Argues that youngadult literature can play a significant role in the emotional and mental health of an adolescent as well as help young males become more literate. Offers a 19-item annotated list of youngadult novels with male protagonists, sorted by themes: nature and adventure stories, sports stories, genre stories, historical stories, and
Kent EE, Wilder Smith A, Keegan THM, Lynch CF, Kato I, Wu X, Schwartz S, Hamilton A. (in press). Social information needs of adolescent and youngadults with cancer in the Adolescent and YoungAdult Health Outcomes and Patient Experiences (AYA-HOPE) Study. Jounral of Adolescent and YoungAdult Oncology.
Provides brief annotations of the 1999 YoungAdults Choices List for 1999: 30 trade books for youngadults published in 1997 that were chosen by secondary school students in 5 different regions in the United States as their favorites. (SR)
Adolescents and YoungAdults with Cancer Adolescents and YoungAdults with Cancer Cancers In Young People Diagnosis ... Dictionary Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Adolescents and YoungAdults with Cancer: Cancers Affecting Young ...
The Yolith Omnibus Bill passed during he WHLIS in July 1991, includes oprovisions for six separate grants for children's, school, and youngadult services in libraries. Funding cuts have made developing alternate sources of revenue vital for the survival of existing librarv services and the develooment of new ones. Are children's and youngadult librarians trained in writing grant proposals?
\\u000a This chapter examines the living arrangements of youngadults in Latin America in the mid-1970s. Young adulthood is a time\\u000a of life when many end an educational career, begin full-time employment, and start a family of their own. Most youngadults\\u000a marry, whether formally or not, and become parents (even in societies with high rates of never-married individuals). Some\\u000a engage
Presents a dialogue between the authors on what it is like to collaborate in writing youngadult fiction. Discusses their writing processes, how they come up with ideas for their books, and how they get the books published. (RS)
Objective This study assessed the relationship between employment status and mortality over a two-year period among a nationally representative sample of youngadults aged 1824 years (n=121,478, representing over 21 million US youngadults). Methods Using data from the 19862000 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and its public-use mortality follow-up through 2002, mortality after two- year follow-up (for each individual) was regressed on employment status at baseline, controlling for gender, race, education, season, and survey design. Results Having been employed was associated with significantly lower risks of all-cause, homicide, and other-cause mortality (adjusted odds ratios range:0.510.60). Conclusion Working appears to be a factor that may prevent premature mortality among youngadults; increasing unemployment may result in increased mortality risks among youngadults in the future. PMID:20431416
Presents annotations of 30 works of adolescent literature (published in 1999) chosen as the result of voting by students in five different regions of the United States. Notes that the goals of the project are to encourage young people to read and to make teens, teachers, librarians, and parents aware of new literature for youngadults. (SG)
This final rule implements Section 702 of the Ike Skelton National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE YoungAdult (TYA) program to provide an extended TRICARE Program coverage opportunity to most unmarried children under the age of 26 of uniformed services sponsors. The TYA program is a premium-based program. PMID:23724426
This article presents annotations of 30 trade books on the 2008 list of YoungAdults' Choices that are the result of voting by students in five different regions of the United States. Trade books (books other than textbooks) published in 2006 were submitted by more than 50 publishers. Each book had to have at least two positive reviews from
Presents the 1992 "YoungAdults' Choices," an annual list of favorite books chosen in voting by students in middle schools and junior and senior high schools in the United States. Offers brief descriptions of the 30 books on the list (published since 1990), and supplies bibliographic data for each title. (SR)
Presents annotations of 30 trade books on this year's list of YoungAdults' choices that are the results of voting by students in five different regions of the United States. Notes that the books selected were published in 2001 and each book had to have at least two positive reviews from recognized sources. (SG)
While youngadult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read youngadult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching youngadult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their
Youngadult suicide rates tripled following the introduction of television into the United States and Canada. To assess whether exposure to television is a risk factor for youngadult suicide (ages 1524), suicide trends were compared between the U. S., Canada, and South Africa, 19491985. Major increases in youngadult suicide rates occurred in all three countries, even though there
There is mounting national and international evidence to support targeted improvements in cancer care services for adolescents and for youngadults; an age group defined in Australia as those between 15 and 25 years. Both paediatric and adult oncology and haematology services currently provide cancer care for adolescents and youngadults. There are many unmet needs under the current service
This book was born of a desire to provide students, teachers, and all interested readers with a collection of essays that address issues of selection, pedagogy, and worth of the youngadult novel. A primary purpose of the book is to enter the world of youngadult readers through a literary form they know well, the modern youngadult novel. Another
Many developmental psycholinguists assume that young children have adult syntactic competence, this assumption being operationalized in the use of adult-like grammars to describe young children's language. This ''continuity assumption'' has never had strong empirical support, but recently a number of new findings have emerged - both from systematic analyses of children's spontaneous speech and from controlled experiments - that contradict
Discusses three ways that high school English teachers can use youngadult books: as books for whole-class study, as read-alouds, and as "classroom library" books to recommend to students for independent reading. Presents criteria for selecting novels for classroom study and for reading aloud. Mentions 53 youngadult novels to consider for these
The initial stage of labor market activity for youngadults influences their labor market engagement and earnings profiles over their life cycle. I examine earnings inequality among youngadults in a dynamic setting. Education, marital status, race are contributors to the observed earnings inequality. Earnings equalization is observed in the long run, and the proportion of earnings inequality attributed to
This study's purpose was to investigate youngadults' perceptions of grandparents who are raising their grandchildren. Over 1,200 youngadult volunteers (M age = 21) read a randomly assigned scenario describing a grandparent raising a grandchild. Scenarios varied in terms of grandchild gender, grandparent ethnicity, the presence\\/absence of grandchild problems, and the reason for the assumption of the grandparent caregiving
Bert Hayslip JR; Rebecca J. Glover; Bric E. Harris; Paula B. Miltenberger; Annabel Baird; Patricia L. Kaminski
In the selection of multicultural literature for children and youngadults, educators and researchers focus on two main controversial issues--authority and authenticity--that the authors portray in their writing. What type of author can accurately portray realistic pictures of minority cultures in multicultural literature for youngadults? Must it
Many developmental psycholinguists assume that young children have adult syntactic competence, this assumption being operationalized in the use of adult-like grammars to describe young children's language. This continuity assumption has never had strong empirical support, but recently a number of new findings have emerged - both from systematic analyses of children's spontaneous speech and from controlled experiments - that contradict
Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this relationship may vary across the life course. Early marriagewhich is non-normativecould have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for youngadults. Using survey data from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 11,743), I find that married youngadults exhibit similar levels of psychological distress as youngadults who are in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged youngadults report lower rates of drunkenness than others. Married youngadultsespecially those who first married at age 2226report higher life satisfaction than those in other types of relationships or no relationship at all, as well as those who married at younger ages. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed. PMID:22328171
Discusses changes in the field of youngadult literature since the 1980s. Examines how the definition of "youngadult" has evolved. Offers a brief overview of the history of youngadult literature from the 1940s. Considers the rise of awards for merit in youngadult publishing, noting three in particular. Concludes this is a golden age of young
Eye-tracking technology was employed to examine young and older adults' performance in the reading with distraction paradigm. Distracters of 1, 2, and 4 words that formed meaningful phrases were used. There were marked age ...
As they mature and become sexually active, more young people face serious health risks. Most face these risks with too little factual information, too little guidance about sexual responsibility, and too little access to health care. Meeting youngadults' diverse needs challenges parents, communities, health care providers, and educators. Despite urgent needs, program efforts have been slight and slowed by controversy. PMID:8654883
McCauley, A P; Salter, C; Kiragu, K; Senderowitz, J
After graduating from college and entering the work force, youngadult athletes often struggle with the task of fueling themselves optimally for top performance and weight control. The stresses and time constraints of work, family, and social responsibilities often result in eating fast foods on the run. These youngadults can benefit from nutrition education programs in the worksite, at health clubs, in the community, and via the media. Dietitians who specialize in sport nutrition have particular appeal to these athletes, who are struggling to each well, exercise well, and stay lean yet put little time or effort into their food program. This article includes two case studies of youngadults and the dietary recommendations that taught them how to make wise food choices, fuel themselves well for high energy, and control their weight. PMID:9841961
Background: Previous studies have shown that healthy youngadults are able to decrease their standing postural sway when an additional postural visual task, such as reading, is performed. Objective: In this study, we investigated postural sway during dual tasks in young and elderly adults. Methods: Twelve healthy active elderly adults (aged 6575 years) and 12 healthy youngadults (aged 2239
Janina M. Prado; Thomas A. Stoffregen; Marcos Duarte
Falls are a major problem in older adults. Many falls occur because of stumbling. The aim of the present study is to investigate stumbling reactions of older adults and to compare them with youngadults. While subjects walked on a treadmill, a rigid obstacle unexpectedly obstructed the forward sway of the foot. In general, older adults used the same movement strategies as youngadults ("elevating" and "lowering"). The electromyographic responses were categorized according to latencies: short-latency (about 45 ms, RP1), medium-latency (about 80 ms, RP2), and long-latency responses (about 110 ms, RP3; about 160 ms, RP4). Latencies of RP1 responses increased by about 6 ms and of RP2 by 10-19 ms in older adults compared with the young. Amplitudes of RP1 were similar for both age groups, whereas amplitudes of RP2-RP4 could differ. In the early-swing elevating strategy (perturbed foot directly lifted over the obstacle) older adults showed smaller responses in ipsilateral upper-leg muscles (biceps femoris and rectus femoris). This was related to shorter swing durations, more shortened step distances, and more failures in clearing the obstacle. In parallel, RP4 activity in the contralateral biceps femoris was enhanced, possibly pointing to a higher demand for trunk stabilization. In the late-swing lowering strategy (foot placed on the treadmill before clearing the obstacle) older adults showed lower RP2-RP3 responses in most muscles measured. However, kinematic responses were similar to those of the young. It is concluded that the changes in muscular responses in older adults induce a greater risk of falling after tripping, especially in early swing. PMID:15615837
Adolescent and youngadult patient presentations of aplastic anemia require a particular perspective on both diagnosis and treatment. This unique age group necessitates a thorough diagnostic evaluation to ensure the etiology, acquired or inherited, is sufficiently determined. The treatment options include human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling hematopoietic cell transplantation or immunosuppressive therapy, and both require attention to the specific medical and social needs of these adolescents and youngadults. Longitudinal surveillance throughout life for the development of late complications of the disease and treatment is mandatory. PMID:25228559
High intraoral load of A. actinomycetemcomitans in subjects with no or minimal periodontal disease may induce subtle changes in clinical periodontal conditions. The aim of the present study was to compare, at a site level, clinical conditions in two groups of youngadults with plaque-induced gingivitis. In one group, more than 20% subgingival sites harboured cultivable A. actinomycetemcomitans (n=9), whereas
H.-P. Müller; A. Heinecke; L. Zöller; A. Fuhrmann; T. Eger
As the body of high quality youngadult literature (YAL) continues to grow, what role might these texts play in professional development for educators? This article describes ways in which schools can develop book study programs that use this literature to promote meaningful dialogue and understanding of contemporary adolescent issues. Based on their own work in this area, the authors
Jacqueline Bach; Laura Hensley Choate; Bruce Parker
Illustrates ways in which becoming a reader of youngadult literature enriched the author's life by making her a better teacher, allowing more connections to students, increasing student involvement, broadening her view of literature in general, connecting her with a rich network of professionals, and putting her back in touch with a part of
Discusses five youngadult novels, which the teacher had successfully shared with previous classes by reading aloud. Reviews the characters, plots and themes of all five books. Presents journal responses from the students about the novels. Discusses how students explored unknown worlds as they heard about other cultures. (SG)
Discusses six recent books for educators that focus on youngadult literature, and on responding to literature. Describes how adolescent literature can be the center of transdisciplinary, concept-based units in a middle school curriculum. Outlines use of reading response logs and learning journals. Lists recently published books by and about
PurposeAbsence of the vagina in the pediatric population most commonly results from congenital abnormalities, such as the Mayer-Rokitansky syndrome but it may also be seen after treatment for pelvic tumors, such as rhabdomyosarcoma, and in patients who have had previous gender reassignment. We review our experience using bowel for vaginal replacement in a group of children and youngadults to
The activities presented in this handbook are designed to help students envision the locations and landmarks of sites along journeys described in popular youngadult literature (e.g., "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,""Born Free,""The Call of the Wild,""Catcher in the Rye,""I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings,""The Island of the Blue
Today's youngadult (YA) literature is every bit as complex as the audience it's written for, unflinchingly addressing such topics as homosexuality, mental illness, AIDS and drug abuse. In this much expanded revision of his 1996 book, veteran author Michael Cart shows how the best of contemporary YA lit has evolved to tackle such daunting subjects
Forty years ago, when the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded, alcoholism was considered an adult disease driven principally by physiological determinants. As NIAAA expanded its research portfolio, new data and insights were obtained that led to an increased focus on underage and youngadult drinking. Fostered by interdisciplinary research, etiologic models were developed that recognized the multiplicity of relevant genetic and environmental influences. This shift in conceptualizing alcohol use disorders also was based on findings from large-scale, national studies indicating that late adolescence and early young adulthood were peak periods for the development of alcohol dependence and that early initiation of alcohol use (i.e., before age 15) was associated with a fourfold increase in the probability of subsequently developing alcohol dependence. In recent years, developmental studies and models of the initiation, escalation, and adverse consequences of underage and early youngadult drinking have helped us to understand how alcohol use may influence, and be influenced by, developmental transitions or turning points. Major risk and protective factors are being identified and integrated into screening, prevention, and treatment programs to optimize interventions designed to reduce drinking problems among adolescents and youngadults. In addition, regulatory policies, such as the minimum drinking age and zero-tolerance laws, are being implemented and evaluated for their impact on public health. PMID:23579934
Presents three examples of YoungAdult novels in which death is addressed, including: Angela Johnson's "Toning the Sweep" (1993), Paula Fox's "The Eagle Kite" (1995), and Cynthia Rylant's "Missing May" (1992). Considers how these three novels portray adolescents anticipating death, facing death, and dealing with its aftermath. (SC)
Web 2.0 tools enable today's writers to connect with their audience in unprecedented ways. The advent of social networking and other Web 2.0 tools have changed the rules for how authors and book publishers market and communicate with their audience. Through tools like blogs, Twitter, MySpace, and Facebook, YoungAdult (YA) lit authors can choose
The principal purpose of assessment, regardless of teaching level, should be to guide instruction. Unlike evaluation, the goal of assessment is not to arrive at a grade for students. Rather, it is to inform the educator as to what needs to be addressed in the classroom. Assessment in a youngadult literature (YAL) curriculum is no different. Its
Professionals in the social psychology field concur that teenagers and youngadults may not have the appropriate skills and ego strength to affirm healthy relationship decisions. This article reviews current research regarding partner selection from adolescence through early adulthood. It also provides appendices of interventions used in clinical
As the body of high quality youngadult literature (YAL) continues to grow, what role might these texts play in professional development for educators? This article describes ways in which schools can develop book study programs that use this literature to promote meaningful dialogue and understanding of contemporary adolescent issues. Based on
Bach, Jacqueline; Choate, Laura Hensley; Parker, Bruce
The effects of bilateral kidney irradiation were compared in young and adult rats. During a 1 year period after a single dose of 0, 7.5, 10, 12.5, or 15 Gy on both kidneys, renal function (glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow), urine composition, and systolic blood pressure were measured periodically. The first changes after irradiation were observed in the glomerular filtration rate and urine osmolality. One month after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine osmolality had declined below control values in the young rats. After this initial decline, renal function increased at control rate or even more during the third and fourth month after irradiation but decreased progressively thereafter. In the adult rats, GFR and urine osmolality started to decrease 3 months after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy. A rise in systolic blood pressure and proteinuria started 2-3 months after 12.5 and 15 Gy in both age groups. Early changes in the glomerular filtration rate with a drop in urine osmolality in young rats, occurring during a period of rapid renal development indicated an irradiation-induced inhibition of glomerular and tubular development. Although renal function deteriorated at a later time in adult rats, dose-response relationships obtained in young and adult rats did not show significant differences.
Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify lead users within social networks of youngadults between 14 and 17 years of age. Design\\/methodology\\/approach A questionnaire and the SAGS-method were used to collect data within seven high schools in the north of The Netherlands. These data were used to empirically test five hypotheses using the variables which
This book presents 16 original scripts that have been adapted from classic works of literature for use for readers theatre with youngadults and ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Adaptations of the following works are included: "Little Women" (Louisa May Alcott); episodes from "Don Quixote" (Miguel de Cervantes; "The Necklace" (Guy de
Intended for recreational leaders, classroom teachers, volunteers, and parents, the text presents guidelines for planning and conducting activities for mentally retarded youth and youngadults. Consideration of understanding the maturing retardate and his social needs includes different kinds of beneficial social experiences, the maturing
Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youngadults. Sex
José A. Bauermeister; Mercedes Morales; Gretchen Seda; Milagritos González-Rivera
Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this apparent benefit may vary across the life course. Early marriage, which is nonnormative, could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for youngadults. Using survey data from waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 11,695),
As suicides of children, adolescents and youngadults occur very seldom and only few case reports and more comprehensive studies are available in forensic literature, the autopsy records of the Bonn Institute of Forensic Medicine and the database of the Bonn police authorities from 1989 to 1998 were retrospectively analysed for this phenomenon. This search revealed 37 respective suicides involving
Childhood sexuality and children's sexual experiences have become increasingly important to study because our knowledge on the impact of sexually abusive experiences on children's developing sexuality has increased. The main aim of this paper was to study aspects of youngadults' recollections of their sexual experiences before the age of 13, solitary and shared, mutual as well as coercive. Anonymous
Investigates characteristics of youngadult romance novels, particularly their lack of humor. Discusses ways to use romance in the classroom. Provides a list of youngadult novels that deal with romance, humor, and body image. (MM)
This study aimed at showing how the value preferences of youngadults could predict the narcissistic characteristics of youngadults according to structural equation modeling. 133 female (59.6%) and 90 male (40.4%), total 223 youngadults participated the study (average age: 25.66, ranging from 20 to 38). Ratio group sampling method was used while
Gungor, Ibrahim Halil; Eksi, Halil; Aricak, Osman Tolga
Data collected from 294 youngadults, ages 19 to 25, and both a same- and an opposite-gender best friend or mate across 3 annual assessments were analyzed to examine the similarity to and influence of the peer on the youngadult's substance use. The authors found similarity across time between both peers and the youngadult in cigarette use, alcohol
Judy A. Andrews; Elizabeth Tildesley; Hyman Hops; Fuzhong Li
This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of youngadults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence youngadults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which youngadults' financial attitudes mediated financial
Little is known about the social cognitive development of youngadults. Furthermore, existing studies of youngadults tend to rely on college-age participants. A study of social cognition during interpersonal conflict was conducted with 100 youngadult women (mean age = 25 years). The relationship of contextual variables to conflict-resolution strategy was examined. Strategy coding was done according to Selman's
As high school enrollment continues to rise, the need for effective librarianship serving youngadults is greater than ever before. "YoungAdults Deserve the Best: Competencies for Librarians Serving Youth," developed by YoungAdult Library Services Association (YALSA), is a document outlining areas of focus for providing quality library service
Objective:To compare the enrollment, attendance, retention and weight losses of youngadults in behavioral weight loss (BWL) programs with older participants in the same trials.Methods:Data were pooled from three NIH-funded adult BWL trials from two clinical centers in different regions of the country (total N=298); youngadults were defined as those aged 1835 years. Both youngadults and adults were
J Gokee-LaRose; A A Gorin; H A Raynor; M N Laska; R W Jeffery; R L Levy; R R Wing
Although the overall incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in adolescents and youngadults (AYAs) is low, it has seen an increase over the past 2 to 3 decades, which contrasts with the trend of decreased incidence in the older population. This phenomenon is conceivably caused by a lack of routine CRC screening in the young population and lifestyle issues, including the obesity epidemic and dietary factors. Hereditary genetic syndromes (eg, familial adenomatous polyposis and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome) and known predisposing medical conditions (eg, inflammatory bowel disease) account for only a minority of CRC cases in AYA. Younger patients with CRC commonly present with more advanced disease at diagnosis and exhibit specific molecular and clinical characteristics associated with a distinct biologic phenotype of CRC compared with older individuals. Matched for stage, however, the prognosis of patients with young-onset CRC is similar to or better than that for older patients. A surprising paucity of data exists on outcomes associated with modern systemic cytotoxic and biologic therapy specifically in young patients with CRC. The toxicity pattern of these treatments, however, differs between young and older patients, partly because of the lower rate of pertinent comorbidities in younger adults. Issues regarding surgical management in the setting of hereditary syndromes and fertility preservation while on therapy are of particular importance to the younger patient population. Future studies should seek to increase understanding of the distinct tumor biology of AYA patients with CRC and the consequences of treatment interventions to optimize outcomes for this population. PMID:24142823
In this paper, development during the adolescent period is considered from a counseling perspective. Although many of the issues of youngadults continue to confront older adults, this paper discusses the issues that are special to this age group. It suggests that the emotional and social domain is best represented by the theory of Erikson, which
Test anxiety in elderly and youngadult college students was measured by the Anxiety Achievement Test following a free-recall memory experiment. As expected, the elderly had higher levels of debilitating test anxiety than the younger adults. A large proportion of older persons showed behavioural manifestations of test anxiety either by refusing to participate in the study, or by their reactions during the testing. Test anxiety was related to memory performance among both age groups, suggesting than an older person's performance on a cognitive task may be influenced by affective reactions to the testing situation itself. PMID:1002325
The current research analyzed the relationship between methamphetamine use and violence among youngadults eighteen to twenty-five years old. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 106 respondents. The research was based primarily on in-depth, life-history interviews with individuals who used methamphetamine for a minimum of three months and who resided in Los Angeles County.Of the 106 respondents, 37 (34.9
Water homeostasis is essential for life and optimal function and considerable interest surrounds the issue of recommendations\\u000a for water consumption in healthy individuals. Objective data on water turnover in free-living individuals are limited, however.\\u000a The aim of the present work was to measure water turnover in children and youngadults using isotopically labeled water to\\u000a provide objective data on magnitude
Elaine C. Rush; Purvi Chhichhia; Andrew E. Kilding; Lindsay D. Plank
(Chang, 1997). Confucianism clearly dictates an individuals roles and proper behaviors in relation to others with filial piety (Xiao) as its core value. The basic tenet of filial piety guides peoples attitudes towards parents and older adults... indicated that young Asian participants scored higher on items suggesting practical support (e.g., taking care of aging parents and providing financial support) and lower on those suggesting communicative support (e.g., listen patiently, retain contact...
The impact of vocational training on employment and income is investigated for youngadults. Youngadults without further education and training are compared to youngadults with two-years and youngadults with three-years of vocational training. The sample consists of 41 000 Swedish youngadults born in 1974. The employment of these youngadults
Youngadult workers provide businesses with the dynamic labor force and fresh ideas they need to innovate and grow. With their contributions to cultural, intellectual and social life, youngadults also make New England a vibrant and interesting place to live. Young families support local schools and demand a strong educational system. Yet New
This current study investigates adolescents' and youngadults' expectations of parenting by mothers following remarriage. Based on an earlier qualitative study of parent-child relationships, it was hypothesized that young people expect parents to maintain parenting responsibilities, including warmth\\/support and discipline behaviors, towards children following remarriage. It was also hypothesized that adolescents and youngadults expect parents to give them priority
In response to the growing suicide rate among adolescents and youngadults, researchers have noted the importance of peer responses to suicidal disclosures in this population. The most adaptive response is to inform a responsible adult about the suicidal peer, but existing data indicate that most adolescents and youngadults choose to talk to the
Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youngadults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195
Bauermeister, Jose A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; Gonzalez-Rivera, Milagritos
In the USA, approximately 26,000 adolescents and youngadults (AYAs) aged 15-29 years are diagnosed with cancer every year. The cure rate among this population exceeds 80%, resulting in a growing number of AYA cancer survivors. AYA cancer survivors suffer from a wide range of long-term treatment-related toxicities that adversely affect quality of life and increase the risk of premature death. Therefore, it is important to recognize the unique medical needs of the AYA cancer survivors and develop a cost-effective and systemic approach to screen and prevent cancer treatment-related sequelae and the adverse health outcomes. PMID:25228564
Kishtagari, Ashwin; Tavakkoli, Montreh; Park, Jae H
By addressing the concept of merchandising, this handbook shows librarians how to turn their youngadult collection into one that will attract teenagers. Delivering an introduction to marketing and merchandising concepts, the author shares years of experience as a teen services librarian, combined with the latest studies and research findings on
Examined data on 165 adolescents, 65 youngadults, and 175 adults who called 2 suicide help lines. Adults and youngadults reported depression as primary reason for contemplating suicide; adolescents reported interpersonal problems. Although callers reported suicide ideation, very small percentage fell into high-risk categories with regard to
Objective To determine dietary fiber intake of children and youngadults.Design and setting Cross-sectional surveys of children and youngadults in Bogalusa, La.Subjects Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected from 1976 to 1988 on five cohorts of 10-year-olds (n=l,254), two cohorts of 13-year-olds (n=360), and youngadults (n=504) 19 to 28 years of age.Statistics Dietary fiber intake data were analyzed for
THERESA A. NICKLAS; ROSANNE P. FARRIS; LEANN MYERS; GERALD S. BERENSON
Past research has linked both emotion regulation and impulsivity with the development and maintenance of addictions. However, no research has investigated the relationship between emotion regulation and impulsivity within youngadults. In the present study, we analyzed 194 youngadults (27.8% female; 21.3 ± 3.32 years old; 91.8% single; 85.1% Caucasian), grouping them as low, average, or high emotionally dysregulated, and compared self-reported impulsivity, impulsive behaviors (such as alcohol and substance use and gambling) and cognitive impulsivity. We hypothesized that those with high levels of emotion dysregulation would score higher on self-reported and cognitive impulsivity, and report more impulsive behaviors. Analysis indicated that compared to low, the high emotion dysregulation group scored significantly higher on two self-report measures of impulsivity, harm avoidance, and cognitive reasoning. No significant differences were found between groups in impulsive behaviors and cognitive impulsivity. Overall, this study highlights the relationship between emotion dysregulation and impulsivity, suggesting that emotion regulation may be an important factor to consider when assessing individuals at a higher risk for developing an addiction. PMID:22385661
Schreiber, Liana R.N.; Grant, Jon E.; Odlaug, Brian L.
This study aims to explore how youngadults in psychotherapy and youngadults in general describe their problems and how their problem formulations change over time. Two matched samples from longitudinal prospective studies were compared using thematic analysis. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted at baseline, 1.5 years after termination of psychotherapy (N=12) in the clinical sample and 3 years after baseline in the non clinical sample (N=12). Inductive thematic analysis revealed six themes: problems associated with oneself, family, intimate relationships, sense of belonging, occupation, and social roles. The psychotherapy sample was characterized by problems with oneself closely related to other problematic areas, at both pre-treatment and at follow-up 1.5 years after termination, while problematic sense of belonging was a general theme only prior to psychotherapy. However, they were less troubled by their problems after psychotherapy. Problems with oneself decreased considerably in the non-clinical sample, while problems with intimate relationships were twice as frequent at follow-up. In the psychotherapy sample, the initial experience of being passively trapped within their problems was transformed into an experience of being an active agent in their own life. However, considerable differences between the psychotherapy sample and non-clinical sample still persisted at follow-up. PMID:21323672
Jacobsson, Gunnel; Tysklind, Fredrik; Werbart, Andrzej
This study examined stereotype traits of Chinese youngadults generated by 180 older, middle-aged, and young Chinese participants. Trait lists were compared across age groups and to Western traits reported in earlier research. Results indicated a...
Work delay as a dimension of work restoration in youngadults with schizophrenia has not been explored with much frequency in the vocational rehabilitation literature; and it has never been explored and analyzed from the subjective experience of the person with the disorder. In this exploratory, mixed-method study of 20 first-episode youngadults diagnosed with schizophrenia who returned to work,
Describes a collaborative project between a youngadult literature course for prospective school library media specialists and a ninth-grade literature class. Describes how the students corresponded weekly, writing about youngadult books they had chosen from a list. Notes their reflections on this collaborative effort, and reports that it was
Describes the life and work of Rebecca Caudill, an author of youngadult and children's literature, and discusses how she captures major characteristics of Appalachian culture. Examines four youngadult novels: (1) "Tree of Freedom"; (2) "The Far-Off Land"; (3) "Barrie and Daughter"; and (4) "Susan Cornish." Contains teaching guides and writing
Intended to help parents and teachers select books for young people that reflect the actual interests of adolescents, this booklet discusses titles that both appeal to teenagers and help adults gain insight into their needs, their concerns, and their values. Titles of chapters in the booklet are as follows: (1) "Are YoungAdult Books Literature?";
Little research has been conducted examining the food choice behaviors of youngadults. The few studies reported have been limited to college students and used survey questionnaire techniques. This study sought to describe a broader sample of youngadults and to gather information about reasons for food choice behavior using a qualitative method. Fifty?seven focus group interviews were conducted across
Nancy M. Betts; Rosalie J. Amos; Constance Georgiou; Sharon L. Hoerr; Rao Ivaturi; Kathryn S. Keim; Ann Tinsley; Jane Voichick
The purpose of this study was to determine the reading interests of the youngadult participants in the summer reading program at Medina County District Library (Ohio). Findings were compared to research done in other locations and to current bibliographies of recommended reading for youngadults. The study looked at a systematic sample of reader
We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of youngadults by parents using data from European youngadults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch
Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among youngadults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 youngadults. Results: The
Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.
