry, book reviews, and other publications; the attraction of the Internet…

  13. Developmental Antecedents of Young Adult Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obradovic, Jelena; Masten, Ann S.

    2007-01-01

    Civic engagement was studied in relation to overall development in adolescence, emerging adulthood, and young adulthood to examine how earlier activity involvement and success in prior and concurrent age-salient domains of competence may contribute to 2 forms of civic engagement in adulthood (citizenship and volunteering). Data on 163 youth were

  14. Scotopic spatiotemporal sensitivity differences between young and old adults

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Cynthia L.; Hardy, Joseph L.; Volbrecht, Vicki J.; Werner, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Our lab has previously demonstrated losses in contrast sensitivity to low spatial frequencies under scotopic conditions with older adults. It is not clear, however, whether the temporal frequency of a stimulus alters the relation between age and the spatial contrast sensitivity function (sCSF) under scotopic conditions. Methods A maximum-likelihood, two-alternative, temporal forced-choice QUEST procedure was used to measure threshold to spatially and temporally modulated stimuli in both young (mean = 26 years) and old (mean = 75 years) adults. Results In general, the shapes of the spatial and temporal CSFs were low-pass for both young and old observers; contrast sensitivity decreased at approximately the same rate with increasing spatial frequency and temporal frequency for both age groups, although the overall sensitivity of the old group was lower than that of the young group. The high-frequency resolution limit was lower for the old group compared to the young group. Conclusions The differences in contrast sensitivity between the young and old groups suggest a uniform loss in sensitivity of the channels mediating spatial and temporal vision. Because of this loss, the spatial and temporal window of visibility for the older adults is compromised relative to the younger adults. PMID:20629957

  15. Dimensions of Problem Drinking among Young Adult Restaurant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Roland S.; Cunradi, Carol B.; Duke, Michael R.; Ames, Genevieve M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Nationwide surveys identify food service workers as heavy alcohol users. Objectives This article analyzes dimensions and correlates of problem drinking among young adult food service workers. Methods A telephone survey of national restaurant chain employees yielded 1294 completed surveys. Results Hazardous alcohol consumption patterns were seen in 80% of men and 64% of women. Multivariate analysis showed that different dimensions of problem drinking measured by the AUDIT were associated with workers' demographic characteristics, smoking behavior and job category. Conclusions & Scientific Significance These findings offer evidence of extremely high rates of alcohol misuse among young adult restaurant workers. PMID:20180660

  16. Nephropathy in Youth and Young Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Solis-Herrera, Carolina; Triplitt, Curtis L.

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence and progression of nephropathy associated with early onset type 2 diabetes is a consequence of the ongoing epidemic of childhood obesity. Minimal evidence regarding treatment effectiveness of renovascular comorbidities in youth with early onset T2D is available, due to the relatively recent emergence of T2D in youth and young adults. Extrapolation of adult therapy guidelines is not an ideal approach to making therapeutic decisions in this population. Evolving management and intervention strategies are based on accumulating longitudinal data from cohorts of well characterized youth and young adults with T2D. The degree of similarity in histologic findings and disease specific characteristics of kidney disease in patients with early onset T2D and albuminuria compared to affected adults is not well characterized. Early aggressive therapies to minimize the impact of nephropathy are indicated as the evidence for best therapies in youth with T2D are further explored. PMID:24398660

  17. Clueless: Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes adult mysteries that appeal to teen readers under the categories of Sherlock Holmes; reference sources; private investigators; amateur sleuths; historical sleuths; suspense and thrillers; police procedurals; mystery blends; and anthologies. (LRW)

  18. College Selectivity and Young Adult Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jason M.; Frisvold, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Large literatures have shown important links between the quantity of completed education and health outcomes on one hand and the quality or selectivity of schooling on a host of adult outcomes, such as wages, on the other hand. However, little research attempts to produce evidence of the link between school quality and health. The paper presents…

  19. A Complementary Alternative Medicine Questionnaire for Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Christine; Arthur, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Limited information exists on how adolescents decide to use complementary/alternative medicine (CAM). There are also no instruments specific to CAM, for the young adult population, which makes it difficult to explore knowledge in this area. The purpose of this study was to develop and examine the psychometric properties of the CAM Questionnaire for Young Adults which measures young adults’ attitudes about CAM. Participants for this cross-sectional survey were selected from enrolled undergraduate students at an urban university. Factor analysis identified three subscales: 1) positive beliefs about CAM; 2) environmental influence; and 3) psychological comfort. The scale has good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.79) and shows beginning demonstration of validity. Its use in this sample revealed that young adults who are female and have used CAM in the past for preventing or treating illness have the most positive attitude towards CAM and the greatest likelihood for continued use. The implication that prevention may play a role in young adults’ attitudes about CAM is a potential focus for future research. PMID:21614159

  20. Playing with Fire. Creative Conflict Resolution for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macbeth, Fiona; Fine, Nic

    A training program is presented for helping teenagers and young adults deal creatively with interpersonal conflict and violence. It explores the dynamics of anger, hurt, conflict, communication, cooperation, and assertiveness as it teaches listening, mediation, and conflict-defusing skills. The manual consists of 10 sections, 8 of which form the…

  1. Hit List: Frequently Challenged Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monks, Merri M.; Pistolis, Donna Reidy

    This book presents descriptions of 26 young adult titles that have been frequent targets of censorship attempts. Each entry provides an annotation for the book in question; examples of recent challenges; citations to reviews of the book and background articles; a list of awards garnered by the book or its author; references about the author;…

  2. Speaking Up for Vocabulary: Reading Skill Differences in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald P.; Mencl, W. Einar

    2007-01-01

    This study is part of a broader project aimed at developing cognitive and neurocognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. We explore the relationships among reading-related abilities in participants ages 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range…

  3. Adolescent/Young Adult Literature Titles/Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Darolyn Lyn

    This paper presents descriptions of the 10 best young adult novels (and teaching suggestions) appropriate for studying the Holocaust in the middle school. Each description begins with a summary and "hook" that can be used with students, and then ends with discussion for the teacher about reading abilities and applications in the classroom. Several…

  4. Development of Food Safety Psychosocial Questionnaires for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, C.; Wheatley, V.; Schaffner, D.; Bruhn, C.; Blalock, L.; Maurer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Food mishandling is thought to be more acute among young adults; yet little is known about why they may engage in risky food handling behaviors. The purpose of this study was to create valid, reliable instruments for assessing key food safety psychosocial measures. Development of the measures began by examining published studies and behavior…

  5. The Awareness of Morphemic Knowledge for Young Adults' Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varatharajoo, Chandrakala; Asmawi, Adelina Binti; Abdallah, Nabeel; Abedalaziz, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The study explored the awareness of morphemic knowledge among young adult learners in the ESL context. Morphological Relatedness Test and Morphological Structure Test (adapted from Curinga, 2014) were two important tools used to assess the students' morphemic knowledge in this study. The tests measured the students' ability to reflect and…

  6. Young Adult Moral Exemplars: The Making of Self Through Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuba, M. Kyle; Walker, Lawrence J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of our research was to explore the differences between young adult moral exemplars and comparison individuals by studying their life stories. Moral exemplars were nominated for their extraordinary moral commitment to the social organizations where they volunteered or worked. Forty moral exemplars, along with 40 matched comparison…

  7. Perspectives of Young Adults with Disabilities on Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Swedeen, Beth; Walter, Martha J.; Moss, Colleen K.; Hsin, Ching-Ting

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers have linked greater self-determination capacities to improved postsecondary outcomes for youth with disabilities. Although leadership is one component of self-determination, little is known about how youth and young adults with disabilities define, develop, and demonstrate leadership. In this qualitative interview study,…

  8. Tsunami Summer! 2003 Young Adult Summer Library Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Public Library Service, Montgomery.

    This manual is designed to assist public libraries in Alabama with setting up "Tsunami Summer!," a summer program for young adults, i.e., students in grades 6 through 12. The manual contains the following sections: (1) Publicity and Promotion; (2) Working with Schools; (3) Involving the Students, including teen volunteers, teen advisory councils,…

  9. 32 CFR 199.26 - TRICARE Young Adult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-eligible beneficiary population. Separate premiums shall be established for TRICARE Standard and Prime... demographic population (based on age and health plans) as those enrolled in TRICARE Young Adult, as determined... to TYA dependents during the preceding years if the population of TYA enrollees is large...

  10. 32 CFR 199.26 - TRICARE Young Adult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-eligible beneficiary population. Separate premiums shall be established for TRICARE Standard and Prime... demographic population (based on age and health plans) as those enrolled in TRICARE Young Adult, as determined... to TYA dependents during the preceding years if the population of TYA enrollees is large...

  11. Transglossic Language Practices of Young Adults in Bangladesh and Mongolia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Shaila; Dovchin, Sender; Pennycook, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the use of varied semiotic resources in the linguistic, social and cultural practices of young adults in the context of Bangladesh and Mongolia. Based on a translinguistic analysis (including pre-textual history, contextual relations, sub-textual meaning, intertextual echoes and post-textual interpretation) of these practices,…

  12. Recognize the Signs: Reading Young Adult Literature to Address Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pytash, Kristine E.; Morgan, Denise N.; Batchelor, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes preservice teachers' experiences in a book club that read young adult literature focused on issues related to bullying. Preservice teachers learned to recognize various incidents of bullying in the books. They also began to consider how they might handle incidents of bullying in their future classrooms. (Contains 2 figures.)

  13. Young Adult Literature: An Entree into the Joys of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Leigh

    2000-01-01

    Notes how adolescents through young adult literature begin to discover the meaning behind the words and to explore their own emotions. Describes the use of small groups and an introduction of the concept of a literacy community. Discusses a whole-class reading and response to S.E. Hinton's novel "The Outsiders." (SC)

  14. Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

  15. Miranda Rights Comprehension in Young Adults with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rost, Gwyneth C.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method: Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 young adults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language…

  16. Living with Cystic Fibrosis: A Guide for the Young Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Atlanta, GA.

    Intended for the young adult with cystic fibrosis, the booklet provides information on dealing with problems and on advances in treatment and detection related to the disease. Addressed are the following topics: description of cystic fibrosis; inheritance of cystic fibrosis; early diagnosis; friends, careers, and other matters; treatment;

  17. Imitation or Exploration? Young Infants' Matching of Adults' Oral Gestures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Susan S.

    1996-01-01

    Three studies examined the tongue protrusion (TP) behaviors of young infants in response to visual stimuli. Infants produced TPs in response to objects within reach before but not after the onset of reaching behavior. The results suggest that infants' TPs in response to a tongue-protruding adult reflect very early attempts at oral exploration of…

  18. Vocational Outcomes for Young Adults with Multiple Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harth, Robert; Burns, Carol

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the vocational outcomes for a group of young adults with multiple learning disabilities who attended a two-year post-secondary program. One hundred graduates of the program representing the first 15 years of the program participated in the study. Results indicated that large numbers of graduates were employed in both full

  19. Young Adult Literature Research in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayn, Judith A.; Kaplan, Jeffrey S.; Nolen, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The study of young adult literature (YAL) as both an art form and teaching tool is in its infancy. Barely 50 years old, this emerging genre began to establish a presence in the canon of both classical and popular literature. As a developing field of inquiry, however, YAL struggles for legitimacy and prestige. The purpose of this article is to…

  20. Supplemental Reading for Ninth Graders: Classic or Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Katherine Jane Roney

    2012-01-01

    The project addressed the debate over supplemental literature: young adult or classic selections to better support teaching ninth graders Tennessee's English I curriculum standards. Research supported both classical and contemporary literature for teaching ninth graders, making it difficult to determine which type of literature might produce…

  1. Initial College Attendance of Low-Income Young Adults. Portraits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    More than 2.3 million low-income young adults began postsecondary education in 2008. Where these students initially enroll is of greater consequence than it is to their economically better-off peers because the likelihood of completing college for students from low-income backgrounds depends strongly on where they start their studies. This brief…

  2. Using Young Adult Literature To End Discrimination against Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Kathy

    In an effort to inform junior and senior high school students about mental illness, this document provides educators with an annotated bibliography of young adult fiction and a set of supporting activities. Included in the bibliography are nearly 100 current fiction titles, grouped according to the following topics: anorexia, drugs and alcohol,

  3. Development of Food Safety Psychosocial Questionnaires for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, C.; Wheatley, V.; Schaffner, D.; Bruhn, C.; Blalock, L.; Maurer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Food mishandling is thought to be more acute among young adults; yet little is known about why they may engage in risky food handling behaviors. The purpose of this study was to create valid, reliable instruments for assessing key food safety psychosocial measures. Development of the measures began by examining published studies and behavior

  4. Hit List: Frequently Challenged Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monks, Merri M.; Pistolis, Donna Reidy

    This book presents descriptions of 26 young adult titles that have been frequent targets of censorship attempts. Each entry provides an annotation for the book in question; examples of recent challenges; citations to reviews of the book and background articles; a list of awards garnered by the book or its author; references about the author;

  5. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking.

    PubMed

    Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs. PMID:26733913

  6. Exposure to Interparental Conflict and Psychological Disorder among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Heather A.; Kopiec, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the effect of exposure to interparental conflict on the mental health of young adults. Based on a diverse sample of 649 students from three New England colleges, the authors investigate the association between nonviolent interparental conflict during childhood, subsequent distress and disorder, and identified factors that…

  7. Parental Death in Childhood and Loneliness in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patricia Ann

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship between self-esteem and reported mourning behavior as it pertains to loneliness in young adults who, as children, had experienced parental death. Subjects (N=184) aged 18 to 25 completed four questionnaires. Revealed that self-esteem was the single best predictor of loneliness; reported mourning behaviors significantly added…

  8. ERIC/RCS: Booklists on Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorney, Jacqueline M.

    1987-01-01

    Annotates booklists of literature for young adults that were selected on the basis of their quality and interest. Topics include: (1) contemporary nonfiction; (2) fantasy, science fiction, and the supernatural; (3) titles for reluctant readers; (4) death and war; (5) love and teen sexuality; (6) science; (7) American and world culture; (8) Black…

  9. Engagement with Young Adult Literature: Outcomes and Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Gay; Johnston, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines students' perceptions of the outcomes and processes of engaged reading in classrooms prioritizing engagement through self-selected, self-paced reading of compelling young adult literature. The primary data were 71 end-of-year student interviews, supported by end-of-year teacher interviews, biweekly observational data,…

  10. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…

  11. Living with Cystic Fibrosis: A Guide for the Young Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Atlanta, GA.

    Intended for the young adult with cystic fibrosis, the booklet provides information on dealing with problems and on advances in treatment and detection related to the disease. Addressed are the following topics: description of cystic fibrosis; inheritance of cystic fibrosis; early diagnosis; friends, careers, and other matters; treatment;…

  12. Not so Fast: Reassessing Gender Essentialism in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eidson, R. Cole; Coley, John D.

    2014-01-01

    We examined young adults' essentialist reasoning about gender categories. Previous developmental results suggest that until age 9 or 10, children show marked essentialist reasoning about gender, but this disappears by early adulthood. In contrast, results from social cognition suggest that essentialist thinking about social categories…

  13. Perceived Effectiveness of Tobacco Countermarketing Advertisements among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Higbee, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To measure relative effectiveness of tobacco countermarketing advertisements by category and emotive execution style among young adults. Methods: Participants (n = 1011) from 2 US 4-year colleges, one southern and one northern were surveyed before and after viewing advertisements in one of 3 categories: social norms, health…

  14. Critical Conversations on Whiteness with Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieble, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that whiteness remains an overwhelmingly absent dimension in literacy teaching that addresses systems of power from a critical perspective. One way literacy teachers may bring this dimension more explicitly into the classroom is by facilitating critical conversations on whiteness with young adult literature. As…

  15. Motorsports Involvement among Adolescents and Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, Jee Won; McGinley, James S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Although children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined nonsubstance, use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent

  16. Strategic Selection of Children's and Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiménez, Laura M.; McIlhagga, Kristen K. A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss strategic selection of literature for children and young adults based on the characteristics of written text and images as teachers and parents choose books for classroom and home settings. The topic is approached from two stances/lenses: (1) the cognitive processes used while reading and the ways different genres, topics, and…

  17. Playing with Fire. Creative Conflict Resolution for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macbeth, Fiona; Fine, Nic

    A training program is presented for helping teenagers and young adults deal creatively with interpersonal conflict and violence. It explores the dynamics of anger, hurt, conflict, communication, cooperation, and assertiveness as it teaches listening, mediation, and conflict-defusing skills. The manual consists of 10 sections, 8 of which form the

  18. Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25

  19. External and Internal Sport Motivations of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollok, Sandor; Takacs, Johanna; Kalmar, Zsuzsanna; Dobay, Beata

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To determine and evaluate the spectrum of sport motivation of young adults. Material and methods: A group of 600 subjects, aged 17-19 years, participated in the study. An "ad hoc" questionnaire was applied to assess the 4 motivational factors: competition and success-oriented motivation, external accommodation, physical fitness and…

  20. A Selection of Hispanic Nonfiction for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    1990-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 10 works of English-language nonfiction recommended for Hispanic young adults, including a view of pre-Columbian Mexico, biographies of controversial Hispanic men, an anthology of the writings of Juana Ines de la Cruz, an account of bullfighting, and books about Hispanic countries and Hispanic villages in New…

  1. HYDRATION STATUS AND COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG ADULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate hydration levels are important for both mental and physical functioning. Research conducted in young adults suggests that mild levels of dehydration (2%-4%) can negatively influence cognitive performance in a variety of tasks, but these data are inconsistent. Dehydration may be relatively...

  2. Connecting with Texts: Teacher Candidates Reading Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Kelly Byrne

    2011-01-01

    Preparing teachers to understand their students' reading processes so that they can guide their students toward connecting with texts in meaningful and personal ways are goals that can be met through the study of young adult literature. Twenty-first century learners live in an increasingly interconnected world and have access to countless texts…

  3. Young Adult Capacity Initiative Cross-Site Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This cross-site analysis presents findings about the implementation, impact, and outcomes of the Young Adult Capacity Initiative (YACI), at 13 community-based organizations in New York City. These agencies received technical assistance and small incentive grants from the Fund for the City of New York Youth Development Institute (YDI) to build…

  4. Aesthetic Learning Theory and the Faith Formation of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Katherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Participation in the arts is a form of practical reason and as such has the potential to form and transform the faith of individuals. The findings from Katherine M. Douglass's 2011 study on the role of the arts in the faith lives of young adults provides examples of the transformative potential of the arts as they foster expression,…

  5. Monstrous Acts: Problematizing Violence in Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzak, Judith; Noll, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Despite a growing body of work that draws attention to the presence of violence in the mass media and its effects on youth, little critical attention has been paid to the role of violence in young adult literature. The authors believe that by bringing violence to the foreground in the study of texts, they can enrich and deepen what these stories…

  6. Engagement with Young Adult Literature: Outcomes and Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Gay; Johnston, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines students' perceptions of the outcomes and processes of engaged reading in classrooms prioritizing engagement through self-selected, self-paced reading of compelling young adult literature. The primary data were 71 end-of-year student interviews, supported by end-of-year teacher interviews, biweekly observational data,

  7. Family Influences on the Career Development of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splete, Howard; Freeman-George, Ann

    1985-01-01

    This article (1) reviews family influences on career development (geographic location, genetic inheritance, family background, socioeconomic status, family composition, parenting style, parental work-related attitudes) and (2) suggests counselor interventions to aid young adults in becoming autonomous in their career development (e.g., review…

  8. Parental Attachment, Interparental Conflict, and Young Adults' Emotional Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jennifer; Fuertes, Jairo

    2010-01-01

    This study extends Engels et al.'s model of emotional adjustment to young adults and includes the constructs of interparental conflict and conflict resolution. Results indicate that parental attachment is better conceived as a two-factor construct of mother and father attachment and that although attachment to both mothers and fathers directly

  9. Parental Attachment, Interparental Conflict, and Young Adults' Emotional Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jennifer; Fuertes, Jairo

    2010-01-01

    This study extends Engels et al.'s model of emotional adjustment to young adults and includes the constructs of interparental conflict and conflict resolution. Results indicate that parental attachment is better conceived as a two-factor construct of mother and father attachment and that although attachment to both mothers and fathers directly…

  10. Parental Divorce and Union Disruption among Young Adults in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gahler, Michael; Hong, Ying; Bernhardt, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of parental divorce on the disruption of marital and nonmarital unions among young adults in Sweden, using longitudinal data from repeated mail questionnaire surveys (1999 and 2003) with 1,321 respondents (aged 26, 30, and 34 in 2003). The study takes into account several possible mechanisms governing the…

  11. Off the Shelves: Poetry and Verse Novels for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letcher, Mark, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Of all the material in the English language arts curricula, poetry seems to cause the most consternation among teachers. For a number of teachers, and many students, poetry continues to be a difficult topic to teach and learn. In this article, the author focuses on the ways that young adult literature can help teachers expose their students to…

  12. Motorsports Involvement among Adolescents and Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, Jee Won; McGinley, James S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Although children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined nonsubstance, use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent…

  13. Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young Adult (13 to 21)

    MedlinePlus

    ... detail how your child will get there. If higher education is not possible, maybe employment (with or without ... Find out if there is a young-adult education program in your school or community. This program focuses on teaching life skills, such as cooking, cleaning, job training, ...

  14. Using Young Adult Literature To End Discrimination against Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Kathy

    In an effort to inform junior and senior high school students about mental illness, this document provides educators with an annotated bibliography of young adult fiction and a set of supporting activities. Included in the bibliography are nearly 100 current fiction titles, grouped according to the following topics: anorexia, drugs and alcohol,…

  15. America's Young Adults: Special Issue, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Traci; Kappeler, Evelyn; Ellis, Renee; Kominski, Robert; Cooper, Alexia; Smith, Erica; Donoghue, Brecht; Whitestone, Yuko; Snyder, Tom; Aud, Susan; Williamson, Lisa; Henderson, Steve; Steffen, Barry; Madans, Jennifer; Lukacs, Susan; Pastor, Patricia; Goldstrom, Ingrid; Han, Beth; Bures, Regina; Chamberlain, Seth; Despain, Jason; Chadwick, Laura; Park, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The well-being of young adults in the United States today remains an area of key interest to the public and policy-makers alike. This age group faces the well-known challenges of achieving financial and social independence while forming their own households at a time of greater economic uncertainty than in the past. Better understanding of the…

  16. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking

    PubMed Central

    Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs. PMID:26733913

  17. Ways to Join the Living Conversation about Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehler, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Rarely do students and teachers see themselves as people who have the authority to talk back to the gatekeepers; instead, they are on the receiving end of a conversation begun by others. But the conversation about young adult (YA) books--like the authors who write them--is a living thing. Students and teachers can help to shape it. In this…

  18. Transglossic Language Practices of Young Adults in Bangladesh and Mongolia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Shaila; Dovchin, Sender; Pennycook, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the use of varied semiotic resources in the linguistic, social and cultural practices of young adults in the context of Bangladesh and Mongolia. Based on a translinguistic analysis (including pre-textual history, contextual relations, sub-textual meaning, intertextual echoes and post-textual interpretation) of these practices,

  19. Young Adults with Gambling Problems: The Impact of Childhood Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsher, Jennifer R.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina

    2010-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been thought to be a significant risk factor in the development of gambling problems. Incorporating a developmental psychopathology perspective, 1,324 adolescents and young adults, age 17-22 years completed self-report measures on gambling behaviors, gambling severity, and childhood maltreatment. Problem gamblers…

  20. Developing the Social Skills of Young Adult Special Olympics Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Melissa G. F.; Dummer, Gail M.; Smeltzer, Ashley; Denton, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if young adult Special Olympics participants could develop, generalize, and maintain target social skills (eye contact, contributing relevant information, and turn taking) as a result of a 14-week Social Skills and Sports (S[superscript 3]) Program that combined classroom instruction with soccer…

  1. Student Sex: More or Less Risky than Other Young Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lorraine; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Young, Honor

    2015-01-01

    Sexually active young adults are at an increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or experiencing an unplanned pregnancy. Sexual behaviours such as inconsistent condom use, multiple partners and casual sex are known risk factors for negative sexual health outcomes. Sexually active higher education students are classified as…

  2. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in

  3. Employment Information Needs of Chinese Young Adults in Sheffield

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Sheila; Zhu, Wen

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigate the question of how Chinese young adults (18-26 years old) in Sheffield seek employment information, and what sources and channels they use. Data collection was via a semi-structured questionnaire (78 responses) and via nine follow-up interviews with respondents to the questionnaire. Fifty-five percent felt that they had…

  4. Young Adult Literature: From Middle School to College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Susan; Nugent, Harold

    Learning difficult literary concepts (such as point of view, symbolism, or internal monologue) while reading difficult and often unfamiliar content prematurely places too many demands upon middle school and high school students. Young adult literature allows students to address the demands of a new concept while reading more familiar content. One…

  5. Perceived Effectiveness of Tobacco Countermarketing Advertisements among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Higbee, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To measure relative effectiveness of tobacco countermarketing advertisements by category and emotive execution style among young adults. Methods: Participants (n = 1011) from 2 US 4-year colleges, one southern and one northern were surveyed before and after viewing advertisements in one of 3 categories: social norms, health

  6. Developmental Junctions of Text and Experience in Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Quinn, Elaine J.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an essay review of "Conflict and Connection: The Psychology of Young Adult Literature" by Sharon A. Stringer. Considers how teens are victims of a culture that superficially embraces what their youth represents in image, but abandons them in what their age requires in substance. Discusses how Stringer's book suggests a way to provide this…

  7. Investigating the News Seeking Behavior of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qayyum, M. Asim; Williamson, Kirsty; Liu, Ying-Hsang; Hider, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the news-seeking and browsing behaviours of young adults, partly in the context of everyday life information seeking (ELIS), in order to explore their perceptions of and attitudes towards print and online news media. The study is significant because traditional print newspapers face a steady decline in their readership with…

  8. Investigating the News Seeking Behavior of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qayyum, M. Asim; Williamson, Kirsty; Liu, Ying-Hsang; Hider, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the news-seeking and browsing behaviours of young adults, partly in the context of everyday life information seeking (ELIS), in order to explore their perceptions of and attitudes towards print and online news media. The study is significant because traditional print newspapers face a steady decline in their readership with

  9. Marital Meaning: Exploring Young Adults' Belief Systems about Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott S.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the meaning that the institution of marriage can hold for young, unmarried adults, based on their systems (or collections) of beliefs about marriage. Based on symbolic interactionism, it is argued that marital meaning has implications for how people behave prior to and during marriage that may relate to…

  10. Young Adults Do Not Think World Knowledge Is Vital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2006-01-01

    A new survey has found that most young adults in the United States have difficulty identifying Iraq on an unlabeled map of the Middle East, or are unaware that the population of China is more than four times that of the United States. This lack of geographic literacy goes beyond simple gaps in knowledge and skills for most of these people do not

  11. A Qualitative Survey Examining the Moral Identities of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onat Kocabiyik, Oya; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Moral identity can orient one's behaviors when exhibiting any kind of moral behavior. In this study, the moral identities of young adults are analyzed to a certain extent. For this purpose, the "interpretative phenomenological pattern" and "grounded theory" models are used as qualitative survey models. The study group for…

  12. Negotiating Understanding through the Young Adult Literature of Muslim Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Allison L.; Glasgow, Jacqueline N.

    2010-01-01

    Although United States citizens generally pride themselves on their understanding and acceptance of diversity, all too many of them harbor a fear of Muslims, which transformed into widespread bigotry after September 11, 2001. Knowing that young adult literature can be a powerful means of negotiating understanding of the other, this article…

  13. Suicide among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Klostermann, P; Ganswindt, M; Schneider, V

    2005-01-17

    A closer analysis was made of all postmortems at the Benjamin Franklin Campus of the Institute of Forensic Medicine performed on juveniles who committed suicide at the age of 20 or below in the period from 1998 to 2003. A double suicide of a young couple, who met on the Internet and agreed on the procedure to be followed up to the act itself, which took place in Berlin, is presented as a representative case. The authors emphasise that in view of the danger of emulation, the media should exercise restraint in describing concrete details especially when reporting about suicides of juveniles. PMID:15694726

  14. Pelvic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in a young adult

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, David; Amadi, Chiemezie; Beckman, Irwin; Patel, Shweta; Surampudi, Ramana

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcomas are soft-tissue tumors, rare in adults. Accounting for nearly 5% of childhood cancers, they represent less than 0.03% of adult malignancies (1, 2). Three different subtypes of rhabdomyosarcoma have been described (embryonal, alveolar and pleomorphic), making up approximately 50%, 30%, and 20% of the cases, respectively (3). Although the definitive diagnosis is made pathologically, some distinguishing features among these subtypes, and between rhabdomyosarcomas and other soft-tissue tumors, can be suggested on MRI and CT. We present an interesting case of a 20-year-old female with a locally aggressive pelvic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. While the prognosis has improved with newer treatment techniques, overall survival rates remain poor. Our case study presents typical features of a rare disease, which can often present a diagnostic dilemma for clinicians.

