Sample records for young chickens vaccinated

  1. Major Histocompatibility Complex-Linked Immune Response of Young Chickens Vaccinated with an Attenuated Live Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Vaccine Followed by an Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Juul-Madsen; O. L. Nielsen; T. Krogh-Maibom; C. M. Røntved; T. S. Dalgaard; N. Bumstead; P. H. Jørgensen

    The influence of the MHC on infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine response in chickens was investigated in three different chicken lines con- taining four different MHC haplotypes. Two MHC haplo- types were present in all three lines with one haplotype (B19) shared between the lines. Line 1 further contains the BW1 haplotype isolated from a Red Jungle Fowl. Line

  2. EFFECTS OF LIVE ATTENUATED AND KILLED SALMONELLA VACCINES ON CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY AMONG VERY YOUNG CHICKENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to investigate the differential impact of live and killed Salmonella enteritidis (SE) vaccines on cell-mediated immunity of very young birds (2-5 weeks of age) as well as 16-week-old White Leghorn hens. The hens were vaccinated with the 2 vaccines, and two weeks later, CMI ...

  3. Detection of vvIBDV in Vaccinated SPF Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kabell, S; Handberg, KJ; Li, Y; Kusk, M; Bisgaard, M

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of our experiment was to investigate, if apparently healthy, vaccinated chickens may be involved in maintaining and spreading infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in poultry environments. We aimed at simultaneous detection and identification of very virulent field strain IBDV (vvIBDV) as well as vaccine strain IBDV in experimentally infected chickens. Two groups of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were vaccinated using the intermediate infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine D78. Group 1 was vaccinated at the age of one week and group 2 at the age of three weeks. Both groups were challenged with vvIBDV at the age of four weeks. A third, vaccinated, non-challenged group served as negative control. No clinical symptoms were observed in any of these groups. The chickens were euthanised and submitted to autopsy and sample preparation in groups of three at fixed intervals from the age of 28 to 44 days. Gross pathological lesions were not observed. Lymphoid tissues from the bursa of Fabricius, bone marrow, spleen and thymus in addition to cloacal- and bursal swaps were analysed by one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Positive results were confirmed by two-step strain specific duplex (DPX) RT-PCR. The vaccine strain was detected in bursa tissues from all groups, while the challenge strain was detected in few bursal as well as non-bursal tissue samples. The results indicate a possibility of replication of vvIBDV in vaccinated chickens. PMID:16398333

  4. Chicken Chicken Chicken: Chicken Chicken Doug Zongker

    E-print Network

    Gousie, Michael B.

    Chicken Chicken Chicken: Chicken Chicken Doug Zongker University of Washington Chicken Chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken. Chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken. Chicken, chicken

  5. Transmission of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) between unvaccinated, sub-optimally vaccinated, and well-vaccinated SPF chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the transmissibility of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in vaccinated chickens. Chickens were vaccinated with live LaSota and challenged 21 days later with CA02. Two days after challenge, the vaccinated and infected chickens were moved into clean i...

  6. Attenutated live fowl cholera vaccine. III. Laboratory and field vaccination trials in turkeys and chickens.

    PubMed

    Michael, A; Geier, E; Konshtok, R; Hertman, I; Markenson, J

    1979-01-01

    Administered via the drinking water, M-3-G, an attenuated strain of Pasteurella multocida of serotype 1, was found to immunize turkeys and chickens against fowl cholera. Immunity was tested by challenging birds intramuscularly, by palatine cleft swab, or orally after 3 vaccinations. No reactions to vaccination were noted in 390 turkeys in 12 laboratory trials, nor in 20,245 vaccinated in field trials. Chickens showed no vaccination reactions, and immunity was elicited by challenge in a laboratory trial and in face of natural outbreaks in the field, where 11,600 chickens were vaccinated. No vaccination reactions were noted, although most birds involved in the trials were carrying Mycoplasma spp. Immunity was found to last about 10 weeks after the last vaccination. The immunizing properties of M-3-G are compared with the CU strain. PMID:546411

  7. Vaccine Reduces HPV Infections in Young Men

    Cancer.gov

    An international randomized clinical trial has shown that the vaccine Gardasil can reduce the incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young men 16 to 26 years of age at the time of vaccination.

  8. DNA vaccination with VP2 gene fragment confers protection against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Satya Narayan; Prince, Prabhu Rajaiah; Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Arunkumar, Chakkaravarthy; Roy, Parimal; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri; Antony, Usha

    2014-06-25

    Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) causes immunosuppression in young chickens by destruction of antibody producing B cells in the Bursa of Fabricius and poses a potential threat to the poultry industry. We have examined the protective efficacy of a subunit DNA vaccine against IBDV infection in chickens in this study. An immunodominant VP2 gene fragment (VP252-417) was cloned into CMV promoter based DNA vaccine vector pVAX1 and in vitro expression of the DNA encoded antigens was confirmed by transfection of CHO cells with vaccine constructs followed by RT-PCR and western blot analysis using IBDV-antiserum. Two weeks old chickens were immunized intramuscularly with pVAXVP252-417 and the in vivo transcription of the plasmid DNA was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of DNA injected muscle tissue at different intervals of post immunization. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that the plasmid DNA was extensively distributed in muscle, spleen, kidney, liver, and bursa tissues. Chickens immunized with pVAXVP252-417 developed high titer (1:12,000) of anti-VP252-417 antibodies. Further, chicken splenocytes from pVAXVP252-417 immunized group showed a significantly high proliferation to the whole viral and recombinant antigen (P<0.01) compared to control groups, which implies that pVAXVP252-417 codes for immunogenic fragment which has epitopes capable of eliciting both B and T cell responses. This is evident by the fact that, pVAXVP252-417 immunized chicken conferred 75% protection against virulent IBDV (vIBDV) challenge compared to the control group. Thus, the present study confirms that the immunodominant VP2 fragment can be used as a potential DNA vaccine against IBDV infection in chickens. PMID:24745626

  9. Impaired response to killed Newcastle disease vaccine in chicken possessing circulating antibody to chicken Anaemia agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. Box; H. C. Holmes; A. C. Bushell; P. M. Finney

    1988-01-01

    Broiler breeder hens from the same hatch were reared as two separate flocks, one in the field and one in experimental accommodation. Both received the same vaccination programme using the same batches of vaccines. One flock showed serological evidence of infection with chicken anaemia agent starting at 8 weeks, the other starting at 22 weeks old. Newcastle disease mean antibody

  10. Cytokine signaling in splenic leukocytes from vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens after intravenous infection with Salmonella enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Matulova, Marta; Stepanova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Faldynova, Marcela; Kyrova, Kamila; Volf, Jiri; Rychlik, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    In order to design a new Salmonella enterica vaccine, one needs to understand how naive and immune chickens interact differently when exposed to S. enterica. In this study we therefore determined the immune response of vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens after intravenous infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis). Using flow cytometry we showed that 4 days post infection (DPI), counts of CD4 and B-lymphocytes did not change, CD8 and ?? T-lymphocytes decreased and macrophages and heterophils increased in the spleen. When vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens were compared, only macrophages and heterophils were found in significantly higher counts in the spleens of the non-vaccinated chickens. The non-vaccinated chickens also expressed higher anti-LPS antibodies than the vaccinated chickens. The expression of interleukin (IL)1?, IL6, IL8, IL18, LITAF, IFN? and iNOS did not exhibit any clear pattern in the cells sorted from the spleens of vaccinated or non-vaccinated chickens. Only IL17 and IL22 showed a differential expression in the CD4 T-lymphocytes of the vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens at 4 DPI, both being expressed at a higher level in the non-vaccinated chickens. Due to a similar IFN? expression in the CD4 T-lymphocytes in both the vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens, and a variable IL17 expression oscillating around IFN? expression levels, the IL17?IFN? ratio in CD4 T-lymphocytes was found to be central for the outcome of the immune response. When IL17 was expressed at higher levels than IFN? in the non-vaccinated chickens, the Th17 immune response with a higher macrophage and heterophil infiltration in the spleen dominated. However, when the expression of IL17 was lower than that of IFN? as in the vaccinated chickens, the Th1 response with a higher resistance to S. Enteritidis infection dominated. PMID:22384225

  11. Development and large-scale use of recombinant VP2 vaccine for the prevention of infectious bursal disease of chickens.

    PubMed

    Pitcovski, Jacob; Gutter, Bezalel; Gallili, Gilad; Goldway, Martin; Perelman, Beny; Gross, Gideon; Krispel, Simha; Barbakov, Marisa; Michael, Amnon

    2003-12-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of Gumboro disease, an infectious disease of global economic importance in poultry. One of the most effective types of inactivated IBDV vaccine is produced by infecting young chickens with a virulent strain, sacrificing them and extracting the virus from the bursa of Fabricius. The goal of this study was to produce an effective subunit vaccine against IBDV thereby providing an effective means of combating the disease. In areas in which the bursa-derived vaccine is in use, this subunit vaccine would eliminate the use of live birds for the production of inactivated vaccines. The gene for viral protein 2 (VP2) of IBDV was cloned into a Pichia pastoris expression system. This efficient system allowed us to meet the need for inexpensive vaccines required by the poultry industry. Following expression and scale-up, the protein was used to vaccinate chickens, against either Gumboro disease alone or in combination with inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Full protection was conferred against IBDV following vaccination with the subunit recombinant vaccine. No untoward influence on the response to the NDV vaccine was recorded. Over 250 million birds have already been vaccinated with this vaccine. The advantages of a subunit vaccine over an inactivated one are discussed. This approach will enable rapid adjustment to new virulent strains if and when they appear. PMID:14585684

  12. Combination of vaccination and competitive exclusion to prevent Salmonella colonization in chickens: experimental studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U Methner; P. A Barrow; A Berndt; G Steinbach

    1999-01-01

    Vaccination and competitive exclusion (CE) represent accepted prophylactic measures to control Salmonella infections in chickens. To use the advantages of both the CE technique and vaccination with live Salmonella vaccines the combination of these methods was studied. In three experiments, SPF chickens were pre-treated using combined or unique administration of CE and vaccination with a live Salmonella typhimurium strain on

  13. Avian influenza mucosal vaccination in chickens with replication-defective recombinant adenovirus vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated protection conferred by mucosal vaccination with replication competent adenovirus (RCA)-free recombinant adenovirus expressing a codon-optimized avian influenza (AI) H5 gene (AdTW68.H5ck). Commercial layer-type chicken groups were singly vaccinated ocularly at 5 days of age, or singly v...

  14. Immune responses of breeding chickens to trivalent oil emulsion vaccines: responses to infectious bronchitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RE Gough; PJ Wyeth; CD Bracewell

    1981-01-01

    Three similar flocks of broiler breeder parent chickens that had been given live infections bronchitis (IB) vaccines during rearing were injected at 20 weeks of age with three different oil emulsion vaccines: a commercial monovalent Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine (flock A); an experimental bivalent vaccine containing ND and infectious bursal disease (IBD) components (flock B); and an experimental trivalent vaccine

  15. The efficacy of Mycoplasma gallisepticum K-strain live vaccine in broiler and layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Ferguson-Noel, N M; Williams, S M

    2015-04-01

    The efficacy of a live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine candidate (K-strain) was compared to commercially available vaccines in broiler-type chickens (Trial 1) and layer-type chickens (Trial 2). In Trial 1, three-week-old broiler-type chickens were vaccinated via aerosol with K-strain or an F-strain vaccine. The vaccinated chickens and 10 non-vaccinated controls were subsequently challenged with virulent R-strain via aerosol at six weeks post vaccination; both K-strain and F-strain vaccination resulted in significant protection from air sac and tracheal lesions, as well as R-strain colonization (P ? 0.05). In Trial 2, commercial layer-type chickens were vaccinated with ts-11 (via eye drop) or K-strain (via aerosol) at 12 weeks of age. At 25 weeks of age these birds were challenged with R-strain via aerosol. The ts-11 and K-strain vaccinated groups both had significantly lower air sac lesion scores and a lower prevalence of ovarian regression after challenge as compared to non-vaccinated chickens (P ? 0.05). K-strain vaccination also prevented significant tracheal lesions and R-strain colonization (P ? 0.05). K-strain shows great potential as a highly efficacious live MG vaccine in broiler and layer-type chickens for protection of the respiratory and reproductive systems as well as prevention of infection with field strains. PMID:25571953

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Vaccine Efficacy of Recombinant Marek's Disease Virus Vaccine Lacking Meq Oncogene in Commercial Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek's disease virus oncogene meq has been identified as the gene involved in tumorigenesis in chickens. We have recently developed a Meq-null virus, rMd5delMeq, in which the oncogene Meq was deleted. Vaccine efficacy experiments conducted in ADOL 15I5 x 71 chickens vaccinated with rMd5delMeq virus...

  17. Detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus antibodies by glycoprotein-specific ELISAs in chickens vaccinated with viral vector vaccines.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Alecia; Icard, Alan; Martinez, Mellisa; Mashchenko, Anna; García, Maricarmen; El-Attrachea, John

    2013-06-01

    Two glycoproteins of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), gI and gB, were expressed in baculovirus and purified for the development of ILTV recombinant protein-based ELISAs. The ability of gB and gI ELISAs to detect ILTV antibodies in chickens vaccinated with viral vector vaccines carrying the ILTV gB gene, Vectormune FP-LT (the commercial fowlpox vector laryngotracheitis vaccine) and Vectormune HVT-LT (commercial turkey herpesvirus vector laryngotracheitis vaccine), was evaluated using serum samples from experimentally vaccinated and challenge chickens. The detection of gB antibodies in the absence of gI antibodies in serum from chickens vaccinated with FP-LT indicated that the gB ELISA was specific for the detection of antibodies elicited by vaccination with this viral vector vaccine. The gB ELISA was more sensitive than the commercial ILTV ELISA to detect seroconversion after vaccination with the FP-LT vaccine. Both gI and gB antibodies were detected in the serum samples collected from chickens at different times postchallenge, indicating that the combination of these ELISAs was suitable to screen serum samples from chickens vaccinated with either recombinant viral vector FP-LT or HVT-LT vaccines. The agreement between the gI ELISA and the commercial ELISA to detect antibodies in serum samples collected after challenge was robust. However, further validation of these ELISAs needs to be performed with field samples. PMID:23901757

  18. Response of broiler chickens to fowl cholera vaccination at 1 to 6 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Dick, J W; Avakian, A P

    1991-01-01

    Broiler chickens, in groups of 10, received a single vaccination by the stick-wing route at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 11 weeks of age with live Clemson University strain of Pasteurella multocida. Twenty non-vaccinates kept in isolation served as controls. Cholera serum antibody titers in all chickens were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at weekly intervals. Chickens vaccinated once at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks, respectively, attained 25.2%, 28.7%, 34.7%, 46.2%, 51.8%, and 64.6% of the titers of those vaccinated once at 11 weeks of age. Variation in antibody response was greatest in chickens vaccinated at 1 or 2 weeks of age. Additionally, chickens vaccinated at 1 or 2 weeks of age showed the longest response time (5 weeks) to reach maximum antibody titers after a single vaccination. When the original vaccinates were revaccinated at 11 weeks of age, all showed a secondary response equal to or greater than that seen in chickens vaccinated once at 11 weeks of age. Age of the chickens at the time of vaccination and antibody titer were positively correlated (r = 0.997). Overall antibody responses to vaccination were higher and much more uniform as birds increased in age. PMID:1786010

  19. Use of cracked maize as a carrier for NDV4 vaccine in experimental vaccination of chickens

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The suitability of V4 vaccine coated on cracked local grain (maize) and its husks and used for oral vaccination of chickens was assessed. Seventy-two (72) birds aged three (3) weeks and above were divided into six groups of twelve (12) birds per group. The birds were bled to determine their prevaccination HI antibody status while five different samples of cracked maize were coated with the V4 vaccine and fed to the chickens orally in each of the groups. All birds in the group including the controls were bled at 7, 14 and 21 days post vaccination to determine the presence and level of antibody response in each of the groups. Results obtained showed that prevaccination haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titre was less than two (log2) in 18% of the birds used in this experiment, however 14% of the birds had an HI titre of ? 4. The post vaccination antibody titre showed that birds vaccinated with vaccine coated maize gave a post vaccination HI antibody titre of between Log2(6-8). when the coated maize samples were soaked in water at room temperature and assessed after 24 hours, the treated maize parts gave >6.3 log10 EID50 and above while the untreated parts gave < 3.0 log10 EID50. The experiment showed that whole maize and husks, which were not treated, may contain agents which are virus inhibitory. Form this research the treated maize which was soaked and washed gave a higher geometric mean titre, hence tends to be good carriers of the virus (vaccine). It is therefore concluded from this work that processed cracked maize could be a good carrier of NDV4 vaccine. It is hereby recommended that only treated maize could be used as carrier for the V4 vaccine. PMID:20331870

  20. Effects of Vaccination Routes Against IB on Performance and Immune Responses of Broiler Chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2005-01-01

    2 Abstract: Vaccination is often considered as an appropriate option in prevention most of poultry viral diseases worldwide. This study was conducted to evaluate effects of current routine vaccination routes (spray, eye-drop and drinking water) of live vaccines against infectious bronchitis (IB) on performance and humoral immune responses of broiler chickens. The results of this study indicated that Vaccination significantly

  1. Protection of chickens against avian influenza with non-replicating adenovirus-vectored vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose vaccination with a replication competent adenovirus (RCA) -free human adenovirus (Ad) vector encoding a H7 hemagglutinin gene from a low pathogenic North American isolate (AdChNY94.H7). Chickens vaccinate...

  2. Protection of chickens by ribosomal vaccines from Pasteurella multocida: dependence on homologous lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M; Rimler, R B

    1984-09-01

    Chickens were protected against fowl cholera by ribosomal vaccines prepared from noncapsulated Pasteurella multocida. Passive hemagglutination (PHA) titers to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the degree of protection conferred by ribosomal vaccines were diminished or abolished when ribosomes were chromatographed on an immunoadsorbent column. Addition of subimmunogenic amounts of serotype 1 (homologous) LPS to highly purified ribosomes resulted in vaccines that protected against challenge exposure and produced PHA titers to homologous LPS. Addition of serotype 5 LPS to highly purified ribosomes did not protect chickens against challenge exposure with serotype 1 P multocida, but produced PHA titers to serotype 5 LPS. Combinations of serotype 1 ribosomal RNA and serotype 1 (homologous) LPS did not protect chickens or produce PHA titers to LPS. Purified ribosomes from Brucella abortus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and chicken liver were combined with LPS from P multocida and were evaluated as vaccines. Brucella abortus and A fumigatus ribosomes combined with LPS protected chickens as well as did bacterin made from whole cells of P multocida. Chicken liver ribosomes combined with LPS did not provide protection. To determine whether a protein carrier would substitute for ribosomes, methylated bovine albumin (MBA) was combined with LPS and evaluated as a vaccine. A serologic response to LPS was induced by MBA-LPS vaccine, but the vaccine offered no better protection than when LPS was used alone as vaccine. Ribosome-LPS vaccines produced serologic responses to LPS that were at least 5-fold greater than those produced by MBA-LPS vaccine. PMID:6208828

  3. VACCINATION OF YOUNG FOXES (VULPES VULPES, L.) AGAINST RABIES

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    described the use of modified-live rabies vaccines given by the oral route (Winkler and Baer, 1976; DubreuilVACCINATION OF YOUNG FOXES (VULPES VULPES, L.) AGAINST RABIES: TRIALS WITH INACTIVATED VACCINE ANTIRABIQUE DE RENARDEAUX (VULPES VULPES, L.) A L'AIDE D'UN VACCIN INACTIVÃ? ADMINISTRÃ? PAR VOIES ORALE ET

  4. Vaccination and acute phase mediator production in chickens challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus; novel markers for vaccine efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to determine vaccine efficacy of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) isolates are limited in poultry because experimental infections with LPAI virus in specific pathogen free chickens rarely causes clinical disease. The most commonly used method to compare LPAI vaccine efficacy is to quant...

  5. PROTECTIVE EFFICACY OF INACTIVATED INFLUENZA VACCINES AGAINST HIGHLY PATHOGENIC ASIAN H5N1 AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUSES IN CHICKENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the efficacy of vaccines prepared from Asian and American avian influenza viruses (AIVs) to protect chickens from lethal challenge with highly pathogenic (HP) Asian H5N1 AIVs. Vaccination studies were conducted in two week old chickens using inactivated vaccines prepared from reverse ge...

  6. Polyvalent Marek's disease vaccines: Safety, efficacy and protective synergism in chickens with maternal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Witter; L. F. Lee

    1984-01-01

    Three Marek's disease (MD) vaccines were evaluated for safety and protective efficacy in chickens with maternal antibodies against serotype 1, 2 and 3 MD viruses and in chickens with no maternal antibodies. The vaccines were: (1) Md11\\/75C, an attenuated serotype 1 MD virus, (2) a trivalent mixture of MD virus strains Md11\\/75C and SB?1, and turkey herpesvirus (HVT) strain FC

  7. Presence of virulent newcastle disease virus in vaccinated chickens in farms in pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rehmani, Shafqat Fatima; Wajid, Abdul; Bibi, Tasra; Nazir, Bushra; Mukhtar, Nadia; Hussain, Abid; Lone, Nazir Ahmad; Yaqub, Tahir; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-05-01

    One year after a virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) outbreak in Pakistan, the causative strain was present in vaccinated chickens of multiple farms despite the existence of high-average NDV-specific antibody titers (>4.75 log2). The data suggest a possible role of vaccinated birds as reservoirs of vNDV. PMID:25694525

  8. Bursal transcriptome of chickens protected by DNA vaccination versus those challenged with infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Chun; Kim, Bong-Suk; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection destroys the bursa of Fabricius, causing immunosuppression and rendering chickens susceptible to secondary bacterial or viral infections. IBDV large-segment-protein-expressing DNA has been shown to confer complete protection of chickens from infectious bursal disease (IBD). The purpose of the present study was to compare DNA-vaccinated chickens and unvaccinated chickens upon IBDV challenge by transcriptomic analysis of bursa regarding innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were vaccinated intramuscularly three times at weekly intervals with IBDV large-segment-protein-expressing DNA. Chickens were challenged orally with 8.2 × 10(2) times the egg infective dose (EID)50 of IBDV strain variant E (VE) one week after the last vaccination. Bursae collected at 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days post-challenge (dpc) were subjected to real-time RT-PCR quantification of bursal transcripts related to innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport. The expression levels of granzyme K and CD8 in DNA-vaccinated chickens were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those in unvaccinated chickens upon IBDV challenge at 0.5 or 1 dpc. The expression levels of other genes involved in innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport were not upregulated or downregulated in DNA-vaccinated chickens during IBDV challenge. Bursal transcripts related to innate immunity and inflammation, including TLR3, MDA5, IFN-?, IFN-?, IRF-1, IRF-10, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, iNOS, granzyme A, granzyme K and IL-10, were upregulated or significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated at 3 dpc and later in unvaccinated chickens challenged with IBDV. The expression levels of genes related to immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport, including CD4, CD8, IL-2, IFN-?, IL-12(p40), IL-18, GM-CSF, GATA-3, p53, glucose transporter-2 and glucose transporter-3, were upregulated or significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated at 3 dpc and later in unvaccinated chickens challenged with IBDV. Taken together, the results indicate that the bursal transcriptome involved in innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport, except for granzyme K and CD8, was not differentially expressed in DNA-vaccinated chickens protected from IBDV challenge. PMID:25267176

  9. Differential genetic variation of chickens and MD vaccine protective efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccine protective efficacy is determined by multiple factors including host genetics, the type of vaccine, vaccine dosage, the virulence and dose of challenging viruses, and the interval between vaccination and viral challenge. Studies on human immune responses to vaccinations suggest host genetic...

  10. INFLUENCE OF B-HAPLOTYPE ON THE EFFICACY OF RECOMBINANT FOWLPOX VACCINE PROTECTION AGAINST MAREK'S DISEASE IN CHICKENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV) containing glycoprotein gB genes from three serotypes of Marek's disease virus (MDV) was used to study the influence of B-haplotype on vaccine responses in chickens. Sequence analysis of the gB gene from three serotypes showed 80% homology. Chickens were vaccinated ...

  11. HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in time. Which girls/women should receive HPV vaccination? HPV vaccination is recommended for 11 and 12 ... help prevent fainting and injuries. Why is HPV vaccination only recommended for women through age 26? HPV ...

  12. Effects of DDA, CpG-ODN, and plasmid-encoded chicken IFN-? on protective immunity by a DNA vaccine against IBDV in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Ha Jung; Sung, Haan Woo

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the adjuvant effects of dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDA), CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN), and chicken interferon-? (ChIFN-?) on a DNA vaccine (pcDNA-VP243) against the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). A plasmid encoding chicken IFN-ã was constructed. Twice at 2-week intervals, two-week-old chickens were injected intramuscularly and intraperitoneally with either a DNA vaccine alone or a DNA vaccine together with the respective adjuvants. On week 2 after the second immunization, the chickens were orally challenged with the highly virulent IBDV. The groups that received the DNA vaccines plus either DDA or CpG-ODN showed significantly lower survival rates than the group that received the DNA vaccine alone. However, the survival rates for the DNA vaccine alone and for the DNA vaccine plus ChIFN-? were similar. The chickens had no detectable antibodies to the IBDV before the challenge but all the surviving chickens in all groups except for the normal control group showed the induction of antibodies to the IBDV at day 10 after the challenge. As judged by the lymphocyte proliferation assays using the a WST-8 solution performed on the peripheral blood and splenic lymphocytes, the stimulation indices (SI) of the peripheral blood lymphocytes in all groups except for the normal control group were similar immediately before the challenge. At 10 days post-challenge, the SI for DNA vaccine plus either CpG-ODN or ChIFN-? was similar to that of the DNA vaccine control group. For splenic lymphocytes, the SI in the DNA vaccine plus CpG-ODN and DNA vaccine plus ChIFN-? groups were higher than for the DNA vaccine control. These results suggest that DDA actually compromises the protection against the IBDV by DNA vaccine, and CpG-ODN and IFN-? had no significant effect. PMID:17106228

  13. Assessment of attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains in controlling experimental Salmonella Typhimurium infection in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Yanlong; Parreira, Valeria R.; Roland, Kenneth L.; Curtiss, Roy; Prescott, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella hold considerable promise as vaccine delivery vectors for heterologous antigens in chickens. Such vaccines have the potential additional benefit of also controlling Salmonella infection in immunized birds. As a way of selecting attenuated strains with optimal immunogenic potential as antigen delivery vectors, this study screened 20 novel Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, differing in mutations associated with delayed antigen synthesis and delayed attenuation, for their efficacy in controlling colonization by virulent Salmonella Typhimurium, as well as for their persistence in the intestine and the spleen. Marked differences were observed between strains in these characteristics, which provide the basis for selection for further study as vaccine vectors. PMID:24396177

  14. 9 CFR 381.67 - Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums...Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums...inspection procedure for the different young chicken and squab slaughter line...

  15. 9 CFR 381.67 - Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums...Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums...inspection procedure for the different young chicken and squab slaughter line...

  16. 9 CFR 381.67 - Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums...Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums...inspection procedure for the different young chicken and squab slaughter line...

  17. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…

  18. Expression of chicken parvovirus VP2 in chicken embryo fibroblasts requires codon optimization for production of naked DNA and vectored Meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 (MeHV-1) is an ideal vector for the expression of antigens from pathogenic avian organisms in order to generate vaccines. Chicken parvovirus (ChPV) is a widespread infectious virus that causes serious disease in chickens. It is one of the etiological agents largely suspe...

  19. Immune responses of breeding chickens to trivalent oil emulsion vaccines: responses to Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PJ Wyeth; RE Gough; GA Cullen

    1981-01-01

    Bivalent Newcastle disease (ND)\\/infectious bursal disease (IBD) and trivalent ND\\/IBD\\/infectious bronchitis (IB) inactivated oil emulsion vaccines were prepared in the laboratory and evaluated under field conditions. Broiler breeder parent chickens previously vaccinated with live vaccines were inoculated with commercial monovalent ND and experimental bivalent or trivalent oil emulsion vaccines. The commercial vaccine induced a higher initial ND haemagglutination inhibition (HI)

  20. Analysis of humoral immune response and cytokines in chickens vaccinated with Eimeria brunetti apical membrane antigen-1 (EbAMA1) DNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hoan, Tran Duc; Thao, Doan Thi; Gadahi, Javaid Ali; Song, Xiaokai; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Ruofeng; Li, Xiangrui

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the changes of cytokines, specific serum IgG and several parameters in chickens vaccinated with DNA vaccine encoding Eimeria brunetti apical membrane antigen-1 (EbAMA1) antigen. Two-week-old chickens were divided into five groups (four groups for experiment) randomly. Experimental groups of chickens were immunized with DNA vaccine while control group of chickens were injected with pVAX1 plasmid alone or TE buffer solution. All immunizations were boosted 2 weeks later. The EbAMA1 specific IgG antibody responses were measured at weeks 1-6 post-second immunizations and several parameters were also identified. The result showed that the antibody titers in chickens vaccinated with DNA vaccines were significantly different from those of the control groups 1 week after the second immunization and reached the maximum values 3 weeks post-second immunization. IFN-? concentration was increased the highest level against EbAMA1 of all chickens vaccinated with vaccines up to 56-fold, follow by the specific IgG antibody levels were increased 10-17-fold compared with those of TE solution and plasmid (pVAX1) control chickens 1-6 weeks post-second immunization. In case of the levels of IL-10 and IL-17 was increased in experimental chickens with 4-5-fold. Even though it was statistically significant, TGF-? and IL-4 levels were higher in vaccinated than unvaccinated chickens. The results suggested that DNA vaccines encoding E. brunetti apical membrane antigen-1 (EbAMA1) could increase serum specific IgG antibody and cytokines concentration and could give protection against E. brunetti infection. PMID:24815774

  1. Future HIV vaccine acceptability among young adults in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sayles, Jennifer N; Macphail, Catherine L; Newman, Peter A; Cunningham, William E

    2010-04-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa- where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups ( n = 42) conducted in 2007 with South Africans aged 18 to 24 years. A deductive framework approach is used to identify key motivators and barriers to future HIV vaccine uptake. Participants identify HIV testing, HIV stigma, mistrust of the health care system, and concerns about sexual disinhibition as barriers to vaccine uptake. For women, family members and friends are strong motivators for vaccine uptake, whereas men are more likely to see vaccines as an opportunity to stop using HIV prevention strategies such as condoms and partner reduction. Implications of these findings for developing HIV vaccine dissemination strategies and policy in South Africa are discussed. PMID:19509123

  2. Flagellin A Toll-Like Receptor 5 Agonist as an Adjuvant in Chicken Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Preety; Deb, Rajib; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan; Dey, Sohini

    2014-01-01

    Chicken raised under commercial conditions are vulnerable to environmental exposure to a number of pathogens. Therefore, regular vaccination of the flock is an absolute requirement to prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases. To combat infectious diseases, vaccines require inclusion of effective adjuvants that promote enhanced protection and do not cause any undesired adverse reaction when administered to birds along with the vaccine. With this perspective in mind, there is an increased need for effective better vaccine adjuvants. Efforts are being made to enhance vaccine efficacy by the use of suitable adjuvants, particularly Toll-like receptor (TLR)-based adjuvants. TLRs are among the types of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize conserved pathogen molecules. A number of studies have documented the effectiveness of flagellin as an adjuvant as well as its ability to promote cytokine production by a range of innate immune cells. This minireview summarizes our current understanding of flagellin action, its role in inducing cytokine response in chicken cells, and the potential use of flagellin as well as its combination with other TLR ligands as an adjuvant in chicken vaccines. PMID:24451328

  3. VACCINATION WITH ALPHAVIRUS-DERIVED NEURAMINIDASE PARTIALLY PROTECTS CHICKENS AGAINST AVIAN INFLUENZA CHALLENGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibodies produced against the influenza hemagglutinin protein protect against avian influenza (AI) infection, whereas the role of anti-neuraminidase (NA) antibodies is less clear. We hypothesized that primary response to NA vaccination was important in protection. Using chickens, we compared three...

  4. Subclinical Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection among Vaccinated Chickens, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qing-Xia; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Liu, Shuo; Wang, Su-Chun; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Hou, Guang-Yu; Liu, Xiang-Ming; Sui, Zheng-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Subclinical infection of vaccinated chickens with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N2) virus was identified through routine surveillance in China. Investigation suggested that the virus has evolved into multiple genotypes. To better control transmission of the virus, we recommend a strengthened program of education, biosecurity, rapid diagnostics, surveillance, and elimination of infected poultry. PMID:25418710

  5. Delayed vaccine virus replication in chickens vaccinated subcutaneously with an immune complex infectious bursal disease vaccine: Quantification of vaccine virus by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The distribution of the immune complex vaccine virus for infectious bursal disease (IBD) in tissue was examined and the viral loads of the organs were quantitatively compared. One-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) and maternally immune broiler chickens were injected subcutaneously with the vaccine. Lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues were collected at various time intervals during the experiment to test for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-RNA by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Only the bursa of Fabricius was found to be positive with unusually long viral persistence in the broiler group. The positive bursa samples were further investigated by using real-time PCR coupled with a TaqMan probe. The highest amounts of the virus were detected at its first appearance in the bursa: on day 14 post vaccination (PV) in the SPF chickens and on day 17 and day 21 PV in the maternally immune broiler group. The virus then gradually cleared, most likely due to the parallel appearance of the active immune response indicated by seroconversion. PMID:15971678

  6. The working mechanism of an immune complex vaccine that protects chickens against infectious bursal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Jeurissen, S H; Janse, E M; Lehrbach, P R; Haddad, E E; Avakian, A; Whitfill, C E

    1998-01-01

    The role of immune complexes (Icx) in B-cell memory formation and affinity maturation allow for their potential use as vaccines. Recently, a new immune complex vaccine has been developed that is currently under field trials conducted in commercial poultry. This immune complex vaccine is developed by mixing live intermediate plus infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) with hyperimmune IBDV chicken serum (IBDV-Icx vaccine). Here we have investigated the infectivity of this vaccine as well as the native IBDV (uncomplexed) vaccine in terms of differences in target organs, in target cells and speed of virus replication. At various days after inoculation on day 18 of incubation (in ovo) with either one dose of virus alone or the IBDV-Icx vaccine, the replication of IBDV and the frequency of B cells and other leucocyte populations were examined in the bursa of Fabricius, spleen, and thymus using immunocytochemistry. With both vaccines, IBDV was detected associated with B cells, macrophages and follicular dendritic cells (FDC) in bursa and spleen, although complexing IBDV with specific antibodies caused a delay in virus detection of about 5 days. Most remarkable was the low level of depletion of bursal and splenic B cells in IBDV-Icx vaccinated chickens. Furthermore, in ovo inoculation with the IBDV-Icx vaccine induced more germinal centres in the spleen and larger amounts of IBDV were localized on both splenic and bursal FDC. From these results we hypothesize that the working mechanism of the IBDV-Icx vaccine is related to its specific cellular interaction with FDC in spleen and bursa. Images Figure 1 PMID:9824516

  7. Protection of chicken against very virulent IBDV provided by in ovo priming with DNA vaccine and boosting with killed vaccine and the adjuvant effects of plasmid-encoded chicken interleukin-2 and interferon-?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Ho; Sung, Haan Woo; Yoon, Byung Il

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of in ovo prime-boost vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) using a DNA vaccine to prime in ovo followed by a killed-vaccine boost post hatching. In addition, the adjuvant effects of plasmid-encoded chicken interleukin-2 and chicken interferon-? were tested in conjunction with the vaccine. A plasmid DNA vaccine (pcDNA-VP243) encoding the VP2, VP4, and VP3 proteins of the very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) SH/92 strain was injected into the amniotic sac alone or in combination with a plasmid encoding chicken IL-2 (ChIL-2) or chicken IFN-? (ChIFN-?) at embryonation day 18, followed by an intramuscular injection of a commercial killed IBD vaccine at 1 week of age. The chickens were orally challenged with the vvIBDV SH/92 strain at 3 weeks of age and observed for 10 days. In ovo DNA immunization followed by a killed-vaccine boost provided significantly better immunity than the other options. No mortality was observed in this group after a challenge with the vvIBDV. The prime-boost strategy was moderately effective against bursal damage, which was measured by the bursa weight/body weight ratio, the presence of IBDV RNA, and the bursal lesion score. In ovo DNA vaccination with no boost did not provide sufficient immunity, and the addition of ChIL-2 or ChIFN-? did not enhance protective immunity. In the ConA-induced lymphocyte proliferation assay of peripheral blood lymphocyte collected 10 days post-challenge, there was greater proliferation responses in the DNA vaccine plus boost and DNA vaccine with ChIL-2 plus boost groups compared to the other groups. These findings suggest that priming with DNA vaccine and boosting with killed vaccine is an effective strategy for protecting chickens against vvIBDV. PMID:19461208

  8. Efficacy of vaccines in chickens against highly pathogenic Hong Kong H5N1 avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Swayne, D E; Beck, J R; Perdue, M L; Beard, C W

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) caused infections in poultry in Hong Kong and crossed into humans, resulting in a limited number of infections including 18 hospitalized cases and six associated deaths. The unique ability of this, AIV to infect both poultry and people raised a concern for the potential of humans to be biological as well as mechanical vectors of this AIV to poultry. The current study was undertaken to determine if existing vaccines and their technologies could be used during an outbreak to protect poultry. Commercial and experimental inactivated whole H5 AIV and baculovirus-expressed AIV H5 hemagglurinin protein vaccines provided protection from clinical signs and death in chickens after lethal challenge by human-origin HP H5N1 Hong Kong strains 156/97 and 483/97. The commercial and experimental inactivated vaccines had mean protective doses ranging from 0.25 to 0.89, which represents the milligrams of viral protein in the vaccines that provided protection from death in half of the birds. Furthermore, the vaccines reduced the ability of the challenge AIV to replicate in chickens and decreased the recovery of challenge AIV from the enteric and respiratory tracts, but the use of a vaccine will nor totally prevent AI virus replication and shedding. Existing vaccines will protect poultry from mortality and reduce virus replication from the new HP AIV strain that can infect both poultry and humans. PMID:11417815

  9. Human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance among young men in Bangalore, India

    PubMed Central

    Belani, Hrishikesh Kumar; Sekar, Poorani; Guhaniyogi, Rajarshi; Abraham, Anil; Bohjanen, Paul R.; Bohjanen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world. It can lead to anogenital, cervical, and head and neck cancer, with higher risk of malignant disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. In India, 73,000 of the 130,000 women diagnosed with cervical cancer die annually. Gardasil®, a vaccine available against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, is approved for use in women in India but not men. A backlash to post-licensure trials has created a negative public opinion of the vaccine for women. Vaccinating boys and men is an alternate approach to prevent cervical cancer in women. This study gauges facilitators and barriers to vaccination acceptance among men in Bangalore, India. Materials and methods Young men presenting to a dermatology clinic or an ART center in Bangalore, India, answered a seven-point survey assessing acceptance of the HPV vaccine, perceived barriers to vaccination, and acceptance of vaccination for their children. Ninety-three general dermatology patients and 85 patients with HIV/AIDS participated. Results There was a high degree of vaccine acceptance for both groups, 83 and 98%, respectively. Vaccine side effects and cost were cited as key barriers to vaccination, and doctor recommendation and government approval were the main facilitators. Conclusion There is potential for high acceptability of the HPV vaccine among men in India. These results can facilitate further study of vaccine acceptance among males and physician opinion and knowledge about HPV vaccine use. Vaccination of males is a hopeful strategy to protect men and women from HPV-related malignancies. PMID:24961359

  10. Protection of chickens from fowl cholera by vaccination with recombinant adhesive protein of Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Sthitmatee, Nattawooti; Numee, Sureerat; Kawamoto, Eiichi; Sasaki, Hiraku; Yamashita, Kaoru; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Kataoka, Yasushi; Sawada, Takuo

    2008-05-01

    The recombinant adhesive protein (rCp39) of Pasteurella multocida strain P-1059 (serovar A:3) was prepared and purified with a hybrid condition of affinity chromatography. The rCp39 was highly protective for chickens from fowl cholera by challenge-exposure with parental strain P-1059 or heterologous strain X-73 (serovar A:1) compared to various kind of vaccines. Sixteen groups of ten chickens each were subcutaneously inoculated twice with 100, 200 or 400 microg proteins of rCp39, native Cp39, native outer membrane protein H (OmpH) or recombinant OmpH, or 100 microg proteins of crude capsular extract (CCE) of strains P-1059 or X-73 at 2 weeks interval. Five chickens of each group were challenge-exposed with each strain 2 weeks after the second inoculation. As the results, 60-100% protections were demonstrated in the chickens against both strains. Fisher's exact test indicated no significant differences (P<0.05) in vaccine types and dosages. ELISA and Western blot analysis indicated that the chicken anti-rCp39 sera reacted to whole-cell lysate of parental or heterologous strains. In conclusion, rCp39 is a cross-protective recombinant adhesive antigen of P. multocida capsular serogroup A strains. Moreover, a hybrid condition of affinity chromatography was successfully demonstrated and protected the immunogenicity of recombinant protein. PMID:18403068

  11. Safety and efficacy of two live Pasteurella multocida aro-A mutant vaccines in chickens.

    PubMed

    Scott, P C; Markham, J F; Whithear, K G

    1999-01-01

    Two auxotrophic aro-A mutants of Pasteurella multocida designated PMP1 (serotype 1) and PMP3 (serotype 3) were tested as vaccine candidates to protect chickens against fowl cholera. A reliable intratracheal challenge method was established that resulted in > or = 75% mortality in both specific-pathogen-free chickens and commercial broiler breeders 24 hr after challenge. Dose protection studies indicated that at least 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU) of PMP1 and 10(8) CFU of PMP3 were required to provide complete protection against challenge in all birds. Although high doses of 10(9) CFU of the vaccine strains produced some endotoxinlike reactions, lower but protective dose levels produced no clinical sign or lesion in any chicken. Both vaccine strains provided cross-protection with a heterologous challenge strain PM206 (serotype 4). Future studies will examine the duration of protective immunity induced by the two vaccine candidates, PMP1 and PMP3, and cross-protection against other serovars. PMID:10216763

  12. Rapid production of a H9N 2 influenza vaccine from MDCK cells for protecting chicken against influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhenghua; Lu, Zhongzheng; Wang, Lei; Huo, Zeren; Cui, Jianhua; Zheng, Tingting; Dai, Qing; Chen, Cuiling; Qin, Mengying; Chen, Meihua; Yang, Rirong

    2015-04-01

    H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses are widespread in domestic poultry, and vaccination remains the most effective way to protect the chicken population from avian influenza pandemics. Currently, egg-based H9N2 influenza vaccine production has several disadvantages and mammalian MDCK cells are being investigated as candidates for influenza vaccine production. However, little research has been conducted on low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) such as H9N2 replicating in mammalian cells using microcarrier beads in a bioreactor. In this study, we present a systematic analysis of a safe H9N2 influenza vaccine derived from MDCK cells for protecting chickens against influenza virus infection. In 2008, we isolated two novel H9N2 influenza viruses from chickens raised in southern China, and these H9N2 viruses were adapted to MDCK cells. The H9N2 virus was produced in MDCK cells in a scalable bioreactor, purified, inactivated, and investigated for use as a vaccine. The MDCK-derived H9N2 vaccine was able to induce high titers of neutralizing antibodies in chickens of different ages. Histopathological examination, direct immunofluorescence, HI assay, CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio test, and cytokine evaluation indicated that the MDCK-derived H9N2 vaccine evoked a rapid and effective immune response to protect chickens from influenza infection. High titers of H9N2-specific antibodies were maintained in chickens for 5 months, and the MDCK-derived H9N2 vaccine had no effects on chicken growth. The use of MDCK cells in bioreactors for LPAIV vaccine production is an attractive option to prevent outbreaks of LPAIV in poultry. PMID:25646963

  13. Chicken HSP70 DNA vaccine inhibits tumor growth in a canine cancer model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wen-Ying; Chuang, Tien-Fu; Guichard, Cécile; El-Garch, Hanane; Tierny, Dominique; Laio, Albert Taiching; Lin, Ching-Si; Chiou, Kuo-Hao; Tsai, Cheng-Long; Liu, Chen-Hsuan; Li, Wen-Chiuan; Fischer, Laurent; Chu, Rea-Min

    2011-04-18

    Immunization with xenogeneic DNA is a promising cancer treatment to overcome tolerance to self-antigens. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is over-expressed in various kinds of tumors and is believed to be involved in tumor progression. This study tested a xenogeneic chicken HSP70 (chHSP70) DNA vaccine in an experimental canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) model. Three vaccination strategies were compared: the first (PE) was designed to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of chHSP70 DNA vaccination by delivering the vaccine before tumor inoculation in a prime boost setting, the second (T) was designed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the same prime boost vaccine by vaccinating the dogs after tumor inoculation; the third (PT) was similar to the first strategy (PE), with the exception that the electroporation booster injection was replaced with a transdermal needle-free injection. Tumor growth was notably inhibited only in the PE dogs, in which the vaccination program triggered tumor regression significantly sooner than in control dogs (NT). The CD4(+) subpopulation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and canine HSP70 (caHSP70)-specific IFN-?-secreting lymphocytes were significantly increased during tumor regression in the PE dogs as compared to control dogs, demonstrating that specific tolerance to caHSP70 has been overcome. In contrast, no benefit of the therapeutic strategy (T) could be noticed and the (PT) strategy only led to partial control of tumor growth. In summary, antitumor prophylactic activity was demonstrated using the chHSP70 DNA vaccine including a boost via electroporation. Our data stressed the importance of DNA electroporation as a booster to get the full benefit of DNA vaccination but also of cancer immunotherapy initiation as early as possible. Xenogeneic chHSP70 DNA vaccination including an electroporation boost is a potential vaccine to HSP70-expressing tumors, although further research is still required to better understand true clinical potential. PMID:21392590

  14. Effects of aflatoxin on young turkeys and broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Giambrone, J J; Diener, U L; Davis, N D; Panangala, V S; Hoerr, F J

    1985-09-01

    The effect of crude aflatoxin (AF) on the growth, performance, and immune response of turkeys and broilers was studied. Crude AF, produced from a natural outbreak of Aspergillus flavus on corn, was ground and mixed in rations to contain either 0, 100, 200, 400, or 800 ppb of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Turkeys (Experiment 1) and broilers (Experiment 2) were used in identical experimental designs. In each, 200, 14-day-old birds were divided equally by sex into five groups of 40 and were fed one of five AF diets for 35 days. In Experiment 1, crude AF greater than or equal to 400 ppb was highly toxic to turkeys. These levels produced signs and lesions of aflatoxicosis as well as a significant decrease in weight gain and feed conversion during 5 weeks. In addition, microscopic lesions, indicative of aflatoxicosis, were evident as low as 100 ppb, and significant decreases in cell-mediated immunity were noted in the 200 ppb group birds. Experiment 2 indicated that chickens were less susceptible to crude AF than turkeys. Neither morbidity nor mortality occurred in broilers. Gross lesions consistent with AF toxicity were evident in birds given 800 ppb and microscopic lesions were observed in birds given 100 ppb. Feed conversion was significantly increased in the 800 ppb broilers only. Cell-mediated immunity, measured by a delayed hypersensitive skin test, was significantly decreased in broilers receiving AF at 200 ppb or greater. Neither humoral immunity nor the development of the acquired immunity to Newcastle disease or fowl cholera vaccination were decreased in turkeys or broilers given AF. PMID:4048060

  15. Effects of Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients on peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titer after vaccination in chicken

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangfeng Kong; Yuanliang Hu; Rong Rui; Deyun Wang; Xiangrui Li

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of these experiments is to study the effects of Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (CHMIs) on peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titer in chicken vaccinated with Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine. Nine CHMIs were chosen for the experiments. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), Isatis root polysaccharide (IRPS), Epimedium flavone (EF), Propolis flavone (PF), Astragalosides (AS) and Ginsenosides (GS) could promote lymphocyte

  16. Subacute thyroiditis following influenza vaccine (Vaxigrip) in a young female.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Jeng-Yueh; Hsin, Shih-Chieh; Hsieh, Ming-Chia; Hsia, Pi-Jung; Shin, Shyi-Jang

    2006-06-01

    Subacute thyroiditis (SAT), also called de Quervain thyroiditis or granulomatous thyroiditis, is a self-limiting, possibly viral, and inflammatory thyroid disorder that is usually associated with thyroid pain and systemic symptoms. This report details a case of SAT possibly associated with influenza vaccine (Vaxigrip) in a young female. The diagnosis, therapeutic management and outcome are discussed. PMID:16793568

  17. Vaccination of chickens with strain CVL30, a genetically defined Salmonella enteritidis aroA live oral vaccine candidate.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, G L; Venables, L M; Woodward, M J; Hormaeche, C E

    1994-01-01

    Newly hatched chicks were vaccinated orally with a genetically defined Salmonella enteritidis aroA candidate, strain CVL30. In chickens immunized with 10(5) or 10(9) CFU and challenged by the intravenous route with 10(8) CFU of S. enteritidis 109 Nalr at 8 weeks old, there were similar reductions in colonization of the spleens, livers, and ceca of vaccinees compared with unvaccinated controls. Two groups of newly hatched female chicks were vaccinated orally with 10(9) CFU of strain CVL30, and one group was revaccinated intramuscularly with 10(9) CFU at 16 weeks old. When challenged intravenously with S. enteritidis 109 Nalr at 23 weeks old, there was a reduction in the colonization of spleens, livers, ovaries, and ceca compared with unvaccinated controls. Inclusion of the intramuscular booster gave increased protection to the ovary, although the vaccine strain was isolated on one occasion from a batch of eggs laid at 20 weeks old. In chickens immunized with 10(9) CFU of strain CVL30 and challenged orally with 10(9) CFU of S. enteritidis 109 Nalr, there was a reduction in intestinal shedding of the challenge strain from vaccines compared with unvaccinated controls. Circulating immunoglobulin G antibodies to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were detected in unvaccinated controls within 7 to 10 days of oral challenge. In contrast, circulating immunoglobulin G antibodies to LPS in vaccinees were not altered by the oral challenge, which suggested that vaccination reduced or prevented invasion by the challenge strain from the gut or multiplication of the challenge strain in the tissues. Newly hatched chicks were vaccinated orally with ca. 10(9) CFU of strain CVL30, and 1 day later, the vaccines and unvaccinated controls were challenged orally with 10(5) or 10(9) CFU of S. enteritidis 109 Nalr. Colonization of the ceca and invasion from the gut by the S. enteritidis challenge strain was reduced in the vaccines up to 5 days postchallenge compared with controls. In a second trial, vaccinees and controls were challenged orally with 10(7) or 10(9) CFU of S. typhimurium 2391 Nalr. In contrast to the challenge with S. enteritidis, colonization of the ceca and invasion by the S. typhimurium strain were not greatly reduced. PMID:7927750

  18. Protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine construct encoding the VP2 gene of infectious bursal disease and a truncated HSP70 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Maity, Hemanta Kumar; Dey, Sohini; Mohan, C Madhan; Khulape, Sagar A; Pathak, Dinesh C; Vakharia, Vikram N

    2015-02-18

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, infectious, immunosuppressive disease affecting young chicken worldwide. The etiological agent IBD virus (IBDV) is a double stranded RNA virus with outer capsid protein VP2 of IBDV is the major antigenic determinant capable of inducing neutralizing antibody. DNA vaccines encoding VP2 has been extensively studied achieving only partial protection. However, the efficacy of DNA vaccines against IBDV can be augmented by choosing a potential molecular adjuvant. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the immune response and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding the C-terminal domain of the heat shock protein 70 (cHSP70) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene genetically fused with the full length VP2 gene of IBDV (pCIVP2-cHSP70) in comparison to a 'DNA prime-protein boost' approach and a DNA vaccine encoding the VP2 gene (pCIVP2) alone. The results indicate that both pCIVP2-cHSP70 and 'DNA prime-protein boost' elicited humoral as well as cellular immune responses. Chickens in the pCIVP2-cHSP70 and 'DNA prime-protein boost' groups developed significantly higher levels of ELISA titer to IBDV antigen compared to the group immunized with pCIVP2 alone (p<0.01). However, significantly higher levels of lymphocyte proliferative response, IL-12 and IFN-? production were found in the pCIVP2-cHSP70 group compared to 'DNA prime-protein boost' group. Additionally, chickens immunized with pCIVP2-cHSP70 and 'DNA prime-protein boost' vaccines were completely protected against the vvIBDV whereas pCIVP2 DNA vaccine alone was able to protect only 70%. These findings suggest that the truncated C-terminal HSP70 mediated DNA vaccine genetically fused with the VP2 gene construct stimulated both humoral and cell mediated immune responses and conferred complete protection against IBDV. This novel strategy is perhaps a seminal concept in utilizing HSP70 as an adjuvant molecule to elicit an immune response against IBD affecting chickens. PMID:25596458

  19. Maternal immunization with vaccines containing recombinant NetB toxin partially protects progeny chickens from necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Keyburn, Anthony L; Portela, Ricardo W; Ford, Mark E; Bannam, Trudi L; Yan, Xu X; Rood, Julian I; Moore, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Avian necrotic enteritis is a major economic and welfare issue throughout the global poultry industry and is caused by isolates of Clostridium perfringens that produce NetB toxin. Previously we have shown that birds directly vaccinated with inactivated C. perfringens type A culture supernatant (toxoid) combined with recombinant NetB (rNetB) protein were significantly protected from homologous and heterologous challenge. In the present study the protective effect of maternal immunization was examined. Broiler breeder hens were injected subcutaneously with genetically toxoided rNetB(S254L) alone, C. perfringens type A toxoid and toxoid combined with rNetB(S254L). Vaccination resulted in a strong serum immunoglobulin Y response to NetB in hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) formulations. Anti-NetB antibodies were transferred to the eggs and on into the hatched progeny. Subclinical necrotic enteritis was induced experimentally in the progeny and the occurrence of specific necrotic enteritis lesions evaluated. Birds derived from hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) combined with toxoid and challenged with a homologous strain (EHE-NE18) at either 14 or 21 days post-hatch had significantly lower levels of disease compared to birds from adjuvant only vaccinated hens. In addition, birds from hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) alone were significantly protected when challenged at 14 days post-hatch. These results demonstrate that maternal immunization with a NetB-enhanced toxoid vaccine is a promising method for the control of necrotic enteritis in young broiler chickens. PMID:24219318

  20. Maternal immunization with vaccines containing recombinant NetB toxin partially protects progeny chickens from necrotic enteritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Avian necrotic enteritis is a major economic and welfare issue throughout the global poultry industry and is caused by isolates of Clostridium perfringens that produce NetB toxin. Previously we have shown that birds directly vaccinated with inactivated C. perfringens type A culture supernatant (toxoid) combined with recombinant NetB (rNetB) protein were significantly protected from homologous and heterologous challenge. In the present study the protective effect of maternal immunization was examined. Broiler breeder hens were injected subcutaneously with genetically toxoided rNetB(S254L) alone, C. perfringens type A toxoid and toxoid combined with rNetB(S254L). Vaccination resulted in a strong serum immunoglobulin Y response to NetB in hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) formulations. Anti-NetB antibodies were transferred to the eggs and on into the hatched progeny. Subclinical necrotic enteritis was induced experimentally in the progeny and the occurrence of specific necrotic enteritis lesions evaluated. Birds derived from hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) combined with toxoid and challenged with a homologous strain (EHE-NE18) at either 14 or 21 days post-hatch had significantly lower levels of disease compared to birds from adjuvant only vaccinated hens. In addition, birds from hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) alone were significantly protected when challenged at 14 days post-hatch. These results demonstrate that maternal immunization with a NetB-enhanced toxoid vaccine is a promising method for the control of necrotic enteritis in young broiler chickens. PMID:24219318

  1. Baculovirus-derived hemagglutinin vaccine protects chickens from lethal homologous virus H5N1 challenge.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y J; Deng, M C; Wu, S H; Chen, Y L; Cheng, H C; Chang, C Y; Lee, M S; Chien, M S; Huang, C C

    2008-11-01

    Since outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in both human and poultry from 2003, it is critical to have effective vaccines. A cDNA fragment coding the entire hemagglutinin (HA) gene derived from an H5N1 strain (A/duck/China/E319-2/03) was cloned and expressed using the baculovirus system. Two weeks after receiving two doses of recombinant HA (rHA) vaccines, chickens develop high antibody response for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) at titer 7.2 log(2). Challenge studies revealed that vaccinated chickens with HI titers greater than 3 log(2) could have immunoprotection against the same HPAI H5N1 strain virus challenge through intranasal route. Additionally, HI titer of 5 log(2) determined whether the live viruses could not be detected from oropharyngeal, cloacal discharge or in tissues. This result suggests that the rHA expressed from baculovirus system could be a candidate for the development of a safe and efficient subunit vaccine for HPAI (H5N1). PMID:19057130

  2. Natural and melatonin-induced sleep in young chickens — A behavioral and electrographic study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo Hishikawa; Hinrich Cramer; Wolfgang Kuhlo

    1969-01-01

    Summary 1. \\u000aNatural sleep and waking states of young chickens were studied by polygraphic recording (EEG, EOG, EMG and ECG) together with behavioral observation. Effects of melatonin were observed.\\u000a2. \\u000aThe sleep-wake periods of the chickens were analysed for three states: awake, slow wave sleep (SS) and paradoxical sleep (PS). Polygraphic characteristics of these 3 states were analogous to, though

  3. Progress toward the development of polyvalent vaccination strategies against multiple viral infections in chickens using herpesvirus of turkeys as vector

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Munir

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination is the most cost effective strategy for the control and prevention of the plethora of viral diseases affecting poultry production. The major challenge for poultry vaccination is the design of vaccines that will protect against multiple pathogens via a single protective dose, delivered by mass vaccination. The Marek disease virus and the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus cause severe disease outbreaks in chickens. Vaccination with live herpesvirus of turkeys protects chickens from Marek disease and inactivated influenza viruses are used as antigens to protect chickens against influenza virus infections. We developed herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) as a vaccine vector that can act as a dual vaccine against avian influenza and Marek disease. The HVT vector was developed using reverse genetics based on an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of HVT. The BAC carrying the HVT genome was genetically modified to express the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of a highly pathogenic H7N1 virus. The resultant recombinant BAC construct containing the modified HVT sequence was transfected into chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells and HVT recombinants (rHVT-H7HA) harbouring the H7N1 HA were recovered. Analysis of cultured CEF cells infected with the rHVT-H7HA showed that HA was expressed and that the rescued rHVT-H7HA stocks were stable during several in vitro passages with no difference in growth kinetics compared with the parent HVT. Immunization of one-day-old chicks with rHVT-H7HA induced H7-specific antibodies and protected chickens challenged with homologous H7N1 virus against virus shedding, clinical disease and death. The rHVT-H7HA vaccine also induced strong and long-lasting antibody titers against H7HA in chickens that were vaccinated in ovo 3 d before hatching. This vaccine supports differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA), because no influenza virus nucleoprotein-specific antibodies were detected in the rHVT-H7HA vaccinated birds. The rHVT-H7HA not only provided protection against a lethal challenge with highly pathogenic H7N1 virus but also against highly virulent Marek disease virus and can be used as a DIVA vaccine. PMID:22705840

  4. Adjuvant effects of mannose-binding lectin ligands on the immune response to infectious bronchitis vaccine in chickens with high or low serum mannose-binding lectin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kjaerup, Rikke M; Dalgaard, Tina S; Norup, Liselotte R; Bergman, Ingrid-Maria; Sørensen, Poul; Juul-Madsen, Helle R

    2014-04-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays a major role in the immune response as a soluble pattern-recognition receptor. MBL deficiency and susceptibility to different types of infections have been subject to extensive studies over the last decades. In humans and chickens, several studies have shown that MBL participates in the protection of hosts against virus infections. Infectious bronchitis (IB) is a highly contagious disease of economic importance in the poultry industry caused by the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). MBL has earlier been described to play a potential role in the pathogenesis of IBV infection and the production of IBV-specific antibodies, which may be exploited in optimising IBV vaccine strategies. The present study shows that MBL has the capability to bind to IBV in vitro. Chickens from two inbred lines (L10H and L10L) selected for high or low MBL serum concentrations, respectively, were vaccinated against IBV with or without the addition of the MBL ligands mannan, chitosan and fructooligosaccharide (FOS). The addition of MBL ligands to the IBV vaccine, especially FOS, enhanced the production of IBV-specific IgG antibody production in L10H chickens, but not L10L chickens after the second vaccination. The addition of FOS to the vaccine also increased the number of circulating CD4+ cells in L10H chickens compared to L10L chickens. The L10H chickens as well as the L10L chickens also showed an increased number of CD4-CD8?-?? T-cells when an MBL ligand was added to the vaccine, most pronouncedly after the first vaccination. As MBL ligands co-administered with IBV vaccine induced differences between the two chicken lines, these results indirectly suggest that MBL is involved in the immune response to IBV vaccination. Furthermore, the higher antibody response in L10H chickens receiving vaccine and FOS makes FOS a potential adjuvant candidate in an IBV vaccine. PMID:24305086

  5. Quantitation of Marek’s disease virus in vaccinated population of resistant and susceptible chicken samples using real-time PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chicken caused by cell-associated alpha-herpesvirus, known as Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MD virus load in challenged chickens has been well studied, but the difference between the virus load in vaccinated MD resistant and susceptible chicken...