Discusses (1) a rationale for using youngadult literature with adolescent English-as-a-Second-Language learners; (2) an approach to teaching the novel "Make Lemonade" by Virginia Euwer Wolff; (3) activities in which students engaged and samples of their work; and (4) implications for teachers who explore youngadult literature with adolescent
When former Heinemann-Boynton\\/Cook editor Peter Stillman first conceived the YoungAdult Literature (YAL) series in 1990 and asked me to be the series editor, I was excited to be part of such an innovative endeavor. At that time there were few professional books available for teachers who wanted to bring youngadult literature into their classrooms, and Heinemann was the
Like other western countries, Germany too reports record numbers of overweight and obese individuals with young German adults in a particularly high-risk position. As such, this study sought to investigate if food choice varied by the place of residence (dependent or independent) of these youngadults. Using a self-administered questionnaire, analyses of quantitative data from 305 German students between the
Debra Harker; Bishnu Sharma; Michael Harker; Karin Reinhard
The aim of the study was to explore recreational drug use patterns among a sample of Italian youngadults and to examine the role of substance misuse on suicidality. Three hundred and forty Italian youngadults between 19 and 30 years of age completed measures of suicidality (Reasons for Living Inventory, Beck Hopelessness Scale, and Suicide Score Scale), depression (Zung
Marco Innamorati; Maurizio Pompili; David Lester; Roberto Tatarelli; Paolo Girardi
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with substance use among homeless youngadults. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined the influence of social networks and economic factors among a group of homeless youngadults with differing levels of alcohol and drug use. In addition, for those with an alcohol use disorder, the role of future time expectancies
Rebecca Gomez; Sanna J. Thompson; Amanda N. Barczyk
This study analyzed ethnic authenticity with regard to language use in 16 books for children and youngadults used in Central Michigan University's English 582 course, "Cultural Pluralism in Children and YoungAdult Literature." Four ethnic groups were included: Native American, African American, Asian American, and Hispanic American. To evaluate
Designed to make the job of encouraging adolescents to read less of a challenge, this book provides descriptions of all of the approximately 150 examples of youngadult literature that were selected "YoungAdults' Choices" in the yearly voting by teenagers conducted from 1987 to 1992. Each entry in the book includes bibliographic information, an
Examines the relationship between substance use during adolescence and HIV risk behavior among youngadults ages 19 to 21 with and without a college education. Results indicate that increased use of alcohol and marijuana at younger ages is related to riskier sexual activity as well as increased use of alcohol and marijuana as youngadults.
Staton, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl; Logan, T. K.; Zimmerman, Rick; Lynam, Donald; Milich, Richard; Martin, Catherine; McClanahan, Karen; Clayton, Richard
This study examines whether both parents' relationships with their offspring, parents, and parents-in-law matter for youngadults' perceptions of closeness to grandparents. This study focuses on two groups of grandchildren (ages 18-23) in Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households: youngadults with married biological parents (N =
The purpose of the present study was to assess the extent to which reading disabilities (RD) in youngadults are related to deficits in specific aspects of temporary storage of verbal information, namely, memory span and the central executive (CE) component of working memory. Thirty-two native Hebrew-speaking youngadults with and without RD were
The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in youngadults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of youngadults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic
Aim. To evaluate the relationship between cannabis dependence and respiratory symptoms and lung function in youngadults, while controlling for the effects of tobacco smoking. Setting and participants. Nine hundred and forty-three youngadults from a birth cohort of 1037 subjects born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972\\/1973 were studied at age 21. Measurements. Standardized respiratory symptom questionnaires were administered.
D. Robin Taylor; Richie Poulton; Terrie E. Moffitt; Padmaja Ramankutty; Malcolm R. Sears
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with substance use among homeless youngadults. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined the influence of social networks and economic factors among a group of homeless youngadults with differing levels of alcohol and drug use. In addition, for those with an alcohol use disorder the role of future time expectancies was examined. A sample (n=185) of homeless youngadults aged 18-23 were recruited from a community drop-in center and interviewed utilizing self-report instruments. Findings suggest that social networks, economic factors, and future expectancies are significant predictors of the level of substance use among homeless youngadults. Being able to identify those areas that place homeless youngadults at risk for substance abuse and dependence has implications for effective intervention. PMID:20391267
Gomez, Rebecca; Thompson, Sanna J.; Barczyk, Amanda N.
Examines the role of closeness in mediating youngadults' stereotypes of older adults. Notes that youngadults (college students less than 25 years old) consistently rate their closest grandparent more positively on exhibiting stereotypic behaviors and communicative ability than they do their least close grandparent. Concludes that although
Anti-bullying experts employ trade books in dealing with contemporary issues facing young people, including bullying. At least three conceptual strands underpin the application of youngadult literature (YAL) in such enterprises: (1) reliance on tested voices appealing to young readers; (2) the potential effect of quality YAL on literacy
Surprisingly few studies have explored the implications of parental divorce for the religious involvement of offspring, especially in young adulthood. Our study addresses several theoretical argu- ments linking parental divorce with reduced religious involvement in young adulthood and tests rele- vant hypotheses using data from a unique sample of 1,500 youngadults (ages 18-35), evenly divid- ed between offspring of
Jiexia Elisa Zhai; Christopher G. Ellison; Norval D. Glenn; Elizabeth Marquardt
Objective Individuals born before 33?weeks' gestation (very preterm, VPT) have an increased likelihood of neurological abnormality, impaired cognitive function, and reduced academic performance in childhood. It is currently not known whether neurological signs detected in VPT children persist into adulthood or become attenuated by maturation of the CNS. Method We assessed 153 VPT individuals and 71 term?born controls at 1718?years old, using a comprehensive neurological examination. This examination divides neurological signs into primary and integrative domains, the former representing the localising signs of classical neurology, and the latter representing signs requiring integration between different neural networks or systems. Integrative signs are sub?divided into three groups: sensory integration, motor confusion, and sequencing. The VPT individuals have been followed up since birth, and neonatal information is available on them, along with the results of neurological assessment at 4 and 8?years of age and neuropsychological assessment at 18?years of age. Results The total neurology score and primary and integrative scores were significantly increased in VPT youngadults compared to term?born controls. Within the integrative domain, sensory integration and motor confusion scores were significantly increased in the VPT group, but sequencing was not significantly different between the VPT and term groups. Integrative neurological abnormalities at 18 were strongly associated with reduced IQ but primary abnormalities were not. Conclusions Neurological signs are increased in VPT adults compared to term?born controls, and are strongly associated with reduced neuropsychological function. PMID:16543529
Allin, M; Rooney, M; Griffiths, T; Cuddy, M; Wyatt, J; Rifkin, L; Murray, R
This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS) and its intergenerational transmission could explain youngadult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among youngadults. Youngadult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of youngadult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the youngadult fast LHS variable is better defined as youngadult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment. PMID:25365695
Richardson, George B; Chen, Ching-Chen; Dai, Chia-Liang; Swoboda, Christopher M
Little attention has been paid to hearing abilities and the effects of noise on the normal adolescent and youngadult population. A series of studies will be presented on the prevalence of hearing loss and reported effects of hearing loss and tinnitus in adolescents and youngadults from different cultural backgrounds. Adolescents and youngadults from different backgrounds may tend to seek or avoid various noise environments that could be detrimental to their hearing and cause tinnitus. Attitudes and exposures to noise environments were evaluated to see if these may be correlated with their hearing losses and/or tinnitus. In addition, these adolescent and youngadult subjects reported how often they used hearing protection in various noise environments. Finally, the issues of quality of life and the need for hearing conservation programs with these populations will be presented.
Compared to younger and older aged cancer populations, the adolescent and youngadult (AYA) population between the ages of 15 and 39 years has seen little or no improvement in cancer survival rates for decades.
The eye movements of young and older adults were tracked as they read sentences varying in syntactic complexity. In Experiment 1, cleft object and object relative clause sentences were more difficult to process than cleft subject and subject...
Adolescent homelessness has received increasing attention due to its fast growth throughout the United States and the poor mental outcomes experienced by homeless young people. This cross-sectional study (N = 156) identified correlates of depressive symptomatology among homeless youngadults and investigated how depressive symptoms are influenced by the coping strategies these youngadults employ. The findings are based on analysis of baseline data collected for a hepatitis vaccination intervention pilot study conducted in partnership with a youngadults drop-in center in Santa Monica, California. Standardized tools assessed drug use history, coping ability, and psychiatric symptomatology. Linear regression modeling was used to identify correlates of depressive symptom severity. Poor perceived physical health, recent crack cocaine use and recent use of tranquilizers were significantly associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. Self-destructive escape, non-disclosure/avoidance, passive problem-solving and thoughts of harming self were also associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:21131507
Evidence suggests that some adolescent and youngadult cancers may have unique genetic and biological features. Researchers are trying to better understand the biology of these cancers in order to identify potential therapeutic targets.
Background. Motor vehicle injury is the major cause of mortality among youngadults. Information about the individual characteristics of those who drive dangerously could enhance traffic safety programs. The goal of this research was to examine the association between various personality-related characteristics and risky driving behaviors.Methods. Youngadults in Michigan, USA (n = 5,362) were surveyed by telephone regarding several
Sujata M. Patil; Jean Thatcher Shope; Trivellore E. Raghunathan; C. Raymond Bingham
Published data on the comparative achievement of The Kidney Disease Dialysis Outcome Quality Initative (KDOQI) recommended\\u000a clinical performance targets between children and youngadults on dialysis are scarce. To characterize the achievement of\\u000a KDOQI targets among children (<18 years) and youngadults (1824 years) with prevalent end stage renal disease (ESRD), we\\u000a performed a cross-sectional analysis of data collected by the Mid-Atlantic
Meredith A. Atkinson; Rachel M. Lestz; Barbara A. Fivush; Douglas M. Silverstein
Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2imax.kg) and energy cost of running were determined on the treadmill in groups of differently trained young and adult athletes. The VO2 max.kg was in all cases higher in adults than in young athletes. These differences were significant (p<005) in long-distance runners (n = 12, mean age = 24-2 ±2-2 vs 17-3 ±0-9 yrs, mean VO2max.kg= 66-9
AbstractWe test whether youngadults who co?reside with their parents derive influence over household?level expenditure by earning income. We propose a new variant of the Engel curve consistent with the Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System, which allows a simple test of income pooling. Our tests suggest that youngadults and parents mostly pool their income pooling is not rejected
The purpose of this study was to examine whether youngadults changed their physical activity (PA) behavior when wearing motion sensors. PA patterns of 119 youngadults (M age = 20.82 years, SD = 1.50, M body mass index = 23.93 kg/m[superscript 2] , SD = 4.05) were assessed during 2 consecutive weeks. In Week 1, participants wore an accelerometer.
Food insecurity has been associated with weight status in children and adults although results have been mixed. We aimed to identify whether food insecurity was associated with BMI in youngadults and whether this association differed by gender and was modified by food stamp use and the presence of children in the home. Cross-sectional data from Wave 4 (20072008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate the association between food insecurity and BMI in gender stratified models of youngadult women (n=7116) and men (n=6604) controlling for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, the presence of children in the home, and food stamp use in young adulthood and/or adolescence. Food insecurity was more common in youngadult women (14%) than youngadult men (9%). After controlling for a variety of individual variables, food insecure women had a BMI that was on average 0.9kg/m2 units higher than women who were food secure. This difference in BMI persisted after controlling for recent or past food stamp use and was not different among women with or without children in the household. No relationship was found between food insecurity and BMI in youngadult men. Providers should inquire about food insecurity, especially when treating obesity, and policy initiatives should address the role of access to healthy food in those facing food insecurity. PMID:21779092
Gooding, Holly C; Walls, Courtney E; Richmond, Tracy K
Offers an overview of what is "hot" in fiction for young Australians currently (year 2000) from the point of view of an Australian educator with a long history in children's literature. Introduces contemporary key authors and emergent trends. Describes briefly 26 recent popular Australian books of youngadult fiction. (SR)
Investigating social participation of youngadults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in
Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.
Notes that with so many multivoice novels accessible to teens, there is a great opportunity to expand students' reading repertoire. Proposes that youngadult novels are an excellent transition to classic literature that may seem remote or difficult. Offers advice on teaching multivoice novels. Concludes that multivoice novels show young readers
Is young people's sexuality becoming more fluid and less tied to steady, stable identity patterns? Are we developing into a society where sexual relationships between individuals of the same sex are no longer reserved for the small minority of gay men and lesbian women? Adherents of so-called queer theory have promulgated such views. Using a population-based sample of youngadults
This article reports the findings of a study investigating rates and types of comorbid mental disorder evident in adolescents and youngadults with autism. A sample of 84 young people (M = 19.5 years, SD = 4.6) with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association,
Moseley, David S.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Brereton, Avril V.; Einfeld, Stewart L.
More than a decade ago, the popular topic of discussion in higher education and in pop culture concerned the character traits of what was then called "Generation X" or "GenX" for short. One lasting impact of this focus has been a renewed effort on the part of higher education to define young adulthood and to reassess youngadult education. In the
This manual provides strategies for developing youngadult collections, outlines a reading club designed specifically for youngadults, suggests promotional ideas for the youngadult reading club and youngadult programming in general, and provides age-appropriate ideas for both formal and passive programming. Specific topics covered in the
In an attempt to examine the possibility of incorporating of youngadult literature into the classroom reading list, a study on Malaysian youngadult students' response to two youngadult storybooks, Audrey's Promise and The Dragon Lives Again, written by K.S. Maniam (2003) was conducted. Drawing on Stover and Tway's (1992) common concerns of youngadults, Havighurst's (1972) lifetime development
Goals of the work This manuscript reports on the design, implementation, and evaluation of the YoungAdult Survivor Conference (YASC)a 4-day retreat designed to provide an educational and support experience for cancer survivors diagnosed as children, adolescents, and youngadults. The goals of the program were to address issues of survivorship, provide cancer education and tools for self-advocacy, and build bridges
Youngadults are one of the largest uninsured segments of the population. This analysis of new survey data from The Commonwealth Fund finds almost half are without insurance at some time during the year. As they hit milestones like high school or college graduation, they face loss of coverage as they are dropped from parents' plans or public insurance programs. In the current economic climate, youngadults are less likely to find jobs, and when they do, are frequently offered positions that come without benefits. Provisions in the health reform bills could help youngadults by expanding Medicaid eligibility, creating a health insurance exchange with premium subsidies, and requiring insurers and employers to allow youngadults to remain on parents' plans up to age 26 or 27. These provisions could help youngadults obtain and keep affordable, comprehensive coverage through transitions from school to work and from job to job. PMID:20183947
Four language sample measures as well as measures of vocabulary, verbal fluency, and memory span were obtained from a sample of youngadults and a sample of older adults. Factor analysis was used to analyze the structure of the vocabulary, fluency, and span measures for each age group. Then an \\
Forty youngadults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to
Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois
Presents the viewpoints of a tenth grader on novels for youngadults that portray troubled teens dealing with alcoholism, drugs, depression, suicide, sexual abuse, and violence. Suggests that contrary to adult opinions that these novels are not always age-appropriate, they in fact broaden teens' outlooks and prepare them for the real world. (LRW)
This study compared characteristics related to sexual history, sexual activities, sexual functioning, and psychological tendencies associated with sexuality in 45 youngadults with schizophrenia treated with novel neuroleptics and in 61 youngadults from a comparison group. A smaller proportion of youngadults with schizophrenia currently had a sexual partner or had ever engaged in sexual relations. They also had
Pierre Fortier; Jean-Pierre Mottard; Gilles Trudel; Sandrine Even
Adolescent and youngadult male health receives little attention, despite the potential for positive effects on adult quality and length of life and reduction of health disparities and social inequalities. Pediatric providers, as the medical home for adolescents, are well positioned to address young men's health needs. This review has 2 primary objectives. The first is to review the literature on young men's health, focusing on morbidity and mortality in key areas of health and well-being. The second is to provide a clinically relevant review of the best practices in young men's health. This review covers male health issues related to health care access and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Healthy 2020 objectives for adolescents and youngadults, focusing on the objectives for chronic illness, mortality, unintentional injury and violence, mental health and substance use, and reproductive and sexual health. We focus, in particular, on gender-specific issues, particularly in reproductive and sexual health. The review provides recommendations for the overall care of adolescent and youngadult males. PMID:23940241
Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as "facial trustworthiness."In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in youngadults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Todorov, 2008; Engell et al., 2010). Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Calder et al., 2003; Firestone et al., 2007; Ruffman et al., 2008; Chaby and Narme, 2009). Based on Todorov';s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004) reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment), from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: youngadults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in youngadults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness. PMID:24046755
We sought to describe virologic and clinical retention outcomes among a group of HIV-infected adolescents and youngadults (AYA) newly established in an adult HIV clinic compared with matched HIV-infected adults. AYA demonstrated lower rates of HIV-1 virologic suppression and higher rates of HIV-1 viral rebound and loss to follow-up compared with adults. African American AYA had the lowest rates of virologic suppression and the highest rates of viral rebound. Adult providers should consider HIV-infected AYA, particularly African American HIV-infected AYA, to potentially be at high risk for poor clinical outcomes in adult care. PMID:21826014
Many youngadults, despite widespread prevention and education efforts that target this age group, engage in behaviors that place them at risk of HIV infection. These behaviors include frequent experimentation with alcohol and other drugs before sex, sexual activity with different partners, and inconsistent safe-sex practices. The combination of these risky behaviors causes increased concern about the spread of HIV among this age group. The study discussed in this article examined the relationship between substance use during adolescence and HIV risk behavior among youngadults ages 19 to 21 with and without a college education. Results indicated that increased use of alcohol and marijuana at younger ages is related to riskier sexual activity and increased use of alcohol and marijuana as youngadults. Recommendations for interventions are made. PMID:10340165
Staton, M; Leukefeld, C; Logan, T K; Zimmerman, R; Lynam, D; Milich, R; Martin, C; McClanahan, K; Clayton, R
This study examined interview accounts from thirty-one Taiwanese older adults about their inter- and intra-generational communication experiences, and perceptions of todays young and older people. Thematic analysis showed that Taiwanese older...
The uses-and-dependency model recognizes the influence of both micro- and macroinfluences on decisions to use media; however, few studies have empirically tested the model. This study represents an attempt to test the uses-and-dependency model in the context of the television-use decisions of Mormon youngadults. Students attending Brigham Young University (N = 216) completed a survey of how they make
Objectives To examine the association between perceptions of neighborhood safety and drug use, as well as mediation by depression and self-esteem. Methods The sample included 210 inner-city youngadults (18 to 25 years) recruited from the Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Results Respondents who indicated greater fear of their neighborhood environment also had significantly greater levels of drug use than did those with lower perceived fear. However, this relationship was not a result of lower self-esteem or higher levels of depressive symptoms. Conclusions Exploratory results point to the need to consider the broader role of the community environment and its impact on drug use among youngadults. PMID:19182981
Theall, Katherine P.; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of portrayed smoking status of actors on their popularity with both smoking and non-smoking young people, as well as their perceptions of the prevalence of smoking Design\\/methodology\\/approach Two experimental studies were conducted with Australian undergraduate university students, in which students were exposed to different versions of mock
Discusses publishing on the Internet by young authors. Describes "fan-fiction" Web sites where fans write passages that link to characters in popular books, television shows, or movies; fan-fiction inspired by the Disney film "Newsies"; posting short stories on Web pages; poetry, book reviews, and other publications; the attraction of the Internet
Civic engagement was studied in relation to overall development in adolescence, emerging adulthood, and young adulthood to examine how earlier activity involvement and success in prior and concurrent age-salient domains of competence may contribute to 2 forms of civic engagement in adulthood (citizenship and volunteering). Data on 163 youth were drawn from a longitudinal study of competence in a normative,
Background\\/Aims: A relationship with vascular dysfunction in chronic kidney disease suggests a possible association of phosphate level with left ventricular hypertrophy development in people with normal kidney function. We aimed to determine whether such an association exists in community-dwelling youngadults. Methods: This is a cohort study of participants in the ongoing, community-based, prospective Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young
Robert N. Foley; Allan J. Collins; Charles A. Herzog; Areef Ishani; Philip A. Kalra
Large literatures have shown important links between the quantity of completed education and health outcomes on one hand and the quality or selectivity of schooling on a host of adult outcomes, such as wages, on the other hand. However, little research attempts to produce evidence of the link between school quality and health. The paper presents
Describes the rationale, development, and administration of the test used for measuring levels of achievement in functional literacy in Guyana. Draws attention to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate that is reported for Guyana in international
Clinic and forensic studies have reported high rates of language impairments in conduct disordered and incarcerated youth. In community samples followed to early adolescence, speech and language impairments have been linked to attention deficits and internalizing problems, rather than conduct problems, delinquency, or aggression. This study examines the youngadult antisocial outcomes of speech or language impaired children. Language impaired
E. B. Brownlie; Joseph H. Beitchman; Michael Escobar; Arlene Young; Leslie Atkinson; Carla Johnson; Beth Wilson; Lori Douglas
This study is part of a broader project aimed at developing cognitive and neurocognitive profiles of adolescent and youngadult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. We explore the relationships among reading-related abilities in participants ages 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range
Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald P.; Mencl, W. Einar
Evaluated effects of perceived choice upon comprehension and memory of prose reading passages. Compared choice and no choice conditions with young and elderly adults and only elderly groups. Results indicated both age- and vocabulary-related deficits. However, perceived choice conditions did not produce any consistent improvement in performance.
In recent years the necessity of measuring quality of life in childhood cancer survivors has been stressed. This paper gives an overview of the results of studies into the quality of life (QL) of youngadult survivors of childhood cancer and suggest areas for future research. The review located 30 empirical studies published up to 2001. The results are described
N. E. Langeveld; H. Stam; M. A. Grootenhuis; B. F. Last
The well-being of youngadults in the United States today remains an area of key interest to the public and policy-makers alike. This age group faces the well-known challenges of achieving financial and social independence while forming their own households at a time of greater economic uncertainty than in the past. Better understanding of the
Notes how adolescents through youngadult literature begin to discover the meaning behind the words and to explore their own emotions. Describes the use of small groups and an introduction of the concept of a literacy community. Discusses a whole-class reading and response to S.E. Hinton's novel "The Outsiders." (SC)
Discusses the power of books and literacy, the power of giving students their own books to take home, and youngadult novels in which the importance of books is a major theme. Offers brief descriptions of 27 books (mostly novels) whose stories focus on the power of books and literacy. (SR)
The content of Weblogs ranges from personal diary entries to interactive content from news organizations. Employing the uses and gratifications framework, this study examined how much time youngadults spend with blogs and how well traditional predictors of media trust fit a model of overall blog trust. Findings from data collections in 2005 and 2007 indicate that information seekers trust
This paper explores the issue of suicide among gay and lesbian adolescents and youngadults, as well as provides information to guide clinicians in working effectively with this population. The theoretical perspectives on homosexual identity development by Troiden, Cass, and Lewis are discussed in connection with Durkheim's Suicide Theory and various theoretical risk factors, as well as implications for social
Heidi S. Kulkin; Elizabeth A. Chauvin; Gretchen A. Percle
This article examines the effect of exposure to interparental conflict on the mental health of youngadults. Based on a diverse sample of 649 students from three New England colleges, the authors investigate the association between nonviolent interparental conflict during childhood, subsequent distress and disorder, and identified factors that
This article examines the effect of exposure to interparental conflict on the mental health of youngadults. Based on a diverse sample of 649 students from three New England colleges, the authors investigate the association between nonviolent interparental conflict during childhood, subsequent distress and disorder, and identified factors that mediate the relationship. Results indicate that exposure to interparental conflict significantly
Increasingly, researchers have linked greater self-determination capacities to improved postsecondary outcomes for youth with disabilities. Although leadership is one component of self-determination, little is known about how youth and youngadults with disabilities define, develop, and demonstrate leadership. In this qualitative interview study,
interventions exist for youngadults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges, cognition, and functioning in autism. Keywords Virtual reality Ã Autism Ã Asperger Ã Intervention Ã-Functioning Autism Michelle R. Kandalaft Â· Nyaz Didehbani Â· Daniel C. Krawczyk Â· Tandra T. Allen Â· Sandra B. Chapman
Objectives: To measure relative effectiveness of tobacco countermarketing advertisements by category and emotive execution style among youngadults. Methods: Participants (n = 1011) from 2 US 4-year colleges, one southern and one northern were surveyed before and after viewing advertisements in one of 3 categories: social norms, health
Suggesting that the vital element nonfiction lacks is professional attention, this book shows the literary qualities of nonfiction as well as defining its importance for youngadults. The book discusses seven issues related to information books, each issue making up a single chapter. The first chapter addresses the reading interests of teenagers,
Exercise seems a simple and widely practised behaviour that activates molecular and cellular signalling cascades involved in various central nervous system processes. Despite impressive results obtained in animal studies, fitness interventions have produced less reliable effects in humans, particularly in youngadults. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that an individually adapted exercise training consisting of three running
Sanna Stroth; Katrin Hille; Manfred Spitzer; Ralf Reinhardt
One hundred and thirty-nine youngadults viewed one of three episodes of a television program about a female action hero titled Xena: Warrior Princess. Programs varied in portrayals of Xena's shadow, the dark but also life-preserving facet of the personality. Participants of both genders who had higher levels of traditionally masculine personality characteristics were most likely to perceive Xena as
Sandra L. Calvert; Tracy A. Kondla; Karen A. Ertel; Douglas S. Meisel
Emotion Research on Stanford Typically developing children and youngadults between 8-22 years old needed for research study on Autism Spectrum Disorder, emotions, and emotion regulation. Each participant Be between 8 and 22 years old Autism Study on Emotion Reactivity and Regulation Stanford Psychophysiology Lab
Preparing teachers to understand their students' reading processes so that they can guide their students toward connecting with texts in meaningful and personal ways are goals that can be met through the study of youngadult literature. Twenty-first century learners live in an increasingly interconnected world and have access to countless texts
In an effort to inform junior and senior high school students about mental illness, this document provides educators with an annotated bibliography of youngadult fiction and a set of supporting activities. Included in the bibliography are nearly 100 current fiction titles, grouped according to the following topics: anorexia, drugs and alcohol,
More than 2.3 million low-income youngadults began postsecondary education in 2008. Where these students initially enroll is of greater consequence than it is to their economically better-off peers because the likelihood of completing college for students from low-income backgrounds depends strongly on where they start their studies. This brief
Casual sex is often associated with the youngadult stage in the life course. Most recent research on the prevalence, motives, and consequences of heterosexual casual sex has relied on samples of college students, yet students are only a small and advantaged subset of the youngadult population. The current study drew on the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, which was collected in 20062007 and included youngadults (ages 1824 years) whose trajectories reflected a wider spectrum of educational experiences (N = 1,023). We moved beyond prior work by examining both frequency and type of heterosexual casual sex: lifetime vaginal, lifetime oral, and recent vaginal sex. We found that youngadults enrolled or who graduated from 4-year educational institutions reported fewer casual sex partners on all three measures compared to participants with-out a high school degree and those with some college experience. Sexual attitudes were key factors mediating the association between educational status and casual sex behavior. These results indicate that programs aimed at encouraging healthy sexual behavior should target individuals who are at risk of not graduating high school because they are at greatest risk of frequent casual sex partners. PMID:23297151
Youngadults read not only to experience real-life problems, but also to "escape" from those problems. The two most popular types of novels available to teens are the contemporary realistic problem novel and the formula romance novel. A study examined the incidence of specific adolescent developmental tasks (adolescent problems/concerns) in 15
How the type of representation (icons, photos of objects in context, photos of objects in isolation) displayed on a hand-held computer affected recognition performance in youngadults with cognitive disabilities was examined. Participants were required to match an object displayed on the computer to one of three pictures projected onto a screen. We tested the opinion widely held by occupational
How the type of representation (icons, photos of objects in context, photos of objects in isolation) displayed on a hand-held computer affected recognition performance in youngadults with cognitive disabilities was examined. Participants were required to match an object displayed on the computer to one of three pictures projected onto a screen.
This cross-site analysis presents findings about the implementation, impact, and outcomes of the YoungAdult Capacity Initiative (YACI), at 13 community-based organizations in New York City. These agencies received technical assistance and small incentive grants from the Fund for the City of New York Youth Development Institute (YDI) to build
Youngadult college students described their relationship with either their stepgrandparent or grandparent. Grandchildren reported having and desiring more contact; rated that relationship as more important; and reported more involvement in social and personal roles, expected behaviors, and high relationship strength than did stepgrandchildren.