  15. Recruiting young adult cancer survivors for behavioral research.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Carolyn; Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

    2013-03-01

    Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38% of those approached were screened and 8% enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies. PMID:22810954

  16. Recognition and management of stroke in young adults and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Biller, José; Elkind, Mitchell S.; Fullerton, Heather J.; Jauch, Edward C.; Kittner, Steven J.; Levine, Deborah A.; Levine, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 15% of all ischemic strokes (IS) occur in young adults and adolescents. To date, only limited prior public health and research efforts have specifically addressed stroke in the young. Early diagnosis remains challenging because of the lack of awareness and the relative infrequency of stroke compared with stroke mimics. Moreover, the causes of IS in the young are heterogeneous and can be relatively uncommon, resulting in uncertainties about diagnostic evaluation and cause-specific management. Emerging data have raised public health concerns about the increasing prevalence of traditional vascular risk factors in young individuals, and their potential role in increasing the risk of IS, stroke recurrence, and poststroke mortality. These issues make it important to formulate and enact strategies to increase both awareness and access to resources for young stroke patients, their caregivers and families, and health care professionals. The American Academy of Neurology recently convened an expert panel to develop a consensus document concerning the recognition, evaluation, and management of IS in young adults and adolescents. The report of the consensus panel is presented herein. PMID:23946297

  17. Muscle dissatisfaction in young adult men

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Backround Appearance concerns are of increasing importance in young men's lives. We investigated whether muscle dissatisfaction is associated with psychological symptoms, dietary supplement or anabolic steroid use, or physical activity in young men. Methods As a part of a questionnaire assessment of health-related behaviors in the population-based FinnTwin16 study, we assessed factors associated with muscle dissatisfaction in 1245 men aged 22–27 using logistic regression models. Results Of men, 30% experienced high muscle dissatisfaction, while 12% used supplements/steroids. Of highly muscle-dissatisfied men, 21.5% used supplements/steroids. Mean body mass index, waist circumference, or leisure aerobic activity index did not differ between individuals with high/low muscle dissatisfaction. Muscle dissatisfaction was significantly associated with a psychological and psychosomatic problems, alcohol and drug use, lower height satisfaction, sedentary lifestyle, poor subjective physical fitness, and lower life satisfaction. Conclusion Muscle dissatisfaction and supplement/steroid use are relatively common, and are associated with psychological distress and markers of sedentary lifestyle. PMID:16594989

  18. Neural processes supporting young and older adults' emotional memories.

    PubMed

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Schacter, Daniel L

    2008-07-01

    Young and older adults are more likely to remember emotional information than neutral information. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural processes supporting young (ages 18-35) and older (ages 62-79) adults' successful encoding of positive, negative, and neutral objects (e.g., a sundae, a grenade, a canoe). The results revealed general preservation of the emotional memory network across the age groups. Both groups recruited the amygdala and the orbito-frontal cortex during the successful encoding of positive and negative information. Both ages also showed valence-specific recruitment: right fusiform activity was greatest during the successful encoding of negative information, whereas left prefrontal and temporal activity was greatest during the successful encoding of positive information. These valence-specific processes are consistent with behavioral evidence that negative information is processed with perceptual detail, whereas positive information is processed at a conceptual or schematic level. The only age differences in emotional memory emerged during the successful encoding of positive items: Older adults showed more activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and along the cingulate gyrus than young adults. Because these regions often are associated with self-referential processing, these results suggest that older adults' mnemonic boost for positive information may stem from an increased tendency to process this information in relation to themselves. PMID:18284340

  19. Biomarker-based prognostic stratification of young adult glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Chung, Nellie Yuk-Fei; Yin, Zi; Li, Kay Ka-Wai; Chan, Danny Tat-Ming; Poon, Wai Sang; Wu, Jinsong; Zhou, Liangfu; Chan, Aden Ka-yin; Mao, Ying; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2016-01-01

    While the predominant elderly and the pediatric glioblastomas have been extensively investigated, young adult glioblastomas were understudied. In this study, we sought to stratify young adult glioblastomas by BRAF, H3F3A and IDH1 mutations and examine the clinical relevance of the biomarkers. In 107 glioblastomas aged from 17 to 35 years, mutually exclusive BRAF-V600E (15%), H3F3A-K27M (15.9%), H3F3A-G34R/V (2.8%) and IDH1-R132H (16.8%) mutations were identified in over half of the cases. EGFR amplification and TERTp mutation were only detected in 3.7% and 8.4% in young adult glioblastomas, respectively. BRAF-V600E identified a clinically favorable subset of glioblastomas with younger age, frequent CDKN2A homozygous deletion, and was more amendable to surgical resection. H3F3A-K27M mutated glioblastomas were tightly associated with midline locations and showed dismal prognosis. IDH1-R132H was associated with older age and favorable outcome. Interestingly, tumors with positive PDGFRA immunohistochemical expression exhibited poorer prognosis and identified an aggressive subset of tumors among K27M mutated glioblastomas. Combining BRAF, H3F3A and IDH1 mutations allowed stratification of young adult glioblastomas into four prognostic subgroups. In summary, our study demonstrates the clinical values of stratifying young adult glioblastomas with BRAF, H3F3A and IDH1 mutations, which has important implications in refining prognostic classification of glioblastomas. PMID:26452024

  20. Biomarker-based prognostic stratification of young adult glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui-Qi; Shi, Zhifeng; Chen, Hong; Chung, Nellie Yuk-Fei; Yin, Zi; Li, Kay Ka-Wai; Chan, Danny Tat-Ming; Poon, Wai Sang; Wu, Jinsong; Zhou, Liangfu; Chan, Aden Ka-Yin; Mao, Ying; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2016-01-26

    While the predominant elderly and the pediatric glioblastomas have been extensively investigated, young adult glioblastomas were understudied. In this study, we sought to stratify young adult glioblastomas by BRAF, H3F3A and IDH1 mutations and examine the clinical relevance of the biomarkers. In 107 glioblastomas aged from 17 to 35 years, mutually exclusive BRAF-V600E (15%), H3F3A-K27M (15.9%), H3F3A-G34R/V (2.8%) and IDH1-R132H (16.8%) mutations were identified in over half of the cases. EGFR amplification and TERTp mutation were only detected in 3.7% and 8.4% in young adult glioblastomas, respectively. BRAF-V600E identified a clinically favorable subset of glioblastomas with younger age, frequent CDKN2A homozygous deletion, and was more amendable to surgical resection. H3F3A-K27M mutated glioblastomas were tightly associated with midline locations and showed dismal prognosis. IDH1-R132H was associated with older age and favorable outcome. Interestingly, tumors with positive PDGFRA immunohistochemical expression exhibited poorer prognosis and identified an aggressive subset of tumors among K27M mutated glioblastomas. Combining BRAF, H3F3A and IDH1 mutations allowed stratification of young adult glioblastomas into four prognostic subgroups. In summary, our study demonstrates the clinical values of stratifying young adult glioblastomas with BRAF, H3F3A and IDH1 mutations, which has important implications in refining prognostic classification of glioblastomas. PMID:26452024

  1. Young LGBT Adults Are Target of FDA Stop-Smoking Campaign

    MedlinePlus

    ... Young LGBT Adults Are Target of FDA Stop-Smoking Campaign Tobacco use is common among these 18- ... and Drug Administration has launched an LGBT stop-smoking campaign. "We know LGBT young adults in this ...

  2. Immobilization effects in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Urso, M L; Clarkson, P M; Price, T B

    2006-03-01

    This experiment compared the effects of disuse on the adductor pollicis (AP) muscle in young (YM) and old (OM) men. The AP of the YM and OM was assessed for strength (MVC), compound muscle action potential (CMAP), and volume, and then immobilized for 2 weeks. MVC decreased approximately 22% in the YM, and OM (P<0.001). AP volume was 4.1% (not significant) and 9.5% (P<0.05) less in the YM and OM, respectively. CMAP increased in the OM 0, 24, and 48 h post-immobilization, and did not change in the YM. However, the YM showed a greater decrease in specific force as compared to the OM. YM and OM experienced similar losses in strength, yet muscle volume loss was only significant in OM. Although OM are more susceptible to immediate losses in muscle volume, muscle activation strategies appear to preserve strength during atrophy. PMID:16369818

  3. Text Comprehension Products and Processes in Young, Young-Old, and Old-Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Aging may be associated with an increase in generalized text processing, particularly in adults older than 75 years. The current study examined text comprehension in young, young-old, and old-old adults. Experiment 1 included a comprehension measure (product) and Experiment 2 examined inferences generated during reading (process). Comprehension scores were lowest in old-old adults. Generalized and elaborative inference scores were highest in old-old adults. Participants over 65 years with the lowest scores on cognitive integrity variables also had significantly lower comprehension scores, but there was no effect of cognitive integrity on inference scores. This dissociation suggests that inferential processes may be maintained even when cognitive integrity and comprehension declines are present. Relevance to cognitive aging theories addressing text processing and self-regulatory processes is addressed. PMID:19286643

  4. Young Adult Perspectives on a Successful Transition from Pediatric to Adult Care in Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sobota, Amy E.; Umeh, Emeka; Mack, Jennifer W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This qualitative study sought to learn from young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) about their experience leaving pediatric care and perspective on what makes a successful transition. Methods Fifteen young adults with SCD who had left pediatric care within the previous five years participated in focus groups led by a trained moderator. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory. Results Four main themes emerged from the analysis: facilitators of transition (meeting the adult provider prior to transfer, knowing what to expect, gradually taking over disease self-management and starting the process early), barriers to transition (negative perceived attitude of adult staff, lack of SCD specific knowledge by both patients and staff, and competing priorities interfering with transition preparation), what young adults wished for in a transition program (opportunities to meet more staff prior to transfer, more information about the differences between pediatric and adult care, learning from a peer who has been through the process, more SCD teaching, and flexibility in transition preparation) and how they define a successful transition (gradually assuming responsibility for self-management of their SCD). Conclusion Our findings present unique opportunities to learn from young adults with SCD about ways to improve current transition programs. PMID:27175364

  5. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results from the National Young Adult Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…

  6. Addiction Treatment Experience among a Cohort of Street-Involved Youths and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Jellena; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Kerr, Thomas; Lai, Calvin; Wood, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about the accessibility and potential barriers to addiction treatment among street youths and young adults. We sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of enrollment in addiction treatment among a cohort of street-involved youths and young adults in Vancouver, Canada. Street-involved youths and young adults who use…

  7. Addiction Treatment Experience among a Cohort of Street-Involved Youths and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Jellena; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Kerr, Thomas; Lai, Calvin; Wood, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about the accessibility and potential barriers to addiction treatment among street youths and young adults. We sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of enrollment in addiction treatment among a cohort of street-involved youths and young adults in Vancouver, Canada. Street-involved youths and young adults who use

  8. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Lessons Learned from Manufacturing and Automotive Career Pathway Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from automotive and…

  9. 78 FR 58290 - TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE Young Adult Program Premium Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Register (FR) on May 29, 2013 (78 FR 32116-32121) sets forth rules to implement the TRICARE Young Adult... of the Secretary TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE Young Adult Program Premium Update AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense, DoD. ACTION: Notice of Updated TRICARE Young Adult Premiums...

  10. Age and Time Population Differences: Young Adults, Gen Xers, and Millennials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Lauren A.

    2013-01-01

    Age and Time disparities in young adult research populations are common because young adults are defined by varying age spans; members of Generation X and Millennial generations may both be considered young adults; study years vary, affecting populations; and qualitative methods with limited age/year samples are frequently utilized. The current…

  11. Direct Effects of Assets and Savings on the College Progress of Black Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William; Nam, Ilsung

    2012-01-01

    Descriptive data indicate that 62% of White young adults between the ages of 17 and 23 years were on course (i.e., either in college or have graduated from college) in 2007, compared with only 37% of Black young adults. Given this, finding novel and promising ways to promote college progress among Black young adults, in particular, is a growing…

  12. "I will guide you" The indirect link between overparenting and young adults' adjustment.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Sofie; Scharf, Miri

    2015-08-30

    This study addresses knowledge gaps regarding family dynamics, and identifies young adults at-risk for psychopathological symptoms. In particular, we examined overparenting and its associations with young adults' adjustment (distress and interpersonal sensitivity). Both direct and indirect relations were assessed, the latter through young adults' relational characteristics (attachment, psychological control perception, and boundaries diffusion perception). Also, the contribution of gender of parents and young adults was addressed. Questionnaires were collected from 89 Jewish-Israeli intact families. Mothers reported significantly more use of overparenting than fathers. More overparenting of fathers had a direct relation with less adjustment in young adults. This direct relation was partially mediated by higher levels of young adults' attachment anxiety (for the dependent variables distress and interpersonal sensitivity) and young adults' perceptions of parental psychological control (for the dependent variable distress). More overparenting of mothers was related to less interpersonal sensitivity for male young adults and for young adults who reported less parental psychological control. This study showed that parenting qualities and their interplay with young adults' relational characteristics continue to play an important role in the lives of young adult offspring. Therefore, clinicians dealing with young adults at risk for, or suffering from, psychopathology, should be attentive to overparenting and its possible implications. PMID:26051175

  13. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Hands-On Multidisciplinary Career Exploration and Mentorships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund for Workforce Solution's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from…

  14. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Lessons Learned from EMT Career Pathway Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Loh-Sze

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund for Workforce Solution's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study will focus on challenges and…

  15. Obesity Among Young Adults in Developing Countries: A Systematic Overview.

    PubMed

    Poobalan, Amudha; Aucott, Lorna

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the overweight/obesity situation among young adults in developing countries. For this target population, obesity prevalence ranges from 2.3 to 12 %, and overweight is 28.8 %, mostly affecting females. Weight is now increasing during this life stage of transition at a higher rate, 1 kg/year, than in developed countries. Maternal factors and early childhood socioeconomic status are associated with BMI in young adults along with changing environmental and behavioural factors in some low and middle income countries, brought about by demographic and socioeconomic transitions. Young adults with 'normal weight' obesity need identification using other convenient low cost measures (skin folds or waist circumference) along with BMI. Obesity prevention or management interventions were not identified, but clearly needed to help stem the obesity pandemic. Young people generally give little priority to their future health, so such interventions need to be conducted at some optimal age, be innovative, country specific and culturally acceptable. PMID:26883372

  16. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results From the National Young Adult Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method We examined risk perception responses among a nationally representative sample of young adults (age 18-34 years; n = 2,871, including tobacco and non-tobacco users) from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey. Results Most (57.8%) respondents believed that e-cigarettes were less risky than cigarettes. Respondents were more likely to rate combustible products hookah (24.5%) and cigars (13.9%) as being less risky compared to noncombustible snus (10%) and other smokeless tobacco (SLT) products (7.1%) relative to cigarettes. Few (2.5%) rated menthol cigarettes as less risky. For e-cigarettes, hookah, and SLT, less risky beliefs were significantly higher among ever or current versus never product users. Between 22% and 33% of all respondents believed that SLT, snus, menthol cigarettes, and cigars were more risky than cigarettes, but differences in this belief between current and nonusers of these products were small and insignificant. Younger young adults were more likely to rate e-cigarettes and hookah as being "less risky" and rate cigars and SLT as being "more risky" than older young adults. Conclusion The public's views of comparative tobacco risk perceptions vary widely by tobacco product type and age-group. While "less risky" perceptions may be associated with product use, perceptions that products are "more risky" than cigarettes may not necessarily dissuade people from their use. PMID:26304709

  17. Hip Dysplasia in the Young Adult.

    PubMed

    Gala, Luca; Clohisy, John C; Beaulé, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Hip dysplasia is a leading precursor of osteoarthritis and is seen in 20% to 40% of patients with osteoarthritis of the hip. An increase in mechanical stress on the cartilage matrix with failure of the acetabular labrum represents the major pathomechanism of degeneration. Because the prevalence of associated femoral deformities is high (>50%), the structural anatomy of the dysplastic hip must be assessed in multiple planes using radiographs and, if needed, advanced imaging modalities. Acetabular osteotomy (periacetabular and/or rotational) is the most commonly used procedure for the treatment of the majority of dysplastic hips in adults. Modern total hip replacement remains an excellent option for the more arthritic joints. Difficulties can arise from anatomical abnormalities and previous operations. PMID:26738905

  18. Childhood Predictors of Young Adult Male Crime.

    PubMed

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2010-08-01

    The study sample was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children (93% Black) growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. The study sample included 733 males who were active by age 26. Adult criminal records were collected through administrative records and supplemented with self-reports. Outcome measures included incarceration, conviction, and felony conviction by age 26. Probit regression was used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that common childhood predictors were AFDC participation by child's age 3, negative home environment, maltreatment experience, trouble making behavior, and number of school moves. Unique predictors were mother unemployed by child's age 3 for incarceration or jail, four or more children in household by child's age 3 for felony conviction, and mother did not complete high school by child's age 3 and social competence for both incarceration or jail and felony conviction. Implications on crime prevention were discussed. PMID:20657803

  19. Motorsports involvement among adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD.

    PubMed

    Wymbs, Brian T; Molina, Brooke S G; Belendiuk, Katherine A; Pedersen, Sarah L; Walther, Christine A P; Cheong, Jee Won; McGinley, James S; Marshal, Michael P; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E

    2013-01-01

    Although children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined nonsubstance, use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent engagement in motorsports, a collection of risky driving-related activities associated with elevated rates of physical injury. Path analyses tested whether persistent impulsivity, comorbid conduct disorder or antisocial personality disorder (CD/ASP), and heavy alcohol use mediated this association. Analyses also explored whether frequent motorsporting was associated with unsafe and alcohol-influenced driving. Two hundred twenty-one adolescent and young adult males (16-25 years old) diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 139 demographically similar males without ADHD histories reported their motorsports involvement. Persistent impulsivity, CD/ASP, heavy drinking, and hazardous driving were also measured in adolescence/young adulthood. Adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely to report frequent motorsports involvement than those without childhood ADHD. Impulsivity, CD/ASP, and heavy drinking partially mediated this association, such that individuals with ADHD histories, who had persistent impulsivity or CD/ASP diagnoses, were more likely to engage in heavy drinking, which was positively associated with frequent motorsporting. Motorsports involvement was associated with more unsafe and alcohol-influenced driving, and this association was more often found among those with, than without, ADHD histories. Adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories, especially those with persisting impulsivity, comorbid CD/ASP and heavy drinking tendencies, are more likely to engage in motorsports, which may heighten risk of injury. PMID:23347139

  20. Motorsports Involvement among Adolescents and Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, JeeWon; McGinley, James S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Though children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined non-substance use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent engagement in motorsports, a collection of risky driving-related activities associated with elevated rates of physical injury. Path analyses tested whether persistent impulsivity, comorbid conduct disorder or antisocial personality disorder (CD/ASP), and heavy alcohol use mediated this association. Analyses also explored whether frequent motorsporting was associated with unsafe and alcohol-influenced driving. Method Two-hundred and twenty-one adolescent and young adult males (16–25 years-old) diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 139 demographically-similar males without ADHD histories reported their motorsports involvement. Persistent impulsivity, CD/ASP, heavy drinking, and hazardous driving were also measured in adolescence/young adulthood1 Results Adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely to report frequent motorsports involvement than those without childhood ADHD. Impulsivity, CD/ASP and heavy drinking partially mediated this association, such that individuals with ADHD histories, who had persistent impulsivity or CD/ASP diagnoses, were more likely to engage in heavy drinking, which was positively associated with frequent motorsporting. Motorsports involvement was associated with more unsafe and alcohol-influenced driving, and this association was more often found among those with, than without, ADHD histories. Conclusions Adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories, especially those with persisting impulsivity, comorbid CD/ASP and heavy drinking tendencies, are more likely to engage in motorsports, which may heighten risk of injury. PMID:23347139

  1. Visual statistical learning in children and young adults: how implicit?

    PubMed Central

    Bertels, Julie; Boursain, Emeline; Destrebecqz, Arnaud; Gaillard, Vinciane

    2015-01-01

    Visual statistical learning (VSL) is the ability to extract the joint and conditional probabilities of shapes co-occurring during passive viewing of complex visual configurations. Evidence indicates that even infants are sensitive to these regularities (e.g., Kirkham et al., 2002). However, there is continuing debate as to whether VSL is accompanied by conscious awareness of the statistical regularities between sequence elements. Bertels et al. (2012) addressed this question in young adults. Here, we adapted their paradigm to investigate VSL and conscious awareness in children. Using the same version of the paradigm, we also tested young adults so as to directly compare results from both age groups. Fifth graders and undergraduates were exposed to a stream of visual shapes arranged in triplets. Learning of these sequences was then assessed using both direct and indirect measures. In order to assess the extent to which learning occurred explicitly, we also measured confidence through subjective measures in the direct task (i.e., binary confidence judgments). Results revealed that both children and young adults learned the statistical regularities between shapes. In both age groups, participants who performed above chance in the completion task had conscious access to their knowledge. Nevertheless, although adults performed above chance even when they claimed to guess, there was no evidence of implicit knowledge in children. These results suggest that the role of implicit and explicit influences in VSL may follow a developmental trajectory. PMID:25620943

  2. Caring for young adults on a paediatric ward.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Paul A J; Routley, Christine; Paul, Siba Prosad

    The need for adolescents and young adults (AYA) to have suitable age-specific inpatient facilities has been recognised for many years, yet has received relatively little attention. This article reports the successful introduction of an inpatient facility for AYA, aged 17-24 years, on a general paediatric ward in a small district general hospital. From December 2010, a young person's unit (YPU) consisting of an 8-bed area was opened within a 24-bed children's ward. Nursing care was provided by the ward staff, all of whom had been trained in the care of young adults. Policies regarding admission criteria, safeguarding, patient choice, visiting and 'house rules' were drafted, implemented and modified as necessary. Discussions with the adult clinicians (for medical care) and site managers were held to ensure smooth running of the system, and to address any concerns or difficulties. Paediatric patients had priority of admission at times of bed crisis. During 2012, there were a total of 2351 inpatient admissions to the paediatric ward, of whom 379 (16%) were YPU patients aged from 17-24 years. Median length of stay was 2 days for patients aged 17-24 years as compared with 1 day for patients aged less than or equal to 16 years. Patients who chose admission to the paediatric ward tended to be younger, in transition from paediatric to adult services for chronic conditions, or with special needs. Patient surveys showed a high level of satisfaction with the facility. Young adults can be cared for safely and effectively on a paediatric ward with minimal additional costs. The essential ingredients for success include discussion with affected parties to address specific concerns, and the establishment of a clear, simple and unambiguous admission policy. PMID:24165407

  3. Antimnemonic effects of schemas in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Badham, Stephen P.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Schema-consistent material that is aligned with an individual’s knowledge and experience is typically more memorable than abstract material. This effect is often more extreme in older adults and schema use can alleviate age deficits in memory. In three experiments, young and older adults completed memory tasks where the availability of schematic information was manipulated. Specifying nonobvious relations between to-be-remembered word pairs paradoxically hindered memory (Experiment 1). Highlighting relations within mixed lists of related and unrelated word pairs had no effect on memory for those pairs (Experiment 2). This occurred even though related word pairs were recalled better than unrelated word pairs, particularly for older adults. Revealing a schematic context in a memory task with abstract image segments also hindered memory performance, particularly for older adults (Experiment 3). The data show that processing schematic information can come with costs that offset mnemonic benefits associated with schema-consistent stimuli. PMID:25980799

  4. Lung function in young Nigerian adults.

    PubMed

    Jaja, S I

    1991-01-01

    Static and dynamic long volumes have been measured in 181 (123 males and 58 females) apparently healthy Nigerian adults. The age range in both sexes was between 17 and 34 years (22.0 +/- 3.2 years in males and 21.3 +/- 3.2 years in females). In the male subjects mean height, weight and body surface area were 170.0 +/- 6.0 cm, 62.0 +/- 8.5 kg and 1.72 +/- 0.19 m2 respectively. In the female subjects mean height, was 162.3 +/- 15.3 cm, mean weight was 57.2 +/- 8.4 kg and mean body surface area was 1.60 +/- 0.12 m2. In both sexes, caucasian prediction formulae overestimated the TLC, FVC and RV/TLC% of the subjects. Observed FEV % in our subjects was higher than in the caucasians. The elevated FEV1 % and reduced FVC, RV/TLC % and TLC in Nigerian subjects may suggest and increased elastic recoil of the lungs and chestwall in them. Regression coefficients and constants for predicting TLC, FVC, FEV1, IC, ERV and RV in Nigerian subjects are presented. PMID:1790133

  5. Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David B; Link, Daniel C; Mason, Philip J; Bessler, Monica

    2014-09-01

    The inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are a diverse group of genetic diseases associated with inadequate production of one or more blood cell lineages. Examples include Fanconi anemia, dyskeratosis congenita, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, thrombocytopenia absent radii syndrome, severe congenital neutropenia, and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. The management of these disorders was once the exclusive domain of pediatric subspecialists, but increasingly physicians who care for adults are being called upon to diagnose or treat these conditions. Through a series of patient vignettes, we highlight the clinical manifestations of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes in adolescents and young adults. The diagnostic and therapeutic challenges posed by these diseases are discussed. PMID:24888387

  6. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…

  7. Goals and Everyday Problem Solving: Manipulating Goal Preferences in Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the link between goal and problem-solving strategy preferences in 130 young and older adults using hypothetical family problem vignettes. At baseline, young adults preferred autonomy goals, whereas older adults preferred generative goals. Imagining an expanded future time perspective led older adults to show…

  8. Identifying Correlates of Young Adults Weight Behavior: Survey Development

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2,287 young adults. Results The systematic process employed led to a psychometrically sound and developmentally appropriate survey. Test-retest reliabilities for items included on the final survey were mostly moderate to good and Cronbachs alphas were >0.7 for 83% of developed scales. Conclusions Future studies may find the systematic process used to be helpful in creating other weight-related surveys. PMID:22251762

  9. Dissociative Symptoms and Mother's Marital Status in Young Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Bob, Petr; Selesova, Petra; Raboch, Jiri; Kukla, Lubomir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Current findings suggest that mother's marital status indicating father's absence or conflicting relationship to father may be specifically related to dissociation and other stress-related symptoms. We have assessed relationships of mother's marital status, dissociative symptoms, and other psychopathological manifestations in a sample of 19 years’ old young adults (N = 364) participating in European longitudinal study (European Longitudinal Study of Parenthood and Childhood). The results show clinically significant manifestations of dissociative symptoms in young adult men whose mothers were fatherless and in women whose mothers were re-married. Other psychopathological symptoms did not reach clinically significant manifestations. The results suggest that significant factor related to high level of dissociative symptoms in men growing in fatherless families might be linked with disturbed and conflicting attachment to a father's figure and pathological dependent attachment to mother. In women dissociative symptoms likely are linked to conflicting relationship between mother and daughter associated with stepfather’ presence in the family. PMID:25590849

  10. Adolescent alcohol use, sociability and income as a young adult

    PubMed Central

    Mundt, Marlon P.; French, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to study how sociability and adolescent alcohol use impact personal income as a young adult. We find that factors which enhance not only individual sociability but also social interaction at the community level are positively linked to future earnings of adolescents. Adolescents whose friends and friends of friends have greater sociability reap long-term labor market rewards into adulthood. After adjusting for individual and community sociability, the effect of teenage alcohol consumption on labor market earnings as young adults is reduced. Our results suggest that earnings premiums associated with adolescent alcohol consumption may be partially explained by social network dynamics. PMID:22984291

  11. Cancer-Specific Outcomes Among Young Adults Without Health Insurance

    PubMed Central

    Aizer, Ayal A.; Falit, Benjamin; Mendu, Mallika L.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Choueiri, Toni K.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Hu, Jim C.; Martin, Neil E.; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Alexander, Brian M.; Nguyen, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) will likely improve insurance coverage for most young adults, but subsets of young adults in the United States will face significant premium increases in the individual market. We examined the association between insurance status and cancer-specific outcomes among young adults. Methods We used the SEER program to identify 39,447 patients age 20 to 40 years diagnosed with a malignant neoplasm between 2007 and 2009. The association between insurance status and stage at presentation, employment of definitive therapy, and all-cause mortality was assessed using multivariable logistic or Cox regression, as appropriate. Results Patients who were uninsured were more likely to be younger, male, nonwhite, and unmarried than patients who were insured and were also more likely to be from regions of lower income, education, and population density (P < .001 in all cases). After adjustment for pertinent confounding variables, an association between insurance coverage and decreased likelihood of presentation with metastatic disease (odds ratio [OR], 0.84; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.94; P = .003), increased receipt of definitive treatment (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.52 to 2.50; P < .001), and decreased death resulting from any cause (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.91; P = .002) was noted. Conclusion The improved coverage fostered by the ACA may translate into better outcomes among most young adults with cancer. Extra consideration will need to be given to ensure that patients who will face premium increases in the individual market can obtain insurance coverage under the ACA. PMID:24888800

  12. Suicidality Risk Assessment in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Susan E; Pinto, Melissa; Evans, Dian Dowling

    2016-01-01

    The Research to Practice column is intended to improve the research critique skills of the advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) and the emergency nurse (RN) and to assist with the translation of research into practice. This column focuses on assessing risks of suicide in adolescents and young adults, using as a basis for the discussion a recently developed suicidality screening tool (L. M. ). PMID:26817425

  13. Head-in-motion contusions in young adults.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, J B

    1983-01-01

    The pathogenesis of contusions was studied in a series of acute fatal closed head injuries. Important factors include: 1. whether the head was in motion or stationary; 2. the direction and magnitude of the force; 3. the presence of depressed fractures and lacerations; and 4. roughness of the overlying bone. In the young adult group, the frequent high velocity motor vehicle accidents create a dominant pattern of injury to the frontal and temporal lobes, usually sparing the occipital lobes and cerebellum. PMID:6581699

  14. Life satisfaction of young adults with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Barf, H A; Post, M W M; Verhoef, M; Jennekens-Schinkel, A; Gooskens, R H J M; Prevo, A J H