  6. Protection induced by commercially available live-attenuated and recombinant viral vector vaccines against infectious laryngotracheitis virus in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Vagnozzi, Ariel; Zavala, Guillermo; Riblet, Sylva M; Mundt, Alice; García, Maricarmen

    2012-01-01

    Viral vector vaccines using fowl poxvirus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) as vectors and carrying infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genes are commercially available to the poultry industry in the USA. Different sectors of the broiler industry have used these vaccines in ovo or subcutaneously, achieving variable results. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of protection induced by viral vector vaccines as compared with live-attenuated ILTV vaccines. The HVT-LT vaccine was more effective than the FPV-LT vaccine in mitigating the disease and reducing levels of challenge virus when applied in ovo or subcutaneously, particularly when the challenge was performed at 57 days rather than 35 days of age. While the FPV-LT vaccine mitigated clinical signs more effectively when administered subcutaneously than in ovo, it did not reduce the concentration of challenge virus in the trachea by either application route. Detection of antibodies against ILTV glycoproteins expressed by the viral vectors was a useful criterion to assess the immunogenicity of the vectors. The presence of glycoprotein I antibodies detected pre-challenge and post challenge in chickens vaccinated with HVT-LT indicated that the vaccine induced a robust antibody response, which was paralleled by significant reduction of clinical signs. The chicken embryo origin vaccine provided optimal protection by significantly mitigating the disease and reducing the challenge virus in chickens vaccinated via eye drop. The viral vector vaccines, applied in ovo and subcutaneously, provided partial protection, reducing to some degree clinical signs, and challenge VIRUS replication in the trachea. PMID:22845318

  7. Sequencing analysis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum wild strains in vaccinated chicken breeder flocks.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Rabab; Eissa, Sabry; El-Hariri, Mahmoud; Refai, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection is still of continuing economic concern in commercial broiler breeder chicken flocks in Egypt. MG infection continues to emerge despite the application of vaccination programs in breeder flocks. This prompted flock surveillance including MG isolation and molecular characterization of the circulating MG strains. The present study was concerned with 15 broiler breeder flocks of different ages (5-51 weeks). Three flocks were apparently healthy and 12 flocks were diseased. The aim of the study was to characterize the MG strains recovered from tracheal swabs. Four positive MG DNA extracts identified by rt-PCR and confirmed by isolation were subjected to sequencing of the mgc2 gene and intergenic spacer region (IGSR). The current molecular study demonstrated the presence of 3 different wild-type MG strains (RabE1-08, RabE2-09 and RabE3-09) in vaccinated diseased flocks, while the fourth strain (RabE4-08), which was isolated from a nonvaccinated apparently healthy breeder flock, scored 100% of homology and similarity to the F-strain vaccine by the sequence analysis of mgc2 and IGSR. It can be assumed that the vaccine F strain, which is supposed to replace field strains not only failed to do that, but also infected nonvaccinated flocks. Accordingly, there is a need to revise the control program including vaccine strategy in parallel with biosecurity measures. PMID:24525899

  8. Vaccination with recombinant NetB toxin partially protects broiler chickens from necrotic enteritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    NetB toxin from Clostridium perfringens is a major virulence factor in necrotic enteritis in poultry. In this study the efficacy of NetB as a vaccine antigen to protect chickens from necrotic enteritis was examined. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with purified recombinant NetB (rNetB), formalin treated bacterin and cell free toxoid with or without rNetB supplementation. Intestinal lesion scores and NetB antibody levels were measured to determine protection after mild oral gavage, moderate in-feed and heavy in-feed challenges with virulent C. perfringens isolates. Birds immunized with rNetB were significantly protected against necrotic enteritis when challenged with a mild oral dose of virulent bacteria, but were not protected when a more robust challenge was used. Bacterin and cell free toxoid without rNetB supplementation did not protect birds from moderate and severe in-feed challenge. Only birds immunized with bacterin and cell free toxoid supplemented with rNetB showed significant protection against moderate and severe in-feed challenge, with the later giving the greatest protection. Higher NetB antibody titres were observed in birds immunized with rNetB compared to those vaccinated with bacterin or toxoid, suggesting that the in vitro levels of NetB produced by virulent C. perfringens isolates are too low to induce the development of a strong immune response. These results suggest that vaccination with NetB alone may not be sufficient to protect birds from necrotic enteritis in the field, but that in combination with other cellular or cell-free antigens it can significantly protect chickens from disease. PMID:23865568

  9. Ability of MEQ-deleted MDV vaccine candidates to adversely affect lymphoid organs and chicken weight gain.

    PubMed

    Dunn, John R; Silva, Robert F

    2012-09-01

    CVI988 (Rispens) is currently the most effective vaccine used to protect against Marek's disease, a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens. A MEQ-deleted Marek's disease virus strain has shown promise as a vaccine candidate; however, unpublished results from vaccine safety trials suggest that this candidate vaccine induces unwanted lymphoid atrophy. The current study evaluated lymphoid atrophy at multiple time points between 2- and 8-wk postinoculation and attempted to correlate results with virus replication in the thymus. Results confirm reports that MEQ-deleted virus strains are able to cause thymus and bursa atrophy, which is most severe at 2-wk postinoculation. The MEQ-deleted virus strains induced lower body weights and relative thymus and bursa weights compared to uninoculated and Rispens-vaccinated chickens at multiple time points between 2- and 8-wk postinoculation. Both MEQ-deleted virus strains produced high levels of in vivo virus replication in the thymus at rates significantly greater than in Rispens-vaccinated chickens and were comparable to levels of RM1 virus, a MDV previously shown to induce severe thymus and bursa atrophy. Virus replication was highly correlated with relative thymus weights at each time point. Understanding this delicate balance between inducing maximum disease protection and preventing immunodepressive effects is critical for the development of future Marek's disease vaccines. PMID:23050465

  10. Avian Influenza Vaccination in Chickens and Pigs with Replication-Competent Adenovirus–Free Human Recombinant Adenovirus 5

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Haroldo; van Ginkel, Frederik W.; Tang, De-chu C.; Schemera, Bettina; Rodning, Soren; Newton, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Protective immunity to avian influenza (AI) virus can be elicited in chickens by in ovo or intramuscular vaccination with replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) encoding AI virus H5 (AdTW68.H5) or H7 (AdCN94.H7) hemagglutinins. We evaluated bivalent in ovo vaccination with AdTW68.H5 and AdCN94.H7 and determined that vaccinated chickens developed robust hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody levels to both H5 and H7 AI strains. Additionally, we evaluated immune responses of 1-day-old chickens vaccinated via spray with AdCN94.H7. These birds showed increased immunoglobulin A responses in lachrymal fluids and increased interleukin-6 expression in Harderian gland–derived lymphocytes. However, specific HI antibodies were not detected in the sera of these birds. Because pigs might play a role as a “mixing vessel” for the generation of pandemic influenza viruses we explored the use of RCA-free adenovirus technology to immunize pigs against AI virus. Weanling piglets vaccinated intramuscularly with a single dose of RCA-free AdTW68.H5 developed strong systemic antibody responses 3 wk postvaccination. Intranasal application of AdTW68.H5 in piglets resulted in reduced vaccine coverage, i.e., 33% of pigs (2/6) developed an antibody response, but serum antibody levels in those successfully immunized animals were similar to intramuscularly vaccinated animals. PMID:20521636

  11. Comparison of the replication and transmissibility of two infectious laryngotracheitis virus chicken embryo origin vaccines delivered via drinking water.

    PubMed

    Coppo, Mauricio J C; Devlin, Joanne M; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2012-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute infectious viral disease that affects chickens, causing respiratory disease, loss of production and mortality in severe cases. Biosecurity measures and administration of attenuated viral vaccine strains are commonly used to prevent ILT. It is notable that most recent ILT outbreaks affecting the intensive poultry industry have been caused by vaccine-related virus strains. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare viral replication and transmission patterns of two attenuated chicken embryo origin ILT vaccines delivered via the drinking water. Two groups of specific pathogen free chickens were each inoculated with SA-2 ILT or Serva ILT vaccine strains. Unvaccinated birds were then placed in contact with vaccinated birds at regular intervals. Tracheal swabs were collected every 4 days over a period of 60 days and examined for the presence and amount of virus using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A rapid increase in viral genome copy numbers was observed shortly after inoculation with SA-2 ILT virus. In contrast, a comparatively delayed virus replication was observed after vaccination with Serva ILT virus. Transmission to in-contact birds occurred soon after exposure to Serva ILT virus but only several days after exposure to SA-2 ILT virus. Results from this study demonstrate in vivo differences between ILT vaccine strains in virus replication and transmission patterns. PMID:22515537

  12. Vaccination immunity to selected diseases in chickens fed the androgen analog mibolerone.

    PubMed

    Romero, C H; Claflin, W; Frank, F; Chang, T S; Purchase, H G

    1978-01-01

    Chickens fed the androgen analog mibolerone during the first 7 weeks of life regress their bursa of Fabricius but can be properly immunized by vaccination against avian pathogens of major economic importance such as Newcastle disease virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, avian encephalomyelitis virus, infectious bronchitis virus, fowl pox virus, Marek's disease virus, and Pasteurella multocida, the pathogen causing fowl cholera. These findings on immunocompetence to infectious agents are important because we have previously shown that the administration of mibolerone prevents the development of lymphoid leukosis tumors. PMID:209430

  13. Comparison of live Eimeria vaccination with in-feed salinomycin on growth and immune status in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lillehoj, Hyun-Soon; Jang, Seung-Ik; Lee, Sung-Hyen; Bautista, Daniel A; Donald Ritter, G; Lillehoj, Erik P; Siragusa, Gregory R

    2013-08-01

    Coccidiosis vaccines and anticoccidial drugs are commonly used to control Eimeria infection during commercial poultry production. The present study was conducted to compare the relative effectiveness of these two disease control strategies in broiler chickens in an experimental research facility. Birds were orally vaccinated with a live, attenuated vaccine (Inovocox), or were provided with in-feed salinomycin (Bio-Cox), and body weights, serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) and antibodies against Eimeria profilin and Clostridium perfringens PFO proteins, and intestinal levels of cytokine gene transcripts were measured. Vaccinated chickens had increased body weights, greater NO levels, and higher profilin and PFO antibody levels compared with salinomycin-fed birds. Transcripts for interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15, and interferon-? were increased, while mRNAs for IL-4 and IL-10 were decreased, in immunized chickens compared with salinomycin-treated chickens. In conclusion, vaccination against avian coccidiosis may be more effective compared with dietary salinomycin for increasing body weight and augmenting pro-inflammatory immune status during commercial poultry production. PMID:23465765

  14. Virus-like particle vaccine confers protection against a lethal newcastle disease virus challenge in chickens and allows a strategy of differentiating infected from vaccinated animals.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Keun; Lee, Dong-Hun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Tseren-Ochir, Erdene-Ochir; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Kim, Byoung-Yoon; Choi, Soo-Won; Kang, Sang-Moo; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we developed Newcastle disease virus (NDV) virus-like particles (VLPs) expressing NDV fusion (F) protein along with influenza virus matrix 1 (M1) protein using the insect cell expression system. Specific-pathogen-free chickens were immunized with oil emulsion NDV VLP vaccines containing increasing dosages of VLPs (0.4, 2, 10, or 50 ?g of VLPs/0.5-ml dose). Three weeks after immunization, the immunogenicity of the NDV VLP vaccines was determined using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, and a lethal challenge using a highly virulent NDV strain was performed to evaluate the protective efficacy of the NDV VLP vaccines. NDV VLP vaccines elicited anti-NDV antibodies and provided protection against a lethal challenge in a dose-dependent manner. Although the VLP vaccines containing 0.4 and 2 ?g of VLPs failed to achieve high levels of protection, a single immunization with NDV VLP vaccine containing 10 or 50 ?g could fully protect chickens from a lethal challenge and greatly reduced challenge virus shedding. Furthermore, we could easily differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. These results strongly suggest that utilization of NDV VLP vaccine in poultry species may be a promising strategy for the better control of NDV. PMID:24403523

  15. Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Confers Protection against a Lethal Newcastle Disease Virus Challenge in Chickens and Allows a Strategy of Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Keun; Lee, Dong-Hun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Tseren-Ochir, Erdene-Ochir; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Kim, Byoung-Yoon; Choi, Soo-Won; Kang, Sang-Moo; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we developed Newcastle disease virus (NDV) virus-like particles (VLPs) expressing NDV fusion (F) protein along with influenza virus matrix 1 (M1) protein using the insect cell expression system. Specific-pathogen-free chickens were immunized with oil emulsion NDV VLP vaccines containing increasing dosages of VLPs (0.4, 2, 10, or 50 ?g of VLPs/0.5-ml dose). Three weeks after immunization, the immunogenicity of the NDV VLP vaccines was determined using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, and a lethal challenge using a highly virulent NDV strain was performed to evaluate the protective efficacy of the NDV VLP vaccines. NDV VLP vaccines elicited anti-NDV antibodies and provided protection against a lethal challenge in a dose-dependent manner. Although the VLP vaccines containing 0.4 and 2 ?g of VLPs failed to achieve high levels of protection, a single immunization with NDV VLP vaccine containing 10 or 50 ?g could fully protect chickens from a lethal challenge and greatly reduced challenge virus shedding. Furthermore, we could easily differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. These results strongly suggest that utilization of NDV VLP vaccine in poultry species may be a promising strategy for the better control of NDV. PMID:24403523

  16. Genetics and Vaccine Efficacy: Host Genetic Variation Affecting Marek's Disease Vaccine Efficacy in White Leghorn Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a T cell lymphoma disease of domestic chickens induced by Marek’s disease viruses (MDV), a naturally oncogenic and highly contagious cell-associated alpha-herpesvirus. Earlier reports have shown that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype as well as non-MHC gene...

  17. Recombinant protein-based ELISA for detection and differentiation of antibodies against avian reovirus in vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhixun; Qin, Chunxiang; Xie, Liji; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhiqin; Khan, Mazhar I

    2010-04-01

    Two nonstructural genes, sigmaNS and P17, of avian reovirus (ARV) were cloned into the expression plasmid vector PGEX4T-1. Expressed proteins for sigmaNS and P17 of avian reovirus were purified and used as antigens. Three indirect sigmaNS enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), sigmaNS-ELISA, P17-ELISA and sigmaNS-P17-ELISA were optimized and used as specific tests. Serum samples from reovirus-infected and vaccinated SPF chickens were tested with the three ELISAs and an agar gel precipitin (AGP) method. ELISAs specific for sigmaNS, P17 and sigmaNS-P17 were able to detect specific antibodies for avian reovirus in 88.9%, 61.1%, and 88.9% in infected samples, respectively, whereas the AGP detected 55.6% of the infected samples. The detection rates of ELISA specific antibodies for sigmaNS, P17 and sigmaNS-P17 on sera of vaccinated chickens were 6.7%, 0% and 6.7%. However, in comparison the AGP method detected 60.6% of antibodies in serum samples from vaccinated chickens. The results showed that the use of ELISAs specific for the nonstructural proteins might be able to distinguish between reovirus vaccinated and infected chickens. Further studies are in progress to validate these recombinant protein-based ELISAs under field conditions. PMID:20026121

  18. Vaccination of chickens against H5N1 avian influenza in the face of an outbreak interrupts virus transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor M. Ellis; Connie Y. H. C. Leung; Mary K. W. Chow; Lucy A. Bissett; William Wong; Yi Guan; J. S. Malik Peiris

    2004-01-01

    Vaccination of chickens with a commercially available killed H5N2 vaccine was being evaluated as an additional tool to enhanced biosecurity measures and intensive surveillance for control of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 disease in Hong Kong in 2002. In December 2002 to January 2003, there were outbreaks of H5N1 disease in waterfowl in two recreational parks, wild water birds,

  19. DURATION OF IMMUNITY TO THE 2002-03 CALIFORNIA VIRULENT NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS (VNDV) FOLLOWING A SINGLE NEWCASTLE DISEASE VACCINATION OF SPF CHICKENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease (ND) vaccination is widely practiced in the USA with the majority of commercial chickens receiving multiple vaccinations during their lifetime. The objectives of the present study were to extend the knowledge of onset and duration of immunity of ND vaccines in specific-pathogen-fr...

  20. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Vaccine Efficacy of Recombinant Marek's Disease Virus Lacking the Meq Oncogene in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously reported that deletion of Meq gene from oncogenic rMd5 virus rendered it apathogenic for chickens. Here we examined multiple factors affecting Marek’s disease (MD) vaccine efficacy of this non-pathogenic recombinant Meq null rMd5 virus (rMd5deltaMeq). These factors included host g...

  1. Comparison of live Eimeria vaccination with in-feed Salinomycin on growth and immune status in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis vaccines and coccidiostat drugs are commonly used to control Eimeria infection during commercial poultry production. The present study was conducted to compare the relative effectiveness of these two disease control strategies in broiler chickens in an experimental research facility. B...

  2. Genomic sequence analysis of the United States infectious laryngotracheitis vaccine strains chicken embryo origin (CEO) and tissue culture origin (TCO)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genomic sequences of low and high passages of U.S. infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) vaccine strains chicken embryo origin (CEO) and tissue culture origin (TCO) these strains were determined using hybrid next generation sequencing in order to define relevant genomic changes associated with att...

  3. Experimental iron-inactivated Pasteurella multocida A: 1 vaccine adjuvanted with bacterial DNA is safe and protects chickens from fowl cholera.

    PubMed

    Herath, Chitra; Kumar, Pankaj; Singh, Mithilesh; Kumar, Devender; Ramakrishnan, Saravanan; Goswami, Tapas Kumar; Singh, Ajit; Ram, G C

    2010-03-01

    Fowl cholera is a serious problem in large and small scale poultry production. The present study describes the development and testing of an inactivated whole-cell, low-cost, safe, and effective vaccine for fowl cholera based on a previous work (Vaccine 23:5590-5598). Pasteurella multocida A: 1 grown in the presence of low FeCl(3) concentrations, inactivated with higher concentrations of FeCl(3), and adjuvanted with bacterial DNA from P. multocida B: 2 containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs protect chickens with a lethal P. multocida A: 1 challenge. Chickens were immunized with two whole-cell inactivated vaccine doses at 4 weeks apart and challenged 4 weeks after booster immunization. Experimental vaccines were pure, easy injectable, and caused very little distress in chickens due to their aqueous consistency. Vaccines and bacterial DNA (bDNA) posed no safety problems when chickens were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with a single, double, and overdose of these preparations. Immunized chickens produced systemic IgY antibodies (Ab) responses and vaccine adjuvanted with bDNA protected 100% chickens from lethal intrapertoneal (i.p.) P. multocida A: 1 challenge. This work suggests that use of bDNA as an adjuvant can improve the cost-effectiveness of inactivated veterinary vaccines for their use in developing countries. Our future studies will focus on safety and potency evaluation of experimental and current vaccines using bDNA as an adjuvant. PMID:20074684

  4. Development of a DNA vaccine for chicken infectious anemia and its immunogenicity studies using high mobility group box 1 protein as a novel immunoadjuvant indicated induction of promising protective immune responses.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Pradeep Mahadev; Dhama, Kuldeep; Rawool, Deepak Bhiva; Wani, Mohd Yaqoob; Tiwari, Ruchi; Singh, Shambhu Dayal; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Chicken infectious anaemia (CIA) is an economically important and emerging poultry disease reported worldwide. Current CIA vaccines have limitations like, the inability of the virus to grow to high titres in embryos/cell cultures, possession of residual pathogenicity and a risk of reversion to virulence. In the present study, a DNA vaccine, encoding chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV) VP1 and VP2 genes, was developed and co-administered with truncated chicken high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1?C) protein in young chicks for the evaluation of vaccine immune response. CIAV VP1 and VP2 genes were cloned in pTARGET while HMGB1?C in PET32b vector. In vitro expression of these gene constructs was evaluated by Western blotting. Further, recombinant HMGB1?C was evaluated for its biological activity. The CIAV DNA vaccine administration in specific pathogen free chicks resulted in moderately protective ELISA antibody titres in the range of 4322.87 ± 359.72 to 8288.19 ± 136.38, increased CD8(+) cells, and a higher titre was observed by co-administration of novel adjuvant (HMGB1?C) and booster immunizations. The use of vaccine with adjuvant showed achieving antibody titres nearly 8500, titre considered as highly protective, which indicates that co-immunization of HMGB1?C may have a strong adjuvant activity on CIAV DNA vaccine induced immune responses. The able potential of HMGB1 protein holding strong adjuvant activity could be exploited further with trials with vaccines for other important pathogens for achieving the required protective immune responses. PMID:25448094

  5. A Novel Recombinant BCG Vaccine Encoding Eimeria tenella Rhomboid and Chicken IL-2 Induces Protective Immunity Against Coccidiosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiuyue; Chen, Lifeng; Zheng, Jun; Cai, Ning; Gong, Pengtao; Li, Shuhong; Li, He

    2014-01-01

    A novel recombinant Bacille Calmette-Guerin (rBCG) vaccine co-expressed Eimeria tenella rhomboid and cytokine chicken IL-2 (chIL-2) was constructed, and its efficacy against E. tenella challenge was observed. The rhomboid gene of E. tenella and chIL-2 gene were subcloned into integrative expression vector pMV361, producing vaccines rBCG pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2. Animal experiment via intranasal and subcutaneous route in chickens was carried out to evaluate the immune efficacy of the vaccines. The results indicated that these rBCG vaccines could obviously alleviate cacal lesions and oocyst output. Intranasal immunization with pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2 elicited better protective immunity against E. tenella than subcutaneous immunization. Splenocytes from chickens immunized with either rBCG pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2 had increased CD4+ and CD8+ cell production. Our data indicate recombinant BCG is able to impart partial protection against E. tenella challenge and co-expression of cytokine with antigen was an effective strategy to improve vaccine immunity. PMID:25031464

  6. Prokaryotic recombinant hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein enhances the humoral response and efficacy of commercial Newcastle disease vaccines in chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jai-Wei; Huang, Ji-Ping; Hong, Li-Shian; Shu, Shih-Fang; Yu, Chi; Chu, Chun-Yen

    2010-03-01

    The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Newcastle disease (ND). Recombinant HN (rHN) protein, produced either by direct injection of recombinant viruses containing HN gene or baculovirus expression systems, has been used to elicit immunity against NDV in chickens. In the present study, a 60.4-kDa rHN was expressed by a prokaryotic expression system and formulated into ND vaccines. Inclusion of rHN (10 microg/ml) into conventional, inactivated ND vaccines significantly (P < 0.05) increased the titer of serum hemagglutination-inhibition Ab in specific-pathogen-free or commercial chickens. Furthermore, when the rHN protein was formulated into ND+IC (infectious coryza) bivalent or ND+IC+FC (fowl cholera) multivalent vaccines, the protection rate of immunized chickens increased from approximately 80%-90% to 100% after being challenged by a velogenic strain of NDV. Our data indicated that inclusion of rHN protein produced by an economical prokaryotic expression system could enhance the immunogenicity of traditional and multivalent inactivated ND vaccines. This approach may be adapted to improve the efficacy of ND vaccines currently used in the poultry industry. PMID:20408399

  7. CONJUNCTIVAL VACCINATION OF YOUNG GOATS WITH BRUCELLA MELITENSIS STRAIN REV 1

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    CONJUNCTIVAL VACCINATION OF YOUNG GOATS WITH BRUCELLA MELITENSIS STRAIN REV 1 FENSTERBANK R VERGER Monnaie, France received 23/12/86/accepted 13/04/87 Résumé VACCINATION CONJONCTIVALE DES CHEVRETTES AVEC moins de 4 mois alors que certains animaux étaient encore positifs 8 mois après la vaccination sous

  8. IMMUNIZATION OF YOUNG FOXES AGAINST RABIES: INTERACTION BETWEEN VACCINATION AND NATURAL INFECTION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    IMMUNIZATION OF YOUNG FOXES AGAINST RABIES: INTERACTION BETWEEN VACCINATION AND NATURAL INFECTION C vaccines given by the oral route either directly by instillation into the animal's mouth or indirectly against rabies should be the use of an inactivated vaccine (Andral and Blancou, 1982). This report

  9. Feasibility of oral rabies vaccination campaigns of young foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) against rabies in summer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ad Vos; Thomas Selhorst; Ronald Schröder; Jaap Mulder

    2008-01-01

    Oral vaccination of foxes (Vulpes vulpes) against rabies has been shown to be highly effective. Several baiting strategies to increase vaccination coverage of the\\u000a target population have been developed. For example, to increase the vaccination coverage of the young fox population before\\u000a dispersal an additional summer vaccination campaign has been suggested. The effectiveness of such a campaign was evaluated\\u000a using

  10. Efficacy of a DNA Vaccine Carrying Eimeria maxima Gam56 Antigen Gene against Coccidiosis in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinjun; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    To control coccidiosis without using prophylactic medications, a DNA vaccine targeting the gametophyte antigen Gam56 from Eimeria maxima in chickens was constructed, and the immunogenicity and protective effects were evaluated. The ORF of Gam56 gene was cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(zeo)+. Expression of Gam56 protein in COS-7 cells transfected with recombinant plasmid pcDNA-Gam56 was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The DNA vaccine was injected intramuscularly to yellow feathered broilers of 1-week old at 3 dosages (25, 50, and 100 µg/chick). Injection was repeated once 1 week later. One week after the second injection, birds were challenged orally with 5×104 sporulated oocysts of E. maxima, then weighed and killed at day 8 post challenge. Blood samples were collected and examined for specific peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation activity and serum antibody levels. Compared with control groups, the administration of pcDNA-Gam56 vaccine markedly increased the lymphocyte proliferation activity (P<0.05) at day 7 and 14 after the first immunization. The level of lymphocyte proliferation started to decrease on day 21 after the first immunization. A similar trend was seen in specific antibody levels. Among the 3 pcDNA-Gam56 immunized groups, the median dosage group displayed the highest lymphocyte proliferation and antibody levels (P<0.05). The median dosage group had the greatest relative body weight gain (89.7%), and the greatest oocyst shedding reduction (53.7%). These results indicate that median dosage of DNA vaccine had good immunogenicity and immune protection effects, and may be used in field applications for coccidiosis control. PMID:23710081

  11. Effects of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis on cellular recruitment and cytokine gene expression in caecum of vaccinated chickens.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Bárbara González; Methner, Ulrich; Pieper, Jana; Berndt, Angela

    2008-10-01

    Although vaccination of poultry is a suitable method to limit human food borne gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella (S.), the immune mechanisms responsible for a longer lasting protection against Salmonella infection in birds are not completely understood. To reveal unique protection-related immune parameters, day-old chicks were vaccinated with a commercial live S. Enteritidis vaccine and challenged with wild-type S. Enteritidis 147N at day 56 of life. The bacterial cell count was determined in gut and liver, while the immune cell composition and cytokine gene expression patterns were analysed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time RT-PCR in caecum samples. The presented data suggest that the vaccine-elicited immune protection against the Salmonella wild-type infection was rather related to the bacterial count in gut mucosa and liver than to the colonisation in gut lumen. The higher number of Salmonella wild-type organisms found in caecal wall and liver of the non-immunised compared to immunised birds after challenge correlated with a more pronounced gene expression rate for IL-8, LITAF, iNOS, IL-12 and IFN-gamma. In contrast, immunised birds exhibited higher amounts of CD8(+) T cells as well as IgA than the non-immunised chickens after S. Enteritidis 147N infection in caecum. The results demonstrated a distinctive immune reaction pattern of previously vaccinated compared to non-vaccinated chickens upon S. Enteritidis wild-type challenge. PMID:18706948

  12. The effect of environmental temperature on immune response and metabolism of the young chicken

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Henken

    1982-01-01

    The effect of environmental temperature on immune response and metabolism was studied in young chickens. Immunization was performed by injecting intramuscularly 0.5 ml packed SRBC (sheep red blood cells) in both thighs of 32 days old pullets ( Warren<\\/u>SSL<\\/u> ). The ensueing immune response was evaluated by determining haemagglutinin anti-SRBC antibody titers and the number of plaque forming spleencells. The

  13. Relationship between levels of very virulent MDV in poultry dust and in feather tips from vaccinated chickens.

    PubMed

    Baigent, Susan J; Kgosana, Lydia B; Gamawa, Ahmed A; Smith, Lorraine P; Read, Andrew F; Nair, Venugopal K

    2013-06-01

    To assess the effect of various vaccine strains on replication and shedding of virulent Marek's disease virus from experimentally infected chickens, quantitative PCR (q-PCR) methods were developed to accurately quantify viral DNA in infected chickens and in the environment in which they were housed. Four groups of 10 chickens, kept in poultry isolators, were vaccinated at 1 day old with one of four vaccines covering each of the three vaccine serotypes, then challenged with very virulent MDV strain Md5 at 8 days of age. At regular time-points, feather tips were collected from each chicken and poultry dust was collected from the air-extract prefilter of each isolator. DNA was extracted from feather and dust samples and subjected to real-time q-PCR, targeting the U(S)2 gene of MDV-1, in order to measure Md5 level per 10(4) feather tip cells or per microgram of dust. Accuracy of DNA extraction from dust and real-time q-PCR were validated by comparing either q-PCR cycle threshold values or the calculated MDV genome level; for use in q-PCR, DNA was extracted from serial dilutions of MDV-infected dust diluted with noninfected dust, or DNA from MDV-infected dust was diluted with DNA from noninfected dust. The results confirmed the accuracy and sensitivity of dust DNA extraction and subsequent q-PCR and showed that differences in virus levels between dust samples truly reflect differences in shedding. Vaccination delayed both replication of Md5 in feather tips and shedding of Md5. First detection of Md5 in feather tips always preceded or coincided with first detection in dust in each group. pCVI988 and HVT+SB-1 were the most efficient vaccines in reducing both replication and shedding of Md5. There was close correlation between mean virus level in feathers of each group and mean virus level in the dust shed by that group. This relationship was similar in each of the vaccinated groups, demonstrating that measurement of the virus in dust can be used to monitor accurately both the infection status of the chickens and environmental contamination by MDV. PMID:23901759

  14. Analysis of the relationship between economic measures and Salmonella testing results in young chicken slaughter establishments.

    PubMed

    Muth, Mary K; Creel, Darryl V; Karns, Shawn A; Wilkus, James

    2012-03-01

    Food processing establishments incur costs to install, maintain, and operate equipment and implement specific food safety practices. During times of economic recession, establishments might reduce their food safety efforts to conserve resources and reduce costs of operation. This study was conducted to determine whether financial performance measures are systematically associated with Salmonella test results. The association between Salmonella test results from 182 federally inspected young chicken slaughter establishments from 2007 to 2009 and financial performance was examined while controlling for other establishment characteristics. Results indicated that the smallest establishments, which slaughtered fewer than 0.2 million chickens per year, had three times as many positive test results as did the largest establishments, which slaughtered more than 86.0 million chickens per year (P < 0.01). Establishments that slaughtered more than 0.2 million but fewer than 18.5 million chickens had 1.5 times as many positive test results (P = 0.02). Two statistically significant financial performance measures were identified, but the effects were limited. Establishments in bankruptcy had 1.4 times as many positive test results as did those not in bankruptcy (P = 0.02); however, only five establishments were in bankruptcy. Establishments with better payment performance generally had better Salmonella test results, but the effect was significant only in the winter season. PMID:22410217

  15. HPV catch-up vaccination among a community sample of young adult women

    PubMed Central

    Manhart, Lisa E.; Burgess-Hull, Albert J.; Fleming, Charles B.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Despite the high efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, uptake has been slow and little data on psychosocial barriers to vaccination exist. Methods A community sample of 428 women enrolled in a longitudinal study of social development in the Seattle WA metropolitan area were interviewed about HPV vaccine status, attitudes, and barriers to HPV vaccination in spring 2008 or 2009 at ~age 22. Results Nineteen percent of women had initiated vaccination, 10% had completed the series, and ~40% of unvaccinated women intended to get vaccinated. Peer approval was associated with vaccine initiation (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio (APR) 2.1; 95% Confidence Interval 1.4–3.2) and intention to vaccinate (APR 1.4;1.1–1.9). Belief the vaccine is < 75% effective was associated with less initiation (APR 0.6;0.4–0.9) or intention to vaccinate (APR 0.5;0.4–0.7). Vaccine initiation was also less likely among cigarette smokers and illegal drug users, whereas intention to vaccinate was more common among women currently attending school or with > 5 lifetime sex partners, but less common among women perceiving low susceptibility to HPV (APR 0.6;0.5–0.9). Conclusions HPV vaccination uptake was low in this community sample of young adult women. Increasing awareness of susceptibility to HPV and the high efficacy of the vaccine, along with peer interventions to increase acceptability, may be most effective. PMID:21640775

  16. Effects of Cytosine-phosphate-Guanosine Oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) on vaccination and immunization of neonatal chickens

    E-print Network

    Barri, Adriana

    2005-02-17

    ). There are different means by which antibodies can react to a pathogenic organism: 1) Neutralization: prevent the pathogen from attaching to surface receptors of target cells thereby inhibit replication (virus), 2) Opsonization: antibodies attach to the microbes... was to evaluate the effects of administering CpG-ODN to commercial strain chickens as a potential adjuvant to vaccination against Salmonella, Eimeria spp., and Newcastle disease virus, or immunization to bovine serum albumin (BSA). During Experiment 1, which...

  17. Assessment of 2 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium-based vaccines against necrotic enteritis in reducing colonization of chickens by Salmonella serovars of different serogroups

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanfen; Kulkarni, Raveendra R.; Parreira, Valeria R.; Poppe, Cornelius; Roland, Kenneth L.; Prescott, John F.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the protective efficacy of oral vaccination with 2 experimental attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium-vectored vaccines for necrotic enteritis in protecting chickens against intestinal colonization by common serovars of Salmonella belonging to the 4 major serogroups affecting chickens. Birds were vaccinated orally with 1 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) of 1 of the vaccine strains ?9241 and ?9352, which express a plasmid-encoded partial recombinant hypothetical protein gene (tHP) of Clostridium perfringens, at days 1 and 7 of age, and then were challenged at 14 d of age with 106 CFU of Salmonella serovars Anatum, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Kentucky, or Typhimurium (representative serovars of serogroups B, C, D, and E). Birds were necropsied at 4 wk of age, and samples were collected to determine reduction in tissue and intestinal colonization. The chickens vaccinated with ?9241-tHP showed reduced colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis (serogroup D) and by Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium (serogroup B) compared with the control birds. No reduction in colonization was observed in the chickens vaccinated with ?9352-tHP. There was an association between the efficacy of these vaccine strains in protecting against necrotic enteritis, assessed on an earlier occasion, and their efficacy in protecting against Salmonella colonization. Thus, the choice of an attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine vector for delivery of heterologous antigens to chickens should be based partly on the vaccine’s value in protecting against colonization by serovars within serogroups B and D. Such vectors would have the additional benefit of reducing colonization of important Salmonella serovars. PMID:21197226

  18. Vaccination with Different M2e Epitope Densities Confers Partial Protection against H5N1 Influenza A Virus Challenge in Chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xintao Zhang; Ming Liu; Chunguo Liu; Jinling Du; Weilin Shi; Encheng Sun; Hongtao Li; Jianhui Li; Yun Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Currently, research is focused on universal influenza vaccines based on various ectodomains of the influenza matrix protein 2 (M2e). Such vaccines are tested mostly using mouse-adapted influenza viruses and in mouse or ferret models. The aim of this study was to investigate in a chicken model the protective efficacy of vaccines based on avian-type M2e at different epitope densities.

  19. Influenza virus surveillance among young children in São Paulo, Brazil: The impact of vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Cabeça, Tatiane Karen; Watanabe, Aripuanã; Moreira, Luciana Peniche; Melchior, Thaís Boim; Perosa, Ana Helena; Camargo, Clarice; Parmezan, Sheila Negrini; Bellei, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the presence of influenza virus among young children and the coverage of vaccination from 2010 to 2012 in São Paulo, Brazil. Our results demonstrated a lower rate of influenza detection and a predominance of influenza B. A decrease of coverage vaccination through the surveillance periods was observed. PMID:25477951

  20. Distribution of avian influenza H5N1 viral RNA in tissues of AI-vaccinated and unvaccinated contact chickens after experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohamed K; Kilany, Walid H; Abdelwhab, E M; Arafa, Abdel-Satar; Selim, Abdullah; Samy, Ahmed; Samir, M; Le Brun, Yvon; Jobre, Yilma; Aly, Mona M

    2012-05-01

    Avian influenza due to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAIV) H5N1 virus is not a food-borne illness but a serious panzootic disease with the potential to be pandemic. In this study, broiler chickens were vaccinated with commercial H5N1 or H5N2 inactivated vaccines prior to being challenged with an HPAIV H5N1 (clade 2.2.1 classic) virus. Challenged and non-challenged vaccinated chickens were kept together, and unvaccinated chickens served as contact groups. Post-challenge samples from skin and edible internal organs were collected from dead and sacrificed (after a 14-day observation period) birds and tested using qRT-PCR for virus detection and quantification. H5N1 vaccine protected chickens against morbidity, mortality and transmission. Virus RNA was not detected in the meat or edible organs of chickens vaccinated with H5N1 vaccine. Conversely, H5N2 vaccine did not confer clinical protection, and a significant virus load was detected in the meat and internal organs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the H5N1 virus vaccine and challenge virus strains are closely related. The results of the present study strongly suggest a need for proper selection of vaccines and their routine evaluation against newly emergent field viruses. These actions will help to reduce human exposure to HPAIV H5N1 virus from both infected live birds and slaughtered poultry. In addition, rigorous preventive measures should be put in place in order to minimize the public-health risks of avian influenza at the human-animal interface. PMID:22350650

  1. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P?chickens fed on diet CF120 (P?chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P?chickens. PMID:24341997

  2. Protection against exotic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) challenge of chickens vaccinated with NDV vaccines made from different genetic lineages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines for control of Newcastle Disease (ND) have been used for over fifty years in the United States. The available ND vaccines, both live and killed have been shown to prevent mortality and symptoms of disease. However, they typically do not prevent vaccinated birds from becoming infected and ...

  3. Uptake of Free HPV Vaccination among Young Women: A Comparison of Rural versus Urban Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Casey, Baretta R.; Vanderpool, Robin; Collins, Tom; Moore, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To contrast rates of initial HPV vaccine uptake, offered at no cost, between a rural clinic, a rural community college, and an urban college clinic and to identify rural versus urban differences in uptake of free booster doses. Methods: Young rural women attending rural clinics (n = 246), young women attending a rural community college (n…

  4. Influenza vaccination coverage and effectiveness in young children in Thailand, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Kittikraisak, Wanitchaya; Suntarattiwong, Piyarat; Levy, Jens; Fernandez, Stefan; Dawood, Fatimah S; Olsen, Sonja J; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee

    2015-01-01

    Background Since 2009, Thailand has recommended influenza vaccine for children aged 6 months through 2 years, but no estimates of influenza vaccine coverage or effectiveness are available for this target group. Methods During August 2011–May 2013, high-risk and healthy children aged ?36 months were enrolled in a 2-year prospective cohort study. Parents were contacted weekly about acute respiratory illness (ARI) in their child. Ill children had combined nasal and throat swabs tested for influenza viruses by real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Influenza vaccination status was verified with vaccination cards. The Cox proportional hazards approach was used to estimate hazard ratios. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated as 100% x (1-hazard ratio). Results During 2011–2013, 968 children were enrolled (median age, 10·3 months); 948 (97·9%) had a vaccination record and were included. Of these, 394 (41·6%) had ?1 medical conditions. Vaccination coverage for the 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 seasons was 29·3% (93/317) and 30·0% (197/656), respectively. In 2011–2012, there were 213 ARI episodes, of which 10 (4·6%) were influenza positive (2·3 per 1000 vaccinated and 3·8 per 1000 unvaccinated child-weeks). The VE was 55% (95% confidence interval [CI], ?72, 88). In 2012–2013, there were 846 ARIs, of which 52 (6·2%) were influenza positive (1·8 per 1000 vaccinated and 4·5 per 1000 unvaccinated child-weeks). The VE was 64% (CI, 13%, 85%). Conclusion Influenza vaccination coverage among young children in Thailand was low, although vaccination was moderately effective. Continued efforts are needed to increase influenza vaccination coverage and evaluate VE among young children in Thailand. PMID:25557920

  5. Towards a universal vaccine for avian influenza: protective efficacy of modified Vaccinia virus Ankara and Adenovirus vaccines expressing conserved influenza antigens in chickens challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Amy C; Ruiz-Hernandez, Raul; Peroval, Marylene Y; Carson, Connor; Balkissoon, Devanand; Staines, Karen; Turner, Alison V; Hill, Adrian V S; Gilbert, Sarah C; Butter, Colin

    2013-01-11

    Current vaccines targeting surface proteins can drive antigenic variation resulting either in the emergence of more highly pathogenic viruses or of antigenically distinct viruses that escape control by vaccination and thereby persist in the host population. Influenza vaccines typically target the highly mutable surface proteins and do not provide protection against heterologous challenge. Vaccines which induce immune responses against conserved influenza epitopes may confer protection against heterologous challenge. We report here the results of vaccination with recombinant modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and Adenovirus (Ad) expressing a fusion construct of nucleoprotein and matrix protein (NP+M1). Prime and boost vaccination regimes were trialled in different ages of chicken and were found to be safe and immunogenic. Interferon-? (IFN-?) ELISpot was used to assess the cellular immune response post secondary vaccination. In ovo Ad prime followed by a 4 week post hatch MVA boost was identified as the most immunogenic regime in one outbred and two inbred lines of chicken. Following vaccination, one inbred line (C15I) was challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N7 (A/Turkey/England/1977). Birds receiving a primary vaccination with Ad-NP+M1 and a secondary vaccination with MVA-NP+M1 exhibited reduced cloacal shedding as measured by plaque assay at 7 days post infection compared with birds vaccinated with recombinant viruses containing irrelevant antigen. This preliminary indication of efficacy demonstrates proof of concept in birds; induction of T cell responses in chickens by viral vectors containing internal influenza antigens may be a productive strategy for the development of vaccines to induce heterologous protection against influenza in poultry. PMID:23200938

  6. Vaccines protect chickens against H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza in the face of genetic changes in field viruses over multiple years.

    PubMed

    Swayne, D E; Perdue, M L; Beck, J R; Garcia, M; Suarez, D L

    2000-05-22

    Inactivated whole avian influenza (AI) virus vaccines, baculovirus-derived AI haemagglutinin vaccine and recombinant fowlpoxvirus-AI haemagglutinin vaccine were tested for the ability to protect chickens against multiple highly pathogenic (HP) H5 AI viruses. The vaccine and challenge viruses, or their haemagglutinin protein components, were obtained from field AI viruses of diverse backgrounds and included strains obtained from four continents, six host species, and isolated over a 38-year-period. The vaccines protected against clinical signs and death, and reduced the number of chickens shedding virus and the titre of the virus shed following a HP H5 AI virus challenge. Immunization with these vaccines should decrease AI virus shedding from the respiratory and digestive tracts of AI virus exposed chickens and reduce bird-to-bird transmission. Although most consistent reduction in respiratory shedding was afforded when vaccine was more similar to the challenge virus, the genetic drift of avian influenza virus did not interfere with general protection as has been reported for human influenza viruses. PMID:10799788

  7. An infected chicken kidney cell co-culture ELISpot for enhanced detection of T cell responses to avian influenza and vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Hernandez, Raul; Peroval, Marylene; Boyd, Amy; Balkissoon, Devanand; Staines, Karen; Smith, Adrian; Butter, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of the immune responses of chickens to the influenza virus is essential for the development of new strategies of vaccination and control. We have developed a method incorporating infected chicken kidney cells (CKC) in culture with splenocytes in an IFN? ELISpot assay to enumerate ex vivo responses against influenza virus antigens. Splenocytes from birds challenged with influenza showed specific responses to the influenza virus, with responding cells being mainly CD8 positive. The utility of the assay was also demonstrated in the detection of an antigen specific enhancement of IFN? producing cells from birds vaccinated with recombinant Fowlpox vectored influenza nucleoprotein and matrix protein. PMID:25450002

  8. Response to Booster Doses of Hepatitis B Vaccine among Young Adults Who Had Received Neonatal Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Paul K. S.; Ngai, Karry L. K.; Lao, Terence T.; Wong, Martin C. S.; Cheung, Theresa; Yeung, Apple C. M.; Chan, Martin C. W.; Luk, Scotty W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Newborns who have received hepatitis B immunization in 1980s are now young adults joining healthcare disciplines. The need for booster, pre- and post-booster checks becomes a practical question. Aims The aim of this study is to refine the HBV vaccination policy for newly admitted students in the future. Methods A prospective study on medical and nursing school entrants to evaluate hepatitis B serostatus and the response to booster doses among young adults. Findings Among 212 students, 17–23-year-old, born after adoption of neonatal immunization, 2 (0.9%) were HBsAg positive, 40 (18.9%) were anti-HBs positive. At 1 month after a single-dose booster for anti-HBs-negative students, 14.5% had anti-HBs <10 mIU/mL, 29.0% and 56.5% were 10–100 and >100 mIU/mL, respectively. The anti-HBs levels were significantly higher for females than males (mean [SD]: 431 [418] vs. 246 [339] mIU/mL, P?=?0.047). At 2–4 month after the third booster dose, 97.1% had anti-HBs >100 mIU/mL and 2.9% had 10–100 mIU/mL. Conclusions Pre-booster check is still worthwhile to identify carriers among newly recruited healthcare workers born after adoption of neonatal immunization. A 3-dose booster, rather than a single dose, is required for the majority to achieve an anti-HBs level >100 mIU/mL, as memory immunity has declined in a substantial proportion of individuals. Cost-effectiveness of post-booster check for anti-HBs is low and should be further evaluated based on contextual specific utilization of results. PMID:25198289

  9. Are young injection drug users ready and willing to participate in preventive HCV vaccine trials?

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Vivian; Evans, Jennifer L.; Stein, Ellen S.; Davidson, Peter J.; Lum, Paula J.; Hahn, Judith A.; Page, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Trials to evaluate the efficacy of preventive HCV vaccines will need participation from high risk HCV seronegative injection drug users (IDUs). To guide trial planning, we assessed willingness of young IDU in San Francisco to participate in HCV vaccine efficacy trials and evaluate knowledge of vaccine trial concepts: placebo, randomization and blinding. During 2006 and 2007, a total of 67 participants completed the survey. A substantial proportion (88%) would definitely (44%) or probably (44%) be willing to participate in a randomized trial, but knowledge of vaccine trial concepts was low. Reported willingness to participate in an HCV vaccine trial decreased with increasing trial duration, with 67% of participants surveyed willing to participate in a trial of one year duration compared to 43% of participants willing to participate in a trial of 4 years duration. Willingness to enroll in HCV vaccine trials was higher in young IDU than reported by most at-risk populations in HIV vaccine trials. Educational strategies will be needed to ensure understanding of key concepts prior to implementing HCV vaccine trials. PMID:20638453

  10. A comparative study of clinical reactions observed after application of several smallpox vaccines in primary vaccination of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Polak, M. F.; Beunders, B. J. W.; Van Der Werff, A. R.; Sanders, E. W.; Van Klaveren, J. N.; Brans, L. M.

    1963-01-01

    Four smallpox vaccines from different production laboratories were compared in primary vaccination of young adults. Morbidity rate, high fever rate and prolonged fever rate, as defined in this report, were used as gauges for pathogenic potency. Special batches were prepared, in addition, from two of these vaccines after three passages on calf skin. Two vaccines, prepared from the Elstree strain—a sheep lymph and its third calf-passage—were found to be of low pathogenicity. Two calf lymphs, prepared from the Copenhagen strain and the Bern strain respectively, caused clearly higher rates of illness and of height and duration of fever. Two calf lymphs from the Ecuador strain took up an intermediate position. Vaccine potency, as assessed on the chorio-allantoic membrane of developing chick embryos, seems to be of no significance for the course of vaccinia disease caused by two pustules. Besides the pathogenicity of the vaccinia strain, ill-defined extraneous factors might be of importance for the degree of illness observed after primary smallpox vaccination. PMID:14058225

  11. Prime-Boost Immunization Using a DNA Vaccine Delivered by Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and a Killed Vaccine Completely Protects Chickens from H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus?

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhiming; Zhang, Xiaoming; Geng, Shizhong; Fang, Qiang; You, Meng; Zhang, Lei; Jiao, Xinan; Liu, Xiufan

    2010-01-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) has posed a great threat not only for the poultry industry but also for human health. However, an effective vaccine to provide a full spectrum of protection is lacking in the poultry field. In the current study, a novel prime-boost vaccination strategy against H5N1 HPAIV was developed: chickens were first orally immunized with a hemagglutinin (HA) DNA vaccine delivered by attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and boosting with a killed vaccine followed. Chickens in the combined vaccination group but not in single vaccination and control groups were completely protected against disease following H5N1 HPAIV intranasal challenge, with no clinical signs and virus shedding. Chickens in the prime-boost group also generated significantly higher serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers and intestinal mucosal IgA titers against avian influenza virus (AIV) and higher host immune cellular responses than those from other groups before challenge. These results demonstrated that the prime-boost vaccination strategy provides an effective way to prevent and control H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. PMID:20107004

  12. Display of Eimeria tenella EtMic2 protein on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a potential oral vaccine against chicken coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Wang, Longjiang; Wang, Tiantian; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Qing; Chen, Peipei; Chen, Zhengtao; Wang, Fangkun; Li, Hongmei; Xiao, Yihong; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2014-04-01

    S. cerevisiae is generally regarded as safe and benign organism and its surface display system may be used as a unique eukaryotic expression system that is suitable for expressing eukaryotic antigen. In addition to the convenience of vaccine delivery, the yeast cell wall has been shown to enhance the innate immunity when immunized with the yeast live oral vaccine. In the present study, we expressed the chicken coccidian E. tenella EtMic2, a microneme protein, on the surface of the S. cerevisiae and evaluated it as a potential oral vaccine for chicken against E. tenella challenge. The protective efficacy against a homologous challenge was evaluated by body weight gains, lesion scores and fecal oocyst shedding. The results showed that the live oral vaccine can improve weight gains, reduced cecal pathology and lower oocyst fecal shedding compared with non immunized controls. In addition, the yeast oral vaccine could stimulate humoral as well as cell mediate immune responses. These results suggested that EtMic2 displayed on the cell surface of S. cerevisiae could be used as potential live vaccine against chicken coccidiosis. PMID:24530147

  13. Analysis of Salmonella control performance in U.S. young chicken slaughter and pork slaughter establishments.

    PubMed

    Muth, Mary K; Fahimi, Mansour; Karns, Shawn A

    2009-01-01

    In the 1996 U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service's (FSIS) "Pathogen Reduction; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR/HACCP) Systems, Final Rule," Salmonella was selected for microbiological testing and monitoring. Using data from an FSIS-sponsored survey of meat and poultry slaughter establishments, inspection results, and other establishment characteristics, potential variables affecting pathogen control, as measured by Salmonella test results, were investigated. The analysis data sets included 153 federally inspected young chicken slaughter establishments, of which 111 exceeded half the Salmonella performance standard at least once from 2003 through 2005, and 121 federally inspected pork slaughter establishments, of which 28 exceeded half the Salmonella performance standard. Logistic regression results for young chicken slaughter establishments indicate they were more likely to exceed half the standard if they had higher inspection noncompliance rates (P = 0.10) and older production space (P = 0.10), and were less likely to exceed it if they used a higher percentage of raw poultry inputs purchased from outside sources (P = 0.10). Results for pork slaughter establishments indicate they were more likely to exceed half the standard if they had a higher rate of voluntary microbiological testing (P = 0.08), and were less likely to exceed it if they were larger (P = 0.08) and used a higher percentage of raw pork inputs purchased from outside sources (P = 0.02). In general, indicators of plant characteristics, food safety practices, and management philosophy are associated with different levels of pathogen control performance that vary by species slaughtered. PMID:19205457

  14. Montanide(TM) ISA 71 VG adjuvant increases protection against experimental necrotic enteritis in commercial broiler chickens following vaccination with Clostridium perfringens recombinant proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was performed to compare four Clostridium perfringens recombinant proteins as vaccine candidates using the Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant in an experimental model of necrotic enteritis. Broiler chickens were immunized with clostridial recombinant proteins with ISA 71 VG, and intestinal le...