Two hundred and sixty three youngadult college students responded to openended questions assessing their specific intentions, motives, and plans for having children. The most commonly stated motives for childbearing reflected a strong interest in establishing an identity and social network. Financial, marital, and emotional stability were identified as important factors influencing the timing of parenthood. Several significant sex differences
Presents some explanations for the doubling of the youngadult suicide rate since 1950. Analyzes the diagnoses and population groups that contribute the most to this increase. Groups that can be readily affected by suicide reduction measures are discussed, and methods for reducing suicide are proposed. (JPS)
Annotates booklists of literature for youngadults that were selected on the basis of their quality and interest. Topics include: (1) contemporary nonfiction; (2) fantasy, science fiction, and the supernatural; (3) titles for reluctant readers; (4) death and war; (5) love and teen sexuality; (6) science; (7) American and world culture; (8) Black
In this article, the author argues that whiteness remains an overwhelmingly absent dimension in literacy teaching that addresses systems of power from a critical perspective. One way literacy teachers may bring this dimension more explicitly into the classroom is by facilitating critical conversations on whiteness with youngadult literature. As
Many hypothesized mechanisms for food cravings focus on nutritional deprivation. However, outside of the laboratory, nutritional inadequacy is often confounded with dietary monotony. Therefore, one aim was to examine the effects of a nutritionally adequate, liquid, sweet, monotonous diet on food cravings in young and elderly adults. In addition, previous retrospective questionnaire work has indicated that elderly individuals report fewer
For researchers, suicide is a major concern in youngadults. The additional stressors that may be present for gay or lesbian individuals may promote less adaptive characteristics than in heterosexual individuals. Gay and lesbian and heterosexual subjects completed the Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL) to determine levels of adaptive characteristics that may prevent suicidal behaviors. Results indicated that gay men
This study examines students' perceptions of the outcomes and processes of engaged reading in classrooms prioritizing engagement through self-selected, self-paced reading of compelling youngadult literature. The primary data were 71 end-of-year student interviews, supported by end-of-year teacher interviews, biweekly observational data,
This article summarizes preservice teachers' experiences in a book club that read youngadult literature focused on issues related to bullying. Preservice teachers learned to recognize various incidents of bullying in the books. They also began to consider how they might handle incidents of bullying in their future classrooms. (Contains 2 figures.)
Pytash, Kristine E.; Morgan, Denise N.; Batchelor, Katherine E.
Intended for the youngadult with cystic fibrosis, the booklet provides information on dealing with problems and on advances in treatment and detection related to the disease. Addressed are the following topics: description of cystic fibrosis; inheritance of cystic fibrosis; early diagnosis; friends, careers, and other matters; treatment;
Although United States citizens generally pride themselves on their understanding and acceptance of diversity, all too many of them harbor a fear of Muslims, which transformed into widespread bigotry after September 11, 2001. Knowing that youngadult literature can be a powerful means of negotiating understanding of the other, this article
In this article, the authors discuss thematic solutions using youngadult literature to increase reading comprehension. Here, they emphasize that prior knowledge plays a very important role in the reading process. As students read, they actively "construct meaning through the integration of existing and new knowledge and the flexible use of
We examined youngadults' essentialist reasoning about gender categories. Previous developmental results suggest that until age 9 or 10, children show marked essentialist reasoning about gender, but this disappears by early adulthood. In contrast, results from social cognition suggest that essentialist thinking about social categories
Moral identity can orient one's behaviors when exhibiting any kind of moral behavior. In this study, the moral identities of youngadults are analyzed to a certain extent. For this purpose, the "interpretative phenomenological pattern" and "grounded theory" models are used as qualitative survey models. The study group for
With evolutionary psychology used as the theoretical framework, two aspects of gift giving among youngadults are investigated: (a) sex differences in motives for giving gifts to a romantic partner, and (b) the allocation of gift expenditures among various relations, including romantic partners, close friends, close kin, and distant kin members. As per the evolved sex differences in mating strategies,
Contradictory evidence exists regarding the benefit of the Internet for social and personal wellbeing, with some studies indicating deleterious effects and others possible social enrichment. The potential for increased social isolation from 'over- involvement' in online activities or, conversely, the Internet's possibilities for enhancing social relationships, may be particularly salient during youngadult- hood and adolescence because of the special
Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate which factors predicted the intention to eat healthier food. The empirical data stem from a questionnaire survey carried out among,527 youngadults aged 23-26 years living in Oslo, Norway. The study was carried out in September 1991. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used as a guiding theoretical framework. The
Investigates the relationship between violence in childhood and later discrepancies in youngadults' self-perceptions. Results show that reports of harsh punishment in childhood were modestly, but not highly, associated with greater discrepancies between how participants saw their actual selves and how they felt they ought to be. (RJM)
Designed to assist librarians with collection development, this work identifies, describes, and evaluates more than 800 significant bibliographies of children's and youngadult materials. Emphasis is on print and nonprint works published from 1986 through 1996, with some earlier but still useful publications also covered. In addition, special
Youngadults (ages 18-24) are especially vulnerable to homelessness in the United States, and those experiencing homelessness exhibit high prevalence for many kinds of abuse and negative health outcomes. This article reviews common behavioral health issues facing homeless youth and assesses collective wisdom on effective treatments and services for this vulnerable population. On the whole, the research remains focused on
Suzanne Zerger; Aaron J. Strehlow; Adi V. Gundlapalli
Literature for older children and youngadults (YA fiction) has long been identified as having a didactic tendency to moralise and instruct readers (see, for example, the work of John Stephens, Robyn McCallum, Peter Hollindale and others). Although the didactic tenor of YA fiction has softened in the last several decades, in line with a general decrease in literary didacticism
Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and youngadults (age 18-25
This book presents descriptions of 26 youngadult titles that have been frequent targets of censorship attempts. Each entry provides an annotation for the book in question; examples of recent challenges; citations to reviews of the book and background articles; a list of awards garnered by the book or its author; references about the author;
Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where youngadults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in
Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.
Participation in the arts is a form of practical reason and as such has the potential to form and transform the faith of individuals. The findings from Katherine M. Douglass's 2011 study on the role of the arts in the faith lives of youngadults provides examples of the transformative potential of the arts as they foster expression,
The study sample was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children (93% Black) growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. The study sample included 733 males who were active by age 26. Adult criminal records were collected through administrative records and supplemented with self-reports. Outcome measures included incarceration, conviction, and
... Report reveals millions of youngadults use illicit substances every day Tuesday, June 10, 2014 According to ... every day, thousands of youngadults use illicit substances for the first time. This includes 2,470 ...
The present study compared how varying task priorities affected young and older adults' language production. Both young and older adults responded to monetary incentives to vary their performance when simultaneously talking ...
Provides an annotated bibliography of books: girls perceptions of their bodies, excellence in library services to youngadults, adolescence in America, evaluating and reviewing childrens books, and connecting youngadults and libraries. (PEN)
Many mental health professionals working with children and juveniles either do not have the training in psychological testing techniques, or sufficient diagnostic time to recognise significant indicators of future serious violent offending. The research literature suggests the diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) can be a strong indicator of serious youngadult violence. One component of CD, cruelty to animals, would
Purpose The present paper examines the effects of two decision-framing inductions on youngadults' set of career options: first, whether youngadults use abilities or interests as the grounds for their vocational choices and, second, whether youngadults approach the decision-making task by including all career options to which they feel positively or by eliminating all career options to
Descriptive data indicate that 62% of White youngadults between the ages of 17 and 23 years were on course (i.e., either in college or have graduated from college) in 2007, compared with only 37% of Black youngadults. Given this, finding novel and promising ways to promote college progress among Black youngadults, in particular, is a growing concern
Descriptive data indicate that 62% of White youngadults between the ages of 17 and 23 years were on course (i.e., either in college or have graduated from college) in 2007, compared with only 37% of Black youngadults. Given this, finding novel and promising ways to promote college progress among Black youngadults, in particular, is a growing
Background: Smoking rates are declining in the United States, except for youngadults (age 18 to 24). Few organized programs target smoking cessation specifically for youngadults, except programs for pregnant women. In contrast, the tobacco industry has invested much time and money studying youngadult smoking patterns. Some of these data are now available in documents released through litigation.
The purpose of this position is to develop and implement the parish's commitment to youth and youngadult Preparation program of the parish. D. Assures the development of a Youth & YoungAdult CommissionPastoral Asst. For Youth and YoungAdult Ministry St. Anthony Parish Renton, WA I. POSITION PURPOSE
with children and youngadults in public libraries there is a need for skill in the development of programmingCourse Profile: Programming and Services for Children and YoungAdults Course Number: LIS 7250 and in the planning of services directed to children and youngadults. This course analyzes the principles
Blood-feeding in the youngadult filarial worms Litomosoides sigmodontis T. ATTOUT1 , S. BABAYAN1 adults). Only the very youngadult filarial worms had red blood cells in their gut. Haematophagy number of filarial worms of both sexes was examined at different stages of development from young 4th
Examined long-term effects of divorce in youngadult children by comparing youngadults of divorce (N=104) and those of intact families (N=172). When non-custodial parent was perceived as "lost" the youngadult was more depressed. After-divorce perception of non-custodial father changed negatively, while perception of mother remained stable.
Very little is known about the accessibility and potential barriers to addiction treatment among street youths and youngadults. We sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of enrollment in addiction treatment among a cohort of street-involved youths and youngadults in Vancouver, Canada. Street-involved youths and youngadults who use illicit drugs were enrolled in a prospective cohort study
Jellena Wong; Brandon D. L. Marshall; Thomas Kerr; Calvin Lai; Evan Wood
Theories of human development suggest that, although all cancer patients experience a common set of life disruptions, they experience them differently, focus on different issues, and attach different levels of importance to different aspects of the experience depending on the time in life at which they were diagnosed. During the critical developmental transition from childhood to adulthood, older adolescents and youngadults in particular have typical concerns with establishing identity, developing a positive body image and sexual identity, separating from parents, increasing involvement with peers and dating, and beginning to make decisions about careers or employment, higher education, and/or family. Accordingly, cancer-related issues such as premature confrontation with mortality, changes in physical appearance, increased dependence on parents, disruptions in social life and school/employment because of treatment, loss of reproductive capacity, and health-related concerns about the future may be particularly distressing for adolescents and youngadults. Psychosocial and behavioral interventions for youngadult cancer patients and survivors often involve assisting these individuals in retaining or returning to function in significant social roles, such as spouse, parent, student, worker, or friend. Successful interventions will enable these young people to overcome the detrimental impact of a health crisis and strengthen the internal and external coping resources available to them. PMID:21523748
Objective Though children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined non-substance use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and youngadults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent engagement in motorsports, a collection of risky driving-related activities associated with elevated rates of physical injury. Path analyses tested whether persistent impulsivity, comorbid conduct disorder or antisocial personality disorder (CD/ASP), and heavy alcohol use mediated this association. Analyses also explored whether frequent motorsporting was associated with unsafe and alcohol-influenced driving. Method Two-hundred and twenty-one adolescent and youngadult males (1625 years-old) diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 139 demographically-similar males without ADHD histories reported their motorsports involvement. Persistent impulsivity, CD/ASP, heavy drinking, and hazardous driving were also measured in adolescence/young adulthood1 Results Adolescents and youngadults with ADHD histories were more likely to report frequent motorsports involvement than those without childhood ADHD. Impulsivity, CD/ASP and heavy drinking partially mediated this association, such that individuals with ADHD histories, who had persistent impulsivity or CD/ASP diagnoses, were more likely to engage in heavy drinking, which was positively associated with frequent motorsporting. Motorsports involvement was associated with more unsafe and alcohol-influenced driving, and this association was more often found among those with, than without, ADHD histories. Conclusions Adolescents and youngadults with ADHD histories, especially those with persisting impulsivity, comorbid CD/ASP and heavy drinking tendencies, are more likely to engage in motorsports, which may heighten risk of injury. PMID:23347139
Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, JeeWon; McGinley, James S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.
Aims Young adulthood represents a period of continued smoking progression and the establishment of regular and long-term smoking practices. Our understanding of the psychological processes that facilitate and solidify regular smoking patterns in this developmental period is limited. We sought to evaluate the role of depression symptoms in youngadult smoking uptake and to evaluate whether non-smoking related alternative reinforcers was a mechanism by which depression symptoms influence smoking. Participants The sample was composed of 834 youngadults who participated in a longitudinal study of smoking adoption (age 18 22 years old). Design and measurements In this prospective cohort study, smoking, depression, alternative reinforcers and several covariates were measured annually via telephone from emerging adulthood (age 18) to young adulthood (age 22). Findings Results of a parallel processes latent growth curve model showed that depression symptoms level (baseline age 18) had a significant negative effect on substitute alternative reinforcers trend (? = ?.01, z=?3.17, p=.002) and that substitute reinforcers trend had a significant negative effect on smoking trend (? = ?.62, z= ?2.99, p=.003). An assessment of indirect effects revealed that depression symptoms level had a significant positive indirect effect on smoking trend through substitute alternative reinforcers trend (B = .01, z = 2.09, p=.04, 99% CI = .001, .02), such that greater depression symptoms at baseline predicted decreases in substitute reinforcers across time which in turn predicted increases in smoking uptake/rate from emerging to young adulhood. Conclusions Depression symptoms in emerging adulthood indirectly influence smoking and mitigating declines and/or promoting greater alternative reinforcers to smoking may prevent smoking uptake and further increases in smoking rate among youngadults. PMID:20840206
Two of the most ethically complex situations in pediatrics are those involving families whose religious beliefs preclude the provision of life-sustaining treatment and those involving youngadults who have reached the age of legal majority and who face decisions about life-sustaining treatment. This month's "Ethics Rounds" presents a case in which these 2 complexities overlapped. An 18-year-old Jehovah's Witness with sickle cell disease has life-threatening anemia. She is going into heart failure. Her doctors urgently recommend blood transfusions. The young woman and her family adamantly refuse. Should the doctors let her die? Is there any alternative? PMID:23958767
Ukachi, Nnenna; Morrison, Wynne; Vanhorn, Samantha; Sundaram, Revathy; Lantos, John D
Medulloblastoma is a rare entity in adult patients. All data about treatment are from children, where this disease is the most common cerebral tumour. Reports of medulloblastoma in adults are scarce but in all of them the prognosis seems similar to the prognosis of children. We present our experience in five cases of medulloblastoma in youngadults, treated at the University Hospital "Germans Trias i Pujol" from June 1994 to October 2003. This has not been a good experience as more than 50% of the patients had a recurrence in spite of the standard treatment. We have reviewed the literature, concluding that we have to adapt the findings in children to our adult patients, offering them adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery. PMID:17329226
The inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are a diverse group of genetic diseases associated with inadequate production of one or more blood cell lineages. Examples include Fanconi anemia, dyskeratosis congenita, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, thrombocytopenia absent radii syndrome, severe congenital neutropenia, and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. The management of these disorders was once the exclusive domain of pediatric subspecialists, but increasingly physicians who care for adults are being called upon to diagnose or treat these conditions. Through a series of patient vignettes, we highlight the clinical manifestations of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes in adolescents and youngadults. The diagnostic and therapeutic challenges posed by these diseases are discussed. PMID:24888387
Wilson, David B; Link, Daniel C; Mason, Philip J; Bessler, Monica
The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in youngadults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank et al., 2004). Two groups of youngadults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic selection task was used to assess how participants implicitly extracted reinforcement history from the environment based on probabilistic positive/negative feedback. The findings showed impaired RL in individuals with DLI, indicating an altered gating function of the striatum in testing. However, they exploited similar learning strategies as comparison participants at the beginning of training, reflecting relatively intact functions of the prefrontal cortex to rapidly update reinforcement information. Within the context of Franks model, these results can be interpreted as evidence for alterations in the basal ganglia of individuals with DLI. PMID:22921956
We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to study how sociability and adolescent alcohol use impact personal income as a youngadult. We find that factors which enhance not only individual sociability but also social interaction at the community level are positively linked to future earnings of adolescents. Adolescents whose friends and friends of friends have greater sociability reap long-term labor market rewards into adulthood. After adjusting for individual and community sociability, the effect of teenage alcohol consumption on labor market earnings as youngadults is reduced. Our results suggest that earnings premiums associated with adolescent alcohol consumption may be partially explained by social network dynamics. PMID:22984291
Previous study of scopolamine and memory (Grober et al., 1989) showed that youngadults given moderate or high doses of scopolamine maintained maximum cued recall in spite of a dose-dependent decrement in free recall when memory was assessed by cued selective reminding (CSR), a procedure which circumvents inattention and induces semantic processing. Intact recall by CSR indicates either that scopolamine impairs memory indirectly through effects on attention and information processing or that it impairs explicit memory but not implicit memory. In the present study which was done to determine if CSR reflects explicit or implicit memory, a free association test was used to estimate implicit memory after CSR was administered; explicit memory was estimated with a final trial of cued recall. Data from young, nondemented, and demented adults indicate that CSR reflects explicit memory supporting the interpretation of the previous study that scopolamine does not produce direct impairment of explicit memory. PMID:1572951
85 students and 72 medical and surgical patients, aged between 16 and 24, and 48 mature-aged clerical and executive workers, aged between 29 and 60, were administered a written version of a scale measuring transient thought disorder, the Eysenck personality questionnaire and the EMBU questionnaire on parental rearing methods. It was found that there were differences between samples on frequency of depersonalisation, and that a majority of the youngadult sample had had two or more depersonalisation experiences. Those who had experienced the greater degree of transient thought disorder had had fathers who were more intolerant, unaffectionate and unstimulating, and mothers who were more intolerant, unstimulating and rejecting. Transient thought disorder was related significantly to both psychoticism and particularly to neuroticism on the EPQ in the young, but not the mature adult, sample. It is suggested that it arises as a function of remote and uninvolved parents and is related to uncertainty about identity. PMID:6701262
Objective To explain why a subgroup of young men aged 2024 years do not follow the general trend within the adult general population,\\u000a of declining violence with age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method A cross-sectional survey of 8,397 adults in households in Great Britain in 2000. Computer-assisted interviews to measure self-reported\\u000a violence and psychiatric morbidity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results Young men age 2024 years had the same high prevalence of self-reported violence
Background: Whether abdominal obesity is related to coronary artery calcification (CAC) is not known. Objective:Weinvestigatedtherelationsofwaistgirthandwaist-hip ratio (WHR) to CAC in 2951 African American and white young adultsfromtheCoronaryArteryRiskDevelopmentinYoungAdults Study. Design: The present study was a cross-sectional and observational cohort study. Using standardized protocols, we measured CAC in 2001-2002byusingcomputedtomographyandmeasuredwaistand hipgirthsin1985-1986(baseline),1995-1996(year10),and2001- 2002 (year 15, waist girth only). CAC was classified as present or
Chong-Do Lee; David R Jacobs Jr; Pamela J Schreiner; Carlos Iribarren; Arlene Hankinson
To date, there has been relatively little work on gene-environment contributions to human sexuality, especially molecular\\u000a analyses examining the potential contributions of specific polymorphisms in conjunction with life experiences. Using Wave\\u000a III data from 717 heterozygous youngadult sibling pairs included in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health,\\u000a this article examined the combined contributions of attendance at religious services
Carolyn T. Halpern; Christine E. Kaestle; Guang Guo; Denise D. Hallfors
Disorders of self-awareness are common following cortical damage, particularly to the frontal lobes, but there have been few\\u000a studies of individual differences in self-awareness in the normal population. In the current study, we explored patterns of\\u000a metacognitive awareness among healthy youngadults, based on discrepancies of self- and other-ratings on the Frontal Systems\\u000a Behavior Scale (FrSBe; Grace and Malloy, 2002).
Doreen Hoerold; Paul M. Dockree; Fiadhnait M. OKeeffe; Helen Bates; Maria Pertl; Ian H. Robertson
Thirty-one youngadults (17-23 years of age) with Down syndrome participated in two self-imposed delay of gratifi cation trials. Thirty-six and forty-eight percent waited for the experimenter to return (15 minutes) on Trials 1 and 2 respectively, and thirty-six percent waited for the experimenter on both occasions. Expressive language differentiated those who waited from those who did not. A discriminant
Childhood maltreatment has been thought to be a significant risk factor in the development of gambling problems. Incorporating\\u000a a developmental psychopathology perspective, 1,324 adolescents and youngadults, age 1722 years completed self-report measures\\u000a on gambling behaviors, gambling severity, and childhood maltreatment. Problem gamblers reported high levels of childhood maltreatment\\u000a as compared with non gamblers and social gamblers. The results highlight the
Jennifer R. Felsher; Jeffrey L. Derevensky; Rina Gupta
BACKGROUND: The drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), otherwise known as ecstasy, is a synthetic amphetamine that produces euphoria, increases sociability and energy, and is often used as a weekend recreational drug by youngadults.CASE SUMMARY: A 23-year-old male (height, 184 cm; weight, 68 kg) presented to the emergency department of Marmara University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, with jaundice and nausea lasting for 6
Objective: Youngadults frequently experiment with vegetarian and weight-loss diets. Comparisons of their experiences on these two different diets may help in the development of approaches to improve long-term adherence to weight-loss regimens. In the current study vegetarian and weight-loss diets were compared on how long and how strictly they were followed, and reasons why they were initiated and discontinued.Research
This study examined the association between a wide range of factors and youngadults' gambling. Data were from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy. The study is based on 3691 individuals for whom data were available on self-report gambling and gambling expenditure at the 21-year follow-up. Independent variables were measured at the baseline and 14-year follow-up. Adolescents who smoked
Mohammad R. Hayatbakhsh; Alexandra M. Clavarino; Gail M. Williams; William Bor; Jake M. Najman
The role of comorbidity as a risk for suicide attempts is investigated in a random sample of 3021 youngadults aged 1424\\u000a years. The M-CIDI, a fully standardized and modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used\\u000a for the assessment of various DSM-IV lifetime and 12-month diagnoses as well as suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Of\\u000a all suicide
The present work has a two-fold aim: (a) to verify the difference in civic behavior enacted by socially engaged young people in a lasting and structured form, sealed by membership in an organization, on the one hand, and in non-engaged young people, on the other hand; (b) to identify a pattern of characteristics (personal, social, and familial) able to explain civic behavior. Participants, 577 youngadults from ages 19 to 29, filled out a self-report questionnaire. The results of the t test for independent samples confirm the presence of the difference between means of scores on the civic behavior. Moreover, data confirm a model in which civic behavior is predicted by personal identity, engagement values, family discussion of current events, the quality of previous membership experiences in socially oriented groups (membership), and finally, in a mediator position, by sense of community. The present study has many implications for researchers and practitioners. PMID:22242781
This study concerns life satisfaction and its determinants in Dutch youngadults with spina bifida (SB). Data on life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire [LiSat-9]) were related to hydrocephalus, lesion level, disabilities, and demographic variables. In total, 179 youngadults with SB participated (41% male, age range 16-25y; 79% SB aperta, 67% hydrocephalus [HC], 39% wheelchair-dependent). Most were satisfied with their life as a whole (24% dissatisfied). No difference was found from a population reference group (28% dissatisfied). Highest proportions of dissatisfaction were found for financial situation (44%), partnership relations (49%), and sex life (55%). Least dissatisfaction was found for contact with friends (17%) and families (15%). Youngadults with SB and HC were more satisfied with their financial situation and family life but were less satisfied with self-care ability and partnership relations than those without HC and the reference group. However, except for self-care ability, relationships between life satisfaction and having SB were weak. In conclusion, self-care ability and partnership relations were rated least favourable and may need more attention from care providers. Overall, SB does not seem to be an important determinant of life satisfaction. PMID:17518933
Barf, H A; Post, M W M; Verhoef, M; Jennekens-Schinkel, A; Gooskens, R H J M; Prevo, A J H
Youngadult involvement in sexual behavior typically occurs within a relationship context, but we know little about the ways in which specific features of romantic relationships influence sexual decision-making. Prior work on sexual risk taking focuses attention on health issues rather than relationship dynamics. We draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 475) to examine the association between qualities and dynamics of current/most recent romantic relationships such as communication and emotional processes, conflict, demographic asymmetries, and duration and the management of sexual risk. We conceptualize risk management as encompassing multiple domains, including (1) questioning the partner about previous sexual behaviors/risks, (2) using condoms consistently, and (3) maintaining sexual exclusivity within the relationship. We identify distinct patterns of risk management among dating youngadults and find that specific qualities and dynamics of these relationships are linked to variations in risk management. Results from this paper suggest the need to consider relational dynamics in efforts to target and influence youngadult sexual risk-taking and reduce STIs, including HIV. PMID:23805015
Adolescent and youngadult (AYA) oncology is caught between the pediatric and adult oncology settings and, therefore, poorly defined. Unfortunately, progress in overall survival for this age cohort has been stagnant while children and older adults have seen significant improvements. Reasons for the lack of progress are multifactorial, with biologic and psychosocial explanations. The current article will detail the unique features of AYA patients with cancer in terms of outcomes, psychosocial issues, and recommendations. Literature pertaining to AYA patients with cancer from 2006-2012 was reviewed. Findings suggested that recognizing AYAs as a subspecialty that requires holistic, multidisciplinary care may improve outcomes. Nurses at all levels are adept at providing holistic care and are, therefore, excellent potential advocates for a specialized care delivery model that AYAs with cancer deserve. PMID:23715705
The cure rate of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children is 80%, compared to less than half in adults. A major proportion of this cure rate drop occurs in adolescents and youngadults (AYAs). The age range defining this population varies between studies, biological characteristics are different from both younger children and older adults, and AYAs are treated either by pediatric or adult oncologists, who often apply different treatment approaches to the same ALL patient population. The outcome of AYAs aged 15-21 years treated by more contemporary pediatric protocols is similar to that of younger children but is inferior when using adult regimens. This motivated studying AYA patients, including those above the age of 21 years, with pediatric or 'pediatrics-inspired' regimens that intensified nonmyelosuppressive drugs such as vincristine, steroids and asparaginase, with very promising preliminary results. Discovering new mutations in AYA ALL will help stratify patients into risk subgroups and identify targets for novel agents. This, together with fine-tuning pediatric chemotherapy principles will hopefully finally decrease the cure rate gap between children and AYAs - and even older adults. PMID:25228551
The mechanism of a rise in blood pressure after kidney irradiation is unclear but most likely of renal origin. We have investigated the role of the renin-angiotensin system and dietary salt restriction in the development of systolic hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats. Three to 12 months after a single X-ray dose of 7.5 or 12.5 Gy to both kidneys of young and adult rats, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and plasma renin concentration (PRC) were measured regularly. A single X-ray dose of 12.5 Gy caused a moderate rise in SBP and a slight reduction in PRC in both young and adult rats. A dose of 7.5 Gy did not significantly alter the SBP or PRC during the follow-up period of 1 year. In a second experiment, the kidneys of young rats received an X-ray dose of 20 Gy. Subsequently, rats were kept on a standard diet (110 mmol sodium/kg) or a sodium-poor diet (10 mmol sodium/kg). On both diets, SBP started to rise rapidly 3 months after kidney irradiation. Sodium balance studies carried out at that time revealed an increased sodium retention in the irradiated rats compared to controls on the same diet. In rats on a low sodium intake, there was neither a delay nor an alleviation in the development of hypertension. Compared to controls, the PRC tended to be lower in irradiated rats up to 4 months after irradiation. Subsequently, malignant hypertension developed in all 20 Gy rats, resulting in pressure natriuresis, stimulating the renin-angiotensin system. Our findings indicated that hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation was not primarily the result of an activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Although there were some indications that sodium retention played a role, dietary sodium restriction did not influence the development of hypertension.
Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.
The relation between alcohol consumption and incident hypertension is unclear, and most observational studies have not accounted for socioeconomic factors. This study examined the association between alcohol consumption in a diverse group of youngadults and incident hypertension over 20 years. Participants (n = 4,711) were from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in YoungAdults Study cohort, recruited in 1985
Jewell H. Halanych; Monika M. Safford; Stefan G. Kertesz; Mark J. Pletcher; Young-Il Kim; Sharina D. Person; Cora E. Lewis; Catarina I. Kiefe
Objectives. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of coronary artery calcification in youngadult men and women and to examine the association between the presence of coronary artery calcification and coronary risk factors measured in childhood and youngadult life.Background. Electron beam computed tomography is a sensitive, noninvasive method for detecting coronary artery calcification, a marker of the
Larry T. Mahoney; Trudy L. Burns; William Stanford; Brad H. Thompson; John D. Witt; Catherine A. Rost; Ronald M. Lauer
Youngadult literature is a tool of socialisation and acculturation for young readers. This extends to endowing "reading" with particular significance in terms of what literature should be read and why. This paper considers some recent youngadult fiction with an eye to its engagement with canonical literature and its representations of
This study examined vowel perception by young normal-hearing (YNH) adults, in various listening conditions designed to simulate mild-to-moderate sloping sensorineural hearing loss. YNH listeners were individually age- and gender-matched to young hearing-impaired (YHI) listeners tested in a previous study [Richie et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2923-2933 (2003)]. YNH listeners were tested in three conditions designed to create equal audibility with the YHI listeners; a low signal level with and without a simulated hearing loss, and a high signal level with a simulated hearing loss. Listeners discriminated changes in synthetic vowel tokens /smcapi e ? invv æ/ when F1 or F2 varied in frequency. Comparison of YNH with YHI results failed to reveal significant differences between groups in terms of performance on vowel discrimination, in conditions of similar audibility by using both noise masking to elevate the hearing thresholds of the YNH and applying frequency-specific gain to the YHI listeners. Further, analysis of learning curves suggests that while the YHI listeners completed an average of 46% more test blocks than YNH listeners, the YHI achieved a level of discrimination similar to that of the YNH within the same number of blocks. Apparently, when age and gender are closely matched between young hearing-impaired and normal-hearing adults, performance on vowel tasks may be explained by audibility alone.