    2007-06-01

    This study concerns life satisfaction and its determinants in Dutch young adults with spina bifida (SB). Data on life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire [LiSat-9]) were related to hydrocephalus, lesion level, disabilities, and demographic variables. In total, 179 young adults with SB participated (41% male, age range 16-25y; 79% SB aperta, 67% hydrocephalus [HC], 39% wheelchair-dependent). Most were satisfied with their life as a whole (24% dissatisfied). No difference was found from a population reference group (28% dissatisfied). Highest proportions of dissatisfaction were found for financial situation (44%), partnership relations (49%), and sex life (55%). Least dissatisfaction was found for contact with friends (17%) and families (15%). Young adults with SB and HC were more satisfied with their financial situation and family life but were less satisfied with self-care ability and partnership relations than those without HC and the reference group. However, except for self-care ability, relationships between life satisfaction and having SB were weak. In conclusion, self-care ability and partnership relations were rated least favourable and may need more attention from care providers. Overall, SB does not seem to be an important determinant of life satisfaction. PMID:17518933

  15. List Memory in Young Adults With Language Learning Disability

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list recall experiment. Participants listened to 12-item word lists that converged on a nonpresented critical item (e.g., rain) semantically (umbrella, drench, weather, hail), phonologically (train, main, ran, wren), or dually in a hybrid list (umbrella, train, drench, main) and recalled words in no particular order. Group comparisons were made on veridical recall (i.e., words that were presented) and false recall of nonpresented critical items. Recall performance was analyzed by list type and list position to examine potential differences in the quality of memorial processes. Results The LLD group produced fewer veridical recalls than the controls. Both groups demonstrated list type and list position effects in veridical recall. False recall of the critical items was comparable in the 2 groups and varied by list type in predictable ways. Conclusion Young adults with LLD have verbal memory limitations characterized by quantitatively low levels of accurate recall. Qualitative patterns of recall are similar to those of unaffected peers. Therefore, the memory problem is characterized by limited capacity; memorial processes appear to be intact. PMID:25652445

  16. Social Branding to Decrease Smoking Among Young Adults in Bars

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P < .001). There were significant interactions between hipster affiliation and alcohol use on smoking. Among hipster binge drinkers, the odds of daily smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30, 0.63) and nondaily smoking (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.77) decreased significantly at follow-up 3. Binge drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502

  17. Social models of HIV risk among young adults in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Bulled, Nicola L

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research over the past 30 years has revealed that individual and social determinants impact HIV risk. Even so, prevention efforts focus primarily on individual behaviour change, with little recognition of the dynamic interplay of individual and social environment factors that further exacerbate risk engagement. Drawing on long-term research with young adults in Lesotho, I examine how social environment factors contribute to HIV risk. During preliminary ethnographic analysis, I developed novel scales to measure social control, adoption of modernity, and HIV knowledge. In survey research, I examined the effects of individual characteristics (i.e., socioeconomic status, HIV knowledge, adoption of modernity) and social environment (i.e., social control) on HIV risk behaviours. In addition, I measured the impact of altered environments by taking advantage of an existing situation whereby young adults attending a national college are assigned to either a main campus in a metropolitan setting or a satellite campus in a remote setting, irrespective of the environment in which they were socialised as youth. This arbitrary assignment process generates four distinct groups of young adults with altered or constant environments. Regression models show that lower levels of perceived social control and greater adoption of modernity are associated with HIV risk, controlling for other factors. The impact of social control and modernity varies with environment dynamics. PMID:26284999

  18. Psychological Distress in Young Adult Males with Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Si-Heon; Hur, Jae; Jang, Jae-Yeon; Park, Hae-Sim; Hong, Chang Hyung; Son, Sang Joon; Chang, Ki Jung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between atopic dermatitis (AD) and psychological distress has been well established for children and adolescents. However, it is unclear whether this relationship exists in young adults. This study aimed to assess the relationship between AD and psychological distress in young male adults in South Korea. A cross-sectional study was conducted using regional conscription data from 2008 to 2012. A dermatologist diagnosed AD based on historical and clinical features, and determined severity using the eczema area and severity index. A psychiatrist used medical records, an interview, and a psychological test to examine psychological distress (depression, anxiety, and somatization). The relationship between psychological distress and AD was assessed by multivariate logistic regression analyses. Among the 120,508 conscripts, 1517 (1.2%) presented with AD. The odds of having each type of psychological distress were significantly greater for individuals with AD compared with those without AD. The adjusted odds ratios for depression, anxiety, and somatization were 1.79 (95% CI 1.402.29), 1.38 (95% CI 1.081.76), and 1.75 (95% CI 1.402.20), respectively. Moderate-to-severe AD was significantly related to depression and somatization to a greater extent compared with mild AD. Depression, anxiety, and somatization are strongly and independently associated with AD in young adult males. Early treatment of skin inflammation might modify the risk of psychiatric problems. Prospective cohort studies are needed to verify causal relationships. PMID:26061325

  19. Correlates of social support in young adults with advanced cancer

    PubMed Central

    Trevino, K. M.; Fasciano, K.; Block, S.; Prigerson, H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the relationship between perceived social support, quality of life (QoL), and grief in young adults with advanced cancer. Methods Seventy-one young adults (20–40 years) with advanced cancer were administered measures of social support, QoL, and grief. Regression analyses examined the relationship between social support and QoL and grief. Results Higher levels of total social support were associated with better psychological and existential QoL and less severe grief. Availability of someone to talk to about problems was also associated with better psychological and existential QoL and less severe grief. Tangible support was associated with better psychological and existential QoL. Availability of someone to engage in activities with was only associated with better existential QoL. Conclusions These results suggest that enhancing social support may improve psychological well-being in this population. In addition, specific types of social support may be particularly relevant to the psychological well-being of young adults with advanced cancer. PMID:22790223

  20. Health Disparities Among Young Adult Sexual Minorities in the US

    PubMed Central

    Strutz, Kelly L.; Herring, Amy H.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2014-01-01

    Background Emerging research suggests that young adult sexual minorities (identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual or engaging in same-sex attractions or behaviors) experience poorer health than their majority counterparts, but many measures of health inequity remain unexamined in population-based research. Purpose To describe a wide range of health status and healthcare access characteristics of sexual minorities in comparison with those of the majority population in a national sample of U.S. young adults. Methods Binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses of Wave IV data (2008) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (participants aged 24–32 years, n=13,088) were conducted. Health measures were self-rated health; diagnosis of any of several physical or mental illnesses or sexually transmitted infections; measured body mass index; depression classified from self-reported symptoms; use of antidepressant and anxiolytic medication; uninsured; forgone care; and receipt of physical, dental, and psychological services. Analyses were conducted in 2012–2013. Results Sexual minority women had elevated odds of most adverse health conditions and lower odds of receiving a physical or dental examination. Sexual minority men had elevated odds of fewer adverse health conditions. Conclusions Young adult sexual minorities are at higher risk of poor physical and mental health. The results highlight the multidimensionality of sexual minority status and respond to calls for greater understanding of the health of this population. PMID:25241194

  1. Suicide Risks among Adolescents and Young Adults in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Sibo; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background: In China, suicide is one of the major causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 34 years. Aim: The current study examines how risk factors vary by age groups in rural China, referring to those aged 15 to 24 years and those aged 25 to 34 years. Method: A case-control psychological autopsy (PA) study is conducted in sixteen counties from three Chinese provinces, including 392 suicide cases and 416 community living controls in the sample. Results: In China, young adults aged 25 to 34 years have a higher risk for suicide than adolescents aged 15 to 24 years, and it holds true even controlling for relevant social factors. In addition, age-related factors such as education, marital status, whether having children, status in the family, physical health, and personal income all have varying degrees of impact on suicide risks for rural youth. Conclusions: This study shows that there are some age-related risk factors for suicide at certain life stages and emphasizes that young adults in rural China aged 25 to 34 years have an increased risk of suicide as a result of experiencing more psychological strains with age. PMID:25546276

  2. Mental health in young adults and adolescents - supporting general physicians to provide holistic care.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    In the era of an ageing population, young adults on medical wards are quite rare, as only 12% of young adults report a long-term illness or disability. However, mental health problems remain prevalent in the younger population. In a recent report, mental health and obesity were listed as the most common problems in young adults. Teams set up specifically for the needs of younger adults, such as early intervention in psychosis services are shown to work better than traditional care and have also proven to be cost effective. On the medical wards, younger patients may elicit strong emotions in staff, who often feel protective and may identify strongly with the young patient's suffering. In order to provide holistic care for young adults, general physicians need to recognise common presentations of mental illness in young adults such as depression, deliberate self-harm, eating disorders and substance misuse. Apart from treating illness, health promotion is particularly important for young adults. PMID:25824067

  3. Youth and young adult physical activity and body composition of young adult women: findings from the dietary intervention study in children.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Melissa G; Hovinga, Mary; Shepherd, John A; Egleston, Brian; Gabriel, Kelley; Van Horn, Linda; Robson, Alan; Snetselaar, Linda; Stevens, Victor K; Jung, Seungyoun; Dorgan, Joanne

    2015-02-01

    This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend = 0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (β=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p = .02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women. PMID:25387239

  4. Young adults' preferred options for receiving chlamydia screening test results: a cross-sectional survey of 6085 young adults.

    PubMed

    Brugha, R; Balfe, M; Conroy, R M; Clarke, E; Fitzgerald, M; O'Connell, E; Jeffares, I; Vaughan, D; Fleming, C; O'Donovan, D

    2011-11-01

    We investigated how young adults aged 18-29 years would like to be notified of chlamydia screening test results, and, when they test positive, their willingness and preferred mechanism for informing their partners. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 6085 young adults and found that a call to their mobile phone was their preferred way of receiving positive test results (selected by 50%), followed by email. Text messages (short message service [SMS]) and calls to landline phones were unpopular options, selected by between 5 and 10%. Over 75% of respondents stated they would inform their current partner of a positive chlamydia diagnosis, and 50% would inform their previous partners. Most were willing to receive yearly reminders to go for a chlamydia test. Young adults preference for being informed of chlamydia test results by mobile phone call, rather than by email or SMS text, especially if they test positive, suggests they place high value on the security of the communication mechanism. Offering a range of mechanisms for receipt of test results may increase the acceptability and coverage of sexually transmitted infection (STI) control strategies. PMID:22096047

  5. Hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.

    1987-09-01

    The mechanism of a rise in blood pressure after kidney irradiation is unclear but most likely of renal origin. We have investigated the role of the renin-angiotensin system and dietary salt restriction in the development of systolic hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats. Three to 12 months after a single X-ray dose of 7.5 or 12.5 Gy to both kidneys of young and adult rats, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and plasma renin concentration (PRC) were measured regularly. A single X-ray dose of 12.5 Gy caused a moderate rise in SBP and a slight reduction in PRC in both young and adult rats. A dose of 7.5 Gy did not significantly alter the SBP or PRC during the follow-up period of 1 year. In a second experiment, the kidneys of young rats received an X-ray dose of 20 Gy. Subsequently, rats were kept on a standard diet (110 mmol sodium/kg) or a sodium-poor diet (10 mmol sodium/kg). On both diets, SBP started to rise rapidly 3 months after kidney irradiation. Sodium balance studies carried out at that time revealed an increased sodium retention in the irradiated rats compared to controls on the same diet. In rats on a low sodium intake, there was neither a delay nor an alleviation in the development of hypertension. Compared to controls, the PRC tended to be lower in irradiated rats up to 4 months after irradiation. Subsequently, malignant hypertension developed in all 20 Gy rats, resulting in pressure natriuresis, stimulating the renin-angiotensin system. Our findings indicated that hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation was not primarily the result of an activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Although there were some indications that sodium retention played a role, dietary sodium restriction did not influence the development of hypertension.

  6. Young Adult Veteran Perceptions of Peers’ Drinking Behavior and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Marshall, Grant N.; Schell, Terry L.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    Social norms-based interventions have shown promise in reducing drinking behavior and resulting consequences in young adults. Although most research has focused on young civilians (i.e., college students), some studies have investigated social norms-based interventions with active duty military and veteran samples. Yet, research has not yet determined how to maximize the effectiveness of social norms-based intervention in this heavy drinking population. As an initial step toward this goal, the current study utilized a community sample of 1,023 young adult veterans to examine: (1) whether veteran perceptions of the drinking behavior of their veteran peers differ from their perceptions of civilian drinking behavior, (2) whether perceptions of specific veteran groups differ from actual drinking behavior of veterans within those groups, (3) what levels of specificity in reference groups (same-gender civilians, same-branch veterans, same-gender veterans, or same-branch-and-same-gender veterans) are most strongly associated with veterans’ own drinking, and (4) whether perceptions about others’ attitudes toward drinking also contribute independently of perceived behavioral norms to veteran drinking. Findings indicated that participants perceived that other veterans drank more than civilians and that veteran groups drank more than veterans in the sample actually drank. Veteran-specific perceived behavioral norms were similar in their associations with drinking outcomes, whereas same-gender civilian perceived behavioral norms exhibited little or no associations with drinking. Veteran-specific perceived attitudinal norms exhibited little or no association on drinking behavior after controlling for perceived behavioral norms. These findings can be used to inform the development of social norms interventions for young adult veterans. PMID:26415056

  7. Young adult females' perceptions of high-risk social media behaviors: a focus-group approach.

    PubMed

    Virden, Amber L; Trujillo, Angelia; Predeger, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study describes young adult female college students' perceptions of risky social media behaviors. A sample of 14 young adult females, aged 18-22 years and residing in an urban university, participated in 1 of 3 focus groups held in campus housing. Data analysis yielded 4 themes surrounding young adults' engagement in risky behaviors associated with social media. Themes described the predominant culture, associated risk, and prevention. Important insights into young adult female college students' thoughts on risky social media behaviors can be used by advanced practice nurses to inform preventive education for young college women. PMID:25051319

  8. Integrating Adolescents and Young Adults into Adult-Centered Care for IBD.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Itishree; Holl, Jane L; Hanauer, Stephen; Keefer, Laurie

    2016-05-01

    Planned healthcare transition, initiated in pediatric care, is a gradual process aimed at fostering the adolescent patient's disease knowledge and skills with the ultimate objective of preparing patients and families for adult-centered care. The process is critical in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) where there is an increased risk of non-adherence, hospitalizations, and emergency department use as young adult patients graduate from pediatric to adult-centered care. While evidence for healthcare transition in IBD is mounting, important gaps remain in the understanding of this process from the perspective of the adult gastroenterologist. This paper summarizes what is known about healthcare transition in IBD and explores the unanswered questions-a conceptual and methodological framework for transition interventions, relevant outcomes that define successful transition, and key stakeholder perspectives. For the adult gastroenterologist managing the young adult patient population, this paper presents the paradigm of "care integration"-a process of ongoing, multi-modality support for the patient, initiated in the adult care setting, with the goal of improving self-management skills and active participation in medical decision-making. PMID:27086002

  9. Relationship between childhood body mass index and young adult asthma

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Minto; Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Nageotte, Christian G.; Johnson, Christine Cole; Ownby, Dennis R.; Zoratti, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between obesity and asthma is an area of debate. Objective To investigate the association of elevated body mass index (BMI) at a young age and young adult asthma. Methods BMI, questionnaires, and serologic tests results were analyzed in participants of a predominantly white, middle-class, population-based birth cohort from Detroit, Michigan at 6 to 8 and 18 years of age. Asthma diagnosis was based on medical record data. Allergen specific IgE was analyzed using UniCAP, with atopy defined as 1 or more allergen specific IgE levels of 0.35 kU/L or higher. Overweight was defined as a BMI in 85th percentile or higher. Results A total of 10.6% of overweight males at 6 to 8 years of age had current asthma at 18 to 20 years of age compared with 3.2% of males who were normal or underweight (relative risk [RR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–11.0; P=.048). A total of 19.6% of females who were overweight at 6 to 8 years of age had asthma compared with 10.3% of females who were normal or underweight (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.9–3.9; P=.09). After adjustment for atopy at 6 to 8 years of age, overweight males had an adjusted RR of 4.7 (95% CI, 1.4–16.2; P=.01), and overweight females had an adjusted RR of 1.7 (95% CI, 0.8–3.3; P=.15). Change in BMI between 6 to 8 years of age and 18 to 20 years of age was also examined. Patients with persistently elevated BMI exhibited increased risk of asthma as young adults (RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2–4.7) but not with an increasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2) or a decreasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2). Conclusion Overweight males 6 to 8 years of age have increased risk of asthma as young adults. Being overweight remains a predictor of asthma after adjustment for early atopy. A similar but not statistically significant trend was also seen among overweight females. Overweight body habitus throughout childhood is a risk factor for young adult asthma. PMID:23176878

  10. Young Adult Substance Use and Depression as a Consequence of Delinquency Trajectories during Middle Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study extended work from Wiesner and Windle (2004) by examining young adult outcomes (i.e., alcohol and illicit drug use, depression) of middle-adolescent trajectories of delinquent behavior for a community sample of 724 young women and men (at average ages 23.8 years). Each domain of young adult adjustment problems was assessed…

  11. School Ecologies and Attitudes about Exclusionary Behavior among Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorkildsen, Theresa A.; Reese, Deborah; Corsino, Alison

    2002-01-01

    A study of 643 adolescents and 474 young adults explored relationships among young people's observations and opinions of exclusionary behavior and their reports of whether exclusion affects their social and academic adjustment. Findings indicated that, unlike young adults, adolescents' perceptions of, and attitudes about, school ecologies…

  12. Canon Fodder: Young Adult Literature as a Tool for Critiquing Canonicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hateley, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Young adult literature is a tool of socialisation and acculturation for young readers. This extends to endowing "reading" with particular significance in terms of what literature should be read and why. This paper considers some recent young adult fiction with an eye to its engagement with canonical literature and its representations of…

  13. Vowel perception by noise masked normal-hearing young adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richie, Carolyn; Kewley-Port, Diane; Coughlin, Maureen

    2005-08-01

    This study examined vowel perception by young normal-hearing (YNH) adults, in various listening conditions designed to simulate mild-to-moderate sloping sensorineural hearing loss. YNH listeners were individually age- and gender-matched to young hearing-impaired (YHI) listeners tested in a previous study [Richie et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2923-2933 (2003)]. YNH listeners were tested in three conditions designed to create equal audibility with the YHI listeners; a low signal level with and without a simulated hearing loss, and a high signal level with a simulated hearing loss. Listeners discriminated changes in synthetic vowel tokens /smcapi e ɛ invv æ/ when F1 or F2 varied in frequency. Comparison of YNH with YHI results failed to reveal significant differences between groups in terms of performance on vowel discrimination, in conditions of similar audibility by using both noise masking to elevate the hearing thresholds of the YNH and applying frequency-specific gain to the YHI listeners. Further, analysis of learning curves suggests that while the YHI listeners completed an average of 46% more test blocks than YNH listeners, the YHI achieved a level of discrimination similar to that of the YNH within the same number of blocks. Apparently, when age and gender are closely matched between young hearing-impaired and normal-hearing adults, performance on vowel tasks may be explained by audibility alone.

  14. Face age modulates gaze following in young adults.

    PubMed

    Ciardo, Francesca; Marino, Barbara F M; Actis-Grosso, Rossana; Rossetti, Angela; Ricciardelli, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Gaze-following behaviour is considered crucial for social interactions which are influenced by social similarity. We investigated whether the degree of similarity, as indicated by the perceived age of another person, can modulate gaze following. Participants of three different age-groups (18-25; 35-45; over 65) performed an eye movement (a saccade) towards an instructed target while ignoring the gaze-shift of distracters of different age-ranges (6-10; 18-25; 35-45; over 70). The results show that gaze following was modulated by the distracter face age only for young adults. Particularly, the over 70 year-old distracters exerted the least interference effect. The distracters of a similar age-range as the young adults (18-25; 35-45) had the most effect, indicating a blurred own-age bias (OAB) only for the young age group. These findings suggest that face age can modulate gaze following, but this modulation could be due to factors other than just OAB (e.g., familiarity). PMID:24752250

  15. Psychiatric and Addictive Symptoms of Young Adult Female Indoor Tanners

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Darlow, Susan; Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Manne, Sharon L.; Munshi, Teja

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Indoor tanning (IT) increases risk for melanoma and is particularly common among young adult women. IT has also been linked with some psychiatric symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction) associated with endorphin release during ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure. The objective of the current study was to investigate associations between IT, tanning dependence, and psychiatric and substance use symptoms in young adult women. Design Cross-sectional survey and psychiatric interview. Setting Online, except for the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) that was completed over the telephone. Subjects Participants were 306 female university students aged 18–25 years. Measures MINI, Seasonal Scale Index, tanning dependence scales, reporting ever having used a tanning bed or booth with tanning lamps (single item), reporting smoking a cigarette in the last 30 days (single item). Analysis Descriptive statistics, chi square analysis, multivariate logistic regression. Results Forty-six percent of the sample reported a history of IT, and 25% were classified as tanning dependent. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that IT was significantly associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders, generalized anxiety, and not having social anxiety. Tanning dependence was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders. Conclusion Tanning is of concern not only for its association with skin cancer but for its association with psychiatric and substance use symptoms. Young women with certain psychological problems may seek relief from their symptoms by IT. These findings suggest that indoor tanners may benefit from health behavior and other psychosocial interventions. PMID:23621780

  16. Emotional memory for musical excerpts in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Irene; Dellacherie, Delphine; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24 h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24 h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and dementia. PMID:25814950

  17. Differences in maximal isometric tongue strength and endurance of healthy young vs. older adults

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dong-Hwan; Park, Ji-Su; Jo, Young-Moon; Chang, Moonyoung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to measure and compare the maximal tongue strength and endurance of young and older adults. [Subjects and Methods] This study recruited 60 healthy young (aged 20 to 39 years) and older adults (aged 67 to 75 years) at a university and in public places. The Iowa Oral Performance Instrument was used to measure maximal tongue strength and endurance. [Results] Maximal tongue strength was significantly higher in the young adult group than the older adult group. Maximal tongue endurance was longer in the young adult group than in the older adult group, but the difference between the groups was not significant. [Conclusion] This study confirmed that older adults have a lower maximal tongue strength and endurance than young adults. PMID:27134371

  18. Risky and aggressive driving in young adults: Personality matters.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Elena; Panayiotou, Georgia; Konstantinou, Nikos; Loutsiou-Ladd, Anthi; Kapardis, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    Young, novice drivers constitute a disproportionate percentage of fatalities and injuries in road traffic accidents around the world. This study, attempts to identify motivational factors behind risky driving behavior, and examines the role of personality, especially sensation seeking, impulsivity and sensitivity to punishment/reward in predicting negative driving outcomes (accident involvement and traffic offences) among young drivers. Gender and driver's age are additional factors examined in relation to driving outcomes and personality. Adopting the contextual mediated model of traffic accident involvement (Smer, 2003), the study is based on the theory that personality, age and gender represent distal factors that predict accident involvement indirectly through their relationship with stable tendencies towards aberrant driving behavior. Results from correlations and Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS 6 indicated that direct personality effects on driving outcomes were few, whereas personality had significant correlations with aberrant driving behavior, showing that personality is a distal but important predictor of negative driving outcomes. These high risk traits appear to be at a peak among young male drivers. Thus, personality is important in understanding aggressive and risky driving by young adults and needs to be taken into consideration in designing targeted accident prevention policies. PMID:21545861

  19. Entry into labour: The experience of young adults in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Candido A.

    1990-12-01

    This study focuses on the experience of young adults employed in the tertiary sector in Brasília. The results show that young people are prepared for work by on-the-job training and nonformal education; schooling is mainly an indicator of trainability. Entry into the labour force reinforces social differences in family background and schooling. The results tend to support the moderate version of classical theory with regard to the nature of school/work relationships. In the context of the conflict paradigm, the data run contrary to both reproductionism and the radical critique of this view. From the comparative standpoint youth is an underprivileged group in the labour market, regardless of sex, socioeconomic status and country of residence. Despite these variations, societies are stratified by age groups.

  20. Young Adults' Perceived Purposes of Emerging Adulthood: Implications for Cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Adam A; Willoughby, Brian J; Nelson, Larry J

    2016-05-18

    The authors investigated associations between young adults' perceived purposes of emerging adulthood and their attitudes toward and participation in cohabitation. In a sample of 775 never married individuals, ages 18-29 (69% female, 69% white) from the United States, young people's perceptions of this period of life were associated with their acceptance of cohabitation, their reasoning for accepting cohabitation, and the likelihood of cohabiting. Results showed that the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was negatively associated with acceptance of cohabitation whereas the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to take risks was positively associated with acceptance of cohabitation. The perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was associated with an increased likelihood of having cohabited while the perception that emerging adulthood is a time of possibilities was associated with a decreased likelihood of having cohabited. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:26645897

  1. The Black Arts Movement and African American Young Adult Literature: An Evaluation of Narrative Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Laretta

    2005-01-01

    In this article I question whether or not African American young adult literature serves as a primer for, and a version of, African American adult literature. Using the Black Aesthetic as my literary theory and the Coretta Scott King Award as the young adult canon, I note that while the content of adolescent literature is consistent with the

  2. Prescription Drug Misuse among Young Adults: Looking Across Youth Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C; Wells, Brooke E; LeClair, Amy; Tracy, Daniel; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit A

    2012-01-01

    Aims Youth cultures play a key role in the social organisation of drug trends among young people; the current prescription drug misuse trend is no different. The authors evaluated whether patterns of prescription drug misuse differed across several youth cultures. Methods Using field survey methods and time-space sampling during 2011, the authors assessed the patterns and prevalence of prescription drug misuse among young adults who are socially active in various urban youth cultures (n = 1781). Findings The prevalence of lifetime prescription drug misuse is highest within indie rock scenes (52.5%), electronic dance music scenes (52.1%), lesbian parties (53.8%) and alt scenes (50.9%). Prescription drug misuse was lowest among young adults in hip-hop scenes (25.0%). These findings were upheld in logistic regression analyses that accounted for demographic differences across youth cultures: indie rock scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.11), electronic dance music scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.20), lesbian parties (adjusted odds ratio = 2.30) and alt scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.65) all reported statistically significant (P < 0.05) higher odds of misuse than college bar scenes. Recent prescription drug misuse mirrored patterns for lifetime misuse. Conclusions: The differing prevalence of prescription drug misuse across distinct youth cultures suggests that the trend has not diffused equally among young people. The differing prevalence across youth cultures indicates that the most efficacious strategies for youth intervention may be targeted approaches that account for the subculturally rooted differences in attitudes and social norms. PMID:23190213

  3. Complicated Grief & Depression in Young Adults: Personality & Relationship Quality

    PubMed Central

    Herberman Mash, Holly B.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Shear, M. Katherine; Ursano, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Young adults experience problematic responses to loss more often than is commonly recognized. Few empirical studies have examined the contribution of intra- and interpersonal characteristics to grief and depression in bereaved young adults. This study investigated the association of dependency and quality of the relationship with the deceased (i.e., depth and conflict) with complicated grief (CG) and depression. Participants were 157 young adults aged 17–29 who experienced loss of a family member or close friend within the past three years (M = 1.74 years). Participants completed the Inventory of Complicated Grief, Beck Depression Inventory, Depth and Conflict subscales of the Quality of Relationships Inventory, and the Dependency subscale of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire. Relationships among dependency and interpersonal depth and conflict and CG and depression were examined through analyses of covariance. Sixteen percent of participants met criteria for CG and 34% had mild to severe depression. Dependency and depth were independently related to CG and dependency was related to depression, but the pattern of associations was somewhat different for each outcome. Greater depth was associated with CG, at both high and low levels of dependency. High levels of dependency were related to more depressive symptoms. Interpretation of the findings is limited by the relatively small sample size and cross-sectional design. CG and depression are related but distinct responses to loss. Although dependency is associated with both CG and depression following loss, relationships between the bereaved and deceased that are characterized by high levels of depth are particularly related to the development of CG symptoms. PMID:24921421

  4. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R.; Smale, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development. PMID:26147648

  5. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lissner, Michelle M; Thomas, Brandon J; Wee, Kathleen; Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R; Smale, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development. PMID:26147648

  6. Melanoma in Pediatric, Adolescent, and Young Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kirkwood, John M.; Jukic, Drazen; Averbook, Bruce J.; Sender, Leonard S.

    2009-01-01

    The family practitioner, pediatrician, and dermatologist each have potential roles in the primary prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of localized thin melanomas. Surgical and medical oncologists are often involved when controversy arises over the nature of the skin lesion or whether sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsies and adjuvant therapy are to be contemplated. This overview of melanoma will deal with the primary and nodal pathology, surgery, and medical therapy of melanoma in pediatric, adolescent, and young adult patientsand will raise areas of controversy that are only recently being addressed in databases of cases from this age group. PMID:19835737

  7. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nurwulan, Nurul Retno; Jiang, Bernard C.; Iridiastadi, Hardianto

    2015-01-01

    Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1) texting impaired postural stability, (2) the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3) performing texting is perceived to be more difficult. PMID:26230323

  8. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Nurwulan, Nurul Retno; Jiang, Bernard C; Iridiastadi, Hardianto

    2015-01-01

    Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1) texting impaired postural stability, (2) the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3) performing texting is perceived to be more difficult. PMID:26230323

  9. Meningovascular neurosyphilis: a report of stroke in a young adult.

    PubMed

    Vaitkus, Antanas; Krasauskaite, Egle; Urbonaviciūte, Inga

    2010-01-01

    A young adult patient with meningovascular neurosyphilis in the form of acute ischemic stroke with right hemiparesis and speech disturbance is reported. CT scan showed features of ischemic infarct and extensive laboratory studies were made before the diagnosis ultimately was revealed. Such cases could result in confusion for the clinician, and high index of clinical suspicion of this condition is required since syphilis is not routinely tested, as routine screening is seen to be of low diagnostic yield. As clinical practice indicates, it remains a difficult problem approaching diagnosis of neurosyphilis, and this is achieved through exclusion of neurosyphilis as a clinical possibility. PMID:20571297

  10. Paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma in young adult- a case report.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Navin Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Para testicular rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare malignant tumour, which usually presents as a painless mass in the scrotum or groin. A case of para testicular rhabdomyosarcoma in a 17-year-old male is being reported here who presented with chronic scrotal pain. Paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare non germ cell tumour of scrotal sac in children and young adult/teens which can invade testis at presentation. Embryonal variant is the most common type. 40% cases can have metastasis to retroperitoneal lymph node. Diagnosis can be done on high degree of clinical suspicion coupled with biopsy and immunohistochemistry. Multimodality approach of treatment is often beneficial for patients. PMID:26023555

  11. [Periarticular diseases of the hip in young adults].