  15. Vaccine protection of chickens against antigenically diverse H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza isolates with a live HVT vector vaccine expressing the influenza hemagglutinin gene derived from a clade 2.2 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Esaki, Motoyuki; Dorsey, Kristi M; Jiang, Haijun; Jackwood, Mark; Moraes, Mauro; Gardin, Yannick

    2015-02-25

    Vaccination is an important tool in the protection of poultry against avian influenza (AI). For field use, the overwhelming majority of AI vaccines produced are inactivated whole virus formulated into an oil emulsion. However, recombinant vectored vaccines are gaining use for their ability to induce protection against heterologous isolates and ability to overcome maternal antibody interference. In these studies, we compared protection of chickens provided by a turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vector vaccine expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 strain (A/swan/Hungary/4999/2006) against homologous H5N1 as well as heterologous H5N1 and H5N2 highly pathogenic (HP) AI challenge. The results demonstrated all vaccinated birds were protected from clinical signs of disease and mortality following homologous challenge. In addition, oral and cloacal swabs taken from challenged birds demonstrated that vaccinated birds had lower incidence and titers of viral shedding compared to sham-vaccinated birds. Following heterologous H5N1 or H5N2 HPAI challenge, 80-95% of birds receiving the HVT vector AI vaccine at day of age survived challenge with fewer birds shedding virus after challenge than sham vaccinated birds. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis demonstrated that splenic T lymphocytes from HVT-vector-AI vaccinated chickens recognized MHC-matched target cells infected with H5, as well as H6, H7, or H9 AI virus. Taken together, these studies provide support for the use of HVT vector vaccines expressing HA to protect poultry against multiple lineages of HPAI, and that both humoral and cellular immunity induced by live vaccines likely contributes to protection. PMID:25613723

  16. HPV Vaccination Among Young Adult Women: A Perspective From Appalachian Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    Head, Katharine J.; Vanderpool, Robin C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have assessed barriers to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake and adherence, particularly among women of Appalachian Kentucky, a population with higher rates of cervical cancer, lower rates of HPV vaccination, and lower socioeconomic status compared with the rest of the nation. The objective of this study was to address women’s reasons for declining the HPV vaccine and, among women who initiated the vaccine series, barriers to completion of the 3-dose regimen. Methods We recruited 17 women aged 18 to 26 from a Federally Qualified Health Center who participated in in-depth, semistructured telephone interviews. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim; analysis of the interview transcripts was an iterative process conducted by all 3 authors. Results We identified 3 primary barriers: 1) a knowledge gap wherein women are both uninformed and misinformed about cervical cancer, HPV, and the HPV vaccine, all of which affect vaccination behaviors; 2) environmental and tangible barriers (transportation and prioritizing health over other responsibilities such as child care, work, and school); and 3) ambiguous information sources, which contribute to misinformation and subsequently affect vaccination decisions. Conclusion Health professionals should use clear and purposeful communication about how cervical cancer develops, the purpose and safety of the HPV vaccine, and the necessity of completing the 3-dose series. Health promotion campaigns and services tailored for young women in Appalachian Kentucky that focus on increasing knowledge and eliminating barriers are needed. PMID:23391293

  17. Long-Term T-Cell-Mediated Immunologic Memory to Hepatitis B Vaccine in Young Adults Following Neonatal Vaccination.

    PubMed Central

    Saffar, Hiva; Saffar, Mohammed Jafar; Ajami, Abolghasem; Khalilian, Ali Reza; Shams-Esfandabad, Kian; Mirabi, Araz Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The long-term duration of cell-mediated immunity induced by neonatal hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination is unknown. Objectives: Study was designed to determine the cellular immunity memory status among young adults twenty years after infantile HB immunization. Patients and Methods: Study subjects were party selected from a recent seroepidemiologic study in young adults, who had been vaccinated against HBV twenty years earlier. Just before and ten to 14 days after one dose of HBV vaccine booster injection, blood samples were obtained and sera concentration of cytokines (interleukin 2 and interferon) was measured. More than twofold increase after boosting was considered positive immune response. With regard to the serum level of antibody against HBV surface antigen (HBsAb) before boosting, the subjects were divided into four groups as follow: GI, HBsAb titer < 2; GII, titer 2 to 9.9; GIII, titer 10 to 99; and GIV, titers ? 100 IU/L. Mean concentration level (MCL) of each cytokines for each group at preboosting and postboosting and the proportion of responders in each groups were determined. Paired descriptive statistical analysis method (t test) was used to compare the MCL of each cytokines in each and between groups and the frequency of responders in each group. Results: Before boosting, among 176 boosted individuals, 75 (42.6%) had HBsAb 10 IU/L and were considered seroprotected. Among 101 serosusceptible persons, more than 80% of boosted individuals showed more than twofold increase in cytokines concentration, which meant positive HBsAg-specific cell-mediated immunity. MCL of both cytokines after boosting in GIV were decreased more than twofold, possibly because of recent natural boosting. Conclusions: Findings showed that neonatal HBV immunization was efficacious in inducing long-term immunity and cell-mediated immune memory for up to two decades, and booster vaccination are not required. Further monitoring of vaccinated subjects for HBV infections are recommended. PMID:25368659

  18. Importance of a prime-boost DNA/protein vaccination to protect chickens against low-pathogenic H7 avian influenza infection.

    PubMed

    Le Gall-Reculé, G; Cherbonnel, M; Pelotte, N; Blanchard, P; Morin, Y; Jestin, V

    2007-03-01

    Control of H5/H7 low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus circulation is a major issue regarding animal and public health consequences. To improve vaccines and to prevent vaccinated poultry from becoming infected and from shedding wild viruses, we initiated studies targeting prevention of H7 infection through DNA vaccines encoding H7 and M1 viral proteins from an Italian H7N1 LPAI virus isolated from poultry in 1999. More recently, we expressed recombinant H7 and M1 proteins in the baculovirus system to assess whether they might enhance immunity when given as a boost after DNA vaccination. The protection afforded by three vaccine combinations-DNA/DNA, DNA/protein, protein/protein-given 3 wk apart were experimentally compared in 20 specific-pathogen-free chickens per group. Ten days after the boost, chickens were challenged with a homologous (Italian H7N1 LPAI) or heterologous (French H7N1 LPAI isolated from mallards in 2001) virus. Tracheal and cloacal shedding was measured by a matrix gene (M)-based real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay and compared with that displayed by unvaccinated infected controls. After the homologous challenge, chickens of every vaccinated group displayed a significant decrease in cloacal shedding, whereas tracheal shedding was not significantly reduced in the protein/protein group. After the heterologous challenge, only the DNA/DNA group showed a nonsignificant decrease in tracheal shedding. According to these two trials, prime-boost DNA/protein vaccination appeared be more advantageous. Further development could be aimed at improving protein expression, shifting subtype (H5), and assessing the interest of proteins as a boost of recombinant vaccines. PMID:17494616

  19. The Role of Social Support in Young Women's Communication About the Genital HPV Vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aimee E. Miller-Ott; Wesley T. Durham

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the function of social support in communication about women's sexual health topics is an important avenue of research for communication scholars. The goal of the present study was to examine the role of social support in young women's communication about receiving or not receiving the genital HPV vaccine, Gardasil. In 10 focus groups, 52 female participants between ages 18

  20. Progress and problems in vaccination against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mot, Dorien; Timbermont, Leen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Necrotic enteritis in broilers is caused by Clostridium perfringens type A strains that produce the NetB toxin. Necrotic enteritis is one of the gastrointestinal diseases in poultry that has gained worldwide importance during the last decade due to efforts to improve broiler performance. Prevention strategies include avoiding predisposing factors, such as coccidiosis, and in-feed supplementation with a variety of feed additives. However, vaccination with modified toxin or other secreted immunogenic proteins seems a logical preventive tool for protection against a toxin-producing bacterium. Formalin-inactivated crude supernatant has been used initially for vaccination. Several studies have been carried out recently to identify the most important immunogenic and protective proteins that can be used for vaccination. These include the NetB toxin, as well as a number of other proteins. There is evidence that immunization with single proteins is not protective against severe challenge and that combinations of different antigens are needed. Most published studies have used multiple dosage vaccination regimens that are not relevant for practical use in the broiler industry. Single vaccination regimens for 1-day-old chicks appear to be non-protective. This review describes the history of vaccination strategies against necrotic enteritis in broilers and gives an update on future vaccination strategies that are applicable in the field. These may include breeder hen vaccination, in ovo vaccination and live attenuated vectors to be used in feed or in drinking water. PMID:24980518

  1. Genomic sequence analysis of the United States infectious laryngotracheitis vaccine strains chicken embryo origin (CEO) and tissue culture origin (TCO).

    PubMed

    García, Maricarmen; Volkening, Jeremy; Riblet, Sylva; Spatz, Stephen

    2013-05-25

    The genomic sequences of low and high passages of the United States infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) vaccine strains CEO and TCO were determined using hybrid next generation sequencing in order to define genomic changes associated with attenuation and reversion to virulence. Phylogenetic analysis of available full genomes grouped strains into three major clades: TCO, CEO, and Australian. Comparative genomics revealed that TCO attenuation is likely the result of an ORF C truncation. Genes involved in attenuation are generally clade-specific, however four genes ORF C, UL27, UL28 and UL39 commonly contained various mutations across the CEO and TCO lineages. The Thr644 mutation in the UL27 gene encoding glycoprotein B was identified in all virulent US strains. The US10 gene was identified as a potential virulence factor for the TCO revertant 81658. The UL41 gene was responsible for the robust gain in virulence of CEO-Fowl Laryngotracheitis(®) after 20 passages in chickens. PMID:23537957

  2. Vaccination of chickens against avian influenza using yeast cell surface display of H5 hemagglutinin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional vaccination methods for avian influenza (AI) require costly and time-consuming injection of individual birds, often multiple times, in order to produce protection. These vaccines are difficult to change quickly in response to new threats as manufacturing takes time. Yeast are an ideal ...

  3. Passive antibody transfer in chickens to model maternal antibody after avian influenza vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal antibodies (MAb) may interfere with avian influenza (AI) vaccination. MAb interference prevents an immune response by binding to the vaccine antigen. Once MAb titers are depleted, the chick is susceptible to a circulating AI virus. This study examined the affect of MAb on seroconversion ...

  4. Evaluation of Protective Efficacy of Live Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Gallinarum Vaccine Strains against Fowl Typhoid in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    ?aniewski, Pawe?; Mitra, Arindam; Karaca, Kemal; Khan, Ayub; Prasad, Rajeev; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum is the etiological agent of fowl typhoid, which constitutes a considerable economic problem for poultry growers in developing countries. The vaccination of chickens seems to be the most effective strategy to control the disease in those areas. We constructed S. Gallinarum strains with a deletion of the global regulatory gene fur and evaluated their virulence and protective efficacy in Rhode Island Red chicks and Brown Leghorn layers. The fur deletion mutant was avirulent and, when delivered orally to chicks, elicited excellent protection against lethal S. Gallinarum challenge. It was not as effective when given orally to older birds, although it was highly immunogenic when delivered by intramuscular injection. We also examined the effect of a pmi mutant and a combination of fur deletions with mutations in the pmi and rfaH genes, which affect O-antigen synthesis, and ansB, whose product inhibits host T-cell responses. The S. Gallinarum ?pmi mutant was only partially attenuated, and the ?ansB mutant was fully virulent. The ?fur ?pmi and ?fur ?ansB double mutants were attenuated but not protective when delivered orally to the chicks. However, a ?pmi ?fur strain was highly immunogenic when administered intramuscularly. All together, our results show that the fur gene is essential for the virulence of S. Gallinarum, and the fur mutant is effective as a live recombinant vaccine against fowl typhoid. PMID:24990908

  5. Evaluation of protective efficacy of live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum vaccine strains against fowl typhoid in chickens.

    PubMed

    Laniewski, Pawe?; Mitra, Arindam; Karaca, Kemal; Khan, Ayub; Prasad, Rajeev; Curtiss, Roy; Roland, Kenneth L

    2014-09-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum is the etiological agent of fowl typhoid, which constitutes a considerable economic problem for poultry growers in developing countries. The vaccination of chickens seems to be the most effective strategy to control the disease in those areas. We constructed S. Gallinarum strains with a deletion of the global regulatory gene fur and evaluated their virulence and protective efficacy in Rhode Island Red chicks and Brown Leghorn layers. The fur deletion mutant was avirulent and, when delivered orally to chicks, elicited excellent protection against lethal S. Gallinarum challenge. It was not as effective when given orally to older birds, although it was highly immunogenic when delivered by intramuscular injection. We also examined the effect of a pmi mutant and a combination of fur deletions with mutations in the pmi and rfaH genes, which affect O-antigen synthesis, and ansB, whose product inhibits host T-cell responses. The S. Gallinarum ?pmi mutant was only partially attenuated, and the ?ansB mutant was fully virulent. The ?fur ?pmi and ?fur ?ansB double mutants were attenuated but not protective when delivered orally to the chicks. However, a ?pmi ?fur strain was highly immunogenic when administered intramuscularly. All together, our results show that the fur gene is essential for the virulence of S. Gallinarum, and the fur mutant is effective as a live recombinant vaccine against fowl typhoid. PMID:24990908

  6. Recombinant M2e protein-based ELISA: a novel and inexpensive approach for differentiating avian influenza infected chickens from vaccinated ones.

    PubMed

    Hemmatzadeh, Farhid; Sumarningsih, Sumarningsih; Tarigan, Simson; Indriani, Risa; Dharmayanti, N L P Indi; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Igniatovic, Jagoda

    2013-01-01

    Available avian influenza (AIV) serological diagnostic tests cannot distinguish vaccinated from naturally infected birds. Differentiation of vaccinated from infected animals (DIVA) is currently advocated as a means of achieving the full control of H5N1. In this study, for the first time, recombinant ectodomain of M2 protein (M2e) of avian influenza virus (H5N1 strain) was used for the DIVA serology test. M2e was cloned into pMAL-P4X vector and expressed in E. coli cells. We used Western blot to recognize the expressed M2e-MBP protein by chicken antisera produced against live H5N1 virus. Also, the specificity of M2e-MBP protein was compared to the M2e synthetic peptide via ELISA. In M2e-MBP ELISA, all sera raised against the live avian influenza viruses were positive for M2e antibodies, whereas sera from killed virus vaccination were negative. Furthermore, M2e-MBP ELISA of the field sera obtained from vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens showed negative results, while challenged vaccinated chickens demonstrated strong positive reactions. H5N1-originated recombinant M2e protein induced broad-spectrum response and successfully reacted with antibodies against other AIV strains such as H5N2, H9N2, H7N7, and H11N6. The application of the recombinant protein instead of synthetic peptide has the advantages of continues access to an inexpensive reagent for performing a large scale screening. Moreover, recombinant proteins provide the possibility of testing the DIVA results with an additional technique such a Western blotting which is not possible in the case of synthetic proteins. All together, the results of the present investigation show that recombinant M2e-MBP can be used as a robust and inexpensive solution for DIVA test. PMID:23437243

  7. Efficacy of soluble recombinant FliC protein from Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis as a potential vaccine candidate against homologous challenge in chickens.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Masashi; Matsumoto, Wakako; Seike, Fumio; Tanaka, Yuuya; Teratani, Chie; Tozuka, Maki; Kashimoto, Takashige; Takehara, Kazuaki; Nakamura, Masayuki; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

    2012-06-01

    FliC, the flagellin antigen of Salmonella Enteritidis, was tested as a vaccine candidate for protective effect against a homologous challenge in chickens. After immunization with recombinant FliC (rFliC) or administration of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 56 days old, the chickens were challenged with 10(9) colony-forming units of Salmonella Enteritidis at 76 days old. The vaccinated birds showed significantly decreased bacterial counts in the liver and cecal contents compared to those administered PBS at 7 days postchallenge, but the protection was partial. The replication experiment also showed a similar result. In both experiments, vaccination induced an increased level of serum anti-rFliC IgG, which was also reactive to the native flagella. The intestinal IgA level was slightly higher in the vaccinated birds than in the control. However, neither the proliferative response nor interferon-gamma secretion of splenic cells upon stimulation with rFliC was induced. Therefore, the effect of rFliC as a vaccine is limited, and further improvement is needed. PMID:22856193

  8. IMMUNOLOGY, HEALTH, AND DISEASE Immune Response to a Killed Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Vaccine in Inbred Chicken Lines with Different Major Histocompatibility Complex Haplotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Juul-Madsen; T. S. Dalgaard; C. M. Røntved; K. H. Jensen; N. Bumstead

    The influence of MHC on antibody re- sponses to killed infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine was investigated in several MHC inbred chicken lines. We found a notable MHC haplotype effect on the specific antibody response against IBDV as measured by ELISA. Some MHC haplotypes were high responders (B201,B4, andBR5), whereas other MHC haplotypes were low responders (B19, B12 and

  9. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine does not influence Staphylococcus aureus carriage in young children with acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Robert; Levy, Corinne; Thollot, Franck; de La Rocque, France; Koskas, Marc; Bonnet, Eric; Fritzell, Bernard; Varon, Emmanuelle

    2007-12-15

    We investigated nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus among infants and young children with acute otitis media in a country where use of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has been progressively implemented. Among 1783 children enrolled, 60.8% carried S. pneumoniae, and 9% carried S. aureus. Among S. pneumoniae carriers, the rate of S. aureus carriage was 8.4%, compared with 9.9% among S. pneumoniae noncarriers. The rate of S. pneumoniae carriage in the PCV7-vaccinated population was lower (59.8%) than that observed in the nonvaccinated population (66.2%; P<.04). In contrast, in young children (age, <2 years) with acute otitis media, our study suggests that the S. aureus carriage rate is not affected by PCV7 immunization (9.0% in vaccinated children vs. 8.7% in nonvaccinated children). Furthermore, in children aged >1 year, the booster dose induces a sharp reduction in the carriage of vaccine serotypes of S. pneumoniae, without any change in S. aureus carriage. PMID:18190319

  10. Passive antibody transfer in chickens to model maternal antibody after avian influenza vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birds transfer maternal antibodies (MAb) to their offspring through the egg yolk where the antibody is absorbed and enters the circulatory system. Maternal antibodies provide early protection from disease, but may interfere with the vaccination efficacy in the chick. MAb are thought to interfere wit...

  11. Early feeding affects resistance against cold exposure in young broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, H; Molenaar, R; van der Star, I; Meijerhof, R

    2010-04-01

    In field conditions, a fasting period of 24 to 72 h after hatch is common, which is associated with delayed gastrointestinal development and yolk utilization and retarded subsequent performance. Hardly any information is available about the influence of diet composition in the first days on later life and additionally, effects of early feeding on thermoregulatory development are also not known. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of diet composition in early fed broiler chickens on their (thermoregulatory) development. Shortly after hatch, 200 Hybro chickens (initial BW of 43.6 g) were assigned to 1 of 5 feed treatments: control, dextrose, albumen, prestarter, or prestarter plus fat. Water was available ad libitum. Measurements were done in 10 replicates of 4 chickens per treatment. At d 2 or 3, half of the chickens were exposed to 20 degrees C for 30 min to determine resistance against cold exposure and rectal temperature was determined just before, immediately after, and 30 min after the end of this cold exposure. Thereafter, all chickens were killed to investigate body development. Chickens in both prestarter groups developed faster than in the other 3 groups, expressed by a higher BW, yolk-free body mass, heart and liver weight, and higher chick and intestine length. Between d 2 and 3, differences in these variables among chickens from both prestarter groups and other groups increased. Rectal temperature before cold exposure was higher in chickens from both prestarter groups (40.6 and 40.7 degrees C, respectively) and decreased less (0.6 and 0.7 degrees C, respectively) during cold exposure than in chickens from the control (39.5 and 1.2 degrees C, respectively) and albumen group (39.8 and 2.1 degrees C, respectively), whereas chickens from the dextrose group were in between (40.4 and 1.2 degrees C, respectively). We conclude that early fed diet composition in broiler chickens is (besides general development) important for development of both body temperature and resistance against cold exposure, probably as a reflection of a changed metabolic rate. PMID:20308403

  12. Efficacy of an anticoccidial live vaccine in prevention of necrotic enteritis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Bangoura, Berit; Alnassan, Alaa Aldin; Lendner, Matthias; Shehata, Awad Ali; Krüger, Monika; Daugschies, Arwid

    2014-10-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an important disease in poultry caused by Clostridium perfringens combined with predisposing factors, mainly eimeriosis. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of a commercial attenuated anticoccidial live vaccine against NE in a clinical infection model using 60 day-old chicks. Vaccination was performed on study day (SD) 1 with natural booster-infections for 4 weeks from Eimeria spp. oocysts present in litter. On SD 28, five groups were formed (n=12): group V+/C-E- (vaccinated, uninfected), group V+/C-E+ (vaccinated, infected with Eimeria spp.), group V+/C+E+ (vaccinated, infected with clostridia and Eimeria spp.), group V-/C+E+ (unvaccinated, infected with clostridia and Eimeria spp.), and group NC (negative control). Efficacy was measured by clinical parameters, pathogen multiplication, and pathological parameters assessed during two necropsies on SD 34 and SD 40, respectively. Additionally, cytokine expression was measured in gut and spleen tissues at necropsy. Clinical signs of NE were observed only in the coinfected groups, mainly in group V-/C+E+. Accordingly, lowest body weight gain was observed in group V-/C+E+ (301.8 g from SD 28 to SD 40; group NC: 626.2 g). Oocyst excretion varied significantly (P<0.01) between all Eimeria spp. infected groups and was highest in group V-/C+E+, followed by V+/C+E+, and lowest in group V+/C-E+. NE typical intestinal lesions showed only in groups V+/C+E+ and V-/C+E+. The intestinal mucosa featured partly severe lesions in the jejunum, C. perfringens colonization was histologically visible. Upregulation of IFN-?, was observed in the jejunal tissue of group V-/C+E+ (P<0.01 (SD 34) or P<0.05 (SD 40) compared to all other groups). IL-10 and IL-12 were upregulated in group V-/C+E+, IL-10 also in group V+/C+E+ (SD 40) while IL-2 expression remained unaltered. In conclusion, vaccination against coccidiosis was effective in preventing NE in a mixed infection comparable to field situations. PMID:25131774

  13. SAFETY EVALUATION IN CHICKENS OF CANDIDATE HUMAN VACCINES AGAINST POTENTIAL PANDEMIC STRAINS OF INFLUENZA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two candidate formalin-inactivated vaccines, derived from high-growth reassortant viruses with the HA and NA genes from avian viruses in a background of genes derived from A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8), were prepared against H5N1 and H9N2 subtypes (designated as H5N1/PR8 and H9N2/PR8 respectively). These...

  14. SAFETY EVALUATION IN CHICKENS OF CANDIDATE HUMAN VACCINES AGAINST POTENTIAL PANDEMIC STRAINS OF INFLUENZA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two candidate formalin-inactivated vaccines, made from high-growth reassortant viruses with the HA and NA genes from avian viruses in a background of genes derived from A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8), were prepared against H5N1 and H9N2 subtypes (designated as H5N1/PR8 and H9N2/PR8 respectively). These vi...

  15. Parental reasons for non-uptake of influenza vaccination in young at-risk groups: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Rod; Wong, Lucia; MacVicar, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Background Uptake rates of influenza vaccination in young at-risk groups in primary care (UK) are known to be poor. Aim To explore parental reasons for non-uptake of influenza vaccination in young at-risk groups. The study hypothesis was that exploration of parental reasons for non-uptake may reveal important barriers to an effective influenza vaccination programme. Design and setting Thematic analysis of a questionnaire survey with interview follow-up at a single general practice in Inverness, Scotland. Method Parents of children identified as being in an at-risk group for influenza vaccination but who had not received vaccination were sent questionnaires and offered the opportunity to take part in a follow-up interview. Results Several key themes emerged, including uncertainty about the indication for vaccination, issues of choice, challenges with access, lack of parental priority, and issues relating to health beliefs. Conclusion Any attempt to improve the vaccination rate needs to address the range of decision-making processes undertaken by parents and children. Better and more tailored information and educational delivery to parents, patients, and healthcare providers may lead to an increase in the rates of influenza vaccination uptake in at-risk children. Access is a barrier described by some parents. PMID:21722445

  16. Genomic and Phylogenetic Characterization of Novel, Recombinant H5N2 Avian Influenza Virus Strains Isolated from Vaccinated Chickens with Clinical Symptoms in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huaiying; Meng, Fang; Huang, Dihai; Sheng, Xiaodan; Wang, Youling; Zhang, Wei; Chang, Weishan; Wang, Leyi; Qin, Zhuoming

    2015-01-01

    Infection of poultry with diverse lineages of H5N2 avian influenza viruses has been documented for over three decades in different parts of the world, with limited outbreaks caused by this highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. In the present study, three avian H5N2 influenza viruses, A/chicken/Shijiazhuang/1209/2013, A/chicken/Chiping/0321/2014, and A/chicken/Laiwu/0313/2014, were isolated from chickens with clinical symptoms of avian influenza. Complete genomic and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that all three isolates are novel recombinant viruses with hemagglutinin (HA) and matrix (M) genes derived from H5N1, and remaining genes derived from H9N2-like viruses. The HA cleavage motif in all three strains (PQIEGRRRKR/GL) is characteristic of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strain. These results indicate the occurrence of H5N2 recombination and highlight the importance of continued surveillance of the H5N2 subtype virus and reformulation of vaccine strains. PMID:25723387

  17. Outbreak-related mumps vaccine effectiveness among a cohort of children and of young adults in Germany 2011

    PubMed Central

    Takla, Anja; Böhmer, Merle M; Klinc, Christina; Kurz, Norbert; Schaffer, Alice; Stich, Heribert; Stöcker, Petra; Wichmann, Ole; Koch, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Mumps outbreaks in populations with high 2-dose vaccination coverage and among young adults are increasingly reported. However, data on the duration of vaccine-induced protection conferred by mumps vaccines are scarce. As part of a supra-regional outbreak in Germany 2010/11, we conducted two retrospective cohort studies in a primary school and among adult ice hockey teams to determine mumps vaccine effectiveness (VE). Via questionnaires we collected information on demography, clinical manifestations, and reviewed vaccination cards. We estimated VE as 1-RR, RR being the rate ratio of disease among two-times or one-time mumps-vaccinated compared with unvaccinated persons. The response rate was 92.6% (100/108—children cohort) and 91.7% (44/48—adult cohort). Fourteen cases were identified in the children and 6 in the adult cohort. In the children cohort (mean age: 9 y), 2-dose VE was 91.9% (95% CI 81.0–96.5%). In the adult cohort (mean age: 26 y), no cases occurred among the 13 2-times vaccinated, while 1-dose VE was 50.0% (95% CI –9.4–87.1%). Average time since last vaccination showed no significant difference for cases and non-cases, but cases were younger at age of last mumps vaccination (children cohort: 2 vs. 3 y, P = 0.04; adult cohort: 1 vs. 4 y, P = 0.03). We did not observe signs of waning immunity in the children cohort. Due to the small sample size VE in the adult cohort should be interpreted with caution. Given the estimated VE, very high 2-dose vaccination coverage is required to prevent future outbreaks. Intervention efforts to increase coverage must especially target young adults who received <2 vaccinations during childhood. PMID:24091837

  18. A pseudotype baculovirus-mediated vaccine confers protective immunity against lethal challenge with H5N1 avian influenza virus in mice and chickens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qunfeng; Fang, Liurong; Wu, Xuebao; Li, Bin; Luo, Rui; Yu, Zhengjun; Jin, Meilin; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2009-07-01

    Baculovirus has emerged recently as a novel and attractive gene delivery vehicle for mammalian cells. In this study, baculovirus pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein was used as a vector to express the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus, A/Chicken/Hubei/327/2004 (HB/327). The resultant recombinant baculovirus (BV-G-HA) mediated gene delivery and HA expression efficiently in mammalian cells. Mice immunized with 1 x 10(9)PFU of BV-G-HA developed significantly higher levels of H5-specific antibodies and cellular immunity than those that received 100 microg of DNA vaccines expressing HA, and were completely protected from lethal challenge with HB/327. Different vaccination doses were further tested in chickens, and these experiments demonstrated that 1 x 10(8)PFU of BV-G-HA offered complete protection from challenge with 100 LD(50) of HB/327. These data indicate that the pseudotype baculovirus-mediated vaccine could be utilized as an alternative strategy against the pandemic spread of H5N1 influenza virus. PMID:19446339

  19. Impact of coccidial infection on vaccine- and vvIBDV in lymphoid tissues of SPF chickens as detected by RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt J; Bisgaard, Magne

    2006-01-01

    Background This study aimed at investigating a potential effect caused by coccidia on the immune response to vaccine- and very virulent infectious bursal disase virus (vvIBDV) in SPF chickens. Methods Two groups of three weeks old SPF chickens were vaccinated prior to inoculation with coccidia and challenge with virulent IBDV, all within a period of eight days. Two control groups were similarly treated, except that challenge with field virus was omitted in one group while inoculation with coccidia was omitted in the other group. Clinical signs, lesions in the intestines caused by coccidia, lesions in the bursa of Fabricius caused by IBDV, IBDV-antibody titres, and virus detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were compared among the groups. Lymphoid tissues and swab samples were analysed by general RT-PCR, and positive results were identified by strain specific duplex (DPX) RT-PCR. Results In the tripple-infected groups, vaccine strain IBDV was detected in spleen and thymus tissues, and no field virus was detected in bursa samples, contrary to the double-infected groups. Conclusion The results suggest an enhancing effect on the immune response caused by subclinical coccidiosis and vvIBDV acting in concert. PMID:16987396

  20. A genetically engineered derivative of Salmonella Enteritidis as a novel live vaccine candidate for salmonellosis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Nandre, Rahul M; Matsuda, Kiku; Chaudhari, Atul A; Kim, Bumseok; Lee, John Hwa

    2012-10-01

    To construct a novel live Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccine candidate, SE was genetically engineered using the allelic exchange method to delete two virulence genes, lon and cpxR. The lon gene deletion is essential to impair Salmonella replication and avoid overwhelming systemic disease in the host. The cpxR gene deletion is needed to enhance the ability of bacteria to adhere and invade the host cell. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the derivatives JOL917 (?lon), JOL918 (?cpxR), and JOL919 (?lon/?cpxR) had increased surface fimbrial filamentous structures. Significant elevations of extracellular polysaccharide and FimA expression were observed for the derivatives compared to the parental wild type JOL860, while biochemical properties of the derivatives were not altered. In the safety examination by inoculation of the derivatives in chickens, gross lesion scores of the liver, spleen, kidney, small intestine and caecal tonsils were moderate in the JOL917 and JOL918 groups, and significantly lower in the JOL919 group than those of the JOL860. Bacterial counts from the spleen and caeca of the JOL917 and JOL918 groups were moderate, and significantly reduced in the JOL919 group compared to the JOL860 group. In addition, only the JOL919 group showed significantly lower bacterial counts in the faecal samples than those of the JOL860 group. Significant elevations of IgG and secretory IgA levels observed in the derivative groups, while the JOL919 and JOL860 groups showed a potent lymphocyte proliferation response as compared to those of the control group. In the protection efficacy examination, JOL919 immunized group showed significantly lower depression, lower gross lesion in the liver and spleen, and lower number of the SE positive internal organs than those of the control group against a virulent wild type SE challenge. PMID:22192447

  1. Vaccines

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    Vaccinations are injections of antigens into the body. Once the antigens enter the blood, they circulate along ... suppressor T cells stop the attack. After a vaccination, the body will have a memory of an ...

  2. Factors associated with the persuasiveness of direct-to-consumer advertising on HPV vaccination among young women.

    PubMed

    Manika, Danae; Ball, Jennifer G; Stout, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study explored young women's response to direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising (DTCA) for a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. In particular, the study examined (a) the association of factors stemming from consumer research with actual and intended behavioral responses to DTCA for HPV and (b) key elements drawn from commonly used health-related theories to determine the strongest associations with behavioral intentions regarding the HPV vaccine. Survey findings showed that vaccinated women indicated that DTCA played a role in their decision to get vaccinated against HPV more so than those who were not vaccinated. Trust in DTCA for an HPV vaccine brand was significantly related to intentions to seek more information about the vaccine. Also, perceived barriers had the only significant association with behavioral intentions when taking into account perceived threat and response efficacy. These results provide practical implications for key industry decision makers and health communication professionals on the design of effective theory-based health communication message content for an HPV vaccine brand with consequent social implications. PMID:24708436

  3. Secondary measles vaccine failures identified by measurement of IgG avidity: high occurrence among teenagers vaccinated at a young age.

    PubMed Central

    Paunio, M.; Hedman, K.; Davidkin, I.; Valle, M.; Heinonen, O. P.; Leinikki, P.; Salmi, A.; Peltola, H.

    2000-01-01

    Failure to seroconvert (primary vaccine failure) is believed to be the principal reason (approx. > 95%) why some vaccinees remain susceptible to measles and is often attributed to the persistence of maternal antibodies in children vaccinated at a young age. Avidity testing is able to separate primary from secondary vaccine failures (waning and/or incomplete immunity), but has not been utilized in measles epidemiology. Low-avidity (LA) and high-avidity (HA) virus-specific IgG antibodies indicate primary and secondary failure, respectively. Measles vaccine failures (n = 142; mean age 10.1 years, range 2-22 years) from an outbreak in 1988-9 in Finland were tested for measles-virus IgG avidity using a protein denaturating EIA. Severity of measles was recorded in 89 failures and 169 non-vaccinees (mean age 16.2 years, range 2-22 years). The patients with HA antibodies (n = 28) tended to have clinically mild measles and rapid IgG response. Among failures vaccinated at < 12, 12-15 and > 15 months of age with single doses of Schwarz-strain vaccine in the 1970s, 50 (95% CI 1-99), 36 (CI 16-56) and 25% (CI 8-42) had HA antibodies, respectively. When a single measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine had been given after 1982 at 15 months of age, only 7% (CI 0-14) showed HA antibodies. Omitting re-vaccinees and those vaccinated at < 15 months, Schwarz-strain recipients had 3.6 (CI 1.1-11.5) higher occurrence of HA responses compared to MMR recipients. Apart from one municipality, where even re-vaccinees had high risk of primary infection, 89% (CI 69 to approximately 100) of the infected re-vaccinees had an HA response. Secondary measles-vaccine failures are more common than was more previously thought, particularly among individuals vaccinated in early life, long ago, and among re-vaccinees. Waning immunity even among individuals vaccinated after 15 months of age, without the boosting effect of natural infections should be considered a relevant possibility in future planning of vaccination against measles. PMID:10813152

  4. PROTECTION AGAINST CAO2ENDV CHALLENGE OF CHICKENS VACCINATED WITH INACTIVATED VACCINES OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS (NDV) FROM DIFFERENT GENETIC LINEAGES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparison of the serological response and protection induced by vaccines prepared from NDV strains that represent genetically diverse isolates of the avian paramyxovirus type 1 serotype was made. Four-week-old leghorns were vaccinated with one of six different BPL inactivated vaccines; B1, Ulster...

  5. Characteristics Associated With Initiation of the HPV Vaccine Among a National Sample of Male and Female Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bernat, Debra H.; Gerend, Mary A.; Chevallier, Kenya; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine rates of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation, and characteristics associated with initiation, among a national sample of male and female young adults. Methods Participants (n=3,448; 48% female) were recruited using a web-based respondent driven sampling strategy and completed a web-based survey between October and December 2010. Results Forty-five percent of females and four percent of males initiated the vaccine. Females who were younger, never married, in school, attended religious services less than once a month, sexually active, reported a greater number of lifetime sex partners, and who had been tested for HIV were more likely to report initiation. Males who were African American, attended religious services less than once a month, reported a greater number of sex partners in their lifetime and who had been tested for HIV were more likely to report initiation. Conclusions Factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation may differ for males and females. Further research, with larger samples of males, is needed to fully understand characteristics associated with male initiation. Regardless of gender, however, the majority of young adults who have not initiated sexual activity have not received the vaccine. Further research is needed to examine how to increase vaccination rates among this population, as they may benefit most from vaccination. PMID:24138764

  6. Effect of in ovo vaccination and anticoccidials on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on used litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on used litter. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either chemi...

  7. Lymphatic involution and early mortality in the young chicken produced by 2.2 GeV protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montour, J. L.; Shellabarger, C. J.

    1972-01-01

    Young single-comb white Leghorn cockerels were subjected to single acute doses of either 2.2 GeV protons or 250 kVp X-rays. Since young chickens exposed in the lethal range die within 48 hours of exposure, an hourly tabulation of deaths was recorded for this length of time after exposure. Animals which were exposed to sublethal doses were killed five days after exposure and their major lymphatic organs, (thymus, bursa, and spleen), removed and weighed. In the lethal range, animals exposed to 2.2 GeV protons died sooner than those receiving similar doses of X-rays, but total mortality was similar in each case at similar dose levels. The 48 hour LD sub 50 was determined to be 710 rad. Measured five days after exposure, 50% depression ED sub 50 for lymphatic organs occurred as follows: (1) thymus, 350 rad; (2) pursa, 500 rad, and (3) spleen, 450 rad. In all case R.B.E. values were not different from unity.

  8. Barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccination of young women in high-income countries: a qualitative systematic review and evidence synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is recommended for adolescent young women prior to sexual debut to reduce cervical cancer related mortality and morbidity. Understanding factors affecting decision-making of HPV vaccination of young women is important so that effective interventions can be developed which address barriers to uptake in population groups less likely to receive the HPV vaccine. Methods We undertook a qualitative systematic review and evidence synthesis to examine decision-making relating to the HPV vaccination of young women in high-income countries. A comprehensive search of databases from inception to March 2012 was undertaken to identify eligible studies reporting the perspectives of key stakeholders including policy makers, professionals involved in programme, parents, and young women. Factors affecting uptake of the vaccine were examined at different levels of the socio-ecological model (policy, community, organisational, interpersonal and intrapersonal). Results Forty-one studies were included. Whether young women receive the HPV vaccine is strongly governed by the decisions of policy makers, healthcare professionals, and parents. These decisions are shaped by: financial considerations; social norms and values relating to sexual activity, and; trust in vaccination programmes and healthcare providers. Financial constraints may be overcome through universal healthcare systems offering the HPV vaccine free at the point of delivery. In the healthcare setting, judgements by healthcare professionals about whether to recommend the vaccine may restrict a young woman’s access to the vaccine irrespective of her own beliefs and preferences. Parents may decide not to allow their daughters to be vaccinated, based on cultural or religious perceptions about sexual activity. Conclusions Barriers to the uptake of the HPV vaccine have implications for young women’s future sexual, physical and reproductive health. Interventions to address barriers to uptake of the vaccine should target appropriate, and multiple, levels of the socio-ecological model. Issues of trust require clear, accessible, and sometimes culturally appropriate, information about the HPV vaccination programme. Although young women are central to the HPV vaccination programme, their views are underrepresented in the qualitative literature. Future research should consider young women’s perceptions of, and involvement in, consent and decision-making. PMID:25004868

  9. Geographic variation in human papillomavirus vaccination uptake among young adult women in the United States during 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Laz, Tabassum H.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about geographic variation in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake among young adult women in the US. To investigate this, we analyzed data from 12 US states collected through the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System between 2008 and 2010. Among 2,632 young adult women (18–26 years old) who responded to HPV vaccine uptake questions, weighted vaccine initiation and completion rates were: 28.0% and 17.0% overall, 14.0% and 6.6% in the South, 28.7% and 19.3% in the Midwest/West, and 37.2% and 23.1% in the Northeast (P<.001), respectively. Log-binomial regression analysis showed that women living in the South were less likely to initiate (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60–0.83) or complete (aPR 0.61, 95% CI, 0.53–0.71) the HPV vaccine series compared to women living in the Northeast. Interventions programs to improve HPV vaccine uptake in the Southern states are warranted. PMID:24071591

  10. Fowl cholera immunity induced by various vaccines in broiler minibreeder chickens determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Avakian, A P; Dick, J W; Derieux, W T

    1989-01-01

    Broiler minibreeder hens were vaccinated for protection against fowl cholera at 12 and 21 weeks of age using several vaccination schemes, which included a live Pasteurella multocida (CU strain) vaccine, two commercial polyvalent fowl cholera oil-based bacterins, and two experimentally prepared polyvalent oil-based bacterins. Some treatment groups received only live or killed vaccines, whereas others received a live vaccine at 12 weeks followed by a killed product at 21 weeks. At 42 weeks of age, all birds that received the live CU vaccine twice or once followed by a bacterin survived challenge. Birds that received killed vaccines only were significantly less protected but still showed a respectable survival rate of 86%. All unvaccinated controls died within 72 hr after challenge. At 72 weeks of age, overall protection was lower than that at 42 weeks, regardless of vaccination treatment. Antibody titers were usually higher in birds that received bacterins than in those receiving live vaccines, yet overall protection was still greater in those birds that received the live cholera vaccine twice. PMID:2930408

  11. Dietary supplementation of young broiler chickens with Capsicum and turmeric oleoresins increases resistance to necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Hyen; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lillehoj, Erik P; Min, Wongi; Bravo, David M

    2013-09-14

    The Clostridium-related poultry disease, necrotic enteritis (NE), causes substantial economic losses on a global scale. In the present study, a mixture of two plant-derived phytonutrients, Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin (XT), was evaluated for its effects on local and systemic immune responses using a co-infection model of experimental NE in commercial broilers. Chickens were fed from hatch with a diet supplemented with XT, or with a non-supplemented control diet, and either uninfected or orally challenged with virulent Eimeria maxima oocysts at 14 d and Clostridium perfringens at 18 d of age. Parameters of protective immunity were as follows: (1) body weight; (2) gut lesions; (3) serum levels of C. perfringens ?-toxin and NE B-like (NetB) toxin; (4) serum levels of antibodies to ?-toxin and NetB toxin; (5) levels of gene transcripts encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the intestine and spleen. Infected chickens fed the XT-supplemented diet had increased body weight and reduced gut lesion scores compared with infected birds given the non-supplemented diet. The XT-fed group also displayed decreased serum ?-toxin levels and reduced intestinal IL-8, lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-? factor (LITAF), IL-17A and IL-17F mRNA levels, while cytokine/chemokine levels in splenocytes increased in the XT-fed group, compared with the animals fed the control diet. In conclusion, the present study documents the molecular and cellular immune changes following dietary supplementation with extracts of Capsicum and turmeric that may be relevant to protective immunity against avian NE. PMID:23566550

  12. A single electroporation delivery of a DNA vaccine containing the hemagglutinin gene of Asian H5N1 avian influenza virus generated a protective antibody response in chickens against a North American virus strain.

    PubMed

    Ogunremi, Oladele; Pasick, John; Kobinger, Gary P; Hannaman, Drew; Berhane, Yohannes; Clavijo, Alfonso; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia

    2013-04-01

    Protection against the avian influenza (AI) H5N1 virus is suspected to be mainly conferred by the presence of antibodies directed against the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the virus. A single electroporation delivery of 100 or 250 ?g of a DNA vaccine construct, pCAG-HA, carrying the HA gene of strain A/Hanoi/30408/2005 (H5N1), in chickens led to the development of anti-HA antibody response in 16 of 17 immunized birds, as measured by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), and an indirect ELISA. Birds vaccinated by electroporation (n = 11) were protected from experimental AI challenge with strain A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/1/1983 (H5N2) as judged by low viral load, absence of clinical symptoms, and absence of mortality (n = 11). In contrast, only two out of 10 birds vaccinated with the same vaccine dose (100 or 250 ?g) but without electroporation developed antibodies. These birds showed high viral loads and significant morbidity and mortality after the challenge. Seroconversion was reduced in birds electroporated with a low vaccine dose (10 ?g), but the antibody-positive birds were protected against virus challenge. Nonelectroporation delivery of a low-dose vaccine did not result in seroconversion, and the birds were as susceptible as those in the control groups that received the control pCAG vector. Electroporation delivery of the DNA vaccine led to enhanced antibody responses and to protection against the AI virus challenge. The HI test, cELISA, or indirect ELISA for anti-H5 antibodies might serve as a good predictor of the potency and efficacy of a DNA immunization strategy against AI in chickens. PMID:23365205

  13. A Single Electroporation Delivery of a DNA Vaccine Containing the Hemagglutinin Gene of Asian H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus Generated a Protective Antibody Response in Chickens against a North American Virus Strain

    PubMed Central

    Pasick, John; Kobinger, Gary P.; Hannaman, Drew; Berhane, Yohannes; Clavijo, Alfonso; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Protection against the avian influenza (AI) H5N1 virus is suspected to be mainly conferred by the presence of antibodies directed against the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the virus. A single electroporation delivery of 100 or 250 ?g of a DNA vaccine construct, pCAG-HA, carrying the HA gene of strain A/Hanoi/30408/2005 (H5N1), in chickens led to the development of anti-HA antibody response in 16 of 17 immunized birds, as measured by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), and an indirect ELISA. Birds vaccinated by electroporation (n = 11) were protected from experimental AI challenge with strain A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/1/1983 (H5N2) as judged by low viral load, absence of clinical symptoms, and absence of mortality (n = 11). In contrast, only two out of 10 birds vaccinated with the same vaccine dose (100 or 250 ?g) but without electroporation developed antibodies. These birds showed high viral loads and significant morbidity and mortality after the challenge. Seroconversion was reduced in birds electroporated with a low vaccine dose (10 ?g), but the antibody-positive birds were protected against virus challenge. Nonelectroporation delivery of a low-dose vaccine did not result in seroconversion, and the birds were as susceptible as those in the control groups that received the control pCAG vector. Electroporation delivery of the DNA vaccine led to enhanced antibody responses and to protection against the AI virus challenge. The HI test, cELISA, or indirect ELISA for anti-H5 antibodies might serve as a good predictor of the potency and efficacy of a DNA immunization strategy against AI in chickens. PMID:23365205

  14. The impact of H9N2 avian influenza virus vaccine antigenic variation on virus infectious dose in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H9 subtype of avian influenza virus is wide-spread in the areas of Asia and Middle East. Selection of effective vaccines that provide effective protection mainly depends on the antigenic match of the hemagglutinin protein (HA), between the vaccine and the field strain. To determine how the ant...

  15. Differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) using the NS1 protein of avian influenza virus in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of avian influenza (AI) vaccination in poultry would have greater world-wide acceptance if a reliable test that clearly discriminates naturally infected from vaccinated only animals (DIVA) was available. Because the non-structural protein (NS1) is expressed in infected cells, and is not pac...

  16. Young and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes have optimal B cell responses to the seasonal influenza vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Frasca, Daniela; Diaz, Alain; Romero, Maria; Mendez, Nicholas V.; Landin, Ana Marie; Ryan, John G.; Blomberg, Bonnie B.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated immune response to the seasonal influenza vaccine in young and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Immune measures included the in vivo serum response to the vaccine by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and ELISA in 22 patients (14 young, 8 elderly) and 65 healthy age-matched controls (37 young, 28 elderly). B cell-specific biomarkers of optimal vaccine response were measured ex vivo by switched memory B cells and plasmablasts and in vitro by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) in stimulated cells. Markers of systemic and B cell-intrinsic inflammation were also measured. Results show that in vivo responses, as well as B cell-specific markers identified above, decrease by age in healthy individuals but not in T2D patients. This occurred despite high levels of B cell-intrinsic inflammation (TNF-?) in T2D patients, which was surprising as we had previously demonstrated this negatively impacts B cell function. These results altogether suggest that valid protection against influenza can be achieved in T2D patients and proposed mechanisms are discussed. PMID:23711934

  17. Supplemental dietary L-arginine attenuates intestinal mucosal disruption during a coccidial vaccine challenge in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary arginine (Arg) supplementation on intestinal barrier integrity in broiler chickens undergoing coccidial challenge. The design of this study was a randomized complete block employing a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (n = 8) with 3 level of Arg (1.11,...

  18. Evaluation of Vaccines on the Prevalence of Salmonella and/or Campylobacter in Layer and Broiler Chickens

    E-print Network

    Garcia, Javier Shalin

    2013-05-22

    and poultry meat. Previous studies have found that the presence or disappearance of Salmonella or Campylobacter is linked to various environmental and management-based factors, of which include vaccines used in the industry. Presently, we evaluated the effect...

  19. Decline in in-patient treatments of genital warts among young Australians following the national HPV vaccination program

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been a rapid decline in the number of young heterosexuals diagnosed with genital warts at outpatient sexual health services since the national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program started in Australia in 2007. We assessed the impact of the vaccination program on the number of in-patient treatments for genital warts. Methods Data on in-patient treatments of genital warts in all private hospitals were extracted from the Medicare website. Medicare is the universal health insurance scheme of Australia. In the vaccine period (2007–2011) and pre-vaccine period (2000–2007) we calculated the percentage change in treatment numbers and trends in annual treatment rates in private hospitals. Australian population data were used to calculate rates. Summary rate ratios of average annual trends were determined. Results Between 2000 and 2011, 6,014 women and 936 men aged 15–44?years underwent in-patient treatment for genital warts in private hospitals. In 15–24?year old women, there was a significant decreasing trend in annual treatment rates of vulval/vaginal warts in the vaccine period (overall decrease of 85.3% in treatment numbers from 2007 to 2011) compared to no significant trend in the pre-vaccine period (summary rate ratio (SRR)?=?0.33, p?vaccine and pre-vaccine periods (overall decrease of 33% vs. 24.3%), but the rate of change was greater in the vaccine period (SRR?=?0.60, p?vaccine period (decrease of 70.6%) compared to an increasing trend in the pre-vaccine period (SRR?=?0.76, p?=?0.02). In 25–34?year old men there was a significant decreasing trend in the vaccine period compared to no change in the pre-vaccine period (SRR?=?0.81, p?=?0.04) and in 35–44?year old men there was no significant change in rates of penile warts both periods, but the rate of change was greater in the vaccine period (SRR?=?0.70, p?=?0.02). Conclusions The marked decline in in-patient treatment of vulval/vaginal warts in the youngest women is probably attributable to the HPV vaccine program. The moderate decline in in-patient treatments for penile warts in men probably reflects herd immunity. PMID:23506489

  20. Multimeric recombinant M2e protein-based ELISA: a significant improvement in differentiating avian influenza infected chickens from vaccinated ones.

    PubMed

    Hadifar, Farshid; Ignjatovic, Jagoda; Tarigan, Simson; Indriani, Risa; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Hasan, Noor Haliza; McWhorter, Andrea; Putland, Sophie; Ownagh, Abdulghaffar; Hemmatzadeh, Farhid

    2014-01-01

    Killed avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines have been used to control H5N1 infections in countries where the virus is endemic. Distinguishing vaccinated from naturally infected birds (DIVA) in such situations however, has become a major challenge. Recently, we introduced the recombinant ectodomain of the M2 protein (M2e) of H5N1 subtype as a novel tool for an ELISA based DIVA test. Despite being antigenic in natural infection the monomer form of the M2e used in ELISA had limited antigenicity and consequently poor diagnostic capability. To address this shortcoming, we evaluated the use of four tandem copies of M2e (tM2e) for increased efficiency of M2e antibody detection. The tM2e gene of H5N1 strain from Indonesia (A/Indonesia/CDC540/2006) was cloned into a pMAL- p4x expression vector and expressed in E.coli as a recombinant tM2e-MBP or M2e-MBP proteins. Both of these, M2e and tM2e antigens reacted with sera obtained from chickens following live H5N1 infection but not with sera from vaccinated birds. A significantly stronger M2e antibody reaction was observed with the tM2e compared to M2e antigen. Western blotting also supported the superiority of tM2e over M2e in detection of specific M2e antibodies against live H5N1 infection. Results from this study demonstrate that M2e tetramer is a better antigen than single M2e and could be more suitable for an ELISA based DIVA test. PMID:25330391

  1. Multimeric Recombinant M2e Protein-Based ELISA: A Significant Improvement in Differentiating Avian Influenza Infected Chickens from Vaccinated Ones

    PubMed Central

    Hadifar, Farshid; Ignjatovic, Jagoda; Tarigan, Simson; Indriani, Risa; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Hasan, Noor Haliza; McWhorter, Andrea; Putland, Sophie; Ownagh, Abdulghaffar; Hemmatzadeh, Farhid

    2014-01-01

    Killed avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines have been used to control H5N1 infections in countries where the virus is endemic. Distinguishing vaccinated from naturally infected birds (DIVA) in such situations however, has become a major challenge. Recently, we introduced the recombinant ectodomain of the M2 protein (M2e) of H5N1 subtype as a novel tool for an ELISA based DIVA test. Despite being antigenic in natural infection the monomer form of the M2e used in ELISA had limited antigenicity and consequently poor diagnostic capability. To address this shortcoming, we evaluated the use of four tandem copies of M2e (tM2e) for increased efficiency of M2e antibody detection. The tM2e gene of H5N1 strain from Indonesia (A/Indonesia/CDC540/2006) was cloned into a pMAL- p4x expression vector and expressed in E.coli as a recombinant tM2e-MBP or M2e-MBP proteins. Both of these, M2e and tM2e antigens reacted with sera obtained from chickens following live H5N1 infection but not with sera from vaccinated birds. A significantly stronger M2e antibody reaction was observed with the tM2e compared to M2e antigen. Western blotting also supported the superiority of tM2e over M2e in detection of specific M2e antibodies against live H5N1 infection. Results from this study demonstrate that M2e tetramer is a better antigen than single M2e and could be more suitable for an ELISA based DIVA test. PMID:25330391

  2. Vaccinations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease — reinforcing the importance of vaccines in your pet's preventive health care program. Are there risks? Any treatment carries some risk, but these risks should be weighed against the benefits of protecting your pet from potentially fatal diseases. Most pets respond well ...

  3. Systematic Review of the Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Dosing Schedules on Vaccine-type Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Among Young Children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) are being implemented globally using a variety of different schedules. The optimal schedule to maximize protection of vaccinated children against vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (VT-IPD) is not known. Methods: To assess the relative benefit of various PCV dosing schedules, we conducted a systematic review of studies published in English from 1994 to 2010 (supplemented post hoc with studies from 2011) on PCV effectiveness against VT-IPD among children targeted to receive vaccine. Data on 2-dose and 3-dose primary series, both with and without a booster (“2+0,” “2+1,” “3+0” and “3+1”), were included. For observational studies using surveillance data or case counts, we calculated percentage reduction in VT-IPD before and after PCV introduction. Results: Of 4 randomized controlled trials and 31 observational studies reporting VT-IPD among young children, none evaluated a 2+0 complete series, 7 (19%) evaluated 2+1, 4 (11%) 3+0 and 27 (75%) 3+1. Most (86%) studies were from North America or Europe. Only 1 study (observational) directly compared 2 schedules (3+0 vs. 3+1); results supported the use of a booster dose. In clinical trials, vaccine efficacy ranged from 65% to 71% with 3+0 and 83% to 94% with 3+1. Surveillance data and case counts demonstrate reductions in VT-IPD of up to 100% with 2+1 (6 studies) or 3+1 (17 studies) schedules and up to 90% with 3+0 (2 studies). Reductions were observed as early as 1 year after PCV introduction. Conclusions: These data support the use of 2+1, 3+0 and 3+1 schedules, although most data of PCV impact on VT-IPD among young children are from high-income countries using 3+1. Differences between schedules for impact on VT-IPD are difficult to discern based on available data. PMID:24336053

  4. Effects of yeast cell wall-derived mannan-oligosaccharides on jejunal gene expression in young broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Xiao, R; Power, R F; Mallonee, D; Routt, K; Spangler, L; Pescatore, A J; Cantor, A H; Ao, T; Pierce, J L; Dawson, K A

    2012-07-01

    The use of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) has gained in popularity in recent years due to regulatory restrictions of using AGP in food animal production. Benefits of MOS usage include improvement on animal performance, feed efficiency, and gastrointestinal health. The molecular mechanisms of these functions however are not clear. The goal of the current study was to use a transcriptomics approach to investigate the effects of MOS on the intestinal gene expression profile of young broilers and characterize biological gene pathways responsible for the actions of MOS. One hundred and twenty 1-d-old Cobb 500 broiler chicks were randomly divided into 2 groups and were fed either a standard wheat-soybean meal-based (control) diet or the same diet supplemented with 2.2 g/kg of MOS (Bio-Mos, Alltech, Nicholasville, KY) for 3 wk, followed by jejunal gene expression profiling analysis using chicken-specific Affymetrix microarrays. Results indicated that a total of 672 genes were differentially expressed (P < 0.01 and fold change >1.2) in the jejunum by MOS supplementation. Association analysis indicated that differentially expressed genes are involved in diverse biological functions including energy production, cell death, and protein translation. Expression of 77 protein synthesis-related genes was differentially regulated by MOS in the jejunum. Further pathway analysis indicated that 15 genes related to oxidative phosphorylation were upregulated in the jejunum, and expression of genes important in cellular stress response, such as peroxiredoxin 1, superoxide dismutase 1, and thioredoxin, were also increased by MOS. Differential expression of genes associated with cellular immune processes, including lysozyme, lumican, ? 2-microglobin, apolipoprotein A-1, and fibronectin 1, were also observed in MOS-fed broilers. In summary, this study systematically identified biological functions and gene pathways that are important in mediating the biological effects of MOS in broilers. PMID:22700513

  5. Compound 48/80 acts as a potent mucosal adjuvant for vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in young mice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lingbin; Liu, Yusi; Wang, Hong; Liao, Pu; Song, Zhixin; Gao, Song; Wu, Yingying; Zhang, Xuemei; Yin, Yibing; Xu, Wenchun

    2015-02-18

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major respiratory pathogen, is a leading cause of death among children worldwide. Mucosal vaccination is a recommended method to prevent respiratory infection. However, development of mucosal vaccination is usually hindered due to the lack of safe and effective mucosal adjuvants. Mast cell activator compound 48/80 (C48/80) has been used as a mucosal adjuvant in immunization of adult mice, but its adjuvanticity is not clear in the immunization of young mice. In this study, the adjuvanticity of C48/80 was evaluated when intranasally co-administrated with a pneumococcal vaccine candidate strain SPY1 in a young mice model in comparison with a classical mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT) and a relatively safe mucosal adjuvant Pam2CSK4. All three adjuvants enhanced antibody responses, whereas serum IgG titers were maintained at a stable level during the 3 months after the last immunization only in the SPY1+C48/80 and SPY1+CT groups. Furthermore, both the SPY1+CT group and the SPY1+C48/80 group induced strong Th17 immune response. Notably, C48/80 showed the exceptional ability to promote the clearance of nasal pneumococcal colonization which CT and Pam2CSK4 did not show. We found that C48/80's ability to induce protection against nasal pneumococcal colonization depended on B cells and IL-17A. Additionally, C48/80, as a mucosal adjuvant, showed a greater ability to protect young mice against lethal pneumococcal infection than CT. In comparison with CT, C48/80 also showed a favorable safety. These results reveal a promising perspective for using C48/80 as a mucosal adjuvant to improve protection against pneumococcal diseases early in life. PMID:25595867

  6. Why Are Young Adults Affected? Estimating Measles Vaccination Coverage in 20-34 Year Old Germans in Order to Verify Progress Towards Measles Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Melanie; Stelzer, Thomas; Burckhardt, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Background: The introduction of measles vaccination into routine childhood vaccination programmes has led to a shift of disease burden and incidence among young adults. This was confirmed by the recent rise in measles cases and outbreaks throughout Europe. To prevent outbreaks and eliminate measles, one of the key objectives of the WHO Europe measles elimination framework is achieving overall vaccination coverage of ?95% in the population on a district level. In the absence of national registers, data on vaccination coverage in Germany is recorded at the age of school entry, through insurance refund claim data and population studies. Vaccination status (VS) of young adults is largely unknown. Methods: We assessed measles vaccination coverage in young adults aged 20-34 years on a district level of the German Federal State of Rhineland-Palatinate. The knowledge and attitude towards immunization of unvaccinated to vaccinated young adults were compared using Likert questions. We used proportional allocation for stratified random sampling across 36 counties. We mailed a self-administered questionnaire with pre-paid return envelopes along with an offer to complete online. Prior to calculating coverage we tested for non-responder bias using logistic regression. Results: 465 (28%) of 1,637 persons contacted responded (mail: 23%, online: 5%). More women responded than men (odds ratio (OR)=2.1; 95% confidence intervall (CI)=1.7-2.6) but age did not vary between responders and non-responders. Vaccination coverage was 90% (95%CI=87%-93%) for one and 56% (95%CI=51%-61%) for two doses. We found a statistically significant association between receiving two doses and age group. The 20-24 years age group had a 2.3 higher incidence rate ratio (95%CI=1.7-3.2) than the reference group of 30-34 year old to have received two doses of measles vaccination. The group of 25-29 year old had a 1.5 higher incidence rate (95%CI=1.0-2.1) than the reference group to have received two doses of measles vaccination. Conclusions: Coverage has failed to reach the WHO Europe elimination goal of 95% measles vaccination in the general population. Targeted approaches including enlistment of occupational health services and checking vaccination status during general practitioner (GP) visits are needed to increase vaccination uptake in this age group in order to achieve measles elimination. PMID:25789202

  7. A young traveller presenting with typhoid fever after oral vaccination: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Typhoid fever is one of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases in travellers returning from tropical destinations. However, immunity and the immune response to infection are barely understood. Case presentation We report a case of tyhoid fever in a 29-year-old Caucasian, previously healthy woman who did not develop protective immunity or seroconversion of H or O antibodies neither after vaccination with the oral Ty21 vaccine, nor after infection with Salmonella typhi. Conclusions This case highlights the insufficiencies of the current vaccination and the lack of a reliable, rapid serologic diagnostic tool for typhoid fever. With this case report, we aim to sensitize the reader that typhoid fever has to be taken into account as a differential diagnosis in patients even after vaccination and with negative serological test results. PMID:24099396

  8. Comparative evaluation of safety and efficacy of a live Salmonella gallinarum vaccine candidate secreting an adjuvant protein with SG9R in chickens.