Youngadults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among youngadult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis (n = 48) completed a sun habits survey. Almost half (n = 113) of the participants used sunscreen inadequately and 30% (n = 70) reported not using sunscreen. In fully adjusted models, social cognitive attributes significantly (p < .05) associated with inadequate sunscreen use (vs. nonuse) included skin cancer risk perceptions (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.3, 1.0), perceived barriers to sunscreen use (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3, 0.9), and stronger personal norms for applying sunscreen (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.0, 3.2). These findings provide insight into the attributes that enable or inhibit the use of sunscreen among young competitors and as a result may be useful in informing behavior change interventions within the sporting context. PMID:21059896
Gaze-following behaviour is considered crucial for social interactions which are influenced by social similarity. We investigated whether the degree of similarity, as indicated by the perceived age of another person, can modulate gaze following. Participants of three different age-groups (1825; 3545; over 65) performed an eye movement (a saccade) towards an instructed target while ignoring the gaze-shift of distracters of different age-ranges (610; 1825; 3545; over 70). The results show that gaze following was modulated by the distracter face age only for youngadults. Particularly, the over 70 year-old distracters exerted the least interference effect. The distracters of a similar age-range as the youngadults (1825; 3545) had the most effect, indicating a blurred own-age bias (OAB) only for the young age group. These findings suggest that face age can modulate gaze following, but this modulation could be due to factors other than just OAB (e.g., familiarity). PMID:24752250
Ciardo, Francesca; Marino, Barbara F. M.; Actis-Grosso, Rossana; Rossetti, Angela; Ricciardelli, Paola
The purpose of this study was to examine the use of vocal fry in youngadult Standard American-English (SAE) speakers. This was a preliminary attempt (1) to determine the prevalence of the use of this register in youngadult college-aged American speakers and (2) to describe the acoustic characteristics of vocal fry in these speakers. Subjects were 34 female college students. They were native SAE speakers aged 18-25 years. Data collection procedures included high quality recordings of two speaking conditions, (1) sustained isolated vowel /a/ and (2) sentence reading task. Data analyses included both perceptual and acoustic evaluations. Results showed that approximately two-thirds of this population used vocal fry and that it was most likely to occur at the end of sentences. In addition, statistically significant differences between vocal fry and normal register were found for mean F(0) minimum, F(0) maximum, F(0) range, and jitter local. Preliminary findings were taken to suggest that use of the vocal fry register may be common in some adult SAE speakers. PMID:21917418
In this article I question whether or not African American youngadult literature serves as a primer for, and a version of, African American adult literature. Using the Black Aesthetic as my literary theory and the Coretta Scott King Award as the youngadult canon, I note that while the content of adolescent literature is consistent with the tenets of
,,,,,Abstract This study investigated the effects of gender, personal experience with suicidal others and exposure to suicide ,awareness ,education upon suicide related knowledge ,and attitudes of 190 youngadults and 52 older adults. Results showed,that both the young and older adults indicated a substantial degree of personal ,experience with suicidal others, and despite displaying inadequate knowledge, possessed reasonable attitudes to
This study examined the extent to which youngadults recollections of their childhood experiences with parents were associated with their reported feelings and behavior in romantic relationships. Participants were 205 youngadults. Based on a question from the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996), participants wrote adjectives that described their childhood relationships with each parent as well as
This study examined the extent to which youngadults recollections of their childhood experiences with parents were associated with their reported feelings and behavior in romantic relationships. Participants were 205 youngadults. Based on a question from the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996), participants wrote adjectives
This article expands understanding of the digital divide to more nuanced measures of use by examining differences in youngadults' online activities. Youngadults are the most highly connected age group, but that does not mean that their Internet uses are homogenous. Analyzing data about the Web uses of 270 adults from across the United States, the article explores the
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of neighborhood characteristics with six components of the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) in youngadults.\\u000aRESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in YoungAdults (CARDIA) Study were used to examine associations of neighborhood characteristics with the IRS in 3,093 nondiabetic adults aged 28-40 years. Measures of BMI, fasting HDL cholesterol,
Ana V. Diez-Roux; David R. Jacobs; Catarina I. Kiefe
Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among youngadult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement), lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ. PMID:22829801
We examined verbal sexual health communication, pleasure discussions, and physical sexual communication in relation to condom use by youngadult, heterosexual Latinos (ages 18-30 years). Participants (N = 220, 51% female) were recruited in a Midwestern state. Verbal sexual health communication was positively associated with consistent condom use among men (odds ratio [OR] = 2.66, p < .05) and women (OR = 3.12, p < .05). For men, pleasure discussions were negatively associated with consistent condom use (OR = 0.21, p < .05). For women, verbal sexual health communication was positively associated with condom use at last sex (OR = 2.75, p < .05), whereas physical sexual communication was negatively associated with condom use at last sex (OR = .29, p < .05). Various aspects of sexual communication may be important in HIV-prevention programs with young Latinos. Physical sexual communication and pleasure discussions, in particular, warrant further exploration given negative relationships with condom use. PMID:25305027
Alvarez, Carmen; Bauermeister, José A; Villarruel, Antonia M
Background Emerging evidence from general population studies suggests that lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adults are more likely to experience adverse cardiovascular outcomes relative to heterosexuals. No studies have examined whether sexual orientation disparities exist in biomarkers of early cardiovascular disease risk. Purpose To determine whether sexual orientation disparities in biomarkers of early cardiovascular risk are present among youngadults. Methods Data come from Wave IV (20082009) of the National Longitudinal Study for Adolescent Health (N=12,451), a prospective nationally representative study of U.S. adolescents followed into young adulthood (mean age: 28.9 years). A total of 520 respondents identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Biomarkers included C-reactive protein, glycosylated hemoglobin, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Results In gender-stratified models adjusted for demographics (age, race/ethnicity); SES (income, education); health behaviors (smoking, regular physical activity, alcohol consumption); and BMI, gay and bisexual men had significant elevations in C-reactive protein, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate, compared to heterosexual men. Despite having more risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, and higher BMI, lesbians and bisexual women had lower levels of C-reactive protein than heterosexual women in fully adjusted models. Conclusions Evidence was found for sexual orientation disparities in biomarkers of cardiovascular risk among youngadults, particularly in gay and bisexual men. These findings, if confirmed in other studies, suggest that disruptions in core physiologic processes that ultimately confer risk for cardiovascular disease may occur early in the life course for sexual minority men. PMID:23683979
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Kate A.; Slopen, Natalie
Background Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and youngadults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. Objectives This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and youngadults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. Methods A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Boolsche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and youngadults. Results 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA). Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Discussion Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters). The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. Conclusion The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour) as well as the definition and empirical validation of risky alcohol consumption. The efficacy of prevention activities should be proven before they are launched. At present activities for the reduction or prevention of risky alcohol consumption are not sufficiently evaluated in Germany concerning their sustainable efficacy. PMID:21808659
Korczak, Dieter; Steinhauser, Gerlinde; Dietl, Markus
Objectives: The aim of the current research was to assess the prevalence of gingival recession and to investigate possible associations among this condition, periodontal and epidemiological variables in a sample of young Greek adults in a general dental practice. Material and Methods: A total of 1,430 youngadults was examined clinically and interviewed regarding several periodontal and epidemiological variables. Collected data included demographic variables, oral hygiene habits and smoking status. Clinical examination included the recording of dental plaque, supragingival calculus presence, gingival status and buccal gingival recession. Multivariate logistic regression analysis model was performed to access the possible association between gingival recession and several periodontal and epidemiological variables as potential risk factors. Results: The overall prevalence of gingival recession was 63.9%. The statistical analysis indicated that higher educational level [OR= 2.12, 95% CI= 0.53-8.51], cigarette smoking [OR= 1.97, 95% CI= 1.48-7.91], frequent tooth brushing [OR= 0.98, 95% CI= 0.56-1.96], presence of oral piercing [OR= 0.92, 95% CI= 0.38-1.58], presence of gingival inflammation [OR= 4.54, 95% CI= 1.68-7.16], presence of dental plaque [OR= 1.67, 95% CI= 0.68-2.83] and presence of supragingival calculus [OR=1.34, 95% CI= 0.59-1.88], were the most important associated factors of gingival recession. Conclusions: The observations of the current research supported the results from previous authors that several periodontal factors, educational level and smoking were significantly associated with the presence of gingival recession, while presence of oral piercing was a new factor that was found to be associated with gingival recession. Key words:Gingival recession, prevalence, risk factors, youngadults. PMID:25136424
Background: Youngadults who use stimulants (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines) are at particular risk of transitioning to dependence. Previously, we demonstrated increased risk-taking in youngadults who had used stimulants (Leland, D.S., Paulus, M.P., 2005. Increased risk-taking decision-making but not altered response to punishment in stimulant-using youngadults. Drug. Alcohol Depend. 78, 83-90). Since outcome uncertainty is a critical element of
David S. Leland; Estibaliz Arce; Justin S. Feinstein; Martin P. Paulus
Young adulthood is a period renowned for engagement in impulsive and risky behaviors, including gambling. There are some indications\\u000a that youngadults exhibit higher gambling rates in comparison to older adults. Problem gambling has also been linked to ADHD.\\u000a This longitudinal study examines the relationship between gambling and ADHD among an epidemiological sample of youngadults\\u000a (n = 235; males = 179, females = 56) aged
Jessie L. Breyer; Andria M. Botzet; Ken C. Winters; Randy D. Stinchfield; Gerald August; George Realmuto
The purpose of the present study is to explore how sexually active young Norwegian and Croatian adults assess the risk of\\u000a being infected with HIV and other STIs. Study results are based on a 20092010 large-scale national probability survey of\\u000a youngadults aged 1824 in Croatia (n = 1,005) and Norway (n = 871). A majority of sexually active youngadults in Croatia\\u000a and
This project addresses the use of youngadult literature in the classroom to teach about teen violence. The research questions addressed are:\\u000a1. How is violence depicted in youngadult literature from post-Columbine (1999) to present day (2009)?\\u000a2. How does youngadult literature attempt to inform teens about the causes, effects, and warning signs of violence?\\u000a3. How do
identifying the cause of ischemic stroke in youngadults is of major importance to prevent stroke recurrence. However, given the wide variety of potential underlying causes, the etiological workup of stroke in youngadults requires a different approach from that in the elderly The purpose of this article is to provide a sequential diagnostic workup in order to optimize the yield of diagnostic tests, and to reduce their cost and risks for the patient. The first line screening mainly includes contemporary MRI of the brain and its vessels, and cardiac investigations which will assess the most frequent causes of stroke in this age group: arterial dissection and cardioembolism. The second line screening should be guided by context and clinical suspicion: lumbar puncture and immunological tests in case of angeitis suspicion; lumbar puncture, blood culture and serologies in case of infectious context; antiphospholipid syndrome, Holter-ECG, transoesophageal echocardiography, HIV and syphilis serologies in absence of context. Finally, the third line screening may include more invasive tests such as angiography and leptomeningeal biopsy in case of angeitis suspicion or genetic analyses. Despite such a comprehensive workup, about one third of cases will remain unexplained, leading to the diagnosis of idiopathic ischemic stroke. PMID:24167893
This research aimed to compare the prevalence rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) and to differentiate the presence and severity of depressive symptoms between women and men aged 18-24?years. In this population-based, cross-sectional study (n?=?1560), youngadults were screened with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for MDD (n?=?137). Participants then completed a self-report questionnaire to gather sociodemographic data, and the presence of each symptom of depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. The proportion of women (12.2%) with MDD was higher than that of men (5.3%). The symptoms of depression found to be significantly more prevalent in women were sadness, crying, difficulty making decisions, and lack of energy, as well as self-criticism, irritability, changes in self-image, work difficulty, and loss of interest in sex. Sadness and self-criticism were significantly more severe in women than in men. The presentation of depressive symptoms in youngadults with MDD differed between men and women. PMID:23651450
Two youngadults underwent resection of large hypervascular vestibular schwannomas (acoustic neuromas) via two-stage surgery. The first patient, a 27-year-old woman with hydrocephalus, had a large hypervascular vestibular tumor in the left cerebellopontine angle (CPA) supplied by the left anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) and posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). The second patient, a 34-year-old woman, had a large AICA-supplied hypervascular vestibular tumor in the left CPA that displaced the brain stem significantly. At the initial stage, only the lateral aspect of the tumor was debulked due to excessive bleeding from the tumor bed. Angiography 1 or 2 months after the initial operation showed that the tumor was hypovascular. At the second stage, the remnant medial aspect of the tumor was relatively avascular and nonadherent to the brain stem. Without blood transfusion during the second stage, the tumor was removed totally in the first patient and subtotally in the second patient. Pathological examination revealed that dilatated blood vessels were prominently increased at the first surgery; however, at the second surgery, the number of blood vessels had decreased, showing necrosis and degeneration. Although there are no absolute indications for the staged resection of vestibular schwannomas, this procedure may represent one of the safest options for these difficult lesions in youngadults. ImagesFigure 1p201-bFigure 1p202-bFigure 2p203-bFigure 2p204-b PMID:17167621
This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy youngadults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p?=?0.009; effect size r?=?0.20) and SDS (p?=?0.034; r?=?0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in youngadults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise. PMID:24949870
Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A.
Individuals born very preterm (VPT) are at increased risk of perinatal brain injury and long-term cognitive and behavioral problems. Executive functioning, in particular, has been shown to be impaired in VPT children and adolescents. This study prospectively assessed executive function in youngadults who were born VPT (<33 weeks of gestation) [n = 61; mean age, 22.25 (+/-1.07) years; range, 20.62-24.78 years] and controls [n = 64; mean age, 23.20 (+/-1.48) years; range, 19.97-25.46 years]. Tests used comprised the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), the Hayling Sentence Completion Test (HSCT), the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), the Animal and Object test, the Trail-Making Test (TMT), and the Test of Attentional Performance (TAP). VPT participants showed specific executive function impairments in tasks involving response inhibition and mental flexibility, even when adjusting for IQ, gender, and age. No significant associations were observed between executive function test scores and perinatal variables or neonatal ultrasound classification. The results suggest that, although free from major physical disability, VPT youngadults perform worse than controls on tasks involving selective aspects of executive processing, such as mental flexibility and response inhibition. PMID:17521479
Nosarti, Chiara; Giouroukou, Elena; Micali, Nadia; Rifkin, Larry; Morris, Robin G; Murray, Robin M
Tremendous strides have been made in improving the outcomes of haematological malignancies (HM) over the last three decades, but adolescents and youngadult (AYA) patients have not benefitted equally compared to younger and older patients. Excellent outcomes in Hodgkin lymphoma have allowed tailoring of highly effective regimens that limit the incidence of late effects. Early successes in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia set the stage for a series of studies in youngadults utilizing a paediatric-type treatment strategy. These studies have determined that AYAs benefit from paediatric-type chemotherapy regimens. Despite the increased incidence of acute myeloid leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the AYA age group, optimal strategies for these patients have not been systematically pursued. There is renewed interest in improving HM outcomes in AYA patients and this will rely on the development of clinical trials that specifically target these patients. Understanding and addressing the unique psychosocial challenges of this population will be critical in supporting this endeavor. PMID:24007213
Place, Andrew E; Frederick, Natasha N; Sallan, Stephen E
The purpose of this study was to examine whether youngadults changed their physical activity (PA) behavior when wearing motion sensors. PA patterns of 119 youngadults (M age = 20.82 years, SD = 1.50, M body mass index = 23.93 kg/m2, SD = 4.05) were assessed during 2 consecutive weeks. In Week 1, participants wore an accelerometer. During Week 2, participants wore an accelerometer and a pedometer Counts/day from the accelerometer were examined over the entire study period. Steps/day from the pedometer were examined during Week 2. Descriptive statistics and two-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance were calculated. There were significant differences in counts/day by study day during both weeks of the study (Week 1, p < .0001; Week 2, p < .0001), and steps/day during Week 2 (p < .0001). However, reactivity was not evident. Subsequent investigation by day of the week revealed these differences were due to changes in participants' PA behavior by weekdays and weekends. With respect to gender, men were more active than women during both weeks of monitoring, but daily PA behavior between the genders followed a similar pattern. In conclusion, reactivity to accelerometers and pedometers was not evident in this sample. PMID:17479568
This pilot study tested the efficacy of a brief intervention using motivational interviewing (MI) plus mindfulness meditation (MM) to reduce marijuana use among youngadult female. Thirty-four female marijuana users between the ages of 1829 were randomized to either the intervention group (n = 22), consisting of 2 sessions of MI-MM or an assessment-only control group (n = 12). Participants marijuana use was assessed at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 months post-treatment. Fixed-effects regression modeling was used to analyze treatment effects. Participants randomized to the intervention group were found to use marijuana on 6.15 (z = ?2.42, p=.015), 7.81 (z = ?2.78, p=.005), and 6.83 (z = ?2.23, p=.026) fewer days at months 1, 2, and 3, respectively, than controls. Findings from this pilot study provide preliminary evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of a brief MI-MM for youngadult female marijuana users. PMID:21940136
de Dios, Marcel A.; Herman, Debra S.; Britton, Willoughby B.; Hagerty, Claire E.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.
Purpose This is the first study describing the tobacco industrys objectives developing and publishing lifestyle magazines, linking them to tobacco marketing strategies, and how these magazines may encourage smoking. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and content analysis of 31 lifestyle magazines to understand the motives behind producing these magazines and the role they played in tobacco marketing strategies. Results Philip Morris (PM) debuted Unlimited in 1996 to nearly 2 million readers and RJ Reynolds (RJR) debuted CML in 1999 targeting youngadults with their interests. Both magazines were developed as the tobacco companies faced increased advertising restrictions Unlimited contained few images of smoking, but frequently featured elements of the Marlboro brand identity in both advertising and article content. CML featured more smoking imagery and fewer Camel brand identity elements. Conclusions Lifestyle promotions that lack images of smoking may still promote tobacco use through brand imagery. The tobacco industry still uses the under the radar strategies used in development of lifestyle magazines in branded websites. Prohibiting lifestyle advertising including print and electronic media that associate tobacco with recreation, action, pleasures, and risky behaviors or that reinforces tobacco brand identity may be an effective strategy to curb youngadult smoking. PMID:19699423
Cortese, Daniel K.; Lewis, M. Jane; Ling, Pamela M.
BACKGROUND: This study represents the first attempt to perform a profiling analysis of the intergenerational differences in the microRNAs (miRNAs) of primary cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms in youngadult and older age groups. The data emphasize the importance of these master regulators in the transcriptional machinery of melanocytic neoplasms and suggest that differential levels of expressions of these miRs may contribute
Drazen M Jukic; Uma N. M. Rao; Lori Kelly; Jihad S Skaf; Laura M Drogowski; John M Kirkwood; Monica C Panelli
Although youngadult (YA) survivors of child cancer comprise a unique group from a developmental standpoint, in most treatment and research settings either child or general adult measures of quality of life (QL) are used to measure adjustment...
Aging is associated with cognitive decline and alterations in early perceptual processes. Studies in the auditory and visual sensory modalities have shown that the mismatch negativity [or the mismatch response (MMR)], an event-related potential (ERP) elicited by a deviant stimulus in a background of homogenous events, diminishes with aging and cognitive decline. However, the effects of aging on the somatosensory MMR (sMMR) are not known. In the current study, we recorded ERPs to electrical pulses to different fingers of the left hand in a passive oddball experiment in young (2236 years) and elderly (6695 years) adults engaged in a visual task. The MMR was found to deviants as compared to standards at two latency ranges: 180220 ms and 250290 ms post-stimulus onset. At 180220 ms, within the young, the MMR was found at medial electrode sites, whereas aged did not show any amplitude difference between the stimulus types at the same latency range. At 250290 ms, the MMR was evident with attenuated amplitude and narrowed scalp distribution among aged (Fz) compared to young (fronto-centrally and lateral parietal sites). Hence, the results reveal that the somatosensory change detection mechanism is altered in aging. The sMMR can be used as a reliable measure of age-related changes in sensory-cognitive functions. PMID:25386140
Strommer, Juho M.; Tarkka, Ina M.; Astikainen, Piia
The American Civil War has been a popular topic for young-adult writers for years, with new books now being written from young women's perspectives. In this paper, I will examine the gender ideologies that infiltrate contemporary Civil War books for youngadults. I will examine four recent young-adult Civil-War novels: G. Clifton Wisler's "Mr.
Data on determinants of prognosis after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in youngadults are scarce. Our aim was to identify clinical determinants of prognosis after ICH in adults aged 18-50. We investigated 98 consecutive patients with an ICH, aged 18-50 years, admitted to our hospital between 1980 and 2010. Collected ICH characteristics included presenting symptoms, etiology, location, severity and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Outcomes were case-fatality (death within 30 days), poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale >2), long-term mortality and recurrent ICH. We assessed discriminatory power of factors associated with case-fatality [area under receiver operating curve (AUC)]. Case-fatality was 20.4 % (n = 20) and well predicted by the GCS (AUC 0.83). Among 30-day survivors, a poor functional outcome at discharge was present in 51.3 %. During a mean follow-up of 11.3 years mortality was only increased in patients aged 40-50 years [standardized mortality ratio 4.8 (95 % CI 2.3-8.6)], but not in patients aged 18-40 years. Recurrent ICH occurred in 6 patients [10-year cumulative incidence 12.2 % (95 % CI 1.5-22.9 %)], all with the index ICH attributable to structural vascular malformations. Prognosis after ICH in youngadults is poor, mainly due to high case-fatality, that is well predicted by the GCS. An exception is 30-day survivors <40 years, who have a similar risk of dying as the general population. Recurrence risk is especially present in patients with structural vascular malformations, whereas risk seems to be very low in other patients. PMID:25138477
Rutten-Jacobs, Loes Ca; Maaijwee, Noortje Am; Arntz, Renate M; Schoonderwaldt, Hennie C; Dorresteijn, Lucille D; van Dijk, Ewoud J; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik
The views of 76 youngadults on their own reminiscences and those of older persons were compared with the self-reports of 83 older adults. Older adults used reminiscence to transmit life experiences. The beliefs of younger adults about elders' use of reminiscence reflect the prevalence of ageist stereotypes. (Contains 22 references.) (JOW)
Teens and youngadults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) meet the criteria of teen and adult learners chronologically, but may be deficient in many other areas of teen and adult learning. The spectrum of intellectual and adaptive capabilities among teens and adults with ID is vast, with each individual being unique. There are specific teaching
Childhood psychological trauma is a strong predictor of psychopathology. Preclinical research points to the influence of this type of trauma on brain development. However, the effects of psychological trauma on the developing human brain are less known and a challenging question is whether the effects can be reversed or even prevented. The aim of this review is to give an overview of neuroimaging studies in traumatized juveniles and youngadults up till 2012. Neuroimaging studies in children and adolescents with traumatic experiences were found to be scarce. Most studies were performed by a small number of research groups in the United States and examined structural abnormalities. The reduction in hippocampal volume reported in adults with PTSD could not be confirmed in juveniles. The most consistent finding in children and adolescents, who experienced psychological trauma are structural abnormalities of the corpus callosum. We could not identify any studies investigating treatment effects. Neuroimaging studies in traumatized children and adolescents clearly lag behind studies in traumatized adults as well as studies on ADHD and autism. PMID:23553572
Rinne-Albers, Mirjam A W; van der Wee, Nic J A; Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Vermeiren, Robert R J M
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires that adults up to age twenty-six be permitted to enroll as dependents on their parents' health plans. This article examines the experiences of states that enacted dependent expansion laws. Drawing on public information from thirty-one enacting states and case studies of four diverse reform states, it derives lessons that are pertinent to the implementation of this ACA provision. Dependent coverage laws vary across the states, but most impose residency, marital status, and other restrictions. The federal Employee Retirement Income Security Act further limits the reach of state laws. Eligibility for expanded coverage under the ACA is much broader. Rules in some states requiring or allowing separate premiums for adult dependents may also discourage enrollment compared with rules in other states (and the ACA), where these costs must be factored into family premiums. Business opposition in some states led to more restrictive regulations, especially for how premiums are charged, which in turn raised greater implementation challenges. Case study states did not report substantial youngadult dependent coverage take-up, but early enrollment experience under ACA appears to be more positive. Long-term questions remain about the implications of this policy for risk pooling and the distribution of premium costs. PMID:22273776
Cantor, Joel C; Belloff, Dina; Monheit, Alan C; Delia, Derek; Koller, Margaret
BACKGROUND: The long-term health consequences of drug use among healthy youngadults in the general population are not well described. We assessed whether drug use predicted decline in general self-rated health (GSRH) in a community-based cohort, healthy at baseline.\\u000aMETHODS: A prospective cohort of 3124 youngadults (20-32 years old) from four US cities, the Coronary Artery Risk Development in
Stefan G. Kertesz; Mark J. Pletcher; Monika M. Safford; Jewell H. Halanych; Katharine Kirk; Joseph Schumacher; Stephen Sidney; Catarina I. Kiefe
Associations of parents' education and smoking with youngadults' smoking were examined in participants aged 18-30 years at baseline (1985-1986) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in YoungAdults study. Significant (p < 0.05) inverse age-adjusted associations of father's education with participant smoking status among black men, white men, and white women disappeared after adjustment for participant's education. Parental smoking
Kurt J. Greenlund; K. Liu; Catarina I. Kiefe; Carla Yunis; A. R. Dyer; Gregory L. Burke
Limited plantar flexor strength and hip extension range of motion (ROM) in older adults are believed to underlie common age-related differences in gait. However, no studies of age-related differences in gait have quantified the percentage of strength and ROM used during gait. We examined peak hip angles, hip torques and plantar flexor torques, and corresponding estimates of functional capacity utilized (FCU), which we define as the percentage of available strength or joint ROM used, in 10 young and 10 older healthy adults walking under self-selected and controlled (slow and fast) conditions. Older adults walked with about 30% smaller hip extension angle, 28% larger hip flexion angle, 34% more hip extensor torque in the slow condition, and 12% less plantar flexor torque in the fast condition than youngadults. Older adults had higher FCU than youngadults for hip flexion angle (47% vs. 34%) and hip extensor torque (48% vs. 27%). FCUs for plantar flexor torque (both age groups) and hip extension angle (older adults in all conditions; youngadults in self-selected gait) were not significantly <100%, and were higher than for other measures examined. Older adults lacked sufficient hip extension ROM to walk with a hip extension angle as large as that of youngadults. Similarly, in the fast gait condition older adults lacked the strength to match the plantar flexor torque produced by youngadults. This supports the hypothesis that hip extension ROM and plantar flexor strength are limiting factors in gait and contribute to age-related differences in gait. PMID:24461576
Aims To determine whether parental marital status and marital quality in adolescence are associated with cannabis use disorders in youngadults. Design Prospective birth cohort study. Setting A 21 year follow-up of 4815 mothers and their children who participated at 14 years after the child's birth in Queensland, Australia. Participants Cohort of 2303 youngadults who completed the life-time version
Mohammad R. Hayatbakhsh; Jake M. Najman; Konrad Jamrozik; Abdullah A. Mamun; Rosa Alati
Memory for frequency of occurrence of novel material (Turkish words) was investigated in young and elderly adults via direct (absolute and relative frequency judgments) and indirect (reading speed) measures. Both young and elderly adults showed increased reading speed as a function of frequency of occurrence (Experiment 1). However, when asked explicitly to identify how often a word occurred (Experiment 1)
Despite substantial research on racial attitudes and racial identity development among young white adults, little is known about the development of their conceptions about racism. The present study assessed a five-step, empirically based contextualist model of the development of conceptions about racism in young white adults, adapted from the research of Perry (1970), Kitchener and Fischer (1990), and others. A
Thomas R. Bidell; Elaine Meyer Lee; Nicole Bouchie; Colleen Ward; Dana Brass
Objective: Measure select Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators in youngadults with and without a history of developmental disabilities (DD) using a population-based cohort. Methods: Youngadults were interviewed to assess the prevalence of seven Leading Health Indicators: physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance
Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Schendel, Diana; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn
Youngadult information needs related to HIV/AIDS persist. However, in recent years, little has been written in either the research or the professional literature in library and information science about the HIV/AIDS information needs of youth. This article reports on a content analysis of youngadult novels written in English between 1995 and
Suggesting that literature dealing with the Vietnam War can have a dramatic impact on students, this paper assists teachers in selecting youngadult literature on the war, discusses a variety of assignments, and presents student responses to the literature. The paper begins with a discussion of the three main types of youngadult literature:
Uses the author's own novels and those of Chris Crutcher to explore the harm that is sometimes done to literature labeled YoungAdult. Explores a disturbing trend in the publishing, packaging, and attitudes toward such novels: packaging and cover art which panders, and the refusal to hold youngadult literature to high standards. (SR)
Outlines the rise of "youngadult" books, and discusses issues related to the appropriateness of books for adolescents. Discusses and reviews 10 books for adolescents and youngadults. Notes briefly three books for teachers with ideas for improving the reading and writing skills of students in various content areas. (SR)
Considers a number of youngadult novels in light of how they cast female characters as potential role models to which late 20th-century adolescent readers can relate. Offers brief descriptions of 28 youngadult books of historical fiction set in America with female protagonists. (SR)
This handbook presents two core units for a distance education course that provides an introduction to the genre of texts targeted for adolescent/youngadult readers. The first core unit in the handbook discusses the teaching of literary aspects of using adolescent/youngadult literature. The second core unit addresses alternative approaches to
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between use of herbs and dietary supplements (HDS) and lifestyle\\/behavior factors in youngadults in the US. METHODS: Analyzing the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we examined the patterns of HDS (excluding vitamins\\/minerals) use among youngadults in the United States using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. RESULTS: In our sample of
Paula Gardiner; Kathi J Kemper; Anna Legedza; Russell S Phillips
It is commonly assumed in the print media that bilingual youngadults in Bangladesh are subjugated by the colonial legacy of English and they are "polluting" Bangla, the national language of Bangladesh, by their indiscriminate insertion of English in it. However, this ethnographic study on a group of youngadults in a university in
Little research has examined the perspectives of youngadults with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) parents, particularly in relation to their identification with the LGBTQ community. To address this gap, we conducted a qualitative study of 42 youngadults (ages 18-29) who were raised by LGBQ parents. We found that
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Richardson, Hannah B.; Downing, Jordan B.