    PubMed

    Cohen, M; Vuillemin, V; Jacob, D

    2011-06-01

    Multiple periarticular structures are present around the hip joint: tendons, bursae, muscles and entheses, fascias, nerves and vessels. Periarticular diseases of the hip in young adults include, in decreasing order of functional impairment: posttraumatic lesions of muscles and tendons that should not be overlooked because of the risk of functional sequelae, enthesopathy detected on plain films and ultrasound, snapping hip syndrome frequent in athletes and tunnel syndromes (such as compression of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve where ultrasound is valuable). The main pitfalls to avoid are the stress fracture, trauma to a pelvic muscle and calcium deposition. PMID:21704247

  12. Young Adult Outcomes of Juvenile Court–Involved Girls

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The recent increase in the number of girls involved in the juvenile justice system has resulted in increased academic and public attention. Thus far, this attention has focused on entry into the juvenile justice system rather than longer-term consequences. This research helps fill this gap by examining a sample of 700 maltreated and/or impoverished juvenile court–involved females. Competing risks models were used to control for time from juvenile-court entry to adult outcomes: criminal justice system involvement, use of public mental health or substance use services, and income maintenance use. Results indicate that there are distinct predictors associated with the different outcomes, although learning disability and adolescent parenthood were associated with higher risk of both mental health/substance use services and income maintenance. Individualized services for juvenile court–involved girls are suggested. Prospective, longitudinal research is needed to investigate intrapsychic and behavioral dynamics associated with females’ young adult outcomes. PMID:23430819

  13. Depression in adolescents and young adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eliza M.; Rosenstein, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer are at risk for depression due to disruptions in their developmental trajectory, greater physical symptom burden, and increased likelihood of developing aggressive disease. Rates of depression and other psychological disorders are substantially higher in AYAs with cancer when compared with older adults. Psychiatrists caring for these patients must consider the age-appropriate developmental context of these patients along with familial and medical factors that may influence the presentation and treatment of depression. Previous research suggests that psychosocial interventions specifically designed for AYA patients are promising, but studies of psychopharmacology treatments for depression are lacking. There is a pressing need for prospective studies and controlled clinical trials that evaluate the optimal strategies for treating depression in this patient group. PMID:26246791

  14. Combinations of Types of Mental Health Services Received in the Past Year Among Young Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spotlight December 08, 2015* Combinations of types of mental health services received in the past year among young adults Combinations of types of mental health services received in the past year among young ...

  15. Conservative Management of a Young Adult with Hip Arthrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Kyle M.; Heiderscheit, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Case report Background Clinical practice guidelines regarding the conservative management of degenerative hip conditions in older adults routinely incorporate therapeutic exercise and manual therapy. However, the application of these recommendations to young, active adults is less clear. The purpose of this case report is to describe the management of a young adult with advanced hip arthrosis using a multi-faceted rehabilitation program. Case Description A 28-year old female with severe left hip degeneration per diagnostic imaging was referred to physical therapy. Reduced hip range of motion and strength, sacroiliac joint asymmetries, and a modified Harris Hip Score of 76 were observed. She was seen for 12 visits over a 3-month period and treated with an individualized program including manual therapy, therapeutic exercise, and neuromuscular re-education. Outcome Substantial improvements were noted in pain, hip range of motion and strength and function (modified Harris Hip Score of 97). In addition, she discontinued the use of anti-inflammatory medications and returned to her prior level of activity. Improvements were maintained at a 3 month follow up, with symptom recurrence managed using a self mobilization technique to the left hip and massage to the left iliopsoas. Discussion Degenerative hip conditions are common among older adults but are relatively rare in the younger population. Although it is likely that this patient will experience a return of her symptoms and functional limitations as her hip disease progresses, the immediate improvements may delay the need for eventual surgical management. These outcomes suggest that physical therapy management should be considered in those with an early onset of degenerative hip disease and are consistent with results previously reported in the older population. Level of Evidence Therapy, Level 4 PMID:20026881

  16. Evaluating the Framingham Hypertension Risk Prediction Model in Young Adults: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Carson, April P.; Lewis, Cora E.; Jacobs, David R.; Peralta, Carmen A.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Bower, Julie K.; Person, Sharina D.; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A prediction model was developed in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) to evaluate short-term risk of hypertension. Our goal was to determine the predictive ability of the FHS hypertension model in a cohort of young adults advancing into middle age and compare it with the predictive ability of prehypertension, and individual components of the FHS model. We studied 4,388 participants, age 18-30 years without hypertension at baseline, enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study who participated in 2 consecutive exams occurring 5 years apart between the baseline (1985-1986) and Year 25 examination (2010-2011). Weibull regression was used to assess the association of the FHS model overall, individual components of the FHS model, and prehypertension with incident hypertension. Over the 25 year follow-up period, 1179 participants developed incident hypertension. The FHS hypertension model (c-index=0.84, 95% CI=0.83, 0.85) performed well in discriminating those who did and did not develop hypertension and was better than prehypertension alone (c-index=0.71, 95% CI=0.70, 0.73). The predicted risk from the FHS hypertension model was systematically lower than the observed hypertension incidence initially (χ2= 249.4; p<0.001), but demonstrated a good fit after recalibration (χ2= 14.6; p=0.067). In summary, the FHS model performed better than prehypertension and may be a useful tool for identifying young adults with a high risk for developing hypertension. PMID:24041951

  17. Prescription Drug Misuse and Sexual Behavior among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Brooke E.; Kelly, Brian C.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Though research indicates a complex link between substance use and sexual risk behavior, there is limited research on the association between sexual risk behavior and prescription drug misuse. In light of the alarming increases in prescription drug misuse and the role of demographic characteristics in sexual risk behavior and outcomes, the current study examines demographic differences (gender, sexual identity, age, relationship status, parental class background, and race/ethnicity) in sexual risk behavior, sexual behavior under the influence of prescription drugs, and sexual risk behavior under the influence of prescription drugs in a sample of 402 young adults (18–29) who misuse prescription drugs. Nearly half of the sexually active young adult prescription drug misusers in this sample reported recent sex under the influence of prescription drugs, more than three quarters reported recent sex without a condom, and more than one-third reported recent sex without a condom after using prescription drugs. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models indicated that white race, younger age, higher parental class, and being a heterosexual man were all associated with sexual risk behavior, sex under the influence of prescription drugs, and sexual risk under the influence of prescription drugs. Findings have implications for the targeting of prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:25569204

  18. Impact of Quantified Smoking Status on Cognition in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gnanadurai, Thilip Kumar; Krishnan, Prabhavathi; Ayyavoo, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoking is an addictive behaviour which continues to rise among young adults. It has been associated with various health hazards. Effect of smoking on cognitive function has been contradicting. Thus our aim was to compare cognitive performances between smokers and non smokers and also to observe the effect of varying intensity of smoking on cognition. Materials and Methods This is a cross-sectional study. Thirty non smokers, 30 mild smokers, 30 moderate smokers, 30 heavy smokers within the age group of 25-35 years were involved in the study. Their cognitive performance were assessed by digit symbol substitution test (DSST), digit vigilance test (DVT), visual reaction time (VRT), letter cancellation test (LCT), word recall (WR), and object recall (OR). Result The cognitive data were analysed using unpaired students t-test and ANOVA in SPSS 19. Smokers showed significant decline in their cognitive performances when compared to smokers (p ? 0.05). Mild smokers showed significantly better performance in the DSST, DVT and VRT tests than the non smokers. This indicates the attention and alertness were better in mild smokers than the non smokers. With the increase in the intensity of smoking cognitive performances were also significantly declined. Conclusion Thus the study indicates decreased cognitive performances in young adult smokers. PMID:26816883

  19. Clues of subjective social status among young adults.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, François; Roos, J Micah; Combs, R M

    2015-07-01

    We investigate determinants of subjective social status (SSS) as measured by respondents placing themselves on a ten-rung ladder from least to most "money", "education" and "respected job", in a large sample of young adults. The most potent clues of SSS are proximate in the life course, reflecting educational attainment and current socioeconomic and job situation, rather than distal characteristics such as family background, although relatively distal High school GPA has a lingering effect. Additional analyses reveal that College selectivity has a substantial impact on SSS, net of other variables in the model; Currently married does not significantly contribute to SSS, but contrary to some expectations Number of children significantly lowers SSS. We find no evidence of greater "status borrowing" by women as associations of SSS with shared household characteristics (Household income, Household assets, Home ownership) do not differ by gender. Our findings for these young adults support the conclusion of earlier research that SSS reflects a "cognitive averaging" of standard dimensions of socioeconomic status. PMID:26004468

  20. Tobacco Industry Lifestyle Magazines Targeted to Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Daniel K.; Lewis, M. Jane; Ling, Pamela M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This is the first study describing the tobacco industry’s objectives developing and publishing lifestyle magazines, linking them to tobacco marketing strategies, and how these magazines may encourage smoking. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and content analysis of 31 lifestyle magazines to understand the motives behind producing these magazines and the role they played in tobacco marketing strategies. Results Philip Morris (PM) debuted Unlimited in 1996 to nearly 2 million readers and RJ Reynolds (RJR) debuted CML in 1999 targeting young adults with their interests. Both magazines were developed as the tobacco companies faced increased advertising restrictions Unlimited contained few images of smoking, but frequently featured elements of the Marlboro brand identity in both advertising and article content. CML featured more smoking imagery and fewer Camel brand identity elements. Conclusions Lifestyle promotions that lack images of smoking may still promote tobacco use through brand imagery. The tobacco industry still uses the “under the radar” strategies used in development of lifestyle magazines in branded websites. Prohibiting lifestyle advertising including print and electronic media that associate tobacco with recreation, action, pleasures, and risky behaviors or that reinforces tobacco brand identity may be an effective strategy to curb young adult smoking. PMID:19699423

  1. Depressive Symptoms and Serum Lipid Levels in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J.; Kwiterovich, Peter O.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Longacre, Margaret L.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression (CES-D) scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-hour recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors. PMID:22382824

  2. Depressive symptoms and serum lipid levels in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Fang, Carolyn Y; Egleston, Brian L; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J; Kwiterovich, Peter O; Snetselaar, Linda G; Longacre, Margaret L; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-h recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors. PMID:22382824

  3. Barriers and facilitators to shelter utilization among homeless young adults.

    PubMed

    Ha, Yoonsook; Narendorf, Sarah C; Santa Maria, Diane; Bezette-Flores, Noel

    2015-12-01

    Rates of shelter use among homeless youth are low compared to use of other supportive services, yet research on barriers to shelter use has been conducted in limited regions, specifically in West Coast or Midwest cities. Additionally, while studies have generally focused on barriers to shelter use, studies on what might facilitate shelter use are lacking. This study explores barriers and facilitators to shelter use among homeless young adults from a large city in the Southwest region. Focus groups were conducted with a diverse sample of 49 homeless young adults ages 18-24. Drawing on models of health service use, findings were categorized into two domains--attitudinal and access. Themes related to attitudinal barriers include stigma/shame and self-reliance/pride. Attitudinal facilitators include the desire to extricate themselves from street life and turn their lives in a new direction. Access-related themes include barriers such as a lack of shelters and services available to meet the needs of youth, adverse shelter conditions, staff attitudes that are not acceptable to youth, restrictive shelter rules, restrictive definitions of homelessness, and a desire to differentiate themselves from older homeless individuals. Certain characteristics or circumstances (e.g., being pregnant), having supportive others, and shelters' ability to connect them to other services emerged as access facilitators to shelter use. Implications for policymakers, service providers, and future research are discussed. PMID:26246453

  4. Psychological predictors of young adults' use of social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kathryn; Fornasier, Stephanie; White, Katherine M

    2010-04-01

    Young people are increasingly using social networking sites (SNSs) like MySpace and Facebook to engage with others. The use of SNSs can have both positive and negative effects on the individual; however, few studies identify the types of people who frequent these Internet sites. This study sought to predict young adults' use of SNSs and addictive tendency toward the use of SNSs from their personality characteristics and levels of self-esteem. University students (N = 201), aged 17 to 24 years, reported their use of SNSs and addictive tendencies for SNSs use and completed the NEO Five-Factor Personality Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Multiple regression analyses revealed that, as a group, the personality and self-esteem factors significantly predicted both level of SNS use and addictive tendency but did not explain a large amount of variance in either outcome measure. The findings indicated that extroverted and unconscientious individuals reported higher levels of both SNS use and addictive tendencies. Future research should attempt to identify which other psychosocial characteristics explain young people's level of use and propensity for addictive tendencies for these popular Internet sites. PMID:20528274

  5. Do young adults demand more dental services as their income increases?

    PubMed

    Grytten, Jostein; Holst, Dorthe

    2002-12-01

    Several studies from the USA have shown that there is a positive and strong relationship between income and demand for dental care. All these studies have been performed on populations where treatment needs were high. Today, young adults represent one group of the population where treatment needs are low. But young adults will not necessarily demand or utilize more dental services as their income increases. As we do not know the extent to which demand will increase when income increases among young adults, future needs for dental manpower could be less than predicted from previous studies. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between income and demand/utilization for dental services among young adults in Norway. The analyses were performed on two large sets of survey data, collected in 1985 and 1995, which were representative of the Norwegian population aged 20 years and above. The main finding was that the increase in demand with an increase in income was less for young adults than for older adults. In particular, there was a marked fall in the income elasticities among young adults from 1985 to 1995. The fall in the income elasticity corresponds to a marked decrease in the prevalence of dental diseases among young adults during that period. Our results imply that future policies for dental manpower should take into account the lower income elasticity for young adults compared to for older adults, and that future needs for dental personnel should be planned accordingly. PMID:12453118

  6. Battle on the Gender Homefront: Depictions of the American Civil War in Contemporary Young-Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapp-Itnyre, Alisa

    2007-01-01

    The American Civil War has been a popular topic for young-adult writers for years, with new books now being written from young women's perspectives. In this paper, I will examine the gender ideologies that infiltrate contemporary Civil War books for young adults. I will examine four recent young-adult Civil-War novels: G. Clifton Wisler's "Mr.

  7. Perspectives of young adults with cerebral palsy on transitioning from pediatric to adult healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Larivière-Bastien, Danaë; Bell, Emily; Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Racine, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Transition from pediatric to adult healthcare is a well-established challenge for individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders like cerebral palsy. With regard to ethics, some of the key aspects to explore include the following: if and how individuals feel respected during the transition process; if and how their values and preferences are developed and integrated within transition; and if and how young patients are prepared to participate in decision making (to be autonomous) within the transition. We carried out a qualitative study on 14 young adults with cerebral palsy. Some participants reported positive experiences. However, several tension points were identified, including before the transition (eg, transition envisaged with fear and apprehension); during the transition (eg, lack of cooperation or communication between providers in the pediatric and adult healthcare systems); and after the transition (eg, feelings of abandonment). We discuss the clinical influence and ethical significance of better capturing ethical values within the transition process and preparing young individuals to engage in discussions about their health and disease management. PMID:23948690

  8. Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults and Preexisting Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Yu-Chuan; Bai, Ya-Mei; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Mu-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies showed that psychiatric disorders such as major depression, bipolar disorders, and alcohol misuse are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. However, the link between psychiatric disorders and stroke in the young population is rarely investigated. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 2063 young adults aged between 18 and 45 years with ischemic stroke and 8252 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in our study between 1998 and 2011. Participants who had preexisting psychiatric disorders were identified. After adjusting for preexisting physical disorders and demographic data, patients with ischemic stroke had an increased risk of having preexisting psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder (odds ratio [OR]: 2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06∼4.67), unipolar depression (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.62∼2.86), anxiety disorders (OR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.87∼3.69), and alcohol use disorders (OR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.79∼4.57). Young ischemic stroke (age ≥30 years) was related to the risk of preexisting unipolar depression (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.05∼2.11), anxiety disorders (OR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.33∼2.97), and alcohol use disorders (OR: 2.54, 95% CI: 1.55∼4.14); very young stroke (age <30 years) was only associated with the risk of preexisting unipolar depression (OR: 4.15, 95% CI: 1.47∼11.72). Patients who had experienced ischemic stroke at age younger than 45 years had a higher risk of having pre-existing bipolar disorder, unipolar depression, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders than those who did not after adjusting for demographic data and stroke-related medical comorbidities. PMID:26402806

  9. Which young adults are most likely to use withdrawal?

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Jenny A.; Wang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Use of withdrawal (coitus interruptus) has consequences for reproductive health, but few nationally representative studies exist. We 1) examined patterns of withdrawal among 15–24 year-old women men, and 2) explored withdrawal’s associations with socio-demographic, psychological, and sexual factors. Study design Using data from the 2006–10 National Survey of Family Growth, we assessed reports of any and only withdrawal use at last sexual episode in the last month from 3,517 sexually active 15–24 year-old women and men at risk of unintended pregnancy. Logistic regression documented associations with withdrawal. Results 14% of young women and 17% of young men reported any use of withdrawal at last sex; 7% and 6% respectively reported only use of withdrawal. Though associated with few socio-demographic factors, withdrawal was significantly linked with pregnancy- and condom attitudes. In regression models, compared to those who said they would be upset if they discovered they were pregnant, young women who said they would be pleased about a pregnancy were 2.2–2.6 times as likely to have used any/only withdrawal (p<0.01). For both women and men, those who felt that condoms were likely to diminish sexual pleasure were more likely to have used any/only withdrawal (ORs=1.8–2.6, p<0.05). Conclusions A greater proportion of young adults used withdrawal in conjunction with other methods than by itself. The psychological and sexual variables of orientation toward pregnancy and attitudes about condoms and pleasure were more strongly linked with withdrawal practices than most socio-demographic variables. PMID:25530102

  10. The Experiences of Mothers of Young Adults with an Intellectual Disability Transitioning from Secondary School to Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyke, Paula; Bourke, Jenny; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Leonard, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The transition from school to adulthood for young adults with an intellectual disability involves movement from a generally secure and supported school environment to an emerging adult life that may be characterised by a wide variation in adoption of adult roles related to employment, independent living, friendships, and day

  11. The Experiences of Mothers of Young Adults with an Intellectual Disability Transitioning from Secondary School to Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyke, Paula; Bourke, Jenny; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Leonard, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The transition from school to adulthood for young adults with an intellectual disability involves movement from a generally secure and supported school environment to an emerging adult life that may be characterised by a wide variation in adoption of adult roles related to employment, independent living, friendships, and day…

  12. Kidney stones and subclinical atherosclerosis in young adults: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study

    PubMed Central

    Reiner, Alexander P.; Kahn, Arnold; Eisner, Brian H.; Pletcher, Mark J.; Sadetsky, Natalia; Williams, O. Dale; Polak, Joseph F.; Jacobs, David R.; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Recent reports suggest that nephrolithiasis and atherosclerosis share a number of risk factors. There has been no previous examination of the relationship between kidney stones and subclinical atherosclerotic disease Here we assessed the relationship between nephrolithiasis and carotid wall thickness and carotid stenosis assessed by B-mode ultrasound in the general community using data from The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Methods CARDIA is a U.S. population-based, observational study of 5,115 white and African-American men and women between the ages of 18 and 30 years at recruitment in 1985-1986. Results By the year 20 exam, 200 (3.9%) of CARDIA participants had reported ever having kidney stones. Symptomatic kidney stones were associated with greater carotid wall thickness measured at the year 20 exam, particularly of the internal carotid/bulb region. Using a composite dichotomous endpoint of carotid stenosis and/or upper quartile of internal carotid/bulb wall thickness, the association of kidney stones with carotid atherosclerosis was significant (odds ratio=1.6; 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.3; p=0.01) even after adjusting for major atherosclerotic risk factors. Conclusions The association between a history of kidney stones and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in young adults adds further support to the notion that nephrolithiasis and atherosclerosis share common systemic risk factors and/or pathophysiology. PMID:21251678

  13. Childhood victimization experiences of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of childhood victimization experiences in a sample of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. The study sample included 743 students aged 19 to 25 from 15 universities in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the study participants completed a reliable questionnaire assessing the following types of childhood victimization: conventional crime, child maltreatment, peer victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessing violence. Participation in the study was anonymous. High rates of victimization and exposure to violence were reported by the study participants. The majority of the sample experienced at least one type of victimization during childhood or adolescence, and poly-victimization was reported frequently. The most common type of victimization reported was peer or sibling assault (66.94%), followed by witnessing an assault without weapon (63.91%), personal theft (56.19%), vandalism (56.06%), and emotional bullying (49.99%). Sexual assault by a known adult was reported by 1.45% males and 5.16% of females. This study provides new information on the scope of childhood victimization experiences in Russia. Further research is warranted, including epidemiological research with representative data across the country and studies of the impact of trauma and victimization on mental health and well-being of Russian adults and children. PMID:25012953

  14. Anthracycline dose intensification in young adults with acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Padron, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The initial treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has remained largely unchanged for nearly 40 years. Our growing understanding of the molecular pathology of AML has resulted in improved measures to risk stratify patients by recurrent cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities without marked advancement in its initial treatment. The most common regimen consists of a 3-day course of an anthracycline and a 7-day infusion of cytarabine. This regimen has been employed across the globe in various iterations for many years with modest improvements in results yet this remains the first choice for the treatment of younger adults with AML. Despite this, the chemotherapeutic agents in this regimen are only now being fully understood. Recent evidence has suggested that dose intensification of anthracycline in young adults has a significant survival benefit. In this paper we review the evidence behind the use of anthracyclines in the initial induction of AML in younger adults focusing on the choice and dose of this long used drug combination. PMID:23556109

  15. Periodontal therapy in young adults with severe generalized periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Gunsolley, J C; Zambon, J J; Mellott, C A; Brooks, C N; Kaugars, C C

    1994-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of periodontal therapy on clinical and microbiological parameters in 23 subjects with severe generalized early onset periodontitis. Therapy consisted of oral hygiene instruction and root planing and scaling, followed 3 months later by open flap debridement. Subjects were monitored for both clinical measures and levels of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromas gingivalis as identified by indirect immunofluoresence. Clinical and microbiological evaluations were done at the start of the study, 3 months after the completion of root planing and scaling and 3 months after open flap debridement. Mean probing depth was reduced by both root planing and scaling and open flap debridement and the level of reduction demonstrated by both phases of therapy was similar to reductions found in studies that utilized subjects with chronic adult periodontitis. In contrast, reductions in attachment level due to the two phases of therapy, demonstrated in previous studies of subjects with adult periodontitis were not found in the young adult subjects with severe periodontal disease utilized in this study. Levels of A. actinomycetemcomitans were not significantly affected by root planing and scaling, but were reduced by open flap debridement. P. gingivalis was virtually eliminated by root planing and scaling, demonstrating that the two bacterial types respond differently to periodontal therapy. These changes in microbiological parameters were similar to those found in studies of localized juvenile periodontitis subjects, where surgery or antibiotics have been shown to be necessary to reduce levels of A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:8164121

  16. Acoustic characteristics of vowels by normal Malaysian Malay young adults.

    PubMed

    Ting, Hua Nong; Chia, See Yan; Abdul Hamid, Badrulzaman; Mukari, Siti Zamratol-Mai Sarah

    2011-11-01

    The acoustic characteristics of sustained vowel have been widely investigated across various languages and ethnic groups. These acoustic measures, including fundamental frequency (F(0)), jitter (Jitt), relative average perturbation (RAP), five-point period perturbation quotient (PPQ5), shimmer (Shim), and 11-point amplitude perturbation quotient (APQ11) are not well established for Malaysian Malay young adults. This article studies the acoustic measures of Malaysian Malay adults using acoustical analysis. The study analyzed six sustained Malay vowels of 60 normal native Malaysian Malay adults with a mean of 21.19 years. The F(0) values of Malaysian Malay males and females were reported as 134.8518.54 and 238.2724.06Hz, respectively. Malaysian Malay females had significantly higher F(0) than that of males for all the vowels. However, no significant differences were observed between the genders for the perturbation measures in all the vowels, except RAP in /e/. No significant F(0) differences between the vowels were observed. Significant differences between the vowels were reported for all perturbation measures in Malaysian Malay males. As for Malaysian Malay females, significant differences between the vowels were reported for Shim and APQ11. Multiethnic comparisons indicate that F(0) varies between Malaysian Malay and other ethnic groups. However, the perturbation measures cannot be directly compared, where the measures vary significantly across different speech analysis softwares. PMID:21429707

  17. Religious Background and Gambling Among Young Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Stokes, Charles E

    2016-03-01

    Despite the rapid growth of the gambling industry over the last 40 years, there have been few large-scale, nationally representative longitudinal studies of gambling among young adults. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to investigate whether and how the gambling behavior of young adults is associated with their religious beliefs and practices during adolescence. We find that young adults who grew up as conservative Protestants, mainline Protestants, Mormons, and Jehovah's Witnesses; those were raised in a community with a higher percentage of conservative Protestants; and those who attended religious services weekly are less likely to have ever gambled. Among gamblers, young adults who attended religious services up to three times per month as adolescents are more likely to experience gambling problems than those who never attend. Notably, accounting for a young adult's propensity for risk-taking behavior does not explain the associations between religion and gambling. PMID:25722077

  18. Andragogy for Teen and Young Adult Learners with Intellectual Disabilities: Learning, Independence, and Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Stephanie L.; Plourde, Lee A.

    2012-01-01

    Teens and young adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) meet the criteria of teen and adult learners chronologically, but may be deficient in many other areas of teen and adult learning. The spectrum of intellectual and adaptive capabilities among teens and adults with ID is vast, with each individual being unique. There are specific teaching

  19. Andragogy for Teen and Young Adult Learners with Intellectual Disabilities: Learning, Independence, and Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Stephanie L.; Plourde, Lee A.