    PubMed

    Nandre, Rahul M; Lee, John Hwa

    2014-11-15

    We previously reported JOL916, a live attenuated Salmonella gallinarum (SG), as a vaccine candidate for protection from fowl typhoid (FT). In the present study, we evaluated JOL1355, an SG that secretes heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit protein, for safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy against FT. In a single intramuscular inoculation, live attenuated SG (JOL916) and commercial live attenuated SG9R immunized groups showed gross lesions and bacterial persistence up to 21 days post-immunization. However, the JOL1355 immunized group showed gross lesions and bacterial persistence up to only 3 and 7 days post-immunization, respectively. In addition, several birds in the JOL916 and SG9R immunized group shown clinical signs after immunization, while JOL1355 immunized birds did not show any adverse effects. In a subsequent study, birds were primed and boosted at 4 and 8 weeks of age, respectively, and compared with control birds inoculated with sterile phosphate-buffered saline. The immunized groups B (JOL916), C (SG9R), and D (JOL1355) exhibited significantly higher humoral and cellular immune responses compared to those in the unimmunized control group A. In addition, the birds of each group were challenged with virulent SG at 11 weeks of age, and significantly increased survival rates were observed in all immunized groups compared with the control group. These results indicated that JOL1355 was able to efficiently induce an acquired immune response to protect birds after challenge, and may be safer than JOL916 and the commercial vaccine SG9R in chickens. PMID:25239101

  9. A New Generation of Modified Live-Attenuated Avian Influenza Viruses Using a Two-Strategy Combination as Potential Vaccine Candidates?

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haichen; Nieto, Gloria Ramirez; Perez, Daniel R.

    2007-01-01

    In light of the recurrent outbreaks of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), there is a pressing need for the development of vaccines that allow rapid mass vaccination. In this study, we introduced by reverse genetics temperature-sensitive mutations in the PB1 and PB2 genes of an avian influenza virus, A/Guinea Fowl/Hong Kong/WF10/99 (H9N2) (WF10). Further genetic modifications were introduced into the PB1 gene to enhance the attenuated (att) phenotype of the virus in vivo. Using the att WF10 as a backbone, we substituted neuraminidase (NA) for hemagglutinin (HA) for vaccine purposes. In chickens, a vaccination scheme consisting of a single dose of an att H7N2 vaccine virus at 2 weeks of age and subsequent challenge with the wild-type H7N2 LPAI virus resulted in complete protection. We further extended our vaccination strategy against the HPAI H5N1. In this case, we reconstituted an att H5N1 vaccine virus, whose HA and NA genes were derived from an Asian H5N1 virus. A single-dose immunization in ovo with the att H5N1 vaccine virus in 18-day-old chicken embryos resulted in more than 60% protection for 4-week-old chickens and 100% protection for 9- to 12-week-old chickens. Boosting at 2 weeks posthatching provided 100% protection against challenge with the HPAI H5N1 virus for chickens as young as 4 weeks old, with undetectable virus shedding postchallenge. Our results highlight the potential of live att avian influenza vaccines for mass vaccination in poultry. PMID:17596317

  10. Safety and Immunogenicity of 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Vaccination in Perinatally HIV-1–Infected Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Patricia M.; Nachman, Sharon; Muresan, Petronella; Fenton, Terence; Spector, Stephen A.; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Pass, Robert; Yogev, Ram; Burchett, Sandra; Heckman, Barbara; Bloom, Anthony; Utech, L. Jill; Anthony, Patricia; Petzold, Elizabeth; Levy, Wende; Siberry, George K.; Ebiasah, Ruth; Miller, Judi; Handelsman, Edward; Weinberg, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Background.?The safety and immunogenicity of high-dose pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) vaccination in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–infected children, adolescents, and young adults are unknown. Methods.?Two 30-?g doses of 2009 Novartis pH1N1 monovalent vaccine (Fluvirin) were administered 21–28 days apart to perinatally HIV-1–infected children, adolescents, and young adults. Antibodies were measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay at baseline, 21–28 days after first vaccination, 7–13 days after the second vaccination, and 7 months after the first vaccination. Results.?Among the 155 participants, 54 were aged 4–8 years, 51 were aged 9–17 years, and 50 were aged 18–24 years. After 2 doses of Fluvirin, seroresponse (?4-fold rise in HAI titers) was demonstrated in 79.6%, 84.8%, and 83% of participants in the aforementioned age groups, respectively, and seroprotection (HAI titers ?40) was shown in 79.6%, 82.6%, and 85.1%, respectively. Of those lacking seroresponse (n = 43) or seroprotection (n = 37) after the first vaccination, 46.5% and 40.5% achieved seroresponse or seroprotection, respectively, after the second vaccination. Among participants who lacked seroprotection at entry, a “complete response” (both seroresponse and seroprotection) after first vaccination was associated with higher baseline log10 HAI titer and non-Hispanic ethnicity. No serious vaccine-related events occurred. Conclusion.?Two doses of double-strength pH1N1 vaccine are safe and immunogenic and may provide improved protection against influenza in perinatally HIV-1–infected children and youth. Clinical Trials Registration.?NCT00992836. PMID:22615311

  11. Factors that influence the willingness of young adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to participate in phase I/II HIV vaccine trials

    PubMed Central

    Mbunda, Theodora; Bakari, Muhammad; Tarimo, Edith A. M.; Sandstrom, Eric; Kulane, Asli

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS continues to destroy the lives of young people especially in low-income countries. The inclusion of youths in HIV vaccine trials is of utmost importance in obtaining an effective vaccine that is acceptable to them. Objective To characterize the willingness of young adults in Tanzania to participate in an HIV vaccine trial and the factors that influence this willingness. Design Four hundred and fifty young adults who visited a youth-friendly Infectious Diseases Clinic (IDC) from February 2012 to September 2012 completed a self-administered questionnaire concerning sociodemographic information, their knowledge about and perception of HIV vaccine studies, and the availability of social support. Results Of our participants, 50.6% expressed willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials, and this willingness was positively correlated with having some knowledge about HIV vaccine studies (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI: 1.4–3.4), a positive perception toward such studies (AOR, 2.3; 95% CI: 1.5–3.6), having a relationship with someone who could help them make a decision (AOR, 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3–4.9), and age at the time of sexual debut (AOR, 2.6; 95% CI 1.0–6.7) for 15- to 19-year-olds and (AOR, 2.7; 95% CI 1.0–7.1) for older participants. Conclusions The participants exhibited a moderate willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials, which was associated with a positive perception of and some knowledge about such trials, having a relationship with someone who might influence their decision as well as age at time of sexual debut. More efforts should be made to inform the youths about specific HIV vaccine trials and related matters, as well as to engage significant others in the decision-making process. PMID:24572007

  12. Virus-specific antibodies interfere with avian influenza infection in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes from young or aged chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) infection was examined in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte cultures (PBMC) that were collected from 1-day-old chicks or from 52-week-old chickens. Virus-specific antibodies were incubated with AIV to model maternal antibody interference in vitro. Interferon-alpha (I...

  13. Health-Related Behaviors and Effectiveness of Trivalent Inactivated versus Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in Preventing Influenza-Like Illness among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sevick, Carter; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.; Blair, Patrick J.; Faix, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Background Vaccination is the preferred preventive strategy against influenza. Though health behaviors are known to affect immunity and vaccine delivery modes utilize different immune processes, data regarding the preferred influenza vaccine type among adults endorsing specific health-related behaviors (alcohol use, tobacco use, and exercise level) are limited. Methods The relative effectiveness of two currently available influenza vaccines were compared for prevention of influenza-like illness during 2 well-matched influenza seasons (2006/2007, 2008/2009) among US military personnel aged 18–49 years. Relative vaccine effectiveness was compared between those self-reporting and not reporting recent smoking history and potential alcohol problem, and by exercise level using Cox proportional hazard modeling adjusted for sociodemographic and military factors, geographic area, and other health behaviors. Results 28,929 vaccination events and 3936 influenza-like illness events over both influenza seasons were studied. Of subjects, 27.5% were smokers, 7.7% had a potential alcohol-related problem, 10.5% reported minimal exercise, and 4.4% reported high exercise levels. Overall, the risk of influenza-like illness did not significantly differ between live attenuated and trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine recipients (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.90–1.06). In the final adjusted model, the relative effectiveness of the 2 vaccine types did not differ by smoking status (p?=?0.10), alcohol status (p?=?0.21), or activity level (p?=?0.11). Conclusions Live attenuated and trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines were similarly effective in preventing influenza-like illness among young adults and did not differ by health-related behavior status. Influenza vaccine efforts should continue to focus simply on delivering vaccine. PMID:25013931

  14. Evaluation of immune effects of fowlpox vaccine strains and field isolates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianning; Meers, Joanne; Spradbrow, Peter B; Robinson, Wayne F

    2006-08-25

    The immune effects of fowlpox virus (FPV) field isolates and vaccine strains were evaluated in chickens infected at the age of 1 day and 6 weeks. The field isolates and the obsolete vaccine strain (FPV S) contained integrated reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) provirus, while the current vaccine strain (FPVST) carries only REV LTR sequences. An indirect antibody ELISA was used to measure the FPV-specific antibody response. The non-specific humoral response was evaluated by injection of two T-cell-dependent antigens, sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). There was no significant difference in the antibody response to FPV between chickens infected with FPV various isolates and strains at either age. In contrast, antibody responses to both SRBC and BSA were significantly lower in 1-day-old chickens inoculated with field isolates and FPV S at 2-3 weeks post-inoculation. Furthermore, cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses measured by in vitro lymphocyte proliferation assay and in vivo using a PHA-P skin test were significantly depressed in chickens inoculated with field isolates and FPV S at the same periods. In addition, thymus and bursal weights were lower in infected chickens. These immunosuppressive effects were not observed in chickens inoculated with the current vaccine strain, FPVST, at any time. The results of this study suggest that virulent field isolates and FPV S have immunosuppressive effects when inoculated into young chickens, which appeared in the first 3 weeks post infection. REV integrated in the FPV field isolates and FPV S may have played a central role in the development of immunosuppression. PMID:16650660

  15. Chicken anaemia agent: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. McNulty

    1991-01-01

    Chicken anaemia agent (CAA) is a small, unclassified, icosahedral DNA virus with a single?stranded, circular genome. It seems to have a worldwide distribution. Only one serotype of CAA has been found, and all isolates investigated so far are pathogenic for young chicks.CAA causes a syndrome in chickens characterised by increased mortality, anaemia associated with atrophy of the haematopoietic tissues in

  16. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in young Italian women with normal cytology: how should we adapt the national vaccination policy?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection. In Italy, HPV vaccination is now offered free of charge to 12-year-old females. However, some regional health authorities have extended free vaccination to other age-groups, especially to girls under 18 years of age. We conducted a multicentre epidemiological study to ascertain the prevalence of different genotypes of HPV in young Italian women with normal cytology, with the aim of evaluating the possibility of extending vaccination to older females. Methods The study was performed in 2010. Women aged 16–26 years with normal cytology were studied. Cervical samples were analyzed to identify the presence of HPV by PCR amplification of a segment of ORF L1 (450 bp). All positive HPV-DNA samples underwent viral genotype analysis by means of a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Results Positivity for at least one HPV genotype was found in 18.2% of the 566 women recruited: 48.1% in the 16–17 age-class, 15.4 in the 18–20 age-class, 21.9% in the 21–23 age-class, and 15.5% in the 24–26 age-class; 10.1% of women were infected by at least one high-risk HPV genotype. HPV-16 was the most prevalent genotype. Only 4 (0.7%), 4 (0.7%) and 3 (0.5%) women were infected by HPV-18, HPV-6 and HPV-11, respectively. Of the HPV-DNA-positive women, 64.1% presented only one viral genotype, while 24.3% had multiple infections. The HPV genotypes most often involved in multiple infections were high-risk. A high prevalence was noted in the first years of sexual activity (48.1% of HPV-DNA-positive women aged 16–17 years); HPV prevalence subsequently declined and stabilized. The estimate of cumulative proportions of young women free from any HPV infection at each age was evaluated; 93.3% and 97.1% of 26 year-old women proved free from HPV-16 and/or HPV-18 and from HPV-6 and/or HPV-11, respectively. Conclusions Our findings confirm the crucial importance of conducting studies on women without cytological damage, in order to optimise and up-date preventive interventions against HPV infection, and suggest that vaccinating 26-year-old females at the time of their first pap-test is to be recommend, though this issue should be further explored. PMID:24313984

  17. Protective efficacy of reverse genetics based on inactivated American and Asian neuraminidase DIVA marker vaccines against highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza has become endemic in several countries, and vaccination is commonly being used. Vaccination can affect surveillance, and therefore there is considerable interest in DIVA (differentiate infected from vaccinated animals) vaccine strategies. Using reverse...

  18. RECOMBINANT PARAMYXOVIRUS TYPE 1-AVIAN INFLUENZA-H7 VIRUS AS A VACCINE FOR PROTECTION OF CHICKENS AGAINST INFLUENZA AND NEWCASTLE DISEASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current vaccines to prevent avian influenza rely upon labor-intensive parenteral injection. A more advantageous vaccine would be capable of administration by mass immunization methods such as spray or water vaccination. A recombinant vaccine (rNDV-AIV-H7) was constructed by using a lentogenic Paramy...

  19. Genetic transformation of novel isolates of chicken Lactobacillus bearing probiotic features for expression of heterologous proteins: a tool to develop live oral vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Rodrigo M; Moreira, João Luiz S; Souza, Marcelo R; Fátima Horta, M; Teixeira, Santuza MR; Neumann, Elisabeth; Nicoli, Jacques R; Nunes, Álvaro C

    2006-01-01

    Background The use of lactic acid bacteria as vehicles to delivery antigens to immunize animals is a promising issue. When genetically modified, these bacteria can induce a specific local and systemic immune response against selected pathogens. Gastric acid and bile salts tolerance, production of antagonistic substances against pathogenic microorganisms, and adhesive ability to gut epithelium are other important characteristics that make these bacteria useful for oral immunization. Results Bacteria isolated on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium (MRS) from different gastrointestinal portions of broiler chicks were evaluated for their resistance to artificial gastric acid and bile salts, production of hydrogen peroxide, and cell surface hydrophobicity. Thirty-eight isolates were first typed at species level by PCR amplification of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers using universal primers that anneal within 16S and 23S genes, followed by restriction digestion analyses of PCR amplicons (PCR-ARDRA). An expression cassette was assembled onto the pCR2.1-Topo vector by cloning the promoter, leader peptide, cell wall anchor and terminator sequences derived from the laminin binding S-layer protein gene of L. crispatus strain F5.7 (lbs gene). A sequence encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was inserted as reporter gene, and an erythromycin resistance gene was added as selective marker. All constructs were able to express GFP in the cloning host E. coli XL1-Blue and different Lactobacillus strains as verified by FACS and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Conclusion Lactobacillus isolated from gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens and selected for probiotic characteristics can be genetically modified by introducing an expression cassette into the lbs locus. The transformed bacteria expressed on its cell wall surface different fluorescent proteins used as reporters of promoter function. It is possible then that similar bacterial model expressing pathogen antigens can be used as live oral vaccines to immunize broilers against infectious diseases. PMID:16396687

  20. Potential Burden of Universal Influenza Vaccination of Young Children on Visits to Primary Care Practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter G. Szilagyi; MPH Marika K. Iwane; MPH Stanley Schaffer; Sharon G. Humiston; MPH Richard Barth; BS Thomas McInerny; Laura Shone; Benjamin Schwartz

    ABSTRACT. Objective. To estimate the additional number of visits to primary care practices that would be required to deliver universal influenza vaccination to 6- to 23-month-old children. Methods. Children who were covered by commercial and Medicaid managed care plans (70% of children in the region; >8000 children in each of 3 consecutive influenza seasons) in the 6-county region surrounding and

  1. Combined schedule of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine followed by 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine in children and young adults with sickle cell disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis Vernacchio; Ellis J. Neufeld; Kristin MacDonald; Susan Kurth; Saya Murakami; Courtney Hohne; Michelle King; Deborah Molrine

    1998-01-01

    We compared the immunogenicity of 7-valent pneumococcal-conjugate vaccine plus 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine to immunization with 23-valent vaccine only in individuals ?2 years of age with sickle cell disease. IgG pneumococcal antibody concentrations were higher in the combined schedule group with no increase in side effects observed after immunization with 23-valent vaccine. (J Pediatr 1998;133:275-8)

  2. Immunogenicity and Safety of the Human Papillomavirus 6, 11, 16, 18 Vaccine in HIV-Infected Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Jessica A.; Xu, Jiahong; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Rudy, Bret; Gonin, René; Liu, Nancy; Wilson, Craig M.; Worrell, Carol; Squires, Kathleen E.

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to determine whether the 3-dose quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series (HPV-6, -11, -16, -18) is immunogenic and safe in young women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods We enrolled 99 women aged 16–23 years in a phase 2, open-label, multicenter trial, conducted from 2008 to 2011 by the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions. Outcome measures were immunogenicity 4 weeks after dose 3, measured by (1) geometric mean titers (GMTs) and (2) seroconversion rates for HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18, among those seronegative and HPV DNA negative for each type. Immune responses were compared to those of a historical comparison group of HIV-negative women (n = 267) using univariate methods. Clinical and laboratory adverse events were assessed after each dose. Results The mean age of subjects was 21.4 years; 80% were non-Hispanic black, 69 were not taking antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 30 were taking ART. No differences in GMTs were noted among participants taking ART vs the comparison group, but GMTs were lower in participants not taking ART vs the comparison group for HPV-16 (2393 vs 3892 milli-Merck units per milliliter [mMU/mL], P = .012) and HPV-18 (463 vs 801 mMU/mL, P = .003). Seroconversion rates were 100% for HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18 among participants taking ART. Rates ranged from 92.3% (for HPV-18) to 100.0% (for HPV-6) among participants not taking ART. One severe adverse event (fatigue) was noted. Conclusions In a sample of HIV-infected women who were HPV DNA and HPV seronegative, immune responses to HPV vaccination were generally robust and the vaccine was well tolerated. Clinical Trials Registration NCT00710593. PMID:23667266

  3. An Inactivated, Adjuvanted Whole Virion Clade 2.2 H5N1 (A/Chicken/Astana/6/05) Influenza Vaccine Is Safe and Immunogenic in a Single Dose in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sansyzbay, Abylay R.; Erofeeva, Marianna K.; Khairullin, Berik M.; Sandybayev, Nurlan T.; Kydyrbayev, Zhailaubay K.; Mamadaliyev, Seidigapbar M.; Kassenov, Markhabat M.; Sergeeva, Maria V.; Krivitskaya, Vera Z.; Kiselev, Oleg I.; Stukova, Marina A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we assessed in humans the immunogenicity and safety of one dose (7.5 or 15 ?g of hemagglutinin [HA]) of a whole-virion inactivated prepandemic influenza vaccine adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide. The vaccine strain was made by reverse genetics from the highly pathogenic avian A/Chicken/Astana/6/05 (H5N1) clade 2.2 strain isolated from a dead bird in Kazakhstan. The humoral immune response was evaluated after a single vaccination by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays. The vaccine was safe and immunogenic, inducing seroconversion in 55% of the evaluated patients, with a geometric mean titer (GMT) of 17.1 and a geometric mean increase (GMI) of 3.42 after a dose of 7.5 ?g in the HI test against the vaccine strain. The rate of seroconversion increased up to 70% when the dose of 15 ?g was used. The percentages of individuals achieving anti-HA titers of ?1:40 were 52.5% and 57.5% for the 7.5- and 15-?g dose groups, respectively. Similar results were obtained when antibodies were analyzed in an MN test. Substantial cross-neutralization titers (seroconversion in 35% and 52.5% of subjects in the two dose groups, respectively) were detected against heterologous clade 1 strain NIBRG14 (H5N1). Thus, one dose of this whole-virion prepandemic vaccine adjuvanted with aluminum has the potential to be effective against H5N1 viruses of different clades. PMID:23803900

  4. Antibody but not memory B-cell responses are tuned-down in vertically HIV-1 infected children and young individuals being vaccinated yearly against influenza.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Stefano; Zangari, Paola; Cotugno, Nicola; Manno, Emma Concetta; Brolatti, Noemi; Castrucci, Maria Rita; Donatelli, Isabella; Rossi, Paolo; Palma, Paolo; Cagigi, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Yearly immunization against seasonal influenza is highly recommended for HIV-1 infected individuals but evaluating the success of vaccination by serological markers may not be fully informative in this population. Recently, it has been hypothesized that the generation of long-lasting immune responses may depend on whether similar antigens challenge the immune system frequently and intermittently. In the present study, in order to search for additional correlates of vaccine-induced protective immunity and to further dissect this theory, both humoral and memory B-cell responses to the trivalent 2012-2013 seasonal influenza vaccination has been evaluated by strain-specific (separately for H1N1, H3N2 and B strain) standard hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay and B-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) in a cohort of vertically HIV-1 infected children and young individuals as compared to age-matched healthy controls. A high number of HIV-1 infected individuals had protective antibody levels prior to vaccination and showed low seroconversion rates after vaccination as compared to healthy controls. On the contrary, similar frequencies of influenza-specific memory B-cells were detected by B-cell ELISpot in both groups suggesting that an adequate B-cell response has been elicited. Data from the H1N1 strain, which is recurrent in seasonal influenza vaccines since 2009, pointed out decreasing antibody but not memory B-cell responses for HIV-1 infected patients being vaccinated for a greater number of years. Further investigations are required to standardize the influenza-specific B-cell ELISpot and to understand whether it could be used routinely as an additional tool to evaluate response to influenza vaccination in immune-compromised individuals being vaccinated yearly. PMID:24333344

  5. HPV-Related Risk Perceptions and HPV Vaccine Uptake Among a Sample of Young Rural Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin C. VanderpoolBaretta; Baretta R. Casey; Richard A. Crosby

    Appalachia Kentucky is recognized for increased cervical cancer incidence, morbidity and mortality and lower rates of Pap\\u000a testing. Understanding the predictors of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake is warranted among this population. The\\u000a purpose of this exploratory research is to determine associations between HPV-related risk perceptions and uptake of free\\u000a Gardasil offered to rural Appalachian women ages 18–26 attending regional

  6. Control of Newcastle Disease in Village Chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1998-01-01

    Between 1983 and 1992, the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) invested A$3 million in research to find a vaccine that could provide protection from Newcastle disease in chickens and be applied in village environments in developing countries. A further $160 000 was invested in follow up projects which ended in 1996. Village chickens often provide the only source

  7. Cardiac Safety of Modified Vaccinia Ankara for Vaccination against Smallpox in a Young, Healthy Study Population

    PubMed Central

    Zitzmann-Roth, Eva-Maria; von Sonnenburg, Frank; de la Motte, Stephan; Arndtz-Wiedemann, Nathaly; von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Uebler, Nadine; Vollmar, Jens; Virgin, Garth; Chaplin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional smallpox vaccines based on replicating vaccinia virus (VV) strains (e.g. Lister Elstree, NYCBOH) are associated with a high incidence of myo-/pericarditis, a severe inflammatory cardiac complication. A new smallpox vaccine candidate based on a non-replicating Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) poxvirus has been assessed for cardiac safety in a large placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods Cardiac safety of one and two doses of MVA compared to placebo was assessed in 745 healthy subjects. Vaccinia-naïve subjects received either one dose of MVA and one dose of placebo, two doses of MVA, or two doses of placebo by subcutaneous injection four weeks apart; vaccinia-experienced subjects received a single dose of MVA. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AE) and cardiac safety parameters (recorded as Adverse Events of Special Interest, AESI) were monitored after each injection. Results A total of 5 possibly related AESI (3 cases of palpitations, 2 of tachycardia) were reported during the study. No case of myo- or pericarditis occurred. One possibly related serious AE (SAE) was reported during the 6-month follow-up period (sarcoidosis). The most frequently observed AEs were injection site reactions. Conclusions Vaccination with MVA was safe and well tolerated and did not increase the risk for development of myo-/pericarditis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00316524 PMID:25879867

  8. Mumps Antibody Response in Young Adults After a Third Dose of Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Fiebelkorn, Amy Parker; Coleman, Laura A.; Belongia, Edward A.; Freeman, Sandra K.; York, Daphne; Bi, Daoling; Zhang, Cheryl; Ngo, Laurie; Rubin, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Background ?Mumps outbreaks in populations with high 2-dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine coverage raise the question whether a third dose of MMR vaccine (MMR3) is needed. However, data on the immunogenicity of MMR3 are limited. We assessed mumps virus neutralizing antibody levels pre- and post-MMR3 in a nonoutbreak setting. Methods ?Mumps antibody titers were assessed at baseline, 1 month, and 1 year after MMR3 in subjects aged 18–28 years. Results ?At baseline, 5 of 656 (0.8%) subjects had seronegative mumps neutralizing antibody titers and 38 (5.8%) had low titers. One year post-MMR3, these numbers declined to 3 (0.5%) and 16 (2.4%), respectively. Subjects with low baseline titers were more likely to have low 1-month and 1-year titers (R2 = 0.81–0.87, P < .0001). Compared to baseline, geometric mean titers were significantly higher at 1 month (P < .0001) and 1 year (P < .01) post-MMR3; however, reverse cumulative distribution curves showed only minimal shifts in mumps titers from baseline to 1 month and 1 year. Conclusions ?Very few subjects had negative or low baseline mumps titers. Nonetheless, mumps titers had modest but significant increases when measured 1 month and 1 year post-MMR3. This temporary increase in titers could decrease susceptibility to disease during outbreaks, but may have limited value for routine use in vaccinated populations. PMID:25734162

  9. Development of influenza H7N9 virus like particle (VLP) vaccine: homologous A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) protection and heterologous A/chicken/Jalisco/CPA1/2012 (H7N3) cross-protection in vaccinated mice challenged with H7N9 virus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gale E; Flyer, David C; Raghunandan, Ramadevi; Liu, Ye; Wei, Ziping; Wu, Yingyun; Kpamegan, Eloi; Courbron, Denise; Fries, Louis F; Glenn, Gregory M

    2013-09-13

    The recent emergence of severe human illness caused by avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) viruses in China has precipitated a global effort to rapidly develop and test vaccine candidates. To date, non-A(H7N9) H7 subtype influenza vaccine candidates have been poorly immunogenic and difficulties in production of A(H7N9) virus seed strains have been encountered. A candidate recombinant A(H7N9) vaccine consisting of full length, unmodified hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) from the A/Anhui/1/2013 and the matrix 1 (M1) protein from the A/Indonesia/05/2005 (H5N1) were cloned into a baculovirus vector. Baculovirus infected Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells secreted virus like particles (VLP) composed of HA, NA, and M1 that resemble mature influenza virions. Genetic construction of vaccine from acquisition of an H7N9 genomic sequence to production of A(H7N9) VLP occurred in 26 days. The immunogenicity and efficacy of A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) VLP vaccine administered on days 0 and 14 were evaluated in a lethal wild-type challenge Balb/c mouse model. Control groups included a non-homologous H7 vaccine (A/chicken/Jalisco/CPA1/2012 (H7N3)-VLP), and A/Indonesia/05/2005 (H5N1)-VLP, or placebo. All vaccines were administered with or without ISCOMATRIX. A(H7N9) VLP elicited hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) antibody titers of ? 1:64 against the homologous virus, cross-reactive HAI against the heterologous A(H7N3), and 3- to 4-fold higher HAI responses in corresponding ISCOMATRIX subgroups. Similarly, all doses of H7N9 VLP elicited anti-neuraminidase (NA) antibody, with 3- to 4-fold higher responses measured in the corresponding ISCOMATRIX subgroups. The non-homologous H7 vaccine induced both H7N3 and H7N9 HAI but no N9 anti-NA antibodies. A lethal murine wild-type A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) challenge demonstrated 100% survival of all animals receiving A(H7N9) and A(H7N3) vaccine, versus 0% survival in A(H5N1) vaccine and placebo groups. Together, the data demonstrate that recombinant H7N9 vaccine can be rapidly developed that was immunogenic and efficacious supporting testing in man as a pandemic influenza H7N9 vaccine candidate. PMID:23891795

  10. Studies with a bivalent infectious bronchitis killed virus vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Finney; P. G. Box; H. C. Holmes

    1990-01-01

    Haemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralisation antibody responses of chickens given different vaccination programmes were compared. This was followed by a further experiment in which variously vaccinated laying hens were challenged at 30 weeks of age with two strains of infectious bronchitis virus of the “variant” Dutch D207 serotype.Chickens were given primary vaccinations to different strains of infectious bronchitis live virus

  11. Determination of minimum units of hemagglutinin content of emulsified inactivated Newcastle disease virus vaccine for clinical protection of white leghorn chickens from lethal challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potency of inactivated Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines are currently determined using vaccination and challenge of experimental animals. If the minimum amount of killed viral antigen required for clinical protection can be determined using other methods, vaccines meeting these criteria might be...

  12. A heterologous neuraminidase subtype strategy for the differentiation of vaccinated and infected animals (DIVA) strategy for avian influenza virus using a more flexible neuraminidase inhibition test in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The option of vaccinating poultry against avian influenza (AI) as a control tool is gaining greater acceptance by the government and poultry industry world-wide. One reservation about vaccination with killed whole virus vaccines is the loss of the ability to use serologic surveillance to identify i...

  13. Vaccination of SPF chickens with recombinant HVT expressing the HA from H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza protects against lethal challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination is an important tool in the protection of poultry against avian influenza (AI). For field use, the overwhelming majority of AI vaccines produced are inactivated whole virus formulated into an oil emulsion and to a lesser degree recombinant vectored vaccines (e.g. virus expressing AI gen...

  14. Characterization of the 2012 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H7N3 Virus Isolated from Poultry in an Outbreak in Mexico: Pathobiology and Vaccine Protection

    PubMed Central

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Guzman, Sofia G.; Ricardez, Yadira; Spackman, Erica; Bertran, Kateri; Suarez, David L.; Swayne, David E.

    2013-01-01

    In June of 2012, an H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was identified as the cause of a severe disease outbreak in commercial laying chicken farms in Mexico. The purpose of this study was to characterize the Mexican 2012 H7N3 HPAI virus (A/chicken/Jalisco/CPA1/2012) and determine the protection against the virus conferred by different H7 inactivated vaccines in chickens. Both adult and young chickens intranasally inoculated with the virus became infected and died at between 2 and 4 days postinoculation (p.i.). High virus titers and viral replication in many tissues were demonstrated at 2 days p.i. in infected birds. The virus from Jalisco, Mexico, had high sequence similarity of greater than 97% to the sequences of wild bird viruses from North America in all eight gene segments. The hemagglutinin gene of the virus contained a 24-nucleotide insert at the hemagglutinin cleavage site which had 100% sequence identity to chicken 28S rRNA, suggesting that the insert was the result of nonhomologous recombination with the host genome. For vaccine protection studies, both U.S. H7 low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses and a 2006 Mexican H7 LPAI virus were tested as antigens in experimental oil emulsion vaccines and injected into chickens 3 weeks prior to challenge. All H7 vaccines tested provided ?90% protection against clinical disease after challenge and decreased the number of birds shedding virus and the titers of virus shed. This study demonstrates the pathological consequences of the infection of chickens with the 2012 Mexican lineage H7N3 HPAI virus and provides support for effective programs of vaccination against this virus in poultry. PMID:23760232

  15. Qualitative study of the feasibility of HPV vaccine delivery to young adolescent girls in Vietnam: evidence from a government-implemented demonstration program

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in national programs has proceeded apace since 2006, mostly in high-income countries. Recently concluded pilots of HPV vaccination in low-income countries have provided important lessons learned for these settings; however, rigorous evaluations of the feasibility of these delivery strategies that effectively reach young adolescents have been few. This paper presents results from a qualitative evaluation of a demonstration program which implemented school-based and health center–based HPV vaccinations to all girls in grade 6, or 11 years of age, for two years in four districts of Vietnam. Methods Using semi-structured interviews of 131 health and education staff from local, district, province, and national levels and 26 focus-group discussions with local project implementers (n?=?153), we conducted a qualitative two-year evaluation to measure the impact of HPV vaccinations on the health and education systems. Results HPV vaccine delivery at schools or health centers was made feasible by: a. close collaboration between the health and education sectors, b. detailed planning for implementation, c. clearly defined roles and responsibilities for project implementers, d. effective management and supervision of vaccinations during delivery, and e. engagement with community organizations for support. Both the health and education systems were temporarily challenged with the extra workload, but the disruptions were short-lived (a few days for each of three doses) and perceived as worth the longer-term benefit of cervical cancer prevention. Conclusion The learning from Vietnam has identified critical elements for successful vaccine delivery that can provide a model for other countries to consider during their planning of national rollout of HPV vaccine. PMID:24898950

  16. Vaccination with recombinant 4 × M2e.HSP70c fusion protein as a universal vaccine candidate enhances both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and decreases viral shedding against experimental challenge of H9N2 influenza in chickens.

    PubMed

    Dabaghian, Mehran; Latify, Ali Mohammad; Tebianian, Majid; Nili, Hassan; Ranjbar, Ali Reza Tevangar; Mirjalili, Ali; Mohammadi, Mashallah; Banihashemi, Reza; Ebrahimi, Seyyed Mahmoud

    2014-11-01

    As cellular immunity is essential for virus clearance, it is commonly accepted that no adequate cellular immunity is achieved by all available inactivated HA-based influenza vaccines. Thus, an improved influenza vaccine to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses is urgently required to control LPAI H9N2 outbreaks in poultry farms. M2e-based vaccines have been suggested and developed as a new generation of universal vaccine candidate against influenza A infection. Our previous study have shown that a prime-boost administration of recombinant 4×M2e.HSP70c (r4M2e/H70c) fusion protein compared to conventional HA-based influenza vaccines provided full protection against lethal dose of influenza A viruses in mice. In the present study, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of (r4M2e/H70c) was examined in chickens. The data reported herein show that protection against H9N2 viral challenge was significantly increased in chickens by injection of r4M2e/H70c compared with injection of conventional HA-based influenza vaccine adjuvanted with MF59 or recombinant 4×M2e (r4M2e) without HSP70c. Oropharyngeal and cloacal shedding of the virus was detected in all of the r4M2e/H70c vaccinated birds at 2 days after challenge, but the titer was low and decreased rapidly to reach undetectable levels at 7 days after challenge. Moreover, comparison of protective efficacy against LPAI H9N2 in birds intramuscularly immunized with r4M2e/H70c likely represented the ability of the M2e-based vaccine in providing cross-protection against heterosubtypic H9N2 challenge and also allowed the host immune system to induce HA-homosubtype neutralizing antibody against H9N2 challenge. This protective immunity might be attributed to enhanced cell-mediated immunity, which is interpreted as increased lymphocytes proliferation, increased levels of Th1-type (IFN-?) and Th2-type (IL-4) cytokines production and increased CD4(+) to CD8(+) ratios, resulting from the injection of four tandem repeats of the ectodomain of the conserved influenza matrix protein M2 (4×M2e) genetically fused to C-terminus of Mycobacterium tuberculosis HSP70 (mHSP70c). PMID:25293397

  17. Influenza neuraminidase antibodies provide partial protection for chickens against high pathogenic avian influenza infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protection of chickens against avian influenza (AI) in chickens is mostly attributed to production of antibodies against the viral glycoprotein hemagglutinin, whereas less is known about antibodies produced against the other surface glycoprotein neuraminidase (NA). Therefore, vaccines encoding NA an...

  18. Chicken anemia virus infection in broiler chickens in Shahrekord, Iran: serological, hematological, and histopathological findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iraj Karimi; Mohammadreza Mahzounieh; Shahab Bahadoran; Farhan Azad

    2010-01-01

    Chicken infectious anemia caused by a single-strand DNA circovirus is a disease in young chickens that is characterized by\\u000a aplastic anemia, generalized lymphoid atrophy, and immunosuppression. In the present study, the presence of chicken anemia\\u000a virus (CAV) infection and the hematologic and histopathologic changes in CAV seropositive broiler chickens in Shahrekord region,\\u000a center of Iran, were investigated. Blood and lymphoid

  19. The immunologists' debt to the chicken.

    PubMed

    Davison, T F

    2003-03-01

    The immune system of the chicken is an invaluable model for studying basic immunology and has made seminal contributions to fundamental immunological principles. Graft versus host responses and the key role of lymphocytes in adaptive immunity were first described in work with chicken embryos and chickens. 2. Most notably, the bursa of Fabricius provided the first substantive evidence that there are two major lineages of lymphocytes. Bursa-derived lymphocytes, or B cells, make antibodies while thymus-derived, or T cells, are involved in cell-mediated immune responses. 3. Gene conversion, the mechanism used by the chicken to produce its antibody repertoire, was first described in the chicken and requires the unique environment of the bursa. Subsequently it has been shown that some mammals also use gene conversion. 4. The chicken's Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), the first non-mammalian MHC to be sequenced, is minimal, compact and some 20-fold smaller than that of mammals. Uniquely, the chicken MHC is strongly associated with resistance to infectious diseases. 5. The first attenuated vaccine was developed by Louis Pasteur against a chicken pathogen, fowl cholera, and the first vaccine against a natural occurring cancer agent, Marek's disease virus, was developed for the chicken. 6. Vaccination of chick embryos on the 18th d of incubation, another breakthrough using chickens, provides protection early after hatching. In ovo vaccination now is widely practised by the poultry industry. 7. Evidence that widespread and intensive vaccination can lead to increased virulence with some pathogens, such as Marek's disease virus and infectious bursal disease virus, was first described with chicken populations. It warns of the need to develop mo resustainable vaccination strategies in future and provides useful lessons for other species, including in the human population. 8. Recombinant DNA technologies now provide the opportunity for the rational design of new vaccines. Such vaccines could contain the protective immunogenic elements from several pathogens and immunomodulatory molecules to direct and enhance immune responses so providing improved protection. The important thing will be to design vaccines that are sustainable and do not drive pathogens to ever-increasing virulence. PMID:12737220

  20. Analysis of immune response in young and aged mice vaccinated with corn-derived antigen against Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sule Karaman; Joan Cunnick; Kan Wang

    2006-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli produce a heat-labile holotoxin (LT), which causes diarrhea. We engineered corn seeds to produce LT-B, the nontoxic subunit\\u000a of LT, to serve as a plant-derived vaccine to traveler's diarrhea and as an adjuvant for co-administered proteins. We previously\\u000a demonstrated that a strong mucosal and systemic antibody response is elicited in young mice with oral administration

  1. Parents' Knowledge, Risk Perception and Willingness to Allow Young Males to Receive Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Banura, Cecily; Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH) supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008–2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s) to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10–23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s) to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s) to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p?=?0.003), believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p?=?0.006), thought their son(s) couldn't contract HPV (p?=?0.010), didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p?=?0.002), knew that males could not acquire HPV (p?=?0.000) and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p?=?0.000). Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s) of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital. PMID:25203053

  2. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics: News

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Two studies on optimal timing for measles vaccination Chinese scientists develop bird flu vaccine Influenza vaccination reduces risk of heart attack and stroke Two-dose vaccination program shows positive impact on varicella incidence WHO prequalifies Chinese-produced Japanese encephalitis vaccine Phase 3: RTS,S almost halves malaria cases in young children Herd immunity protects babies against whooping cough New developments in nanoparticle-based vaccination

  3. Comparative study of the protective effect against Salmonella colonisation in newly hatched SPF chickens using live, attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains, wild-type Salmonella strains or a competitive exclusion product.

    PubMed

    Methner, U; Barrow, P A; Martin, G; Meyer, H

    1997-04-15

    There is a need to prevent intestinal colonisation by Salmonella enteritidis and S. typhimurium in newly hatched chicks. Treatment with an undefined bacterial flora is not acceptable to regulatory agencies in some countries because of the potential risk of transmitting pathogens. A defined culture with a potency and stability equivalent to those of an undefined culture has not yet been developed. Since attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains could possess the colonisation characteristics but not the virulence of Salmonella wild-type strains, they could inhibit colonisation of the challenge organism. S. typhimurium live vaccines registered in Germany (Zoosaloral H, Salmonella vac T), S. enteritidis aroA and S. typhimurium aroA strains, S. enteritidis, S. typhimurium and S. infantis wild-type strains or a competitive exclusion product (Broilact) were used as pretreatment cultures and evaluated for their inhibitory effects against S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium colonisation in newly hatched SPF chickens. Day-old chicks were administered a pretreatment culture and infected orally with variants of S. enteritidis or S. typhimurium wild type-strains resistant to nalidixic acid or rifampicin 1 day after pretreatment. On days 2 and 6 after infection, viable numbers of the challenge strain in liver and caeca were determined. The results for birds pretreated with Broilact showed a distinct protective effect against both S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium at a challenge dose of 10(4) cfu/bird. After pretreatment of chicks with S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium wild-type strains, the greatest degree of inhibition of caecal colonisation was produced using isogenic strains. Colonisation after infection with non-isogenic strains could not be prevented but only reduced for a brief period. These effects were also observed after administration of aroA strains of S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium but the protective effect was considerably lower than after pretreatment with wild-type Salmonella strains. Inoculation with attenuated S. typhimurium vaccines resulted in a weak but significantly reduced colonisation by S. typhimurium. Colonisation by S. enteritidis could not be diminished by either of the S. typhimurium vaccine strains. The results indicate in principle the potency of Salmonella vaccine strains to inhibit Salmonella wild-type colonisation in newly hatched chicks. Potential vaccine candidates should be tested for their capacity to prevent intestinal colonisation in newly hatched chicks. PMID:9105931

  4. Protection of chickens against overt clinical disease and determination of viral shedding following vaccination with commercially available Newcastle disease virus vaccines upon challenge with highly virulent virus from the California 2002 exotic Newcastle disease outbreak

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darrell R. Kapczynski; Daniel J. King

    2005-01-01

    During 2002–2003, exotic Newcastle disease (END) virus caused a major outbreak among commercial and backyard poultry in southern California and adjacent states. The outbreak raised concerns regarding the protective immunity of commercially available vaccines for prevention and control of this virus in poultry. We sought to determine if existing commercial live and inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines could provide

  5. ACUTE PHASE IMMUNE GENE PROFILING OF SPLEEN AND PEYER’S PATCH IN NAÏVE AND VACCINATED CHICKENS FOLLOWING AVIAN INFLUENZA A (H5N1) VIRUS INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advances in immunogenomic and proteomic tools are facilitating the characterization of complex host-pathogen immunobiology. In this study, we applied functional genomics tools to investigate the early immunological response of chickens to highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV). ...

  6. ACUTE PHASE IMMUNE GENE PROFILING OF SPLEEN AND PEYER’S PATCH IN NAÏVE AND VACCINATED CHICKENS FOLLOWING AVIAN INFLUENZA A (H5N1) VIRUS INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we applied functional genomics tools to investigate the early immunological response of chickens to highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV). Infection with HPAIV usually results in the rapid death of poultry. The aim of this study was to identify host immune genes which a...

  7. Human papilloma virus vaccination induces strong human papilloma virus specific cell-mediated immune responses in HIV-infected adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Rainone, Veronica; Giacomet, Vania; Penagini, Francesca; Fabiano, Valentina; Calascibetta, Francesca; Mameli, Chiara; Pisanelli, Stefania; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Clerici, Mario; Trabattoni, Daria

    2015-03-27

    The ability of a quadrivalent human papilloma virus (HPV)-16/18/6/11 virus-like particles vaccine (Gardasil) to elicit HPV-specific cell-mediated immune responses was evaluated in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated HIV-infected young adults. Results showed that, after three doses of vaccine, central memory and effector memory CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes, as well as HPV-specific interleukin (IL)2/CD4, interferon-gamma (IFN-?)/CD4, IFN-?/CD8 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)/CD8 T lymphocytes and Perforin and Granzyme B secreting CD8 T lymphocytes were significantly increased. Notably, results obtained in HIV-infected patients were comparable to those seen in HIV-uninfected age-matched healthy controls. PMID:25849837

  8. Experimental iron-inactivated Pasteurella multocida A: 1 vaccine adjuvanted with bacterial DNA is safe and protects chickens from fowl cholera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chitra Herath; Pankaj Kumar; Mithilesh Singh; Devender Kumar; Saravanan Ramakrishnan; Tapas Kumar Goswami; Ajit Singh; G. C. Ram

    2010-01-01

    Fowl cholera is a serious problem in large and small scale poultry production. The present study describes the development and testing of an inactivated whole-cell, low-cost, safe, and effective vaccine for fowl cholera based on a previous work (Vaccine 23:5590–5598). Pasteurella multocida A: 1 grown in the presence of low FeCl3 concentrations, inactivated with higher concentrations of FeCl3, and adjuvanted

  9. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Dudas, Robert A.; Karron, Ruth A.

    1998-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants and children worldwide and causes significant LRI in the elderly and in immunocompromised patients. The goal of RSV vaccination is to prevent serious RSV-associated LRI. There are several obstacles to the development of successful RSV vaccines, including the need to immunize very young infants, who may respond inadequately to vaccination; the existence of two antigenically distinct RSV groups, A and B; and the history of disease enhancement following administration of a formalin-inactivated vaccine. It is likely that more than one type of vaccine will be needed to prevent RSV LRI in the various populations at risk. Although vector delivery systems, synthetic peptide, and immune-stimulating complex vaccines have been evaluated in animal models, only the purified F protein (PFP) subunit vaccines and live attenuated vaccines have been evaluated in recent clinical trials. PFP-2 appears to be a promising vaccine for the elderly and for RSV-seropositive children with underlying pulmonary disease, whereas live cold-passaged (cp), temperature-sensitive (ts) RSV vaccines (denoted cpts vaccines) would most probably be useful in young infants. The availability of cDNA technology should allow further refinement of existing live attenuated cpts candidate vaccines to produce engineered vaccines that are satisfactorily attenuated, immunogenic, and phenotypically stable. PMID:9665976

  10. Antibody Response Patterns to Bordetella pertussis Antigens in Vaccinated (Primed) and Unvaccinated (Unprimed) Young Children with Pertussis?

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, James D.; Heininger, Ulrich; Richards, David M.; Storsaeter, Jann; Gustafsson, Lennart; Ljungman, Margaretha; Hallander, Hans O.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, it was found that the antibody response to a nonvaccine pertussis antigen in children who were vaccine failures was reduced compared with the response in nonvaccinated children who had pertussis. In two acellular pertussis vaccine efficacy trials in Sweden, we studied the convalescent-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) geometric mean values (GMVs) in response to pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae (FIM 2/3) in vaccine failures and controls with pertussis. In Germany, the antibody responses to Bordetella pertussis antigens PT, FHA, PRN, and FIM-2 were analyzed by ELISA according to time of serum collection after onset of illness in children with pertussis who were vaccine failures or who were previously unvaccinated. Antibody values were also compared by severity of clinical illness. In Sweden, infants who had received a PT toxoid vaccine and who were vaccine failures had a blunted response to the nonvaccine antigen FHA compared with the response in children who had received a PT/FHA vaccine. Similarly, infants who had pertussis and who had received a PT/FHA vaccine had a blunted response to the nonvaccine antigens PRN and FIM 2/3 compared with the response in children who were vaccine failures and who had received a PT, FHA, PRN, and FIM 2/3 vaccine. In Germany, in sera collected from 0 to 15 days after pertussis illness onset, the GMVs for all 4 antigens (PT, FHA, PRN, and FIM-2) were significantly lower in an unvaccinated group than in children who were diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine failures. In the unvaccinated group, the GMV of the PT antibody rose rapidly over time so that it was similar to that of the DTaP vaccine recipients at the 16- to 30-day period. In contrast, the antibody responses to FHA, PRN, and FIM-2 at all time periods were lower in the diphtheria-tetanus vaccine (DT) recipients than in the DTaP vaccine failures. In both Sweden and Germany, children with less severe illness had lower antibody responses than children with typical pertussis. Our findings indicate that upon exposure and infection, previous vaccinees have more-robust antibody responses to the antigens contained in the vaccine they had received than to Bordetella antigens that were not in the vaccine they had received. In addition, over time the antibody responses to FHA, PRN, and FIM-2 were greater in children with vaccine failure (primed subjects) than in unvaccinated children (unprimed subjects) whereas the responses to PT were similar in the primed and unprimed children, as determined from sera collected after 15 days of illness. Our findings lend support to the idea that DTaP vaccines should contain multiple antigens. PMID:20335431

  11. Safety of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Modified Live Virus (MLV) vaccine strains in a young pig infection model.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lobo, Francisco Javier; de Lome, Laura Carrascosa; Díez-Fuertes, Francisco; Segalés, Joaquim; García-Artiga, Carlos; Simarro, Isabel; Castro, José María; Prieto, Cinta

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the safety of all modified live virus vaccines commercially available in Europe against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) under the same experimental conditions. For this purpose, one hundred and twenty three-week-old piglets, divided into five groups, were used. On day 0 of the experiment, nine pigs per group were removed and the remaining fifteen were vaccinated with the commercial vaccines Ingelvac PRRS MLV, Amervac PRRS, Pyrsvac-183 and Porcilis PRRS by the IM route or were mock vaccinated and used as controls. On day 3, the nine unvaccinated pigs were re-introduced into their respective groups and served as sentinel pigs. Clinical signs were recorded daily and lung lesions were determined on days 7, 14 and 21, when 5 vaccinated pigs per group were euthanized. Blood samples and swabs were taken every three days and different organs were collected at necropsy to determine the presence of PRRSV. None of the vaccines studied caused detectable clinical signs in vaccinated pigs although lung lesions were found. Altogether, these results indicate that all vaccines can be considered clinically safe. However, some differences were found in virological parameters. Thus, neither Pyrsvac-183 nor Porcilis PRRS could be detected in porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cultures or in lung sections used to determine PRRSV by immunohistochemistry, indicating that these viruses might have lost their ability to replicate in PAM. This inability to replicate in PAM might be related to the lower transmission rate and the delay in the onset of viremia observed in these groups. PMID:24308693

  12. Epidemiological study of severe febrile reactions in young children in Western Australia caused by a 2010 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Dowse, G K; Effler, P V; Carcione, D; Blyth, C C; Richmond, P C; Geelhoed, G C; Mascaro, F; Scully, M; Weeramanthri, T S

    2011-01-01

    Background The 2010 influenza vaccination program for children aged 6?months to 4?years in Western Australia (WA) was suspended following reports of severe febrile reactions, including febrile convulsions, following vaccination with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). Methods To investigate the association between severe febrile reactions and TIV, three studies were conducted: (i) rates of febrile convulsions within 72?h of receiving TIV in 2010 were estimated by vaccine formulation and batch; (ii) numbers of children presenting to hospital emergency departments with febrile convulsions from 2008 to 2010 were compared; and (iii) a retrospective cohort study of 360 children was conducted to compare the reactogenicity of available TIV formulations. Findings In 2010, an estimated maximum of 18?816 doses of TIV were administered and 63 febrile convulsions were recorded, giving an estimated rate of 3.3 (95% CI 2.6 to 4.2) per 1000 doses of TIV administered. The odds of a TIV-associated febrile convulsion was highly elevated in 2010 (p<0.001) and was associated with the vaccine formulations of one manufacturer—Fluvax and Fluvax Junior (CSL Biotherapies). The risk of both febrile convulsions (p<0.0001) and other febrile reactions (p<0.0001) was significantly greater for Fluvax formulations compared to the major alternate brand. The risk of febrile events was not associated with prior receipt of TIV or monovalent 2009 H1N1 pandemic vaccine. The biological cause of the febrile reactions is currently unknown. Interpretation One brand of influenza vaccine was responsible for the increase in febrile reactions, including febrile convulsions. Until the biological reason for this is determined and remediation undertaken, childhood influenza vaccination programs should not include Fluvax-type formulations and enhanced surveillance for febrile reactions in children receiving TIV should be undertaken. PMID:22021725

  13. Growth response and shedding of Leptospira spp. in urine following vaccination for leptospirosis in young farmed deer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Subharat; PR Wilson; C Heuer; JM Collins-Emerson

    2012-01-01

    AIM:?To investigate the effect of vaccination against Leptospira serovars Hardjo-bovis and Pomona on growth rate and shedding of leptospires in urine in rising 1-year-old farmed red deer.METHODS:?In early March 2007, 230 female and 205 male, 3-month-old deer on five farms were treated with streptomycin then were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 218), or were vaccinated (n = 217) with a bivalent

  14. Growth response and shedding of Leptospira spp. in urine following vaccination for leptospirosis in young farmed deer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Subharat; P R Wilson; C Heuer; J M Collins-Emerson

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of vaccination against Leptospira serovars Hardjo-bovis and Pomona on growth rate and shedding of leptospires in urine in rising-one?year-old farmed red deer.METHODS: In early-March 2007, 230 female and 205 male, 3?month-old deer on five farms were treated with streptomycin then were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 218), or were vaccinated (n = 217) with a bivalent

  15. Safety of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Modified Live Virus (MLV) vaccine strains in a young pig infection model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the safety of all modified live virus vaccines commercially available in Europe against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) under the same experimental conditions. For this purpose, one hundred and twenty three-week-old piglets, divided into five groups, were used. On day 0 of the experiment, nine pigs per group were removed and the remaining fifteen were vaccinated with the commercial vaccines Ingelvac PRRS MLV, Amervac PRRS, Pyrsvac-183 and Porcilis PRRS by the IM route or were mock vaccinated and used as controls. On day 3, the nine unvaccinated pigs were re-introduced into their respective groups and served as sentinel pigs. Clinical signs were recorded daily and lung lesions were determined on days 7, 14 and 21, when 5 vaccinated pigs per group were euthanized. Blood samples and swabs were taken every three days and different organs were collected at necropsy to determine the presence of PRRSV. None of the vaccines studied caused detectable clinical signs in vaccinated pigs although lung lesions were found. Altogether, these results indicate that all vaccines can be considered clinically safe. However, some differences were found in virological parameters. Thus, neither Pyrsvac-183 nor Porcilis PRRS could be detected in porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cultures or in lung sections used to determine PRRSV by immunohistochemistry, indicating that these viruses might have lost their ability to replicate in PAM. This inability to replicate in PAM might be related to the lower transmission rate and the delay in the onset of viremia observed in these groups PMID:24308693

  16. Towards universal influenza vaccines?

    PubMed Central

    Osterhaus, Ab; Fouchier, Ron; Rimmelzwaan, Guus

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination is the most cost-effective way to reduce the considerable disease burden of seasonal influenza. Although seasonal influenza vaccines are effective, their performance in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals would benefit from improvement. Major problems related to the development and production of pandemic influenza vaccines are response time and production capacity as well as vaccine efficacy and safety. Several improvements can be envisaged. Vaccine production technologies based on embryonated chicken eggs may be replaced by cell culture techniques. Reverse genetics techniques can speed up the generation of seed viruses and new mathematical modelling methods improve vaccine strain selection. Better understanding of the correlates of immune-mediated protection may lead to new vaccine targets besides the viral haemagglutinin, like the neuraminidase and M2 proteins. In addition, the role of cell-mediated immunity could be better exploited. New adjuvants have recently been shown to increase the breadth and the duration of influenza vaccine-induced protection. Other studies have shown that influenza vaccines based on different viral vector systems may also induce broad protection. It is to be expected that these developments may lead to more universal influenza vaccines that elicit broader and longer protection, and can be produced more efficiently. PMID:21893539

  17. INACTIVATED NORTH AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN H5N2 AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS VACCINES PROTECT CHICKENS FROM ASIAN H5N1 HIGH PATHOGENICITY AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High pathogenicity (HP) avian influenza (AI) of the H5N1 subtype has caused an unprecedented epizootic in birds within nine Asian countries/regions since first reported in 1996. Vaccination has emerged as a tool for use in managing the infection in view of future eradication. This study was undertak...