Social inclusion enhances the quality of life of youngadults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Youngadults with ID continue to face prejudice and discrimination that limit their social inclusion. They experience limited social inclusion because there are not enough appropriate activities available and they have limited opportunities to
Background: We examined the relationships of endurance and strength exercise training and the adolescent duration of training to arterial stiffness in youngadult men. We hypothesized that youngadults participating in endurance sports would have decreased arterial stiffness, whereas those in strength-based sports would have increased arterial stiffness. In addition, we predicted that these trends would be more pronounced with
This article reports on a recent research project undertaken in the UK that investigated youngadults' perception of potentially risky behaviour online. The research was undertaken through the use of an online survey associated with the UK teen soap opera Being Victor. The findings of the project suggest that this sample of British youngadults was mostly aware of the
Background. This study evaluated changes in motor unit (MU) firing rates in young and older adults during exercise training. Methods. Vastus lateralis MU discharge rates were measured in 8 young and 7 older adults. Each participant performed isometric knee extension contractions at 10%, 50%, and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction or effort (MVC) on two separate occasions. Participants then completed
Background: Hyperactive/ADHD children are believed to be a greater risk for adolescent and youngadult antisocial activity and drug use/abuse, particularly that subset having comorbid conduct problems/disorder. Method: We report on the lifetime antisocial activities and illegal drug use self-reported at youngadult follow-up (mean age 20-21 years;
Barkley, Russell A.; Fischer, Mariellen; Smallish, Lori; Fletcher, Kenneth
1 Tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and other illegal drug use among youngadults: the socioeconomic-16Mar2012 Author manuscript, published in "Drug Alcohol Depend 2012;121(3):231-9" DOI : 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.09.002 #12;2 Tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and other illegal drug use among youngadults
In this longitudinal study, relationships were examined between educational aspirations and educational attainment for Australian youngadults from different ethnic and social status backgrounds. Participants included 6, 811 (3, 547 women and 3, 264 men) youngadults (mean age = 20.3 years) who were in Year 9 when the study began. In the analysis, the AM Statistical Software was used
This study compared the cognitive control skills of male incarcerated adolescents (n = 44), male control adolescents (n = 33), male incarcerated youngadults (n = 41), and male control youngadults (n = 35) using the AX-continuous performance test (AX-CPT). This test measures proactive control (the ability to maintain a mental representation of
Anxiety is known to be common among youngadults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), yet little is known about the nature of their experiences or the strategies they use to live and cope with their reported anxiety. In this qualitative study, we began to address this issue through two focus groups involving 11 youngadults with ASD, and 10
In an era of rising college costs and stagnant grant-based student aid, many youngadults rely on their parents' resources and student loans to pay for their postsecondary education. In this study I ask how parents' income and education are linked to youngadults' student loan debt. I develop and test two perspectives regarding the
The present study had three main objectives: (1) to develop and validate scales of youngadult social competence in two domains, close relationships and social groups, using peer ratings of California Q-sort (Block, 1974; Kremen & Block, 2002) items; (2) to test the hypothesis that social competence is associated with youngadult well-being and ego development; (3) to test the
Justine J. Larson; Sarah W. Whitton; Stuart T. Hauser; Joseph P. Allen
Circumstances over the life-course may contribute to adult social class differences in mortality. However, it is only rarely that the life-course approach has been applied to mortality studies among youngadults. The aim of this study is to determine to what extent social class differences in mortality among young Finnish men are explained by living conditions in the parental home
Renal, cardiovascular and hormonal characteristics of youngadults with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. We studied youngadults with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) to determine the characteristics that precede renal impairment. Nineteen affected (A) and 20 unaffected (U) offspring from families with ADPKD showed no significant differences in basal glomerular filtration rate (A: mean 97, SD 19; U:
Stephen B Harrap; David L Davies; Ann M Macnicol; Anna F Dominiczak; Robert Fraser; Alan F Wright; Michael L Watson; J Douglas Briggs
This study examined youngadults' perceptions of their mothers' communication and their initiated and avoided communication with their mothers. Guided by Interaction Adaptation Theory (Burgoon, Stern, & Dillman, 1995), youngadults (N = 206) reported on frequency of mothers' hurtful messages, mothers' affirming style, hurt feelings, desires for closeness, and communication and relational satisfaction. Results revealed that females who received hurtful messages
American (N = 208) and Japanese youngadults (N = 181) were asked to recall a major conflict with their parents for our study on cross-cultural variations in family communication. Reported conflict episodes were coded on: 1) topical content, 2) conflict strategy used by the parents, 3) conflict strategy used by the youngadults, 4) outcome, and 5) reported consequences
While many adolescents and youngadults experiment with substances (e.g., alcohol, cigarette smoking, marijuana), recent research suggests that rural youth and youngadults may be more at risk for substance use than their urban counterparts. This study was designed to examine the longitudinal relationships between rural adolescents' prosocial
Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Beal, Sarah J.
Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege youngadults. Participants: Time-location samples of youngadult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque
The current study aimed to investigate reported family functioning and its impact on anxiety symptoms in a sample of African American and European American youngadults. One hundred African American and one hundred twenty one European American youngadults completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and a retrospective version of the McMaster Family Assessment
The purpose of this study was to determine if youngadults, or others interested in literature for teens, have access through public libraries to novels with homosexual content. A random sample of 40 English language youngadult novels with gay\\/lesbian content was checked against the holdings of 40 medium and large Canadian public libraries having remotely accessible catalogs. The average
Background: This study examined whether behaviour problems and adaptive behaviour of low functioning youngadults, and well-being of their families, varied by diagnostic syndrome intellectual disability (ID) only, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, autism, as well as by cultural group. Methods: Behaviour disorders in youngadults with moderate to
By identifying effective youngadult strategies, programs, and services, this research study adds to the knowledge of the role of libraries and librarians as community partners in providing for the needs of youngadults. Two tables provide a comparison of strategies and a program and services comparison. (Contains 24 references.) (AEF)
The purpose of this study was to examine the current availability of Arabic youngadult literature trade books and to systematically analyze Arabic youngadult literature trade books in terms of their cultural authenticity. By analyzing the contents of the trade books through the lenses of literary merit and Arabic culture, I hoped to fill a gap in the current
To determine which variables impact developmental task attainment for youngadults from divorced families, respondents completed demographic questions, the youngadult version of the Personal Authority in the Family System Questionnaire, and the three family relationship subscales of the Family Environment Scale. Of the factors assessed, results suggest that the quality of post-divorce family functioning is the most salient predictor
The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible negative impact of stuttering on romantic opportunities for adolescents and youngadults who stutter. The first part of the study investigated if being a person who stutters affects the attractiveness of adolescents and youngadults to their peers. To this end, 343 males and 393 females were shown age-matched pictures
Purpose: To gain a better understanding of language abilities, the expressive macrostructural narrative language abilities of verbally expressive adolescents and youngadults with Down syndrome (DS) and those with fragile X syndrome (FXS) were examined. Method: The authors evaluated 24 adolescents and youngadults with DS, 12 male adolescents and
Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Palmer, Meghan; Abbeduto, Leonard
Study examines the effect of parental divorce and various dimensions of functioning in the family of origin on youngadult development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning significantly affect differentiation levels of youngadults. Implications of the results for counselors and future researchers are provided. (Contains
Johnson, Patrick; Throngren, Jill M.; Smith, Adina J.
In this longitudinal study, relationships were examined between educational aspirations and educational attainment for Australian youngadults from different ethnic and social status backgrounds. Participants included 6,811 (3,547 women and 3,264 men) youngadults (mean age = 20.3 years) who were in Year 9 when the study began. In the analysis,
A 3?month intergenerational program was developed on the premise that it is important for youngadults, who are in the formative period of career development and direction, to experience the benefits of positive interaction with older persons. Program evaluation findings showed that participation not only influenced the youngadults interest in gerontology, but also increased their willingness to accept older
Lynda Fowler; Donna Lambert; Dorothy Fruit; Rhonda Richardson
Many youngadults are not politically active. Since 1972, their participation and interest levels have declined not only in absolute terms but also relative to other voting-age groups. This paper examines how the Internet can reverse this trend. It focuses on how leading news and political information Web sites affected youngadults during the
High rates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI; 14%-17%) in adolescents and youngadults suggest that some self-injurers may exhibit more or different psychiatric problems than others. In the present study, the authors utilized a latent class analysis to identify clinically distinct subgroups of self-injurers. Participants were 205 youngadults with
Background: Notwithstanding the epidemiological studies indicating an increased risk of attempted suicide among adolescents and youngadults, there is a scarcity of international studies that examine long-term epidemiological trends in rates and characteristics of this vulnerable group. Aims: This article describes the results of a 9-year monitoring study of suicide attempts in adolescents and youngadults referred to the Accident
Stephanie De Munck; Gwendolyn Portzky; Kees Van Heeringen
Although treatment outcome research on dissociative disorders (DD) is increasing, an examination of treatment progress in youngadults with these disorders remains noticeably absent from the literature. Many studies of DD patients report mean ages over 35. This article examined the response to treatment of a subsample of youngadults, ages 1830, with dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder, not
Amie C. Myrick; Bethany L. Brand; Scot W. McNary; Catherine C. Classen; Ruth Lanius; Richard J. Loewenstein; Clare Pain; Frank W. Putnam
Dermal penetration of [14C] Captan was determined in young (33 day old) and adult (82 day old) female Fischer 344 rats by an in vivo method and two in vitro methods. ermal penetration in vivo at 72 hours was about 9% of the dose in both young and adult rats. o significant differe...
Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American youngadults began smoking in young adulthood and what
The authors examined retrospective reports of both mothers' and fathers' parenting and youngadults' (N = 75) relationship quality. Multiple regression analyses showed that, as predicted, youngadults' retrospective reports of the positive parenting they experienced as children were significantly related to the extent by which they currently viewed (a) others as accessible and responsive, (b) their relationships with others
William T. Dalton III; Donna Frick-Horbury; Katherine M. Kitzmann
This study examined how the life course status of youngadults--whether they have a romantic partner and whether they have children--is related to how often they have contact with their parents. Hypotheses were tested using recent data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study. The main sample included 1,911 youngadults between the ages of 18 and
Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie; Hagendoorn, Louk
During recent years, there has been increasing interest in legal highs among youth and youngadults. Salvia divinorum is a legally available hallucinogenic plant, primarily utilized in smokable form, that produces a brief but intense hallucinogenic experience for the user. Data are presented from an ethnographic project to provide a qualitative profile of salvia use among youngadults. Most users
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how family communication patterns and lifestyles are linked to purchases of sports shoes and casual clothing for youngadults. Design\\/methodology\\/approach The survey was conducted in 2005, and total valid samples were 576. Differences in purchasing decisions among various segments of youngadults are analysed for two product categories: sports
With limited opportunities to learn safe food handling via observation, many youngadults lack the knowledge needed to keep them safe from foodborne disease. It is important to reach youngadults with food safety education because of their current and future roles as caregivers. With a nationwide online survey, the demographic characteristics, self-reported food handling and consumption behaviors, food safety
CAROL BYRD-BREDBENNER; JACLYN MAURER; VIRGINIA WHEATLEY; DONALD SCHAFFNER; CHRISTINE BRUHN; LYDIA BLALOCK
As citizens, youngadults should be supported and encouraged to enact their basic rights and responsibilities to partake in decision-making that affects their lives and development. Recent studies in several Western countries, including Australia, have suggested that levels of political and community activities among youngadults have significantly decreased. This study tested a theoretically and empirically based explanatory model of
As citizens, youngadults should be supported and encouraged to enact their basic rights and responsibilities to partake in decision-making that affects their lives and development. Recent studies in several Western countries, including Australia, have suggested that levels of political and community activities among youngadults have significantly decreased. This study tested a theoretically and empirically based explanatory model of
Introduction: Little research has been reported on all aspects of sexuality as it pertains to individuals with visual impairments. This article analyzes data on the sexual experiences of youngadults who are visually impaired and youngadults without disabilities. Methods: The authors conducted a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal
This study contributes to the body of research on the educational outcomes of youngadults who were formerly placed in foster care. Telephone interviews were conducted with 359 youngadults (a 54.6% response rate). Participants must have been served for at least one year by one private foster care agency in one of its twenty-two offices. Results
Havalchak, Anne; White, Catherine Roller; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Sepulveda, Martin
Developmental and life course studies of youngadult identities have focused on 2 dimensions: subjective age and psychosocial maturity. This study examines the developmental synchrony of these 2 processes. In a longitudinal sample of youngadults from Add Health (ages 18-22), a person-centered analysis of indicators of these dimensions identified
This study evaluated the positive motivational implicit response to internet gaming cues (i.e., screenshots of popular online games) to identify potential mechanisms of dyscontrolled internet use in youngadults with internet gaming addiction (IGA). The final analysis included 64 youngadults with IGA and 71 control subjects. The subjects completed the implicit association task to test their reaction to congruent
... and YoungAdults HPV is the most common STI among teens, with some estimates reaching an infection rate of ... Title X program provides confidential contraceptive services and STI screening and treatment for low-income teens and youngadults by funding approximately 4,400 ...
... millions of youngadults use illicit substances every day According to SAMHSAs data, on an average day, 3.2 million youngadults used marijuana, 57, ... 20. Underage drinkers drank on average 5.7 days per month and consumed an average of 4. ...
Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high prevalence setting of South Africawhere youngadults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. In 2007, we conducted six focus groups (n=42) with South Africans aged 18-24 years old. We used a deductive framework approach to identify key motivators and barriers to future HIV vaccine uptake. Participants identified HIV testing, HIV stigma, mistrust of the health care system, and concerns about sexual disinhibition as barriers to vaccine uptake. For women, family members and friends were strong motivators for vaccine uptake, while men were more likely to see vaccines as an opportunity to stop using HIV prevention strategies such as condoms and partner reductions. Implications of these findings for developing HIV vaccine dissemination strategies and policy in South Africa are discussed. PMID:19509123
Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.
Announcement of diagnosis is a critical step in establishing a trust-based relationship of quality between patient and physician. Disclosing "bad news" is a difficult and sensitive task which has direct consequences on psychological, emotional and relational levels, as well as on therapeutic management. This is a potentially traumatic experience which requires a long process of integration and psychological adaptation. The hematologist-oncologist occupies a central position: He introduces the framework for a multidisciplinary care, while taking into account the personality and behavior of the teenager or youngadult. We propose an analysis of doctor-patient interaction; an overview of psychological issues associate with diagnosis disclosure; suggestions to build and manage communication with patients; and a clarification of the role of the psychologist and of the psychological adjustment at the time of disclosure. PMID:24977445
Exposure to bright light appears to be protective against myopia in both animals (chicks, monkeys) and children, but quantitative data on human light exposure are limited. In this study, we report on a technique for quantifying light exposure using wearable sensors. Twenty-seven youngadult subjects wore a light sensor continuously for two weeks during one of three seasons, and also completed questionnaires about their visual activities. Light data were analyzed with respect to refractive error and season, and the objective sensor data were compared with subjects estimates of time spent indoors and outdoors. Subjects estimates of time spent indoors and outdoors were in poor agreement with durations reported by the sensor data. The results of questionnaire-based studies of light exposure should thus be interpreted with caution. The role of light in refractive error development should be investigated using multiple methods such as sensors to complement questionnaires. PMID:25342873
When two or more people witness an event together, the event report from one person can influence others' reports. In the current study we examined the role of age and motivational factors on peer influence regarding event reports in adolescents and youngadults. Participants (N=249) watched a short video of a robbery then answered questions with no co-witness information or with information believed to be from a co-witness. Public and private response conditions were included to explore motivations for peer influence. Co-witness information influenced participants' responses, although the effect was equally strong in the private and the public co-witness conditions. Peer influence on event reports was steady across a large age range (11- to 25-year-olds). PMID:21919594
McGuire, Katherine; London, Kamala; Wright, Daniel B
Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 youngadults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language impairment (SLI). A correlational analysis of the relationship between language scores and Miranda rights comprehension was conducted, as were tests of differences between individuals with SLI (n = 17) and individuals without SLI. Results Language ability was positively correlated with overall performance on the Miranda measure. As a group, individuals with SLI were significantly poorer than their peers with normal language at defining Miranda vocabulary and applying Miranda rights in hypothetical situations. The group with SLI was also marginally less able to paraphrase Miranda sentences. Conclusion Language impairment limits comprehension of Miranda warnings. As a result, citizens with language impairment are at risk of being denied their constitutional rights. PMID:22230180
We report a case of right optic neuritis caused by Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC) in a youngadult. A 15-year-old boy presented with reduced visual acuity in the right eye. He was diagnosed with optic neuritis in the right eye 4 years earlier at other clinics before he was referred to our department. During our one-year examinations, the cause of the reduced vision in his right eye could not be determined conclusively. At the age of 17 years, a RCC was detected by a neurosurgeon who specialized in hypophyseal diseases. He underwent microscopic transsphenoidal resection of the cyst, and his vision recovered to 1.2 and he has had no recurrence for at least 9 months. We suggest that repeated rupturing of the RCC was the cause of the optic neuritis, and a RCC can be successfully treated by surgery even after 3 years of optic neuritis. PMID:25045561
Background Studies of sexuality or sexual behavior in childhood cancer survivors tend to examine relationships or achievement of developmental milestones but not physiological response to cancer or treatment. The purpose of this study is to (1) identify prevalence and risk factors for sexual dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors, and (2) examine the extent to which sexual dysfunction may be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and psychosocial outcomes. Methods Five hundred ninety-nine survivors age 18-39 years completed standardized measures of sexual functioning, HRQOL, psychological distress and life satisfaction. Descriptive statistics assessed prevalence of sexual symptoms. Bivariate analyses identified correlates of sexual symptoms and examined associations between symptoms and HRQOL/psychosocial outcomes. Results Most survivors appear to be doing well, although 52% of female survivors and 32% of male survivors reported at least a little of a problem in one or more areas of sexual functioning. Mean symptom score for females was more than twice that of males. Sexual symptoms were associated with reporting health problems. Significant associations between sexual functioning and HRQOL outcomes were observed, with gender differences in strengths of association suggesting that males find sexual symptoms more distressing than do females. Conclusions While most survivors appear to be doing well in this important life domain, some youngadult survivors report sexual concerns. While female survivors may report more sexual symptoms than male survivors, males may experience more distress associated with sexual difficulties. Better specified measures of sexual function, behavior and outcomes are needed for this youngadult population. PMID:19862693
BACKGROUND There are conflicting data regarding age as a prognostic factor in osteosarcoma. The authors conducted a study evaluating the impact of age on prognosis in children and youngadults with osteosarcoma enrolled on North American cooperative group trials. METHODS Patients with high-grade osteosarcoma of any site enrolled on North American cooperative group trials CCG-7943, POG-9754, INT-0133, and AOST0121 were included in this study. Primary tumor site, age, sex, ethnicity, histologic response, and presence of metastatic disease at diagnosis were evaluated for their impact on overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS). RESULTS A total of 1054 patients were eligible and had complete data available for the study. Age was not significantly associated with any other presenting covariate analyzed except sex. Age 18 or older was associated with a statistically significant poorer EFS (P = .019) and OS (P = .043). The 10-year EFS and OS in patients <10, 10 to 17, and ?18 years old were 55%, 55%, 37% and 68%, 60%, 41%, respectively. The poorer EFS in patients ?18 years old was because of an increased rate of relapse. Presence of metastatic disease at diagnosis, poor histologic response, and pelvic tumor site were also associated with a poorer prognosis. In multivariate analysis, age continued to be associated with poorer EFS (P = .019) and OS (P = .049). CONCLUSIONS In osteosarcoma, age 18 to 30 years is associated with a statistically significant poorer outcome because of an increased rate of relapse. Poorer outcome in adolescent and youngadult patients is not explained by tumor location, histologic response, or metastatic disease at presentation. PMID:22252521
Janeway, Katherine A.; Barkauskas, Donald A.; Krailo, Mark D.; Meyers, Paul A.; Schwartz, Cindy L.; Ebb, David H.; Seibel, Nita L.; Grier, Holcombe E.; Gorlick, Richard; Marina, Neyssa
Robust sex differences in some spatial abilities that favor males have raised the question of whether testosterone contributes to those differences. There is some evidence for prenatal organizational effects of testosterone on male-favoring spatial abilities, but not much is known about the role of pubertal testosterone levels on adult cognitive abilities. We studied the association between pubertal testosterone (at age 14) and cognitive performance in young adulthood (at age 21-23), assessing male-favoring, female-favoring, and sex-neutral cognitive domains in a population-based sample of 130 male and 178 female twins. Pubertal testosterone was negatively associated with performance in the Mental Rotation Test in youngadult men (r=-.27), while among women no significant associations between testosterone and cognitive measures were detected. The significant association among men remained after controlling for pubertal development. Confirmatory within-family comparisons with one-sided significance testing yielded a negative correlation between twin pair differences in testosterone levels and Mental Rotation Test performances in 35 male twin pairs (r=-.32): the twin brother with higher testosterone performed less well on the Mental Rotation Test. That association was evident in 18 pairs of dizygotic male twin pairs (r=-.42; analysis controlling for shared environmental effects). In contrast, the association of differences was not evident among 17 monozygotic male twin pairs (r=-.07; analysis controlling for shared genetic influences). Results suggest that pubertal testosterone levels are related specifically to male-favoring spatial ability and only among men. Within-family analyses implicated possible shared genetic effects between pubertal testosterone and mental rotation ability. PMID:22520299
Vuoksimaa, Eero; Kaprio, Jaakko; Eriksson, C J Peter; Rose, Richard J
Purpose Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Youngadults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most prior research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Methods Youngadults (N=763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Results Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared to their non-sexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Conclusions Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks subsequent to sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. PMID:23299017
Benotsch, Eric G.; Snipes, Daniel J.; Martin, Aaron M.; Bull, Sheana S.
STUDY OBJECTIVES--To evaluate the impact of an AIDS education programme designed for youngadults. DESIGN--A randomised trial with a pre-post test design. SETTING--Participants were drawn from six youth training centres in the city of Nottingham, England. STUDY POPULATION--All trainees aged 16-19 years attending the six centres were included in the sample and centres were randomly allocated to experimental (n = 173) and control (n = 164) groups. The response rate to both questionnaires was high (71%). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Data on sexual behaviour, knowledge, and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS were obtained by confidential questionnaire. Two thirds of the sample were sexually active. There were no differences between groups at pre-test and no differences by sex. The experimental group had a significantly higher level of knowledge than the control group post-test. Significantly more experimental than control trainees knew post-test that HIV could be transmitted via anal sex and through broken skin. In addition, twice as many experimental (53%) as control trainees (25%; p < 0.001) were aware that a cure for AIDS was unlikely in the near future. There were no observed effects on sexual behaviour, intentions, or attitudes. CONCLUSIONS--The Streetwize UK educational programme had a significant impact on youngadults' knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention in the short term. If community based AIDS education is to do more than merely inform, however, resources must be made available for peer led interventions and skills training. PMID:8326271
We studied the acceptability and feasibility of delivering sun protection messages via electronic media such as short message services (SMS) to people aged 18-40 years. An online survey was conducted using a pre-established panel of volunteers. We compared the characteristics of those who indicated that they would like to be alerted to the UV index, with those who would not, using bivariate logistic regression. Characteristics found to be associated with a desire to receive such advice were entered into a multivariate logistic regression analysis. The median age of the 141 participants was 34 years. Overall, 80% of participants agreed that they would like to receive some form of sun protection advice. Of these, 20% preferred to receive it via SMS and 42% via email. Willingness to receive electronic messages about the UV index was associated with being unsure about whether a suntanned person would look healthy and greater use of sun protection in the past. Careful attention to message framing and timing of message delivery, and focus on the short-term effects of sun exposure such as sunburn and skin ageing should increase the acceptability of such messages to young people. Sun protection messages delivered to youngadults via electronic media appear to be feasible and acceptable. PMID:22302765
While many adolescents and youngadults experiment with substances (e.g., alcohol, cigarette smoking, marijuana), recent research\\u000a suggests that rural youth and youngadults may be more at risk for substance use than their urban counterparts. This study\\u000a was designed to examine the longitudinal relationships between rural adolescents prosocial behaviors and substance use in\\u000a young adulthood. Furthermore, we examined the potential
Gustavo CarloLisa; Lisa J. Crockett; Jamie L. Wilkinson; Sarah J. Beal
PURPOSE: HIV\\/AIDS poses a serious threat to young people, both in Malaysia and throughout the world. A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HIV\\/AIDS among the Malaysian public. This article reports the findings of knowledge about HIV\\/AIDS among youngadults. METHODS: A total of 1075 youngadult respondents aged 1524 years participated in
The research investigated the relationships among ageism, sensation-seeking, and risk-taking in youngadults. Recent research\\u000a has shown that youngadults reporting higher levels of ageist attitudes and ageist behaviors also report higher levels of\\u000a risk-taking in daily life than those with less ageist attitudes and behaviors (Popham et al. in press). The results are consistent\\u000a with terror management theory; young
Lauren E. Popham; Shelia M. Kennison; Kristopher I. Bradley
Treating adolescents and youngadults (AYAs) diagnosed with cancer is a challenge. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) which is usually diagnosed in a previously healthy kid, requiring immediate aggressive chemotherapy, brings difficulties and conflicts associated with severe illness to extremes. The incidence of AML in adolescents aged 15-19 years approaches 8.5 per million. Only in recent years has it become evident that the prognosis of AYAs diagnosed with AML is poorer compared to younger children diagnosed with AML with similar characteristics. No specific genetic aberration or other known poor risk factor was found to explain the inferior prognosis of AYAs. In acute lymphoblastic leukemia the contribution of differences between adult and pediatric protocols to AYA outcome is established. It has been suggested that pediatric protocols should also apply to AYAs with AML; however, data supporting this are vague. Herein, existing evidence regarding special considerations in treating AYAs with AML is discussed. Mental and psychological age-specific aspects important to consider when treating AYAs with AML are overviewed. Awareness for adolescent special needs, adherence to protocols and intensive supportive care are important. Multidisciplinary adolescent-oriented staff should be involved in the therapy of any AYA with AML escorting this special patient population on the road to cure. PMID:25228554
Research suggests that being bilingual results in advantages on executive control processes and disadvantages on language tasks relative to monolinguals. Furthermore, the executive function advantage is thought to be larger in older than younger adults, suggesting that bilingualism may buffer against age-related changes in executive function. However, there are potential confounds in some of the previous research, as well as inconsistencies in the literature. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the presence of a bilingual advantage in executive control and a bilingual disadvantage on language tasks in the same sample of young and older monolingual anglophones, monolingual francophones, and French/English bilinguals. Participants completed a series of executive function tasks, including a Stroop task, a Simon task, a sustained attention to response task (SART), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), and the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and language tasks, including the Boston Naming Test (BNT), and category and letter fluency. The results do not demonstrate an unequivocal advantage for bilinguals on executive function tasks and raise questions about the reliability, robustness and/or specificity of previous findings. The results also did not demonstrate a disadvantage for bilinguals on language tasks. Rather, they suggest that there may be an influence of the language environment. It is concluded that additional research is required to fully characterize any language group differences in both executive function and language tasks. PMID:25120442
Objectives. To improve tobacco control campaigns, we analyzed tobacco industry strategies that encourage youngadults (aged 18 to 24) to smoke. Methods. Initial searches of tobacco industry documents with keywords (e.g., youngadult) were extended by using names, locations, and dates. Results. Approximately 200 relevant documents were found. Transitions from experimentation to addiction, with adult levels of cigarette consumption, may take years. Tobacco marketing solidifies addiction among youngadults. Cigarette advertisements encourage regular smoking and increased consumption by integrating smoking into activities and places where youngadults' lives change (e.g., leaving home, college, jobs, the military, bars). Conclusions. Tobacco control efforts should include both adults and youths. Life changes are also opportunities to stop occasional smokers' progress to addiction. Clean air policies in workplaces, the military, bars, colleges, and homes can combat tobacco marketing. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:908916) PMID:12036776
Ten youngadults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and family, and considered their families as a resource for their empowerment and development of resilience. The study participants' informal networks were composed of only a few individuals who, moreover, were mostly of dissimilar age and also included support professionals. The participants typically described themselves as excluded from others, an experience that was articulated most conspicuously in their narratives about the special schools they were attending. PMID:23834213
While some elderly show deteriorations in cognitive performance, others achieve performance levels comparable to youngadults. To examine whether age-related changes in brain activity varied with working memory performance efficiency, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) from young and older healthy adults during performance on an n-back task with two loads (0- and 1-back) and two versions (identity and integrated). Youngadults showed a typical P3 amplitude pattern with a parietal-maximum. Compared to youngadults, the P3 amplitude of older adults was characterized by frontal hyperactivity coupled with posterior hypoactivity. Moreover, P3 amplitude in young and older adults varied with working memory performance efficiency. Among youngadults, more efficient performance correlated with a larger P3 amplitude at parietal sites. In contrast, a higher P3 amplitude at midline electrode sites in older adults correlated with less efficient performance. Particularly, the enhanced frontal midline EEG activity in older adults during working memory performance seems to reflect inefficient use of neural resources due to frontal lobe dysfunction. PMID:23667658
Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Maurits, Natasha M.