    2012-01-01

    Teens and young adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) meet the criteria of teen and adult learners chronologically, but may be deficient in many other areas of teen and adult learning. The spectrum of intellectual and adaptive capabilities among teens and adults with ID is vast, with each individual being unique. There are specific teaching…

  20. Covering young adults under the Affordable Care Act: the importance of outreach and Medicaid expansion: findings from the Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Tracking Survey of Young Adults, 2013.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara R; Rasmussen, Petra W; Garber, Tracy; Doty, Michelle M

    2013-08-01

    There is concern that many young adults (ages 19--29) will remain without health insurance in 2014 despite the Affordable Care Act's reforms, including subsidized private coverage offered in new state marketplaces and expanded Medicaid eligibility. How things turn out will likely depend on outreach efforts and states' decisions on expanding Medicaid. Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Tracking Survey data from 2011 and 2013 show increasing awareness among young adults of the 2010 requirement that health plans cover children under age 26. Of the estimated 15 million young adults enrolled in a parent's plan in the prior 12 months, 7.8 million would not likely have been eligible to enroll prior to the law. Still, only 27 percent of 19-to-29-year-olds are aware of the marketplaces. Meanwhile, most uninsured young adults living below poverty will not have access to subsidized public or private insurance in states opting out of the Medicaid expansion. PMID:24044138

  1. Self-Evaluated Dental Appearance Satisfaction among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, CC; Ogbomo, AC

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental appearance satisfaction is important among young adults because judgment concerning the personal characteristics of individuals is influenced by their dental appearance in the absence of other information. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction among young adults. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional survey of financial industry prone undergraduates of University of Benin was conducted between July and September, 2010. The self-administered questionnaire which assessed information on demographic characteristics, smoking habit, alcohol use, previous dental visit, dental appearance satisfaction, tooth shape, size, arrangement and strength was the tool of data collection. The data was subjected to descriptive, Chi-square and regression statistics using statistical package for the social sciences version 17.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). (P < 0.05) was considered to be significant. Results: A total of 399 undergraduates which are made up of 179 (44.9%) males and 220 (55.1%) females with mean age of 24.66 (4.20) years participated in this study. Self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction was expressed by 79.4% (317/399) of the participants. The significant predictors of self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction were skin color (P = 0.03, odds ratio [OR] =2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.09-6.09) and perceived tooth strength (P = 0.02, OR = 5.83, 95% CI = 1.40-24.28) among males and alcohol consumption (P = 0.04, OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.21-0.95] and perceived size of tooth (P = 0.02, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.15-4.89) among females. The significant predictors of self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction among the participants were ethnicity (P = 0.04, OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.32-0.96), skin color (P = 0.04, OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.03-2.93), perceived tooth size (P = 0.03, OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.07-3.09) and strength (P = 0.01, OR = 3.42, 95% CI = 1.58-7.41). Conclusion: Ethnicity, tooth arrangement, size and strength need to be given detailed consideration in tooth replacement as they emerged as the significant predictors of self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction among young adults. PMID:25221713

  2. Modulation of Prepulse Inhibition and Startle Reflex by Emotions: A Comparison between Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Le Duc, Jolyanne; Fournier, Philippe; Hébert, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether or not the acoustic startle response and sensorimotor gating may be modulated by emotions differentially between young and older adults. Two groups of participants (mean age Young: 24 years old; Elderly: 63.6 years old) were presented with three types of auditory stimuli (Startle alone, High or Low frequency Prepulse) while viewing pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant images. Electromyographic activity of the eyeblink response was measured. Results show that older adults displayed diminished eyeblink responses whereas younger adults displayed enhanced eyeblink responses when viewing negative images. Sensorimotor gating also differed between young and older adults, with enhanced sensorimotor gating abilities while viewing positive pictures in older adults and diminished abilities while viewing negative pictures among younger adults. These results argue in favor of a differential emotional influence on the sensorimotor abilities of young and older adults, with a positivity bias among the latter. PMID:26941643

  3. Modulation of Prepulse Inhibition and Startle Reflex by Emotions: A Comparison between Young and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Le Duc, Jolyanne; Fournier, Philippe; Hébert, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether or not the acoustic startle response and sensorimotor gating may be modulated by emotions differentially between young and older adults. Two groups of participants (mean age Young: 24 years old; Elderly: 63.6 years old) were presented with three types of auditory stimuli (Startle alone, High or Low frequency Prepulse) while viewing pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant images. Electromyographic activity of the eyeblink response was measured. Results show that older adults displayed diminished eyeblink responses whereas younger adults displayed enhanced eyeblink responses when viewing negative images. Sensorimotor gating also differed between young and older adults, with enhanced sensorimotor gating abilities while viewing positive pictures in older adults and diminished abilities while viewing negative pictures among younger adults. These results argue in favor of a differential emotional influence on the sensorimotor abilities of young and older adults, with a positivity bias among the latter. PMID:26941643

  4. Attractiveness judgments and discrimination of mommies and grandmas: perceptual tuning for young adult faces.

    PubMed

    Short, Lindsey A; Mondloch, Catherine J; Hackland, Anne T

    2015-01-01

    Adults are more accurate in detecting deviations from normality in young adult faces than in older adult faces despite exhibiting comparable accuracy in discriminating both face ages. This deficit in judging the normality of older faces may be due to reliance on a face space optimized for the dimensions of young adult faces, perhaps because of early and continuous experience with young adult faces. Here we examined the emergence of this young adult face bias by testing 3- and 7-year-old children on a child-friendly version of the task used to test adults. In an attractiveness judgment task, children viewed young and older adult face pairs; each pair consisted of an unaltered face and a distorted face of the same identity. Children pointed to the prettiest face, which served as a measure of their sensitivity to the dimensions on which faces vary relative to a norm. To examine whether biases in the attractiveness task were specific to deficits in referencing a norm or extended to impaired discrimination, we tested children on a simultaneous match-to-sample task with the same stimuli. Both age groups were more accurate in judging the attractiveness of young faces relative to older faces; however, unlike adults, the young adult face bias extended to the match-to-sample task. These results suggest that by 3 years of age, children's perceptual system is more finely tuned for young adult faces than for older adult faces, which may support past findings of superior recognition for young adult faces. PMID:25222629

  5. Health related quality of life in Dutch young adults: psychometric properties of the PedsQL generic core scales young adult version

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to provide Dutch norm data and to assess internal consistency and construct validity for the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Young Adult Generic Core Scales (PedsQL_YA) in Dutch young adults aged 18–30 years. Methods A sample of 649 young adults from the general Dutch population aged 18–30 years, stratified by age, sex, marital status and education, completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and the Dutch version of the PedsQL_YA online. Internal consistency of the PedsQL_YA scales was determined with Cronbach’s alphas. Norm scores were obtained by calculating the mean PedsQL scale scores by gender, age and health status. Differences in scale scores were analyzed for gender, age and health status (construct validity) using two-sample t-tests and effect sizes were calculated. Construct validity was determined by testing differences in PedsQL scores between healthy young adults and young adults with chronic health conditions. Results All scales of the PedsQL_YA showed satisfactory to excellent internal consistency, with Cronbach’s alphas between .77 and .94. Men reported higher scores (indicating better HRQOL) than women on all scales (p < .01), except for school/work functioning. No age differences were found. Young adults with chronic health conditions scored lower on all scales (p < .001) than healthy young adults, indicating good construct validity. Effect sizes varied from medium to large. Conclusions The Dutch version of the PedsQL_YA has adequate psychometric properties. With the availability of reliable norm data, the PedsQL_YA can be used as a tool in the evaluation of health related quality of life in healthy young adults and those with a chronic health condition. PMID:24438218

  6. Aging faces and aging perceivers: young and older adults are less sensitive to deviations from normality in older than in young adult faces.

    PubMed

    Short, Lindsey A; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2013-01-01

    Past studies examining the other-age effect, the phenomenon in which own-age faces are recognized more accurately than other-age faces, are limited in number and report inconsistent results. Here we examine whether the perceptual system is preferentially tuned to differences among young adult faces. In experiment 1 young (18-25 years) and older adult (63-87 years) participants were shown young and older face pairs in which one member of each pair was undistorted and the other had compressed or expanded features. Participants indicated which member of each pair was more normal and which was more expanded. Both age groups were more accurate when tested with young compared with older faces-but only when judging normality. In experiment 2 we tested a separate group of young adults on the same two tasks but with upright and inverted face pairs to examine the differential pattern of results between the normality and discrimination tasks. Inversion impaired performance on the normality task but not the discrimination task and eliminated the young adult advantage in the normality task. Collectively, these results suggest that the face processing system is optimized for young adult faces and that abundant experience with older faces later in life does not reverse this perceptual tuning. PMID:24303745

  7. Perceptions of Family Alcohol Use in a Young Adult Sample

    PubMed Central

    Serafini, Kelly A.; Stewart, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions of family alcohol use have been linked to adolescent alcohol use behaviors, yet there have been no studies that have assessed this relationship in young adults. This study examined perceptions of family alcohol use and their association with participants’ self-reported alcohol use. Participants included 171 undergraduate students (mean age = 21.67, 71.9 percent female, 75.4 percent Caucasian). Participants completed measures assessing quantity and frequency of alcohol use, negative consequences of use, and sibling relationship quality. They also reported their perceptions of alcohol use for siblings and parents during a typical week. Perceptions of siblings’ quantity of weekly alcohol use were significantly associated with participants’ quantity of alcohol use (r = .21, p = .006) and frequency of alcohol use (r = .23, p = .002). Perceptions of parental alcohol use were not related to the participants’ alcohol use patterns. PMID:26339202

  8. Dissociative fugue: Recurrent episodes in a young adult.

    PubMed

    Raval, Chintan Madhusudan; Upadhyaya, Sunnetkumar; Panchal, Bharat Navinchandra

    2015-01-01

    Dissociative fugue is a rare disorder which has been described as sudden, unexpected, travel away from home or one's customary place of daily activities, with the inability to recall some or all of one's past. There is no systematic data existing on it and very few cases reported in the literature. Here we report a case of fugue in a young adult male who travelled 8 times away from his home during last 1½ year. He has a loss of memory for episodes with patchy recall of few events. Longest duration of fugue episode was of 1-month. The case describes mode of presentation to hospital and treatment given to restore his identity and reunite him in society and family. PMID:26257491

  9. Dissociative fugue: Recurrent episodes in a young adult

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Chintan Madhusudan; Upadhyaya, Sunnetkumar; Panchal, Bharat Navinchandra

    2015-01-01

    Dissociative fugue is a rare disorder which has been described as sudden, unexpected, travel away from home or one's customary place of daily activities, with the inability to recall some or all of one's past. There is no systematic data existing on it and very few cases reported in the literature. Here we report a case of fugue in a young adult male who travelled 8 times away from his home during last 1½ year. He has a loss of memory for episodes with patchy recall of few events. Longest duration of fugue episode was of 1-month. The case describes mode of presentation to hospital and treatment given to restore his identity and reunite him in society and family. PMID:26257491

  10. Quantifying light exposure patterns in young adult students

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Amanda A.; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to bright light appears to be protective against myopia in both animals (chicks, monkeys) and children, but quantitative data on human light exposure are limited. In this study, we report on a technique for quantifying light exposure using wearable sensors. Twenty-seven young adult subjects wore a light sensor continuously for two weeks during one of three seasons, and also completed questionnaires about their visual activities. Light data were analyzed with respect to refractive error and season, and the objective sensor data were compared with subjects’ estimates of time spent indoors and outdoors. Subjects’ estimates of time spent indoors and outdoors were in poor agreement with durations reported by the sensor data. The results of questionnaire-based studies of light exposure should thus be interpreted with caution. The role of light in refractive error development should be investigated using multiple methods such as sensors to complement questionnaires. PMID:25342873

  11. Quantifying light exposure patterns in young adult students.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Amanda A; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to bright light appears to be protective against myopia in both animals (chicks, monkeys) and children, but quantitative data on human light exposure are limited. In this study, we report on a technique for quantifying light exposure using wearable sensors. Twenty-seven young adult subjects wore a light sensor continuously for two weeks during one of three seasons, and also completed questionnaires about their visual activities. Light data were analyzed with respect to refractive error and season, and the objective sensor data were compared with subjects' estimates of time spent indoors and outdoors. Subjects' estimates of time spent indoors and outdoors were in poor agreement with durations reported by the sensor data. The results of questionnaire-based studies of light exposure should thus be interpreted with caution. The role of light in refractive error development should be investigated using multiple methods such as sensors to complement questionnaires. PMID:25342873

  12. [Teenage and young adult cancer: how to make effective disclosures?].

    PubMed

    Ezhova, Ivanka; Martinez, Nicole; Ciais, Catherine; Fogliarini, Anne; Cherikh, Faredj; Coso, Diane; Peyrade, Frédéric

    2014-06-01

    Announcement of diagnosis is a critical step in establishing a trust-based relationship of quality between patient and physician. Disclosing "bad news" is a difficult and sensitive task which has direct consequences on psychological, emotional and relational levels, as well as on therapeutic management. This is a potentially traumatic experience which requires a long process of integration and psychological adaptation. The hematologist-oncologist occupies a central position: He introduces the framework for a multidisciplinary care, while taking into account the personality and behavior of the teenager or young adult. We propose an analysis of doctor-patient interaction; an overview of psychological issues associate with diagnosis disclosure; suggestions to build and manage communication with patients; and a clarification of the role of the psychologist and of the psychological adjustment at the time of disclosure. PMID:24977445

  13. The Migraine-Ischemic Stroke Relation in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pezzini, Alessandro; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Giossi, Alessia; Volonghi, Irene; Costa, Paolo; Dalla Volta, Giorgio; Padovani, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the strong epidemiologic evidence linking migraine and ischemic stroke in young adults, the mechanisms explaining this association remain poorly understood. The observation that stroke occurs more frequently during the interictal phase of migraine prompts to speculation that an indirect relation between the two diseases might exist. In this regard, four major issues might be considered which may be summarized as follows: (1) the migraine-ischemic stroke relation is influenced by specific risk factors such as patent foramen ovale or endothelial dysfunction and more frequent in particular conditions like spontaneous cervical artery dissection; (2) migraine is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors; (3) the link is caused by migraine-specific drugs; (4) migraine and ischemic vascular events are linked via a genetic component. In the present paper, we will review epidemiological studies, discuss potential mechanisms of migraine-induced stroke and comorbid ischemic stroke, and pose new research questions. PMID:21197470

  14. Perceived fraudulence in young adults: is there an "imposter syndrome"?

    PubMed

    Kolligian, J; Sternberg, R J

    1991-04-01

    This investigation consists of two studies designed to examine perceived fraudulence, its measurement, and the personality traits associated with the experience in young adults. For Study 1, the Perceived Fraudulence Scale (PFS), a new measure constructed for this study, was administered to a sample of 50 college undergraduates, along with several other self-report measures; a semistructured interview and thought-listing exercise were added to provide convergent assessments of perceived fraudulence. Correlational patterns and regression analyses supported the investigators' conceptualization of perceived fraudulence as involving a combination of fraudulent ideation, depressive tendencies, self-criticism, social anxiety, achievement pressures, and self-monitoring skills. Study 2, in which 100 college undergraduates completed several personality questionnaires, replicated the factor structure of the PFS and provided some evidence for the discriminant validity of the construct of perceived fraudulence. PMID:2056424

  15. Miranda Rights Comprehension in Young Adults With Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Rost, Gwyneth C.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 young adults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language impairment (SLI). A correlational analysis of the relationship between language scores and Miranda rights comprehension was conducted, as were tests of differences between individuals with SLI (n = 17) and individuals without SLI. Results Language ability was positively correlated with overall performance on the Miranda measure. As a group, individuals with SLI were significantly poorer than their peers with normal language at defining Miranda vocabulary and applying Miranda rights in hypothetical situations. The group with SLI was also marginally less able to paraphrase Miranda sentences. Conclusion Language impairment limits comprehension of Miranda warnings. As a result, citizens with language impairment are at risk of being denied their constitutional rights. PMID:22230180

  16. Peer influence on event reports among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Katherine; London, Kamala; Wright, Daniel B

    2011-08-01

    When two or more people witness an event together, the event report from one person can influence others' reports. In the current study we examined the role of age and motivational factors on peer influence regarding event reports in adolescents and young adults. Participants (N=249) watched a short video of a robbery then answered questions with no co-witness information or with information believed to be from a co-witness. Public and private response conditions were included to explore motivations for peer influence. Co-witness information influenced participants' responses, although the effect was equally strong in the private and the public co-witness conditions. Peer influence on event reports was steady across a large age range (11- to 25-year-olds). PMID:21919594

  17. Privileged High School Girls' Responses to Depictions of Femininity in Popular Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suico, Theresa Go

    2013-01-01

    Young adult literature has been a subject of contention for educators, adolescent psychologists, and critics for decades. Although some commentators maintain that young adult literature can be educationally and developmentally beneficial for adolescent readers, others argue that it often contains negative and potentially harmful messages that…

  18. Reactive and Proactive Control in Incarcerated and Community Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive control skills of male incarcerated adolescents (n = 44), male control adolescents (n = 33), male incarcerated young adults (n = 41), and male control young adults (n = 35) using the AX-continuous performance test (AX-CPT). This test measures proactive control (the ability to maintain a mental representation of…

  19. The Relationship between the Self-Efficacy and Life Satisfaction of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çakar, Firdevs Savi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and life satisfaction of young adults. This study is cross-sectional study and variables. Data were collected between March 2012 and April 2012 from young adults who were bachelor degree and attending the Celal Bayar University Pedagogical Formation Program the academic…

  20. Young Adult Couples Transitioning to Work: The Intersection of Career and Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domene, Jose F.; Nee, Jessica J.; Cavanaugh, Ashley K.; McLelland, Serita; Stewart, Becky; Stephenson, Michelle; Kauffman, Bradley; Tse, Christopher K.; Young, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Contextual action theory was used to frame an exploratory qualitative study of young adult couples' experiences of transitioning from post-secondary education into the labor force, addressing the specific research question ''What kinds of projects for future work and life together do young adult couples jointly construct and pursue as they…

  1. Parent Perceptions of Time Spent Meaningfully by Young Adults with Pervasive Support Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Zachary; Lehr, Donna; Lederer, Leslie; Pelerin, Dana; Huang, Shuoxi

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study that examined how 23 young adults with pervasive support needs and limited functional communication spent their time and how their parents (n = 23) and direct support professionals (DSPs; n = 2) defined meaningfulness in relation to the young adults' experiences. Data were collected through…

  2. Cannabis and Anxiety and Depression in Young Adults: A Large Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad R.; Najman, Jake M.; Jamrozik, Konrad; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Alati, Rosa; Bor, William

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether age of first use or frequency of use of cannabis is associated with anxiety and depression (AD) in young adults, independent of known potential confounders, including the use of other illicit drugs. Method: A cohort of 3,239 Australian young adults was followed from birth to the age of 21 when data on AD were obtained

  3. Foster Care Experiences and Educational Outcomes of Young Adults Formerly Placed in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havalchak, Anne; White, Catherine Roller; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Sepulveda, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to the body of research on the educational outcomes of young adults who were formerly placed in foster care. Telephone interviews were conducted with 359 young adults (a 54.6% response rate). Participants must have been served for at least one year by one private foster care agency in one of its twenty-two offices. Results…

  4. Exploring the Psychosocial and Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes of Multi-Type Abuse among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the psychosocial and behavioral adjustment outcomes associated with verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse among homeless young adults as well as the associations among abuse types. Convenience sampling was used to select 28 homeless young adults (ages 18 to 24) from one drop-in center. Overall, subjects experienced

  5. Healthy Behaviors and Lifestyles in Young Adults with a History of Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Schendel, Diana; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Measure select Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators in young adults with and without a history of developmental disabilities (DD) using a population-based cohort. Methods: Young adults were interviewed to assess the prevalence of seven Leading Health Indicators: physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance

  6. Transitions from School for Young Adults with Intellectual Disability: Parental Perspectives on "Life as an Adjustment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Michael D.; Beamish, Wendi

    2009-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated transition programs and outcomes for young adults with disabilities as viewed from the parent perspective. The current Australian study provided a voice for parents to report on the experiences of and outcomes for young adults following their recent transition from school into post-school life. Method: A

  7. Tensions in Teaching Adolescence/ts: Analyzing Resistances in a Young Adult Literature Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    Identifying English Education courses focused on young adult literature as apposite sites for exploring teacher conceptions of youth and the texts aimed for youths' consumptions, this article addresses the multiple sources of tension--and pedagogical potential--of teaching a young adult literature course centrally framed around controversial…

  8. Factors Related to Smoking in College and Not in College Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koval, John; Pederson, Linda; Zhang, Xiaohe

    2006-01-01

    This study sought variables associated with current smoking for young adult males and females in college compared with those not in college. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by a cohort of 1,270 young adults (ages 20-24) who have been followed from grade 6 for 10 years. Both bivariate and multivariable analyses of demographic…

  9. The Relationship of Parenting Styles to Commitment to the Church among Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Roger L.; Wisbey, Randall L.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effects of parenting style experiences during childhood has on the religious commitment of young adults. Surveyed Seventh-day Adventist young adults (n=653) in United States and Canada. Reveals that the affectionate constraint parenting style produced the largest percentage of members. Includes references. (CMK)

  10. The Longitudinal Relationships between Rural Adolescents' Prosocial Behaviors and Young Adult Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Beal, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    While many adolescents and young adults experiment with substances (e.g., alcohol, cigarette smoking, marijuana), recent research suggests that rural youth and young adults may be more at risk for substance use than their urban counterparts. This study was designed to examine the longitudinal relationships between rural adolescents' prosocial…

  11. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  12. Career Interests and Self-Estimated Abilities of Young Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sherri; Unkefer, Lesley Craig; Cichy, Bryan Ervin; Peper, Christine; Juang, Ju-Ping

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain vocational interests and self-estimated work-relevant abilities of young adults with disabilities. Results showed that young adults with both low incidence and high incidence disabilities have a wide range of interests and self-estimated work-relevant abilities that are comparable to those in the general…

  13. Disparities in Debt: Parents' Socioeconomic Resources and Young Adult Student Loan Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Jason N.

    2014-01-01

    In an era of rising college costs and stagnant grant-based student aid, many young adults rely on their parents' resources and student loans to pay for their postsecondary education. In this study I ask how parents' income and education are linked to young adults' student loan debt. I develop and test two perspectives regarding the…

  14. Parent Perceptions of Time Spent Meaningfully by Young Adults with Pervasive Support Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Zachary; Lehr, Donna; Lederer, Leslie; Pelerin, Dana; Huang, Shuoxi

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study that examined how 23 young adults with pervasive support needs and limited functional communication spent their time and how their parents (n = 23) and direct support professionals (DSPs; n = 2) defined meaningfulness in relation to the young adults' experiences. Data were collected through

  15. Macrostructural Narrative Language of Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome or Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Palmer, Meghan; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To gain a better understanding of language abilities, the expressive macrostructural narrative language abilities of verbally expressive adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) and those with fragile X syndrome (FXS) were examined. Method: The authors evaluated 24 adolescents and young adults with DS, 12 male adolescents and…

  16. Parental Divorce and Family Functioning: Effects on Differentiation Levels of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patrick; Throngren, Jill M.; Smith, Adina J.

    2001-01-01

    Study examines the effect of parental divorce and various dimensions of functioning in the family of origin on young adult development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning significantly affect differentiation levels of young adults. Implications of the results for counselors and future researchers are provided. (Contains…

  17. Intergenerational Contact and the Life Course Status of Young Adult Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie; Hagendoorn, Louk

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how the life course status of young adults--whether they have a romantic partner and whether they have children--is related to how often they have contact with their parents. Hypotheses were tested using recent data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study. The main sample included 1,911 young adults between the ages of 18 and…

  18. Suicide Acceptability Is Related to Suicide Planning in U.S. Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, Sean; Romer, Daniel; Jamieson, Patrick E.

    2007-01-01

    The association between adolescents' and young adults' attitudes toward suicide and their own suicidality across five racial-ethnic classifications was studied in a nationally representative sample of 3,301 youth ages 14 to 22 years from the National Annenberg Risk Survey of Youth. Results indicate that adolescents and young adults who most…

  19. Gender Differences in the Suicide-Related Behaviors of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lewinsohn, Peter; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John; Monson, Candice M.; Meyer, Kathryn A.; Langford, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Examines sex differences in suicide-related behaviors in older adolescents and young adults. Males reported more risk-taking, more injury-producing, and more negative health-related behaviors than did females. Females reported more depression symptoms than did males. Hopelessness scores differed among male and female young adults. (MMU)

  20. Understanding Tobacco-Related Attitudes among College and Noncollege Young Adult Hookah and Cigarette Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Youn Ok; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege young adults. Participants: Time-location samples of young adult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque…

  1. We Spent Our Summer Chasing Unicorns: A Young Adult Reading Game Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, Cathi

    1986-01-01

    Describes a young adult summer reading game which is offered in three age-level versions from grades 1 through 12 at Enoch Pratt Free Library (Maryland). Benefits of young adult reading games in public libraries, game rules and sample questions, and the game finale visit to Walters Art Gallery are highlighted. (EJS)

  2. Perception of asthma as a factor in career choice among young adults with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Bhinder, Sacha; Cicutto, Lisa; Abdel-Qadir, Husam M; Tarlo, Susan M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Asthma is a common chronic condition that can be aggravated by workplace exposures. Young adults with asthma should know how their future occupation might affect their asthma, and potentially, their quality of life. The aim of the present study was to assess the awareness of young adults to occupational risks for asthma and high-risk occupations, as well as their perception of the role of asthma in career choice. METHODS: Young adults 16 to 22 years of age with reported physician-diagnosed asthma were recruited to complete a questionnaire eliciting information regarding asthma control, career choice and awareness of occupational exposure risks. RESULTS: A small majority of the study cohort (56.4%) could identify occupations that cause or exacerbate asthma, and 34.7% indicated that asthma was an important factor in their career plans. Family physicians were most responsible for asthma management (80.2%), but young adults were more likely to discuss asthma and career plans with their parents (43.6%) or friends (29.7%) than with their family physician (13.9%; P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Young adults with asthma have suboptimal awareness of potential work-related asthma risks. Family physicians most commonly provide asthma care to these young adults. However, few young adults are talking to their family physicians about career choices and asthma. This observation represents an area of asthma care that needs to be explored in young adults with asthma. PMID:20011720

  3. Demographic differences and food patterns associated with metabolic syndrome in young adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MS) in young adults. Intake was collected on 1,012 young adults (20-38 years) (61% female; 26% black) using a food-frequency questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometrics, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profiles were quantifi...

  4. The Cultural Work of Magical Realism in Three Young Adult Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Don

    2007-01-01

    Magical realism as a literary mode is often subversive and transgressive, questioning the values and assumptions of the dominant society that it depicts. Young adult literature, by contrast, is typically thought to serve a socializing function, helping to integrate young readers into adult society. What then is the cultural work of magical realism…

  5. Risk Perceptions and Behavioral Intentions for Hepatitis B: How Do Young Adults Fare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, R. M.; Glik, D. C.; Prelip, M.; Bourque, L.; Yuen, J.; Ang, A.; Jones, M. C.

    2006-01-01

    Young adults are at risk for Hepatitis B infection. Little is known about their attitudes and beliefs concerning Hepatitis B, which are determinants of getting immunized. This investigation examined risk perceptions and behavioral intentions concerning Hepatitis B among a convenience sample of 1070 young adults, 18-24 years old who participated in

  6. Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention and Intervention in a Community Setting: Perspectives of Young Adults and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martsolf, Donna S.; Colbert, Crystal; Draucker, Claire B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent dating violence (ADV) is a significant community problem. In this study, we examine the perspectives of two groups (young adults who experienced ADV as teens and professionals who work with teens) on ADV prevention/intervention in a community context. We interviewed 88 young adults and 20 professionals. Our research team used Thorne's…

  7. First Case of Disseminated Mycobacterium bolletii Infection in a Young Adult Patient▿

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Won-Jung; Kwon, O. Jung; Lee, Nam Young; Kook, Yoon-Hoh; Lee, Hyung-Ki; Kim, Bum-Joon

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium bolletii is a rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacterium first characterized in 2006. Here, we report a case of disseminated infection caused by M. bolletii in a young adult patient. To our knowledge, this is the first case of disseminated M. bolletii infection in an otherwise healthy young adult. PMID:19675221

  8. The Relationship among Alcohol Consumption, Dietery Intake, and Body Mass Index in Young Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the relationship of diet and weight to alcohol consumption in young adults. Dietary intake data were collected in 1995–1996 on 1,335 young adults (20–38 years) (62% female; 27% black) using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (YAQ), and the Health Lifestyle-Behavio...

  9. The Social Inclusion of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Phenomenology of Their Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    Social inclusion enhances the quality of life of young adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Young adults with ID continue to face prejudice and discrimination that limit their social inclusion. They experience limited social inclusion because there are not enough appropriate activities available and they have limited opportunities to…

  10. The Longitudinal Relationships between Rural Adolescents' Prosocial Behaviors and Young Adult Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Beal, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    While many adolescents and young adults experiment with substances (e.g., alcohol, cigarette smoking, marijuana), recent research suggests that rural youth and young adults may be more at risk for substance use than their urban counterparts. This study was designed to examine the longitudinal relationships between rural adolescents' prosocial

  11. Physical Fitness Performance of Young Adults with and without Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jiabei; Piwowar, Nathan; Reilly, Coleen Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the physical fitness performance of young adults with and without cognitive impairments. Participants were 75 young adults, including 41 without disabilities (23 females, 18 males; M of age = 21.88) and 34 with mild cognitive impairments (14 females, 20 males; M of age = 21.79). They received…

  12. Adapting the Individual Placement and Support Model with Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Xie, Bin; Glynn, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless young adults. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining competitive employment; yet few examples exist to date with homeless young adults with mental…

  13. Predictors of Work Participation of Young Adults with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among young adults with ID is lacking altogether.…

  14. Civic Engagement in Relation to Outcome Expectations among African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, He Len; Probert, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined civic engagement--volunteering and political activism--among 129 African American young adults from an urban community. The proposed model considered factors that motivate young adults to participate in civic activities as well as barriers that might inhibit involvement. Drawing upon social cognitive theory, this study…

  15. Reactive and Proactive Control in Incarcerated and Community Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive control skills of male incarcerated adolescents (n = 44), male control adolescents (n = 33), male incarcerated young adults (n = 41), and male control young adults (n = 35) using the AX-continuous performance test (AX-CPT). This test measures proactive control (the ability to maintain a mental representation of

  16. Designing a Weight Gain Prevention Trial for Young Adults: The CHOICES Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Moe, Stacey G.; Nanney, M. Susie; Laska, Melissa N.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Petrich, Christine A.; Sevcik, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Young adults are at risk for weight gain. Little is known about how to design weight control programs to meet the needs of young adults and few theory-based interventions have been evaluated in a randomized control trial. The Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings (CHOICES) study was funded to create a

  17. Respectfully Treating the Elderly: Affective and Behavioral Ways of American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Kyu-Taik; Kim, Bum Jung; Torres-Gil, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    There has been little research on how young people respect, or disrespect, older adults. This study explored the ways in which young adults connote elder respect by utilizing two different forms of data. Based on quantitative data from a survey of 521 college students, a set of 11 behavioral forms of elder respect was obtained. Out of these forms,…

  18. Young Adult Identities and Their Pathways: A Developmental and Life Course Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Janel E.; Elder, Glen H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental and life course studies of young adult identities have focused on 2 dimensions: subjective age and psychosocial maturity. This study examines the developmental synchrony of these 2 processes. In a longitudinal sample of young adults from Add Health (ages 18-22), a person-centered analysis of indicators of these dimensions identified…

  19. Healthy Behaviors and Lifestyles in Young Adults with a History of Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Schendel, Diana; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Measure select Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators in young adults with and without a history of developmental disabilities (DD) using a population-based cohort. Methods: Young adults were interviewed to assess the prevalence of seven Leading Health Indicators: physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance…

  20. Syndrome Specificity and Behavioural Disorders in Young Adults with Intellectual Disability: Cultural Differences in Family Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blacher, J.; McIntyre, L. L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study examined whether behaviour problems and adaptive behaviour of low functioning young adults, and well-being of their families, varied by diagnostic syndrome intellectual disability (ID) only, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, autism, as well as by cultural group. Methods: Behaviour disorders in young adults with moderate to…

  1. Cannabis and Anxiety and Depression in Young Adults: A Large Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad R.; Najman, Jake M.; Jamrozik, Konrad; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Alati, Rosa; Bor, William

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether age of first use or frequency of use of cannabis is associated with anxiety and depression (AD) in young adults, independent of known potential confounders, including the use of other illicit drugs. Method: A cohort of 3,239 Australian young adults was followed from birth to the age of 21 when data on AD were obtained…

  2. Risk Perceptions and Behavioral Intentions for Hepatitis B: How Do Young Adults Fare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, R. M.; Glik, D. C.; Prelip, M.; Bourque, L.; Yuen, J.; Ang, A.; Jones, M. C.