  18. Pineapple Chicken Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Pineapple Chicken Ingredients: 1 1/2 pounds boneless, skinless chicken breasts 1 chicken bouillon. Cut chicken into small pieces, removing fat and skin, add to skillet and cook until no longer pink. Be sure to wash hands and all surfaces after handling chicken. 2. Dissolve chicken bouillon cube in 1 cup

  19. Host Genetics and Vaccine Efficacy: Global gene expression differentiation induced by vaccine and MDV in MD resistant and susceptible chickens based on Next-Gen RNA-Seq reads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a herpesvirus-induced disease of poultry and it continues to threaten the poultry industry worldwide as MD virus (MDV) evolves to escalate the virulence of field strains. MD has been primarily controlled by vaccination and management measures. This study aimed to compare the ...

  20. Cattle Vaccines

    E-print Network

    Faries Jr., Floron C.

    2005-11-11

    Vaccines deliver antigens that stimulate the body's production of antibodies in response to disease. Cattle can be vaccinated with noninfectious or infectious vaccines. The types of vaccine products, proper handling of vaccines, and vaccination...

  1. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination timing and autism among young african american boys: a reanalysis of CDC data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A significant number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder suffer a loss of previously-acquired skills, suggesting neurodegeneration or a type of progressive encephalopathy with an etiological basis occurring after birth. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectof the age at which children got their first Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine on autism incidence. This is a reanalysis of the data set, obtained from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Protection (CDC), used for the Destefano et al. 2004 publication on the timing of the first MMR vaccine and autism diagnoses. Methods The author embarked on the present study to evaluate whether a relationship exists between child age when the first MMR vaccine was administered among cases diagnosed with autism and controls born between 1986 through 1993 among school children in metropolitan Atlanta. The Pearson’s chi-squared method was used to assess relative risks of receiving an autism diagnosis within the total cohort as well as among different race and gender categories. Results When comparing cases and controls receiving their first MMR vaccine before and after 36 months of age, there was a statistically significant increase in autism cases specifically among African American males who received the first MMR prior to 36 months of age. Relative risks for males in general and African American males were 1.69 (p=0.0138) and 3.36 (p=0.0019), respectively. Additionally, African American males showed an odds ratio of 1.73 (p=0.0200) for autism cases in children receiving their first MMR vaccine prior to 24 months of age versus 24 months of age and thereafter. Conclusions The present study provides new epidemiologic evidence showing that African American males receiving the MMR vaccine prior to 24 months of age or 36 months of age are more likely to receive an autism diagnosis. PMID:25114790

  2. Immunogenicity and Tolerability to Human Papillomavirus-like Particle Vaccine in Girls and Young Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Denise L.; Bousvaros, Athos; Ashworth, Lori; Carey, Rebecca; Shrier, Lydia A.; Burchett, Sandra K.; Renna, Harmony; Lu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Background Female patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy may be at increased risk for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical neoplasia. Methods We administered the 3-dose HPV vaccine Gardasil® to 37 females aged 9-26 years with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) prescribed immunosuppressive therapy (prospective cohort). Geometric mean titers (GMT) in milli-Merck (mMu/mL) units were determined before dose 1 and one month after dose 3 by competitive Luminex immunoassay (cLIA) and qualitatively compared to healthy females of similar age from Merck’s database. Side effects and adverse events were evaluated. Concurrently, in 15 similar IBD patients previously vaccinated by their primary care provider we assessed antibody titers by cLIA and total IgG LIA after dose 3 of vaccine (range 0.5 to 27 months). Results The mean age of prospective patients was 15 years with 51% on anti-TNF therapy and 49% on immunomodulators: 33 of 37 completed all three doses. Seropositivity after dose 3 was 100% for types 6, 11 and 16 and 96% for type 18. GMT for HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 was 1080, 1682, 3975 and 858, respectively, and did not qualitatively differ from healthy females. No serious adverse events were attributable to the vaccine. In the previously vaccinated cohort, seropositivity was 100% for types 6, 11, and 16, and 40% for type 18 by cLIA (93% for HPV18 by IgG LIA). Titers decreased with time since dose 3. Conclusions In this small study of IBD patients prescribed immunosuppressive therapy, Gardasil® was immunogenic and there were no clinically significant vaccine-associated adverse events. PMID:23567780

  3. Avidity of Anti-Circumsporozoite Antibodies following Vaccination with RTS,S/AS01E in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Olotu, Ally; Clement, Frederic; Jongert, Erik; Vekemans, Johan; Njuguna, Patricia; Ndungu, Francis M.; Marsh, Kevin; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Bejon, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Background The nature of protective immune responses elicited by immunization with the candidate malaria vaccine RTS,S is still incompletely understood. Antibody levels correlate with protection against malaria infection, but considerable variation in outcome is unexplained (e.g., children may experience malaria despite high anti-circumsporozoite [CS] titers). Methods and Findings We measured the avidity index (AI) of the anti-CS antibodies raised in subgroup of 5–17 month old children in Kenya who were vaccinated with three doses of RTS,S/AS01E between March and August 2007. We evaluated the association between the AI and the subsequent risk of clinical malaria. We selected 19 cases (i.e., with clinical malaria) and 42 controls (i.e., without clinical malaria), matching for anti-CS antibody levels and malaria exposure. We assessed their sera collected 1 month after the third dose of the vaccine, in March 2008 (range 4–10 months after the third vaccine), and at 12 months after the third vaccine dose. The mean AI was 45.2 (95% CI: 42.4 to 48.1), 45.3 (95% CI: 41.4 to 49.1) and 46.2 (95% CI; 43.2 to 49.3) at 1 month, in March 2008 (4–10 months), and at 12 months after the third vaccination, respectively (p?=?0.9 by ANOVA test for variation over time). The AI was not associated with protection from clinical malaria (OR?=?0.90; 95% CI: 0.49 to 1.66; p?=?0.74). The AI was higher in children with high malaria exposure, as measured using the weighted local prevalence of malaria, compared to those with low malaria exposure at 1 month post dose 3 (p?=?0.035). Conclusion Our data suggest that in RTS,S/AS01E-vaccinated children residing in malaria endemic countries, the avidity of anti-circumsporozoite antibodies, as measured using an elution ELISA method, was not associated with protection from clinical malaria. Prior natural malaria exposure might have primed the response to RTS,S/AS01E vaccination. PMID:25506706

  4. Protection of chickens against infectious bronchitis by a recombinant fowlpox virus co-expressing IBV-S1 and chicken IFNgamma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-Feng; Sun, Yong-Ke; Tian, Zhan-Cheng; Shi, Xing-Ming; Tong, Guang-Zhi; Liu, Sheng-Wang; Zhi, Hai-Dong; Kong, Xian-Gang; Wang, Mei

    2009-11-23

    A fowlpox virus expressing the chicken infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1 gene of the LX4 strain (rFPV-IBVS1) and a fowlpox virus co-expressing the S1 gene and the chicken type II interferon gene (rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma) were constructed. These viruses were assessed for their immunological efficacy on specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens challenged with a virulent IBV. Although the antibody levels in the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma-vaccinated group were lower than those in the attenuated live IB vaccine H120 group and the rFPV-IBVS1 group, the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma provided the strongest protection against an IBV LX4 virus challenge (15 out of 16 chickens immunized with rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma were protected), followed by the attenuated live IB vaccine (13/16 protected) and the rFPV-IBVS1 (12/16 protected). Compared to those of the rFPV-IBVS1 and the attenuated live IB vaccine groups, chickens in the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma group eliminated virus more quickly and decreased the presence of viral antigen more significantly in renal tissue. Examination of affected tissues revealed abnormalities in the liver, spleen, kidney, lung and trachea of chickens vaccinated with the attenuated live IB vaccine and the rFPV-IBVS1 vaccine. In rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma-vaccinated chickens, pathological changes were also observed in those organs, but were milder and lasted shorter. The lesions in the mock control group were the most severe and lasted for at least 20 days. This study demonstrated that chicken type II interferon increased the immunoprotective efficacy of rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma and normal weight gain in vaccinated chickens although it inhibited serum antibody production. PMID:19786144

  5. Enterococcus hirae, a New Species That Includes Amino Acid Assay Strain NCDO 1258 and Strains Causing Growth Depression in Young Chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN A. E. FARROW; MATTHEW D. COLLINS

    1985-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid base composition, deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization, lipid, and biochemical studies were performed with Enterococcus faecium NCDO 1258 (= Snell strain R) and other atypical Enferococcus faecium strains from pigs and chickens in an attempt to clarify their taxonomy. Our results indicate that these strains constitute a new species, for which the name Enferococcus hirae sp. nov. is proposed.

  6. How to Inform: Comparing Written and Video Education Interventions to Increase Human Papillomavirus Knowledge and Vaccination Intentions in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Lau, Elsa; Perez, Samara; Delisle, Vanessa; Amsel, Rhonda; Rosberger, Zeev

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) educational interventions on increasing HPV knowledge and vaccination intentions in college students. Participants: Male (n = 60) and female (n = 140) undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 20.4, SD = 2.3) recruited from a university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from October 2009 to…

  7. Effects of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D–Conjugate Vaccine on Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Colonization in Young Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van den Bergh, Menno R.; Spijkerman, Judith; Swinnen, Kristien M.; François, Nancy A.; Pascal, Thierry G.; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode; IJzerman, Ed P. F.; Bruin, Jacob P.; van der Ende, Arie; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background.?This study evaluated the effects of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D–conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization compared with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) in young children. Methods.?A randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands, initiated 2 years after 7vCRM introduction, was conducted between 1 April 2008 and 1 December 2010. Infants (N = 780) received either PHiD-CV or 7vCRM (2:1) at 2, 3, 4, and 11–13 months of age. Nasopharyngeal samples taken at 5, 11, 14, 18, and 24 months of age were cultured to detect Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Polymerase chain reaction assays quantified H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae and confirmed H. influenzae as nontypeable (NTHi). Primary outcome measure was vaccine efficacy (VE) against NTHi colonization. Results.?In both groups, NTHi colonization increased with age from 33% in 5-month-olds to 65% in 24-month-olds. Three months postbooster, VE against colonization was 0.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], ?21.8% to 18.4%) and VE against acquisition 10.9% (95% CI, ?31.3% to 38.9%). At each sampling moment, no differences between groups in either NTHi prevalence or H. influenzae density were detected. Streptococcus pneumoniae (range, 39%–57%), M. catarrhalis (range, 63%­–69%), and S. aureus (range, 9%–30%) colonization patterns were similar between groups. Conclusions.?PHiD-CV had no differential effect on nasopharyngeal NTHi colonization or H. influenzae density in healthy Dutch children up to 2 years of age, implying that herd effects for NTHi are not to be expected. Other bacterial colonization patterns were also similar. Clinical Trials Registration?NCT00652951. PMID:23118268

  8. A subunit vaccine candidate derived from a classic H5N1 avian influenza virus in China protects fowls and BALB/c mice from lethal challenge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangliang; Zhang, Fangfang; Shi, Jianzhong; Tian, Guobing; Chen, Hualan; Yu, Kangzheng; Meng, Qingwen

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, numerous human infections with avian influenza viruses in Asia have raised the concern that the next influenza pandemic is imminent. The most effective way to combat human avian influenza is through vaccination of the public. In this study, we developed an influenza A recombinant protein (rH5HA) directed against the hemagglutinin (HA) of a classic H5N1 high pathogenic avian influenza virus isolated in South China in 1996. Following purification of the recombinant protein expressed from a baculovirus expression system, we evaluated the efficiency of rH5HA on specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken, commercial chicken, and in BALB/c mice in an infection-protection model. The results demonstrated that rH5HA induced antibody responses and provided full protection in both SPF chickens and commercial chickens. Protective immunity was generated within 2 weeks in chickens as young as 7-day post-hatch using a minimum amount of rH5HA protein (2?g/bird/vaccination). The serum antibody generated from rH5HA immunization was protective and lasted more than 6 months. Our data also demonstrated that rH5HA immunization protected BALB/c mice from a lethal challenge with pathogenic avian influenza virus. These results suggested that vaccination with rH5HA could be a vaccine candidate for the control of H5N1 avian influenza in poultry, in mice, and potentially in other mammals including human. PMID:24055355

  9. Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Larry J

    2013-04-01

    The importance of RSV as a respiratory pathogen in young children made it a priority for vaccine development shortly after it was discovered. Unfortunately, after over 50 years of vaccine development no vaccine has yet been licensed and it is not certain which if any vaccines being developed will be successful. The first candidate vaccine, a formalin inactivated RSV vaccine (FI-RSV), was tested in children in the 1960s and predisposed young recipients to more serious disease with later natural infection. The ongoing challenges in developing RSV vaccines are balanced by advances in our understanding of the virus, the host immune response to vaccines and infection, and pathogenesis of disease. It seems likely that with efficient and appropriately focused effort a safe and effective vaccine is within reach. There are at least 4 different target populations for an RSV vaccine, i.e. the RSV naïve young infant, the RSV naïve infant >4-6 months of age, pregnant women, and elderly adults. Each target population has different issues related to vaccine development. Numerous vaccines from live attenuated RSV to virus like particle vaccines have been developed and evaluated in animals. Very few vaccines have been studied in humans and studies in humans are needed to determine which vaccines are worth moving toward licensure. Some changes in the approach may improve the efficiency of evaluating candidate vaccines. The complexity of the challenges for developing RSV vaccines suggests that collaboration among academic, government, and funding institutions and industry is needed to most efficiently achieve an RSV vaccine. PMID:23778071

  10. Efficacy of Pneumococcal Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Young Latin American Children: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tregnaghi, Miguel W.; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; López, Pio; Abate, Hector; Smith, Enrique; Pósleman, Adriana; Calvo, Arlene; Wong, Digna; Cortes-Barbosa, Carlos; Ceballos, Ana; Tregnaghi, Marcelo; Sierra, Alexandra; Rodriguez, Mirna; Troitiño, Marisol; Carabajal, Carlos; Falaschi, Andrea; Leandro, Ana; Castrejón, Maria Mercedes; Lepetic, Alejandro; Lommel, Patricia; Hausdorff, William P.; Borys, Dorota; Guiñazú, Javier Ruiz; Ortega-Barría, Eduardo; Yarzábal, Juan P.; Schuerman, Lode

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between pneumococcal conjugate vaccine–induced antibody responses and protection against community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute otitis media (AOM) is unclear. This study assessed the impact of the ten-valent pneumococcal nontypable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on these end points. The primary objective was to demonstrate vaccine efficacy (VE) in a per-protocol analysis against likely bacterial CAP (B-CAP: radiologically confirmed CAP with alveolar consolidation/pleural effusion on chest X-ray, or non-alveolar infiltrates and C-reactive protein ? 40 µg/ml); other protocol-specified outcomes were also assessed. Methods and Findings This phase III double-blind randomized controlled study was conducted between 28 June 2007 and 28 July 2011 in Argentine, Panamanian, and Colombian populations with good access to health care. Approximately 24,000 infants received PHiD-CV or hepatitis control vaccine (hepatitis B for primary vaccination, hepatitis A at booster) at 2, 4, 6, and 15–18 mo of age. Interim analysis of the primary end point was planned when 535 first B-CAP episodes, occurring ?2 wk after dose 3, were identified in the per-protocol cohort. After a mean follow-up of 23 mo (PHiD-CV, n?=?10,295; control, n?=?10,201), per-protocol VE was 22.0% (95% CI: 7.7, 34.2; one-sided p?=?0.002) against B-CAP (conclusive for primary objective) and 25.7% (95% CI: 8.4%, 39.6%) against World Health Organization–defined consolidated CAP. Intent-to-treat VE was 18.2% (95% CI: 5.5%, 29.1%) against B-CAP and 23.4% (95% CI: 8.8%, 35.7%) against consolidated CAP. End-of-study per-protocol analyses were performed after a mean follow-up of 28–30 mo for CAP and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) (PHiD-CV, n?=?10,211; control, n?=?10,140) and AOM (n?=?3,010 and 2,979, respectively). Per-protocol VE was 16.1% (95% CI: ?1.1%, 30.4%; one-sided p?=?0.032) against clinically confirmed AOM, 67.1% (95% CI: 17.0%, 86.9%) against vaccine serotype clinically confirmed AOM, 100% (95% CI: 74.3%, 100%) against vaccine serotype IPD, and 65.0% (95% CI: 11.1%, 86.2%) against any IPD. Results were consistent between intent-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. Serious adverse events were reported for 21.5% (95% CI: 20.7%, 22.2%) and 22.6% (95% CI: 21.9%, 23.4%) of PHiD-CV and control recipients, respectively. There were 19 deaths (n?=?11,798; 0.16%) in the PHiD-CV group and 26 deaths (n?=?11,799; 0.22%) in the control group. A significant study limitation was the lower than expected number of captured AOM cases. Conclusions Efficacy was demonstrated against a broad range of pneumococcal diseases commonly encountered in young children in clinical practice. Trial registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00466947 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24892763

  11. Recent Advances in Mycoplasma gallisepticum Vaccine Administration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines to layer chickens generally occurs at 9 to 10 weeks of age. Mycoplasma organisms are extremely fastidious in the laboratory and difficult to grow. Very little attention has been accorded to optimizing parameters for vaccine administration in th...

  12. Evaluation of two chimeric bovine-human parainfluenza virus type 3 vaccines in infants and young children

    PubMed Central

    Karron, Ruth A.; Thumar, Bhagvanji; Schappell, Elizabeth; Surman, Sonja; Murphy, Brian R.; Collins, Peter L.; Schmidt, Alexander C.

    2012-01-01

    Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is an important cause of lower respiratory tract illness in children, yet a licensed vaccine or antiviral drug is not available. We evaluated the safety, tolerability, infectivity, and immunogenicity of two intranasal, live-attenuated HPIV3 vaccines, designated rHPIV3-NB and rB/HPIV3, that were cDNA-derived chimeras of HPIV3 and bovine PIV3 (BPIV3). These were evaluated in adults, HPIV3 seropositive children, and HPIV3 seronegative children. A total of 112 subjects participated in these studies. Both rB/HPIV3 and rHPIV3-NB were highly restricted in replication in adults and seropositive children but readily infected seronegative children, who shed mean peak virus titers of 102.8 vs. 103.7 pfu/mL, respectively. Although rB/HPIV3 was more restricted in replication in seronegative children than rHPIV3-NB, it induced significantly higher titers of hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibodies against HPIV3. Taken together, these data suggest that the rB/HPIV3 vaccine is the preferred candidate for further clinical development. PMID:22178099

  13. Chicken Feet

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2009-09-02

    that imports are NOT blocked, according to US exporters, Beijing has launched a preemptive poultry strike and halted imports of US chicken. The feet, which are called Golden Phoenix Claws at dim sum establishments are popular in stews and snacks and, we’re told...

  14. Chicken skeleton

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (CSUF; )

    2007-09-01

    The long neck and beak allow the chicken to peck at food to eat it. The large breastbone of birds is indicative a large, volumous chest that fills with air while flying. Thin legs makes the animal lighter in weight, which also aids in flight.

  15. Effects of System Pressure and Nozzle Type on Spray Application of Avian Vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimization of vaccine delivery via spray application of live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine to commercial caged layer chickens is impacted by many factors. One of these factors is the pressure utilized to dispense the vaccine, which affects both delivery rate and droplet size. MG vaccine ...

  16. Efficacy of different commercial and new inactivated vaccines against ovine enzootic abortion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N Garc??a de la Fuente; C. B Gutiérrez-Mart??n; N Ortega; E. F Rodr??guez-Ferri; M. L del R??o; O. R González; J Salinas

    2004-01-01

    The protective efficacy of two inactivated commercial (A, B) and two new inactivated vaccines (M7, QS) against ovine enzootic abortion was determined in two separate experiments in sheep. Vaccine A contained chlamydiae propagated in chicken embryos, adjuvated with Marcol 82, and vaccine B contained chlamydiae cultured in cell monolayers, adjuvated with aluminium hydroxide. For the preparation of the experimental vaccines,

  17. Seasonal influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Anthony E; Bridges, Carolyn B; Cox, Nancy J

    2009-01-01

    Influenza vaccines are the mainstay of efforts to reduce the substantial health burden from seasonal influenza. Inactivated influenza vaccines have been available since the 1940s and are administered via intramuscular injection. Inactivated vaccines can be given to anyone six months of age or older. Live attenuated, cold-adapted influenza vaccines (LAIV) were developed in the 1960s but were not licensed in the United States until 2003, and are administered via nasal spray. Both vaccines are trivalent preparations grown in eggs and do not contain adjuvants. LAIV is licensed for use in the United States for healthy nonpregnant persons 2-49 years of age.Influenza vaccination induces antibodies primarily against the major surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA); antibodies directed against the HA are most important for protection against illness. The immune response peaks at 2-4 weeks after one dose in primed individuals. In previously unvaccinated children <9 years of age, two doses of influenza vaccine are recommended, as some children in this age group have limited or no prior infections from circulating types and subtypes of seasonal influenza. These children require both an initial priming dose and a subsequent booster dose of vaccine to mount a protective antibody response.The most common adverse events associated with inactivated vaccines are sore arm and redness at the injection site; systemic symptoms such as fever or malaise are less commonly reported. Guillian-Barré Syndrome (GBS) was identified among approximately 1 per 100,000 recipients of the 1976 swine influenza vaccine. The risk of influenza vaccine-associated GBS from seasonal influenza vaccine is thought to be at most approximately 1-2 cases per 1 million vaccinees, based on a few studies that have found an association; other studies have found no association.The most common adverse events associated with LAIV are nasal congestion, headache, myalgias or fever. Studies of the safety of LAIV among young children suggest an increased risk of wheezing in some young children, and the vaccine is not recommended for children younger than 2 years old, ages 2-4 old with a history of recurrent wheezing or reactive airways disease, or older persons who have any medical condition that confers an increased risk of influenza-related complications.The effectiveness of influenza vaccines is related predominantly to the age and immune competence of the vaccinee and the antigenic relatedness of vaccine strains to circulating strains. Vaccine effectiveness in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza illness when the vaccine strains are well matched to circulating strains is 70-90% in randomized, placebo-controlled trials conducted among children and young healthy adults, but is lower among elderly or immunocompromised persons. In years with a suboptimal match, vaccine benefit is likely to be lower, although the vaccine can still provide substantial benefit, especially against more severe outcomes. Live, attenuated influenza vaccines have been most extensively studied among children, and have been shown to be more effective than inactivated vaccines in several randomized controlled trials among young children.Influenza vaccination is recommended in the United States for all children six months or older, all adults 50 years or older, all persons with chronic medical conditions, and pregnant women, and contacts of these persons, including healthcare workers. The global disease burden of influenza is substantial, and the World Health Organization has indicated that member states should evaluate the cost-effectiveness of introducing influenza vaccination into national immunization programs. More research is needed to develop more effective seasonal influenza vaccines that provide long-lasting immunity and broad protection against strains that differ antigenically from vaccine viruses. PMID:19768400

  18. Rotavirus vaccines: an overview.

    PubMed Central

    Midthun, K; Kapikian, A Z

    1996-01-01

    Rotavirus vaccine development has focused on the delivery of live attenuated rotavirus strains by the oral route. The initial "Jennerian" approach involving bovine (RIT4237, WC3) or rhesus (RRV) rotavirus vaccine candidates showed that these vaccines were safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic but induced highly variable rates of protection against rotavirus diarrhea. The goal of a rotavirus vaccine is to prevent severe illness that can lead to dehydration in infants and young children in both developed and developing countries. These studies led to the concept that a multivalent vaccine that represented each of the four epidemiologically important VP7 serotypes might be necessary to induce protection in young infants, the target population for vaccination. Human-animal rotavirus reassortants whose gene encoding VP7 was derived from their human rotavirus parent but whose remaining genes were derived from the animal rotavirus parent were developed as vaccine candidates. The greatest experience with a multivalent vaccine to date has been gained with the quadrivalent preparation containing RRV (VP7 serotype 3) and human-RRV reassortants of VP7 serotype 1, 2, and 4 specificity. Preliminary efficacy trial results in the United States have been promising, whereas a study in Peru has shown only limited protection. Human-bovine reassortant vaccines, including a candidate that contains the VP4 gene of a human rotavirus (VP4 serotype 1A), are also being studied. PMID:8809469

  19. Effective influenza vaccines for children

    PubMed Central

    Banzhoff, Angelika; Stoddard, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal influenza causes clinical illness and hospitalization in all age groups; however, conventional inactivated vaccines have only limited efficacy in young children. MF59®, an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant, has been used since the 1990s to enhance the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in the elderly, a population with waning immune function due to immunosenescence.   Clinical trials now provide information to support a favorable immunogenicity and safety profile of MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine in young children. Published data indicate that Fluad®, a trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine with MF59, was immunogenic and well tolerated in young children, with a benefit/risk ratio that supports routine clinical use. A recent clinical trial also shows that Fluad provides high efficacy against PCR-confirmed influenza. Based on the results of clinical studies in children, the use of MF59-adjuvanted vaccine offers the potential to enhance efficacy and make vaccination a viable prevention and control strategy in this population. PMID:22327501

  20. Comparative evaluation of Salmonella Enteritidis ghost vaccines with a commercial vaccine for protection against internal egg contamination with Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Jawale, Chetan V; Lee, John Hwa

    2014-10-14

    The study was conducted for the comparative evaluation of the vaccine potential of Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis, SE) ghost, SE ghost carrying Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) protein, and a commercial vaccine. Group A chickens were used as a non-vaccinated control, group B chickens were immunized with the ghost carrying LTB protein, group C chickens were immunized with the ghost and, group D chickens were immunized with a commercial vaccine. Group D chickens showed the swelling at the injection site, while no adverse reactions were observed at injection sites of the group B and C chickens. Chickens from the immunized groups B, C, and D demonstrated significant increases in plasma IgG, intestinal secretory IgA levels, and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative responses. After challenge with a virulent SE strain via intravenous route, groups B, C, and D showed significantly higher egg production and lower internal egg contamination and lower recovery of the challenge strain from internal organs compared to non-immunized-challenged control group A. In conclusion, these data indicate that immunization of chickens with the ghost and ghost carrying LTB is safe, without causing any adverse reaction, and is effective as the commercial vaccine in terms of reduction in internal egg contamination and internal organ colonization of Salmonella. PMID:25218296

  1. Qualitative map of Salmonella contamination on the chicken carcass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella contamination of poultry is a global public health problem. The objective of this study was to map the distribution of Salmonella on the chicken carcass for the purpose of improving poultry inspection and food safety. Young chickens (n = 70) in the Cornish game hen class were obtained a...

  2. Edible vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Meloen; W. D. O. Hamilton; J. I. Casal; K. Dalsgaard; J. P. M. Langeveld

    1998-01-01

    The ultimate vaccine is an oral vaccine which given once protects against a multitude of diseases. Furthermore this ultimate vaccine needs to be very stable and inexpensive to produce. Probably this latter condition can be met only if the vaccines are produced in plants. Such vaccines are called ‘edible vaccines’. Edible vaccines can be produced in plants in many ways.

  3. Ecto-, endo- and haemoparasites in free-range chickens in the Goromonzi District in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Permin, A; Esmann, J B; Hoj, C H; Hove, T; Mukaratirwa, S

    2002-07-25

    A cross-sectional study determined the prevalence of ecto-, endo- and haemoparasites in free-range chickens from the Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe. Fifty young and 50 adult birds were selected randomly. All chickens harboured ecto- and endoparasites, and 32% were infected with haemoparasites. Eight different ectoparasites were identified; the more prevalent ones had the following prevalences (young, %; adult, %): Argas persicus (6; 14), Cnemidocoptes mutans (6; 32), Echidnophaga gallinacea (72; 74), Goniocotes gallinae (0; 22), Menacanthus stramenius (90; 88) and Menopon gallinea (24; 66). The prevalences of C. mutans, G. gallinae and M. gallinae were higher in adults compared to young chickens. The mean (+/-S.D.) number of helminth species per chicken was 6.7+/-2.0 for young chickens and 6.4+/-2.0 for adult chickens with a range of 1-10 for young chickens and a range of 1-11 for adult chickens. The most prevalent nematodes identified were (with prevalence in % for young/adult birds): Allodapa suctoria (76; 72), Ascaridia galli (48; 24), Gongylonema ingluvicola (28; 56), Heterakis gallinarum (64; 62) and Tetrameres americana (70; 62). For cestodes the prevalences were: Amoebotaenia cuneata (60; 68), Hymenolepis spp. (62; 80), Raillietina echinobothrida (66; 34), Raillietina tetragona (94; 100) and Skrjabinia cesticillus (50; 76). The young chickens had higher prevalences of A. galli and R. echinobothrida compared to adults, but lower prevalence of G. ingluvicola and S. cesticillus. Eimeria spp. oocysts were isolated in 36% of 47 investigated samples. The prevalence was 47% for young chickens and 18% for adult chickens. Prevalences (in %) of haemoparasites in young and adult chickens were: Aegyptinella pullorum (7; 6), Leucocytozoon sabrazesi (3; 1), Plasmodium gallinaceum (8; 6) and Trypanosoma avium (2; 3). PMID:12114010

  4. Transient expression of VP2 in Nicotiana benthamiana and its use as a plant-based vaccine against infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Evangelina; Lucero, María Soledad; Chimeno Zoth, Silvina; Carballeda, Juan Manuel; Gravisaco, María José; Berinstein, Analía

    2013-05-28

    Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) is the etiological agent of an immunosuppressive and highly contagious disease that affects young birds. This disease causes important economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The VP2 protein has been used for the development of subunit vaccines in a variety of heterologous platforms. In this context, the aim of this study was to investigate VP2 expression and immunogenicity using an experimental plant-based vaccine against IBDV. We determined that the agroinfiltration of N. benthamiana leaves allowed the production of VP2 with no apparent change on its conformational epitopes. Chickens intramuscularly immunized in a dose/boost scheme with crude concentrated extracts developed a specific humoral response with viral neutralizing ability. Given these results, it seems plausible for a plant-based vaccine to have a niche in the veterinary field. Thus, plants can be an adequate system of choice to produce immunogens against IBDV. PMID:23583894

  5. Probable Congenital Transmission of Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Caused by Vaccination with Contaminated Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shufen; Guo, Wenlong; Sheng, Pengcheng; Wang, Zunmin; Zhao, Changliang; Zhao, Qingyou; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2012-01-01

    Contaminated vaccine is one unexpected and potential origin of virus infection. In order to investigate the most likely cause of disease in a broiler breeder company of Shandong Province, all 17 batches of live-virus vaccines used in the affected flocks and 478 tissue samples were tested by dot-blot hybridization, nested PCR, and IFA. The results suggested the outbreak of disease was most probably due to the vaccination of REV-contaminated MD-CVI988/Rispens vaccines and ND-LaSota+IB-H120 vaccines. Furthermore, the REV was probably transmitted to the commercial chickens through congenital transmission. PMID:22912872

  6. Accuracy of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold in Tube for diagnosing tuberculosis in a young pediatric population previously vaccinated with Bacille Calmette-Guérin

    PubMed Central

    Vallada, Marcelo Genofre; Okay, Thelma Suely; Del Negro, Gilda Maria B.; Antonio, Claudio Amaral; Yamamoto, Lidia; Ramos, Sonia Regina T. S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of an interferongamma release assay (QuantiFERON-TB Gold in Tube) for diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a young pediatric population. Methods: 195 children previously vaccinated with BCG were evaluated, being 184 healthy individuals with no clinical or epidemiological evidence of mycobacterial infection, and 11 with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, according to clinical, radiological, and laboratory parameters. A blood sample was obtained from each child and processed according to the manufacturer's instructions. The assay performance was evaluated by a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: In the group of 184 non-infected children, 130 (70.6%) were under the age of four years (mean age of 35 months). In this group, 177 children (96.2%) had negative test results, six (3.2%) had indeterminate results, and one (0.5%) had a positive result. In the group of 11 infected children, the mean age was 58.5 months, and two of them (18%) had negative results. The ROC curve had an area under the curve of 0.88 (95%CI 0.82-0.92; p<0.001), disclosing a predictive positive value of 81.8% for the test (95%CI 46.3-97.4). The assay sensitivity was 81.8% (95%CI 48.2-97.2) and the specificity was 98.8% (95%CI 96-99.8). Conclusions: In the present study, the QuantiFERON-TB Gold in Tube performance for diagnosing M. tuberculosis infection was appropriate in a young pediatric population. PMID:24676183

  7. Chicken Salad Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Chicken Salad Ingredients: 2 1/2 cups boneless skinless chicken breasts, cooked and diced 1/2 onion cooked chicken breasts and add to bowl. 2. Cut the ends off of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Add to bowl. 4. Refrigerate until ready to serve. Chicken salad does not freeze well. Equipment

  8. Chicken Noodle Soup Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Chicken Noodle Soup Ingredients: 3 pound chicken 1 onion 2 stalks celery 3 large carrots 1 Directions 1. Remove skin and place chicken in large pot. Cover completely with water. Cover, bring to boil, reduce heat, and simmer until chicken falls off bones, about 1 hour. 2. Remove pot from stove and remove

  9. Chicken Burritos Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Chicken Burritos Ingredients: 1 cup skinless, boneless chicken breasts, skinless (two breasts in foil. Bake for 10 minutes. 2. Meanwhile, dice the chicken into small pieces. Chop the tomato and grate cheese. 3. Put the chicken, corn and salsa in a large skillet. Cook over medium heat until mixture

  10. HPV vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... men Two vaccines called HPV2 (Cervarix) and HPV4 (Gardasil) are approved: Both vaccines protect against the two ...

  11. Typhoid Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... around the world and kills about 200,000. Typhoid vaccine can prevent typhoid. ... Who should get typhoid vaccine and when?Routine typhoid vaccination is not recommended in the United States, but typhoid vaccine is recommended for: Travelers ...

  12. Comparative efficacy of North American and antigenically matched reverse genetics derived H5N9 DIVA marker vaccines against highly pathogenic Asian H5N1 avian influenza in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza has become endemic in several countries in Asia and Africa, and vaccination is being widely used as a control tool. However, there is a need for efficacious vaccines preferably utilizing a DIVA (differentiate infected from vaccinated animals) marker strat...

  13. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM VACCINE STRAIN F

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is the causative agent of chronic respiratory disease in layer chickens. There are currently three MG vaccine strains approved and commercially available for use in layer chickens, and they include F, ts-11 and 6/85. The F-strain was the first developed and today is t...

  14. DETECTION OF RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUS IN LIVE VIRUS VACCINES OF POULTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro and in vivo assays have been used for detection of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) in live virus vaccines of poultry. The presence of REV is confirmed by the demonstration of viral antigen or provirus in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) or in specific-pathogen-free chickens inoculated wi...

  15. Safety and Infectivity of Two Doses of Live -Attenuated Recombinant Cold-Passaged Human Parainfluenza Type 3 Virus Vaccine rHPIV3cp45 in HPIV3-Seronegative Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Englund, Janet A.; Karron, Ruth A.; Cunningham, Coleen K; LaRussa, Philip; Melvin, Ann; Yogev, Ram; Handelsman, Ed; Siberry, George K; Thumar, Bhavanji; Schappell, Elizabeth; Bull, Catherine V.; Chu, Helen Y.; Schaap-Nutt, Anne; Buchholz, Ursula; Collins, Peter L.; Schmidt, Alexander C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract illness in infants and young children. Live-attenuated cold-adapted HPIV3 vaccines have been evaluated in infants but a suitable interval for administration of a second dose of vaccine has not been defined. Methods HPIV3-seronegative children between the ages of 6 and 36 months were randomized 2:1 in a blinded study to receive two doses of 105 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infectious dose) of live-attenuated, recombinant cold-passaged human PIV3 vaccine (rHPIV3cp45) or placebo 6 months apart. Serum antibody levels were assessed prior to and approximately 4-6 weeks after each dose. Vaccine virus infectivity, defined as detection of vaccine-HPIV3 in nasal wash and/or a ? 4-fold rise in serum antibody titer, and reactogenicity were assessed on days 3, 7, and 14 following immunization. Results Forty HPIV3-seronegative children (median age 13 months; range 6-35 months) were enrolled; 27 (68%) received vaccine and 13 (32%) received placebo. Infectivity was detected in 25 (96%) of 26 evaluable vaccinees following dose 1 and 9 of 26 subject (35%) following dose 2. Among those who shed virus, the median duration of viral shedding was 12 days (range, 6-15 days) after dose 1 and 6 days (range 3-8 days) after dose 2, with a mean peak log10 viral titer of 3.4 PFU/mL (SD: 1.0) after dose 1 compared to1.5 PFU/mL (SD: 0.92) after dose 2. Overall, reactogenicity was mild, with no difference in rates of fever and upper respiratory infection symptoms between vaccine and placebo groups. Conclusion rHPIV3cp45 was immunogenic and well-tolerated in seronegative young children. A second dose administered 6 months after the initial dose was restricted in those previously infected with vaccine virus; however, the second dose boosted antibody responses and induced antibody responses in two previously uninfected children. PMID:24103895

  16. VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine 2012 -2013

    E-print Network

    Kim, Duck O.

    vaccine.) · Children younger than 5 years with asthma or one or more episodes of wheezing within the past of infection are highest among children. For most people, symptoms last only a few days. They include: · fever the same symptoms and are often mistaken for influenza. Young children, people 65 and older, pregnant women

  17. Ecto-, endo- and haemoparasites in free-range chickens in the Goromonzi District in Zimbabwe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Permin; J. B Esmann; C. H Hoj; T Hove; S Mukaratirwa

    2002-01-01

    A cross-sectional study determined the prevalence of ecto-, endo- and haemoparasites in free-range chickens from the Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe. Fifty young and 50 adult birds were selected randomly. All chickens harboured ecto- and endoparasites, and 32% were infected with haemoparasites. Eight different ectoparasites were identified; the more prevalent ones had the following prevalences (young, %; adult, %): Argas persicus (6;

  18. A serological survey of domestic poultry in the united kingdom for antibody to chicken anaemia agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. McNulty; T. J. Connor; F. McNeilly; K. S. Kirkpatrick; J. B. McFerran

    1988-01-01

    A serological survey for antibody to chicken anaemia agent (CAA) was carried out by indirect immunofluorescence. Antibody to CAA was widespread in broiler breeders and in parent and commercial layers in the UK. Antibody to CAA was also detected in five of 11 specific pathogen?free (SPF) chicken flocks tested; positive flocks included those being used for vaccine production or as

  19. Prevalence and cross-immunity of Eimeria species on Korean chicken farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epidemiology of Eimeria species in poultry flocks is important to increase the effectiveness of vaccinations and prophylactic strategies on chicken farms. In this study, fecal samples from 356 chicken farms were collected randomly and examined for the prevalence of Eimeria species. Through micro...

  20. Identification of specific long noncoding RNA profiles in chicken with different susceptibility to Marek's disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is an avian herpesvirus-induced lymphoma in chicken, which causes more than $1 billion economic loss in poultry industry worldwide. Breeding of genetically resistant chickens has become an important measure in MD control to augment vaccination. Evidently, a better understanding ...

  1. Polymorphisms of Chicken TLR3 and 7 in Different Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Wenke; An, Jian; Wu, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate immune responses via the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), thus playing important roles in host defense. Among the chicken (Ch) TLR family, ChTLR3 and 7 have been shown to recognize viral RNA. In our earlier studies, we have reported polymorphisms of TLR1, 2, 4, 5, 15 and 21. In the present study, we amplified TLR3 and 7 genes from different chicken breeds and analyzed their sequences. We identified 7 amino acid polymorphism sites in ChTLR3 with 6 outer part sites and 1 inner part site, and 4 amino acid polymorphism sites in ChTLR7 with 3 outer part sites and 1 inner part site. These results demonstrate that ChTLR genes are polymorphic among different chicken breeds, suggesting a varied resistance across numerous chicken breeds. This information might help improve chicken health by breeding and vaccination. PMID:25781886

  2. Vaccine hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, Eve; Laberge, Caroline; Guay, Maryse; Bramadat, Paul; Roy, Réal; Bettinger, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being recognized as one of the most successful public health measures, vaccination is perceived as unsafe and unnecessary by a growing number of individuals. Lack of confidence in vaccines is now considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. Vaccine hesitancy is believed to be responsible for decreasing vaccine coverage and an increasing risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. First, we will characterize vaccine hesitancy and suggest the possible causes of the apparent increase in vaccine hesitancy in the developed world. Then we will look at determinants of individual decision-making about vaccination. PMID:23584253

  3. INITIAL PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED PROTEINS FROM MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM VACCINE STRAINS TS-11 AND F DETECTED BY WESTERN BLOTTING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) reduces the number of eggs produced by layer chickens. Three live MG vaccine strains are available for use in layer chickens and include F, ts-11 and 6/85. The MG vaccine strains ts-11 and 6/85 are safer than F and they have little or no potential of spreading from bi...

  4. Reducing Campylobacter jejuni Colonization of Poultry via Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Neal-McKinney, Jason M.; Samuelson, Derrick R.; Eucker, Tyson P.; Nissen, Mark S.; Crespo, Rocio; Konkel, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease worldwide. While C. jejuni is a commensal organism in chickens, case-studies have demonstrated a link between infection with C. jejuni and the consumption of foods that have been cross-contaminated with raw or undercooked poultry. We hypothesized that vaccination of chickens with C. jejuni surface-exposed colonization proteins (SECPs) would reduce the ability of C. jejuni to colonize chickens, thereby reducing the contamination of poultry products at the retail level and potentially providing a safer food product for consumers. To test our hypothesis, we injected chickens with recombinant C. jejuni peptides from CadF, FlaA, FlpA, CmeC, and a CadF-FlaA-FlpA fusion protein. Seven days following challenge, chickens were necropsied and cecal contents were serially diluted and plated to determine the number of C. jejuni per gram of material. The sera from the chickens were also analyzed to determine the concentration and specificity of antibodies reactive against the C. jejuni SECPs. Vaccination of chickens with the CadF, FlaA, and FlpA peptides resulted in a reduction in the number of C. jejuni in the ceca compared to the non-vaccinated C. jejuni-challenged group. The greatest reduction in C. jejuni colonization was observed in chickens injected with the FlaA, FlpA, or CadF-FlaA-FlpA fusion proteins. Vaccination of chickens with different SECPs resulted in the production of C. jejuni-specific IgY antibodies. In summary, we show that the vaccination of poultry with individual C. jejuni SECPs or a combination of SECPs provides protection of chickens from C. jejuni colonization. PMID:25474206

  5. Assessment of methodological quality and sources of variation in the magnitude of vaccine efficacy: A systematic review of studies from 1960 to 2005 reporting immunization with Moraxella bovis vaccines in young cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Burns; A. M. O’Connor

    2008-01-01

    A review was conducted of all identified literature evaluating Moraxella bovis vaccines efficacy in preventing pinkeye in beef calves. From 292 publications identified by the search, data on 123 unique vaccine-to-control comparisons were extracted from 38 studies published in English from 1960 to 2005. Descriptive analysis was performed and an analysis of sources of variation evaluated. Use of methods to

  6. Demonstration of two erythrocyte populations in young chickens by counter?current distribution of Fe?labelled cells in Dextran?poly (ethylene glycol) two?phase systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Martin; J. Luque

    1985-01-01

    1. The technique of fractionating cells by a counter?current distribution procedure in dextran?poly(ethylene glycol) biphasic systems was modified by increasing the settling time and decreasing the top\\/bottom two?phase volume ratio.2. Two sub?populations of Fe?labelled erythrocytes, namely definitive medullar cells and primitive embryonic cells, were present in the blood of young chicks until about day 8 of age.3. The primitive cells

  7. Introduction of an update system for vaccine strains of veterinary influenza vaccines in Japan.

    PubMed

    Gamoh, Koichiro; Nakamura, Shigeyuki

    2015-03-01

    The basic countermeasures used to control highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) are early detection procedures and the culling of affected chickens. However, if successive HPAI outbreaks occur, the vaccination may be an option for controlling HPAI. Therefore, avian influenza (AI) vaccines are stocked by the Japanese government. By contrast, equine influenza (EI) vaccine is an effective tool for preventing or controlling EI. Because antigenic drifts affect the efficacy of AI and EI vaccines, the vaccine strains should be updated rapidly. However, the development and registration of veterinary vaccines usually takes several years. In response to this issue, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries (MAFF) established a system that allows AI and EI vaccine strains to be updated rapidly. National Veterinary Assay Laboratory, MAFF, established a vaccine strains selection committee for veterinary influenza vaccine. The main agendas involve determining whether the current vaccine strains need to be updated and selecting the most appropriate vaccine strains. The committee concluded that A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-3/2007(H5N1) was added to the strains of stockpiled AI vaccines and that the EI vaccine strains did not need to be changed, but that the clade 2 viruses of the Florida sub-lineage strain, A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010(H3N8) was added to the EI vaccine strain. PMID:25614371

  8. Gamma interferon responses induced by a panel of recombinant and purified mycobacterial antigens in healthy, non-mycobacterium bovis BCG-vaccinated Malawian young adults.

    PubMed

    Black, Gillian F; Weir, Rosemary E; Chaguluka, Steven D; Warndorff, David; Crampin, Amelia C; Mwaungulu, Lorren; Sichali, Lifted; Floyd, Sian; Bliss, Lyn; Jarman, Elizabeth; Donovan, Linda; Andersen, Peter; Britton, Warwick; Hewinson, Glyn; Huygen, Kris; Paulsen, Jens; Singh, Mahavir; Prestidge, Ross; Fine, Paul E M; Dockrell, Hazel M

    2003-07-01

    We have previously shown that young adults living in a rural area of northern Malawi showed greater gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) responses to purified protein derivatives (PPD) prepared from environmental mycobacteria than to PPD from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In order to define the mycobacterial species to which individuals living in a rural African population have been exposed and sensitized, we tested T-cell recognition of recombinant and purified antigens from M. tuberculosis (38 kDa, MPT64, and ESAT-6), M. bovis (MPB70), M. bovis BCG (Ag85), and M. leprae (65 kDa, 35 kDa, and 18 kDa) in >600 non-M. bovis BCG-vaccinated young adults in the Karonga District of northern Malawi. IFN-gamma was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in day 6 supernatants of diluted whole-blood cultures. The recombinant M. leprae 35-kDa and 18-kDa and purified native M. bovis BCG Ag85 antigens induced the highest percentages of responders, though both leprosy and bovine tuberculosis are now rare in this population. The M. tuberculosis antigens ESAT-6 and MPT64 and the M. bovis antigen MPB70 induced the lowest percentages of responders. One of the subjects subsequently developed extrapulmonary tuberculosis; this individual had a 15-mm-diameter reaction to the Mantoux test and responded to M. tuberculosis PPD, Ag85, MPT64, and ESAT-6 but not to any of the leprosy antigens. We conclude that in this rural African population, exposure to M. tuberculosis or M. bovis is much less frequent than exposure to environmental mycobacteria such as M. avium, which have antigens homologous to the M. leprae 35-kDa and 18-kDa antigens. M. tuberculosis ESAT-6 showed the strongest association with the size of the Mantoux skin test induration, suggesting that among the three M. tuberculosis antigens tested it provided the best indication of exposure to, or infection with, M. tuberculosis. PMID:12853392

  9. Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

  10. Why Consider Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Older Women?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Poppe; P. H. Simon; M. R. De Ridder

    2010-01-01

    Preventive human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 vaccines are safe and efficient to prevent infection and lesions of vaccine- specific HPV types in women from 15 to 26 years, but also in older age groups. Clearly, public health funds are to be spent to organize programs for vaccination of young adolescents. Immunobridging studies and clinical trials have shown that HPV vaccines generate

  11. Chicken soup and sickness

    MedlinePLUS

    Chicken soup, a popular home remedy for the common cold since at least the 12th century, may really ... chicken soup reduce the inflammation associated with the common cold, thus providing some relief of symptoms. Although researchers ...

  12. Efficacy of Human Papillomavirus 16 and 18 (HPV-16/18) AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine against Cervical Infection and Precancer in Young Women: Final Event-Driven Analysis of the Randomized, Double-Blind PATRICIA Trial.

    PubMed

    Apter, Dan; Wheeler, Cosette M; Paavonen, Jorma; Castellsagué, Xavier; Garland, Suzanne M; Skinner, S Rachel; Naud, Paulo; Salmerón, Jorge; Chow, Song-Nan; Kitchener, Henry C; Teixeira, Julio C; Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Limson, Genara; Szarewski, Anne; Romanowski, Barbara; Aoki, Fred Y; Schwarz, Tino F; Poppe, Willy A J; Bosch, F Xavier; Mindel, Adrian; de Sutter, Philippe; Hardt, Karin; Zahaf, Toufik; Descamps, Dominique; Struyf, Frank; Lehtinen, Matti; Dubin, Gary

    2015-04-01

    We report final event-driven analysis data on the immunogenicity and efficacy of the human papillomavirus 16 and 18 ((HPV-16/18) AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in young women aged 15 to 25 years from the PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults (PATRICIA). The total vaccinated cohort (TVC) included all randomized participants who received at least one vaccine dose (vaccine, n = 9,319; control, n = 9,325) at months 0, 1, and/or 6. The TVC-naive (vaccine, n = 5,822; control, n = 5,819) had no evidence of high-risk HPV infection at baseline, approximating adolescent girls targeted by most HPV vaccination programs. Mean follow-up was approximately 39 months after the first vaccine dose in each cohort. At baseline, 26% of women in the TVC had evidence of past and/or current HPV-16/18 infection. HPV-16 and HPV-18 antibody titers postvaccination tended to be higher among 15- to 17-year-olds than among 18- to 25-year-olds. In the TVC, vaccine efficacy (VE) against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or greater (CIN1+), CIN2+, and CIN3+ associated with HPV-16/18 was 55.5% (96.1% confidence interval [CI], 43.2, 65.3), 52.8% (37.5, 64.7), and 33.6% (-1.1, 56.9). VE against CIN1+, CIN2+, and CIN3+ irrespective of HPV DNA was 21.7% (10.7, 31.4), 30.4% (16.4, 42.1), and 33.4% (9.1, 51.5) and was consistently significant only in 15- to 17-year-old women (27.4% [10.8, 40.9], 41.8% [22.3, 56.7], and 55.8% [19.2, 76.9]). In the TVC-naive, VE against CIN1+, CIN2+, and CIN3+ associated with HPV-16/18 was 96.5% (89.0, 99.4), 98.4% (90.4, 100), and 100% (64.7, 100), and irrespective of HPV DNA it was 50.1% (35.9, 61.4), 70.2% (54.7, 80.9), and 87.0% (54.9, 97.7). VE against 12-month persistent infection with HPV-16/18 was 89.9% (84.0, 94.0), and that against HPV-31/33/45/51 was 49.0% (34.7, 60.3). In conclusion, vaccinating adolescents before sexual debut has a substantial impact on the overall incidence of high-grade cervical abnormalities, and catch-up vaccination up to 18 years of age is most likely effective. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT001226810.). PMID:25651922

  13. Honey Lemon Chicken Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Honey Lemon Chicken Ingredients: 4 boneless, skinless chicken breasts 1/3 cup flour 1/3 cup honey 1/4 cup lemon juice Directions 1. Preheat oven to 375ºF. Spray a cooking sheet with non stick cooking. 5. Meanwhile, mix together honey and lemon juice in a small bowl. 6. Remove chicken from oven

  14. Protection from clinical disease against three highly virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus following in ovo application of an antibody-antigen complexed vaccine in maternally-antibody positive chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worldwide, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) remains one of the most economically important diseases of poultry. Current vaccination strategies for commercial poultry include the use of inactivated and live NDV vaccines that typically induce protection against less virulent field viruses. The value of...

  15. Immunogenicity of an inactivated Chinese bovine viral diarrhea virus 1a (BVDV 1a) vaccine cross protects from BVDV 1b infection in young calves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Xinchuan; Wu, Yongwang; Li, Xiaoxin; Ji, Ye; Meng, Qingsen; Zhang, Shucheng; Wu, Hua

    2014-08-15

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1a and 1b strains are the predominant subgenotypes in China. Because of the genetic and antigenic variability among different BVDV strains, a vaccine effective in one region may fail to protect against infections caused by different virus strains in another region. No BVDV vaccine developed with the predominant strains in China are available. In this study, the immunogenicity of an inactivated Chinese BVDV 1a NM01 vaccine strain was evaluated by challenging with a Chinese BVDV 1b JL strain. Ten 2-4-month-old calves were intramuscularly vaccinated with a single dose of the vaccine strain and boosted with same dose three weeks after the first vaccination, with five mock immunized calves serving as a control group. The average titer of neutralization antibody to BVDV 1a and BVDV 1b of immunized calves reached 1:410 and 1:96, respectively, at 21 days post the second vaccination. Twenty-one days post the second vaccination, all calves were challenged with strain JL. The clinical signs, such as the temperature and leukopenia of the immunized calves and viral shedding, were significantly less than the mock immunized calves after challenging with the virulent BVDV 1b strain, indicating that the BVDV 1a vaccine strain elicited efficacious protection against the endemic BVDV 1b strain in China. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an inactivated BVDV vaccine which demonstrated effective cross-protection against BVDV type 1b infection in China. PMID:24880701

  16. The adjuvanticity of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide for Newcastle disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Ding, Ronglong; Jiang, Shanxiang; Ji, Liwei; Pan, Mingming; Liu, Li; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiuge; Huang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Guanjun; Peng, Lin; Ji, Hui

    2014-04-01

    The adjuvant activity of GLP was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiment, the effects of GLP on chicken peripheral lymphocytes proliferation were compared by MTT assay. The results showed that GLP could significantly enhance lymphocytes proliferation singly or synergistically with ConA. The interferon-gamma (IFN-?) mRNA levels of chicken peripheral lymphocytes stimulated by GLP synergistically with ConA were measured using fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that GLP could promote interferon-? mRNA levels in peripheral lymphocytes. In vivo experiment, 175 14-day-old chickens were randomly divided into 7 groups. The chickens except blank control (BC) group were vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine, repeated vaccination at 28 days old. At the same time of the first vaccination, the chickens in experimental groups were orally administrated with 5 different doses of GLP respectively, whereas vaccination control (VC) and BC groups were treated with physiological saline, once a day for three successive days. On Day 7, 14, 21 and 28 after the first vaccination, the peripheral lymphocytes proliferation and serum ND antibody titer were determined. The results showed that GLP could significantly promote lymphocyte proliferation and enhance serum antibody titer. The results indicated that GLP may be a novel immunomodulator. PMID:24530324

  17. What About Vaccinating Newborns?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this review, results from studies evaluating immune competency of the pre-ruminant calf are discussed. It has been believed that vaccination of the young calf is not effective. Recent studies, however, have revealed that certain aspects of the neonatal calf’s immune system are fully intact or e...

  18. Doctors Often Yield to Parents' Requests to Delay Kids' Vaccines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page, please enable JavaScript. Doctors Often Yield to Parents' Requests to Delay Kids' Vaccines But most believe ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Doctors commonly get requests from parents to delay young children's vaccinations -- and despite their ...

  19. Glycomics-based analysis of chicken red blood cells provides insight into the selectivity of the viral agglutination assay

    E-print Network

    Aich, Udayanath

    Agglutination of red blood cells (RBCs), including chicken RBCs (cRBCs), has been used extensively to estimate viral titer, to screen glycan-receptor binding preference, and to assess the protective response of vaccines. ...