The labor market prospects of out-of-school youngadults and options for improving the employment and earnings potential of all youngadults were examined. The following issues were among those considered: demographic and social factors affecting youngadults' employment prospects; employment trends and labor market problems in the United States
Previous studies have identified cognitive impairments due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in adults. However, few studies have examined the impact of HIV on cognition in youngadults (18-24 years old). Yet, this group is one of the largest populations of individuals with new HIV infection. Young adulthood is also an important developmental window because the brain has not fully matured and individuals are prone to engage in risky behavior. The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of HIV on neurocognition and risky behaviors. We hypothesized that HIV+ youngadults (n?=?23) would exhibit greater cognitive impairment and risky behaviors compared to seronegative controls (n?=?21). In addition, we predicted that self-reported risky behavior as assessed by the Risk Assessment Battery (RAB) would covary with cognitive performances. Results revealed poorer executive function in HIV+ youngadults compared to seronegative (HIV-) controls. HIV+ youngadults exhibited significantly greater risk scores on the RAB (p?0.01) compared to HIV- youngadults. However, there were no relationships between risky behavior and cognitive performance. Overall, our results suggest that HIV is associated with poorer cognition and increased risky behaviors in youngadults. PMID:24970235
Baker, Laurie M; Paul, Robert H; Heaps, Jodi M; Westerhaus, Elizabeth; Chang, Jee Yoon; Williams, Samuel; Brier, Matthew R; Plax, Katie; Ances, Beau M
Background Previous studies involving adults suggest that Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) increases the prevalence of cannabis use disorders (CUD)(cannabis dependence and cannabis abuse). However, little work with PTSD and CUD has been conducted involving adolescents, despite the fact that CUD typically have their onset during adolescence. This study addresses the effect of PTSD on CUD among teenagers transitioning to young adulthood. Method The subjects in this ongoing study were the offspring of adult men with a lifetime history of a Substance Use Disorder (SUD) (SUD + probands, N=343) versus those with no lifetime history of a SUD (SUD ? probands, N=350). The participants were initially recruited when the index sons of these fathers were 10-12 years of age, and subsequent assessments were conducted at age 12-14, 16, 19, 22, and 25. Other variable examined were an index of behavioral undercontrol associated with future risk for developing SUD, known as the Transmissible Liability Index, or TLI, and affiliation with deviant peers. Multivariate logistic regression and path analyses were conducted. Results Of these 693 subjects, 31 subjects were diagnosed with PTSD, and 161 were diagnosed with a CUD. The CUD subjects included 136 male participants and 25 female participants, including 103 (64%) Caucasian participants and 58 (36%) participants of other races. Logistic regression demonstrated that the development of a CUD was associated with deviance of peers (Wald=63.4, p=0.000), the TLI (Wald=28.8, p=0.000), African American race (Wald=14.2, p=0.000), PTSD (Wald=12.7, p=0.000), male gender (Wald=12.0, p=0.001), household SES (Wald=9.2, p=0.002), and being an offspring of a SUD+ proband (Wald=6.9, 0.009). Path analyses demonstrated that PTSD is directly associated with the presence of a CUD and with peer deviance, that higher peer deviance is associated with the presence of a CUD, and that PTSD mediated the association between peer deviance and CUD. Conclusions These findings suggest that PTSD contributes to the etiology of CUD among teenagers making the transition to young adulthood beyond the effects of deviant peers, the TLI (Transmissible Liability Index, a measure of risk for SUD), and demographic factors. PMID:19773127
Cornelius, Jack R.; Kirisci, Levent; Reynolds, Maureen; Clark, Duncan B.; Hayes, Jeanine; Tarter, Ralph
Purpose This study examined associations between frequency of self-weighing and healthy weight control behaviors, unhealthy weight control behaviors, muscle enhancing behaviors (e.g. steroid use, protein powders), and psychological well-being (i.e., self-esteem, depression, body satisfaction) in a community sample of youngadults. Methods Data were drawn from Project EAT-III (Eating and Activity in Teens and YoungAdults), the third wave of a population-based study. Participants included youngadults (n=2,287, mean age=25.3) from the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area. Results Self-weighing a few times per week or more frequently was reported by 18% of youngadult women and 12% of youngadult men. Linear regression models, adjusted for body mass index and demographic characteristics, indicated that in both women and men more frequent self-weighing was associated with a higher prevalence of dieting, both healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors, and muscle-enhancing behaviors. Additionally, young women who reported more frequent self-weighing were more likely to report binge eating. More frequent self-weighing was also associated with more depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem in women and lower body satisfaction in young men. Conclusions More frequent self-weighing is associated with healthy and unhealthy weight control practices, use of muscle enhancing behaviors, and poorer psychological well-being in youngadults. Youngadults engaging in self-weighing behaviors should be screened for these health indicators and counseled as appropriate. Prior to recommending self-weighing as a weight-monitoring tool, health care providers should ensure that youngadults are not at risk for an unhealthy preoccupation with body weight or shape. PMID:23084168
Background Despite the high prevalence of mental health concerns, few youngadults access treatment. While much research has focused on understanding the barriers to service access, few studies have explored unbiased accounts of the experiences of youngadults with mental health concerns. It is through hearing these experiences and gaining an in-depth understanding of what is being said by youngadults that improvements can be made to interventions focused on increasing access to care. Objective To move beyond past research by using an innovative qualitative research method of analyzing the blogs of youngadults (1825 years of age) with mental health concerns to understand their experiences. Methods We used an enhanced Internet search vehicle, DEVONagent, to extract Internet blogs using primary keywords related to mental health. Blogs (N = 8) were selected based on age of authors (1825 years), gender, relevance to mental health, and recency of the entries. Blogs excerpts were analyzed using a combination of grounded theory and consensual qualitative research methods. Results Two core categories emerged from the qualitative analysis of the bloggers accounts: I am powerless (intrapersonal) and I am utterly alone (interpersonal). Overall, the youngadult bloggers expressed significant feelings of powerlessness as a result of their mental health concerns and simultaneously felt a profound sense of loneliness, alienation, and lack of connection with others. Conclusions The present study suggests that one reason youngadults do not seek care might be that they view the mental health system negatively and feel disconnected from these services. To decrease youngadults sense of powerlessness and isolation, efforts should focus on creating and developing resources and services that allow youngadults to feel connected and empowered. Through an understanding of the experiences of youngadults with mental health problems, and their experiences of and attitudes toward receiving care, we provide some recommendations for improving receptivity and knowledge of mental health care services. PMID:22569642
Westra, Henny A; Eastwood, John D; Barnes, Kirsten L
Youngadults (YA) are underrepresented in behavioral weight loss programs and achieve poorer outcomes than older adults (OA). There has been a call to develop programs specifically targeting this age group. This study examined the performance of YA enrolled in a low intensity, team-based weight loss campaign and compared their outcomes to OA to determine the utility of such an approach for weight loss in this population. Shape Up Rhode Island 2009 was a 12-week online team-based weight loss and exercise competition (N=6795, 81% female, 94% White, age=44.7±11.2, BMI=29.4±5.9). YA was defined as 1835 years and OA as >35 years; YA and OA were compared on enrollment, retention, weight loss and change in steps. A total of 1562 YA enrolled and 715 completed the program. Fewer YA completed compared with OA (46% vs. 62%, p<.001). However, among completers, YA achieved greater percent weight loss (?4.5±4.0% vs. ?3.8±3.2%) and greater daily step change (+1578.2±3877.2 vs. +1342.2±3645.7) than OA (ps<.001). Further, more YA completers achieved a ?5% weight loss (40% vs. 29%, p<.001). Findings were consistent in the overweight/obese subsample, and using ?25 years of age as the cut off for YA. Weight losses among YA in this low-intensity weight loss campaign were quite promising, with over 700 YA completing the program and on average achieving a 4.5% weight loss. Indeed, the potential public health impact of such an approach is substantial; future efforts to develop programs for this age group may benefit from using a low intensity, team-based approach. PMID:22318313
LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Leahey, Tricia M.; Weinberg, Brad M.; Kumar, Rajiv; Wing, Rena R.
This study explored the roles and psychological experiences identified as defining adult moments using mixed methods with a racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse sample of youngadults both enrolled and not enrolled in college (N = 726; ages 18-35). First, we evaluated results from a single survey item that asked participants to rate how adult they feel. Consistent with previous research, the majority of participants (56.9%) reported feeling "somewhat like an adult," and older participants had significantly higher subjective adulthood, controlling for other demographic variables. Next, we analyzed responses from an open-ended question asking participants to describe instances in which they felt like an adult. Responses covered both traditional roles (e.g., marriage, childbearing; 36.1%) and nontraditional social roles and experiences (e.g., moving out of parent's home, cohabitation; 55.6%). Although we found no differences by age and college status in the likelihood of citing a traditional or nontraditional role, participants who had achieved more traditional roles were more likely to cite them in their responses. In addition, responses were coded for psychological experiences, including responsibility for self (19.0%), responsibility for others (15.3%), self-regulation (31.1%), and reflected appraisals (5.1%). Older participants were significantly more likely to include self-regulation and reflected appraisals, whereas younger participants were more likely to include responsibility for self. College students were more likely than noncollege students to include self-regulation and reflected appraisals. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:23554545
Lowe, Sarah R; Dillon, Colleen O; Rhodes, Jean E; Zwiebach, Liza
This study explored the roles and psychological experiences identified as defining adult moments using mixed methods with a racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse sample of youngadults both enrolled and not enrolled in college (N = 726; ages 18-35). First, we evaluated results from a single survey item that asked participants to rate how adult they feel. Consistent with previous research, the majority of participants (56.9%) reported feeling somewhat like an adult, and older participants had significantly higher subjective adulthood, controlling for other demographic variables. Next, we analyzed responses from an open-ended question asking participants to describe instances in which they felt like an adult. Responses covered both traditional roles (e.g., marriage, childbearing; 36.1%) and nontraditional social roles and experiences (e.g., moving out of parents home, cohabitation; 55.6%). Although we found no differences by age and college status in the likelihood of citing a traditional or nontraditional role, participants who had achieved more traditional roles were more likely to cite them in their responses. In addition, responses were coded for psychological experiences, including responsibility for self (19.0%), responsibility for others (15.3%), self-regulation (31.1%), and reflected appraisals (5.1%). Older participants were significantly more likely to include self-regulation and reflected appraisals, whereas younger participants were more likely to include responsibility for self. College students were more likely than noncollege students to include self-regulation and reflected appraisals. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:23554545
Lowe, Sarah R.; Dillon, Colleen O.; Rhodes, Jean E.; Zwiebach, Liza
Objective To describe time-related beliefs and behaviors regarding healthful eating, indicators of dietary intake, and their associations with the number of weekly hours of paid work among youngadults. Methods Population-based study in a diverse cohort (N=2287). Results Working > 40 hours per week was associated with time-related barriers to healthful eating most persistently among youngadult men. Associations were found among females working both part-time and > 40 hours per week with both time-related barriers and dietary intake. Conclusions Findings indicate that intervention strategies, ideally those addressing time burden, are needed to promote healthful eating among young, working adults. PMID:23026037
Escoto, Kamisha Hamilton; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.
This study examines awareness and knowledge of and attitudes toward direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising among youngadults between 18 and 24 years of age. The study finds that youngadults are not as aware of prescription drug advertising as older consumers, however, they are aware of specific heavily advertised drugs, especially those for allergy medications, birth control, and sleep aids. Youngadults hold mixed to negative views about advertising in general, and they do not view DTC prescription drug advertising as a beneficial source of information, nor do they believe such advertising serves to educate consumers. PMID:25120044
Developmental and life course studies of youngadult identities have focused on two dimensions, subjective age and psychosocial maturity. This study examines the developmental synchrony of these two processes. In a longitudinal sample of youngadults from Add Health (18 to 22), a person-centered analysis of indicators of these dimensions identified four identity profiles. Two depict early and late patterns of identity; the others represent contrasting types of discordance, pseudo-adult, subjective age more advanced than maturation level and anticipatory, with subjective age less advanced than maturational level. The profiles vary by gender, socioeconomic status, and race-ethnicity as well as by adolescent (ages1216) pubertal maturation, psychosocial adjustment, and family context. These results provide support for a more holistic, interdisciplinary understanding of adult identity, and show that youngadult identities in the Add Health sample follow differentiated paths into the adult years, with largely unknown consequences for the subsequent life course. PMID:21668096
Previous studies have demonstrated that insecure attachment patterns and a trait disposition toward negative affect and impulsivity are both associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD) features. According to attachment theory, insecure attachment patterns impart greater risk for the maladaptive personality traits underlying BPD. Hence, insecure attachment might be indirectly related to BPD through its association with these traits. The current cross-sectional study used structural equation modeling to compare two competing models of the relationship between adult attachment patterns, trait negative affect and impulsivity, and BPD features in a large nonclinical sample of youngadults: (M1) attachment anxiety and avoidance are positively related to trait negative affect and impulsivity, which in turn, are directly associated with BPD features; and (M2) trait negative affect and impulsivity are positively related to attachment anxiety and avoidance, which in turn, are directly associated with BPD features. Consistent with attachment theory, M1 provided a better fit to the data than M2. However, only attachment anxiety, and not attachment avoidance, was significantly associated with negative affect and impulsivity. The results favored a model in which the relationship between adult attachment anxiety and BPD features is fully mediated by trait negative affect and impulsivity. PMID:19538081
Scott, Lori N.; Levy, Kenneth N.; Pincus, Aaron L.
This study is part of a broader project aimed at developing cognitive and neurocognitive profiles of adolescent and youngadult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. We explore the relationships among reading-related abilities in participants ages 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range of reading ability. Two specific questions are addressed: (a) Does the simple view of reading capture all nonrandom variation in reading comprehension? (b) Does orally assessed vocabulary knowledge account for variance in reading comprehension, as predicted by the lexical quality hypothesis? A comprehensive battery of cognitive and educational tests was employed to assess phonological awareness, decoding, verbal working memory, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, word knowledge, and experience with print. In this heterogeneous sample, decoding ability clearly played an important role in reading comprehension. The simple view of reading gave a reasonable fit to the data, although it did not capture all of the reliable variance in reading comprehension as predicted. Orally assessed vocabulary knowledge captured unique variance in reading comprehension even after listening comprehension and decoding skill were accounted for. We explore how a specific connectionist model of lexical representation and lexical access can account for these findings. PMID:17518215
Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald P; Mencl, W Einar
We estimated the proportion of people that have defective stereo vision and are unable to utilize stereo disparity information to perceive depth. Previous estimates have ranged anywhere from as high as 30% to as low as 6%. Our goal was to understand the basis for the wide range in these estimates. To do this, we administered two psychophysical tests to a sample of 100 youngadults. Visual stimuli consisted of dynamic random-dot stereograms presented using a fast-decay, time-sequential display device. The stimuli covered a range of disparities between 0 and .38 degrees (both crossed and uncrossed). A forced-choice methodology was used to estimate whether subjects could perceive depth based on horizontal disparity. It was found that display duration was a key variable determining the number of viewers that were classified as stereo-anomalous. The relatively high incidence of stereo- anomalous viewers in previous research was explained by the short display durations (80 ms) used in those studies. With longer durations of about 1 sec, we found that only about 5% of viewers had defective stereo vision.
Impulsivity is a heritable, multifaceted construct with clinically relevant links to multiple psychopathologies. We assessed impulsivity in youngadult (N~2100) participants in a longitudinal study, using self-report questionnaires and computer-based behavioral tasks. Analysis was restricted to the subset (N=426) who underwent genotyping. Multivariate association between impulsivity measures and single-nucleotide polymorphism data was implemented using parallel independent component analysis (Para-ICA). Pathways associated with multiple genes in components that correlated significantly with impulsivity phenotypes were then identified using a pathway enrichment analysis. Para-ICA revealed two significantly correlated genotypephenotype component pairs. One impulsivity component included the reward responsiveness subscale and behavioral inhibition scale of the Behavioral-Inhibition System/Behavioral-Activation System scale, and the second impulsivity component included the non-planning subscale of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and the Experiential Discounting Task. Pathway analysis identified processes related to neurogenesis, nervous system signal generation/amplification, neurotransmission and immune response. We identified various genes and gene regulatory pathways associated with empirically derived impulsivity components. Our study suggests that gene networks implicated previously in brain development, neurotransmission and immune response are related to impulsive tendencies and behaviors. PMID:25268255
Khadka, S; Narayanan, B; Meda, S A; Gelernter, J; Han, S; Sawyer, B; Aslanzadeh, F; Stevens, M C; Hawkins, K A; Anticevic, A; Potenza, M N; Pearlson, G D
This study is part of a broader project that has the goal of developing cognitive and neuro-cognitive profiles of adolescent and youngadult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. The study explores relationships among reading related abilities in participants aged 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range of reading ability. Two specific questions are addressed: (1) Does the Simple View of Reading (Gough & Tunmer, 1986) capture all non-random variation in reading comprehension? (2) Does orally-assessed vocabulary knowledge account for variance in reading comprehension, as predicted by the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002)? A comprehensive battery of cognitive and educational tests was employed to assess phonological awareness, decoding, verbal working memory, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, word knowledge, experience with print. In this heterogeneous sample, decoding ability clearly plays an important role in reading comprehension. Gough and Tunmers Simple View of Reading gives a reasonable fit to the data, though it does not capture all of the reliable variance in reading comprehension as predicted. Orally assessed vocabulary knowledge captures unique variance in reading comprehension even after listening comprehension and decoding skill are accounted for. We explore how a specific connectionist model of lexical representation and lexical access can account for these findings. PMID:17518215
Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald; Mencl, Einar
Objectives. We examined interrelationships among the 3 dimensions of sexual orientationself-identity, sexual attraction, and sexual experienceand their associations with substance use among adolescents and youngadults. Methods. To estimate total and net associations of sexual identity, attraction, and experience with use of tobacco, drugs, and alcohol, we applied logistic regression to cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Family Growth Cycle 6. Results. We found a lack of concordance among the different dimensions of sexual orientation. More youths reported same-gender sexual attraction and same-gender sexual experiences than identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Estimates of substance use prevalence differed significantly by gender and across dimensions of sexual orientation. Sexual experience was the most consistent predictor of substance use. Women and men with no sexual experience had the lowest odds of all forms of substance use; those reporting sexual experience with partners of both genders had the highest odds. Conclusions. Our findings indicate that sexual identity was less strongly associated with substance use than sexual experience and attraction were, pointing to the need for more nuanced indicators of sexual orientation in public health studies. PMID:22021322
Impulsivity is a heritable, multifaceted construct with clinically relevant links to multiple psychopathologies. We assessed impulsivity in youngadult (N~2100) participants in a longitudinal study, using self-report questionnaires and computer-based behavioral tasks. Analysis was restricted to the subset (N=426) who underwent genotyping. Multivariate association between impulsivity measures and single-nucleotide polymorphism data was implemented using parallel independent component analysis (Para-ICA). Pathways associated with multiple genes in components that correlated significantly with impulsivity phenotypes were then identified using a pathway enrichment analysis. Para-ICA revealed two significantly correlated genotype-phenotype component pairs. One impulsivity component included the reward responsiveness subscale and behavioral inhibition scale of the Behavioral-Inhibition System/Behavioral-Activation System scale, and the second impulsivity component included the non-planning subscale of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and the Experiential Discounting Task. Pathway analysis identified processes related to neurogenesis, nervous system signal generation/amplification, neurotransmission and immune response. We identified various genes and gene regulatory pathways associated with empirically derived impulsivity components. Our study suggests that gene networks implicated previously in brain development, neurotransmission and immune response are related to impulsive tendencies and behaviors. PMID:25268255
Khadka, S; Narayanan, B; Meda, S A; Gelernter, J; Han, S; Sawyer, B; Aslanzadeh, F; Stevens, M C; Hawkins, K A; Anticevic, A; Potenza, M N; Pearlson, G D
Background. Despite increasing attention toward forest therapy as an alternative medicine, very little evidence continues to be available on its therapeutic effects. Therefore, this study was focused on elucidating the health benefits of forest walking on cardiovascular reactivity. Methods. Within-group comparisons were used to examine the cardiovascular responses to walking in forest and urban environments. Forty-eight youngadult males participated in the two-day field research. Changes in heart rate variability, heart rate, and blood pressure were measured to understand cardiovascular reactivity. Four different questionnaires were used to investigate the changes in psychological states after walking activities. Results. Forest walking significantly increased the values of ln(HF) and significantly decreased the values of ln(LF/HF) compared with the urban walking. Heart rate during forest walking was significantly lower than that in the control. Questionnaire results showed that negative mood states and anxiety levels decreased significantly by forest walking compared with urban walking. Conclusion. Walking in the forest environment may promote cardiovascular relaxation by facilitating the parasympathetic nervous system and by suppressing the sympathetic nervous system. In addition, forest therapy may be effective for reducing negative psychological symptoms. PMID:24660018
There has been relatively little longitudinal controlled investigation of the effects of yoga on general physical fitness, despite the widespread participation in this form of exercise. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the effect of short-term Bikram yoga training on general physical fitness. Young healthy adults were randomized to yoga training (N = 10, 29 ± 6 years, 24 sessions in 8 weeks) or a control group (N = 11, 26 ± 7 years). Each yoga training session consisted of 90-minute standardized supervised postures performed in a heated and humidified studio. Isometric deadlift strength, handgrip strength, lower back/hamstring and shoulder flexibility, resting heart rate and blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption (treadmill), and lean and fat mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured before and after training. Yoga subjects exhibited increased deadlift strength, substantially increased lower back/hamstring flexibility, increased shoulder flexibility, and modestly decreased body fat compared with control group. There were no changes in handgrip strength, cardiovascular measures, or maximal aerobic fitness. In summary, this short-term yoga training protocol produced beneficial changes in musculoskeletal fitness that were specific to the training stimulus. PMID:22592178
Background This study represents the first attempt to perform a profiling analysis of the intergenerational differences in the microRNAs (miRNAs) of primary cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms in youngadult and older age groups. The data emphasize the importance of these master regulators in the transcriptional machinery of melanocytic neoplasms and suggest that differential levels of expressions of these miRs may contribute to differences in phenotypic and pathologic presentation of melanocytic neoplasms at different ages. Methods An exploratory miRNA analysis of 666 miRs by low density microRNA arrays was conducted on formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissues (FFPE) from 10 older adults and 10 youngadults including conventional melanoma and melanocytic neoplasms of uncertain biological significance. Age-matched benign melanocytic nevi were used as controls. Results Primary melanoma in patients greater than 60 years old was characterized by the increased expression of miRs regulating TLR-MyD88-NF-kappaB pathway (hsa-miR-199a), RAS/RAB22A pathway (hsa-miR-204); growth differentiation and migration (hsa-miR337), epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) (let-7b, hsa-miR-10b/10b*), invasion and metastasis (hsa-miR-10b/10b*), hsa-miR-30a/e*, hsa-miR-29c*; cellular matrix components (hsa-miR-29c*); invasion-cytokinesis (hsa-miR-99b*) compared to melanoma of younger patients. MiR-211 was dramatically downregulated compared to nevi controls, decreased with increasing age and was among the miRs linked to metastatic processes. Melanoma in youngadult patients had increased expression of hsa-miR-449a and decreased expression of hsa-miR-146b, hsa-miR-214*. MiR-30a* in clinical stages I-II adult and pediatric melanoma could predict classification of melanoma tissue in the two extremes of age groups. Although the number of cases is small, positive lymph node status in the two age groups was characterized by the statistically significant expression of hsa-miR-30a* and hsa-miR-204 (F-test, p-value < 0.001). Conclusions Our findings, although preliminary, support the notion that the differential biology of melanoma at the extremes of age is driven, in part, by deregulation of microRNA expression and by fine tuning of miRs that are already known to regulate cell cycle, inflammation, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)/stroma and more specifically genes known to be altered in melanoma. Our analysis reveals that miR expression differences create unique patterns of frequently affected biological processes that clearly distinguish old age from young age melanomas. This is a novel characterization of the miRnomes of melanocytic neoplasms at two extremes of age and identifies potential diagnostic and clinico-pathologic biomarkers that may serve as novel miR-based targeted modalities in melanoma diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20302635
Research Objective To evaluate one of the first implemented provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), which permits youngadults up to age 26 to enroll as dependents on a parent's private health plan. Nearly one-in-three youngadults lacked coverage before the ACA. Study Design, Methods, and Data Data from the Current Population Survey 20052011 are used to estimate linear probability models within a difference-in-differences framework to estimate how the ACA affected coverage of eligible youngadults compared to slightly older adults. Multivariate models control for individual characteristics, economic trends, and prior state-dependent coverage laws. Principal Findings This ACA provision led to a rapid and substantial increase in the share of youngadults with dependent coverage and a reduction in their uninsured rate in the early months of implementation. Models accounting for prior state dependent expansions suggest greater policy impact in 2010 among youngadults who were also eligible under a state law. Conclusions and Implications ACA-dependent coverage expansion represents a rare public policy success in the effort to cover the uninsured. Still, this policy may have later unintended consequences for premiums for alternative forms of coverage and employer-offered rates for youngadult workers. PMID:22924684
Cantor, Joel C; Monheit, Alan C; DeLia, Derek; Lloyd, Kristen
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of changes in dietary intake with education in young black and white men and women.\\u000aDESIGN: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in YoungAdults (CARDIA) study, a multi-centre population-based prospective study. Dietary intake data at baseline and year 7 were obtained from an extensive nutritionist-administered diet history questionnaire with 700 items developed for CARDIA.\\u000aSETTING: Participants
S. L. Archer; J. E. Hilner; A. R. Dyer; Kurt J. Greenlund; Laura A. Colangelo; Catarina I. Kiefe; K. Liu
OBJECTIVE: We studied the associations between 1) current use of oral contraceptives (OCs) and 2) glucose levels, insulin levels, and diabetes in young women.\\u000aRESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects were women (n = 1,940) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in YoungAdults (CARDIA) study, a prospective observational study of African-Americans and whites aged 18-30 years at enrollment in 1985-1986.
Catherine Kim; David S. Siscovick; Stephen Sidney; Cora E. Lewis; Catarina I. Kiefe; Thomas D. Koepsell
Discusses the benefits of reading youngadult novels. Remarks on their serious intent, careful craftmanship, effective expression, as well as their ability to illuminate the human condition and provide insights. (EL)
Objectives. We examined the association between moderate alcohol use and depressive mood among youngadults before and after adjustment for demographic, health, and socioeconomic factors that may act as confounders. Methods. We analyzed 2 waves of interview data collected from 13892 youngadults who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to compare frequency of depressive symptoms in moderate drinkers with frequency of symptoms in youngadults in other alcohol use categories. Results. With adjustment for health and socioeconomic factors, frequency of depressive symptoms were similar among moderate drinkers, lifetime and long-term abstainers, and heavy/heavier moderate drinkers but remained significantly higher among heavy drinkers. Conclusions. Moderate alcohol use may have no effect on depression in youngadults relative to abstinence from alcohol use. PMID:15727976
Paschall, Mallie J.; Freisthler, Bridget; Lipton, Robert I.
Presents two lists of youngadult literature titles totaling 100 works. Notes that the first list includes books with lasting appeal and the second list includes some new and notable books to fill a summer reading list. (SG)
Takes a look at three recent youngadult novels that are stories of children abandoned by their parents, and shows how each retains the essential features of the Hansel and Gretel folktale, a prototype of abandonment stories. (SR)
The authors used eye-tracking technology to examine young and older adults' online performance in the reading in distraction paradigm. Participants read target sentences and answered comprehension questions following each sentence. In some sentences...
A digital pursuit rotor was used to monitor speech planning and production costs by time-locking tracking performance to the auditory wave form produced as young and older adults were describing someone they admire. The ...
... Many Docs Fail to Counsel YoungAdults With High Blood Pressure Too few physicians urge lifestyle changes, study finds (* ... November 10, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Healthy Living High Blood Pressure Talking With Your Doctor MONDAY, Nov. 10, 2014 ( ...
Adolescents and youngadults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia lived longer when treated with an intensified multi-drug chemotherapy regimen that is used to treat younger children, according to the November 1, 2009, Journal of Clinical Oncology.