    2006-01-01

    Young adults are at risk for Hepatitis B infection. Little is known about their attitudes and beliefs concerning Hepatitis B, which are determinants of getting immunized. This investigation examined risk perceptions and behavioral intentions concerning Hepatitis B among a convenience sample of 1070 young adults, 18-24 years old who participated in…

  3. 76 FR 56263 - Titles II and XVI: Documenting and Evaluating Disability in Young Adults

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... transitional employment programs) may also help us assess the young adult's functioning. C. Psychosocial... participate in the general curriculum or in a transitional program.\\23\\ The fact that a young adult receives...(s) through a school or a community agency, such as a mental health center or...

  4. Identification of Hearing Loss in Children and Young Adults Using Measures of Transient Otoacoustic Emission Reproducibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glattke, Theodore J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Measures of transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) reproducibility were obtained for 506 ears of 260 children and young adults. Findings suggest that TEOAEs provide useful information in routine clinical practice and may be employed to screen for the presence of hearing loss in children and young adults. (DB)

  5. Young Adults' Linguistic Manipulation of English in Bangla in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Shaila

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed in the print media that bilingual young adults in Bangladesh are subjugated by the colonial legacy of English and they are "polluting" Bangla, the national language of Bangladesh, by their indiscriminate insertion of English in it. However, this ethnographic study on a group of young adults in a university in…

  6. Designing a Weight Gain Prevention Trial for Young Adults: The CHOICES Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Moe, Stacey G.; Nanney, M. Susie; Laska, Melissa N.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Petrich, Christine A.; Sevcik, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Young adults are at risk for weight gain. Little is known about how to design weight control programs to meet the needs of young adults and few theory-based interventions have been evaluated in a randomized control trial. The Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings (CHOICES) study was funded to create a…

  7. Identifying Clinically Distinct Subgroups of Self-Injurers among Young Adults: A Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klonsky, E. David; Olino, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    High rates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI; 14%-17%) in adolescents and young adults suggest that some self-injurers may exhibit more or different psychiatric problems than others. In the present study, the authors utilized a latent class analysis to identify clinically distinct subgroups of self-injurers. Participants were 205 young adults with…

  8. Sexual Activity of Young Adults Who Are Visually Impaired and the Need for Effective Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Stacy M.; Kapperman, Gaylen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Little research has been reported on all aspects of sexuality as it pertains to individuals with visual impairments. This article analyzes data on the sexual experiences of young adults who are visually impaired and young adults without disabilities. Methods: The authors conducted a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal…

  9. Disparities in Debt: Parents' Socioeconomic Resources and Young Adult Student Loan Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Jason N.

    2014-01-01

    In an era of rising college costs and stagnant grant-based student aid, many young adults rely on their parents' resources and student loans to pay for their postsecondary education. In this study I ask how parents' income and education are linked to young adults' student loan debt. I develop and test two perspectives regarding the

  10. DERMAL PENETRATION OF [14C] CAPTAN IN YOUNG AND ADULT RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dermal penetration of [14C] Captan was determined in young (33 day old) and adult (82 day old) female Fischer 344 rats by an in vivo method and two in vitro methods. ermal penetration in vivo at 72 hours was about 9% of the dose in both young and adult rats. o significant differe...

  11. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what

  12. Predictors of Work Participation of Young Adults with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among young adults with ID is lacking altogether.

  13. Meanings of Good Nonresidential Fathering: The Recollections of Young Adults with a Childhood Experience of Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wages, Alan, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the meanings of good nonresidential fathering from the recollections of young adults with a childhood experience of divorce. An additional purpose was to identify barriers and contributions to good nonresidential fathering from the viewpoint of young adults. A phenomenological perspective was used to…

  14. Reading for a Better World: Teaching for Social Responsibility with Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolk, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Teaching for social responsibility should be one of the vital aims of our schools. Young adult literature offers an authentic, meaningful, and critical way to teach for social responsibility. This article offers an overview of the different elements of social responsibility and some young adult novels and graphic novels that could be used to teach…

  15. FOOD PATTERNS ASSOCIATED WITH COMPONENTS OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN YOUNG ADULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Young adults are a nutritionally vulnerable, poorly studied group; little is known about their risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Dietary intake data were collected in 1995-1996 on 1,012 young adults (20-38 years) (61% female; 21% black) using the youth/adolescent questionnaire, a semi-quantitativ...

  16. Young Adult Follow-Up of Hyperactive Children: Antisocial Activities and Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; Fischer, Mariellen; Smallish, Lori; Fletcher, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Background: Hyperactive/ADHD children are believed to be a greater risk for adolescent and young adult antisocial activity and drug use/abuse, particularly that subset having comorbid conduct problems/disorder. Method: We report on the lifetime antisocial activities and illegal drug use self-reported at young adult follow-up (mean age 20-21 years;…

  17. Education, Employment, and Independent Living of Young Adults Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelman, Karen I.; Callahan, Judy Ottren; Mayer, Margaret H.; Luetke, Barbara S.; Stryker, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    Little information is available on the education, employment, and independent living status of young deaf and hard of hearing adults who have transitioned from high school. The present article reports post-secondary outcomes of 46 young adults who had attended for at least 4 years a non-public agency school in the northwestern United States…

  18. Voices of Young Adults with Autism and Their Perspective on Life Choices after Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galler, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative research study was to explore how young adults who have an autism spectrum disorder perceive their life choices after secondary education. The focus participants in the sample were young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). For the purpose of this research, ASD includes autism and…

  19. What Do Young Adult Novels Say about HIV/AIDS? A Second Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Melissa; Goldsmith, Annette; Carruth, Debi

    2008-01-01

    Young adult information needs related to HIV/AIDS persist. However, in recent years, little has been written in either the research or the professional literature in library and information science about the HIV/AIDS information needs of youth. This article reports on a content analysis of young adult novels written in English between 1995 and…

  20. Suicide Acceptability Is Related to Suicide Planning in U.S. Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, Sean; Romer, Daniel; Jamieson, Patrick E.

    2007-01-01

    The association between adolescents' and young adults' attitudes toward suicide and their own suicidality across five racial-ethnic classifications was studied in a nationally representative sample of 3,301 youth ages 14 to 22 years from the National Annenberg Risk Survey of Youth. Results indicate that adolescents and young adults who most

  1. The Learning Needs of Young Adults with Mental Health Difficulties. NIACE Briefing Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester (England).

    A 1996 report recognized the benefits of effective learning provision and the impact that mental health difficulties can have on quality of life of young adults in the United Kingdom. The range of mental health difficulties experienced by young adults in the United Kingdom and elsewhere is similar to that experienced by the older population and…

  2. The Experience of Anxiety in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trembath, David; Germano, Carmela; Johanson, Graeme; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety is known to be common among young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), yet little is known about the nature of their experiences or the strategies they use to live and cope with their reported anxiety. In this qualitative study, we began to address this issue through two focus groups involving 11 young adults with ASD, and 10…

  3. Sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Benotsch, Eric G.; Snipes, Daniel J.; Martin, Aaron M.; Bull, Sheana S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most prior research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Methods Young adults (N=763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Results Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared to their non-sexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Conclusions Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks subsequent to sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. PMID:23299017

  4. Disgust and Sexual Arousal in Young Adult Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Grauvogl, Andrea; de Jong, Peter; Peters, Madelon; Evers, Silvia; van Overveld, Mark; van Lankveld, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    Previous research suggested that disgust may interfere with healthy sexual functioning by demonstrating that women with sexual pain disorders are characterized by heightened disgust propensity, relatively strong (physiological and subjective) disgust responses when exposed to sexual stimuli, and relatively strong automatic sex-disgust memory associations. To broaden the understanding of the relationship between sex and disgust, Study 1 tested the relationship between trait disgust and sexual functioning in both men (N = 109) and women (N = 187), and showed that specifically for women both relatively high disgust propensity and high sensitivity were related to lower sexual functioning. Study 2 focused on healthy young adults (N = 19 men and N = 24 women), and tested the relationship between trait disgust and automatic sex-disgust associations as well as the predictive value of trait disgust propensity for participants' level of sexual arousal while watching an erotic video. Participants completed a single-target Implicit Association Task and self-report measures of trait disgust propensity, disgust sensitivity, and sexual functioning. Furthermore, genital and subjective sexual arousal was measured, while participants were watching neutral and erotic video clips. Women showed stronger sex-disgust associations and reported higher disgust propensity than men. Overall, indices of trait disgust and sex-disgust associations were not strongly associated with sexual functioning or sexual arousability. Unexpectedly, specifically in men, high levels of trait disgust sensitivity predicted higher levels of genital and subjective sexual arousal. Overall, no strong evidence was found to support the view that, among young adults without sexual difficulties, high trait disgust or relatively strong automatic sex-disgust associations are associated with low sexual functioning and low sexual arousal. PMID:25231820

  5. Multiple tobacco product use among US adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James; Tanski, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the extent to which multiple tobacco product use among adolescents and young adults falls outside current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory authority. Methods We conducted a web-based survey of 1596 16–26-year-olds to assess use of 11 types of tobacco products. We ascertained current (past 30 days) tobacco product use among 927 respondents who ever used tobacco. Combustible tobacco products included cigarettes, cigars (little filtered, cigarillos, premium) and hookah; non-combustible tobacco products included chew, dip, dissolvables, e-cigarettes, snuff and snus. We then fitted an ordinal logistic regression model to assess demographic and behavioural associations with higher levels of current tobacco product use (single, dual and multiple product use). Results Among 448 current tobacco users, 54% were single product users, 25% dual users and 21% multiple users. The largest single use category was cigarettes (49%), followed by hookah (23%), little filtered cigars (17%) and e-cigarettes (5%). Most dual and multiple product users smoked cigarettes, along with little filtered cigars, hookah and e-cigarettes. Forty-six per cent of current single, 84% of dual and 85% of multiple tobacco product users consumed a tobacco product outside FDA regulatory authority. In multivariable analysis, the adjusted risk of multiple tobacco use was higher for males, first use of a non-combustible tobacco product, high sensation seeking respondents and declined for each additional year of age that tobacco initiation was delayed. Conclusions Nearly half of current adolescent and young adult tobacco users in this study engaged in dual and multiple tobacco product use; the majority of them used products that fall outside current FDA regulatory authority. This study supports FDA deeming of these products and their incorporation into the national media campaign to address youth tobacco use. PMID:25361744

  6. Genetic research participation in a young adult community sample.

    PubMed

    Storr, Carla L; Or, Flora; Eaton, William W; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2014-10-01

    Opposed to large nationally sponsored health initiatives or biobanks, little is known about gathering genetic samples from young adults participating in academic community-based epidemiologic studies of mental health and substance use, especially samples with a large number of minority participants. This study describes our experience of establishing a genetic arm within a longitudinal study of a cohort of young adults (mean age 29, 75 % African American, 58 % female). In total, 75 % of those interviewed in the most recent wave donated a DNA sample (31.6 % blood and 68.4 % saliva) and over 90 % provided consent for storage and sharing. Current smokers were more likely to donate a sample than nonsmokers (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.59, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.14, 2.22). The odds of obtaining a saliva sample were increased for those who were former cannabis smokers and who drank more regularly, but decreased among participants with less education and a history with drug use. Fewer minorities (aOR = 0.37, 95 % CI = 0.18, 0.75; p = 0.006) and cannabis users (aOR = 0.46, 95 % CI = 0.27, 0.77) consented to sharing their sample with other investigators. Findings also illustrate there are many study parameters that are important in planning biologic collection efforts. Building strong rapport and trust with subjects, minimizing the burden involved by the respondent to obtain a biological sample, offering a choice to provide blood or saliva, and offering an incentive will increase the likelihood of obtaining a sample and, importantly, increase the opportunity to store and share the sample for the future. PMID:24948529

  7. Cerebellar contributions to neurological soft signs in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Hirjak, Dusan; Thomann, Philipp A; Kubera, Katharina M; Stieltjes, Bram; Wolf, Robert C

    2016-02-01

    Neurological soft signs (NSS) are frequently found in psychiatric disorders of significant neurodevelopmental origin, e.g., in patients with schizophrenia and autism. Yet NSS are also present in healthy individuals suggesting a neurodevelopmental signature of motor function, probably as a continuum between health and disease. So far, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying these motor phenomena in healthy persons, and it is even less known whether the cerebellum contributes to NSS expression. Thirty-seven healthy young adults (mean age = 23 years) were studied using high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and "resting-state" functional MRI at three Tesla. NSS levels were measured using the "Heidelberg Scale." Cerebellar gray matter volume was investigated using cerebellum-optimized voxel-based analysis methods. Cerebellar function was assessed using regional homogeneity (ReHo), a measure of local network strength. The relationship between cerebellar structure and function and NSS was analyzed using regression models. There was no significant relationship between cerebellar volume and NSS (p < 0.005, uncorrected for height, p < 0.05 corrected for spatial extent). Positive associations with cerebellar lobule VI activity were found for the "motor coordination" and "hard signs" NSS domains. A negative relationship was found between lobule VI activity and "complex motor task" domain (p < 0.005, uncorrected for height, p < 0.05 corrected for spatial extent). The data indicate that in healthy young adults, distinct NSS domains are related to cerebellar activity, specifically with activity of cerebellar subregions with known cortical somatomotor projections. In contrast, cerebellar volume is not predictive of NSS in healthy persons. PMID:25708455

  8. Text messaging intervention for teens and young adults with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Jessica T; Cousineau, Tara; Franko, Debra L; Schultz, Alan T; Trant, Meredith; Rodgers, Rachel; Laffel, Lori M B

    2014-09-01

    Adolescents and young adults use text messaging as their primary mode of communication, thus providing an opportunity to use this mode of communication for mobile health (mHealth) interventions. Youth with diabetes are an important group for these mHealth initiatives, as diabetes management requires an enormous amount of daily effort and this population has difficulty achieving optimal diabetes management. Goal setting and self-efficacy are 2 factors in the management of diabetes. We examined the feasibility of a healthy lifestyle text messaging program targeting self-efficacy and goal setting among adolescents and young adults with diabetes. Participants, ages 16-21, were assigned to either a text messaging group, which received daily motivational messages about nutrition and physical activity, or a control group, which received paper-based information about healthy lifestyle. Both groups set goals for nutrition and physical activity and completed a measure of self-efficacy. Participants' mean age was 18.7 1.6 years old, with diabetes duration of 10.0 4.6 years, and A1c of 8.7 1.7%. The text messaging intervention was rated highly and proved to be acceptable to participants. Self-efficacy, glycemic control, and body mass index did not change over the course of the short, 1-month pilot study. Positive, daily, motivational text messages may be effective in increasing motivation for small goal changes in the areas of nutrition and physical activity. These interventions may be used in the future in youth with diabetes to improve diabetes care. Utilizing more targeted text messages is an area for future research. PMID:25172879

  9. Young adults' trajectories of Ecstasy use: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Young adults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (Young Adult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns. PMID:23899430

  10. Sexual Functioning in Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zebrack, Brad J.; Foley, Sallie; Wittmann, Daniela; Leonard, Marcia

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of sexuality or sexual behavior in childhood cancer survivors tend to examine relationships or achievement of developmental milestones but not physiological response to cancer or treatment. The purpose of this study is to (1) identify prevalence and risk factors for sexual dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors, and (2) examine the extent to which sexual dysfunction may be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and psychosocial outcomes. Methods Five hundred ninety-nine survivors age 18-39 years completed standardized measures of sexual functioning, HRQOL, psychological distress and life satisfaction. Descriptive statistics assessed prevalence of sexual symptoms. Bivariate analyses identified correlates of sexual symptoms and examined associations between symptoms and HRQOL/psychosocial outcomes. Results Most survivors appear to be doing well, although 52% of female survivors and 32% of male survivors reported at least “a little of a problem” in one or more areas of sexual functioning. Mean symptom score for females was more than twice that of males. Sexual symptoms were associated with reporting health problems. Significant associations between sexual functioning and HRQOL outcomes were observed, with gender differences in strengths of association suggesting that males find sexual symptoms more distressing than do females. Conclusions While most survivors appear to be doing well in this important life domain, some young adult survivors report sexual concerns. While female survivors may report more sexual symptoms than male survivors, males may experience more distress associated with sexual difficulties. Better specified measures of sexual function, behavior and outcomes are needed for this young adult population. PMID:19862693

  11. Are Tobacco Control Policies Effective in Reducing Young Adult Smoking?

    PubMed Central

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Loomis, Brett R.; Kuiper, Nicole; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joseph; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Pechacek, Terry F.; Couzens, G. Lance

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined the influence of tobacco control program funding, smoke-free air laws, and cigarette prices on young adult smoking outcomes. Methods We use a natural experimental design approach that uses the variation in tobacco control policies across states and over time to understand their influence on tobacco outcomes. We combine individual outcome data with annual state-level policy data to conduct multivariable logistic regression models, controlling for an extensive set of sociodemographic factors. The participants are 18- to 25-year-olds from the 2002–2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. The three main outcomes are past-year smoking initiation, and current and established smoking. A current smoker was one who had smoked on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. An established smoker was one who had smoked 1 or more cigarettes in the past 30 days and smoked at least 100 cigarettes in his or her lifetime. Results Higher levels of tobacco control program funding and greater smoke-free-air law coverage were both associated with declines in current and established smoking (p < .01). Greater coverage of smoke-free air laws was associated with lower past year initiation with marginal significance (p = .058). Higher cigarette prices were not associated with smoking outcomes. Had smoke-free-air law coverage and cumulative tobacco control funding remained at 2002 levels, current and established smoking would have been 5%–7% higher in 2009. Conclusions Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing young adult smoking. PMID:24268360

  12. Otoacoustic Emissions in Smoking and Nonsmoking Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Koziel, Magdalena; Kochanek, Krzysztof; Skarzynski, Henryk

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigates the usefulness of transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) and distortion product OAEs (DPOAEs) in detecting small changes in the hearing of young smoking adults. Methods Otoacoustic emissions were acquired from the ears of 48 young adults (age, 20 to 27 years). The dataset was divided into two groups, smoking (24 persons/48 ears) and nonsmoking (24 persons/48 ears). The level of smoking was relatively small in comparison to previous studies, an average of 3.8 years and 8.7 cigarettes per day. In each ear three OAE measurements were made: TEOAEs, DPOAEs, and spontaneous OAEs (SOAEs). Pure tone audiometry and tympanometry were also conducted. Audiometric thresholds did not differ significantly between the datasets. Half-octave-band values of OAE signal to noise ratios and response levels were used to assess statistical differences. Results Averaged data initially revealed that differences between the two study groups occurred only for TEOAEs at 1 kHz. However when the datasets were divided into ears with and without SOAEs more differences became apparent, both for TEOAEs and DPOAEs. In ears that exhibited SOAEs, both smokers and nonsmokers, there were no statistically significant differences between evoked OAEs; however in all ears without SOAEs, evoked OAEs were higher in the ears of nonsmokers, by as much as 5 dB. These differences were most prominent in the 1-2 kHz range. Conclusion A general decrease in OAE levels was found in the group of smokers. However, in ears which exhibited SOAEs, there was no difference between the evoked OAEs of smokers and nonsmokers. We conclude that smoking had not yet measurably affected the ears of those with acute hearing (i.e., those who exhibit SOAEs). However, in ears without SOAEs, smokers exhibited smaller evoked OAE amplitudes than nonsmokers, even though their audiometric thresholds were within the norm. PMID:26622946

  13. Basal ganglia correlates of fatigue in young adults.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Seishu; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Shinada, Takamitsu; Maruyama, Tsukasa; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Magistro, Daniele; Sakaki, Kohei; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sasaki, Yukako; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence of chronic fatigue is approximately 20% in healthy individuals, there are no studies of brain structure that elucidate the neural correlates of fatigue outside of clinical subjects. We hypothesized that fatigue without evidence of disease might be related to changes in the basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex and be implicated in fatigue with disease. We aimed to identify the white matter structures of fatigue in young subjects without disease using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Healthy young adults (n = 883; 489 males and 394 females) were recruited. As expected, the degrees of fatigue and motivation were associated with larger mean diffusivity (MD) in the right putamen, pallidus and caudate. Furthermore, the degree of physical activity was associated with a larger MD only in the right putamen. Accordingly, motivation was the best candidate for widespread basal ganglia, whereas physical activity might be the best candidate for the putamen. A plausible mechanism of fatigue may involve abnormal function of the motor system, as well as areas of the dopaminergic system in the basal ganglia that are associated with motivation and reward. PMID:26893077

  14. Basal ganglia correlates of fatigue in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Seishu; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Shinada, Takamitsu; Maruyama, Tsukasa; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Magistro, Daniele; Sakaki, Kohei; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sasaki, Yukako; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence of chronic fatigue is approximately 20% in healthy individuals, there are no studies of brain structure that elucidate the neural correlates of fatigue outside of clinical subjects. We hypothesized that fatigue without evidence of disease might be related to changes in the basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex and be implicated in fatigue with disease. We aimed to identify the white matter structures of fatigue in young subjects without disease using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Healthy young adults (n = 883; 489 males and 394 females) were recruited. As expected, the degrees of fatigue and motivation were associated with larger mean diffusivity (MD) in the right putamen, pallidus and caudate. Furthermore, the degree of physical activity was associated with a larger MD only in the right putamen. Accordingly, motivation was the best candidate for widespread basal ganglia, whereas physical activity might be the best candidate for the putamen. A plausible mechanism of fatigue may involve abnormal function of the motor system, as well as areas of the dopaminergic system in the basal ganglia that are associated with motivation and reward. PMID:26893077

  15. Stories of management in the future by young adults and young nurses.

    PubMed

    Harmoinen, Merja; Niiranen, Kaisa; Niiranen, Vuokko; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Suominen, Tarja

    2014-04-11

    Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the phenomenon of management by way of the ideas by secondary school students and young nurses. Background: Young adults are changing workplaces more than ever before, yet their work expectations and perspectives of management differ to those of previous generations. Methods: The data was collected from upper secondary school students and professionally educated nurses (n = 68), some of whom were immigrants (n = 41). Framed essays were used as a research method and emergent data was analysed using content analysis. Results: According to the results, good management involves systematic management, equality, appreciation of know-how, and the promotion of wellbeing at work. Conclusion: New perspectives on management were drawn from the study, in particular the multiple dimensions of equality in workplace organization and the manager's role in an employee's professional development process. Implication for nursing management: The interactive skills of the manager are emphasized in promoting wellbeing at work. This is especially so in multi-cultural teams, where the manager is expected to be adept at understanding intercultural communication and the values of young employees. PMID:24720464

  16. Affordable Care Act Provision Had Similar, Positive Impacts For Young Adults With And Without Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, Shirley L; Huang, Jin

    2016-05-01

    Beginning in 2010 the Affordable Care Act (ACA) allowed young adults (ages 19-25) to remain on their parents' private health insurance plans, even if they were not full-time students. This study investigated the impact of the ACA on health insurance coverage for young adults with disabilities, comparing their experience with that of young adults without disabilities and that of a group of older adults (ages 26-34) with disabilities. We analyzed the periods 2006-09 and 2011-14, which were before and after implementation of the dependent coverage provision in the ACA, respectively. Coverage gains for older adults with disabilities were entirely attributable to changes in public insurance. Gains for young adults overall were driven by changes in private insurance. Both young adults with and without disabilities experienced a 4-percentage-point increase in private health insurance coverage between the two time periods, so the gap in private coverage between the two groups did not change significantly over time. Gains in coverage affected perhaps 2.9 million young adults overall and nearly 300,000 young adults with disabilities. PMID:27140994

  17. Foundations for Young Adult Success: A Developmental Framework. Concept Paper for Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaoka, Jenny; Farrington, Camille A.; Ehrlich, Stacy B.; Heath, Ryan D.

    2015-01-01

    Amid growing recognition that strong academic skills alone are not enough for young people to become successful adults, this comprehensive report offers wide-ranging evidence to show what young people need to develop from preschool to young adulthood to succeed in college and career, have healthy relationships, be engaged citizens, and make wise…

  18. Comparison of survival of adolescents and young adults with hematologic malignancies in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Inoue, Masami; Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Miyashiro, Isao; Masaie, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Jun; Hino, Masayuki; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2016-06-01

    The survival gap between adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with hematological malignancies persists in many countries. To determine to what extent it does in Japan, we investigated survival and treatment regimens in 211 Japanese AYAs (15-29 years) in the Osaka Cancer Registry diagnosed during 2001-2005 with hematological malignancies, and compared adolescents (15-19 years) with young adults (20-29 years). AYAs with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) had a poor 5-year survival (44%), particularly young adults (29% vs. 64% in adolescents, p = 0.01). Additional investigation for patients with ALL revealed that only 19% of young adults were treated with pediatric treatment regimens compared with 45% of adolescents (p = 0.05). Our data indicate that we need to focus on young adults with ALL and to consider establishing appropriate cancer care system and guidelines for them in Japan. PMID:26695739

  19. Cognitive flexibility as a mediator of family communication environments and young adults' well-being.

    PubMed

    Koesten, Joy; Schrodt, Paul; Ford, Debra J

    2009-01-01

    In this study, cognitive flexibility was tested as a mediator of family communication environments (i.e., family expressiveness, structural traditionalism, and avoidance of conflict) and young adults' well-being (i.e., self-esteem, mental health, and physical health). Participants included 395 young adults from first-marriage and postdivorce families. Using structural equation modeling, the results revealed that family expressiveness positively predicted young adults' cognitive flexibility, whereas avoidance of conflict emerged as a negative predictor. Cognitive flexibility, in turn, fully mediated the influence of both expressiveness and avoidance of conflict on well-being. Although structural traditionalism did not predict cognitive flexibility, it did have a direct, inverse effect on young adults' well-being. Among the more important implications of this study is the finding that structural traditionalism and avoidance of conflict, 2 aspects of a conformity orientation in families, generate different effects (i.e., direct vs. indirect) on young adult's well-being. PMID:19204861

  20. Making music, making friends: Long-term music therapy with young adults with severe learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Pavlicevic, Mercds; O'Neil, Nicky; Powell, Harriet; Jones, Oonagh; Sampathianaki, Ergina

    2014-03-01

    This collaborative practitioner research study emerged from music therapists' concerns about the value of improvisational, music-centred music therapy for young adults with severe learning disabilities (SLDs), given the long-term nature of such work. Concerns included the relevance, in this context, of formulating, and reporting on, therapeutic aims, development, change; and working in 'goal-oriented' way. Focus groups with the young adults' families and a range of professionals suggest that, rather than leading to developmental change, long-term shared therapeutic musicking provides young adults with ongoing opportunities for experiencing confidence and self-esteem, with feelings of shared acceptance and success, and also provides young adults and their families with opportunities for developing and sustaining friendships. In addition, families experienced meeting other parents and carers in the communal reception area as supportive and countering their isolation. Focus groups assigned intrapersonal, relational and social values to long-term music therapy for young adults with SLDs. PMID:24196841

  1. Direct and indirect measures of memory for modality in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Light, L L; LaVoie, D; Valencia-Laver, D; Owens, S A; Mead, G

    1992-11-01

    In 2 experiments, young and older adults demonstrated modality effects of similar magnitude in perceptual identification tasks. That is, both young and older adults demonstrated more repetition priming when study and test modalities matched than when they were different, suggesting that contextual information was equally available across age. However, when asked explicitly to retrieve modality information, older adults were less accurate than young adults. These results constitute evidence for a dissociation between direct and indirect measures of memory for modality information. They call into question hypotheses that memory impairment in old age is due to deficient encoding of contextual information and challenge current accounts of modality effects in repetition priming. PMID:1447552

  2. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of internet addiction in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sepede, Gianna; Tavino, Margherita; Santacroce, Rita; Fiori, Federica; Salerno, Rosa Maria; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To report the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies pertaining internet addiction disorder (IAD) in young adults. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review on PubMed, focusing our attention on fMRI studies involving adult IAD patients, free from any comorbid psychiatric condition. The following search words were used, both alone and in combination: fMRI, internet addiction, internet dependence, functional neuroimaging. The search was conducted on April 20th, 2015 and yielded 58 records. Inclusion criteria were the following: Articles written in English, patients’ age ≥ 18 years, patients affected by IAD, studies providing fMRI results during resting state or cognitive/emotional paradigms. Structural MRI studies, functional imaging techniques other than fMRI, studies involving adolescents, patients with comorbid psychiatric, neurological or medical conditions were excluded. By reading titles and abstracts, we excluded 30 records. By reading the full texts of the 28 remaining articles, we identified 18 papers meeting our inclusion criteria and therefore included in the qualitative synthesis. RESULTS: We found 18 studies fulfilling our inclusion criteria, 17 of them conducted in Asia, and including a total number of 666 tested subjects. The included studies reported data acquired during resting state or different paradigms, such as cue-reactivity, guessing or cognitive control tasks. The enrolled patients were usually males (95.4%) and very young (21-25 years). The most represented IAD subtype, reported in more than 85% of patients, was the internet gaming disorder, or videogame addiction. In the resting state studies, the more relevant abnormalities were localized in the superior temporal gyrus, limbic, medial frontal and parietal regions. When analyzing the task related fmri studies, we found that less than half of the papers reported behavioral differences between patients and normal controls, but all of them found significant differences in cortical and subcortical brain regions involved in cognitive control and reward processing: Orbitofrontal cortex, insula, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, temporal and parietal regions, brain stem and caudate nucleus. CONCLUSION: IAD may seriously affect young adults’ brain functions. It needs to be studied more in depth to provide a clear diagnosis and an adequate treatment. PMID:26981230