  20. The cDNA-derived investigational human parainfluenza virus type 3 vaccine rcp45 is well-tolerated, infectious, and immunogenic in infants and young children

    PubMed Central

    Karron, Ruth A.; Casey, Roberta; Thumar, Bhagvanji; Surman, Sonja; Murphy, Brian R.; Collins, Peter L.; Schmidt, Alexander C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is an important yet underappreciated cause of lower respiratory tract illness in children, and a licensed vaccine is not yet available. Methods A live-attenuated investigational HPIV3 vaccine virus designated rcp45 was derived from cDNA using reverse genetics. rcp45 is genetically similar to the biologically-derived cp45 vaccine virus and contains all of the known attenuating mutations of cp45, but has the advantage of a short, well-characterized passage history. We evaluated the tolerability, infectivity, and immunogenicity of two intranasal doses of rcp45 administered 4-10 weeks apart in a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. A total of 45 infants and children between 6 and 36 months of age participated in this study. Tolerability and antibody responses to vaccine or placebo were assessed in all recipients. Infectivity was assessed by quantitation of vaccine virus shedding in a subset of vaccinated children. Results rcp45 was well-tolerated and highly infectious in HPIV3 seronegative children. A second dose of vaccine administered 4-10 weeks after the first dose was restricted in replication and did not boost serum antibody responses. The stability of 9 cp45 mutations, including the 6 major attenuating mutations, was examined and confirmed for viral isolates from 10 children. Conclusions The level of attenuation and immunogenicity of cDNA-derived rcp45 is comparable to what was previously observed with the biologically-derived cp45 vaccine, and preliminary data suggest that the attenuating mutations in this vaccine virus are genetically stable. Continued clinical development of rcp45 is warranted. PMID:21829138

  1. Efficacy and Safety of the RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Vaccine during 18 Months after Vaccination: A Phase 3 Randomized, Controlled Trial in Children and Young Infants at 11 African Sites

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A malaria vaccine could be an important addition to current control strategies. We report the safety and vaccine efficacy (VE) of the RTS,S/AS01 vaccine during 18 mo following vaccination at 11 African sites with varying malaria transmission. Methods and Findings 6,537 infants aged 6–12 wk and 8,923 children aged 5–17 mo were randomized to receive three doses of RTS,S/AS01 or comparator vaccine. VE against clinical malaria in children during the 18 mo after vaccine dose 3 (per protocol) was 46% (95% CI 42% to 50%) (range 40% to 77%; VE, p<0.01 across all sites). VE during the 20 mo after vaccine dose 1 (intention to treat [ITT]) was 45% (95% CI 41% to 49%). VE against severe malaria, malaria hospitalization, and all-cause hospitalization was 34% (95% CI 15% to 48%), 41% (95% CI 30% to 50%), and 19% (95% CI 11% to 27%), respectively (ITT). VE against clinical malaria in infants was 27% (95% CI 20% to 32%, per protocol; 27% [95% CI 21% to 33%], ITT), with no significant protection against severe malaria, malaria hospitalization, or all-cause hospitalization. Post-vaccination anti-circumsporozoite antibody geometric mean titer varied from 348 to 787 EU/ml across sites in children and from 117 to 335 EU/ml in infants (per protocol). VE waned over time in both age categories (Schoenfeld residuals p<0.001). The number of clinical and severe malaria cases averted per 1,000 children vaccinated ranged across sites from 37 to 2,365 and from ?1 to 49, respectively; corresponding ranges among infants were ?10 to 1,402 and ?13 to 37, respectively (ITT). Meningitis was reported as a serious adverse event in 16/5,949 and 1/2,974 children and in 9/4,358 and 3/2,179 infants in the RTS,S/AS01 and control groups, respectively. Conclusions RTS,S/AS01 prevented many cases of clinical and severe malaria over the 18 mo after vaccine dose 3, with the highest impact in areas with the greatest malaria incidence. VE was higher in children than in infants, but even at modest levels of VE, the number of malaria cases averted was substantial. RTS,S/AS01 could be an important addition to current malaria control in Africa. Trial registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00866619 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25072396

  2. Chicken Pineapple Orange Salad Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Chicken Pineapple Orange Salad Ingredients: 4 boneless, skinless chicken breasts 2 stalks celery 1 of water to a boil, and add chicken breasts, cook until done, about 30 minutes. Remove chicken and allow. Save juice for other uses. Add pineapple and oranges to bowl. Sprinkle with pepper. 5. When chicken

  3. Impact of vaccination on infection with Vietnam H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in hens and the eggs they lay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infections in chickens decrease egg production and eggs that are laid contain HPAIV. Vaccination once or twice was examined as a way to protect chickens from Vietnamese H5N1 HPAIV. Eighty-three percent of hens without vaccination died within 3 days ...

  4. Chicken embryo origin-like strains are responsible for Infectious laryngotracheitis virus outbreaks in Egyptian cross-bred broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Awad A; Halami, Mohammad Y; Sultan, Hesham H; Abd El-Razik, Alaa G; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2013-06-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) continues to cause respiratory disease in Egypt in spite of vaccination. The currently available modified live ILTV vaccines provide good protection but may also induce latent infections and even clinical disease if they spread extensively from bird-to-bird in the field. Four field ILTV isolates, designated ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Giza2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 were isolated from cross-bred broiler chickens. The pathogenicity based on intratracheal pathogenicity index, tracheal lesion score, and mortality index for chicken embryos revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009 and ILT-Behera2010 isolates were highly pathogenic whereas ILT-Giza2007 was non-pathogenic. To study the molecular epidemiology of these field isolates, the infected cell protein 4 gene was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 are chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine-related isolates while ILT-Giza2007 is a tissue culture origin vaccine-related isolate. These results suggest that CEO laryngotracheitis vaccine viruses could increase in virulence after bird-to-bird passages causing severe outbreaks in susceptible birds. PMID:23288626

  5. Antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type-b conjugate vaccine in children and young adults with congenital asplenia or after undergoing splenectomy.

    PubMed

    Mikoluc, B; Motkowski, R; Käyhty, H; Heropolitanska-Pliszka, E; Pietrucha, B; Bernatowska, E

    2012-05-01

    Absence of the spleen constitutes a risk of infection caused by encapsulated bacteria. The aim of our study was to determine the immune response to Haemophilus influenzae type-b (Hib) conjugate vaccine (HibCV) in asplenic individuals, considering the cause of asplenia, the age when splenectomy was carried out, and previous Hib vaccinations. Twenty asplenic patients, aged five to 25 years, were immunized with a single dose of HibCV. The specific antibody concentrations against HibCV were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Before vaccinations, the geometric mean antibody concentration (GMC) had an average value of 3.21 ?g/ml and was comparable for all of the patients, regardless of the causes of asplenia. After vaccinations, the GMC was significantly higher, with an average of 6.78 ?g/ml. Further, 4.5 years after vaccinations, the GMC was comparable to that of previously unvaccinated children. Moreover, 17/20 patients had GMC???1.0 ?g/ml, which included all of the children with congenital asplenia, children splenectomized before the age of six years, and only 57% of children splenectomized after that age. HibCV gives asplenic patients long-term protection. Hence, HibCV should be administered regardless of previous vaccinations and time from splenectomy, even if antibody evaluation is not available. PMID:21874399

  6. ROTAVIRUS VACCINES

    PubMed Central

    Kang, G

    2008-01-01

    Rotavirus, the most common cause of severe diarrhea and a leading cause of mortality in children, has been a priority target for vaccine development for the past several years. The first rotavirus vaccine licensed in the United States was withdrawn because of an association of the vaccine with intussusception. However, the need for a vaccine is greatest in the developing world, because the benefits of preventing deaths due to rotavirus disease are substantially greater than the risk of intussusception. Early vaccines were based on animal strains. More recently developed and licenced vaccines are either animal-human reassortants or are based on human strains. In India, two candidate vaccines are in the development process, but have not yet reached efficacy trials. Many challenges regarding vaccine efficacy and safety remain. In addition to completing clinical evaluations of vaccines in development in settings with the highest disease burden and virus diversity, there is also a need to consider alternative vaccine development strategies. PMID:17185842

  7. Infectious bronchitis virus vaccine interferes with the replication of avian pneumovirus vaccine in domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Cook, J K; Huggins, M B; Orbell, S J; Mawditt, K; Cavanagh, D

    2001-06-01

    Experiments were performed in chickens to ascertain whether application of infectious bronchitis (IB) H120 vaccine had an effect on the replication of an attenuated avian pneumovirus (APV) strain, using as indicators virus detection, humoral antibody responses and clinical protection against in vivo APV challenge. A preliminary experiment demonstrated that pharyngeal swabs were as efficient for recovery of APV as were buccal cavity swabs, and that either site was superior to swabbing the nasal cavity. APV was detected to a similar extent by both a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and virus isolation; therefore, RT-PCR was used in subsequent experiments. In chickens vaccinated with APV alone, APV was detected by RT-PCR in most birds for 1 week after vaccination. When IB vaccine had been applied 1 week earlier, APV detection was delayed and much reduced. This interference by IBV resulted in a lower APV antibody response to vaccination. Following challenge with virulent APV, birds that had been vaccinated with APV alone were fully protected both clinically and virologically. Chickens that had received both vaccines were still protected clinically, but challenge virus could be detected in some pharyngeal swabs 4 days after challenge. In contrast, the APV vaccine had no effect on either the antibody response to the IB vaccine or the level of protection against IB challenge. It is concluded that IB vaccination interferes with the replication of APV, resulting in a reduction in the antibody response but with no adverse effect on the induction of protective immunity. PMID:19184905

  8. Virulent Salmonella typhimurium-induced lymphocyte depletion and immunosuppression in chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, J O; Curtiss, R

    1994-01-01

    The effect of experimental Salmonella infection on chicken lymphoid organs, immune responses, and fecal shedding of salmonellae were assessed following oral inoculation of 1-day-old chicks or intra-air-sac infection of 4-week-old chickens with virulent S. typhimurium wild-type chi 3761 or avirulent S. typhimurium delta cya delta crp vaccine strain chi 3985. Some 4-week-old chickens infected intra-air-sac with chi 3761 or chi 3985 were challenged with Bordetella avium to determine the effect of Salmonella infection on secondary infection by B. avium. S. typhimurium chi 3761 caused lymphocyte depletion, atrophy of lymphoid organs, and immunosuppression 2 days after infection in 1-day-old chicks and 4-week-old chickens. The observed lymphocyte depletion or atrophy of lymphoid organs was transient and dose dependent. Lymphocyte depletion and immunosuppression were associated with prolonged fecal shedding of S. typhimurium chi 3761. No lymphocyte depletion, immunosuppression, or prolonged Salmonella shedding was observed in groups of chickens infected orally or intra-air-sac with chi 3985. Infection of chickens with salmonellae before challenge with B. avium did not suppress the specific antibody response to B. avium. However, B. avium isolation was higher in visceral organs of chickens infected with chi 3761 and challenged with B. avium than in chickens infected with B. avium only. Infection of chickens with chi 3985 reduced B. avium colonization. We report a new factor in Salmonella pathogenesis and reveal a phenomenon which may play a critical role in the development of Salmonella carrier status in chickens. We also showed that 10(8) CFU of chi 3985, which is our established oral vaccination dose for chickens, did not cause immunosuppression or enhance the development of Salmonella carrier status in chickens. Images PMID:8168969

  9. VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine What You Need to Know (Flu Vaccine, Inactivated.immunize.org/vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Influenza ("flu") is a contagious disease that spreads around the United States every winter, usually between October and May. Flu is caused by the influenza virus, and can

  10. VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine What You Need to Know (Flu Vaccine, Live idiomas. Visite www.immunize.org/vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Influenza ("flu") is a contagious disease by the influenza virus, and can be spread by coughing, sneezing, and close contact. Anyone can get flu

  11. VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine

    E-print Network

    Lien, Jyh-Ming

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine What You Need to Know (Flu Vaccine, Inactivated idiomas. Visite www.immunize.org/vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Influenza ("flu") is a contagious disease that spreads around the United States every winter, usually between October and May. Flu is caused by influenza

  12. Passive immunization using purified IgYs against infectious bursal disease of chickens in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Muhammad Wasif; Ayub, Najma

    2006-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute and highly contagious disease of young chickens caused by Birnavirus. Mortality of infected birds can be best prevented if injected with antibodies. The present study was an attempt to raise specific hyper-immune polyclonal antibodies against IBD virus in Pakistan. Commercial layers divided into four groups were injected with IBD vaccine subcutaneously according to four different treatment regimens. Eggs were collected daily and antibodies were purified from yolk with dextran sulphate. Titers of antibodies in serum and yolk were evaluated with enzyme linked immunosorbant assay and agar gel precipitation test. Antibody titers were significantly higher in yolk than serum. Eggs collected at 28 days post-vaccination had maximum antibody titers. Of treatment regimens, T3 was found to be most effective for hyperimmunization. Lyophilized antibodies stored at 4? did not lose their activity till the end of experiment. IBD virus infected birds were injected with purified antibodies which induced 92% recovery as compared to control birds. The study implicates that the purified antibodies may be useful as a therapeutic agent to cure IBD infected birds. PMID:16434848

  13. Efficacy of three inactivated vaccines against challenge with HPAI H5N1 Vietnam/05 viruses in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of inactivated vaccines containing a European isolate (A/turkey/England/73, H5N2 Chinese commercial vaccine), an American isolate (A/chicken/Hidalgo/94, H5N2 Mexican commercial vaccine), or a recombinant virus (RE-1, H5N1 recombinant Chinese vac...

  14. Modeling the effects of annual influenza vaccination

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.J.; Ackley, D.H.; Forrest, S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Div.

    1998-12-31

    Although influenza vaccine efficacy is 70--90% in young healthy first-time vaccinees, the efficacy in repeat vaccinees has varied considerably. In some studies, vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccinees was higher than in first-time vaccinees, whereas in other studies vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccinees was significantly lower than in first-time vaccinees and sometimes no higher than in unvaccinated controls. It is known that the closeness of the antigenic match between the vaccine strain and the epidemic virus is important for vaccine effectiveness. In this study the authors show that the antigenic differences between a first vaccine strain and a second vaccine strain, and between the first vaccine strain and the epidemic strain, might account for the observed variation in attack rate among two-time vaccinees.

  15. CNS demyelination and quadrivalent HPV vaccination.

    PubMed

    Sutton, I; Lahoria, R; Tan, Il; Clouston, P; Barnett, Mh

    2009-01-01

    Vaccination is generally considered safe in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We report five patients who presented with multifocal or atypical demyelinating syndromes within 21 days of immunization with the quadrivalent human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine, Gardasil. Although the target population for vaccination, young females, has an inherently high risk for MS, the temporal association with demyelinating events in these cases may be explained by the potent immuno-stimulatory properties of HPV virus-like particles which comprise the vaccine. A prospective case-control study of patients with MS or clinically isolated demyelinating syndromes receiving the Gardasil vaccine may provide relevant safety data in this population. PMID:18805844

  16. Production of a falcon herpesvirus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wernery, U; Wernery, R; Kinne, J

    1999-09-01

    Ten common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) were used for this falcon herpes vaccine experiment. Four kestrels were subcutaneously given 1 ml of an attenuated falcon herpesvirus that had originally been isolated from the liver of an American prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus). This virus was then passaged 100 times on chicken embryo fibroblast cells (CEF-cells). Another 4 kestrels were given subcutaneously an inactivated falcon herpesvirus vaccine derived from the same American field strain. This vaccine was concentrated, inactivated by heat and betapropiolactone and emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvans. Two further kestrels served as controls and were not vaccinated. Twenty-one days after vaccination, all 10 kestrels were challenged with passage 3 of the American falcon herpesvirus. The 2 control kestrels died 6 days after challenge and 3 of those given the inactivated herpes vaccine died 9 days after challenge, with typical lesions of herpesvirus inclusion body hepatitis. Before the vaccination experiment, all 10 kestrels were free of serum neutralising antibodies to the falcon herpesvirus. Twenty-one days after vaccination, all 4 kestrels vaccinated with the attenuated vaccine, and one vaccinated with the killed vaccine, had seroconverted, having shown no symptoms to the challenge with a low passage virulent American herpesvirus strain. Following the challenge their antibody titres to falcon herpesvirus increased. No herpesvirus was isolated from any of the cloacal swabs taken during this experiment, indicating that there is no danger for any other birds from the attenuated herpesvirus vaccine. This experiment clearly shows that an attenuated falcon herpesvirus vaccine can protect kestrels from fatal inclusion body hepatitis. PMID:10507183

  17. Deletion of the meq gene significantly decreases immunosuppression in chickens caused by pathogenic marek's disease virus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Marek's disease virus (MDV) causes an acute lymphoproliferative disease in chickens, resulting in immunosuppression, which is considered to be an integral aspect of the pathogenesis of Marek's disease (MD). A recent study showed that deletion of the Meq gene resulted in loss of transformation of T-cells in chickens and a Meq-null virus, rMd5?Meq, could provide protection superior to CVI988/Rispens. Results In the present study, to investigate whether the Meq-null virus could be a safe vaccine candidate, we constructed a Meq deletion strain, GX0101?Meq, by deleting both copies of the Meq gene from a pathogenic MDV, GX0101 strain, which was isolated in China. Pathogenesis experiments showed that the GX0101?Meq virus was fully attenuated in specific pathogen-free chickens because none of the infected chickens developed Marek's disease-associated lymphomas. The study also evaluated the effects of GX0101?Meq on the immune system in chickens after infection with GX0101?Meq virus. Immune system variables, including relative lymphoid organ weight, blood lymphocytes and antibody production following vaccination against AIV and NDV were used to assess the immune status of chickens. Experimental infection with GX0101?Meq showed that deletion of the Meq gene significantly decreased immunosuppression in chickens caused by pathogenic MDV. Conclusion These findings suggested that the Meq gene played an important role not only in tumor formation but also in inducing immunosuppressive effects in MDV-infected chickens. PMID:21205328

  18. Immunogenicity of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in HIV-infected pregnant women and kinetics of passively acquired antibodies in young infants.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Volia De Carvalho; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa Márcia; De Souza, Cleonice Barbosa Sandoval; Kubo, Christina Arslanian; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda Maria; Duarte, Geraldo

    2009-06-12

    Whether gestational immunization of HIV-infected mothers with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) confers maternal and infant early life, passive protection is not known. We evaluated safety, immunogenicity and placental transfer of antibodies in 44 HIV-infected women. Pneumococcal IgG antibodies against serotypes 1, 3, 5, 6B, 9V, and 14 were measured in mothers (pre-vaccination and at delivery), and infants (at birth, 1, 2, 3, and 6 months). PPV was safe and immunogenic in mothers. Newborns received 46-72% of maternal antibody titers. Overall, infants had antibody levels lower than protective by 2 months of age. Alternative pneumococcal vaccination of HIV-infected pregnant women should be explored with the aim of prolonging passive protection in their infants. PMID:19443091

  19. EFFICACY OF TWO INACTIVATED VACCINES AGAINST AN ASIAN HPAI H5N1 CHALLENGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of inactivated vaccines containing either an American isolate (A/turkey/Wisconsin/68 H5N9; GALLIMUNE FLU H5N9 or H5N9-WI) or an Eurasian isolate (A/chicken/Italy/22A/98 H5N9 or H5N9-It). Three weeks-old SPF chickens were vaccinated and challeng...

  20. Non-MHC genomic variation affecting Marek’s disease resistance and vaccine protective efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of the domestic chicken caused by a highly infectious, oncogenic herpesvirus commonly referred to as Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MD has been controlled by vaccination with non-oncogenic turkey herpesvirus (HVT), non-oncogenic chicken herpesvirus...

  1. Viruses, Cancer Warts and All: The HPV Vaccine for Cervical Cancer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-07-12

    FASEB Breakthroughs in Bioscience article. Scientist Peyton Rous used Plymouth Rock chickens to make his Nobel Prize winning discovery that viruses can cause cancer. Chickens, rabbits, and mice were among the animal models that made invaluable contributions to the development of the HPV vaccine to protect against cervical cancer.

  2. Rotavirus vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Jacqueline E; Patel, Manish M; Cortese, Margaret M; Lopman, Benjamin; Fleming, Jessica; Lewis, Kristen; Jiang, Baoming; Gentsch, Jon; Steele, Duncan; Parashar, Umesh D

    2011-01-01

    Early rotavirus vaccine adopter countries in the Americas, Europe, and in Australia have documented substantial declines in rotavirus disease burden following the introduction of vaccination. However, the full public health impact of rotavirus vaccines has not been realized as they have not been introduced into routine immunization programs in countries of Africa and Asia with the highest rotavirus disease morbidity and mortality burden. In this article, we review the epidemiology of rotavirus disease, the development and current status of rotavirus vaccines including newly available vaccine impact data from early-introducer countries, and future priorities for implementation and monitoring of rotavirus vaccination programs in developing countries. PMID:22108032

  3. Understanding Vaccines: A Public Imperative

    PubMed Central

    Federman, Ross S.

    2014-01-01

    Though once a discovery greatly celebrated by the nation, the vaccine has come under fire in recent decades from skeptics, critics, and a movement set into motion by fraudulent scientists and fueled by frustrated parents looking for answers to the autism conundrum. There is enough denialist resistance to vaccination to bring upon renewed fear of young children and infants becoming infected with diseases, the threats of which had been functionally eradicated from the United States. In more recent years, the surge in independent online journalism and blogging has invited many to rapidly share their opinions with millions of readers and, importantly, has appeared to open the door for opinion to be portrayed as fact. As a result, many parents are inundated with horror stories of vaccine dangers, all designed to eat away at them emotionally while the medical and scientific communities have mounted their characteristic response by sharing the facts, the data, and all of the reliable peer-reviewed and well-cited research to show that vaccines are safe and effective. It has become clear to me that facts are no match for emotion, but perhaps an understanding behind vaccine methodology will help parents overcome these fears of vaccinating. By helping those who doubt vaccines better understand what vaccines really are and how they work in such an incredibly engineered fashion, we may have a stronger weapon than we realize in battling the emotional arsenal that comes from the fear and skepticism of vaccinating. PMID:25506276

  4. Understanding vaccines: a public imperative.

    PubMed

    Federman, Ross S

    2014-12-01

    Though once a discovery greatly celebrated by the nation, the vaccine has come under fire in recent decades from skeptics, critics, and a movement set into motion by fraudulent scientists and fueled by frustrated parents looking for answers to the autism conundrum. There is enough denialist resistance to vaccination to bring upon renewed fear of young children and infants becoming infected with diseases, the threats of which had been functionally eradicated from the United States. In more recent years, the surge in independent online journalism and blogging has invited many to rapidly share their opinions with millions of readers and, importantly, has appeared to open the door for opinion to be portrayed as fact. As a result, many parents are inundated with horror stories of vaccine dangers, all designed to eat away at them emotionally while the medical and scientific communities have mounted their characteristic response by sharing the facts, the data, and all of the reliable peer-reviewed and well-cited research to show that vaccines are safe and effective. It has become clear to me that facts are no match for emotion, but perhaps an understanding behind vaccine methodology will help parents overcome these fears of vaccinating. By helping those who doubt vaccines better understand what vaccines really are and how they work in such an incredibly engineered fashion, we may have a stronger weapon than we realize in battling the emotional arsenal that comes from the fear and skepticism of vaccinating. PMID:25506276

  5. CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken coops on the farm were used by both chickens and turkeys. The yards around the buildings were once fenced in to give the poultry brooding space. - Kineth Farm, Chicken Coop, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  6. Skin immunization with influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Skountzou, Ioanna; Compans, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Problems with existing influenza vaccines include the strain specificity of the immune response, resulting in the need for frequent reformulation in response to viral antigenic drift. Even in years when the same influenza strains are prevalent, the duration of immunity is limited, and results in the need for annual revaccination. The immunogenicity of the present split or subunit vaccines is also lower than that observed with whole inactivated virus, and the vaccines are not very effective in high risk groups such as the young or the elderly. Vaccine coverage is incomplete, due in part to concerns about the use of hypodermic needles for delivery. Alternative approaches for vaccination are being developed which address many of these concerns. Here we review new approaches which focus on skin immunization, including the development of needle-free delivery systems which use stable dry formulations and induce stronger and longer-lasting immune responses. PMID:25038939

  7. Adjuvant effects of chitosan and calcium phosphate particles in an inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Volkova, Marina A; Irza, Anna V; Chvala, Irina A; Frolov, Sergy F; Drygin, Vladimir V; Kapczynski, Darrell R

    2014-03-01

    The adjuvant activity of chitosan (CS) and calcium phosphate (CAP) particles was studied following intranasal (mucosal) administration to commercial chickens with inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. After three vaccinations with inactivated NDV in combination with CS or CAP an increase in antibody titers in blood and mucosal samples in chickens was observed when compared with the administration of NDV antigen only. A lower level of humoral immunity was observed in broiler chickens compared to layer-type birds. The CS-based vaccine demonstrated higher antigenic and protective activity following lethal challenge than the vaccine containing CAP. Because CS particles efficiently changed mucosal and humoral immunity and protective activity, CS may in the future be considered for use as a potential adjuvant for production of vaccines for poultry. PMID:24758112

  8. Antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Okeson, Danelle M; Llizo, Shirley Yeo; Miller, Christine L; Glaser, Amy L

    2007-06-01

    West Nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the United States since 1999. Five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for West Nile virus: black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus), little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor), American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis), and Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). All birds were vaccinated intramuscularly at least twice with a commercially available inactivated whole virus vaccine (Innovator). Significant differences in antibody titer over time were detected for black-footed penguins and both flamingo species. PMID:17679507

  9. Evaluation of the Acceptability and Feasibility of a Computer-Tailored Intervention to Increase Human Papillomavirus Vaccination among Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paiva, Andrea L.; Lipschitz, Jessica M.; Fernandez, Anne C.; Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine acceptability and feasibility of a Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based computer-tailored intervention (CTI) for increasing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in college-aged women. Participants: Two hundred forty-three women aged 18-26 were recruited between February and May of 2011. Methods: Participants completed the…

  10. Chicken Wing Exploration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-08-07

    In this activity, learners explore cooked chicken wings and identify the various parts including: bones (radius, ulna, humerus, shoulder joint, elbow joint), tendons, and cartilage. Learners observe the relationships between bones, tendons, and cartilage and identify how a chicken wing is similar to a human arm.

  11. Chicken life cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-05-23

    A female chicken is called a hen and a male chicken is called a rooster. Hens lay eggs as a way to reproduce. The egg then hatches into a baby chick and the chick matures into an adult hen or rooster.

  12. Cancer Vaccines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are now giving researchers the knowledge required to design cancer treatment vaccines that can accomplish both goals ( ... al. TRICOM vector based cancer vaccines. Current Pharmaceutical Design 2006; 12(3):351–361. [PubMed Abstract] Zou ...

  13. HPV Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & ... Asthma Concussions Smart Snacking HPV Vaccine KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > STDs & Other Infections > HPV Vaccine Print A A ...

  14. Matrix and Backstage: Cellular Substrates for Viral Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Ingo; Sandig, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines are complex products that are manufactured in highly dynamic processes. Cellular substrates are one critical component that can have an enormous impact on reactogenicity of the final preparation, level of attenuation of a live virus, yield of infectious units or antigens, and cost per vaccine dose. Such parameters contribute to feasibility and affordability of vaccine programs both in industrialized countries and developing regions. This review summarizes the diversity of cellular substrates for propagation of viral vaccines from primary tissue explants and embryonated chicken eggs to designed continuous cell lines of human and avian origin. PMID:24732259

  15. 17DD yellow fever vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Reinaldo M.; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S.; Farias, Roberto Henrique G.; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Almeida, Luiz Fernando C.; Lima, Sheila Maria B.; Nogueira, Rita Maria R.; Sá, Gloria Regina S.; Hokama, Darcy A.; de Carvalho, Ricardo; Freire, Ricardo Aguiar V.; Filho, Edson Pereira; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To verify if the Bio-Manguinhos 17DD yellow fever vaccine (17DD-YFV) used in lower doses is as immunogenic and safe as the current formulation. Results: Doses from 27,476 IU to 587 IU induced similar seroconversion rates and neutralizing antibodies geometric mean titers (GMTs). Immunity of those who seroconverted to YF was maintained for 10 mo. Reactogenicity was low for all groups. Methods: Young and healthy adult males (n = 900) were recruited and randomized into 6 groups, to receive de-escalating doses of 17DD-YFV, from 27,476 IU to 31 IU. Blood samples were collected before vaccination (for neutralization tests to yellow fever, serology for dengue and clinical chemistry), 3 to 7 d after vaccination (for viremia and clinical chemistry) and 30 d after vaccination (for new yellow fever serology and clinical chemistry). Adverse events diaries were filled out by volunteers during 10 d after vaccination. Volunteers were retested for yellow fever and dengue antibodies 10 mo later. Seropositivity for dengue was found in 87.6% of volunteers before vaccination, but this had no significant influence on conclusions. Conclusion: In young healthy adults Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz yellow fever vaccine can be used in much lower doses than usual. International Register ISRCTN 38082350. PMID:23364472

  16. Vaccine trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. Farrington; E. Miller

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews some of the issues involved in evaluating vaccines in humans. Vaccine trials are required for licensure\\u000a and are essential for demonsrating a vaccine’s safety and protective efficacy. The formal framework of phase I, II, and III\\u000a trials is described, with particular emphasis on the choice of hypotheses, trial design, and biases that arise in the context\\u000a of

  17. Chickenpox Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... but it can be serious, especially in young infants and adults. • It causes a rash, itching, fever, ... with rash and higher rates of fever than MMR and varicella vaccines given separately. Rash has been ...

  18. Orally administered attenuated Salmonella enteritidis reduces chicken cecal carriage of virulent Salmonella challenge organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Cristina Cerquetti; M. Magdalena Gherardi

    2000-01-01

    Chickens were immunized orally with 109cfu of the temperature-sensitive (Ts) mutant E\\/1\\/3 of Salmonella enteritidis at 1, 2, 3 and 7 days of age. The animals were challenged with wild-type strains of Salmonella of different serotypes 7 or 14 days following immunization. Chickens receiving multiple oral doses of the vaccine strain showed no signs of disease. Immunized animals shed the

  19. Comparison of the replication and transmissibility of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine delivered via eye-drop or drinking-water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauricio J. C. Coppo; Joanne M. Devlin; Amir H. Noormohammadi

    2011-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccines have been extensively used to control infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT). Most vaccines are registered\\/recommended for use via eye-drop although vaccination via drinking-water is commonly used in the field. Drinking-water vaccination has been associated with non-uniform protection. Bird-to-bird passage of chicken-embryo-originated (CEO) ILT vaccines have been shown to result in reversion to virulence. The purpose of this study was

  20. Incorporation of conserved nucleoprotein into influenza virus-like particles could provoke a broad protective immune response in BALB/c mice and chickens.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chunyi; Tian, Guobin; Chen, Xianxian; Liu, Qiliang; Ma, Jun; Xu, Shun; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Hualan; Cao, Yongchang

    2015-01-01

    We engineered influenza A/goose/GD/1996 (H5N1) (clade 0) virus-like particles (VLPs) by coinfecting Sf9 cells with triple/quadruple recombinant baculovirus that expressed hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix 1 (M1) with or without nucleoprotein (NP). VLP3 (HA, NA, and M1) and VLP4 (HA, NA, M1, and NP) vaccines (containing 1 ?g HA) with oil emulsion were administered to mice and chickens by intramuscular injection, and the immune responses were analyzed. The VLP-vaccinated mice demonstrated high antigen specific antibody titers and effective cellular immune responses. The mice and chickens vaccinated with VLP4 demonstrated more robust humoral and cellular immune responses than those vaccinated with VLP3. The VLP4 vaccine afforded 100% protection against a heterologous lethal influenza virus challenge (clade 2.3.4) whereas the VLP3 vaccine conferred 50% protection in chickens. These results implied that the incorporation of conserved NP protein into the VLPs could elicit a broad protective immune response in BALB/c mice and chickens. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report describing the immunological profile of the NP-containing VLPs vaccines in mice and chicken models, and the results demonstrate that the non-infectious, genome less VLPs, particularly those containing NP, represent a promising strategy for the development of a safe and effective vaccine to control pandemic influenza. PMID:25312452

  1. Vaccination Mathematics

    E-print Network

    Meade, Douglas B.

    Vaccination Strategies for Epidemic Models Douglas B. Meade Department of Mathematics University://www.math.sc.edu/~meade/ 27 May 1999 #12; May 1999 IMA Mathematical Biology Seminar 0 Vaccination Strategies for Epidemic and natural death -- no death from infection -- no vaccination Ref: Shulgin, Stone, and Agur, Bull Math Bio

  2. Rabies vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio Carlos Paolazzi; Oscar Pérez; Javier De Filippo

    1999-01-01

    Rabies vaccines produced by means of molecular biology are described. Recombinant vaccines employing either viruses as vectors\\u000a (vaccinia, adenovirus, poxvirus, baculovirus, plant viruses) or a plasmid vector carrying the rabies virus glycoprotein gene\\u000a are discussed. Synthetic peptide technology directed to rabies vaccine production is also presented.

  3. Evaluation of Targeted Influenza Vaccination Strategies via Population Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Glasser; Denis Taneri; Zhilan Feng; Jen-Hsiang Chuang; Peet Tüll; William Thompson; Mary Mason McCauley; James Alexander

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundBecause they can generate comparable predictions, mathematical models are ideal tools for evaluating alternative drug or vaccine allocation strategies. To remain credible, however, results must be consistent. Authors of a recent assessment of possible influenza vaccination strategies conclude that older children, adolescents, and young adults are the optimal targets, no matter the objective, and argue for vaccinating them. Authors of

  4. An Age-Structured Model for Pneumococcal Infection with Vaccination

    E-print Network

    An Age-Structured Model for Pneumococcal Infection with Vaccination Karyn L. Sutton1,2,3 , H. T the young and the old. The development of an effective vaccine against these infections, especially the younger ages, has not been successful despite the licensing of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7

  5. Therapeutic HIV Vaccines What is a vaccine?

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    Therapeutic HIV Vaccines What is a vaccine? A vaccine is a medical product designed to stimulate there are currently no vaccines to prevent or treat HIV, researchers are developing and testing potential HIV vaccines. HIV vaccines designed to prevent HIV infection in HIV negative people are called preventive vaccines

  6. Influenza neuraminidase antibodies provide partial protection for chickens against high pathogenic avian influenza infection.

    PubMed

    Sylte, Matthew J; Hubby, Bolyn; Suarez, David L

    2007-05-10

    Protection of chickens against avian influenza (AI) is mostly attributed to production of antibodies against the viral glycoprotein hemagglutinin, whereas less is known about the protective role of antibodies to the other surface glycoprotein neuraminidase (NA). Therefore, vaccines encoding NA antigen (e.g., DNA and alphavirus-based virus like replicon particles (VRP)) or baculovirus-expressed recombinant NA (rN2) were tested for their ability to protect against highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) in chickens. Vaccination with A/Pheasant/Maryland/4457/93 (Ph/MD) rN2 protein produced significantly higher levels of NA-inhibition (NI) activity and 88% protection from HPAI H5N2 challenge than vaccination with Ph/MD N2 DNA (25% protection). Vaccination with Ph/MD N2 VRP a minimum of two times also produced high levels of NI activity and protection against HPAI challenge (63% protection). Vaccination with VRP encoding an N2 gene that was genetically distant from the challenge virus N2 failed to protect chickens. Vaccines producing higher levels of NI activity conferred partial protection, but failed to affect viral shedding. Consideration of the homology between vaccine and challenge virus isolate NA genes may provide improved immunity if high levels of NI activity are obtained. PMID:17350145

  7. Rubella: Current Status, Diagnosis, Outbreak Control, and Use of Rubella Vaccine in Females of Childbearing Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preblud, Stephen R.

    1984-01-01

    Widespread rubella vaccination of young children with a secondary emphasis on vaccinating susceptible adolescents and young adults has prevented epidemics of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome. Benefits of ensuring high immunity levels in college students, quick response to disease outbreak, and safety and efficacy of rubella vaccine in this…

  8. Fluzone(®) Intradermal vaccine: a promising new chance to increase the acceptability of influenza vaccination in adults.

    PubMed

    Ansaldi, Filippo; de Florentiis, Daniela; Durando, Paolo; Icardi, Giancarlo

    2012-01-01

    On May 9 2011, the US FDA approved Sanofi Pasteur's Fluzone(®) Intradermal influenza vaccine, the first influenza vaccine licensed in the USA that uses a new microinjection system for intradermal delivery of vaccines (Soluvia™, Becton Dickinson). Its antigen content is lower (9 µg hemagglutinin per strain) than the conventional intramuscular vaccine (15 µg) and it is indicated for active immunization of adults aged between 18 and 64 years. Data from the clinical trial assessing immunogenicity and safety of Fluzone Intradermal in adults were consistent with substantial experience accumulated with Intanza(®) 9 µg, the intradermal vaccine licensed on February 26 2009 and launched during the 2010/2011 season in Europe. Fluzone Intradermal is safe and its immunogenicity comparable with that of conventional intramuscular vaccines. Obtaining optimal acceptability of intradermal vaccines may represent an additional asset to help increase the coverage of influenza vaccination in young adults. PMID:22149703

  9. Edible vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Artnzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    Vaccines were the result of trial and error research until molecular biology and genetic engineering made possible the creation of of many new and improved vaccines. New vaccines need to be inexpensive, easily administered, and capable of being stored and transported without refrigeration; without these characteristics, developing countries find it difficult to adopt vaccination as the central strategy for preventing their most devastating diseases. The authors describe a promising approach to inexpensive and effective vaccines: producing them in plants we commonly consume. Images p190-a p191-a p193-a p196-a PMID:9182305

  10. Attenuation, transmission, and immunogenicity of an ORF-C gene deleted strain of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in specific pathogen free chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a very serious and widespread respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Conventional attenuated ILT vaccines, obtained by continuous passages in chicken embryos and tissue culture, had been the main tools utilized by th...

  11. Safety and immunogenicity of an adjuvanted whole virion, inactivated A (H1N1) 2009 influenza vaccine in young and elderly adults, and children.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Prasad S; Manjunath, K; Agarkhedkar, Sharad

    2012-12-17

    An alum adjuvanted whole virion inactivated vaccine against the A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic virus was developed in India. Two double-blind, randomized studies were conducted. Fifty adults (18-50 years) were enrolled in the Phase I study, whereas the Phase II/III study consisted of 330 adults (?18 years) and children ?3 years. Safety (both studies) and immunogenicity (Phase II/III study) by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers, of 10 ?g or 15 ?g of hemagglutinin (HA) antigen were compared. In the Phase I study, mostly mild and transient injection site and systemic reactions were reported. Similar events were seen in the Phase II/III study. The overall seroprotection was 96% and 89% with 10 and 15 ?g doses, respectively, while the seroconversion was 92% and 88%. The new Indian-made pandemic H1N1 vaccine is safe and immunogenic in adults and children above 3 years of age. PMID:23131207

  12. DNA vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2001-12-01

    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  13. Overview of measles and mumps vaccine: origin, present, and future of vaccine production.

    PubMed

    Betáková, T; Svetlíková, D; Gocník, M

    2013-01-01

    Measles and mumps are common viral childhood diseases that can cause serious complications. Vaccination remains the most efficient way to control the spread of these viruses. The manufacturing capability for viral vaccines produced in embryonated hen eggs and conventional/classical cell substrates, such as chicken embryo fibroblast or primary dog kidney cell substrates, is no longer sufficient. This limitation can be overcome by utilizing other recognized cell substrates such as Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK), Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO), Vero (monkey origin) cells, MRC-5 (human diploid) or as an alternative, introducing new cell substrates of human or avian origin. A very important factor in vaccine production is the safety and immunogenicity of the final vaccine, where the proper choice of cell substrate used for virus propagation is made. All substrates used in vaccine production must be fully characterized to avoid the contamination of hidden unknown pathogens which is difficult to achieve in primary cell substrates. PMID:23600866

  14. Immunity to Pasteurella multocida in protein-deficient chickens.

    PubMed

    Payne, C J; Scott, T R; Dick, J W; Glick, B

    1990-12-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effects of dietary protein restriction on the humoral immunity (HI) and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) of chickens. New Hampshire chickens were separated into two dietary treatment groups: basal, containing 3,200 kcal/kg and 21% protein; or protein restricted (PR), containing 3,200 kcal/kg and 7% protein. In studies involving HI, half of the birds in each dietary treatment were vaccinated against fowl cholera at 4 and 8 wk of age. Blood samples were collected weekly beginning at 4 wk of age. Overall, unvaccinated birds had lower titers than vaccinated birds and PR groups generally showed lower titers than basal groups. All birds were challenged by palatine cleft inoculation of live, virulent Strain X-73 of Pasteurella multocida. The vaccinated PR group survived live challenge as well as the vaccinated basal group, but all unvaccinated birds died as a result of the challenge, regardless of antibody titer. In studies involving CMI, half of the birds in each dietary treatment were vaccinated at 5 wk of age. At 2 to 3 wk postvaccination, representative birds from each treatment were bled for total and differential blood counts. Also, birds were sacrificed and spleen cells collected. Cells were cultured in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) medium with phytohemagglutinin-M (PHA-M), sonicated P. multocida (X-73), or RPMI only.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2084673

  15. Replication kinetics of Marek's disease vaccine virus in feathers and lymphoid tissues using PCR and virus isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan J. Baigent; Lorraine P. Smith; Richard J. W. Currie; Venugopal K. Nair

    2005-01-01

    CVI988 (Rispens), an avirulent strain of Marek's disease virus, is the most widely used vaccine against Marek's disease. The kinetics of replication of CVI988 was examined in tissues of chickens vaccinated at either 1 day or 14 days of age and sampled regularly up to 28 days post-vaccination. Age at vaccination had no significant effect on the kinetics of CVI988

  16. Environmental and management factors influencing BVDV antibody levels and response to vaccination in weanling calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination has many benefits for disease prevention and overall health status of animals. Not all animals respond equally to vaccinations. A number of factors can be shown to influence a young animal’s response to vaccination. Calves with more maternal antibodies at the time of vaccination have poo...

  17. Vaccination of commercial broiler chicks against avian metapneumovirus infection: a comparison of drinking-water, spray and oculo-oral delivery methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kannan Ganapathy; Andrew Bufton; Andrew Pearson; Stephane Lemiere; Richard C. Jones

    2010-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) has become an important cause of viral respiratory infections in turkey and chickens. Live and inactivated vaccinations are available worldwide for prevention of disease and economic losses caused by this pathogen. The efficacy of these vaccines is vigorously tested under laboratory conditions prior to use in the field. In this study, a live subtype B aMPV vaccine

  18. Adjuvant effects of chitosan and calcium phosphate particles in an inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adjuvant activity of chitosan and calcium phosphate-particles (CAP) was studied following intranasal coadministration of commercial chickens with inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. After three vaccinations with inactivated NDV in combination with chitosan or CAP an increase in an...

  19. Serial Transfer of a Transplantable Tumor: Implications for Marek's Vaccine Mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanism of Marek’s disease (MD) vaccination to prevent the lymphoproliferative disease in chickens is not well understood. It is generally recognized that vaccination prevents disease, including the induction of T cell tumors, but does not prevent the pathogenic virus from infecting and repli...

  20. VACCINATION AGAINST RESPIRATORY DISEASES OF POULTRY: AVIAN INFLUENZA AND NEWCASTLE DISEASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the USA each year, 8.2 billion commercial chickens are vaccinated against common respiratory pathogens such as Newcastle disease (ND) virus, a paramyxovirus type 1, and infectious bronchitis virus, a coronavirus. Most commercial poultry are vaccinated through mass immunization programs utilizing ...

  1. Development of Heart Rate Circadian Rhythm in Chickens *, R. Akiyamab

    E-print Network

    Burggren, Warren

    Development of Heart Rate Circadian Rhythm in Chickens K. Moriyaa *, R. Akiyamab , E.M. Dzialowskic, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, USA ABSTRACT In chick embryos, various instantaneous heart rate of mean heart rate (MHR) have been elucidated. IHR changes have also measured in newly hatched and young

  2. Vaccine allergies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the increasing numbers of vaccine administrations are associated with increased reports of adverse vaccine reactions. Whilst the general adverse reactions including allergic reactions caused by the vaccine itself or the vaccine components, are rare, they can in some circumstances be serious and even fatal. In accordance with many IgE-mediated reactions and immediate-type allergic reactions, the primary allergens are proteins. The proteins most often implicated in vaccine allergies are egg and gelatin, with perhaps rare reactions to yeast or latex. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the injectable influenza vaccine can be safely administered, although with appropriate precautions, to patients with severe egg allergy, as the current influenza vaccines contain small trace amounts of egg protein. If an allergy is suspected, an accurate examination followed by algorithms is vital for correct diagnosis, treatment and decision regarding re-vaccination in patients with immediate-type reactions to vaccines. Facilities and health care professionals should be available to treat immediate hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylaxis) in all settings where vaccines are administered. PMID:24427763

  3. Development of Streptococcus pneumoniae Vaccines Using Live Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shifeng; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae still causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in young children and the elderly. Much effort has been dedicated to developing protein-based universal vaccines to conquer the current shortcomings of capsular vaccines and capsular conjugate vaccines, such as serotype replacement, limited coverage and high costs. A recombinant live vector vaccine delivering protective antigens is a promising way to achieve this goal. In this review, we discuss the researches using live recombinant vaccines, mainly live attenuated Salmonella and lactic acid bacteria, to deliver pneumococcal antigens. We also discuss both the limitations and the future of these vaccines. PMID:25309747

  4. Salsa Baked Chicken Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    . Preheat oven to 400ºF. 2. Place chicken breasts in a medium bowl. Add salsa an allow to marinate for 20 basis protected by law. An equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. Issued in furtherance

  5. Chicken Pozole Soup Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    , canned 1 onion 15 ounces low sodium tomatoes, canned 1/4 teaspoon pepper 2 tablespoons chili powder 1 chicken, chopped onion, tomatoes, hominy, pepper, chili powder, and oregano to pot. 6. Cover and simmer

  6. Bioactivities of chicken essence.

    PubMed

    Li, Y F; He, R R; Tsoi, B; Kurihara, H

    2012-04-01

    The special flavor and health effects of chicken essence are being widely accepted by people. Scientific researches are revealing its truth as a tonic food in traditional health preservation. Chicken essence has been found to possess many bioactivities including relief of stress and fatigue, amelioration of anxiety, promotion of metabolisms and post-partum lactation, improvement on hyperglycemia and hypertension, enhancement of immune, and so on. These activities of chicken essence are suggested to be related with its active components, including proteins, dipeptides (such as carnosine and anserine), polypeptides, minerals, trace elements, and multiple amino acids, and so on. Underlying mechanisms responsible for the bioactivities of chicken essence are mainly related with anti-stress, anti-oxidant, and neural regulation effects. However, the mechanisms are complicated and may be mediated via the combined actions of many active components, more than the action of 1 or 2 components alone. PMID:22432477

  7. Characterisation of chicken viperin.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Kate E; Karpala, Adam J; Rohringer, Andreas; Ward, Alistair; Bean, Andrew G D

    2015-02-01

    The identification of immune pathways that protect against pathogens may lead to novel molecular therapies for both livestock and human health. Interferon (IFN) is a major response pathway that stimulates multiple genes targeted towards reducing virus. Viperin is one such interferon stimulated gene (ISG) that helps protect mammals from virus and may be critical to protecting chickens in the same way. In chickens, ISGs are not generally well characterised and viperin, in concert with other ISGs, may be important in protecting against virus. Here we identify chicken viperin (ch-viperin) and show that ch-viperin is upregulated in response to viral signature molecules. We further show that viperin is upregulated in response to virus infection in vivo. This data will benefit investigators targeting the antiviral pathways in the chicken. PMID:25311379

  8. Reasons for non-vaccination against HPV and future vaccination intentions among 19-26 year-old women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory D Zimet; Thomas W Weiss; Susan L Rosenthal; Margaret B Good; Michelle D Vichnin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite CDC recommendations regarding universal catch-up vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), only about ten percent of young adult women in the United States have been vaccinated. The purpose of this study was to better understand reasons for non-vaccination among insured 19-26 year-old women and to evaluate future vaccination intentions. METHODS: We used an administrative claims database from a large

  9. Evaluation of the Efficacy of an Attenuated Live Vaccine against Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Xue; Li, Zhenguang; Xia, Mingqi; He, Yanliang

    2012-01-01

    Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is characterized by high fever and high mortality in pigs of all ages and has severely affected the pork industry of China in the last few years. An attenuated HP-PRRSV strain, TJM, was obtained by passaging HP-PRRSV strain TJ on MARC-145 cells for 92 passages. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)- and antibody-free pigs were inoculated intramuscularly with TJM (105.0 50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50]) and challenged at 28, 60, 120, and 180 days postimmunization (dpi). The results showed that 5/5, 5/5, 5/5, and 4/5 immunized pigs were protected from the lethal challenge and did not develop fever and clinical diseases at each challenge, respectively. Compared to control pigs, vaccinated pigs showed much milder pathological lesions and gained significantly more weight (P < 0.01). Sequence analysis of different passages of strain TJ showed that the attenuation resulted in a deletion of a continuous 120 amino acids (aa), in addition to the discontinuous 30-aa deletion in the nsp2 region. The analysis also demonstrated that the 120-aa deletion was genetically stable in vivo. These results suggested that HP-PRRSV TJM was efficacious against a lethal challenge with a virulent HP-PRRSV strain, and effective protection could last at least 4 months. Therefore, strain TJM is a good candidate for an efficacious modified live virus vaccine as well as a useful molecular marker vaccine against HP-PRRSV. PMID:22695163

  10. Progress and pitfalls in Shigella vaccine research

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Eileen M.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Fasano, Alessio; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.

    2013-01-01

    Renewed awareness of the significant morbidity and mortality that Shigella causes among young children in developing countries combined with technological innovations in vaccinology has led to the development of novel vaccine strategies in the past five years. Along with advancement of classical vaccines in clinical trials and new sophisticated measurements of immunological responses, much new data has been produced lending promise to the potential for production of safe and effective Shigella vaccines. Herein we review the recent progress in Shigella vaccine development within the framework of persistent obstacles. PMID:23419287

  11. Immune responses and protective efficacy of a novel DNA vaccine encoding outer membrane protein of avian Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Gong, Qiang; Qu, Ning; Niu, Mingfu; Qin, Cuili; Cheng, Ming; Sun, Xiaofei; Zhang, Aiguo

    2013-04-15

    Avian Pasteurella multocida is a causative agent of fowl cholera. Two proteins OmpH and OmpA are the major immunogenic antigens of avian P. multocida, which play an important role in inducing immune responses that confer resistance against infections. In the present study, we used pcDNA3.1(+) as a vector and constructed DNA vaccines with the genes encoding the two antigens mentioned above. These DNA vaccines include monovalent (pcDNA-OMPH, pOMPH and pcDNA-OMPA, pOMPA), divalent combination (pcDNA-OMPH+pcDNA-OMPA, pOMPH+pOMPA) and fusion of two gene vaccines (pcDNA-OMPH/OMPA, pOMPHA). The immune responses to these DNA vaccines were evaluated by serum antibody titers, lymphocyte proliferation assay and titers of a cytokines, IFN-?. The protective efficacy after challenging with a virulent avian P. multocida strain, CVCC474, was evaluated by survival rate. A significant increase in serum antibody levels was observed in chickens vaccinated with divalent combination and fusion DNA vaccines. Additionally, the lymphocyte proliferation (SI value) and the levels of IFN-? were both higher in chickens immunized with divalent combination and fusion DNA vaccines than in those vaccinated with monovalent DNA vaccines (P<0.05). Furthermore, the protection provided by divalent combination and fusion DNA vaccines was superior to that provided by monovalent DNA vaccines after challenging with the avian P. multocida strain CVCC474. And the protective efficacy in chickens immunized three times with the fusion DNA vaccine was equivalent to the protective efficacy in chickens vaccinated once with the attenuated live vaccine. This suggests that divalent combination and fusion DNA vaccines represent a promising approach for the prevention of fowl cholera. PMID:23340446

  12. Filovirus vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Bradfute, Steven B; Dye, John M

    2011-01-01

    Filoviruses can cause severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Although there are currently no clinically proven treatments for filovirus disease, much progress has been made in recent years in the discovery of therapeutics and vaccines against these viruses. A variety of vaccine platforms have been shown to be effective against filovirus infection. This review summarizes the literature in this field, focusing on vaccines that have been shown to protect NHPs from infection. Furthermore, the uses of rodent models in vaccine development, as well as correlates of immunity, are discussed. PMID:21519188

  13. Clinical experience with respiratory syncytial virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Piedra, Pedro A

    2003-02-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is at times associated with life-threatening lower respiratory tract illness in infancy. Severe infection during the first year of life may be an important risk factor or indicator for the development of asthma in early childhood. Severe infections primarily occur in healthy infants, and young infants and children with specific risk factors. However, RSV causes respiratory infections in all age groups. Indeed it is now recognized that RSV disease is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in the geriatric population. RSV infection remains difficult to treat, and prevention is a worldwide goal. For this reason there has been an intensive effort to develop an effective and safe RSV vaccine. Initial infection with RSV affords limited protection to reinfection, yet repeated episodes decrease the risk for lower respiratory tract illness. In the 20 years from 1960 to 1980, trials of several candidate RSV vaccines failed to attain the desired safety and protection against natural infection. Some vaccine types either failed to elicit immunogenicity, as with the live subcutaneous vaccine, or resulted in exaggerated disease on natural exposure to the virus, as with the formalin-inactivated (FI) type. Currently vaccine candidates are being developed based on the molecular virology of RSV. Recent formulations of candidate RSV vaccines have focused on subunit vaccines [such as purified fusion protein (PFP)], subunit vaccines combined with nonspecific immune activating adjuvants, live attenuated vaccines (including cold passaged, temperature-sensitive or cpts mutants), genetically engineered live attenuated vaccines and polypeptide vaccines. PMID:12671459

  14. Preventive HIV Vaccines What is a vaccine?

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    Preventive HIV Vaccines What is a vaccine? A vaccine is a medical product designed to stimulate infection or make you sick. What is the difference between a preventive HIV vaccine and a therapeutic HIV vaccine? Therapeutic HIV vaccines are designed to control HIV infection in people who are already HIV

  15. Consumer preferences and willingness to pay for value-added chicken product attributes.

    PubMed

    Martínez Michel, Lorelei; Anders, Sven; Wismer, Wendy V

    2011-10-01

    A growing demand for convenient and ready-to-eat products has increased poultry processors' interest in developing consumer-oriented value-added chicken products. In this study, a conjoint analysis survey of 276 chicken consumers in Edmonton was conducted during the summer of 2009 to assess the importance of the chicken part, production method, processing method, storage method, the presence of added flavor, and cooking method on consumer preferences for different value-added chicken product attributes. Estimates of consumer willingness to pay (WTP) premium prices for different combinations of value-added chicken attributes were also determined. Participants'"ideal" chicken product was a refrigerated product made with free-range chicken breast, produced with no additives or preservatives and no added flavor, which could be oven heated or pan heated. Half of all participants on average were willing to pay 30% more for a value-added chicken product over the price of a conventional product. Overall, young consumers, individuals who shop at Farmers' Markets and those who prefer free-range or organic products were more likely to pay a premium for value-added chicken products. As expected, consumers' WTP was affected negatively by product price. Combined knowledge of consumer product attribute preferences and consumer WTP for value-added chicken products can help the poultry industry design innovative value-added chicken products. Practical Application:? An optimum combination of product attributes desired by consumers for the development of a new value-added chicken product, as well as the WTP for this product, have been identified in this study. This information is relevant to the poultry industry to enhance consumer satisfaction of future value-added chicken products and provide the tools for future profit growth. PMID:22417604

  16. Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Recombinants Expressing Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus (ILTV) Glycoproteins gB and gD Protect Chickens against ILTV and NDV Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Spatz, Stephen; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wen, Guoyuan; Garcia, Maricarmen; Zsak, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease is controlled mainly through biosecurity and vaccination with live attenuated strains of ILTV and vectored vaccines based on turkey herpesvirus (HVT) and fowlpox virus (FPV). The current live attenuated vaccines (chicken embryo origin [CEO] and tissue culture origin [TCO]), although effective, can regain virulence, whereas HVT- and FPV-vectored ILTV vaccines are less efficacious than live attenuated vaccines. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more efficacious ILTV vaccines. In the present study, we generated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants, based on the LaSota vaccine strain, expressing glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) of ILTV using reverse genetics technology. These recombinant viruses, rLS/ILTV-gB and rLS/ILTV-gD, were slightly attenuated in vivo yet retained growth dynamics, stability, and virus titers in vitro that were similar to those of the parental LaSota virus. Expression of ILTV gB and gD proteins in the recombinant virus-infected cells was detected by immunofluorescence assay. Vaccination of specific-pathogen-free chickens with these recombinant viruses conferred significant protection against virulent ILTV and velogenic NDV challenges. Immunization of commercial broilers with rLS/ILTV-gB provided a level of protection against clinical disease similar to that provided by the live attenuated commercial vaccines, with no decrease in body weight gains. The results of the study suggested that the rLS/ILTV-gB and -gD viruses are safe, stable, and effective bivalent vaccines that can be mass administered via aerosol or drinking water to large chicken populations. IMPORTANCE This paper describes the development and evaluation of novel bivalent vaccines against chicken infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) and Newcastle disease (ND), two of the most economically important infectious diseases of poultry. The current commercial ILT vaccines are either not safe or less effective. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more efficacious ILT vaccines. In the present study, we generated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants expressing glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) using reverse genetics technology. These recombinant viruses were safe, stable, and immunogenic and replicated efficiently in birds. Vaccination of chickens with these recombinant viruses conferred complete protection against ILTV and NDV challenge. These novel bivalent vaccines can be mass administered via aerosol or drinking water to large chicken populations at low cost, which will have a direct impact on poultry health, fitness, and performance. PMID:24829337

  17. Vaccines within vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Adenovirus Types 4 and 7 (Ad4 and Ad7) are associated with acute respiratory distress (ARD). In order to prevent widespread Ad-associated ARD (Ad-ARD) the United States military immunizes new recruits using a safe and effective lyophilized wildtype Ad4 and Ad7 delivered orally in an enteric-coated capsule. We cloned Ad4 and Ad7 and modified them to express either a GFP-Luciferase (GFPLuc) fusion gene or a centralized influenza H1 hemagglutinin (HA1-con). BALB/c mice were injected with GFPLuc expressing viruses intramuscularly (i.m.) and intranasally (i.n.). Ad4 induced significantly higher luciferase expression levels as compared with Ad7 by both routes. Ad7 transduction was restored using a human CD46+ transgenic mouse model. Mice immunized with serial dilutions of viruses expressing the HA1-con influenza vaccine gene were challenged with 100 MLD50 of influenza virus. Ad4 protected BALB/c mice at a lower dose by i.m. immunization as compared with Ad7. Unexpectedly, there was no difference in protection by i.n. immunization. Although Ad7 i.m. transduction was restored in CD46+ transgenic mice, protection against influenza challenge required even higher doses as compared with the BALB/c mice. However, Ad7 i.n. immunized CD46+ transgenic mice were better protected as compared with Ad4. Interestingly, the restoration of Ad7 transduction in CD46+ mice did not increase vaccine efficacy and indicates that Ad7 may transduce a different subset of cells through alternative receptors in the absence of CD46. These data indicate that both Ad4 and Ad7 can effectively induce anti-H1N1 immunity against a heterologous challenge using a centralized H1 gene. Future studies in non-human primates or human clinical trials will determine the overall effectiveness of Ad4 and Ad7 as vaccines for influenza. PMID:24280656

  18. Epidemiology of vaccine hesitancy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Mariam; Salmon, Daniel A; Omer, Saad B

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are among the most effective public health interventions against infectious diseases. However, there is evidence in the United States for parents either delaying or refusing recommended childhood vaccination. Exemptions to school immunization laws and use of alternative schedule from those recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and the American Academy of Pediatrics cannot only increase the risk of children contracting vaccine-preventable diseases but also increases the risk of infecting others who are either too young to be vaccinated, cannot be vaccinated for medical reasons or did not develop a sufficient immunological response to the vaccine. Healthcare providers are cited as the most influential source by parents on vaccine decision-making. Vaccine hesitancy needs to be addressed by healthcare providers and the scientific community by listening to the parental concerns and discussing risks associated with either delaying or refusing vaccines. PMID:24247148

  19. Comparative study of hepatic VLDL secretion in vivo in the growing turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo) and chicken ( Gallus domesticus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryline Kouba; Dominique Hermier; Marie-Annick Bernard-Griffiths

    1995-01-01

    Hepatic secretion of VLDL was compared in young turkeys and chickens (8 and 4 weeks of age, respectively) and older birds (11 and 8 weeks of age, respectively) reared together under the same nutritional conditions. VLDL, VLDL-TG and total TG secretion rates were higher in chickens than in turkeys. The cholesteryl ester content of turkey VLDL was higher than that

  20. Review of enterovirus 71 vaccines.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pele; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Klein, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses are the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks worldwide and have a significant socioeconomic impact, particularly in Asia. Formalin-inactivated (FI) EV71 vaccines evaluated in human clinical trials in China, Taiwan, and Singapore were found to be safe and to elicit strong neutralizing antibody responses against EV71 currently circulating in Asia. The results from 3 different phase 3 clinical trials performed in young children (6-60 months) indicate that the efficacy of FI-EV71 vaccines is >90% against EV71-related HFMDs and >80% against EV71-associated serious diseases, but the vaccines did not protect against coxsackievirus A16 infections. Here we discuss the critical factors affecting EV71 vaccine product registration, including clinical epidemiology, antigenic shift issues in cross-protection and vaccine strain selection, standardized animal models for potency testing, and cost-effective manufacturing processes for potential incorporation of FI-EV71 vaccine into Expanded Programme on Immunization vaccines. PMID:25352588

  1. Protective Oral Vaccination against Infectious bursal disease virus Using the Major Viral Antigenic Protein VP2 Produced in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Taghavian, Omid; Spiegel, Holger; Hauck, Rüdiger; Hafez, Hafez M.; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes economically important immunosuppressive disease in young chickens. The self-assembling capsid protein (VP2) from IBDV strain IR01 was expressed in Pichia pastoris resulting in the formation of homomeric, 23-nm infectious bursal disease subviral particles (IBD-SVPs) with a yield of 76 mg/l before and 38 mg/l after purification. Anti-IBDV antibodies were detected in chickens injected with purified IBD-SVPs or fed with either purified IBD-SVPs or inactivated P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 (cell-encapsulated). Challenge studies using the heterologous classical IBDV strain (MB3) showed that intramuscular vaccination with 20 µg purified IBD-SVPs conferred full protection, achieved complete virus clearance and prevented bursal damage and atrophy, compared with only 40% protection, 0–10% virus clearance accompanied by severe atrophy and substantial bursal damage in mock-vaccinated and challenge controls. The commercial IBDV vaccine also conferred full protection and achieved complete virus clearance, albeit with partial bursal atrophy. Oral administration of 500 µg purified IBD-SVPs with and without adjuvant conferred 100% protection but achieved only 60% virus clearance with adjuvant and none without it. Moderate bursal damage was observed in both cases but the inclusion of adjuvant resulted in bursal atrophy similar to that observed with live-attenuated vaccine and parenteral administration of 20 µg purified IBD-SVPs. The oral administration of 250 mg P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 resulted in 100% protection with adjuvant and 60% without, accompanied by moderate bursal damage and atrophy in both groups, whereas 25 mg P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 resulted in 90–100% protection with moderate bursal lesions and severe atrophy. Finally, the oral delivery of 50 µg purified IBD-SVPs achieved 40–60% protection with severe bursal lesions and atrophy. Both oral and parenteral administration of yeast-derived IBD-VP2 can therefore induce a specific and protective immune response against IBDV without affecting the growth rate of chickens. PMID:24376665

  2. Ethical considerations of universal vaccination against human papilloma virus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background From an epidemiological perspective, the practice of universal vaccination of girls and young women in order to prevent human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and potential development of cervical cancer is widely accepted even though it may lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer. Discussion It is argued that removing the deterrent effect – the fear of developing cancer – could encourage teenage sex. This paper reflects on the ethical legitimacy of the universal vaccination of girls and young women against HPV infection, especially regarding safety issues, the need to vaccinate people who have opted to abstain from sex, the presumption of early onset of sexual relations, the commercial interests of the companies that manufacture the vaccine, and the recommendation of universal vaccination in males. Summary Based on the aforementioned information, we believe that the universal vaccination against HPV in young women is acceptable from an ethical point of view, given the medical advantages it presents. PMID:24708813

  3. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants expressing infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) glycoproteins gB and gD protect chickens against ILTV and NDV challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease is mainly controlled through biosecurity and vaccination with live-attenuated strains of the virus and vectored vaccines based on turkey he...