This study examined the relative importance of body size and composition as determinants of differences in isokinetic leg extensor strength in youngadult males performing at slow, moderate, and fast speeds. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)
The rate of urinary albumin excretion is an important risk factor for kidney failure, stroke, and cardiovascular disease, perhaps because higher albumin excretion reflects endothelial cell dysfunction. The authors characterized urinary albumin excretion according to blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and other factors in 2,582 Black and White participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in YoungAdults (CARDIA) Study who were aged 18-30 years in 1985-1986. Urinary albumin and creatinine concentrations were determined using single untimed samples 10 and 15 years later. The albumin:creatinine ratio was analyzed as a continuous variable and a dichotomous variable (higher albumin excretion, including microalbuminuria (25-249 mg/g) and macroalbuminuria (>or=250 mg/g)). Seventy percent of persons with increased albumin excretion were both normoglycemic and normotensive (systolic/diastolic blood pressure <140/90 mmHg and no use of antihypertensive drugs). Even when diabetic subjects, who have greater risk, were excluded, albumin excretion rose continuously as blood pressure increased among Blacks; increases started at systolic/diastolic blood pressures of 130/85 mmHg among Whites. Furthermore, blood pressure measured up to 15 years earlier predicted incident higher albumin excretion at year 15. These findings persisted after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, and blood lipid and plasma insulin levels. A risk of higher urinary albumin excretion exists at blood pressure levels below those commonly regarded as hypertension, with a greater risk among Blacks than among Whites. PMID:14507604
Murtaugh, Maureen A; Jacobs, David R; Yu, Xinhua; Gross, Myron D; Steffes, Michael
Objective Mental health problems are highly prevalent in youngadults. Despite possibilities for effective treatment, only about one-third\\u000a of youngadults with mental health problems seek professional help. Little knowledge exists of which groups of youngadults\\u000a are underusing mental health services and for what reasons. The present study examined socio-demographic inequalities in the\\u000a use of mental health services by young
Kathleen Vanheusden; Jan van der Ende; Cornelis L. Mulder; Frank J. van Lenthe; Frank C. Verhulst; Johan P. Mackenbach
Results. Children with high-level trajectories of opposition and status violations reported more impaired social functioning as youngadults than children with high-level trajectories of aggression and property violations. Youngadults who showed onset of problems in adolescence reported overall less impaired social functioning than individuals with high-level externalizing problems starting in childhood. Overall, males reported more impaired social functioning in
Background. A previous study found that, with repeated exposure to slipping during a sit-to-stand task, fall incidence decreased at a similar exponential rate in young and older adults. This study investigated the adaptations responsible for this decrease. Methods. Slips were induced, using bilateral low-friction platforms, during a sit-to-stand in 60 young and 41 older healthy safety-harnessed adults. Participants underwent 5
Few studies estimate rural psychiatric disorder rates. No study has reported either DSM-III-R or DSM IV disorder prevalence\\u000a and mental health service use among US rural youngadults. This paper reports psychiatric disorder prevalence, comorbidity,\\u000a service utilization, and disorder correlates in a community sample of 536 youngadults, aged 19 to 23 years, living in the\\u000a rural Midwestern US. More than
Martha A. Rueter; Kristen E. Holm; Rebecca Burzette; Kee Jeong Kim; Rand D. Conger
. Portal hypertension is a relatively uncommon pathologic condition in children and youngadults in contrast with older adults.\\u000a The aim of this study is to evaluate the utility of sonography and color Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of portal hypertension\\u000a in children and young patients and to evaluate the sonographic pattern of each disease. We reviewed 25 such patients
A. Uno; H. Ishida; K. Konno; Y. Ohnami; H. Naganuma; M. Niizawa; Y. Hamashima; O. Masamune
OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of recruiting and retaining youngadults in a brief behavioral weight loss intervention tailored for this age group, and to assess the preliminary efficacy of an intervention that emphasizes daily self-weighing within the context of a self-regulation model. METHODS: Forty youngadults (29.1 ± 3.9 years, range 2135, average BMI of 33.36 ± 3.4) were
Using more precise methodology, the current study investigated expectations of psychotherapy duration for specific disorders.\\u000a Duration expectations were obtained for youngadults and compared to those obtained from psychotherapists as reported by Lowry\\u000a and Ross (Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training 34:272277, 1997). Results revealed that expected duration for\\u000a youngadults by disorder was quite similar to the psychotherapists, where less
Janet E. Constance; Michael J. Ross; Jenny L. Lowry; Jeffrey D. Gfeller; Paul J. Handal
High rates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI; 14%17%) in adolescents and youngadults suggest that some self-injurers may exhibit more or different psychiatric problems than others. In the present study, the authors utilized a latent class analysis to identify clinically distinct subgroups of self-injurers. Participants were 205 youngadults with a history of 1 or more NSSI behaviors. Latent classes were
BACKGROUND: In-depth understanding of the factors that prompt youngadults to attend health services for sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing are needed to underpin sexual health programes. We conducted a qualitative study to identify and explore why youngadults (1829 years) in Ireland attended specialist and community health services for STI testing; the factors that supported\\/undermined their decisions to seek
The present study explores the changes in youngadult patients' representations of their parents from prior to psychotherapy through long-term follow-up. Twenty-five women and 16 men from the YoungAdult Psychotherapy Project (YAPP) were interviewed according to Sidney Blatt's unstructured Object Relations Inventory prior to psychoanalytic psychotherapy, at termination and at the 1.5-year follow-up, comprising 123 interviews in all. Typologies
Andrzej Werbart; Camilla Grünbaum; Britta Jonasson; Helena Kempe; Milosz Kusz; Solweig Linde; Karin Lundén ONils; Patrik Sjövall; Minna Svenson; Catharina Theve; Lena Ulin; Agneta Öhlin
It is imperative that youngadult cancer survivors address any modifiable risk factors, given their increased health risks.\\u000a Unfortunately, few behavioral interventions have been developed for this population. The literature on physical activity,\\u000a smoking, and alcohol and drug use among youngadult cancer survivors was reviewed in order to identify the behaviors most\\u000a in need of intervention, the most vulnerable
This study examined the moderating effect of social and coping motives on distress among young cannabis-using adults. A random sample of 2031 young Swiss adults was interviewed by means of a computer-assisted telephone interview. Cannabis users showed more distress, less positive health behaviour and higher hedonism compared to non-users. Taking motive for use as a moderator variable into consideration, it
Jeannette Brodbeck; Monika Matter; Julie Page; Franz Moggi
We investigated the influence of repeated exposure to orangeades with added sucrose and different concentrations of citric acid, on the taste preferences of 6- to-11-year-old children and youngadults.During an intervention study of 8 days, 59 children (9.2±0.9 years) and 46 youngadults (22±2.0 years) received, each day, either an orangeade with a sweet taste, a sour taste, or no
Objective: The present study investigated the effects of consuming preloads with different macronutrient and energy contents on subsequent intake and subjective feelings of hunger and satiety in children, youngadults and the elderly.Subjects: 30 Children (46 y), 33 youngadults (1826 y) and 24 elderly (6186 y).Design: A preload test meal design was applied. Subjects were given four different strawberry
E. H. Zandstra; M. F. A. M. Mathey; C de Graaf; WA van Staveren
Research Objective Nearly one in three adults of ages 1929 lack health insurance, representing the highest uninsured rate of any age group. To help address this gap, 38 states have enacted laws requiring insurers to permit youngadults to enroll as dependents on their parents' plans. This paper evaluates their impact on coverage for youngadults. Study Design/Methods/Data This study uses data for individuals ages 1929 from the Current Population Survey's Annual Demographic Supplement for calendar years 20002008. Linear probability models are used to obtain difference-in-differences estimates of the impact of dependent coverage expansions in 19 early-adopting states on youngadults' insurance status. The models also address possible policy endogeneity due to the nonrandom enactment of expansion policies across states. Principal Findings State youngadult dependent coverage policies yielded small increases in dependent coverage ranging from 1.52 percentage points for all youngadults to 3.84 percentage points for those ages 1925 residing with parents. These increases were largely offset by declines in employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) in the youngadults' own name. No significant impact on youngadult uninsured rates was observed. Conclusions and Implications Adult dependent coverage expansions have had a relatively small impact on enrollment as an ESI dependent and appear to have the unintended consequence of reducing ESI policyholder coverage. This policy did not achieve a reduction in uninsured rates as policy makers had intended. Federal reform efforts to expand dependent coverage are likely to be more successful because reform will be accompanied by subsidies and enrollment mandates. PMID:21054376
Monheit, Alan C; Cantor, Joel C; DeLia, Derek; Belloff, Dina
Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of metabolic aberrations that collectively increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Greater understanding of MetS developments may provide insight into targeted prevention strategies for individuals at greatest risk. The purpose of this study was to i) identify distinct patterns of longitudinal MetS development and; ii) develop a character profile that differentiates groups by level of MetS risk. Methods and Results Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in YoungAdults (CARDIA) study (n?=?3 804; 1830 y) was obtained by limited access application from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and used for this analysis. MetS, as defined by the Harmonized criteria, was assessed over a 20 year follow-up period. Group-level trajectory analysis identified 4 distinct groups with varying rates of component development [No (23.8% of sample); Low (33.5%); Moderate (35.3%); and High MetS (7.4%)]. After adjusting for covariates, individuals in the At-Risk groups (Low, Moderate and High MetS) were more likely to be of black ethnicity (1.37, 1.141.66), have a family history of cardiovascular disease (1.61, 1.311.97) and history of dieting (1.69, 1.202.39) when compared to the No Risk trajectory group (No MetS). Conversely, increasing baseline education (0.76, 0.650.89) and aerobic fitness (0.55, 0.470.64) was inversely associated with At-Risk group membership. Conclusions Results suggest distinct profiles of MetS development that can be identified by baseline risk factors. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical implication of intermediate MetS development groups with respect to overall cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25368999
Poon, Vivian T. W.; Kuk, Jennifer L.; Ardern, Chris I.
To evaluate Pentacam-Scheimpflug imaging of anterior segment parameters in young Indian adults. In this prospective study 120 eyes of 60 normal Indian subjects with a mean age of 25.93 ± 6.58 years (range 17-39 years) were assessed by Pentacam. Main outcome measures were central corneal thickness (CCT), thinnest corneal thickness (TCT), apex corneal thickness (apex CT), peripheral corneal thickness at 2, 4, 6 and 8 mm from the thinnest point, location of the thinnest pachymetry, corneal volume (CV), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV) and anterior chamber angle (ACA). Independent samples t test, dependent samples t test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used for statistical analysis. The mean CCT, TCT, Apex CT and CV were 544.95 ± 35.42, 542 ± 35.19, 545.43 ± 35.45 and 61.64 ± 4.17 ?m, respectively. There was a gradual increase in CT from the thinnest point to the periphery. The mean ACD was 3.14 ± 0.33 mm, mean ACV was 177.77 ± 29.02 mm(3), and mean ACA was 39.36° ± 5.42°. There was no significant difference between CCT, TCT and Apex CT. A significant positive correlation was found between CCT and peripheral CT and also between anterior chamber parameters. TCT was mainly located in the inferotemporal and superotemporal zone. No significant difference was found in parameters between the right and left eyes and also between genders. This study provided information about a wide range of parameters in the anterior segment of healthy Indian eyes. These results could be helpful in assessment of patients with corneal diseases, glaucoma and screening for refractive surgeries. PMID:23456513
Objective The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate the caries risk in youngadults using Cariogram and (2) compare the efficiency of Cariogram with the regression risk models created using the same variables in Cariogram by examining the actual caries progression over a 2-year period. Methods: This study included 100 subjects that were either twenty or twenty-one years-old. Data on general health, diet, oral hygiene and use of fluoride were obtained. Saliva analyses were performed, including mutans streptococci and lactobacilli counts, secretion rate and buffer capacity. DMFT and DMFS values were calculated by clinical examinations and radiographs. The participants were divided into 5 groups according to their Cariogram caries risk scores at baseline. Re-examination for caries was done after 2-years. The data were analyzed using Kruskall Wallis, Mann Whitney-U, and logistic regression analyses. Results: Diet frequency, plaque amount and secretion rate were significantly associated with caries increment (P<.05). Cariogram and the regression risk models explained the caries formation at a higher rate than single-variables. However, the regression risk model developed by diet frequency, plaque amount and secretion rate explained the caries formation similar to Cariogram, while the other regression model developed by all variables used in Cariogram explained the caries formation at a higher rate than this computer program. Conclusions: Cariogram is effective and can be used for caries risk assessment instead of single variables; however, it is possible to develop simplier models with regression analyses to determine caries risk. PMID:22904655
Background Despite the prominence of comorbidity among substances and the recent attention focused on trajectory-based approaches to characterizing developmental change, little research in the substance use field has simultaneously considered both course and comorbidity. Methods Using nationally representative panel data from the Monitoring the Future Project (MTF; n = 32,087; 56% female; 82% Caucasian), we identified developmental courses of heavy drinking, smoking, and marijuana use using 4 waves of data spanning ages 18 to 26 in a multi-cohort youngadult sample. Comorbidity was examined by cross-classifying group membership in substance use trajectories. Finally, the extent to which risk factors (sex, race, alcohol expectancies, delinquency, sensation seeking, depressive affect, religiosity, academic achievement, and parent education) accounted for combinations of comorbidity that occurred at a rate greater than chance was examined. Results For each substance, we identified 4 courses of substance use that were largely consistent with those found in the literature (chronic high use, late-onset use, developmentally limited use, and low-use), with a fifth moderate smoking group. Heavy drinking, smoking, and marijuana use were each highly associated, and distinct patterns of comorbidity were evident, with greatest agreement along the diagonal. All risk factors explained comorbidity to some degree, with delinquency, sensation seeking, alcohol expectancies, and religion in particular predicting combinations of comorbidity that were characterized by early onset and chronic high use. Conclusions Cross-substance trajectory concordance was high, with parallel changes in substance use over emerging adulthood. This suggests similar developmental timing of use, perhaps due to the experience of developmental transitions that have a common influence on use of different substances. Prediction of combinations of comorbidity characterized by early onset and persistently high use suggests that to some extent, individuals use multiple substances because of a common vulnerability to each, rather than directional relations among substances (e.g., cross-tolerance, cueing). PMID:18331376
Jackson, Kristina M.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Schulenberg, John E.
Implicit learning is thought to underlie the acquisition of many skills including reading. Previous research has shown that some forms of implicit learning are reduced in individuals with dyslexia (e.g., sequence learning), whereas other forms are spared (e.g., spatial context learning). However, it has been proposed that dyslexia-related motor dysfunction may have contributed to the implicit sequence learning deficits reported earlier. To assess implicit sequence learning in the absence of a motor sequence, 16 youngadults diagnosed with dyslexia (20.6 +/- 1.5 years) and 18 healthy controls (20.8 +/- 2.0 years) completed a triplet frequency learning task (TRIP) that involved learning a sequential regularity in which the location of certain events followed a repeating pattern, but motor responses did not. Participants also completed the spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT), which involved learning a spatial regularity in which the location of distractors in some visual arrays predicted the target location. In addition, neuropsychological tests of real-word and pseudo-word reading were administered. TRIP task analyses revealed no between-group differences in pattern learning, but a positive correlation between individual learning scores and reading ability indicated that poor readers learned less well than did good readers. Thus, earlier reports of reduced implicit sequence learning in dyslexics cannot be entirely accounted for by motor sequencing deficits. No significant correlations or group differences in learning were found for SCCT. These findings offer additional evidence for a link between poor reading and impaired implicit sequence learning. PMID:19076397
Bennett, Ilana J; Romano, Jennifer C; Howard, James H; Howard, Darlene V
Context: Self-ear-cleaning has been reported to be common from several hospital-based studies and it has been associated with some diseases of the ear. Aims: To determine community-based prevalence of self-ear-cleaning and its sociodemographic correlates among educated youngadults in Nigeria. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey conducted in a National Youth Service Corps camp in Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Semistructured questionnaires were administered on a randomly selected sample of 1280 respondents. The outcome variable was self-ear-cleaning. Independent variables were sociodemographic variables, materials used and ear-cleaning habits. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15 was utilized for univariate, bivariate, and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: There were 1012 respondents (M: F = 1.05:1). Mean age was 25.3 (standard deviation, 2.34). Prevalence of self-ear-cleaning was 93.4%. Mean age at first cleaning was 7.6 years. Cotton buds were the most frequently used objects (in 85.1%). Prevalence was high irrespective of sociodemographic class, significantly higher among females (?2 = 4.549, P = 0.033), those who believed the habit was beneficial (?2 = 114.185, P < 0.001) and those whose parents and siblings practiced the habit. Significant predictive factors were self-ear-cleaning in respondent's father [odds ratio (OR) P = 0.011) and owning cotton buds (OR = 0.192, P = 0.007). Conclusions: Self-ear-cleaning is almost universal. Most of the population is, therefore, at risk of possible harmful effects. Also, medical advice against self-ear-cleaning is not widely known. Rather, the erroneous perception that self-ear-cleaning is beneficial is common. Collaborative health education efforts targeted at families and schools and campaigns and advocacy for legislation regulating the sale of cotton buds are recommended. PMID:24791230
We examined the long-term effects of prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) on the behavior problems and smoking behavior of 22-year-old offspring. The mothers of these offspring were interviewed about their tobacco and other drug use during pregnancy at the fourth and seventh gestational months, and at delivery. Data on the offspring are from interviews at age 22 (n=608). Behavior problems were measured by the Adult Self-Report (ASR) with the following outcome scales: total behavior problems, externalizing, internalizing, attention, anxiety/depression, withdrawn, thought, intrusive, aggression, somatic and rule breaking behavioral problems. Youngadult smoking behavior was measured using self-reported average daily cigarettes, and was validated with urine cotinine. Nicotine dependence was measured with the Fagerström Tobacco and Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scale. Regression analyses tested the relations between trimester-specific PCSE and youngadult's behavioral problems and smoking behavior, adjusting for demographic and maternal psychological characteristics, and other prenatal substance exposures. Exposed youngadults had significantly higher scores on the externalizing, internalizing, aggression, and somatic scales of the ASR. These youngadults were also more likely to have a history of arrests. Youngadults with PCSE also had a higher rate of smoking and nicotine dependence. Our previous findings of the relations between PCSE and aggressive behavior in early childhood and PCSE and smoking behavior in early adolescence extend into young adulthood. PMID:23000289
Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L
Background Validated measures that can accurate describe youngadults HPV vaccination attitudes and how these relate to vaccination intention and receipt are needed for developing interventions to improve low HPV vaccination levels. The Carolina HPV Immunization Attitudes Scale (CHIAS) is a validated measure of these outcomes that was originally designed for parents. Objective To assess the performance of the CHIAS among youngadult women using an exploratory factor analysis. Methods A convenience sample of 139 youngadult women (age 1826 years) were given the CHIAS measure at baseline. Factor analysis was used to determine attitudinal factor groupings and the association of these factors with HPV vaccination intention. A 6-month follow up assessment examined the stability of the CHIAS over time and the association of baseline vaccine factors with vaccine receipt. Results Five factors loaded on to the CHIAS in youngadults - Barriers, Harms, Effectiveness, Risk Denial and Uncertainty, - which was similar to the factor loadings of CHIAS for parents. Harms was the factor most consistently associated with vaccination intention at all time points assessed. Only 5 women had received or made an appointment to receive the vaccine at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusions In terms of categorizing HPV vaccination attitudes, the CHIAS appears to have similar performance among youngadults as in parents. However, additional studies are needed to assess the utility of the CHIAS for predicting HPV vaccine receipt among the youngadult population. PMID:24945630
Dempsey, Amanda F.; Fuhrel-Forbis, Andrea; Konrath, Sara
The aim of this study was to explore attitudes, coherence and health beliefs among youngadults, related to their use and experience of information technology (IT). A qualitative approach was used and the data were collected through individual thematised interviews with 25 young IT users, aged 1824. The interviews were analysed in line with the grounded theory method with a
Ewa Gustafsson; Lotta Dellve; Maria Edlund; Mats Hagberg
This article examines how developmental bibliotherapy featuring youngadult literature can be an effective strategy to address emotional issues of gifted teenagers. It describes how one high school English class responded to the novel, "The Mosquito Test," in a bibliotherapeutic fashion. Also provided is an annotated bibliography of current young
The phenomenon called "aging out" includes approximately 20,000 young people who enter adulthood directly from foster care each year (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2005). The number of youth and youngadults who aged out of care in the U.S. in 2005, the year for which the most current statistics are available, increased 48 percent
Research on quality of life (QoL) of adolescents and youngadults born preterm and those with congenital heart disease (CHD) was systematically reviewed, and factors associated with QoL were identified. Forty-five studies met the inclusion criteria for review. Although the majority of studies found that self-reported QoL of adolescents and young
Dahan-Oliel, Noemi; Majnemer, Annette; Mazer, Barbara
The authors investigated whether general and domain-specific control beliefs were related to stigmatizing physical appearance qualities in young, middle-aged, and older adults. Being babyfaced, unattractive, or short was associated with dimin- ished control beliefs in young and middle adulthood, whereas being overweight was not. Those who were less attractive, more babyfaced, shorter, or heavier sometimes perceived more rather than less
Carrie Andreoletti; Leslie A. Zebrowitz; Margie E. Lachman
There are numerous financial planning and money management handbooks, but few focus on the needs of youngadults between 16 and 25 years of age. Colleges and some high schools are increasingly offering courses covering money management, but the materials are more "economics-focused" than "real-world" focused. Young people are huge consumers who
This study was designed to assess the return to work, the poststroke depression and the quality of life after a cerebral infarction in youngadults and was conducted on 71 consecutive young patients (aged 1545 years) affected by a cerebral infarct who were hospitalized for the first time and discharged at least 1 year before the study. Data about risk
Jean-Philippe Neau; Pierre Ingrand; Claire Mouille-Brachet; Marie-Pierre Rosier; Christine Couderq; Arturo Alvarez; Roger Gil
It is widely accepted that young people residing in residential care transition to independence and adult responsibilities earlier than peers living within their family of origin. There has been a lack of literature examining the way young people in care construct this transition. In response, in-depth qualitative interviews, guided by grounded
Advocates have long argued that an increased role for youngadult literature in the classroom would help students' reading development. At first glance, the widely adopted Common Core State Standards might seem in opposition to an increased role for such literature. A closer examination of the common core documents suggests, however, that young
Background: Young adulthood represents a key developmental period for the onset of substance use disorder (SUD). While the number of youngadults entering treatment has increased, little is known about the mechanisms of change and early recovery processes in this important clinical population. This study investigated during-treatment change in key therapeutic processes (psychological distress, motivation, self-efficacy, coping skills, and commitment
J. F. Kelly; K. A. Urbanoski; B. B. Hoeppner; V. Slaymaker
This study tested the specificity of parent alcoholism effects on youngadult alcohol and drug abuse\\/dependence, anxiety, and depression, and tested whether adolescent symptomatology and substance use mediated parent alcoholism effects. Participants were from a longitudinal study in which a target child was assessed in adolescence and young adulthood with structured interview measures (N = 454 families at Time 1).
Laurie Chassin; Steven C. Pitts; Christian DeLucia; Michael Todd
This study tested the specificity of parent alcoholism effects on youngadult alcohol and drug abuse\\/ dependence, anxiety, and depression, and tested whether adolescent symptomatology and substance use mediated parent alcoholism effects. Participants were from a longitudinal study in which a target child was assessed in adolescence and young adulthood with structured interview measures (N = 454 families at Time
Laurie Chassin; Steven C. Pitts; Christian DeLucia; Michael Todd
Theories about ambivalence, as well as quantitative and qualitative empirical approaches, are applied to obtain an understanding of recycling among youngadults. A questionnaire was mailed to 422 Swedish young people. Regression analyses showed that a mix of negative emotions (worry) and positive emotions (hope and joy) about the environmental
Children with multiple handicaps, including cerebral palsy (CP), often lose or regress in their functional ability through adolescence and young adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine functional and psychosocial changes in children, adolescents, and youngadults with CP. A retrospective chart review and a prospective telephone
Krakovsky, Gina; Huth, Myra Martz; Lin, Li; Levin, Ron S.
The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in motor unit firing behavior during prolonged contractions in young and older adults. Motor unit activity was recorded from the tibialis anterior of 16 subjects (8 young and 8 older), while they performed isometric dorsiflexion at 50% MVC until task failure. Mean motor unit firing rate, the standard deviation (SD), and
The changing nature of work suggests that young people may face the prospect of a portfolio career including periods of paid employment, non-work and self-employment, of which the latter implies greater scope for entrepreneurial activity. Reports questionnaire surveys of youngadults which examine their attitudes to entrepreneurship as a career. Reference is also made to current policy initiatives and entrepreneurship
In recent years, a focus has arisen on the difficulty young men experience during adolescence and the pressures they encounter from both institutional and cultural sources. Authors of graphic novels for youngadults have engaged the topic with works that detail the experiences of adolescent males struggling with the demands of what Connell has identified as hegemonic masculinity practices. The
Background and Aims: Cardiovascular screening in youngadults is an important tool in many occupational settings. Our aim was to test whether screening physical examination and ECG influence the rate of abnormal echocardiogarphic findings in young healthy subjects. Methods: Consecutive echocardiography results of 18- to 20-year-old flight candidates were analyzed retrospectively. Echocardiographies were performed as part of a screening protocol,
Dan-Avi Landau; Alon Grossman; Yaniv Sherer; David Harpaz; Bella Azaria; Dan Carter; Erez Barenboim; Liav Goldstein
Despite the increasing use ofreproductive technologies the world over,anthropological studies have paid remarkablylimited attention to the ethical dilemmasinvolved in people's choices of suchtechnologies. Against this background, theauthor analyzes moral perceptions of inducedabortion among unmarried youngadults in urbanNorth Vietnam. While the ethical aspects ofabortion are shrouded in silence in public lifein Vietnam, the young people participating inthe study expressed strong
This study investigates the relation of youngadult identities (ages 18-22 years), reflecting subjective age and psychosocial maturity, to educational and career attainment in young adulthood (ages 25-29 years). Add Health data show that having an older subjective age alone does not curtail attainment; the critical issue is the level of
Benson, Janel E.; Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Elder, Glen H., Jr.
This issue of the "News Research Bulletin" contains reports on two studies of media use by contemporary youngadults. The first study analyzes the media behavior of 447 randomly selected respondents in Virginia Beach, Virginia in the summer of 1973. Some of the highlights of the study were that about 90 percent of the young people report doing at
American Newspaper Publishers Association, Washington, DC.
A young person's first consensual sexual intercourse experience is often a remarkable and memorable experience. However, little systematic information exists regarding contextual factors of first intercourse, the affective salience of the experience, possible effects on sexual attitudes and beliefs, and subsequent sexual development and adjustment. This retrospective study aimed to examine these in a sample of 475 youngadults. Overall,
Elke D. Reissing; Heather L. Andruff; Jocelyn J. Wentland
A young person's first consensual sexual intercourse experience is often a remarkable and memorable experience. However, little systematic information exists regarding contextual factors of first intercourse, the affective salience of the experience, possible effects on sexual attitudes and beliefs, and subsequent sexual development and adjustment. This retrospective study aimed to examine these in a sample of 475 youngadults. Overall,
Elke D. Reissing; Heather L. Andruff; Jocelyn J. Wentland
This brief takes a broad look at low-income youngadults in an effort to contribute to the national discussion on improving degree completion by increasing participation among all disadvantaged populations--especially those who attempt to succeed in postsecondary settings under financial stress. Understanding the linkages between low-income young
Extant literature indicates that technology, and by implication its underlying knowledge base, determines long-run economic performance. Absent from the literature with respect to developing countries are quantitative assessments of the nexus between technology as knowledge and economic performance. This paper imposes a simple production function on annual pooled observations on Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa over the 1976-2004 period to
The percutaneous absorption of /sup 14/C-phenoxy ring labeled triadimefon was studied in adult and young male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Triadimefon was applied (41.1 to 46.4 micrograms/cm2) in 0.2 ml of acetone to areas comprising 3% of the body surface (7.0 to 14.5 cm2). Thirty-six animals were treated at the initiation of each study. Groups of three animals were subsequently killed at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 hr after treatment. Skin from the treated area as well as blood, heart, liver, kidneys, remaining carcass, urine, and feces were analyzed for /sup 14/C by scintillation counting techniques. Based on /sup 14/C counts, triadimefon was lost more rapidly from the skin of young animals (t 1/2, 20 to 25 hr) than from the skin of adult animals (t 1/2, 29 to 53 hr). Recovery studies indicated that adult males, adult females, young males, and young females, respectively, absorbed 53, 82, 57, and 52% of the dose. The rest of the dose based on material balance was presumably lost by evaporation. Approximately 2.5 to 3.9% of the dose penetrated the skin in one hour and was available for absorption. The rate of entry triadimefon into blood was 2 to 2.5 times faster for young than that observed in adult animals. Elimination of it from blood was faster in the case of the young animals. Triadimefon was absorbed through the skins of the adult male, adult female, young male, and young female rats, respectively, at rates of 0.20, 0.50, 0.58, and 0.48 micrograms/hr/cm2 of skin.
BACKGROUNDThe aim of this study was to describe the frequency, causal pathogens, management, and outcome of a population of youngadults who died from community acquired pneumonia (CAP).METHODSPneumonia deaths in England and Wales in adults aged 1544 were identified between September 1995 and August 1996. Patients with underlying chronic illness including HIV infection were excluded. Clinical details for each case
J C G Simpson; J T Macfarlane; J Watson; M A Woodhead
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the social inclusion of youngadults with intellectual disabilities. Participants included 14 adults from 21 to 35 years of age with a mild or moderate intellectual disability who were able to verbally communicate their thoughts and experiences. I ensued with open-ended questions about
An increasingly visible youth transgender population is emerging and the number of transgender-inclusive fiction texts for youngadults is growing. Adults serving teens in schools, libraries, and community agencies must begin actively pursuing, utilizing, and incorporating these texts into resource collections. This article provides an overview of
This study evaluates whether tip of the tongue experiences (TOTs) are caused by a more accessible word which blocks retrieval of the target word, especially for older adults. In a ''competitor priming'' paradigm, young and older adults produced the name of a famous character (e.g., Eliza Doolittle) in response to a question and subsequently named
Surveys of Internet use and psychological well-being completed by 178 young and 218 older adults found differences on dimensions of well-being. All younger and 18% of older adults used the Internet. There was no significant correlation between Internet use and well-being. Older Internet users had higher incomes and educational attainment and
A successful transition to adult society requires attention to four major goals: (a) have a safe and supportive place to live; (b) participate in meaningful activities; (c) maintain access to needed services; and (d) develop friendships and intimate relationships. For youngadults with complex communication needs (CCN), access to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) plays a critical role in the
David McNaughton; Diane Bryen; Sarah Blackstone; Michael Williams; Pamela Kennedy
This study examined stereotype traits of older adults elicited from 40 young (M age = 19.6), 40 middle-aged (M = 36.8), and 40 older Chinese adults (M = 64.7). Trait lists were compared across age groups and to traits reported by U.S. and Chinese...
Zhang, Yan Bing; Hummert, Mary Lee; Garstka, Teri A.
This qualitative study investigated parents' perceptions of the various roles they played in their adult children's lives during the post-high school years. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted with 9 families of youngadults with developmental disabilities. Findings indicated that families perceived the complexity of their roles as
Bianco, Margarita; Garrison-Wade, Dorothy F.; Tobin, Romie; Lehmann, Jean P.
This report examines youngadults' states of mind regarding their early attachment experiences in relation to the observed and perceived quality of their sibling relationships. Sixty sibling pairs (18-25 years of age) were (a) administered the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1985), (b) videotaped during a conflict resolution
Fortuna, Keren; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Groh, Ashley M.; Holland, Ashley S.