  3. Executive function and bilingualism in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Lemieux, Maude; Monetta, Laura; Taler, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that being bilingual results in advantages on executive control processes and disadvantages on language tasks relative to monolinguals. Furthermore, the executive function advantage is thought to be larger in older than younger adults, suggesting that bilingualism may buffer against age-related changes in executive function. However, there are potential confounds in some of the previous research, as well as inconsistencies in the literature. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the presence of a bilingual advantage in executive control and a bilingual disadvantage on language tasks in the same sample of young and older monolingual anglophones, monolingual francophones, and French/English bilinguals. Participants completed a series of executive function tasks, including a Stroop task, a Simon task, a sustained attention to response task (SART), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), and the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and language tasks, including the Boston Naming Test (BNT), and category and letter fluency. The results do not demonstrate an unequivocal advantage for bilinguals on executive function tasks and raise questions about the reliability, robustness and/or specificity of previous findings. The results also did not demonstrate a disadvantage for bilinguals on language tasks. Rather, they suggest that there may be an influence of the language environment. It is concluded that additional research is required to fully characterize any language group differences in both executive function and language tasks. PMID:25120442

  4. Childhood social inequalities influences neural processes in young adult caregiving.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pilyoung; Ho, Shaun S; Evans, Gary W; Liberzon, Israel; Swain, James E

    2015-12-01

    Childhood poverty is associated with harsh parenting with a risk of transmission to the next generation. This prospective study examined the relations between childhood poverty and non-parent adults' neural responses to infant cry sounds. While no main effects of poverty were revealed in contrasts of infant cry versus acoustically matched white noise, a gender by childhood poverty interaction emerged. In females, childhood poverty was associated with increased neural activations in the posterior insula, striatum, calcarine sulcus, hippocampus, and fusiform gyrus, while, in males, childhood poverty was associated with reduced levels of neural responses to infant cry in the same regions. Irrespective of gender, neural activation in these regions was associated with higher levels of annoyance with the cry sound and reduced desire to approach the crying infant. The findings suggest gender differences in neural and emotional responses to infant cry sounds among young adults growing up in poverty. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 57: 948-960, 2015. PMID:25981334

  5. Executive function and bilingualism in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Lemieux, Maude; Monetta, Laura; Taler, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that being bilingual results in advantages on executive control processes and disadvantages on language tasks relative to monolinguals. Furthermore, the executive function advantage is thought to be larger in older than younger adults, suggesting that bilingualism may buffer against age-related changes in executive function. However, there are potential confounds in some of the previous research, as well as inconsistencies in the literature. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the presence of a bilingual advantage in executive control and a bilingual disadvantage on language tasks in the same sample of young and older monolingual anglophones, monolingual francophones, and French/English bilinguals. Participants completed a series of executive function tasks, including a Stroop task, a Simon task, a sustained attention to response task (SART), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), and the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and language tasks, including the Boston Naming Test (BNT), and category and letter fluency. The results do not demonstrate an unequivocal advantage for bilinguals on executive function tasks and raise questions about the reliability, robustness and/or specificity of previous findings. The results also did not demonstrate a disadvantage for bilinguals on language tasks. Rather, they suggest that there may be an influence of the language environment. It is concluded that additional research is required to fully characterize any language group differences in both executive function and language tasks. PMID:25120442

  6. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Young Adults Who Were Born Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Miettola, Satu; Hovi, Petteri; Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Ruokonen, Aimo; Sundvall, Jouko; Pouta, Anneli; Eriksson, Johan G.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero

    2015-01-01

    Adults who were born preterm with a very low birth weight have higher blood pressure and impaired glucose regulation later in life compared with those born at term. We investigated cardiometabolic risk factors in young adults who were born at any degree of prematurity in the Preterm Birth and Early Life Programming of Adult Health and Disease (ESTER) Study, a population-based cohort study of individuals born in 1985–1989 in Northern Finland. In 2009–2011, 3 groups underwent clinical examination: 134 participants born at less than 34 gestational weeks (early preterm), 242 born at 34–36 weeks (late preterm), and 344 born at 37 weeks or later (controls). Compared with controls, adults who were born preterm had higher body fat percentages (after adjustment for sex, age, and cohort (1985–1986 or 1987–1989), for those born early preterm, difference = 6.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4, 13.2; for those born late preterm, difference = 8.0%, 95% CI: 2.4, 13.8), waist circumferences, blood pressure (for those born early preterm, difference = 3.0 mm Hg, 95% CI: 0.9, 5.1; for those born late preterm, difference = 1.7, 95% CI: −0.1, 3.4), plasma uric acid levels (for those born early preterm, difference = 20.1%, 95% CI: 7.9, 32.3; for those born late preterm, difference = 20.2%, 95% CI: 10.7, 30.5), alanine aminotransferase levels, and aspartate transaminase levels. They were also more likely to have metabolic syndrome (for those born early preterm, odds ratio = 3.7, 95% CI: 1.6, 8.2; for those born late preterm, odds ratio = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 5.3). Elevated levels of conventional and emerging risk factors suggest a higher risk of cardiometabolic disease later in life. These risk factors are also present in the large group of adults born late preterm. PMID:25947956

  7. Everyday life of young adults with intellectual disabilities: inclusionary and exclusionary processes among young adults of parents with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Starke, Mikaela

    2013-06-01

    Ten young adults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and family, and considered their families as a resource for their empowerment and development of resilience. The study participants' informal networks were composed of only a few individuals who, moreover, were mostly of dissimilar age and also included support professionals. The participants typically described themselves as excluded from others, an experience that was articulated most conspicuously in their narratives about the special schools they were attending. PMID:23834213

  8. Discordance in National Estimates of Hypertension Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quynh C.; Tabor, Joyce W.; Entzel, Pamela P.; Lau, Yan; Suchindran, Chirayath; Hussey, Jon M.; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Whitsel, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    Background In the U.S., where coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality, CHD risk assessment is a priority and accurate blood pressure (BP) measurement is essential. Methods Hypertension estimates in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), Wave IV (2008)—a nationally-representative field study of 15,701 participants aged 24–32—was referenced against NHANES (2007–2008) participants of the same age. We examined discordances in hypertension, and estimated the accuracy and reliability of blood pressure in the Add Health study. Results Hypertension rates (BP ≥ 140/90 mm Hg) were higher in Add Health compared with NHANES (19% versus 4%), but self-reported history was similar (11% versus 9%) among adults aged 24–32. Survey weights and adjustments for differences in participant characteristics, examination time, use of anti-hypertensive medications, and consumption of food/caffeine/cigarettes before blood pressure measurement had little effect on between-study differences in hypertension estimates. Among Add Health participants interviewed and examined twice (full and abbreviated interviews), blood pressure was similar, as was blood pressure at the in-home and in-clinic exams conducted by NHANES III (1988–1994). In Add Health, there was minimal digit preference in blood pressure measurements; mean bias never exceeded 2 mm Hg; and reliability (estimated as intra-class correlation coefficients) was 0.81 and 0.68 for systolic and diastolic BPs, respectively. Conclusions The proportion of young adults in NHANES reporting a history of hypertension was twice that with measured hypertension, whereas the reverse was found in Add Health. Between-survey differences were not explained by digit preference, low validity, or reliability of Add Health blood pressure data, or by salient differences in participant selection, measurement context, or interview content. The prevalence of hypertension among Add Health Wave IV participants suggests an unexpectedly high risk of cardiovascular disease among U.S. young adults and warrants further scrutiny. PMID:21610501

  9. Young, uninsured, and in debt: why young adults lack health insurance and how the Affordable Care Act is helping: findings from the Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Tracking Survey of Young Adults, 2011.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara R; Robertson, Ruth; Garber, Tracy; Doty, Michelle M

    2012-06-01

    The Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Tracking Survey of Young Adults finds that between November 2010 and November 2011, an estimated 13.7 million young adults ages 19-25 stayed on or joined their parents' health plans, including 6.6 million who likely would not have been able to do so prior to the passage of the Affordable Care Act. The findings of the survey underscore the need for policymakers to implement the remaining coverage expansions in the law. Nearly two of five young adults ages 19-29 were without health insurance for all or part of 2011, with young adults in low- and moderate-income households the most at risk. The lack of insurance had significant health and financial implications for young adults: 60 percent said they did not get needed health care because of cost and half reported problems paying medical bills or said they were paying off medical debt over time. PMID:22679639

  10. Up against the System: A Case Study of Young Adult Perspectives Transitioning from Pediatric Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Karen; Jack, Susan; Thabane, Lehana; Browne, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Advances in pediatric care have not provided the interdisciplinary support services required by those young adults with pediatric life-threatening conditions (pedLTCs) who live beyond childhood but have limited expectations to live past early adulthood. These young adults, the first generation to live into adulthood, face multiple challenges transitioning from a plethora of pediatric palliative services to scant adult health services. In a case study, using an innovative bulletin board focus group, we describe the complex interplay of the health, education, and social service sectors in this transition. Our descriptions include system deficits and strengths and the young adults' resilience and coping strategies to overcome those deficits and move forward with their lives. Young adults with pedLTC need knowledgeable providers, coordinated and accessible services, being respected and valued, and services and supports that promote independence. We recommend implementation of multidisciplinary solutions that are focused on young adult priorities to ensure seamless access to resources to support these young adults' health, educational, vocational, and social goals. The input and voice of young adults in the development of these services are imperative to ensure that multisystem services support their needs and life goals. PMID:23997951

  11. Personal meanings of death in older adults and young adults in relation to their fears of death.

    PubMed

    Cicirelli, V G

    2001-12-01

    Age and gender differences in personal meanings of death have been noted from late childhood to middle adulthood but have been little studied in older adults, for whom death is less remote. Also, such meanings have not been related to their fears of death. Groups of 78 young adults (aged 19-29) and 68 older adults (aged 70-97) were compared on the Personal Meanings of Death (Extinction, After-life, Motivator, Legacy) and on 4 Multidimensional Fear of Death (MFODS) subscales. Analysis of variance indicated that the young scored higher (p <.05) than older adults on death as Motivator and on 3 MFODS subscales. Women scored higher than men on Motivator and fear of the dying process, but men had greater fear of the unknown. Death meanings After-life and Extinction were most strongly correlated with fear of death for both young and old. Further analysis revealed age differences within the older adult group. PMID:11883450

  12. Universal Family-Focused Intervention with Young Adolescents: Effects on Health-Risking Sexual Behaviors and STDs Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Clair, Scott; Trudeau, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Considering the prevalence and consequences of health-risking sexual behaviors (HRSBs) and STDs among young adults, their prevention is a public health priority. Emerging etiological and prevention outcome literatures suggested study of the long-term effects of universal family-focused interventions on young adult HRSBs and STDs. Although earlier studies have demonstrated intervention impact on adolescent substance misuse, no study has examined universal family-focused intervention effects on young adult HRSBs and STDs via reductions in adolescent misuse. Sixth grade students and their families enrolled in 33 rural Midwestern schools were randomly assigned to experimental conditions. Self-report questionnaires provided data at pretest (Ns=238, 221, and 208 for the Iowa Strengthening Families Program [ISFP], Preparing for the Drug Free Years [PDFY], and control groups, respectively), with seven data points through young adulthood (age 21). In latent growth modeling, three young adult HRSB measures (number of sexual partners, condom use, substance use with sex) and lifetime STDs were specified as distal outcomes mediated by adolescent substance initiation growth factors (average level and rate of change). Results showed that the models fit the data and, except for condom use, there were significant indirect effects, with a higher frequency of significant findings for ISFP. The model additions of direct intervention effects on young adult outcomes generally were not supported, consistent with a model positing that long-term intervention effects on young adult HRSBs and STDs outcomes are indirect. As an indication of the practical significance of long-term effects, analyses revealed relative reduction rates ranging from 6 % to 46 % for significant outcomes. PMID:23408278

  13. Association of Calcium Intake, Dairy Product Consumption with Overweight Status in Young Adults (1995-1996): The Bogalusa Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective is to examine the association between calcium intake and dairy product consumption with overweight and obesity in young adults. The sample used in this study consisted of 1306 young adults, ages 19–38 years, who participated in the 1995–1996 young adult survey. Analysis was performed w...

  14. Book Beat: A Young Adult Services Manual for Louisiana's Libraries. Face It: Read a Book; Be Somebody.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbanks, Gretchen, Ed.

    This manual contains information on understanding the nature of young adults and developing a young adult service philosophy for a library. Ideas are provided for programs, activities, and workshops; and ready-to-use book talks and publicity materials are included, along with bibliographies for young adult collection development. The introductory…

  15. Confronting the Youth Demographic Challenge: The Labor Market Prospects of Out-of-School Young Adults. Policy Issues Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sum, Andrew; Fogg, Neeta; Mangum, Garth

    The labor market prospects of out-of-school young adults and options for improving the employment and earnings potential of all young adults were examined. The following issues were among those considered: demographic and social factors affecting young adults' employment prospects; employment trends and labor market problems in the United States…

  16. Phenomenology and the Meaning of Aging for Young and Old Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams-Price, Carolyn E.; Henley, Tracy B.; Hale, Melanie

    1998-01-01

    Uses qualitative methods to examine the similarities and differences in the meaning of aging for young and older adults. Results show that younger adults associate aging with major events in their lives and perceive aging negatively. By contrast, older adults associate aging with everyday events and they perceive aging positively. (Author/GCP)

  17. White Matter Neurons in Young Adult and Aged Rhesus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Farzad; Wang, Xiyue; Rosene, Douglas L.; Rockland, Kathleen S.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and non-human primates (NHP), white matter neurons (WMNs) persist beyond early development. Their functional importance is largely unknown, but they have both corticothalamic and corticocortical connectivity and at least one subpopulation has been implicated in vascular regulation and sleep. Several other studies have reported that the density of WMNs in humans is altered in neuropathological or psychiatric conditions. The present investigation evaluates and compares the density of superficial and deep WMNs in frontal (FR), temporal (TE), and parietal (Par) association regions of four young adult and four aged male rhesus monkeys. A major aim was to determine whether there was age-related neuronal loss, as might be expected given the substantial age-related changes known to occur in the surrounding white matter environment. Neurons were visualized by immunocytochemistry for Neu-N in coronal tissue sections (30 μm thickness), and neuronal density was assessed by systematic random sampling. Per 0.16 mm2 sampling box, this yielded about 40 neurons in the superficial WM and 10 in the deep WM. Consistent with multiple studies of cell density in the cortical gray matter of normal brains, neither the superficial nor deep WM populations showed statistically significant age-related neuronal loss, although we observed a moderate decrease with age for the deep WMNs in the frontal region. Morphometric analyses, in contrast, showed significant age effects in soma size and circularity. In specific, superficial WMNs were larger in FR and Par WM regions of the young monkeys; but in the TE, these were larger in the older monkeys. An age effect was also observed for soma circularity: superficial WMNs were more circular in FR and Par of the older monkeys. This second, morphometric result raises the question of whether other age-related morphological, connectivity, or molecular changes occur in the WMNs. These could have multiple impacts, given the wide range of putative WMN functions and their involvement in both corticothalamic and corticocortical circuitry. PMID:26941613

  18. White Matter Neurons in Young Adult and Aged Rhesus Monkey.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Farzad; Wang, Xiyue; Rosene, Douglas L; Rockland, Kathleen S

    2016-01-01

    In humans and non-human primates (NHP), white matter neurons (WMNs) persist beyond early development. Their functional importance is largely unknown, but they have both corticothalamic and corticocortical connectivity and at least one subpopulation has been implicated in vascular regulation and sleep. Several other studies have reported that the density of WMNs in humans is altered in neuropathological or psychiatric conditions. The present investigation evaluates and compares the density of superficial and deep WMNs in frontal (FR), temporal (TE), and parietal (Par) association regions of four young adult and four aged male rhesus monkeys. A major aim was to determine whether there was age-related neuronal loss, as might be expected given the substantial age-related changes known to occur in the surrounding white matter environment. Neurons were visualized by immunocytochemistry for Neu-N in coronal tissue sections (30 μm thickness), and neuronal density was assessed by systematic random sampling. Per 0.16 mm(2) sampling box, this yielded about 40 neurons in the superficial WM and 10 in the deep WM. Consistent with multiple studies of cell density in the cortical gray matter of normal brains, neither the superficial nor deep WM populations showed statistically significant age-related neuronal loss, although we observed a moderate decrease with age for the deep WMNs in the frontal region. Morphometric analyses, in contrast, showed significant age effects in soma size and circularity. In specific, superficial WMNs were larger in FR and Par WM regions of the young monkeys; but in the TE, these were larger in the older monkeys. An age effect was also observed for soma circularity: superficial WMNs were more circular in FR and Par of the older monkeys. This second, morphometric result raises the question of whether other age-related morphological, connectivity, or molecular changes occur in the WMNs. These could have multiple impacts, given the wide range of putative WMN functions and their involvement in both corticothalamic and corticocortical circuitry. PMID:26941613

  19. Labor market participation among young adults: an event history analysis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R J; Herring, C

    1989-09-01

    This study models culture of poverty explanations, earlier experiences that tend to restrict opportunities, demographic effects representing differential rates of participation by social groups, and health and marijuana use variables indicating the influence of individual life- style differences as predictors of the rate of labor market entry, promotion, and dismissal among subjects from early adolescence to young adulthood. The data are drawn from the 1st and 4th waves of a 4-wave panel of half the 1971 Houston, Texas, Independent School District 7th grade born in 1958. The findings indicate that those who believe most in the efficacy of alternatives to conventional social and economic institutions and those who expect to benefit least are most likely to have higher rates of participation. This higher rate of participation is significantly greater for earlier years and contradicts predictions of a culture of poverty theory. 1 opportunity-structure variable, poor grades, significantly increases the rate of entry into the labor market primarily because it represents the inability of individuals to pursue advanced education prior to labor market entry. Education reduces overall rates of labor market entry for a young adult cohort by delaying labor market entry. The strong relationship between drug use and unemployment may be due to motivation, impaired ability, probability of failure, or increased time to use drugs. The findings also indicate that females are more capable overall of performing their jobs and getting along with co-workers but are less likely to be promoted. Finally, those who have been sanctioned or disadvantaged within the institutions that define and enforce the norms of the economic opportunity structure are significantly more likely to enter the labor market earlier and continue to have higher rates of negative experiences, such as dismissal, within those institutions. PMID:12316383

  20. Effects of Discourse Context on the Intelligibility of Synthesized Speech for Young Adult and Older Adult Listeners: Applications for AAC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drager, Kathryn D. R.; Reichle, Joe E.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated whether discourse context affected the intelligibility of synthesized sentences for young adult and older adult listeners. Findings indicated a significant facilitating effect of context wherein previous words and sentences are related to later sentences for both listener groups. Results have direct implications for…

  1. Impact of human immunodeficiency virus on neurocognition and risky behaviors in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Laurie M.; Paul, Robert H.; Heaps, Jodi; Westerhaus, Elizabeth; Chang, Jee Yoon; Williams, Samuel; Brier, Matthew R.; Plax, Katie; Ances, Beau M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified cognitive impairments due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in adults. However, few studies have examined the impact of HIV on cognition in young adults (18-24 years old). Yet, this group is one of the largest populations of individuals with new HIV infection. Young adulthood is also an important developmental window as the brain has not fully matured and individuals are prone to engage in risky behavior. The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of HIV on neurocognition and risky behaviors. We hypothesized that HIV+ young adults (n=23) would exhibit greater cognitive impairment and risky behaviors compared to seronegative controls (n=21). In addition, we predicted that self-reported risky behavior as assessed by the Risk Assessment Battery (RAB) would covary with cognitive performances. Results revealed poorer executive function in HIV+ young adults compared to seronegative controls. HIV+ young adults also exhibited significantly greater risk scores on the RAB (p < 0.01) compared to HIV- young adults. However, there were no relationships between risky behavior and cognitive performance. Overall, our results suggest that HIV is associated with poorer cognition and increased risky behaviors in young adults. PMID:24970235

  2. Turkish and Moroccan Young Adults in the Netherlands: The Relationship Between Acculturation and Psychological Problems.

    PubMed

    Özbek, Emel; Bongers, Ilja L; Lobbestael, Jill; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between acculturation and psychological problems in Turkish and Moroccan young adults living in the Netherlands. A sample of 131 healthy young adults aged between 18 and 24 years old, with a Turkish or Moroccan background was recruited using snowball sampling. Data on acculturation, internalizing and externalizing problems, beliefs about psychological problems, attributions of psychological problems and barriers to care were collected and analyzed using Latent Class Analysis and multinomial logistic regression. Three acculturation classes were identified in moderately to highly educated, healthy Turkish or Moroccan young adults: integration, separation and diffusion. None of the participants in the sample were marginalized or assimilated. Young adults reporting diffuse acculturation reported more internalizing and externalizing problems than those who were integrated or separated. Separated young adults reported experiencing more practical barriers to care than integrated young adults. Further research with a larger sample, including young adult migrants using mental health services, is required to improve our understanding of acculturation, psychological problems and barriers to care in this population. Including experiences of discrimination in the model might improve our understanding of the relationship between different forms of acculturation and psychological problems. PMID:25845438

  3. Why and How the Tobacco Industry Sells Cigarettes to Young Adults: Evidence From Industry Documents

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. To improve tobacco control campaigns, we analyzed tobacco industry strategies that encourage young adults (aged 18 to 24) to smoke. Methods. Initial searches of tobacco industry documents with keywords (e.g., “young adult”) were extended by using names, locations, and dates. Results. Approximately 200 relevant documents were found. Transitions from experimentation to addiction, with adult levels of cigarette consumption, may take years. Tobacco marketing solidifies addiction among young adults. Cigarette advertisements encourage regular smoking and increased consumption by integrating smoking into activities and places where young adults' lives change (e.g., leaving home, college, jobs, the military, bars). Conclusions. Tobacco control efforts should include both adults and youths. Life changes are also opportunities to stop occasional smokers' progress to addiction. Clean air policies in workplaces, the military, bars, colleges, and homes can combat tobacco marketing. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:908–916) PMID:12036776

  4. Different risk factors for advanced colorectal neoplasm in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Jung, Yoon Suk; Park, Jung Ho; Kim, Hong Joo; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik; Choi, Kyu Yong; Park, Dong Il

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare the risk of developing advanced colorectal neoplasm (ACRN) according to age in Koreans. METHODS: A total of 70428 Koreans from an occupational cohort who underwent a colonoscopy between 2003 and 2012 at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital were retrospectively selected. We evaluated and compared odds ratios (OR) for ACRN between the young-adults (YA < 50 years) and in the older-adults (OA ≥ 50 years). ACRN was defined as an adenoma ≥ 10 mm in diameter, adenoma with any component of villous histology, high-grade dysplasia, or invasive cancer. RESULTS: In the YA group, age (OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.06-1.09), male sex (OR = 1.26, 95%CI: 1.02-1.55), current smoking (OR = 1.37, 95%CI: 1.15-1.63), family history of colorectal cancer (OR = 1.46, 95%CI: 1.01-2.10), diabetes mellitus related factors (OR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.06-1.54), obesity (OR = 1.23, 95%CI: 1.03-1.47), CEA (OR = 1.04, 95%CI: 1.01-1.09) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (OR = 1.01, 95%CI: 1.01-1.02) were related with an increased risk of ACRN. However, age (OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.06-1.09), male sex (OR = 2.12, 95%CI: 1.68-2.68), current smoking (OR = 1.38, 95%CI: 1.12-1.71), obesity (OR = 1.34, 95%CI: 1.09-1.65) and CEA (OR = 1.05, 95%CI: 1.01-1.09) also increased the risk of ACRN in the OA group. CONCLUSION: The risks of ACRN differed based on age group. Different colonoscopic screening strategies are appropriate for particular subjects with risk factors for ACRN, even in subjects younger than 50 years. PMID:27053853

  5. Gender differences in pornography consumption among young heterosexual Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Hald, Gert Martin

    2006-10-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to investigate gender differences in pornography consumption among Danish adults aged 18-30 and (2) to examine gender differences in situational, interpersonal, and behavioral characteristics of pornography consumption. A national survey study was conducted using a representative sample of 688 young heterosexual Danish adult men and women. The study found large gender differences in prevalence rates of pornography consumption and consumption patterns. Compared to women, men were exposed to pornography at a younger age, consumed more pornography as measured by time and frequency, and used pornography more often during sexual activity on their own. Gender differences in the interpersonal context of use were also evident, with women using pornography more often with a regular sexual partner than men. In turn, men were found to use pornography more often on their own or with friends (non-sexual partners) than women. For both men and women, the usual place of use was home and no significant gender difference was found in this regard. Men and women were found to vary in their preferences in pornographic materials, with men both preferring a wider range of hardcore pornography and less softcore pornography than women. Gender differences in sexual behavioral factors were limited to masturbation patterns with men masturbating more than women. Male gender, higher frequency of masturbation, lower age at first exposure, and younger age were found to account for 48.8% of the total variance of pornography consumption. The results were discussed in relation to the sociocultural environment and evolutionary theory. It is argued that gender differences in social acceptability, adherence to gender stereotypes, traditions of gender sexuality, gender norms, and mating strategies are key factors in understanding gender differences in pornography consumption. PMID:17039402

  6. Body mass index and regular smoking in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Alexis E; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Nelson, Elliot C; Pergadia, Michele L; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2010-11-01

    Little is known about the relationship between relative body weight and transition from experimentation to regular smoking in young adult women. In the current study, data from 2494 participants in wave 4 of the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study (aged 18-29years) who reported ever smoking a cigarette were analyzed using logistic regression. Body mass index (BMI) at time of interview was categorized according to CDC adult guidelines, and regular smoking was defined as having ever smoked 100 or more cigarettes and having smoked at least once a week for two months in a row. Since the OR's for the overweight and obese groups did not differ significantly from one another in any model tested, these groups were combined. Forty-five percent of women who had ever smoked had become regular smokers. Testing of interactions between potential covariates and levels of the categorical BMI variable revealed a significant interaction between overweight/obesity and childhood sexual abuse (CSA; p<0.001) associated with regular smoking. Among women reporting CSA, the association between overweight/obesity and having become a regular smoker was negative (n=374; OR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.28-0.81). Both underweight and overweight/obesity were positively associated with transition to regular smoking among women who did not report CSA (n=2076; OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.05-2.35 and OR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.35-2.20, respectively). These results suggest that experiencing CSA alters the association between BMI and regular smoking in women who have experimented with cigarettes. PMID:20634004

  7. Renal Cell Carcinoma in a Young Adult – Do We Need Further Investigations?

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Matthias; Wetterauer, Christian; Bruder, Elisabeth; Obermann, Ellen C.; Subotic, Svetozar; Wyler, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinomas (RCC), mostly occurring in adults aged 60–70 years, can result from well-known factors like cigarette smoking, obesity and hypertension. However, they have been associated with genetic alterations in children and young adults. A 28 year-old male patient with a confirmed RCC underwent biomolecular and immunohistochemical analyses due to his young age. A point mutation of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene was identified. Young patients under 40 years with diagnosed RCC should undergo additional diagnostic investigation, hence the discovery of an underlying cause. This could be important for further treatment and counseling of these young patients.