  4. Tailored vaccines targeting the elderly using whole inactivated influenza vaccines bearing cytokine immunomodulators.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tila; Heffron, Connie L; High, Kevin P; Roberts, Paul C

    2014-02-01

    Influenza and its complications disproportionately affect the elderly, leading to high morbidity and mortality in this ever-increasing population. Despite widespread vaccination efforts, the current influenza vaccines are less effective in the elderly; hence newer vaccine strategies are needed to improve their efficacy in this age group. We have previously shown that co-presentation of cytokines on the surface of inactivated influenza virus particles affords better protection from lethal homotypic viral challenge in young adult mice than conventional non-adjuvanted whole inactivated vaccine. Here, we determined the efficacy of these vaccine formulations in Balb/c mice "aged" to 17 months ("aged mice") along with the addition of a membrane-bound interleukin-12 (IL-12) vaccine formulation. Our investigations found that a single low-dose intramuscular vaccination with inactivated whole influenza vaccine co-presenting IL-12 was sufficient to provide enhanced protection from subsequent influenza challenge as compared with non-adjuvanted whole inactivated vaccine. Our results indicate that incorporation of cytokines such as IL-12 in a membrane-bound formulation in whole inactivated vaccine may provide a means to lower the vaccine dose while eliciting enhanced protective responses in the elderly, an age group that responds poorly to current vaccination regimens. PMID:24102577

  5. Response to challenge dose among young adults vaccinated for hepatitis B as infants: importance of detectable residual antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen.

    PubMed

    Spradling, Philip R; Kamili, Saleem; Xing, Jian; Drobeniuc, Jan; Hu, Dale J; Middleman, Amy B

    2015-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether a difference in antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) response to a hepatitis B vaccine challenge dose existed among persons with a baseline anti-HBs level of 0 mIU/mL (group 1) and those with "non-zero" levels of 0.1-4.9 (group 2) and 5.0-9.9 (group 3) mIU/mL, according to the VITROS ECi anti-HBs assay. DESIGN Subanalysis of randomized clinical trial. Response was defined as a postchallenge anti-HBs level of at least 10 mIU/mL and 4-fold rise in anti-HBs level 2 weeks after a single challenge dose of 10 vs 20 µg Engerix-B. Baseline was defined as the anti-HBs level immediately before administration of the challenge dose. SETTING Pediatric integrated healthcare system near Houston, Texas. PARTICIPANTS Three hundred nineteen US-born 16-19-year-olds who completed the hepatitis B vaccine series during the first year of life. RESULTS One hundred seventy-eight persons had zero (group 1) and 141 (114 group 2 and 27 group 3) had non-zero anti-HBs levels at baseline. Response to the challenge dose was significantly higher among those with non-zero vs zero anti-HBs levels, irrespective of challenge dosage; only 1 person with a non-zero anti-HBs level failed to respond to the challenge dose (group 3, 27/27 [100%] vs group 2, 113/114 [99%] vs group 1, 145/178 [82%]; P<.0001). CONCLUSIONS Among participants with residual anti-HBs levels less than 10 mIU/mL 16-19 years after primary hepatitis B vaccination during infancy, non-zero anti-HBs levels, with rare exception, indicated persistence of immune memory to HBsAg. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01341275 Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;00(0):1-5. PMID:25643863

  6. The ERA Strain of Rabies Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, K. F.; Crawley, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    An antigenic extinction trial in cats showed that the ERA rabies vaccine had superior antigenic properties over Flury H.E.P. C.E.O. and killed tissue culture rabies vaccine. Dogs and cats on a duration of immunity study of ERA rabies vaccine were challenged with fox salivary gland “street” rabies virus. The results of this challenge show a duration of immunity of five years in dogs and four years in cats. Vaccination of dams in late pregnancy with ERA rabies vaccine resulted in transference of maternal antibody to the newborn, in both cattle and dogs. This maternally derived antibody interfered with the successful active immunization of the young calf. Calves free of antibodies for rabies could be successfully vaccinated as early as 17 days of age and were able to withstand a challenge with virulent “street” rabies virus two years later. PMID:4263912

  7. Vaccination Debate

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    The debate over childhood vaccination and a parent’s right to refuse or delay continues to make headlines… in the wake of the recent measles outbreak. ... request is made to spread out a child’s vaccination schedule. Researchers sent out surveys to more than ...

  8. DNA Vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna L. Montgomery; Jeffrey B. Ulmer; John J. Donnelly; Margaret A. Liu

    1997-01-01

    In just a few years, injection of plasmid DNA to elicit immune responses in vivo has developed from an interesting observation to a viable vaccine strategy. DNA vaccines have been shown to elicit both cellular and humoral immune responses and to be effective in a variety of preclinical bacterial, viral, and parasitic animal models. This review will discuss the current

  9. Malaria vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Amador; Manuel E. Patarroyo

    1996-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the development of the malaria vaccine during the last 20 years. Ninety percent of the 300–500 million clinical cases of malaria per year worldwide occur in Africa. Thus, research must be directed toward the 1 million African children under 5 years of age who die every year of malaria. An asexual blood-stage vaccine, capable

  10. Biologic Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    ADAMS, KATHERINE T.

    2009-01-01

    The threat of new disease pandemics has spurred the development of biologic vaccines, which promise tremendous improvements in global and local health. Several lend themselves to the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. But the uncertainties of whom to vaccinate raise the question of whether the health care system can make these promising products viable. PMID:22478749

  11. Cell-mediated immune responses to a killed Salmonella enteritidis vaccine: lymphocyte proliferation, T-cell changes and interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1, IL-2, and IFN-gamma production.

    PubMed

    Okamura, M; Lillehoj, H S; Raybourne, R B; Babu, U S; Heckert, R A

    2004-07-01

    Two experimental approaches were used to investigate the immunological responses of chickens to a commercial killed Salmonella enteritidis (SE) vaccine. In the first, the effects of host age on antigen-specific proliferative responses and cytokine production were examined. Compared with non-vaccinated controls, 4-wk-old vaccinated chickens showed higher proliferation to SE LPS and flagella. The lymphoproliferation responses to these antigens of 8-mo-old vaccinated chickens were not different compared to the non-vaccinated controls. Increased production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) by antigen-stimulated splenocytes following vaccination were, in general, more often observed in 4-wk-old compared with 8-mo-old chickens, whereas serum levels of these cytokines were consistently higher in the vaccinated birds compared with controls regardless of age. The second set of experiments were designed to determine the effects of SE vaccination on mitogen- or antigen-induced splenocyte proliferation and serum nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine levels. Splenocytes from vaccinated chickens stimulated with SE flagella showed significantly increased numbers of TCRgammadelta+ cells at 7 days post-vaccination compared with non-vaccinated birds. In contrast, no differences were noted with CD4+, CD8+, or TCRalphabeta+ cells at any time points examined. Higher levels of NO production were observed following stimulation with SE flagella at 4, 7, 11, and 14 days after SE vaccination while serum levels of IFN-gamma, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8 were elevated only at day 7 post-vaccination. In conclusion, younger chickens mounted a more robust antigen-specific immune response to the SE vaccine compared with older birds and vaccination induced not only T-cell-mediated responses but also host innate and pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:15178000

  12. Balsamic Tomato Chicken Pasta Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Balsamic Tomato Chicken Pasta Ingredients: 1 1/2 pounds chicken breast, skinless, boneless 1 onion tomatoes, canned 6 ounces tomato paste 1/3 cup balsamic vinegar 1 teaspoon basil 1 teaspoon oregano 1 pink. 5. Once chicken is cooked, add garlic powder, diced tomatoes, tomato paste, balsamic vinegar

  13. Chicken and Fruit Salad Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Chicken and Fruit Salad Ingredients: 2 stalks celery, chopped 1 cup seedless grapes 20 ounces pineapple chunks in juice, drained well 11 ounces mandarin orange, drained 3 cups boneless, skinless chicken for other uses. Add pineapple and oranges to bowl. Sprinkle with pepper. 4. Add cooked chicken and half

  14. Anatomical, gender, and physiological differences in prolactin secretion from individual pituitary cells of chickens

    E-print Network

    Lopez, Marisol Emma

    1995-01-01

    and immature turkey hens (Hargis and Burke, 1984) or by peritoneal injection in young turkeys (Fehrer er al. , 1983) increased serum PRL. In addition, administration of 5-HT to young chickens caused an increase in serum PRL levels (Rabii er aL, 1981...

  15. Marek’s disease virus infection induces widespread differential chromatin marks in inbred chicken lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek's disease (MD) is a neoplastic disease in chickens caused by MD virus (MDV). Continuous vaccination against MD may have contributed to a progressive increase in the virulence of MDV, and therefore, the understanding of genetic resistance to MD is considered crucial to the long-term control of ...

  16. Marek's Disease Virus Infection Induces Widespread Differential Chromatin Marks in Inbred Chicken Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a neoplastic disease in chickens caused by the MD virus (MDV). Successful vaccine development against MD has resulted in increased virulence of MDV and the understanding of genetic resistance to the disease is, therefore, crucial to long-term control strategies. Also, epigene...

  17. Protectivity conferred by immunization with intranasal recombinant outer membrane protein H from Pasteurella multocida serovar A:1 in chickens

    PubMed Central

    THANASARASAKULPONG, Arunee; POOLPERM, Pichayanut; TANKAEW, Pallop; SAWADA, Takuo; STHITMATEE, Nattawooti

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant outer membrane protein H (rOmpH) is a potential fowl cholera vaccine candidate. The present study was aimed at developing rOmpH formulations for intranasal administration. The rOmpH was purified and formulated with either Escherichia coli enterotoxin B (LTB) or CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) as an adjuvant. Antibody responses in chickens intranasally immunized with rOmpH in combination with 2 different adjuvants were significantly increased (P<0.05) post immunization. Chicken survival rates showed that rOmpH formulated with ODN and LTB elicited 90% and 70% protection, respectively. Our findings indicated that rOmpH formulated with ODN elicited protection better than that formulated with LTB. Therefore, the vaccines formulations in the present study can be considered new intranasal vaccine formulations for fowl cholera in chickens. PMID:25650149

  18. Rotavirus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barnes, G

    1998-01-01

    Encouraging results have been reported from several large trials of tetravalent rhesus rotavirus vaccine, with efficacy of 70-80% against severe disease. A recent Venezuelan study showed similar results to trials in USA and Europe. The vaccine may soon be licensed in USA. It provides the exciting prospect of a strategy to prevent one of the world's major child killers. Other candidate vaccines are under development including human-bovine reassortants, neonatal strains, non-replicating rotaviruses, vector vaccines and other genetically engineered products. Second and third generation rotavirus vaccines are on the horizon. The need for a rotavirus vaccine is well accepted by paediatricians, but public health authorities need to be lobbied. Other issues which need to be addressed include relative importance of non-group A rotaviruses, possible administration with OPV, the influence of breast feeding, and most importantly, cost. It is essential that rotavirus vaccine is somehow made available to all of the world's children, not just those in developed countries. PMID:9553287

  19. Impact of vaccines and vaccination on global control of avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Swayne, David E

    2012-12-01

    There are 30 recorded epizootics of H5 or H7 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) from 1959 to early 2012. The largest of these epizootics, affecting more birds and countries than the other 29 epizootics combined, has been the H5N1 HPAI, which began in Guangdong China in 1996, and has killed or resulted in culling of over 250 million poultry and/or wild birds in 63 countries. Most countries have used stamping-out programs in poultry to eradicate H5N1 HPAI. However, 15 affected countries have utilized vaccination as a part of the control strategy. Greater than 113 billion doses were used from 2002 to 2010. Five countries have utilized nationwide routine vaccination programs, which account for 99% of vaccine used: 1) China (90.9%), 2) Egypt (4.6%), 3) Indonesia (2.3%), 4) Vietnam (1.4%), and 5) Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (< 0.01%). Mongolia, Kazakhstan, France, The Netherlands, Cote d'Ivoire, Sudan, North Korea, Israel, Russia, and Pakistan used < 1% of the avian influenza (AI) vaccine, and the AI vaccine was targeted to either preventive or emergency vaccination programs. Inactivated AI vaccines have accounted for 95.5% of vaccine used, and live recombinant virus vaccines have accounted for 4.5% of vaccine used. The latter are primarily recombinant Newcastle disease vectored vaccine with H5 influenza gene insert. China, Indonesia, Egypt, and Vietnam implemented vaccination after H5N1 HPAI became enzootic in domestic poultry. Bangladesh and eastern India have enzootic H5N1 HPAI and have not used vaccination in their control programs. Clinical disease and mortality have been prevented in chickens, human cases have been reduced, and rural livelihoods and food security have been maintained by using vaccines during HPAI outbreaks. However, field outbreaks have occurred in vaccinating countries, primarily because of inadequate coverage in the target species, but vaccine failures have occurred following antigenic drift in field viruses within China, Egypt, Indonesia, Hong Kong, and Vietnam. The primary strategy for HPAI and H5/H7 low pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza control will continue to be immediate eradication using a four-component strategy: 1) education, 2) biosecurity, 3) rapid diagnostics and surveillance, and 4) elimination of infected poultry. Under some circumstances, vaccination can be added as an additional tool within a wider control strategy when immediate eradication is not feasible, which will maintain livelihoods and food security, and control clinical disease until a primary strategy can be developed and implemented to achieve eradication. PMID:23402099

  20. Vaccine preventable diseases and vaccination policy for indigenous populations.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Robert; McIntyre, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Compared with nonindigenous people, indigenous people in first-world countries have experienced much higher rates of many vaccine preventable diseases. This systematic review of published scientific literature, government reports, and immunization guidelines from Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States compares pre- and postvaccination disease rates and vaccination policy for indigenous people in these four countries. Nationally funded universal vaccination programs are clearly the most effective way of reducing disease in indigenous populations. Most successful have been programs for viral diseases in which strain variations are not important and herd immunity is high, such as measles and hepatitis B. For bacterial infections, strain variations (pneumococcal disease), heavy nasopharyngeal colonization of young infants (pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae type b disease), low vaccine effectiveness in adults with a high prevalence of risk factors (polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine), and waning immunity (pertussis) have been associated with continuing or widening disparities between indigenous and nonindigenous populations. However, universal vaccination programs are not always possible. Geographic targeting of all persons in certain regions with high disease rates has been successful, as has targeting of indigenous populations in regions where they constitute larger proportions of the population. In national programs targeting only indigenous people, it has been difficult to achieve high coverage, particularly in urban areas. Innovative program approaches are particularly needed in these situations. PMID:16763071

  1. Protective avian influenza in ovo vaccination with non-replicating human adenovirus vector

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Haroldo; Tang, De-chu C.; Suarez, David L.; Sylte, Matt J.; Pfeiffer, Jennifer; Van Kampen, Kent R.

    2009-01-01

    Protective immunity against avian influenza virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose in ovo vaccination with a non-replicating human adenovirus vector encoding an H5N9 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin. Vaccinated chickens were protected against both H5N1 (89% hemagglutinin homology; 68% protection) and H5N2 (94% hemagglutinin homology; 100% protection) highly pathogenic avian influenza virus challenges. Mass-administration of this bird flu vaccine can be streamlined with available robotic in ovo injectors. In addition, adenovirus-vectored vaccines can be produced rapidly and the safety margin of a non-replicating vector is superior to that of a replicating counterpart. Furthermore, this mode of vaccination is compatible with epidemiological surveys of natural avian influenza virus infections. PMID:17055126

  2. Pertussis Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further co-develop vaccines against pertussis.

  3. Avian pneumovirus infections of turkeys and chickens.

    PubMed

    Cook, J K

    2000-09-01

    Avian pneumoviruses (APVs) cause major disease and welfare problems in many areas of the world. In turkeys the respiratory disease and the effect on egg laying performance are clearly defined. However, in chickens, the role of APV as a primary pathogen is less clear, although it is widely believed to be one of the factors involved in Swollen Head Syndrome. The mechanisms of virus transmission over large distances are not understood, but wild birds have been implicated. APV has recently been reported in the USA for the first time and the virus isolated was a different type or possibly a different serotype from the APVs found elsewhere. Good biosecurity is crucial for controlling infection and highly effective vaccines are available for prophylaxis. Although different subtypes and possibly different serotypes exist, there is good cross protection between them. Diagnosis is usually based on serology using ELISAs, but the available kits give variable results, interpretation is difficult and improved diagnostic tests are required. PMID:10985803

  4. Vaccines for List A poultry diseases: emphasis on avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Swayne, D E

    2003-01-01

    Various vaccine technologies have been shown experimentally to be effective for immunization against avian influenza (AI) virus and include conventional inactivated oil-based whole AI virus, vectored virus, subunit protein and DNA vaccines. Vaccine-induced protection is based upon antibodies produced against the surface glycoproteins, principally the haemagglutinin, but also the neuraminidase. This protection is specific only for individual subtypes of haemagglutinin (H1-15) and neuraminidase (N1-9) proteins. AI vaccines protect chickens and turkeys from clinical signs and death, and reduce respiratory and intestinal replication of a challenge virus containing homologous haemagglutinin protein. Many of the vaccines are effective if given as a single injection and provide protection for greater than 20 weeks. Protection has been demonstrated against both low and high doses of challenge virus. Furthermore, subtype H5 AI vaccine has been shown to provide protection against heterologous H5 strains with 89.4% or greater haemagglutinin deduced amino acid sequence similarity and isolated over 38 years. Currently, inactivated whole AI virus vaccines and a fowl pox-vectored vaccine with AI H5 haemagglutinin gene insert are used commercially in various countries of the world. These vaccines have some disadvantages associated with the labour requirements for parenteral administration. However, an experimental recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccine with an AI haemagglutinin gene insert shows some promise as a low cost, mass administered aerosol vaccine. A critical issue for the use of vaccines in the field is the need to differentiate vaccinated birds from those infected with the field virus. Differentiation is necessary for outbreak surveillance and trade. The use of AI vaccines varies with individual countries and for different AI virus subtypes. PMID:14677690

  5. Chicken Quesadillas Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    -cooked and shredded 2 tablespoons chunky salsa 1/4 onion, chopped 1/4 cup green bell pepper, chopped 1/2 cup Monterey with cooking spray and heat to medium. 2. Mix chicken, salsa, onion, and green pepper (optional). 3. Place 1

  6. DNA vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harriet L. Robinson; Celia Aurora Tiglao Torres

    1997-01-01

    DNA vaccines use eukaryotic expression vectors to produce immunizing proteins in the vaccinated host. Popular methods of delivery are intramuscular and intradermal saline injections of DNA and gene gun bombardment of skin with DNA-coated gold beads. The method of DNA inoculation (gene gun versus intramuscular injection) and the form of the DNA-expressed antigen (cell-associated versus secreted) determine whether T-cell help

  7. Who Needs Chickenpox Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Immunization Schedules Possible Side Effects of Chickenpox Vaccine Childcare and School Vaccine Requirements Related Pages Who Should ... Immunization Schedules Possible Side Effects of Chickenpox Vaccine Childcare and School Vaccine Requirements Top of Page Images ...

  8. [Recent epidemiology of pertussis: implications for vaccination].

    PubMed

    Levy, J

    2014-09-01

    The development of acellular pertussis vaccines allowed since more than a decade to continue beyond the 2 first years of life the immunization against this illness. This technological progress should have led to an improvement in the control of the disease. However, despite high immunisation rates in infancy, Bordetella pertussis is still circulating in the population. Since 2010 a marked increase in the number of cases of whooping cough in infants too young to be vaccinated, as well as in older children and in teenagers, has been reported in a number of north-American states and in the United-Kingdom. A similar observation has been made in Belgium in 2012 and 2013. The limited duration of the protection resulting from vaccination is probably responsible for the insufficient control of the disease. The new approaches for the use of these vaccines that are proposed to protect the most vulnerable young infants will be discussed. PMID:25675639

  9. Chicken MHC class I and II gene effects on antibody response kinetics in adult chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huaijun; Lamont, Susan J

    2003-06-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays an important role in regulation of the immune response. The MHC class I and II genes were selected as candidates to investigate associations with vaccine response to Salmonella enteritidis and kinetics of antibody response to sheep red blood cell (SRBC) and Brucella abortus. Primary antibody response after S. enteritidis vaccination at day 10, and antibody response to SRBC and killed B. abortus after immunization at 19 and 22 weeks were measured in an F2 population. The resource population was derived from males of two highly inbred MHC-congenic Fayoumi chicken lines (M5.1 and M15.2) mated with highly inbred G-B1 Leghorn line hens. Secondary phase parameters of minimum titers ( Y(min)), maximum titers ( Y(max)), and time needed to achieve Y(min) ( t(min)) and Y(max) ( t(max)) were estimated from post-secondary titers by using a non-linear regression model. Associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MHC class I and II genes with antibody response parameters were determined by a general linear model. Significant associations were found primarily in the M15.2 grandsire haplotype. There were significant associations between MHC class I alpha(1) and alpha(2) SNPs and antibody response to S. enteritidis, primary antibody response to B. abortus, Y(min) to SRBC, and Y(max) to both SRBC and B. abortus. There were significant effects of the MHC class II beta(1) domain SNP on S. enteritidis antibody and Y(max) to SRBC. The results suggest that the characterized SNPs might be used in future applications by marker-assisted selection to improve vaccine response and immunocompetence in chickens. PMID:12743657

  10. Pathogenic characteristics of Marek's disease virus field strains prevalent in China and the effectiveness of existing vaccines against them.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Ping; Li, Zhi-Jie; Bao, Ke-Yan; Lv, Hong-Chao; Gao, Yu-Long; Gao, Hong-Lei; Qi, Xiao-le; Cui, Hong-Yu; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Ren, Xian-Gang; Wang, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2015-05-15

    The virulence of Marek's disease virus (MDV) is continuously evolving, and more virulent MDV pathotypes are emerging, thereby reducing the effectiveness of the existing vaccines. In this study, feather pulps were collected from diseased chickens in commercial chicken flocks in China that presented significant MD visceral tumors in 2011 and were inoculated into a monolayer of duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs). Three field isolates of MDV were obtained by plaque cloning and identified as MDV via PCR and designated strains LCC, LLY, and LTS. Unvaccinated and CVI988 vaccine-vaccinated specific pathogen-free chickens were challenged at 7 days post vaccination (dpv) with 1000 plaque forming units of each of the respective MDV isolates. These strains induced gross MD lesions in all (100%) of the unvaccinated chickens, and the mortality rates of the unvaccinated chickens were 42.9%, 46.7%, and 23.1% by 60 days post challenge (dpc), respectively. The CVI988 vaccine induced protective indices (PIs) of 85.7, 92.3, and 66.7, respectively. These results showed that the pathogenic characteristics of the Chinese isolates were diverse and that vaccine CVI988 provided different levels of protection against them. These data indicated that the existence of variant MDV strains was a possible reason of immunity failure in China. PMID:25770895

  11. Decay of maternal antibodies in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Mahmoud, Kamel

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the decay rate of maternal antibodies against major broiler chicken pathogens. A total of 30 one-day-old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and reared in isolation. These chicks were retrieved from a parent flock that received a routine vaccination program. Chicks were bled at hatch and sequentially thereafter every 5 d through 30 d of age. Maternal antibody titers were measured by ELISA for avian encephalomyelitis (AEV), avian influenza virus (AIV), chicken anemia virus (CAV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), and reovirus (Reo). Maternal antibody titers for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were measured using a hemagglutination inhibition test. Half-life estimates of maternal antibody titers were 5.3, 4.2, 7, 5.1, 3.9, 3.8, 4.9, 4.1, 6.3, and 4.7 d for AEV, AIV, CAV, IBDV, IBV, ILTV, MG, MS, NDV, and Reo, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences among half-lives of maternal antibody titers against certain pathogens. Furthermore, all maternal antibody titers were depleted by 10 d of age except for IBDV. PMID:23960115

  12. Rabies vaccination for international travelers.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Parola, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Rabies prevention in travelers is a controversial issue. According to experts, the decision to vaccinate results from an individual risk assessment based on the duration of stay, the likelihood of engagement in at-risk activities, the age of the traveler, the rabies endemicity and access to appropriate medical care in the country of destination. However, no detailed information is available regarding the last two determinants in many regions. Twenty-two cases of rabies were reported in tourists, expatriates and migrant travelers over the last decade, including three cases following short-term travel of no more than two weeks. Studies on rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in travelers show that overall, 0.4% (range 0.01-2.3%) of travelers have experienced an at-risk bite per month of stay in a rabies-endemic country, while 31% of expatriates and 12% of tourists were vaccinated against rabies before traveling. The main reason cited by travelers for not being vaccinated is the cost of the vaccine. The majority of patients who sustained a high risk injury was not vaccinated against rabies before traveling and were not properly treated abroad. From available studies, the following risk factors for injuries sustained from potentially rabid animals may be identified: traveling to South-East Asia, India or North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism. The duration of travel does not appear to be a risk factor. It should be noted that "at-risk activities" have not been addressed in these studies. Detailed rabies distribution maps and information on the availability of rabies biologics are urgently needed in order to identify those travelers who need pre-travel vaccination. Meanwhile, cost-minimization of rabies pre-exposure vaccination may be achieved in several ways, notably by using the intra-dermal method of vaccination. PMID:22085557

  13. [Cholesterol content in chicken meat and chicken products].

    PubMed

    Rincón, A M; Carrillo de Padilla, F; Araujo de Vizcarrondo, C; Martín, E

    1997-03-01

    High cholesterol saturated lipids ingestion has been linked to the increment of coronary diseases, particularly atherosclerosis. In this study, samples of viscera and chicken meat, as well as manufactured chicken products are characterized from the point of view of their sterol content, specially cholesterol, with the purpose to determine their nutritional quality and to contribute with the development of Venezuelan food composition tables. Gas-liquid chromatography was the method chosen for the separation and quantification of cholesterol and fitosterols eventually present. The method involves lipids extraction, direct saponification, extraction of the unsaponifiable matter and its injection in the gas chromatograph. The average cholesterol values in mg/100 g. wet sample were: 31.13 (manufactured chicken breast); 57,35 (ham like type of product made with chicken); 69.02 (chicken sausages); 60.46 (chicken "bologna"). PMID:9429649

  14. Colonization factors of Campylobacter jejuni in the chicken gut

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter contaminated broiler chicken meat is an important source of foodborne gastroenteritis and poses a serious health burden in industrialized countries. Broiler chickens are commonly regarded as a natural host for this zoonotic pathogen and infected birds carry a very high C. jejuni load in their gastrointestinal tract, especially the ceca. This eventually results in contaminated carcasses during processing. Current intervention methods fail to reduce the colonization of broiler chicks by C. jejuni due to an incomplete understanding on the interaction between C. jejuni and its avian host. Clearly, C. jejuni developed several survival and colonization mechanisms which are responsible for its highly adapted nature to the chicken host. But how these mechanisms interact with one another, leading to persistent, high-level cecal colonization remains largely obscure. A plethora of mutagenesis studies in the past few years resulted in the identification of several of the genes and proteins of C. jejuni involved in different aspects of the cellular response of this bacterium in the chicken gut. In this review, a thorough, up-to-date overview will be given of the survival mechanisms and colonization factors of C. jejuni identified to date. These factors may contribute to our understanding on how C. jejuni survival and colonization in chicks is mediated, as well as provide potential targets for effective subunit vaccine development. PMID:21714866

  15. Prior infection of chickens with H1N1 avian influenza virus elicits heterologous protection against highly pathogenic H5N2.

    PubMed

    Nfon, Charles; Berhane, Yohannes; Pasick, John; Kobinger, Gary; Kobasa, Darwyn; Babiuk, Shawn

    2012-11-26

    Current vaccines for influenza are primarily killed whole virus vaccines that elicit antibody responses to the homologous virus but lack protection against heterologous viruses. Using chickens as a model we have explored the possibility of using a live low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A/goose/AB/223/2005 H1N1 virus as a vaccine to generate protective immunity against heterologous highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A/chicken/Pensylvania/1370/1983 H5N2 virus challenge. Virus replicated in chickens infected with LPAI H1N1 but did not cause clinical disease. In addition, these chickens developed neutralizing antibodies to LPAI H1N1 virus, but not HPAI H5N2, 21 days post infection (DPI). Furthermore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from H1N1-infected chickens at 20 DPI had antigen specific proliferation and IFN-? secretion following antigen stimulation to H5N2 indicating a heterologous HPAI H5N2 specific cell mediated immunity (CMI) following LPAI H1N1 infection. Following challenge with HPAI H5N2 virus, all control chickens developed clinical disease, while chickens previously infected with H1N1 did not develop clinical disease and shed significantly less virus by oral and cloacal routes. These results indicated that previous infection with LPAI virus can generate heterologous CMI capable of protecting against HPAI H5N2. PMID:23084852

  16. Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Hurwitz, Julia L

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract viral disease in infants and young children. Presently, there are no explicit recommendations for RSV treatment apart from supportive care. The virus is therefore responsible for an estimated 160,000 deaths per year worldwide. Despite half a century of dedicated research, there remains no licensed vaccine product. Herein are described past and current efforts to harness innate and adaptive immune potentials to combat RSV. A plethora of candidate vaccine products and strategies are reviewed. The development of a successful RSV vaccine may ultimately stem from attention to historical lessons, in concert with an integral partnering of immunology and virology research fields. PMID:21988307

  17. A Dual Chicken IgY Against Rotavirus and Norovirus

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Ying-Chun; Zhang, Xu-Fu; Tan, Ming; Huang, Pengwei; Lei, Wen; Fang, Hao; Zhong, Weiming; Jiang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) are the two most important causes of viral gastroenteritis. While vaccine remains an effective prophylactic strategy, development of other approaches, such as passive immunization to control and treat clinical infection and illness of the two pathogens, is necessary. Previously we demonstrated that high titers of NoV-specific IgY were readily developed by immunization of chickens with the NoV P particles. In this study, we developed a dual IgY against both RV and NoV through immunization of chickens with a divalent vaccine comprising neutralizing antigens of both RV and NoV. This divalent vaccine, named P-VP8* particle, is made of the NoV P particle as a carrier with the RV spike protein VP8* as a surface insertion. Approximately 45 mg of IgY were readily obtained from each yolk with high titers of anti-P particle and anti-VP8* antibodies detected by ELISA, Western blot, HBGA blocking (NoV and RV) and neutralization (RV) assays. Reductions of RV replication were observed with viruses treated with the IgY before and after inoculation into cells, suggesting an application of the IgY as both prophylactic and a therapeutic treatment. Collectively, our data suggested that the P-VP8* based IgY could serve as a practical approach against both NoV and RV. PMID:23267830

  18. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Increases High-Risk Sexual Behaviors: A Myth or Valid Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratanasiripong, Nop T.

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the first human pappilomavirus (HPV) vaccine was approved for females aged 9 to 26. However, the national HPV vaccination rate among young women has been low. Public concerns were raised in regard to the fact that HPV vaccination might encourage unsafe sex. This cross-sectional study examined the differences in sexual practices between…

  19. Risk, choice and the ‘girl vaccine’: Unpacking human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amrita Mishra; Janice E. Graham

    2012-01-01

    The marketing of Gardasil® and Cervarix™ vaccines for the prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) targeted pre-sexual girls and cervical cancer, representing young women as practicing ‘decision autonomy’ in acquiring the ‘facts‘ about HPV and cancer. We challenge this overly simple explanatory model of vaccine choice. Through interviews with vaccine scientists and public health nurses in Canada, we illustrate the clinical,

  20. A review of the use of B. melitensis Rev 1 vaccine in adult sheep and goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Blasco

    1997-01-01

    The live Brucella melitensis Rev 1 strain is considered the best vaccine available for the prophylaxis of brucellosis in small ruminants. The classically recommended exclusive vaccination of young replacement animals has failed to control brucellosis in some developed countries and is frequently inapplicable in the developing world. Accordingly, whole-flock vaccination is the only feasible alternative to control B. melitensis infection

  1. Cost-effectiveness of Rotavirus vaccination in Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun-Young Kim; Sue J Goldie; Joshua A Salomon

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea leading to hospitalization or disease-specific death among young children. New rotavirus vaccines have recently been approved. Some previous studies have provided broad qualitative insights into the health and economic consequences of introducing the vaccines into low-income countries, representing several features of rotavirus infection, such as varying degrees of severity and

  2. Depression of vaccinal immunity to Marek's disease by infection with reticuloendotheliosis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Witter, R L; Lee, L F; Bacon, L D; Smith, E J

    1979-01-01

    The effect of infection with low-virulence, tissue culture-propagated strains of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) on protective vaccinal immunity against Marek's disease (MD) lymphomas was investigated. Vaccinated chickens inoculated at hatching with greater than 10(4) focus-forming units of REV and challenged with MD virus were poorly protected against MD lesion development as indicated by protective indices of 53 to 79% for strain CS (P less than 0.05) and 42 to 49% for strain T (P less than 0.01) compared to 78 to 100% for REV-free controls. Furthermore, the response of blood lymphocytes to mitogen stimulation and the antibody response to sheep erythrocytes and Brucella abortus were less in REV-inoculated chickens than in controls. The REV-induced depression of immune responses was more severe in chickens infected with mildly pathogenic strain T than in chickens infected with the apathogenic strain CS and was generally transient with both virus strains. Little or no depression of immune responses was observed in chickens inoculated with less than 10(3) focus-forming units of REV. These studies extend knowledge on the immunodepressive ability of low-virulence REV strains and establish that infection with these viruses depresses certain parameters of MD vaccinal immunity, an important model for cellular immunity against virus-induced neoplasia in the chicken. PMID:227800

  3. Preparation and Efficacy of a Live Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccine Encapsulated in Chitosan Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ting-ting; Li, Wei; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Feng-qiang; Wu, Jin; Cui, Xianlan; Wang, Yun-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Background Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious viral disease of poultry caused by pathogenic strains of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Live NDV vaccines are administered by drinking water, eyedrops or coarse aerosol spray. To further enhance mucosal immune responses, chitosan nanoparticles were developed for the mucosal delivery of a live NDV vaccine. Methodology/Principal Findings A lentogenic live-virus vaccine (strain LaSota) against NDV encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles were developed using an ionic crosslinking method. Chitosan nanoparticles containing the lentogenic live-virus vaccine against NDV (NDV-CS-NPs) were produced with good morphology, high stability, a mean diameter of 371.1 nm, an encapsulation rate of 77% and a zeta potential of +2.84 mV. The Western blotting analysis showed that NDV structural proteins were detected in NDV-CS-NPs. The virus release assay results of NDV-CS-NPs indicated that NDV was released from NDV-CS-NPs. Chickens immunized orally or intranasally with NDV-CS-NPs were fully protected whereas one out of five chickens immunized with the LaSota live NDV vaccine and three out of five chickens immunized with the inactivated NDV vaccine were dead after challenge with the highly virulent NDV strain F48E9. Conclusions/Significance NDV-CS-NPs induced better protection of immunized specific pathogen free chickens compared to the live NDV vaccine strain LaSota and the inactivated NDV vaccine. This study lays a foundation for the further development of mucosal vaccines and drugs encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles. PMID:23285276

  4. Cytomegalovirus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    McVoy, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    An effective cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccine could prevent the majority of birth defects caused by congenital CMV infections. Candidate vaccines in clinical evaluation include live attenuated, protein subunit, DNA, and viral-vectored approaches. Subunit approaches have focused on the CMV proteins pp65 and IE1 as important inducers of cytotoxic T cells and glycoprotein B (gB) as an important inducer of neutralizing antibodies. A vaccine comprised of recombinant gB protein with MF59 adjuvant reduced the incidence of primary infection by 50%. Recent revelations regarding CMV entry pathways into different cell types suggest a possible course for improvement. A 5-subunit pentameric complex is uniquely required for endothelial and epithelial cell entry. Sera from naturally infected subjects contain high-potency neutralizing activities specific for this complex, whereas the gB/MF59 vaccine fails to induce comparable neutralizing activities. A vaccine's ability to induce salivary antibodies that neutralize epithelial cell entry may be especially important for preventing oral transmission as the first cells infected are presumably epithelial cells of the oral mucosa. In addition, recent evidence suggests that antibodies can inhibit postentry CMV spread between endothelial and epithelial cells. Such activities may serve to limit viral replication in tissues or impair dissemination to the placenta and fetus. Thus, inclusion of epitopes derived from the pentameric complex may provide enhanced efficacy by inducing potent neutralizing/spread-inhibiting antibodies that target virus replication in a broad spectrum of cell types. Next-generation vaccine candidates in preclinical development incorporate peptides, subunits, or multisubunit complexes representing parts or all of the pentameric complex. Approaches include peptides, recombinant proteins, DNA, replication-defective viral vectors, genetically disabled CMV, and inactivated CMV virions. The diversity of novel strategies under development engenders optimism that a successful candidate will emerge. PMID:24257427

  5. Histological changes caused by the rc mutation in chickens.

    PubMed

    Cerruti Sola, S; Castagnaro, M; Cheng, K M

    1997-05-01

    The rc gene represents a recessive mutation in chickens, known to cause retinal degeneration and blindness, as well as abnormal sarcolemmal membranes of cardiac myocytes associated with reduced choline transport. In this study, the visceral organs from "old" (aged 12 months) and "young" (aged 5 months) homozygous blind (rc/rc), heterozygous (Rc+/rc) and normal (Rc+/Rc+) chickens were examined histologically to investigate whether the primary effect of the mutation was on cellular structure. Homozygous birds showed enlarged thyroids with acidophilic colloids in enlarged and often ruptured follicles, macrovesicular lipid accumulation in the liver, increased numbers of nuclei in the myocardial fibres, hypertrophy of the lobular structure of the medullary portion of the thymus, cloudy swelling of the tubular epithelium of the kidney and slow maturation (in young birds) and degeneration (in old birds) of the gonads. All lesions, except for those of the thymus, were more severe in old than in young birds. Some heterozygous chickens were mildly affected and none of the normal (Rc+/Rc+) birds exhibited these abnormalities. PMID:9179746

  6. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2013-01-01

    Oncolytic vaccinia virus vaccine: Promising in liver cancer patients FDA panel endorses quadrivalent influenza vaccines Approval for the first meningitis B vaccine Stallergenes seeks FDA approval for sublingual grass-pollen allergy tablet Live-attenuated dengue vaccine promising in Phase 1 GAVI funds HPV vaccines for girls in developing countries First human trials for new superantigen bioterrorism vaccine Hexyon hexavalent pediatric vaccine recommended for approval

  7. A comparative evaluation of the protective efficacy of rMd5-delta-Meq and CV1988/Rispens against a vv+ strain of Marek's disease virus infection in a series of recombinant congenic strains of white leghorn chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly infectious, oncogenic alpha-herpesvirus known as Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MD is presently controlled by vaccination. Current MD vaccines include attenuated serotype 1 strains (e.g. CVI988/Rispens), avir...

  8. Detection of lymphoid leukosis tumors in white leghorn chickens of line ALV6 that is resistant to subgroups A and E avian leukosis virus and maintained under specific pathogen-free conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickens from Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) line alv6 that is known to be resistant to infection with subgroups A and E avian leukosis virus (ALV) were vaccinated at hatch with a Marek’s disease (MD) vaccine containing serotypes 1, 2 and 3 MD viruses, and were maintained under specifi...

  9. Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines: characteristics, development, and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-12-01

    The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

  10. Pneumococcal vaccine and opsonic pneumococcal antibody.

    PubMed

    Song, Joon Young; Moseley, M Allen; Burton, Robert L; Nahm, Moon H

    2013-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen responsible for the majority of bacterial pneumonia cases as well as invasive pneumococcal diseases with high mortality and morbidity. Use of conjugate vaccines targeting the pneumococcal capsule has dramatically reduced the incidence of invasive diseases, and there are active efforts to further improve the conjugate vaccines. However, in children new pneumococcal vaccines can no longer be tested with placebo-based clinical trials because effective vaccines are currently available. Thus, vaccine studies must depend on surrogate markers of vaccine efficacy. Although traditional antibody levels (e.g., ELISA) are useful as a surrogate marker of protection, they have limitations, and a bioassay measuring the capacity of antibodies to opsonize pneumococci has been developed. This opsonophagocytosis assay (OPA) replicates the in vivo mechanism of antibody protection and should therefore better reflect protection by vaccine-induced antibodies. Technical improvements of OPA have made this bioassay rapid, multiplexed, and practical for analyzing small samples including those from children. Strong correlations between ELISA and OPA have been observed in many studies of young children. However, poor correlations have been found in some important clinical situations (such as determination of protection by cross-reactive antibodies) and populations (such as elderly adults and immunodeficient patients). In these settings, OPA has become a useful supplementary measure of pneumococcal vaccine immunogenicity. Current efforts to standardize OPA will further expand its uses. PMID:23657429

  11. Replicating vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early work on fish immunology and disease resistance demonstrated fish (like animals and humans) that survived infection were typically resistant to re-infection with the same pathogen. The concepts of resistance upon reinfection lead to the research and development of replicating (live) vaccines in...

  12. Valuing vaccination.

    PubMed

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T; O'Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-08-26

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  13. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  14. Vexing Vaccines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…

  15. DNA vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey B Ulmer; Jerald C Sadoff; Margaret A Liu

    1996-01-01

    Preclinical DNA vaccine development has continued apace during the past year, with the investigation of several new infectious and non-infectious disease targets as well as advances in our understanding of some of the basic immunologic mechanisms, such as effector cells, responsible for conferring protection. The coming year promises to be at least as exciting, as initial human clinical studies have

  16. Nanotoxoid Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hu, Che-Ming J; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-08-01

    To improve innate defense against diseases, vaccine formulations are routinely administered to mount immune responses against disease-causing organisms or their associated toxins. These formulations are typically prepared with weakened forms of microbes, their surface proteins, or their virulence factors, which can train the immune system to recognize and neutralize similar infectious threats in later exposures. Owing to many unique properties of nanoparticles in enhancing vaccine potency, nanoscale carriers are drawing increasing interest as a platform for developing safer and more effective vaccine formulations. Notably, a nanoparticle-based strategy was recently demonstrated to safely deliver intact, non-denatured protein toxins to mount a potent anti-toxin immune response. A biomimetic nanoparticle cloaked in biological membranes was used to sequester membrane-active toxins. Upon interaction with the nanoparticles, the toxins become retrained and lose their toxicity as they are precluded from interacting with cellular targets. The resulting particle/toxin complex adopts a nanoparticulate morphology that facilitates the toxins' intracellular delivery. This sequestration approach has immense immunological implications owing to its ability in enabling structurally preserved toxins for immune processing. This technique offers opportunities in novel toxoid vaccine designs that promise more effective anti-toxin immune responses and contrasts the existing paradigm in toxoid preparation, in which toxins are antigenically altered to ensure virulence removal. The potent nanotoxoid formulations provide a viable anti-virulence measure in combating microbial infections that involve membrane-damaging toxins, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Group A streptococcal infections. PMID:25285152

  17. Immunity to viruses: learning from successful human vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Pulendran, Bali; Oh, Jason Z.; Nakaya, Helder; Ravindran, Rajesh; Kazmin, Dmitri A.

    2013-01-01

    For more than a century immunologists and vaccinologists have existed in parallel universes. Immunologists have for long reveled in using “model antigens,” such as chicken egg ovalbumin or nitrophenyl haptens to study immune responses in model organisms such as mice. Such studies have yielded many seminal insights about the mechanisms of immune regulation, but their relevance to humans has been questioned. In another universe, vaccinologists have relied on human clinical trials to assess vaccine efficacy, but have done little to take advantage of such trials for studying the nature of immune responses to vaccination. The human model provides a nexus between these two universes, and recent studies have begun to use this model to study the molecular profile of innate and adaptive responses to vaccination. Such “systems vaccinology” studies are beginning to provide mechanistic insights about innate and adaptive immunity in humans. Here we present an overview of such studies, with particular examples from studies with the yellow fever and the seasonal influenza vaccines. Vaccination with the yellow fever vaccine causes a systemic acute viral infection and thus provides an attractive model to study innate and adaptive responses to a primary viral challenge. Vaccination with the live attenuated influenza vaccine causes a localized acute viral infection in mucosal tissues, and induces a recall response since most vaccinees have had prior exposure to influenza, and thus provides a unique opportunity to study innate and antigen-specific memory responses in mucosal tissues and in the blood. Vaccination with the inactivated influenza vaccine offers a model to study immune responses to an inactivated immunogen. Studies with these and other vaccines are beginning to reunite the estranged fields of immunology and vaccinology, and yielding unexpected insights about mechanisms of viral immunity. Therefore, vaccines that have been proven to be of immense benefit in saving lives offer us a new fringe benefit: lessons in viral immunology. PMID:23947360

  18. Asian Chicken & Orange Packets Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    broccoli 1 onion 2 carrots 2 cups instant brown rice 1/2 teaspoon black pepper 1/4 cup low sodium teriyaki/6 of sliced chicken on rice. Season with pepper. Evenly share vegetables on top of chicken among packets. 7

  19. Market trials of irradiated chicken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, John A.; Olson, Dennis G.

    1998-06-01

    The potential market for irradiated chicken breasts was investigated using a mail survey and a retail trial. Results from the mail survey suggested a significantly higher level of acceptability of irradiated chicken than did the retail trial. A subsequent market experiment involving actual purchases showed levels of acceptability similar to that of the mail survey when similar information about food irradiation was provided.

  20. Chicken Skeleton - Gliding Joint (Skull)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-28

    The chicken uses its beak to pick up small pieces of food from the ground. The gliding joint at the base of the skull allows the chicken to move its head in different directions. It can also defend itself by pecking.

  1. Chicken leptin: properties and actions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Taouis; S Dridi; S Cassy; Y Benomar; N Raver; N Rideau; M Picard; J Williams; A Gertler

    2001-01-01

    Chicken leptin cDNA shows a high homology to mammalian homologous, with an expression localized in the liver and adipose tissue. It is noteworthy, that the hepatic expression is most likely associated with the primary role that this organ plays in lipogenic activity in avian species. As in mammals, chicken leptin expression is regulated by hormonal and nutritional status. This regulation

  2. Determination of efficacious vaccine seed strains for use against Egyptian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses through antigenic cartography and in vivo challenge studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2006, there have been reported outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in vaccinated chickens in Africa and Asia. This study provides experimental data for selection of efficacious H5N1 vaccine seed strains against recently circulating strains of H5N1 HPAI viruses in Egypt....

  3. Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect hemagglutination test for quantitating antibody responses in chickens against Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Solano, W; Giambrone, J J; Panangala, V S

    1983-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure humoral antibody responses of chickens against Pasteurella multocida. A standard indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test was used to compare serologic results with those of ELISA. The ELISA was also used following challenge with P. multocida to compare the efficacy of three commercial fowl cholera vaccination regimens. Although antibody titers measured by ELISA and IHA were highly correlated, ELISA was at least twice as sensitive as IHA. Antibody measured by ELISA and IHA also correlated significantly with protection against P. multocida challenge. No mortality occurred in any of the three vaccinated challenged groups. However, control unvaccinated chickens experimentally infected with P. multocida developed signs of acute pasteurellosis and died by the 10th day post-challenge. Impression smears made of hepatic tissue from all chickens were stained (Wright's stain), and typical bipolar rods characteristic of Pasteurella were identified in smears from unvaccinated challenged controls only. PMID:6651697

  4. Investigations towards an efficacious and safe strangles vaccine: submucosal vaccination with a live attenuated Streptococcus equi.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, A A; Goovaerts, D; Nuijten, P J; Theelen, R P; Hartford, O M; Foster, T J

    2000-11-11

    As part of a search for a safe and efficacious strangles vaccine, several different vaccines and different vaccination routes were tested in foals. The degree of protection was evaluated after an intranasal challenge with virulent Streptococcus equi by clinical, postmortem and bacteriological examinations. Inactivated vaccines containing either native purified M-protein (500 microg per dose) or whole S equi cells (10(10) cells per dose) administered at least twice intramuscularly at intervals of four weeks, did not protect against challenge. Different live attenuated S equi mutants administered at least twice at intervals of four weeks by the intranasal route were either safe but not protective or caused strangles. In contrast, a live attenuated deletion mutant administered intramuscularly, induced complete protection but also induced unacceptable local reactions at the site of vaccination. Submucosal vaccination in the inner side of the upper lip with the live attenuated mutant at > or =10(8) colony-forming units per dose, appeared to be safe and efficacious in foals as young as four months of age. The submucosal vaccinations caused small transient swellings that resolved completely within two weeks, and postmortem no vaccine remnants or other abnormalities were found at the site of vaccination. PMID:11104039

  5. Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Effectiveness: A Swedish National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Incidence of condyloma, or genital warts (GW), is the earliest possible disease outcome to measure when assessing the effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination strategies. Efficacy trials that follow prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria may not be fully generalizable to real-life HPV vaccination programs, which target a broader segment of the population. We assessed GW incidence after on-demand vaccination with quadrivalent HPV vaccine using individual-level data from the entire Swedish population. Methods An open cohort of girls and women aged 10 to 44 years living in Sweden between 2006 and 2010 (N > 2.2 million) was linked to multiple population registers to identify incident GW in relation to HPV vaccination. For vaccine effectiveness, incidence rate ratios of GW were estimated using time-to-event analyses with adjustment for attained age and parental education level, stratifying on age at first vaccination. Results A total of 124 000 girls and women were vaccinated between 2006 and 2010. Girls and women with at least one university-educated parent were 15 times more likely to be vaccinated before age 20 years than girls and women whose parents did not complete high school (relative risk ratio = 15.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.65 to 16.30). Among those aged older than 20 years, GW rates declined among the unvaccinated, suggesting that HPV vaccines were preferentially used by women at high risk of GW. Vaccination effectiveness was 76% (95% CI = 73% to 79%) among those who received three doses of the vaccine with their first dose before age 20 years. Vaccine effectiveness was highest in girls vaccinated before age 14 years (effectiveness = 93%, 95% CI = 73% to 98%). Conclusions Young age at first vaccination is imperative for maximizing quadrivalent HPV vaccine effectiveness. PMID:23486550

  6. Development and evaluation of an avian influenza, neuraminidase subtype 1, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for poultry using the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals control strategy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Mundt, E; Mundt, A; Sylte, M; Suarez, D L; Swayne, D E; García, M

    2010-03-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using baculovirus, purified, recombinant N1 protein from A/chicken/Indonesia/PA7/2003 (H5N1) virus. The N1-ELISA showed high selectivity for detection of N1 antibodies, with no cross-reactivity with other neuraminidase subtypes, and broad reactivity with sera to N1 subtype isolates from North American and Eurasian lineages. Sensitivity of the N1-ELISA to detect N1 antibodies in turkey sera, collected 3 wk after H1N1 vaccination, was comparable to detection of avian influenza antibodies by the commercial, indirect ELISAs ProFLOK AIV Plus ELISA Kit (Synbiotics, Kansas City, MO) and Avian Influenza Virus Antibody Test Kit (IDEXX, Westbrook, ME). However, 6 wk after vaccination, the Synbiotics ELISA kit performed better than the N1-ELISA and the IDEXX ELISA kit. An evaluation was made of the ability of the N1-ELISA to discriminate vaccinated chickens from subsequently challenged chickens. Two experiments were conducted, chickens were vaccinated with inactivated H5N2 and H5N9 viruses and challenged with highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, and chickens were vaccinated with recombinant poxvirus vaccine encoding H7 and challenged with highly pathogenic H7N1 virus. Serum samples were collected at 14 days postchallenge and tested by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), quantitative neuraminidase inhibition (NI), and N1-ELISA. At 2 days postchallenge, oropharyngeal swabs were collected for virus isolation (VI) to confirm infection. The N1-ELISA was in fair agreement with VI and HI results. Although the N1-ELISA showed a lower sensitivity than the NI assay, it was demonstrated that detection of N1 antibodies by ELISA was an effective and rapid assay to identify exposure to the challenge virus in vaccinated chickens. Therefore, N1-ELISA can facilitate a vaccination strategy with differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals using a neuraminidase heterologous approach. PMID:20521703

  7. The Moral Justification for a Compulsory Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Program

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Compulsory human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young girls has been proposed as a public health intervention to reduce the threat of the disease. Such a program would entail a symbiotic relationship between scientific interests in reducing mortality and morbidity and philosophical interests in promoting morality. This proposal raises the issue of whether government should use its police powers to restrict liberty and parental autonomy for the purpose of preventing harm to young people. I reviewed the scientific literature that questions the value of a HPV vaccination. Applying a principle-based approach to moral reasoning, I concluded that compulsory HPV vaccinations can be justified on moral, scientific, and public health grounds. PMID:19197085

  8. Development and strategies of cell-culture technology for influenza vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shao-Zhen Feng; Pei-Rong Jiao; Wen-Bao Qi; Hui-Ying Fan; Ming Liao

    2011-01-01

    Influenza is a pandemic contagious disease and causes human deaths and huge economic destruction of poultry in the world.\\u000a In order to control and prevent influenza, mainly type A, influenza vaccine for human and poultry were available since the\\u000a 1940s and 1920s, respectively. In the development of vaccine production, influenza viruses were cultured originally from chicken\\u000a embryos to anchorage-dependent cell

  9. Chicken Embryonic Heart Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Jacqueline S McLaughlin (Berks-Lehigh Valley College Biology)

    2006-01-09

    Both in vivo and in vitro techniques are used to investigate the development of the vertebrate heart using the chicken embryo as a model system. Simultaneously, the students are exposed to the physiology of embryonic blood flow, the electrical circuitry of the developing heart, and the effects of reproductive toxins on heart rate. Classical embryological microtechniques, explantation of the embryo, surgical removal of the beating heart, and isolation of the heart chambers, are conducted. Student teams devise a hypothesis concerning the effects of caffeine or alcohol on the in vivo or in vitro heart rate.