OBJECTIVEIn recent decades, in most European countries youngadult mortality has risen, or at best has remained stable. The aim of this study was to describe trends in mortality attributable to the principal causes of death: AIDS, drug overdose, suicide and motor vehicle traffic accidents, among adults aged between 15 and 34 years in three European cities (Barcelona, Bologna and
C Borrell; M I Pasarín; E Cirera; P Klutke; E Pipitone; A Plasència
Objective: Research has clearly documented the social dysfunction of youth with ADHD. However, little is known about the interpersonal relationships of adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, including rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study, analyses compared the level of IPV (verbal aggression, violence) reported by youngadult (18- to 25-year-old) males
Brian Wymbs; Brooke Molina; William Pelham; JeeWon Cheong; Elizabeth Gnagy; Kat Belendiuk; Christine Walther; Dara Babinski; Dan Waschbusch
Objective: To investigate gender differences in beliefs about condom use among young, sexually active, heterosexual Australian adults. Design: Cross-sectional survey of 1,113 adults aged 18-26 years. Setting: Higher education institutions across New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Method: Participants were recruited during higher-education
Newton, Fiona J.; Newton, Joshua D.; Windisch, Lydia; Ewing, Michael T.
This study sought to determine the appropriateness of two conventional intelligence tests for assessing the ability of economically deprived youngadults participating in job training programs by comparing their test results with those of the test standardization groups. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), and the Langmuir Oral Direction
This study's objective was assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor knowledge in youngadults, its association with 10-year changes in risk factor levels, and variables related to risk factor knowledge. A total of 4,193 healthy persons (55% female, 48% Black; mean age ¼ 30 years) from four urban US communities were queried about risk factor knowledge in 1990-1991 and
Elizabeth B. Lynch; Kiang Liu; Catarina I. Kiefe; Philip Greenland
Whereas cardiovascular risk factor levels are substantially different in black and white Americans, the relative rates of cardiovascular disease in the 2 groups are not always consistent with these differences. To compare the prevalence of coronary calcification, an indicator of coronary atherosclerosis, in youngadult blacks and whites, we performed electron-beam computed tomography of the heart in 443 men and
Diane E. Bild; Aaron R. Folsom; Lynn P. Lowe; Stephen Sidney; Catarina I. Kiefe; Andrew O. Westfall; Zhi-Jie Zheng; John Rumberger
Assessing the prevalence of relevant risk factors among youngadults is a critical step in the process of preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD) later in life. The Israel Defense Force Periodic Health Examination Center performs a routine check-up for subjects aged 2545 years. Medical history, physical examination notes, laboratory results and ECG tracings are recorded, computerized and processed to form
Y. Sharabi; I. Grotto; M. Huerta; A. Eldad; M. S. Green
BackgroundThe long-term health consequences of drug use among healthy youngadults in the general population are not well described. We assessed whether drug use predicted decline in general self-rated health (GSRH) in a community-based cohort, healthy at baseline.
Stefan G. Kertesz; Mark J. Pletcher; Monika Safford; Jewell Halanych; Katharine Kirk; Joseph Schumacher; Stephen Sidney; Catarina I. Kiefe
Previous studies have suggested that older adults may be more resistant to muscular fatigue than youngadults. We sought to determine whether motor unit firing rate might be a factor that determines the response to fatiguing exercise in young and older subjects. Motor unit recordings and muscular forces were obtained from the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of 11 young and
Taking a critical, research-oriented perspective, this exploration of the theoretical, empirical, and pedagogical connections between the reading and teaching of youngadult literature and adolescent identity development centers around three key questions: (1) Who are the teens reading youngadult literature?; (2) Why should teachers teach young
This study explored the early family histories of homeless youngadults, the types and number of transitions they experienced, and their pathways to the street. Intensive qualitative interviews were audio taped and transcribed with 40 homeless youngadults 19 to 21 years of age in the Midwest. Findings show that family backgrounds were generally characterized by substance use, child maltreatment, and witnessing violence, all of which provide social context for understanding why so many of these young people opted to leave home in search of an alternative living situation. The current findings also reveal that while some youngadults ran away from home as adolescents, others were pushed out (i.e., told to leave), or removed by state agencies. Current study findings illustrate that youngadults trajectories are marked by multiple living arrangements such as home, foster care, detention facility, and drug rehabilitation. Overall, study results show that youngadults family histories place them on trajectories for early independence marked by multiple transitions and numerous living situations, culminating in a lack of a permanent residence to call home. PMID:24151346
A growing concern in public health surveillance surveys that rely on random digit dialing for sampling is the exclusion of adults in cell-phone-only households. The purpose of this study was to examine whether recent increases in wireless substitution have affected estimates of tobacco and alcohol use in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in a subpopulation with notable cell-phone usage (i.e., youngadults). BRFSS data from 2001-2005 were examined. Analyses were limited to participants aged 18-24 years, and the sample contained approximately 18,500 persons in each year. Prevalence estimates were generated with SUDAAN software for three health behaviors: cigarette smoking, binge drinking, and heavy alcohol consumption. In addition, the authors examined sample completeness for youngadults relative to US Census estimates. Overall, prevalences of all three health behaviors among youngadults were fairly stable between 2001 and 2003 but significantly decreased between 2003 and 2005. These trends are not replicated in national surveys that use area probability samples. The authors found a declining trend in the sample completeness ratio for youngadults; it declined from 0.32 in 2001 to 0.15 in 2005. Given the high prevalence of wireless substitution among youngadults and the declining sample completeness ratio, the authors suspect that the observed decreases in prevalence are artifacts of undercoverage. PMID:17977896
Delnevo, Cristine D; Gundersen, Daniel A; Hagman, Brett T
Background Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a disease of middle-aged to elderly adults. However, an increased incidence of HNSCC in young people under 45 years of age has been reported recently. In the present review, we focused on the epidemiology and aetiology of HNSCC in adults under 45 years of age. Methods We reviewed literature related to HNSCC in adult patients less than 45 years of age and discussed current treatment options and prognosis. Results HNSCC in youngadults is associated with a higher incidence rate in nonsmokers, lower female-to-male ratio, a higher percentage of oral cavity and oropharynx tumours, and fewer second primary tumours. However, aside from traditional risk factors of tobacco and alcohol exposure, the causes of these cancers in youngadults remain unclear. Agents that might contribute to risk include infection with high-risk human papillomavirus subtypes as well as genetic factors or immunodeficiency status. The expected increase in incidence and mortality of the young with HNSCC may become a major public health concern if current trends persist, particularly lifestyle habits that may contribute to this disease. Conclusions Given the younger age and potential long-term adverse sequelae of traditional HNSCC treatments, youngadults should be treated on a case-by-case basis and post-therapy quality of life must be considered in any treatment-decision making process. PMID:24587773
The negative impacts of excessive and problematic video game playing on both children and adults are attracting increasing concern. Based on self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000), this study hypothesized that the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness are positively associated with purpose in life, which in turn acts as a protective factor against problem video game playing among Chinese youngadult players. Through a questionnaire survey with a sample of 165 Chinese adults aged between 18 and 30 years (mean age?=?22.7 years), we found that perceived autonomy, competence, relatedness, and purpose in life were all negatively correlated with problem game playing. The demographic and psychological factors explained 38% of the variances of problem game playing. Specifically, gender, perceived relatedness, and purpose in life emerged as the three most salient predictors of problem game playing among the Chinese youngadults. The mediating role of purpose in life was evidenced and it was found that purpose in life mediated the influences of the psychological needs proposed by SDT on problem game playing. Moreover, young men were significantly more susceptible to problem game playing than their female counterparts. To conclude, psychological needs and purpose in life influenced Chinese youngadults' vulnerability to problem game playing directly or indirectly. Intervention programs that encourage social involvement and voluntary work, as well as counseling service that helps clients to search for life purpose, are suggested for intervening in problem game playing among Chinese youngadults. PMID:22506646
The effects of parental alcoholism on youngadult dating relationship quality (trust, intimacy, commitment, and satisfaction) were considered in the context of the mediating variable of family process (cohesion, conflict resolution, and family competence). A model was tested with a sample of 287 youngadults (95 were adult children of alcoholics) that suggested that healthier family process mediates the negative
This book explores how librarians can work to strengthen and improve the quality of service to youngadults. The introduction is written by Mary Kay Chelton, whose dissertation, "Adult-Adolescent Service Encounters: The Library Context" (1997), inspired this book. The book has 12 chapters. Chapter 1 introduces the provision of best youngadult
Young, novice drivers constitute a disproportionate percentage of fatalities and injuries in road traffic accidents around the world. This study, attempts to identify motivational factors behind risky driving behavior, and examines the role of personality, especially sensation seeking, impulsivity and sensitivity to punishment\\/reward in predicting negative driving outcomes (accident involvement and traffic offences) among young drivers. Gender and driver's age
Elena Constantinou; Georgia Panayiotou; Nikos Konstantinou; Anthi Loutsiou-Ladd; Andreas Kapardis
This study examined the possibilities that young children's gender elicits differential academic expectations from aspiring teachers, and aspiring teachers' gender and (socioeconomic) SES affect their academic expectations for young children. A questionnaire asked 103 university students majoring in education: (1) how difficult and how interesting
Significant improvement in the dental caries status of children in the United States has been seen in recent decades. The percentage of children who are free from dental caries, however, rapidly decreases with age. By the time young people enter colleges or universities, only a few are caries free. Colleges and universities are places where the young are simultaneously, and
This research contributes to our understanding of the increasing mixture of entertainment and politics by examining the impact of the political statements made by celebrities on the opinions of Anglophone Canadian youth. A recent survey of young Canadians enrolled in first-year university political science courses indicates young peoples level of agreement with certain political statements is increased by the endorsement
Christakis and colleagues have shown that health behaviors cluster in social networks and suggest social norms may account for the clustering. This study examined: (i) whether obesity clusters among youngadults and whether social norms do in fact account for the clustering, and (ii) among overweight/obese (OW/OB) youngadults, whether number of social contacts trying to lose weight is associated with weight loss intentions and whether social norms for weight loss account for this effect. Normal weight (NW) and OW/OB youngadults (N = 288; 66% female; 75% white) completed measures assessing number of OW social contacts and social norms for obesity. OW/OB youngadults also indicated number of OW social contacts currently trying to lose weight, social norms for weight loss, and weight loss intentions. Compared to NW, OW/OB youngadults were more likely to have OW romantic partners and best friends and had more OW casual friends and family members (Ps < 0.05), but social norms for obesity did not differ between groups, and social norms did not mediate the relationship between OW social contacts and participants' weight status. However, among OW/OB youngadults, having more social contacts trying to lose weight was associated with greater intention to lose weight (r = 0.20, P = 0.02) and social norms for weight loss fully mediated this effect (P < 0.01). This study is the first to show that social contacts and normative beliefs influence weight status and intentions for weight control in youngadults. Findings underscore the importance of targeting social influence in the treatment and prevention of obesity in this high-risk age group. PMID:21164501
Leahey, Tricia M; Gokee LaRose, Jessica; Fava, Joseph L; Wing, Rena R
Along with ongoing research on the WAIS-R, short forms of the WAIS-III have attracted much attention. However, few studies of WAIS-III short forms are based on normal samples or on the validation of estimated indexes. This study examined the utility of two seven-subtest short forms in 81 healthy youngadults in Taiwan with the administration of
. Kemper et al. (1989) reported that the mean number of clauses per utterance (MCU), a general measure of the complexity of adults language, is positively correlated with the adults backward digit span using the WAIS-R subtest (Wechsler, 1981..., respectively, and .78 and .81 for reading rate and reading comprehension, respectively, for 50 older adults, each tested on two occasions approximately 1 week apart. WAIS-R Vocabulary test. An oral response version of the vocabulary subtest of the WAIS...
The YoungAdult Social Behavior Scale was developed for the purpose of measuring self-reported relational and social aggression and behaviors of interpersonal maturity in adolescents and youngadults (the sample included 629 university students; 66% female; 91.6% White). Despite previous research suggesting that relational and social aggression
Crothers, Laura M.; Schreiber, James B.; Field, Julaine E.; Kolbert, Jered B.
The purpose of this study was to gain greater understanding of the potential benefits of assistive technology (AT) devices on young children's social development. Specifically, changes to the quality of the adult/young child social interactions as a...
Adolescence is a time of growth, change, and confusion for young women. During this transition from childhood to adulthood, sex and gender roles become more important. Meanwhile, depictions of females--from the hyper-sexualized girls of music videos to the chaste repression of Purity Balls--send mixed messages to young women about their bodies
Background Research on the quality of diabetes care provided to youngadults with Type 1 diabetes is lacking. This study investigates perceptions of quality of care for youngadults with Type 1 diabetes (2330 years old) living in the Republic of Ireland. Methods Thirty-five youngadults with Type 1 diabetes (twenty-nine women, six men) and thirteen healthcare professionals (ten diabetes nurse specialists, three consultant Endocrinologists) were recruited. All study participants completed semi-structured interviews that explored their perspectives on the quality of diabetes services in Ireland. Interviews were analyzed using standard qualitative thematic analysis techniques. Results Most interviewees identified problems with Irish diabetes services for youngadults. Healthcare services were often characterised by long waiting times, inadequate continuity of care, overreliance on junior doctors and inadequate professional-patient interaction times. Many rural and non-specialist services lacked funding for diabetes education programmes, diabetes nurse specialists, insulin pumps or for psychological support, though these services are important components of quality Type 1 diabetes healthcare. Allied health services such as psychology, podiatry and dietician services appeared to be underfunded in many parts of the country. While Irish diabetes services lacked funding prior to the recession, the economic decline in Ireland, and the subsequent austerity imposed on the Irish health service as a result of that decline, appears to have additional negative consequences. Despite these difficulties, a number of specialist healthcare services for youngadults with diabetes seemed to be providing excellent quality of care. Although youngadults and professionals identified many of the same problems with Irish diabetes services, professionals appeared to be more critical of diabetes services than youngadults. Youngadults generally expressed high levels of satisfaction with services, even where they noted that aspects of those services were sub-optimal. Conclusion Good quality care appears to be unequally distributed throughout Ireland. National austerity measures appear to be negatively impacting health services for youngadults with diabetes. There is a need for more Endocrinologist and diabetes nurse specialist posts to be funded in Ireland, as well as allied health professional posts. PMID:24168159
This study evaluates whether tip of the tongue experiences (TOTs) are caused by a more accessible word which blocks retrieval of the target word, especially for older adults. In a "competitor priming" paradigm, young and older adults produced the name of a famous character (e.g., Eliza Doolittle) in response to a question and subsequently named a picture of a famous actor or actress depicting this character (e.g., Audrey Hepburn as Eliza Doolittle). Older adults produced more TOTs than youngadults, but prior production of a related character name did not affect TOTs, although it did reduce incorrect responses. There were no age differences in knowledge of films and TV and thus the age-related increase in TOTs is not because older adults have more relevant knowledge. The findings are compatible with models in which alternate words are a consequence not a cause of TOT. PMID:15010248
Criminal suspects with distinctive facial features, such as tattoos or bruising, may stand out in a police lineup. To prevent suspects from being unfairly identified on the basis of their distinctive feature, the police often manipulate lineup images to ensure that all of the members appear similar. Recent research shows that replicating a distinctive feature across lineup members enhances eyewitness identification performance, relative to removing that feature on the target. In line with this finding, the present study demonstrated that with youngadults (n = 60; mean age = 20), replication resulted in more target identifications than did removal in target-present lineups and that replication did not impair performance, relative to removal, in target-absent lineups. Older adults (n = 90; mean age = 74) performed significantly worse than youngadults, identifying fewer targets and more foils; moreover, older adults showed a minimal benefit from replication over removal. This pattern is consistent with the associative deficit hypothesis of aging, such that older adults form weaker links between faces and their distinctive features. Although replication did not produce much benefit over removal for older adults, it was not detrimental to their performance. Therefore, the results suggest that replication may not be as beneficial to older adults as it is to youngadults and demonstrate a new practical implication of age-related associative deficits in memory. PMID:23150053
Badham, Stephen P; Wade, Kimberley A; Watts, Hannah J E; Woods, Natalie G; Maylor, Elizabeth A
This study investigated parenting styles (i.e., authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive) as moderators of the association between family conformity orientation and youngadults' self-esteem and depression. Participants included 213 youngadult children. Preliminary analyses revealed an inverse association between family conformity and youngadults' self-esteem, a positive relationship between mothers' and fathers' authoritativeness and self-esteem, and a positive relationship between perceptions
This report describes the post-high school educational and occupational activities for 66 youngadults with autism spectrum\\u000a disorders who had recently exited the secondary school system. Analyses indicated low rates of employment in the community,\\u000a with the majority of youngadults (56%) spending time in sheltered workshops or day activity centers. Youngadults with ASD\\u000a without an intellectual disability were
Several research studies suggest the significant role played by metamemory in lexical abilities of both adults and children. To our knowledge, there have been no studies to date that have explored the role of metamemory (Judgments of Learning) in fast mapping of novel words by adults. One hundred and twelve undergraduate students were given tasks
Ramachandra, Vijayachandra; Rickenbach, Bryna; Ruda, Marissa; LeCureux, Bethanie; Pope, Moira
Five experiments investigated whether adults and preschool children can perform simple arithmetic calculations on non-symbolic numerosities. Previous research has demonstrated that human adults, human infants, and non-human animals can process numerical quantities through approximate representations of their magnitudes. Here we consider whether
Barth, Hilary; La Mont, Kristen; Lipton, Jennifer; Dehaene, Stanislas; Kanwisher, Nancy; Spelke, Elizabeth
Background: Childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare but severe form of the adult onset disorder. While structural brain imaging studies show robust, widespread, and progressive gray matter loss in COS during adolescence, there have been no longitudinal studies of sufficient duration to examine comparability with the more common adult onset
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) extended eligibility for health insurance for youngadults ages 19-25. This extension may have affected how youngadults use emergency department (ED) care and other health services. To test the impact of the ACA on how youngadults used ED services, we used 2009-11 state administrative records from California, Florida, and New York to compare changes in ED use in youngadults ages 19-25 before and after the ACA provision was implemented with changes in the same period for people ages 26-31 (the control group). Following implementation of the ACA provision, the younger group had a decrease of 2.7 ED visits per 1,000 people compared to the older group--a relative change of -2.1 percent. The largest relative decreases were found in women (-3.0 percent) and blacks (-3.4 percent). This relative decrease in ED use implies a total reduction of more than 60,000 visits from youngadults ages 19-25 across the three states in 2011. When we compared the probability of ever using the ED before and after implementation of the ACA provision, we found a minimal decrease (-0.4 percent) among the younger group compared to the older group. This suggests that the change in the number of visits was driven by fewer visits among ED users, not by changes in the number of people who ever visited the ED. PMID:25201671
Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Burns, Carson S; Wang, N Ewen; Baker, Laurence C; Goldstein, Benjamin A
The aim of this experiment was to compare social stress, as measured by social behavior and adrenocortical activity, in young dairy goats during the first week after introduction into a herd of adult goats either during the dry period of the herd (i.e., all goats in the herd being pregnant or dry: PD) or shortly after parturition (i.e., all animals lactating or with their kids: LK). Thirty-two young goats that had had no contact with adult goats from the age of 7 wk were introduced into adult goat groups. Adult goats were kept in 2 groups of 36 animals each. Young goats were introduced (in groups of 4 animals each) into each of these 2 groups either during the PD period (2 repetitions) or during LK (2 repetitions); goats with different rearing experience were balanced over introduction periods. Young goats were more often receivers of agonistic social interactions when introduced during PD than during LK. Irrespective of the period of introduction, young goats had other young goats as neighbors more frequently than expected by chance alone, although this was even more distinct during PD. Cortisol metabolite levels increased markedly from baseline during PD, but not after parturition. Rearing showed an effect only on the nearest neighbors, with mother-reared young goats staying closer together. Our results indicate that young goats experience less social stress when being introduced into a herd of adult dairy goats shortly after parturition and with kids still present rather than during the dry period. Whether this effect is due to the period and lactational stage itself or to the presence of kids needs to be tested in future studies. PMID:23849642
People with grapheme-color synesthesia perceive enriched experiences of colors in response to graphemes (letters, digits). In this study, we examined whether these synesthetes show a generic associative memory advantage for stimuli that do not elicit a synesthetic color. We used a novel between group design (14 young synesthetes, 14 young, and 14 older adults) with a self-paced visual associative learning paradigm and subsequent retrieval (immediate and delayed). Non-synesthesia inducing, achromatic fractal pair-associates were manipulated in visual similarity (high and low) and corresponded to high and low memory load conditions. The main finding was a learning and retrieval advantage of synesthetes relative to older, but not to younger, adults. Furthermore, the significance testing was supported with effect size measures and power calculations. Differences between synesthetes and older adults were found during dissimilar pair (high memory load) learning and retrieval at immediate and delayed stages. Moreover, we found a medium size difference between synesthetes and youngadults for similar pair (low memory load) learning. Differences between young and older adults were also observed during associative learning and retrieval, but were of medium effect size coupled with low power. The results show a subtle associative memory advantage in synesthetes for non-synesthesia inducing stimuli, which can be detected against older adults. They also indicate that perceptual mechanisms (enhanced in synesthesia, declining as part of the aging process) can translate into a generic associative memory advantage, and may contribute to associative deficits accompanying healthy aging. PMID:25071664
The primary aim of this study was to examine the impact of an inhibition manipulation on the effect of age on theory of mind (ToM) in an ecologically valid, affective ToM task. Participants were 30 young and 30 old adults. The Cambridge Mindreading Face-Voice Battery was used to measure ToM; in addition, measures of fluid and crystallized intelligence were taken. Participants were subjected to three levels of inhibitory demand during ToM reasoning: emotional inhibition, non-emotional inhibition, and no inhibition. Old adults performed worse than youngadults. The emotional and non-emotional inhibition conditions resulted in worse ToM performance compared to the no inhibition condition. There were no differences in the impact of the inhibition conditions on old and youngadults. Regression analyses suggested that old adults' crystallized intelligence was a significant predictor of ToM performance, whereas it did not predict youngadults' ToM performance. Results are discussed in terms of verbal ability as a possible compensatory mechanism in coping with verbal inhibitory load in ToM reasoning. PMID:23597271
Despite the intensive investigation of bimanual coordination, it remains unclear how directing vision toward either limb influences performance, and whether this influence is affected by age. To examine these questions, we assessed the performance of young and older adults on a bimanual tracking task in which they matched motor-driven movements of their right hand (passive limb) with their left hand (active limb) according to in-phase and anti-phase patterns. Performance in six visual conditions involving central vision, and/or peripheral vision of the active and/or passive limb was compared to performance in a no vision condition. Results indicated that directing central vision to the active limb consistently impaired performance, with higher impairment in older than youngadults. Conversely, directing central vision to the passive limb improved performance in youngadults, but less consistently in older adults. In conditions involving central vision of one limb and peripheral vision of the other limb, similar effects were found to those for conditions involving central vision of one limb only. Peripheral vision alone resulted in similar or impaired performance compared to the no vision (NV) condition. These results indicate that the locus of visual attention is critical for bimanual motor control in young and older adults, with older adults being either more impaired or less able to benefit from a given visual condition.
Boisgontier, Matthieu P.; Van Halewyck, Florian; Corporaal, Sharissa H. A.; Willacker, Lina; Van Den Bergh, Veerle; Beets, Iseult A. M.; Levin, Oron; Swinnen, Stephan P.
Using a content analytic approach, this study examined American youngadults' written accounts about their communication with older adults in conflict situations to uncover major conflict initiating factors and conflict management styles...
Analysis of the Dutch national invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) surveillance data by sex reveals an increase in the incidence of serotype-1 disease in young female adults in The Netherlands after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in the national immunization schedule. This has led to an overall increase in IPD in women aged 20-45 years, which was not observed in men of the same age. No other differences in serotype shifts possibly induced by the introduction of PCV7 were observed between the sexes in this age group. Serotype 1 is a naturally fluctuating serotype in Europe and it has been associated with disease in young healthy adults before. It remains uncertain whether or not there is an association between the observed increase in serotype-1 disease in young female adults and the implementation of PCV7 in The Netherlands. PMID:24229845
Van Mens, S P; Van Deursen, A M M; Meijvis, S C A; Vlaminckx, B J M; Sanders, E A M; De Melker, H E; Schouls, L M; Van Der Ende, A; De Greeff, S C; Rijkers, G T
Past research documents that both adolescent gender nonconformity and the experience of school victimization are associated with high rates of negative psychosocial adjustment. Using data from the Family Acceptance Project's youngadult survey, we examined associations among retrospective reports of adolescent gender nonconformity and adolescent school victimization due to perceived or actual lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) status, along with current reports of life satisfaction and depression. The participants included 245 LGBT youngadults ranging in age from 21 to 25 years. Using structural equation modeling, we found that victimization due to perceived or actual LGBT status fully mediates the association between adolescent gender nonconformity and youngadult psychosocial adjustment (i.e., life satisfaction and depression). Implications are addressed, including specific strategies that schools can implement to provide safer environments for gender-nonconforming LGBT students. PMID:20822214
Toomey, Russell B; Ryan, Caitlin; Diaz, Rafael M; Card, Noel A; Russell, Stephen T
Factors that contribute to an increased prevalence of squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract among youngadults in the United States remain unknown. A potential etiologic factor may relate to a genetically controlled sensitivity to environmental carcinogens. This study, therefore, examined 20 youngadult patients who had squamous cell carcinoma for mutagen-induced chromosome sensitivity. Lymphocytes from respective patients were cultured, exposed to the clastogen bleomycin, arrested during metaphase, and examined quantitatively for chromosome breakage. The youngadult population with squamous cell carcinoma expressed a significantly increased number of bleomycin-induced chromosome breaks per cell. Furthermore, among the study patients, chromosome sensitivity was most apparent in the non-tobacco users and in patients less than 30 years of age. The expression of such chromosome fragility following mutagen exposure should be considered in epidemiologic studies that intend to define risk factors for development of head and neck cancer.
Schantz, S.P.; Hsu, T.C.; Ainslie, N.; Moser, R.P. (Univ. of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (USA))
Youngadults with sickle cell disease (SCD) are often stigmatized when they seek care for pain. The purpose of this pilot study was to test an intervention to decrease health-related stigma during care-seeking. Youngadults with SCD ages 18 to 35 years (n = 90) were randomized to either the care-seeking intervention (CSI) or an attention control group that participated in life review interviews. The two groups were compared by t tests and longitudinal data analyses on the change from baseline to the last time point in total health-related stigma and health-related stigma by doctors. Findings suggest that the CSI was associated with significant increased awareness of perceived total stigma and stigma by doctors compared with the attention control group. These findings are promising in terms of lessons learned from a pilot intervention that focused on the role communication skills play in decreasing health-related stigma in youngadults with SCD. PMID:24309381
Jenerette, Coretta M; Brewer, Cheryl A; Edwards, Lloyd J; Mishel, Merle H; Gil, Karen M
The relation between mood and attentional functioning in youngadults seeking psychoeducational evaluation has not been previously reported. This study examined the relation of self-reported depression and anxiety on attentional abilities among 161 youngadults referred for psychoeducational evaluation. Depression and anxiety were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Attentional functioning was assessed using the Trail Making Test, the d2 Test of Attention, the Conners' Continuous Performance Test, and the WAIS-III Working Memory and Processing Speed Indices. The unique variance accounted for by depression or anxiety was minimal (typically <1.5%); these null results were confirmed by diagnostic subgroup analyses and also after examining the interaction between depression and anxiety. These results suggest that performance on measures of attention within samples of youngadults seeking psychoeducational evaluation is minimally related to self-reported depression and anxiety. PMID:18789645
Hill, B D; Smitherman, Todd A; Pella, Russell D; O'Jile, Judith R; Gouvier, Wm Drew
This report assesses smoking rates and support for indoor smoking bans among club-going youngadults in New York City. Nearly half of the sample were smokers. Gay, lesbian, and bisexual youngadults were more likely to smoke than were heterosexual participants. No differences in smoking rates were found between sexes or between Whites and non-Whites. Support for the smoking ban exists among youngadults (68.6%). This is universal, as no differences in support for the ban were found by sex, race, or sexual identity. Smokers supported the ban (57.8%) less than nonsmokers did (77.3%). Yet, it remains notable that a majority support the smoking ban among smokers. PMID:19731187
Kelly, Brian C.; Weiser, Jonathan D.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.
A lot of attention has been given to the negative effects of both inhibitory deficits and rumination but little work has compared both: research on inhibitory deficits has focused on older adults whereas research on ...
Little is known about the subjective experience of alcohol desire and craving in young people. Descriptions of alcohol urges continue to be extensively used in the everyday lexicon of young, non-dependent drinkers. Elaborated Intrusion (EI) Theory contends that imagery is central to craving and desires, and predicts that alcohol-related imagery will be associated with greater frequency and amount of drinking. This study involved 1535 age stratified 18-25 year olds who completed an alcohol-related survey that included the Imagery scale of the Alcohol Craving Experience (ACE) questionnaire. Imagery items predicted 12-16% of the variance in concurrent alcohol consumption. Higher total Imagery subscale scores were linearly associated with greater drinking frequency and lower self-efficacy for moderate drinking. Interference with alcohol imagery may have promise as a preventive or early intervention target in young people. PMID:24360399
Connor, Jason P; Kavanagh, David J; Andrade, Jackie; May, Jon; Feeney, Gerald F X; Gullo, Matthew J; White, Angela M; Fry, Marie-Louise; Drennan, Judy; Previte, Josephine; Tjondronegoro, Dian