  8. Being a Parent to a Young Adult with Mental Illness in Transition to Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Eva; Söderberg, Siv; Skär, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Parents of young adults with mental illness may face a continued demand for support, even though their children have reached the age of majority. The aim of this study was to explore relatives' experiences of parenting a young adult with mental illness in transition to adulthood. Individual interviews were conducted and analysed according to Grounded Theory. The results showed that relatives experienced powerlessness and a sense of inescapable duty with limited possibilities to be relieved. With a family nursing approach, relatives can be supported and, when the young adults' needs of care are met, they can be relieved from their burden of responsibility. PMID:26864840

  9. Speaking up for vocabulary: reading skill differences in young adults.

    PubMed

    Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald P; Mencl, W Einar

    2007-01-01

    This study is part of a broader project aimed at developing cognitive and neurocognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. We explore the relationships among reading-related abilities in participants ages 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range of reading ability. Two specific questions are addressed: (a) Does the simple view of reading capture all nonrandom variation in reading comprehension? (b) Does orally assessed vocabulary knowledge account for variance in reading comprehension, as predicted by the lexical quality hypothesis? A comprehensive battery of cognitive and educational tests was employed to assess phonological awareness, decoding, verbal working memory, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, word knowledge, and experience with print. In this heterogeneous sample, decoding ability clearly played an important role in reading comprehension. The simple view of reading gave a reasonable fit to the data, although it did not capture all of the reliable variance in reading comprehension as predicted. Orally assessed vocabulary knowledge captured unique variance in reading comprehension even after listening comprehension and decoding skill were accounted for. We explore how a specific connectionist model of lexical representation and lexical access can account for these findings. PMID:17518215

  10. Bikram yoga training and physical fitness in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Brian L; Hart, Cady E F

    2013-03-01

    There has been relatively little longitudinal controlled investigation of the effects of yoga on general physical fitness, despite the widespread participation in this form of exercise. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the effect of short-term Bikram yoga training on general physical fitness. Young healthy adults were randomized to yoga training (N = 10, 29 ± 6 years, 24 sessions in 8 weeks) or a control group (N = 11, 26 ± 7 years). Each yoga training session consisted of 90-minute standardized supervised postures performed in a heated and humidified studio. Isometric deadlift strength, handgrip strength, lower back/hamstring and shoulder flexibility, resting heart rate and blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption (treadmill), and lean and fat mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured before and after training. Yoga subjects exhibited increased deadlift strength, substantially increased lower back/hamstring flexibility, increased shoulder flexibility, and modestly decreased body fat compared with control group. There were no changes in handgrip strength, cardiovascular measures, or maximal aerobic fitness. In summary, this short-term yoga training protocol produced beneficial changes in musculoskeletal fitness that were specific to the training stimulus. PMID:22592178

  11. Ventilatory Function in Young Adults and Dietary Antioxidant Intake

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Bakolis, Ioannis; Rona, Roberto J.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants may protect against poor ventilatory function. We assessed the relation between ventilatory function and antioxidant components of diet in young Chileans. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and the ratio FEV1/FVC were measured in 1232 adults aged 22–28 years, using a Vitalograph device. Dietary intake was ascertained with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed for this study, from which nutrient and flavonoid intakes were estimated. Dietary patterns were derived with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). After controlling for potential confounders, dietary intake of total catechins was positively associated with FVC (Regression coefficient (RC) of highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15; p per trend 0.006). Total fruit intake was related to FVC (RC of highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.003 to 0.15; p per trend 0.02). Intake of omega 3 fatty acids was associated with a higher FEV1 (RC for highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15 L; p per trend 0.02) and with FVC 0.08 (RC in highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.08, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.16; p per trend 0.04). Our results show that fresh fruits, flavonoids, and omega 3 fatty acids may contribute to maintain ventilatory function. PMID:25884660

  12. Speaking up for Vocabulary: Reading Skill Differences in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald; Mencl, Einar

    2010-01-01

    This study is part of a broader project that has the goal of developing cognitive and neuro-cognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. The study explores relationships among reading related abilities in participants aged 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range of reading ability. Two specific questions are addressed: (1) Does the Simple View of Reading (Gough & Tunmer, 1986) capture all non-random variation in reading comprehension? (2) Does orally-assessed vocabulary knowledge account for variance in reading comprehension, as predicted by the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002)? A comprehensive battery of cognitive and educational tests was employed to assess phonological awareness, decoding, verbal working memory, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, word knowledge, experience with print. In this heterogeneous sample, decoding ability clearly plays an important role in reading comprehension. Gough and Tunmer’s Simple View of Reading gives a reasonable fit to the data, though it does not capture all of the reliable variance in reading comprehension as predicted. Orally assessed vocabulary knowledge captures unique variance in reading comprehension even after listening comprehension and decoding skill are accounted for. We explore how a specific connectionist model of lexical representation and lexical access can account for these findings. PMID:17518215

  13. Unfulfilled expectations and symptoms of depression among young adults.

    PubMed

    Mossakowski, Krysia N

    2011-09-01

    This study uses the life course perspective and data from 16 waves of the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-1994) to examine whether unfulfilled expectations about educational attainment, employment, marriage, and parenthood are risk factors for subsequent symptoms of depression among young adults in the United States. Results from ordinary least squares regression analyses indicate that achieving a lower level of education than expected, becoming a parent unexpectedly, and being out of the labor force unexpectedly at ages 19-27 predict higher levels of depressive symptoms at ages 29-37, adjusting for demographics, family background, and earlier mental health. These effects do not significantly vary by gender, age, race/ethnicity, or family background, and are not explained by being selected out of the labor force for long durations because of mental or physical illness, attending school, keeping house, or other reasons. Overall, this study contributes to the literature on stress and mental health by acknowledging people's expectations about the markers of adulthood, and advances our understanding of why the timing of transitions in people's lives can have long-term mental health consequences. PMID:21798639

  14. Bacteriology of severe periodontitis in young adult humans.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, W E; Holdeman, L V; Smibert, R M; Hash, D E; Burmeister, J A; Ranney, R R

    1982-01-01

    A total of 78 bacteriological samples were taken from the supragingival tooth surface after superficial cleaning with toothpicks or from the periodontal sulci of 42 affected sites in 21 adolescents or young adults with severe generalized periodontitis. Of 190 bacterial species, subspecies, or serotypes detected among 2,723 isolates, 11 species exceeded 1% of the subgingival flora and were most closely associated with the diseased sulci. Eleven others were also sufficiently frequent to be suspect agents of tissue destruction. Many of these species are known pathogens of other body sites. In addition, 10 species of Treponema were isolated. One of these and the "large treponeme" were also more closely associated with severe periodontitis than they were with healthy sites or gingivitis. There were highly significant differences between the composition of the flora of the affected sulci and the flora of (i) the adjacent supragingival tooth surface, (ii) the gingival crevice of periodontally healthy people, and (iii) sites with a gingival index score of 0 or 2 in experimental gingivitis studies. The floras of different individuals were also significantly different. There was no statistically detectable effect of sampling per se upon the composition of the flora of subsequent samples from the same sites. The composition of the supragingival flora of the patients with severe generalized periodontitis that had serum antibody to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was significantly different from the supragingival flora of patients without this serum antibody. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the composition of their subgingival floras. PMID:7152665

  15. Management of femoral neck fractures in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Thuan V; Swiontkowski, Marc F

    2008-01-01

    Femoral neck fractures in young adults are uncommon and often the result of high-energy trauma. They are associated with higher incidences of femoral head osteonecrosis and nonunion. Multiple factors can play a significant role in preventing these devastating complications and contribute to a good outcome. While achieving an anatomic reduction and stable internal fixation are imperative, other treatment variables, such as time to surgery, the role of capsulotomy and the fixation methods remain debatable. Open reduction and internal fixation through a Watson-Jones exposure is the recommended approach. Definitive fixation can be accomplished with three cannulated or noncannulated cancellous screws. Capsulotomy in femoral neck fractures remains a controversial issue and the practice varies by trauma program, region and country. Until there is conclusive data (i.e. prospective and controlled) we recommend performing a capsulotomy. The data available is inconclusive on whether this fracture should be operated emergently, urgently or can wait until the next day. Until there is conclusive data available, we recommend that surgery should be done on an urgent basis. The key factors in treating femoral neck fractures should include early diagnosis, early surgery, anatomic reduction, capsular decompression and stable internal fixation. PMID:19823648

  16. Sexual Orientation and Substance Use Among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tillman, Kathryn Harker

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined interrelationships among the 3 dimensions of sexual orientation—self-identity, sexual attraction, and sexual experience—and their associations with substance use among adolescents and young adults. Methods. To estimate total and net associations of sexual identity, attraction, and experience with use of tobacco, drugs, and alcohol, we applied logistic regression to cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Family Growth Cycle 6. Results. We found a lack of concordance among the different dimensions of sexual orientation. More youths reported same-gender sexual attraction and same-gender sexual experiences than identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Estimates of substance use prevalence differed significantly by gender and across dimensions of sexual orientation. Sexual experience was the most consistent predictor of substance use. Women and men with no sexual experience had the lowest odds of all forms of substance use; those reporting sexual experience with partners of both genders had the highest odds. Conclusions. Our findings indicate that sexual identity was less strongly associated with substance use than sexual experience and attraction were, pointing to the need for more nuanced indicators of sexual orientation in public health studies. PMID:22021322

  17. Genetic association of impulsivity in young adults: a multivariate study

    PubMed Central

    Khadka, S; Narayanan, B; Meda, S A; Gelernter, J; Han, S; Sawyer, B; Aslanzadeh, F; Stevens, M C; Hawkins, K A; Anticevic, A; Potenza, M N; Pearlson, G D

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is a heritable, multifaceted construct with clinically relevant links to multiple psychopathologies. We assessed impulsivity in young adult (N~2100) participants in a longitudinal study, using self-report questionnaires and computer-based behavioral tasks. Analysis was restricted to the subset (N=426) who underwent genotyping. Multivariate association between impulsivity measures and single-nucleotide polymorphism data was implemented using parallel independent component analysis (Para-ICA). Pathways associated with multiple genes in components that correlated significantly with impulsivity phenotypes were then identified using a pathway enrichment analysis. Para-ICA revealed two significantly correlated genotypephenotype component pairs. One impulsivity component included the reward responsiveness subscale and behavioral inhibition scale of the Behavioral-Inhibition System/Behavioral-Activation System scale, and the second impulsivity component included the non-planning subscale of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and the Experiential Discounting Task. Pathway analysis identified processes related to neurogenesis, nervous system signal generation/amplification, neurotransmission and immune response. We identified various genes and gene regulatory pathways associated with empirically derived impulsivity components. Our study suggests that gene networks implicated previously in brain development, neurotransmission and immune response are related to impulsive tendencies and behaviors. PMID:25268255

  18. Binge Drinking and Sleep Problems among Young Adults*

    PubMed Central

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective As most of the literature exploring the relationships between alcohol use and sleep problems is descriptive and with small sample sizes, the present study seeks to provide new information on the topic by employing a large, nationally representative dataset with several waves of data and a broad set of measures for binge drinking and sleep problems. Methods We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative survey of adolescents and young adults. The analysis sample consists of all Wave 4 observations without missing values for the sleep problems variables (N=14,089, 53% females). We estimate gender-specific multivariate probit models with a rich set of socioeconomic, demographic, physical, and mental health variables to control for confounding factors. Results Our results confirm that alcohol use, and specifically binge drinking, is positively and significantly associated with various types of sleep problems. The detrimental effects on sleep increase in magnitude with frequency of binge drinking, suggesting a dose-response relationship. Moreover, binge drinking is associated with sleep problems independent of psychiatric conditions. Conclusions The statistically strong association between sleep problems and binge drinking found in this study is a first step in understanding these relationships. Future research is needed to determine the causal links between alcohol misuse and sleep problems to inform appropriate clinical and policy responses. PMID:23466223

  19. Defining Adult Experiences: Perspectives of a Diverse Sample of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Dillon, Colleen O.; Rhodes, Jean E.; Zwiebach, Liza

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the roles and psychological experiences identified as defining adult moments using mixed methods with a racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse sample of young adults both enrolled and not enrolled in college (N = 726; ages 18-35). First, we evaluated results from a single survey item that asked participants to rate how adult they feel. Consistent with previous research, the majority of participants (56.9%) reported feeling “somewhat like an adult,” and older participants had significantly higher subjective adulthood, controlling for other demographic variables. Next, we analyzed responses from an open-ended question asking participants to describe instances in which they felt like an adult. Responses covered both traditional roles (e.g., marriage, childbearing; 36.1%) and nontraditional social roles and experiences (e.g., moving out of parent’s home, cohabitation; 55.6%). Although we found no differences by age and college status in the likelihood of citing a traditional or nontraditional role, participants who had achieved more traditional roles were more likely to cite them in their responses. In addition, responses were coded for psychological experiences, including responsibility for self (19.0%), responsibility for others (15.3%), self-regulation (31.1%), and reflected appraisals (5.1%). Older participants were significantly more likely to include self-regulation and reflected appraisals, whereas younger participants were more likely to include responsibility for self. College students were more likely than noncollege students to include self-regulation and reflected appraisals. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:23554545

  20. What Are Young Adults Saying About Mental Health? An Analysis of Internet Blogs

    PubMed Central

    Westra, Henny A; Eastwood, John D; Barnes, Kirsten L

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the high prevalence of mental health concerns, few young adults access treatment. While much research has focused on understanding the barriers to service access, few studies have explored unbiased accounts of the experiences of young adults with mental health concerns. It is through hearing these experiences and gaining an in-depth understanding of what is being said by young adults that improvements can be made to interventions focused on increasing access to care. Objective To move beyond past research by using an innovative qualitative research method of analyzing the blogs of young adults (18–25 years of age) with mental health concerns to understand their experiences. Methods We used an enhanced Internet search vehicle, DEVONagent, to extract Internet blogs using primary keywords related to mental health. Blogs (N = 8) were selected based on age of authors (18–25 years), gender, relevance to mental health, and recency of the entries. Blogs excerpts were analyzed using a combination of grounded theory and consensual qualitative research methods. Results Two core categories emerged from the qualitative analysis of the bloggers accounts: I am powerless (intrapersonal) and I am utterly alone (interpersonal). Overall, the young adult bloggers expressed significant feelings of powerlessness as a result of their mental health concerns and simultaneously felt a profound sense of loneliness, alienation, and lack of connection with others. Conclusions The present study suggests that one reason young adults do not seek care might be that they view the mental health system negatively and feel disconnected from these services. To decrease young adults’ sense of powerlessness and isolation, efforts should focus on creating and developing resources and services that allow young adults to feel connected and empowered. Through an understanding of the experiences of young adults with mental health problems, and their experiences of and attitudes toward receiving care, we provide some recommendations for improving receptivity and knowledge of mental health care services. PMID:22569642

  1. Health-Related Stigma as a Determinant of Functioning in Young Adults with Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kapella, Mary C.; Berger, Barbara E.; Vern, Boris A.; Vispute, Sachin; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression) and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 18–35) with narcolepsy (N = 122) and without narcolepsy (N = 93) were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Fife Stigma Scale (FSS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (p<0.01). Health-related stigma was directly and indirectly associated with lower functioning through depressed mood. Fifty-two percent of the variance in functioning was explained by the final model in the young adults with narcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy. PMID:25898361

  2. Health-related stigma as a determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Kapella, Mary C; Berger, Barbara E; Vern, Boris A; Vispute, Sachin; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression) and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 18-35) with narcolepsy (N = 122) and without narcolepsy (N = 93) were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Fife Stigma Scale (FSS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (p<0.01). Health-related stigma was directly and indirectly associated with lower functioning through depressed mood. Fifty-two percent of the variance in functioning was explained by the final model in the young adults with narcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy. PMID:25898361

  3. ADULT ATTACHMENT, PERSONALITY TRAITS, AND BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER FEATURES IN YOUNG ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Lori N.; Levy, Kenneth N.; Pincus, Aaron L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that insecure attachment patterns and a trait disposition toward negative affect and impulsivity are both associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD) features. According to attachment theory, insecure attachment patterns impart greater risk for the maladaptive personality traits underlying BPD. Hence, insecure attachment might be indirectly related to BPD through its association with these traits. The current cross-sectional study used structural equation modeling to compare two competing models of the relationship between adult attachment patterns, trait negative affect and impulsivity, and BPD features in a large nonclinical sample of young adults: (M1) attachment anxiety and avoidance are positively related to trait negative affect and impulsivity, which in turn, are directly associated with BPD features; and (M2) trait negative affect and impulsivity are positively related to attachment anxiety and avoidance, which in turn, are directly associated with BPD features. Consistent with attachment theory, M1 provided a better fit to the data than M2. However, only attachment anxiety, and not attachment avoidance, was significantly associated with negative affect and impulsivity. The results favored a model in which the relationship between adult attachment anxiety and BPD features is fully mediated by trait negative affect and impulsivity. PMID:19538081

  4. Neural control of the lips differs for young and older adults following a perturbation.

    PubMed

    de Miranda Marzullo, Ana Carolina; Neto, Osmar Pinto; Ballard, Kirrie J; Robin, Donald A; Chaitow, Lauren; Christou, Evangelos A

    2010-10-01

    Aging impairs the control of many skilled movements including speech. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether young and older adults adapt to lower lip perturbations during speech differently. Twenty men (10 young, 26 ± 3 years of age; 10 older, 60 ± 9 years of age) were requested to repeat the word ("papa") 300 times. In 15% of the trials, the subjects experienced a mechanical perturbation on the lower lip. Displacement and neural activation (EMG) of the upper and lower lips were evaluated. Perturbations to the lower lip caused a greater increase in the maximum displacement of the lower lip for older adults compared with young adults (34.7 ± 19% vs. 13.4 ± 17%; P=0.017). Furthermore, young adults exhibited significantly greater 30-100 Hz normalized EMG power for the lower lip compared to the upper lip (P<0.005). In young adults, changes from normal to perturbed trials in the 30-50 Hz frequency band of the EMG were negatively correlated to the changes from normal to perturbed trials in the lower lip maximum displacement (R (2) =0.48; P=0.025). It is concluded that young adults adapt better to lower lip perturbations compared with older adults and that the associated neural activation strategy of the involved muscle is different for the two age groups. PMID:20852991

  5. Neural control of the lips differs for young and older adults following a perturbation

    PubMed Central

    de Miranda Marzullo, Ana Carolina; Neto, Osmar Pinto; Ballard, Kirrie J.; Robin, Donald A.; Chaitow, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Aging impairs the control of many skilled movements including speech. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether young and older adults adapt to lower lip perturbations during speech differently. Twenty men (10 young, 26 ± 3 years of age; 10 older, 60 ± 9 years of age) were requested to repeat the word (“papa”) 300 times. In 15% of the trials, the subjects experienced a mechanical perturbation on the lower lip. Displacement and neural activation (EMG) of the upper and lower lips were evaluated. Perturbations to the lower lip caused a greater increase in the maximum displacement of the lower lip for older adults compared with young adults (34.7 ± 19% vs. 13.4 ± 17%; P = 0.017). Furthermore, young adults exhibited significantly greater 30–100 Hz normalized EMG power for the lower lip compared to the upper lip (P < 0.005). In young adults, changes from normal to perturbed trials in the 30–50 Hz frequency band of the EMG were negatively correlated to the changes from normal to perturbed trials in the lower lip maximum displacement (R2 = 0.48; P = 0.025). It is concluded that young adults adapt better to lower lip perturbations compared with older adults and that the associated neural activation strategy of the involved muscle is different for the two age groups. PMID:20852991

  6. Circulating CXCR5+PD-1+ response predicts influenza vaccine antibody responses in young adults but not elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Herati, Ramin Sedaghat; Reuter, Morgan A.; Dolfi, Douglas V.; Mansfield, Kathleen D.; Aung, Htin; Badwan, Osama Z.; Kurupati, Raj K.; Kannan, Senthil; Ertl, Hildegund; Schmader, Kenneth E.; Betts, Michael R.; Canaday, David H.; Wherry, E. John

    2014-01-01

    Although influenza vaccination is recommended for all adults annually, the incidence of vaccine failure, defined as weak or absent increase in neutralizing antibody titers, is increased in the elderly compared to young adults. The T follicular helper subset of CD4 T cells (Tfh) provides B cell help in germinal centers and is necessary for class-switched antibody responses. Previous studies suggested a role for circulating T follicular helper cells (cTfh) following influenza vaccination in adults, but cTfh have not been studied in elderly adults where weak vaccine responses are often observed. Here, we studied cTfh expressing CXCR5 and Programmed Death 1 (PD-1). cTfh from elderly adults were present at reduced frequency, had decreased in vitro B cell help ability, and greater expression of inducible costimulator (ICOS) compared to young adults. At seven days after inactivated influenza vaccination, cTfh correlated with influenza vaccine-specific IgM and IgG responses in young adults but not in elderly adults. In sum, we have identified aging-related changes in cTfh that correlated with reduced influenza vaccine responses. Future rational vaccine design efforts should incorporate Tfh measurement as an immune correlate of protection, particularly in the setting of aging. PMID:25172499

  7. Body Composition and Anthropometric Correlates of Isokinetic Leg Extension Strength of Young Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June; Thorland, William G.

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the relative importance of body size and composition as determinants of differences in isokinetic leg extensor strength in young adult males performing at slow, moderate, and fast speeds. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  8. Porteus Maze Test Performance of Retarded Young Adults and Nonretarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, Herman H.; DeRisi, Donna Thompson

    1978-01-01

    Performances of 18 retarded young adults on the Porteus Maze Test (a measure of planning capacity and foresight) were compared with those of 117 first- through fourth-grade nonretarded children. (Author)

  9. A Retrospective Look at Young Adult Literature of the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Richard F.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of the 10 best fiction and the 10 best nonfiction young adult literature published in the 1980s. Notes that the books mix popularity and quality into a cake of reading motivation. (RS)

  10. Comparing the Labor Market Success of Young Adults from Two Generations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrammel, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    Contradictory to expectations of labor market analysts, young adults born during the "baby bust" (1965-1976) have thus far been less successful, in terms of earnings and other labor market measures, then their "baby boom" counterparts. (Author)

  11. Some of My Favorite Books Are by Young Adult Authors and Some Are by Jane Austen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Robert C., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of reading young adult novels. Remarks on their serious intent, careful craftmanship, effective expression, as well as their ability to illuminate the human condition and provide insights. (EL)

  12. Young Adults' Attitudes and Perceptions of Obesity and Weight Management: Implications for Treatment Development.

    PubMed

    Lanoye, Autumn; Gorin, Amy A; LaRose, Jessica Gokee

    2016-03-01

    Young adults are underrepresented in standard behavioral weight loss trials, and evidence suggests that they differ from older adults on many weight-related constructs. The aim of this review is to explore young adults' attitudes toward obesity and weight management, with particular attention to those factors that may play a role in the development of future treatment efforts. Both intrapersonal and interpersonal considerations unique to young adulthood are assessed; in addition, we examine young adults' perceptions of specific weight-related behaviors such as dieting, physical activity, and self-weighing. Conclusions are consistent with other findings suggesting that weight management interventions should be adapted and designed specifically for this age group. PMID:26923688

  13. Bisphenol A in Urine of Chinese Young Adults: Concentrations and Sources of Exposure.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chongjing; Liu, Liyan; Ma, Wanli; Zhu, Ningzheng; Jiang, Ling; Ren, Nanqi; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental chemical. Urinary concentrations of BPA were measured in samples collected nationwide from Chinese young adults. The geometric mean urinary concentration of BPA in Chinese young adults was 2.23 ng/mL. The estimated daily exposure dose for BPA was 64.8 ng/kg bw/day. Contributions of various BPA sources to exposure in Chinese young adults were estimated. Dietary intake was the primary exposure pathway. The contribution of dietary intake, indoor dust, paper products and personal care products to BPA intake was 72.5 %, 0.74 %, 0.98 %, 0.22 % of the total exposure dose, respectively. This is the first study on the occurrence of BPA in young adults from most provinces and autonomous regions of China. The results can be used to establish a database for BPA exposure assessment for Chinese general population. PMID:26679324

  14. Young Adult Insurance Coverage And Out-Of-Pocket Spending: Long-Term Patterns.

    PubMed

    Berk, Marc L; Fang, Zhengyi

    2016-04-01

    The Affordable Care Act appears to have improved health insurance coverage for young adults (ages 18-30). But data from twenty national surveys conducted between 1977 and 2013 paint a more complex picture, showing coverage rates lower in 2013 than they were thirty-six years earlier. Racial and ethnic disparities in coverage have declined recently, while out-of-pocket expenditures remain low for most young adults. PMID:27008855

  15. Parental divorce and young adult children's romantic relationships: resolution of the divorce experience.

    PubMed

    Shulman, S; Scharf, M; Lumer, D; Maurer, O

    2001-10-01

    Fifty-one romantically involved young Israeli adults, whose parents were divorced, were questioned about their romantic relationship, parents' conflict, and current feelings about and reconstruction of the divorce. An integrative perception of the divorce was found to be related to fewer problems and to higher levels of friendship, enjoyment, and intimacy in the relationship. Implications for research and intervention with young adults are discussed. PMID:11822220

  16. The Functional Profile of Young Adults with Suspected Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal-Saban, Miri; Zarka, Salman; Grotto, Itamar; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the non-academic and academic functioning of young adults with DCD, and investigated the emotional influences and the role of strategy use within this population. A random sample of 2379 adolescents and young adults aged 19-25 (1081 males [45.4%]; mean age = 20.68, SD = 3.42) was used to develop the instruments. From this sample, three…

  17. [Postprandial lipemia in Colombian young adults from different ethnic groups].

    PubMed

    Aguilar de Plata, Cecilia; Velasco de Echeverri, Maria Teresa; Gracia de Ramírez, Beatriz; Pradilla Ferreira, Alberto; Cruz Naranjo, Martha Liliana; Mosquera Escudero, Mildrey

    2004-09-01

    Postprandial lipemia has been associated with atherogenesis and other non infectious chronic diseases. A descriptive, non aleatory study of 51 healthy young adults (23.8 +/- 4 years) of different ethnic background was carried out to identify possible personal or life style factors associated with the response of plasma lipids after a mixed carbohydrate and lipid load. Personal, family, life styles including use of drugs and activity and ethnic background were recorded. Anthropometrical measurements, a short insulin and postprandial lipemia tests were done. From these observations body mass index (BMI) and area under the curve (AUC) for lipids and glucose were calculated. High mean values were observed in AUC for glucose, triacylglycerol and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Postprandial glucose with differences by age (p=0.05 Bonferroni) but no ethnic, gender, BMI or insulin sensitivity related significant differences were found. Mestizos (40%) showed two, and Negroes three (27%) postprandial triglyceridemia peaks. Noteworthy, subjects presenting four peaks had elevated BMI. Higher triglyceridemia values were found in white and mestizos (p<0.05), in subjects older than 29 and in males (p<0.05). Statistical correlation (r2=0.70) between BMI and triglyceridemia and change in postprandial trigliceridemia was found in white and black subjects. NEFA declined up to the second hour, but at 6-7 hours they reached levels higher than base values. Higher than reported values for UCA and BMI and an abnormal response to fat intake with an early release of NEFA was found. The high correlation between BMI and postprandial trigliceridemia suggests that body mass index could be a good predictor of postprandial trigliceridemia. PMID:15807200

  18. Postprandial vascular reactivity in obese and normal weight young adults.

    PubMed

    Ayer, Julian G; Harmer, Jason A; Steinbeck, Katherine; Celermajer, David S

    2010-05-01

    As humans spend a significant amount of time in the postprandial state, we examined whether vascular reactivity (a key indicator of cardiovascular health) was different after a high-fat meal in 11 obese (median BMI 46.4, age 32.1 +/- 6.3 years, 7 men) and 11 normal weight (median BMI 22.6) age- and sex-matched controls. At baseline and 1 and 3 h postmeal, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), reactive hyperemia peripheral artery tonometry (RH-PAT) index, radial augmentation index adjusted for HR (AIx75), brachial pulse wave velocity (PWV(b)), glucose, insulin, total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured. Brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and, by venous plethysmography, resting and hyperemic forearm blood flows (FBFs) were measured at baseline and 3 h. At baseline, obese subjects had higher systolic BP, HR, resting FBF, insulin and equivalent FMD, RH-PAT, hyperemic FBF, AIx75, PWV(b), glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and lower HDL cholesterol. In obese and lean subjects, FMD at baseline and 3 h was not significantly different (6.2 +/- 1.7 to 5.8 +/- 4.3% for obese and 4.7 +/- 4.1 to 4.3 +/- 3.9% for normal weight, P = 0.975 for group x time). The meal did not produce significant changes in RH-PAT, hyperemic FBF, and PWV(b) in either group (P > 0.1 for the effect of time and for group x time interactions). In conclusion, the vascular responses to a high-fat meal are similar in obese and normal weight young adults. An exaggerated alteration in postprandial vascular reactivity is thus unlikely to contribute importantly to the increased cardiovascular risk of obesity. PMID:19834470

  19. Correlates of Prescription Drug Market Involvement among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vuolo, Mike; Kelly, Brian C.; Wells, Brooke E.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Background While a significant minority of prescription drug misusers report purchasing prescription drugs, little is known about prescription drug selling. We build upon past research on illicit drug markets, which increasingly recognizes networks and nightlife as influential, by examining prescription drug market involvement. Methods We use data from 404 young adult prescription drug misusers sampled from nightlife scenes. Using logistic regression, we examine recent selling of and being approached to sell prescription drugs, predicted using demographics, misuse, prescription access, and nightlife scene involvement. Results Those from the wealthiest parental class and heterosexuals had higher odds (OR=6.8) of selling. Higher sedative and stimulant misuse (ORs=1.03), having a stimulant prescription (OR=4.14), and having sold other illegal drugs (OR=6.73) increased the odds of selling. College bar scene involvement increased the odds of selling (OR=2.73) and being approached to sell (OR=2.09). Males (OR=1.93), stimulant users (OR=1.03), and sedative prescription holders (OR=2.11) had higher odds of being approached. Discussion College bar scene involvement was the only site associated with selling and being approached; such participation may provide a network for prescription drug markets. There were also differences between actual selling and being approached. Males were more likely to be approached, but not more likely to sell than females, while the opposite held for those in the wealthiest parental class relative to lower socioeconomic statuses. Given that misuse and prescriptions of sedatives and stimulants were associated with prescription drug market involvement, painkiller misusers may be less likely to sell their drugs given the associated physiological dependence. PMID:25175544

  20. Financial Success for Young Adults and Recent Graduates: Managing Money, Credit, and Your Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrowood, Janet C.

    2006-01-01

    There are numerous financial planning and money management handbooks, but few focus on the needs of young adults between 16 and 25 years of age. Colleges and some high schools are increasingly offering courses covering money management, but the materials are more "economics-focused" than "real-world" focused. Young people are huge consumers who