  10. Broiler Chicken Deboning.

    E-print Network

    Denton, J.H.; Mellor, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    ). The wishbone piece can then be rotated gently until it is dislocated from this joint. Poultry Nutrition Tip Boneless chicken meat contains 21.4 percent protein. To remove the shoulder blade (above the ribs), place the thumb against the collar bone near... in publications L-1798 and L-1799, available from your county Extension office. The family style cut yields 13 pieces which are usually smaller than the commercial style and are considered ideal for frying because all pieces are of similar size. The commercial...

  11. Growth and Replication of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in the DF-1 Cell Line and Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Sivasubramanian, Chandran; Chung, Ill-Min; Thiruvengadam, Muthu

    2014-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes a highly contagious disease in young chicks and leads to significant economic losses in the poultry industry. To determine a suitable cell line for IBDV infection, replication, and growth kinetics of the virus, DF-1 cells and chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) were used. The population doubling per day (Pd/D) was found to be higher in DF-1 as compared to CEF cells. A suitable time of infection (TOI) was established for increased production of virus and greater infectivity titers. The DF-1 and CEF cells were found to be susceptible to infection by producing marked cytopathic effects (CPEs), and the growth curves of IBDV in DF-1 and CEF cells were evaluated by infectivity assay using tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50). The cytopathic effects of the virus in DF-1 and CEF cells were found to be similar, but higher viral titers were detected in the DF-1 cells as compared to CEF. Thus the DF-1 cell line had a higher growth potential and infectivity, which will be of advantage in vaccine production. PMID:24949455

  12. Comparison of the replication and transmissibility of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine delivered via eye-drop or drinking-water.

    PubMed

    Coppo, Mauricio J C; Devlin, Joanne M; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2012-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccines have been extensively used to control infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT). Most vaccines are registered/recommended for use via eye-drop although vaccination via drinking-water is commonly used in the field. Drinking-water vaccination has been associated with non-uniform protection. Bird-to-bird passage of chick-embryo-origin (CEO) ILT vaccines has been shown to result in reversion to virulence. The purpose of the present study was to examine the replication and transmission of a commercial CEO infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccine strain following drinking-water or eye-drop inoculation. Two groups of 10 specific-pathogen-free chickens were each vaccinated with Serva ILTV vaccine strain either via eye-drop or drinking-water. Groups of four or five unvaccinated birds were placed in contact with vaccinated birds at regular intervals. Tracheal swabs were collected every 4 days from vaccinated and in-contact birds to assess viral replication and transmission using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Compared with eye-drop-vaccinated birds, drinking-water-vaccinated birds showed delayed viral replication but had detectable viral DNA for a longer period of time. Transmission to chickens exposed by contact on day 0 of the experiments was similar in both groups. Birds exposed to ILTV by contact with eye-drop vaccinated birds on days 4, 8, 12 and 16 of the experiment had detectable ILTV for up to 8 days post exposure. ILTV was not detected in chickens that were exposed by contact with drinking-water vaccinated birds on day 12 of the experiment or later. Results from this study provide valuable practical information for the use of ILT vaccine. PMID:22845327

  13. Assessing mandatory HPV vaccination: who should call the shots?

    PubMed

    Javitt, Gail; Berkowitz, Deena; Gostin, Lawrence O

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, many legislatures considered, and two enacted, bills mandating HPV vaccination for young girls as a condition of school attendance. Such mandates raise significant legal, ethical, and social concerns. This paper argues that mandating HPV vaccination for minor females is premature since long-term safety and effectiveness of the vaccine has not been established, HPV does not pose imminent and significant risk of harm to others, a sex specific mandate raises constitutional concerns, and a mandate will burden financially existing government health programs and private physicians. Absent careful consideration and public conversation, HPV mandates may undermine coverage rates for other vaccines. PMID:18547207

  14. Preteen and Teen Vaccines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or Teen Vaccinated? Which Vaccines Do Preteens and Teens Need, and When? All preteens (age 11 or ... Quiz . How Can I Get My Preteen or Teen Vaccinated? Preteens and teens typically see their doctors ...

  15. Vaccine Policy in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yennapu Madhavi

    2005-01-01

    India enjoyed early initial successes in vaccine development and indigenous production of vaccines in the public sector. But the country now faces a growing gap between the demand for and supply of essential vaccines.

  16. Vaccinations and HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Do not measure your viral load within 4 weeks of any vaccination. Flu shots have been studied ... live” vaccination in the past 2 or 3 weeks. Still, the “MMR” vaccine against measles, mumps and ...

  17. Vaccination Records for Kids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccines Home For Parents: Vaccines for Your Children Vaccination Records for Kids On this Page Recording Immunizations ... teams, and summer camps or to travel. Recording Immunizations Good record- keeping begins with good record- taking. ...

  18. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... least some protection from the vaccine. Q: Should boys get HPV vaccine too? A: One HPV vaccine—the quadrivalent vaccine called Gardasil—is also for boys. This vaccine helps prevent boys from getting infected ...

  19. Characterization of reticuloendotheliosis virus isolates obtained from chickens, turkeys and prairie chickens in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) isolates obtained from chickens, turkeys and prairie chickens in the United States were characterized using ploymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect immunofluoresence (IFA) assays. This study included five REV isolates from Prairie chickens in Texas, two ...

  20. Husbandry and trade of indigenous chickens in Myanmar--results of a participatory rural appraisal in the Yangon and the Mandalay divisions.

    PubMed

    Henning, J; Khin, A; Hla, T; Meers, J

    2006-01-01

    There is a variety of professions working with village chickens in developing countries, including farmers, veterinarians and chicken traders. People from all these occupations were involved in a participatory rural appraisal to investigate husbandry practices and trade of village chickens in Myanmar. Data were collected in two climatically different regions of the country, in the Yangon and in the Mandalay divisions. The breeding and training of fighting cocks was practised only in the Mandalay division, with well-trained birds sold for very high prices. Apart from this, chickens were raised in both regions mainly for small disposable income and were generally sold when money was needed, in particular during religious festivals. Chicken traders on bicycles, often called 'middle men', usually purchase birds from farmers in about 10 villages per day. Several 'middle men' supply birds to wealthier chicken merchants, who sell these birds at larger chicken markets. There is in general limited knowledge among farmers about the prevention of Newcastle disease via vaccination. Commercial indigenous chicken production is practised in Myanmar, but family poultry farming dominates indigenous chicken production in the country. PMID:17265778

  1. A Novel Vaccine Using Nanoparticle Platform to Present Immunogenic M2e against Avian Influenza Infection

    PubMed Central

    Babapoor, Sankhiros; Neef, Tobias; Mittelholzer, Christian; Girshick, Theodore; Garmendia, Antonio; Shang, Hongwei; Khan, Mazhar I.; Burkhard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Using peptide nanoparticle technology, we have designed two novel vaccine constructs representing M2e in monomeric (Mono-M2e) and tetrameric (Tetra-M2e) forms. Groups of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were immunized intramuscularly with Mono-M2e or Tetra-M2e with and without an adjuvant. Two weeks after the second boost, chickens were challenged with 107.2 EID50 of H5N2 low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus. M2e-specific antibody responses to each of the vaccine constructs were tested by ELISA. Vaccinated chickens exhibited increased M2e-specific IgG responses for each of the constructs as compared to a non-vaccinated group. However, the vaccine construct Tetra-M2e elicited a significantly higher antibody response when it was used with an adjuvant. On the other hand, virus neutralization assays indicated that immune protection is not by way of neutralizing antibodies. The level of protection was evaluated using quantitative real time PCR at 4, 6, and 8 days post-challenge with H5N2 LPAI by measuring virus shedding from trachea and cloaca. The Tetra-M2e with adjuvant offered statistically significant (P < 0.05) protection against subtype H5N2 LPAI by reduction of the AI virus shedding. The results suggest that the self-assembling polypeptide nanoparticle shows promise as a potential platform for a development of a vaccine against AI. PMID:23074652

  2. Engineered human vaccines

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, J.S. (Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Div. of Immunology and Neurobiology)

    1994-01-01

    The limitations of human vaccines in use at present and the design requirements for a new generation of human vaccines are discussed. The progress in engineering of human vaccines for bacteria, viruses, parasites, and cancer is reviewed, and the data from human studies with the engineered vaccines are discussed, especially for cancer and AIDS vaccines. The final section of the review deals with the possible future developments in the field of engineered human vaccines and the requirement for effective new human adjuvants.

  3. Differential diagnosis of fowlpox and infectious laryngotracheitis viruses in chicken diphtheritic manifestations by mono and duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Irit; Raibstein, Israel; Altory, Amira

    2015-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) and fowlpox virus (FPV) cause diphtheritic lesions in chicken tracheas and can simultaneously infect the same bird. A differential molecular diagnostic test, the duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction, is now reported using ILTV and FPV vaccine viruses and clinical samples from chickens, either uninfected or naturally infected with ILTV or FPV, or with both viruses. The dual virus amplification by real-time polymerase chain reaction was demonstrated to behave similarly to monoplex amplification, in spite of the fact that the real-time exponential amplification plots of the vaccine viruses were more illustrative than those of the clinical samples. PMID:25317604

  4. Progress and hurdles in the development of influenza virus-like particle vaccines for veterinary use

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs), which resemble infectious virus particles in structure and morphology, have been proposed to provide a new generation of vaccine candidates against various viral infections. As effective immunogens, characterized by high immunogenicity and safety, VLPs have been employed in the development of human influenza vaccines. Recently, several influenza VLP vaccines have been developed for veterinary use and successfully evaluated in swine, canine, duck, and chicken models. These VLP vaccine candidates induced protective immune responses and enabled serological differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals in conjunction with a diagnostic test. Here, we review the current progress of influenza VLP development as a next-generation vaccine technology in the veterinary field and discuss the challenges and future direction of this technology. PMID:25003086

  5. Oral and parenteral immunization of chickens (Gallus gallus) against West Nile virus with recombinant envelope protein

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fassbinder-Orth, C. A.; Hofmeister, E.K.; Weeks-Levy, C.; Karasov, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes morbidity and mortality in humans, horses, and in more than 315 bird species in North America. Currently approved WNV vaccines are designed for parenteral administration and, as yet, no effective oral WNV vaccines have been developed. WNV envelope (E) protein is a highly antigenic protein that elicits the majority of virus-neutralizing antibodies during a WNV immune response. Leghorn chickens were given three vaccinations (each 2 wk apart) of E protein orally (20 ??g or 100 ??g/dose), of E protein intramuscularly (IM, 20 ??g/dose), or of adjuvant only (control group) followed by a WNV challenge. Viremias were measured post-WNV infection, and three new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were developed for quantifying IgM, IgY, and IgA-mediated immune response of birds following WNV infection. WNV viremia levels were significantly lower in the IM group than in both oral groups and the control group. Total WNV E protein-specific IgY production was significantly greater, and WNV nonstructural 1-specific IgY was significantly less, in the IM group compared to all other treatment groups. The results of this study indicate that IM vaccination of chickens with E protein is protective against WNV infection and results in a significantly different antibody production profile as compared to both orally vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds. ?? 2009 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

  6. DNA Methylation Fluctuation Induced by Virus Infection Differs between MD-resistant and -susceptible Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Juan; Yu, Ying; Chang, Shuang; Tian, Fei; Zhang, Huanmin; Song, Jiuzhou

    2012-01-01

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease induced by Marek’s disease virus (MDV) infection. To augment vaccination measures in MD control, host genetic resistant to MD becomes obviously more and more important. To elucidate the mechanism of MD-resistance, most of researches were focused on the genetic differences between resistant and susceptible chickens. However, epigenetic features between MD resistant and susceptible chickens are poorly characterized. Using bisulfite pyrosequencing method, we found some candidate genes have higher promoter methylation in the MD-susceptible (L72) chickens than in the MD-resistant (L63) chickens. The hypermethylated genes, involved in cellular component organization, responding to stimulus, cell adhesion, and immune system process, may play important role in susceptibility to disease by deregulation of these genes. MDV infection induced the expression changes of all three methyltransferases genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b) in both lines of chickens. The DNMT1 was up-regulated in L72, whereas the DNMT3b was down-regulated in L63 at 21?dpi. Interestingly, a dynamic change of promoter methylation was observed during MDV life cycle. Some genes, including HDAC9, GH, STAT1, CIITA, FABP3, LATS2, and H2Ac, showed differential methylation behaviors between the two lines of chickens. In summary, the findings from this study suggested that DNA methylation heterogeneity and MDV infection induced methylation alterations differences existed between the two lines of chickens. Therefore, it is suggested that epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in modulating the resistance and/or susceptibility to MD in chickens. PMID:22363343

  7. Genome-wide association study of antibody response to Newcastle disease virus in chicken

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the first outbreak in Indonesia in 1926, Newcastle disease has become one of the most common and contagious bird diseases throughout the world. To date, enhancing host antibody response by vaccination remains the most efficient strategy to control outbreaks of Newcastle disease. Antibody response plays an important role in host resistance to Newcastle disease, and selection for antibody response can effectively improve disease resistance in chickens. However, the molecular basis of the variation in antibody response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is not clear. The aim of this study was to detect genes modulating antibody response to NDV by a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in chickens. Results To identify genes or chromosomal regions associated with antibody response to NDV after immunization, a GWAS was performed using 39,833 SNP markers in a chicken F2 resource population derived from a cross between two broiler lines that differed in their resistance. Two SNP effects reached 5% Bonferroni genome-wide significance (P<1.26×10-6). These two SNPs, rs15354805 and rs15355555, were both on chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome 1 and spanned approximately 600 Kb, from 100.4 Mb to 101.0 Mb. Rs15354805 is in intron 7 of the chicken Roundabout, axon guidance receptor, homolog 2 (ROBO2) gene, and rs15355555 is located about 243 Kb upstream of ROBO2. Rs15354805 explained 5% of the phenotypic variation in antibody response to NDV, post immunization, in chickens. Rs15355555 had a similar effect as rs15354805 because of its linkage disequilibrium with rs15354805 (r2=0.98). Conclusion The region at about 100 Mb from the proximal end of chicken chromosome 1, including the ROBO1 and ROBO2 genes, has a strong effect on the antibody response to the NDV in chickens. This study paves the way for further research on the host immune response to NDV. PMID:23663563

  8. [Preventing papillomavirus infectious and herpes zoster: new vaccines].

    PubMed

    Silbermann, Benjamin; Launay, Odile

    2007-04-01

    Two new vaccines have been recently licensed : a quadrivalent vaccine against Human papillomavirus infections (HPV) 6, 11, 16 and 18, recommended to children from 9 years old and to young adults under the age of 26 years, and a vaccine against herpes zoster for adults from 60 years old onwards. A bivalent vaccine against HPV 16 and 18 will be shortly available. HPV vaccines are composed of the L1 structural proteins of 2 or 4 HPV genotypes, produced by genetic engineering and self-assembled. These inert vaccines are devoid of genetic materials and mimic the viral particle (virus-like particle, VLP). They allow, as suggested by the 4.5 to 5 years follow-up, to prevent HPV infections and the onset of pre-cancerous lesions associated with genotypes contained within the vaccine. They represent a major overhang in the vaccinology field, and, as anti-hepatitis B vaccine, will probably be effective in cancer prevention. Their use must be associated with the continued detection of cervix cancer by smears and also with the prevention of other sexually transmitted diseases. The herpes zoster vaccine is a living attenuated vaccine produced from the OKA/Merck strain already used in the vaccine against varicella. Its safety is good among persons 50 years old and over and its efficiency on lowering herpes zoster incidence, on the burden of illness and on post-herpetic neuralgia has been demonstrated in persons over 60 years old. PMID:17433234

  9. The response of broiler breeder chickens to parenteral administration of avirulent Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Derieux, W T; Dick, J W

    1980-01-01

    Broiler breeder chickens were exposed to avirulent Pasteurella multocida at 14, 22, and 34 weeks of age either by stick wing 1 to 3 times or subcutaneously 3 times. Fowl pox vaccine was mixed with the first P. multocida exposure in some groups. Exposure did not impair egg production or hatch of fertile eggs. Challenge with pathogenic P. multocida serotype 1 at 68 weeks indicated that exposure to avirulent P. multocida 2 or 3 times provided better protection than 1 exposure. Mixing fowl pox vaccine with the avirulent P. multocida did not reduce immunity to fowl cholera or fowl pox. PMID:6255928

  10. A review of clinical trials of human papillomavirus prophylactic vaccines.

    PubMed

    Schiller, John T; Castellsagué, Xavier; Garland, Suzanne M

    2012-11-20

    End of study analyses of the phase III trials of prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines in young women are now largely completed. Two distinct vaccines were evaluated, Gardasil(®) (Merck & Co., Whitehouse Station, NJ USA) a quadrivalent vaccine containing VLPs of types 6, 11, 16 and 18 and Cervarix(®) (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium), a bivalent vaccine containing VLPs of types 16 and 18. Both vaccines exhibited excellent safety and immunogenicity profiles. The vaccines also demonstrated remarkably high and similar efficacy against the vaccine-targeted types for a range of cervical endpoints from persistent infection to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) in women naïve to the corresponding type at the time of vaccination. However, protection from incident infection or disease from non-vaccine types was restricted, and the vaccines had no effect on prevalent infection or disease. Gardasil(®) also demonstrated strong protection against genital warts and vulvar/vaginal neoplasia associated with the vaccine types. In other trials, Gardasil(®) protected mid-adult women from incident infection and CIN caused by the vaccine types and protected men for incident infection, genital warts and anal intraepithelial neoplasia by the vaccine types. Cervarix(®) protected against vaccine-targeted anal infections in women in an end of study evaluation. For practical reasons, efficacy studies have not been conducted in the primary target populations of current vaccination programs, adolescent girls and boys. However, immunogenicity bridging studies demonstrating excellent safety and strong immune responses in adolescence, coupled with the documentation of durable antibody responses and protection in young adults, leads to an optimistic projection of the effectiveness of the vaccines in adolescent vaccination programs. Taken together, the excellent clinical trial results strongly support the potential of the vaccines as high value public health interventions and justify their widespread implementation to prevent anogenital HPV infections and their associated neoplasia. This article forms part of a special supplement entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:23199956

  11. The chicken gastrointestinal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Brian B; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Kogut, Michael H; Kim, Woo K; Maurer, John J; Pedroso, Adriana; Lee, Margie D; Collett, Stephen R; Johnson, Timothy J; Cox, Nelson A

    2014-11-01

    The domestic chicken is a common model organism for human biological research and of course also forms the basis of a global protein industry. Recent methodological advances have spurred the recognition of microbiomes as complex communities with important influences on the health and disease status of the host. In this minireview, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome focusing on spatial and temporal variability, the presence and importance of human pathogens, the influence of the microbiota on the immune system, and the importance of the microbiome for poultry nutrition. Review and meta-analysis of public data showed cecal communities dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroides at the phylum level, while at finer levels of taxonomic resolution, a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of microorganisms appears to have similar metabolic functions that provide important benefits to the host as inferred from metagenomic data. This observation of functional redundancy may have important implications for management of the microbiome. We foresee advances in strategies to improve gut health in commercial operations through management of the intestinal microbiota as an alternative to in-feed subtherapeutic antibiotics, improvements in pre- and probiotics, improved management of polymicrobial poultry diseases, and better control of human pathogens via colonization reduction or competitive exclusion strategies. PMID:25263745

  12. Vaccines for Farrowing Operations

    E-print Network

    Lawhorn, D. Bruce

    1999-02-15

    Routine vaccination is necessary to control economically important swine diseases such as erysipelas, leptospirosis, parvovirus and colibacillosis. The symptoms and specific vaccines for these diseases are discussed....

  13. [Mumps epidemic in vaccinated children in West Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Ströhle, A; Eggenberger, K; Steiner, C A; Matter, L; Germann, D

    1997-06-28

    Since 1991, 6 years after the recommendation of universal childhood vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR triple vaccine), Switzerland is confronted with a large number of mumps cases affecting both vaccinated and unvaccinated children. Up to 80% of the children suffering from mumps between 1991 and 1995 had previously been vaccinated, the majority with the Rubini vaccine strain. On the basis of a case-control study including 102 patients and 92 controls from the same pediatric population, a study of the humoral immune-response following vaccination with the Rubini vaccine in 6 young adult volunteers, and two different genetic studies, we investigated the complex problem of large scale vaccine failure in Switzerland. We conclude that the recently reported large number of Swiss mumps cases was caused by at least four interacting factors: 1. A vaccine coverage of 90-95% at the age of 2 years is necessary to interrupt mumps wild virus circulation. The nationwide vaccine coverage in Switzerland of some 80% in 27-36 month-old children is too low. 2. Primary vaccine failures (absence of seroconversion or unprotective low levels of neutralizing antibodies), as well as secondary vaccine failures due to the rapid decline of antibodies to mumps virus in our volunteers and controls, seem to be frequent after vaccination with the Rubini strain. 3. Despite its reported Swiss origin, the Rubini strain does not belong to the mumps virus lineages recently circulating in this area but is closely related to American mumps virus strains. 4. Differences in protein structure between the vaccine strain and the circulating wild type strains, and in particular a different neutralization epitope in the hemagglutinin neuraminidase protein, may additionally contribute to the lack of protection in vaccinated individuals. PMID:9312835

  14. Influenza virus propagation in embryonated chicken eggs.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Rena; Chen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Influenza infection is associated with about 36,000 deaths and more than 200,000 hospitalizations every year in the United States. The continuous emergence of new influenza virus strains due to mutation and re-assortment complicates the control of the virus and necessitates the permanent development of novel drugs and vaccines. The laboratory-based study of influenza requires a reliable and cost-effective method for the propagation of the virus. Here, a comprehensive protocol is provided for influenza A virus propagation in fertile chicken eggs, which consistently yields high titer viral stocks. In brief, serum pathogen-free (SPF) fertilized chicken eggs are incubated at 37 °C and 55-60% humidity for 10 - 11 days. Over this period, embryo development can be easily monitored using an egg candler. Virus inoculation is carried out by injection of virus stock into the allantoic cavity using a needle. After 2 days of incubation at 37 °C, the eggs are chilled for at least 4 hr at 4 °C. The eggshell above the air sac and the chorioallantoic membrane are then carefully opened, and the allantoic fluid containing the virus is harvested. The fluid is cleared from debris by centrifugation, aliquoted and transferred to -80 °C for long-term storage. The large amount (5-10 ml of virus-containing fluid per egg) and high virus titer which is usually achieved with this protocol has made the usage of eggs for virus preparation our favorable method, in particular for in vitro studies which require large quantities of virus in which high dosages of the same virus stock are needed. PMID:25867050

  15. Construction of EGFP-tagged rBCG of E.tenella and distribution in chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, QiuYue; Li, JianHua; Zhang, XiChen; Liu, ChengWu; Cao, LiLi; Ren, KeYan; Gong, PengTao; Cai, YaNan

    2009-03-01

    Chicken coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease with substantial economic burden to the poultry industry. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) tagged recombinant Bacille Calmette-Guerin (rBCG), as a fusion protein with coccidian rhomboid antigen was constructed to track rBCG in vivo in chickens in this study. Immunization of chickens with one dose of rBCG pMV361-Rho/EGFP induced humoral immune response. The colonization of rBCG in liver, spleen, lung, kidney and caecum was observed by laser confocal microscopy. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed a rise expression level of rhomboid protein on the 7th day and a peak on the 14th day and disappearance on the 28th day after immunization. These results have significant implications for the development of rBCG vaccines against avian coccidiosis. PMID:19294353

  16. Characteristics of Nasal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT) and Nasal Absorption Capacity in Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2013-01-01

    As the main mucosal immune inductive site of nasal cavity, nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) plays an important role in both antigen recognition and immune activation after intranasal immunization. However, the efficiency of intranasal vaccines is commonly restricted by the insufficient intake of antigen by the nasal mucosa, resulting from the nasal mucosal barrier and the nasal mucociliary clearance. The distribution of NALT and the characteristic of nasal cavity have already been described in humans and many laboratory rodents, while data about poultry are scarce. For this purpose, histological sections of the chicken nasal cavities were used to examine the anatomical structure and histological characteristics of nasal cavity. Besides, the absorptive capacity of chicken nasal mucosa was also studied using the materials with different particle size. Results showed that the NALT of chicken was located on the bottom of nasal septum and both sides of choanal cleft, which mainly consisted of second lymphoid follicle. A large number of lymphocytes were distributed under the mucosal epithelium of inferior nasal meatus. In addition, there were also diffuse lymphoid tissues located under the epithelium of the concha nasalis media and the walls of nasal cavity. The results of absorption experiment showed that the chicken nasal mucosa was capable to absorb trypan blue, OVA, and fluorescent latex particles. Inactivated avian influenza virus (IAIV) could be taken up by chicken nasal mucosa except for the stratified squamous epithelium sites located on the forepart of nasal cavity. The intake of IAIV by NALT was greater than that of the nasal mucosa covering on non-lymphoid tissue, which could be further enhanced after intranasal inoculation combined with sodium cholate or CpG DNA. The study on NALT and nasal absorptive capacity will be benefit for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and development of nasal vaccines for poultry. PMID:24391892

  17. Efficacy of a bivalent L1 virus-like particle vaccine in prevention of infection with human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in young women: a randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane M Harper; Eduardo L Franco; Cosette Wheeler; David Jenkins; Anne Schuind; Toufik Zahaf; Bruce Innis; Paulo Naud; Cecilia M Roteli-Martins; Julio Teixeira; Mark M Blatter; Abner P Korn; Wim Quint; Gary Dubin

    Summary Background Vaccination against the most common oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV-16 and HPV-18, could prevent development of up to 70% of cervical cancers worldwide. We did a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial to assess the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of a bivalent HPV-16\\/18 L1 virus-like particle vaccine for the prevention of incident and persistent infection with these two virus

  18. Genome sequence comparison of two United States live attenuated vaccines of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV).

    PubMed

    Chandra, Yohanna Gita; Lee, Jeongyoon; Kong, Byung-Whi

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to identify unique nucleotide differences in two U.S. chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines [LT Blen (GenBank accession: JQ083493) designated as vaccine 1; Laryngo-Vac(®) (GenBank accession: JQ083494) designated as vaccine 2] of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genomes compared to an Australian Serva vaccine reference ILTV genome sequence [Gallid herpesvirus 1 (GaHV-1); GenBank accession number: HQ630064]. Genomes of the two vaccine ILTV strains were sequenced using Illumina Genome Analyzer 2X of 36 cycles of single-end reads. Results revealed that few nucleotide differences (23 in vaccine 1; 31 in vaccine 2) were found and indicate that the US CEO strains are practically identical to the Australian Serva CEO strain, which is a European-origin vaccine. The sequence differences demonstrated the spectrum of variability among vaccine strains. Only eight amino acid differences were found in ILTV proteins including UL54, UL27, UL28, UL20, UL1, ICP4, and US8 in vaccine 1. Similarly, in vaccine 2, eight amino acid differences were found in UL54, UL27, UL28, UL36, UL1, ICP4, US10, and US8. Further comparison of US CEO vaccines to several ILTV genome sequences revealed that US CEO vaccines are genetically close to both the Serva vaccine and 63140/C/08/BR (GenBank accession: HM188407) and are distinct from the two Australian-origin CEO vaccines, SA2 (GenBank accession: JN596962) and A20 (GenBank accession: JN596963), which showed close similarity to each other. These data demonstrate the potential of high-throughput sequencing technology to yield insight into the sequence variation of different ILTV strains. This information can be used to discriminate between vaccine ILTV strains and further, to identify newly emerging mutant strains of field isolates. PMID:22382591

  19. [Detection of fowlpox in chickens and turkeys in Germany].

    PubMed

    Lüschow, Dörte; Hoffmann, Torge; Hafez, Hafez Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The present work outlines molecular diagnostic examinations for detection of poxvirus infection in chickens and turkeys in Germany over a time period of twelve years. Diagnostic samples suspected for fowlpox were investigated using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in combination with restriction enzyme analysis (REA) for presence of fowlpox virus (FPV) specific DNA. For a long period of time fowlpox did not play a role in commercial poultry farms in Germany. Beginning in 1999 an increasing number of new infections was identified. During the whole study period FPV specific DNA was detected in 92 out of 192 investigated samples. Positive samples were derived especially from layer hens but also from broiler breeders, turkey breeders, and meat turkeys. Thereby, a differentiation between isolates of chickens and turkeys by restriction enzyme analysis (REA) was not possible. As possible explanations for this reemergence, especially the lack of prophylactic vaccination in the past as well as an increasing number of alternative rearing systems has to be considered. Beginning in 2003, a downward tendency was observed following intensification of prophylactic vaccination. PMID:22372326

  20. Down regulation of humoral immunity in chickens due to carbendazim.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Lokesh K; Bagga, S; Kumar, Rajesh; Chauhan, R S

    2003-01-01

    This study was planned to investigate the effect of very low dose of carbendazim on the humoral immune response in the chicken. Sixteen adult chickens, earlier vaccinated against New Castle Disease were divided in two experimental groups. Chickens of group I served as control, while group II birds were given a feed containing 200 ppm of carbendazim, which is considered no observable effect level (NOEL) dose, for a period of 6 months. The Humoral immune response was measured by the B-lymphocyte blastogenesis assay using lipopolysaccharide as mitogen and the quantitation of IgG, IgA, IgM levels by using respective antichicken conjugates, through an ELISA method. Total serum proteins, serum gamma-globulins and globulins were measured using commercially available kits. Carbendazim significantly (P< or =0.05) reduced both the B-lymphocyte proliferation and serum IgG, IgM and IgA levels, leading to decreased immunocompetence. At the end of experiment percent decrease in B-lymphocyte proliferation was 20.5% and that in serum IgG, IgM and IgA were 11.2, 22.9 and 28.8%, respectively. The percent decrease in total serum protein, serum gamma-globulins and serum globulins were 14.6, 18.5 and 9.7%, respectively. Results clearly indicated down regulation of humoral immunity by carbendazim at NOEL dose. PMID:14599464

  1. Prior infection of chickens with H1N1 or H1N2 avian influenza elicits partial heterologous protection against highly pathogenic H5N1.

    PubMed

    Nfon, Charles; Berhane, Yohannes; Pasick, John; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Kobinger, Gary; Kobasa, Darwyn; Babiuk, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    There is a critical need to have vaccines that can protect against emerging pandemic influenza viruses. Commonly used influenza vaccines are killed whole virus that protect against homologous and not heterologous virus. Using chickens we have explored the possibility of using live low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A/goose/AB/223/2005 H1N1 or A/WBS/MB/325/2006 H1N2 to induce immunity against heterologous highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A/chicken/Vietnam/14/2005 H5N1. H1N1 and H1N2 replicated in chickens but did not cause clinical disease. Following infection, chickens developed nucleoprotein and H1 specific antibodies, and reduced H5N1 plaque size in vitro in the absence of H5 neutralizing antibodies at 21 days post infection (DPI). In addition, heterologous cell mediated immunity (CMI) was demonstrated by antigen-specific proliferation and IFN-? secretion in PBMCs re-stimulated with H5N1 antigen. Following H5N1 challenge of both pre-infected and naïve controls chickens housed together, all naïve chickens developed acute disease and died while H1N1 or H1N2 pre-infected chickens had reduced clinical disease and 70-80% survived. H1N1 or H1N2 pre-infected chickens were also challenged with H5N1 and naïve chickens placed in the same room one day later. All pre-infected birds were protected from H5N1 challenge but shed infectious virus to naïve contact chickens. However, disease onset, severity and mortality was reduced and delayed in the naïve contacts compared to directly inoculated naïve controls. These results indicate that prior infection with LPAI virus can generate heterologous protection against HPAI H5N1 in the absence of specific H5 antibody. PMID:23240067

  2. Eggs: the uncracked potential for improving maternal and young child nutrition among the world's poor.

    PubMed

    Iannotti, Lora L; Lutter, Chessa K; Bunn, David A; Stewart, Christine P

    2014-06-01

    Eggs have been consumed throughout human history, though the full potential of this nutritionally complete food has yet to be realized in many resource-poor settings around the world. Eggs provide essential fatty acids, proteins, choline, vitamins A and B12 , selenium, and other critical nutrients at levels above or comparable to those found in other animal-source foods, but they are relatively more affordable. Cultural beliefs about the digestibility and cleanliness of eggs, as well as environmental concerns arising from hygiene practices and toxin exposures, remain as barriers to widespread egg consumption. There is also regional variability in egg intake levels. In Latin American countries, on average, greater proportions of young children consume eggs than in Asian or African countries. In China and Indonesia, nutrition education and social marketing have been associated with greater amounts of eggs in the diets of young children, though generally, evidence from interventions is minimal. Homestead chicken-and-egg production with appropriate vaccination, extension service, and other supports can simultaneously address poverty and nutrition in very poor rural households. With undernutrition remaining a significant problem in many parts of the world, eggs may be an uncracked part of the solution. PMID:24807641

  3. Passive immunization of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) with chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikoo Arasteh; A.-H. Aminirissehei; A. N. Yousif; L. J. Albright; T. D. Durance

    2004-01-01

    Passive immunization using pathogen-specific antibodies raised in chickens is a potential method for the protection of teleosts against diseases. The oral delivery route offers technical and economic advantages. In this study, the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of the egg yolks of vaccinated hens was used as a source of anti-Vibrio anguillarum IgY in intraperitoneal (IP) injection, oral intubation, or feeding of

  4. In vivo macrophage activation in chickens with Acemannan, a complex carbohydrate extracted from Aloe vera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Djeraba; P Quere

    2000-01-01

    Acemannan (ACM 1), a ?-(1,4) -acetylated mannan isolated from Aloe vera, can be used as an effective adjuvant in vaccination against some avian viral diseases. Our results demonstrate a quick and lasting in vivo priming effect of ACM 1 on macrophage response after intramuscular inoculation in chickens (500 ?g per 2-month-old bird). In response to IFN-? in vitro, monocytes from ACM

  5. Edinburgh Research Explorer Functional conservation between rodents and chicken of

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Functional conservation between rodents and chicken of regulatory sequences driving skeletal muscle gene expression in transgenic chickens Citation for published version: Mc and chicken of regulatory sequences driving skeletal muscle gene expression in transgenic chickens' BMC

  6. VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT HPV Vaccine Gardasil

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT HPV Vaccine Gardasil® What You Need to Know (Human Papillomavirus.immunize.org/vis 1 What is HPV? Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted virus

  7. Human papillomavirus vaccine introduction--the first five years.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Lauri E; Tsu, Vivien; Deeks, Shelley L; Cubie, Heather; Wang, Susan A; Vicari, Andrea S; Brotherton, Julia M L

    2012-11-20

    The availability of prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines has provided powerful tools for primary prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-associated diseases. Since 2006, the quadrivalent and bivalent vaccines have each been licensed in over 100 countries. By the beginning of 2012, HPV vaccine had been introduced into national immunization programs in at least 40 countries. Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada were among the first countries to introduce HPV vaccination. In Europe, the number of countries having introduced vaccine increased from 3 in 2007 to 22 at the beginning of 2012. While all country programs target young adolescent girls, specific target age groups vary as do catch-up recommendations. Different health care systems and infrastructure have resulted in varied implementation strategies, with some countries delivering vaccine in schools and others through health centers or primary care providers. Within the first 5 years after vaccines became available, few low- or middle-income countries had introduced HPV vaccine. The main reason was budgetary constraints due to the high vaccine cost. Bhutan and Rwanda implemented national immunization after receiving vaccine through donation programs in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The GAVI Alliance decision in 2011 to support HPV vaccination should increase implementation in low-income countries. Evaluation of vaccination programs includes monitoring of coverage, safety, and impact. Vaccine safety monitoring is part of routine activities in many countries. Safety evaluations are important and communication about vaccine safety is critical, as events temporally associated with vaccination can be falsely attributed to vaccination. Anti-vaccination efforts, in part related to concerns about safety, have been mounted in several countries. In the 5 years since HPV vaccines were licensed, there have been successes as well as challenges with vaccine introduction and implementation. Further progress is anticipated in the coming years, especially in low- and middle-income countries where the need for vaccine is greatest. This article forms part of a special supplement entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:23199957

  8. Production of adenovirus vectors and their use as a delivery system for influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Vemula, Sai V.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2010-01-01

    IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD With the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses that have crossed species barriers and are responsible for lethal infections in humans in many countries, there is an urgent need for the development of effective vaccines which can be produced in large quantities at a short notice and confer broad protection against these H5N1 variants. In order to meet the potential global vaccine demand in a pandemic scenario, new vaccine-production strategies must be explored in addition to the currently used egg-based technology for seasonal influenza. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW Adenovirus (Ad) based influenza vaccines represent an attractive alternative/supplement to the currently licensed egg-based influenza vaccines. Ad-based vaccines are relatively inexpensive to manufacture, and their production process does not require either chicken eggs or labor intensive and time-consuming processes necessitating enhanced biosafety facilities. Most importantly, in a pandemic situation, this vaccine strategy could offer a stockpiling option to reduce the response time before a strain-matched vaccine could be developed. WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN This review discusses Ad-vector technology and the current progress in the development of Ad-based influenza vaccines. TAKE HOME MESSAGE Ad vector-based influenza vaccines for pandemic preparedness are under development to meet the global vaccine demand. PMID:20822477

  9. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of the newly developed purified chick embryo cell (PCEC)-rabies vaccine in man.

    PubMed

    Scheiermann, N; Baer, J; Hilfenhaus, J; Marcus, I; Zoulek, G

    1987-07-01

    Purified Chick Embryo Cell (PCEC) rabies vaccine was given to 88 healthy adults according to six different vaccination schedules. Local side effects were reported on reactivity forms after 16.4% of PCECV injections, general symptoms were recorded after 15.1% of the 292 doses administered. IgE antibodies specific for chicken proteins determined by the Radio Allergo Sorbens Test (RAST) could not be shown before and after the vaccinations. With no exception, all 88 vaccinees developed high titres of complement-fixing and neutralizing antibodies as determined by the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test and Serum Mouse Neutralization Test. For the first time, induction of serum interferon by PCEC rabies vaccine has been shown in man. In rabies vaccination, PCEC vaccine seems to be as effective as Human Diploid Cell Strain (HDCS) vaccine. PMID:2445127

  10. Diurnal growth rhythms in the chicken eye: relation to myopia development and retinal dopamine levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Weiss; F. Schaeffel

    1993-01-01

    1.If the eyes of young chickens are deprived of clear vision by translucent occluders, they develop considerable amounts of axial myopia within days. At the same time, the day time retinal dopamine levels drop by about 30%. Because the retinal dopamine levels of normally sighted chicks also differ diurnally and are low at night, we expected that the rate of

  11. Vaccine refusal, mandatory immunization, and the risks of vaccine-preventable diseases.

    PubMed

    Omer, Saad B; Salmon, Daniel A; Orenstein, Walter A; deHart, M Patricia; Halsey, Neal

    2009-05-01

    Vaccines are among the most effective prevention tools available to clinicians. However, the success of an immunization program depends on high rates of acceptance and coverage. There is evidence of an increase in vaccine refusal in the United States and of geographic clustering of refusals that results in outbreaks. Children with exemptions from school immunization requirements (a measure of vaccine refusal) are at increased risk for measles and pertussis and can infect others who are too young to be vaccinated, cannot be vaccinated for medical reasons, or were vaccinated but did not have a sufficient immunologic response. Clinicians can play a crucial role in parental decision making. Health care providers are cited as the most frequent source of immunization information by parents, including parents of unvaccinated children. Although some clinicians have discontinued or have considered discontinuing their provider relationship with patients who refuse vaccines, the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Bioethics advises against this and recommends that clinicians address vaccine refusal by respectfully listening to parental concerns and discussing the risks of nonvaccination. PMID:19420367

  12. Epidemiological consequences of an ineffective Bordetella pertussis vaccine

    E-print Network

    Althouse, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    The recent increase in Bordetella pertussis incidence (whooping cough) presents a challenge to global health. Recent studies have called into question the effectiveness of acellular B. pertussis vaccination in reducing transmission. Here we examine the epidemiological consequences of an ineffective B. pertussis vaccine. Using a dynamic transmission model, we find that: 1) an ineffective vaccine can account for the observed increase in B. pertussis incidence; 2) asymptomatic infections can bias surveillance and upset situational awareness of B. pertussis; and 3) vaccinating individuals in close contact with infants too young to receive vaccine (so called "cocooning" unvaccinated children) may be ineffective. Our results have important implications for B. pertussis vaccination policy and paint a complicated picture for achieving herd immunity and possible B. pertussis eradication.

  13. Proof of principle for epitope-focused vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Correia, Bruno E; Bates, John T; Loomis, Rebecca J; Baneyx, Gretchen; Carrico, Chris; Jardine, Joseph G; Rupert, Peter; Correnti, Colin; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Vittal, Vinayak; Connell, Mary J; Stevens, Eric; Schroeter, Alexandria; Chen, Man; Macpherson, Skye; Serra, Andreia M; Adachi, Yumiko; Holmes, Margaret A; Li, Yuxing; Klevit, Rachel E; Graham, Barney S; Wyatt, Richard T; Baker, David; Strong, Roland K; Crowe, James E; Johnson, Philip R; Schief, William R

    2014-03-13

    Vaccines prevent infectious disease largely by inducing protective neutralizing antibodies against vulnerable epitopes. Several major pathogens have resisted traditional vaccine development, although vulnerable epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies have been identified for several such cases. Hence, new vaccine design methods to induce epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies are needed. Here we show, with a neutralization epitope from respiratory syncytial virus, that computational protein design can generate small, thermally and conformationally stable protein scaffolds that accurately mimic the viral epitope structure and induce potent neutralizing antibodies. These scaffolds represent promising leads for the research and development of a human respiratory syncytial virus vaccine needed to protect infants, young children and the elderly. More generally, the results provide proof of principle for epitope-focused and scaffold-based vaccine design, and encourage the evaluation and further development of these strategies for a variety of other vaccine targets, including antigenically highly variable pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and influenza. PMID:24499818

  14. Proof of principle for epitope-focused vaccine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Bruno E.; Bates, John T.; Loomis, Rebecca J.; Baneyx, Gretchen; Carrico, Chris; Jardine, Joseph G.; Rupert, Peter; Correnti, Colin; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Vittal, Vinayak; Connell, Mary J.; Stevens, Eric; Schroeter, Alexandria; Chen, Man; MacPherson, Skye; Serra, Andreia M.; Adachi, Yumiko; Holmes, Margaret A.; Li, Yuxing; Klevit, Rachel E.; Graham, Barney S.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Baker, David; Strong, Roland K.; Crowe, James E.; Johnson, Philip R.; Schief, William R.

    2014-03-01

    Vaccines prevent infectious disease largely by inducing protective neutralizing antibodies against vulnerable epitopes. Several major pathogens have resisted traditional vaccine development, although vulnerable epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies have been identified for several such cases. Hence, new vaccine design methods to induce epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies are needed. Here we show, with a neutralization epitope from respiratory syncytial virus, that computational protein design can generate small, thermally and conformationally stable protein scaffolds that accurately mimic the viral epitope structure and induce potent neutralizing antibodies. These scaffolds represent promising leads for the research and development of a human respiratory syncytial virus vaccine needed to protect infants, young children and the elderly. More generally, the results provide proof of principle for epitope-focused and scaffold-based vaccine design, and encourage the evaluation and further development of these strategies for a variety of other vaccine targets, including antigenically highly variable pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and influenza.

  15. Use of the Carolina HPV Immunization Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (CHIAS) in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, Amanda F.; Fuhrel-Forbis, Andrea; Konrath, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background Validated measures that can accurate describe young adults’ HPV vaccination attitudes and how these relate to vaccination intention and receipt are needed for developing interventions to improve low HPV vaccination levels. The Carolina HPV Immunization Attitudes Scale (CHIAS) is a validated measure of these outcomes that was originally designed for parents. Objective To assess the performance of the CHIAS among young adult women using an exploratory factor analysis. Methods A convenience sample of 139 young adult women (age 18–26 years) were given the CHIAS measure at baseline. Factor analysis was used to determine attitudinal factor groupings and the association of these factors with HPV vaccination intention. A 6-month follow up assessment examined the stability of the CHIAS over time and the association of baseline vaccine factors with vaccine receipt. Results Five factors loaded on to the CHIAS in young adults - “Barriers,” “Harms,” “Effectiveness,” “Risk Denial” and “Uncertainty,” - which was similar to the factor loadings of CHIAS for parents. “Harms” was the factor most consistently associated with vaccination intention at all time points assessed. Only 5 women had received or made an appointment to receive the vaccine at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusions In terms of categorizing HPV vaccination attitudes, the CHIAS appears to have similar performance among young adults as in parents. However, additional studies are needed to assess the utility of the CHIAS for predicting HPV vaccine receipt among the young adult population. PMID:24945630

  16. Avian influenza vaccine development: Application technology platforms, field use and predictors of protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines against avian influenza (AI) began over 100 years ago as experimentally produced products, but commercial application did not occur until: 1) a reliable method was developed to grow and titer the virus (i.e. embryonating chicken eggs), 2) an efficient and predictable method was developed to...

  17. AGE DIFFERENCE IN LYMPHOCYTE PROLIFERATION, IL-2 AND IFN-Y PRODUCTION FOLLOWING SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS VACCINATION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of age on cell-mediated immune responses to different antigens from Salmonella serovar Enteritidis (SE) following vaccination with the commercially available heat-the killed bacterin. Eight-month- and 4-week-old chickens were given two subcu...

  18. Comparative genomic sequence analysis of the Marek’s disease vaccine strain SB-1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is one of the most oncogenic herpesviruses known and induces a rapid onset T-cell lymphoma and demyelinating disease in chickens. Since the 1970s the disease has been controlled through mass vaccination with meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 (MeHV-1). Over time the efficacy of...

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A VIROSOME VACCINE FOR NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS THAT PROTECTS AGAINST LETHAL CHALLENGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to protect chickens against Newcastle disease (ND), a non-replicating virosome-vaccine was produced by solubilization of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with Triton X-100 followed by detergent removal with SM2 Bio-Beads. Biochemical analysis indicated that the NDV virosomes had similar c...

  20. 12. Reduction in the mean number of Plasmodium falciparum genotypes in Gambian children immunized with the malaria vaccine SPf66

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Haywood; David J. Conway; Helen Weiss; Wolfram Metzger; Umberto D'Alessandro; Georges Snounou; Geoffrey Targett; Brian Greenwood

    1999-01-01

    SPf66, a synthetic peptide Plasmodium falciparum vaccine, did not protect young Gambian children against clinical attacks of malaria. Nevertheless, Gambian children who had been vaccinated with SPf66 and who were parasitaemic at the end of the first malaria transmission season after vaccination had significantly fewer detectable P. falciparum genotypes than control children, as determined by polymerase chain reaction analysis of

  1. VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Hepatitis A Vaccine

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Hepatitis A Vaccine What You Need to Know Many Vaccine Information://www.immunize.org/vis 1 What is hepatitis A? Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is found in the stool of people with hepatitis A. It is usually spread by close personal contact

  2. VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Hepatitis B Vaccine

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Hepatitis B Vaccine What You Need to Know Many Vaccine Information://www.immunize.org/vis What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a serious infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus. · In 2009, about 38,000 people became infected with hepatitis B. · Each year about 2

  3. Avian influenza vaccines and vaccination for poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines against avian influenza (AI) have had more limited use in poultry than vaccines against other poultry diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis, and have been used more commonly in the developing world. Over the past 40 years, AI vaccines have been primarily based o...

  4. Immune gene expression in the spleen of chickens experimentally infected with Ascaridia galli.

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, Tina S; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Norup, Liselotte R; Pleidrup, Janne; Permin, Anders; Schou, Torben W; Vadekær, Dorte F; Jungersen, Gregers; Juul-Madsen, Helle R

    2015-03-15

    Ascaridia galli is a gastrointestinal nematode infecting chickens. Chickens kept in alternative rearing systems or at free-range experience increased risk for infection with resulting high prevalences. A. galli infection causes reduced weight gain, decreased egg production and in severe cases increased mortality. More importantly, the parasitised chickens are more susceptible to secondary infections and their ability to develop vaccine-induced protective immunity against other diseases may be compromised. Detailed information about the immune response to the natural infection may be exploited to enable future vaccine development. In the present study, expression of immune genes in the chicken spleen during an experimental infection with A. galli was investigated using the Fluidigm(®) BioMark™ microfluidic qPCR platform which combines automatic high-throughput with attractive low sample and reagent consumption. Spleenic transcription of immunological genes was compared between infected chickens and non-infected controls at week 2, 6, and 9 p.i. corresponding to different stages of parasite development/maturation. At week 2 p.i. increased expression of IL-13 was observed in infected chickens. Increased expression of MBL, CRP, IFN-?, IL-1?, IL-8, IL-12? and IL-18 followed at week 6 p.i. and at both week 6 and 9 p.i. expression of DEF?1 was highly increased in infected chickens. In summary, apart from also earlier reported increased expression of the Th2 signature cytokine IL-13 we observed only few differentially expressed genes at week 2 p.i. which corresponds to the larvae histotrophic phase. In contrast, we observed increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins in infected chickens, by week 6 p.i. where the larvae re-enter the intestinal lumen. Increased expression of DEF?1 was observed in infected chickens at week 6 p.i. but also at week 9 p.i. which corresponds to a matured stage where adult worms are present in the intestinal lumen. PMID:25649508

  5. Chicken Consensus Linkage Map 2000

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    In the race to map animal and human genomes, the chicken genome mapping project is also underway. Most details are provided at this Consensus Map page, featuring a linkage map comprised of "all the genotyping data from the three available chicken mapping populations (East Lansing, Compton and Wageningen)," containing 1889 loci. A reference table and reference list may also be downloaded as Excel files from the site.

  6. Post chicken pox neurological sequelae: Three distinct presentations.

    PubMed

    Paul, Rudrajit; Singhania, Pankaj; Hashmi, Ma; Bandyopadhyay, Ramtanu; Banerjee, Amit Kumar

    2010-07-01

    Varicella zoster infection is known to cause neurological involvement. The infection is usually self-limiting and resolves without sequelae. We present a series of three cases with neurological presentations following chicken pox infection. The first case is a case of meningitis, cerebellitis and polyradiculopathy, the second is a florid case of acute infective demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (Guillian-Barré syndrome) in a middle-aged female and the third case is a young man in whom we diagnosed acute transverse myelitis. All these cases presented with distinct neurological diagnoses and the etiology was established on the basis of history and serological tests confirmatory for chicken pox. The cases responded differently to treatment and the patients were left with minimum disability. PMID:21808511

  7. Risk of cervical HPV infection and prevalence of vaccine-type and other high-risk HPV types among sexually active teens and young women (13-26 years) enrolled in the VALHIDATE study.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Giovanna; Fasolo, Michela; Mazza, Francesca; Ricci, Elena; Esposito, Susanna; Frati, Elena; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Cetin, Irene; Gramegna, Maria; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    HPV vaccination is expected to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. The greatest and the earliest health gains will be ensured by high vaccine coverage among all susceptible people. The high costs and the risk of a reduced cost/effectiveness ratio in sexually active girls still represent the main obstacles for a more widespread use of HPV vaccination in many countries. Data on the rate, risk factors, and HPV types in sexually active women could provide information for the evaluation of vaccination policies extended to broader age cohorts. Sexually active women aged 13-26 years enrolled in an Italian cohort study were screened for cervical HPV infections; HPV-DNA positive samples were genotyped by InnoLipa HPV Genotyping Extra or by RFLP genotype analysis.: Among the 796 women meeting the inclusion criteria, 10.80% (95% CI 8.65-12.96) were HPV-DNA infected. Age>18 years, lifetime sexual partners>1, and history of STIs were associated to higher risk of HPV infection in the multivariable models adjusted for age, lifetime sexual partners, and time of sexual exposure. The global prevalence of the four HPV vaccine-types was 3.02% (95% CI 1.83-4.20) and the cumulative probability of infection from at least one vaccine-type was 12.82% in 26-years-old women and 0.78% in 18-years-old women.: Our data confirm most of the previously reported findings on the risk factors for HPV infections. The low prevalence of the HPV vaccine-types found may be useful for the evaluation of the cost/efficacy and the cost/effectiveness of broader immunization programs beyond the 12-years-old cohort. PMID:24423757

  8. History of vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before. PMID:25136134

  9. Lead exposure from backyard chicken eggs: a public health risk?

    PubMed

    Bautista, Adrienne C; Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Although the USA has made significant strides in reducing lead exposure, new and emerging sources are raising cause for public concern. Recent reports of finding lead in eggs from chickens raised in urban gardens has highlighted the need to consider the potential health risks of consuming eggs from backyard chickens. Following the detection of 0.33 ?g/g lead in the edible portion of eggs submitted for lead analysis from a backyard chicken owner, further investigation was conducted to determine the source and extent of lead exposure in the flock. Several birds, almost two dozen eggs, and environmental samples were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory for further testing. Lead was detected in the blood, liver, kidney, and bone at varying concentrations in all birds but was not detected in the muscle tissue. All egg shells contained detectable amounts of lead, while only a little over half of the edible portion of the eggs contained lead. The detected concentrations in the edible portion approached or exceeded the recommended threshold of lead consumption per day that should not be exceeded by young children if a child consumed one average-sized egg. Peeling paint from a wooded structure adjacent to the flock's coop was the likely lead source containing 3,700 ?g/g lead. Thus, removal of the chickens from the source and periodic testing of eggs for lead were recommended. This case illustrates the need for consumers and health care workers to be aware of potential sources for lead exposure such as backyard chickens. PMID:24943230

  10. Measles-Mumps-Rubella-Varicella Combination Vaccine (ProQuad(®)): A Guide to Its Use in Children in the EU.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lesley J

    2015-04-01

    In the EU, the live attenuated, tetravalent measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine ProQuad(®) is indicated for simultaneous vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella in individuals from 12 months of age using a two-dose schedule and may be used in infants from 9 months of age to conform with a national vaccination schedule, outbreak situations or travel to a region with a high prevalence of measles. Clinical data in young children indicates that vaccination with ProQuad(®) is as immunogenic as the component vaccines, provides long-term protection against these potentially serious childhood infections and has an acceptable safety profile. Combining the viral strains of the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine M-M-RVAXPRO(®) and the varicella vaccine Varivax(®) in ProQuad(®) reduces the complexity of vaccination schedules, thereby potentially improving vaccination coverage and the timeliness of vaccination. PMID:25732634

  11. Safety of immunization during pregnancy: a review of the evidence of selected inactivated and live attenuated vaccines.

    PubMed

    Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte; Englund, Janet A; Kang, Gagandeep; Mangtani, Punam; Neuzil, Kathleen; Nohynek, Hanna; Pless, Robert; Lambach, Philipp; Zuber, Patrick

    2014-12-12

    Vaccine-preventable infectious diseases are responsible for significant maternal, neonatal, and young infant morbidity and mortality. While there is emerging scientific evidence, as well as theoretical considerations, indicating that certain vaccines are safe for pregnant women and fetuses, policy formulation is challenging because of perceived potential risks to the fetus. This report presents an overview of available evidence on pregnant women vaccination safety monitoring in pregnant women, from both published literature and ongoing surveillance programs. Safety data were reviewed for vaccines against diseases which increase morbidity in pregnant women, their fetus or infant as well as vaccines which are used in mass vaccination campaigns against diseases. They include inactivated seasonal and pandemic influenza, mono- and combined meningococcal polysaccharide and conjugated vaccines, tetanus toxoid and acellular pertussis combination vaccines, as well as monovalent or combined rubella, oral poliomyelitis virus and yellow fever vaccines. No evidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has been identified from immunization of pregnant women with these vaccines. PMID:25285883

  12. CpG oligonucleotides and recombinant interferon-? in combination improve protection in chickens to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis challenge as an adjuvant component, but have no effect in reducing Salmonella carriage in infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Catherine; Salisbury, Anne-Marie; Wigley, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is the most common cause of human salmonellosis in many developed nations. It is frequently associated with both poultry meat and eggs. In the present study we have determined whether CpG oligonucleotides that stimulate the immune system via Toll like-receptors 15 and 21 in the chicken can be used as immunomodulatory agents to break carriage of S. Enteritidis in in vitro and in vivo infection models. We also investigated its use as a component in an adjuvant to stimulate cell mediated immunity with a killed vaccine preparation. Following infection of the chicken macrophage-like cell line HD11 with Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum, cells were stimulated with an oligonucleotide containing a CpG motif, or with a non-CpG oligonucleotide control at concentrations ranging from 0 to 80 µM. Addition of the CpG oligonucleotide greatly enhanced clearance of S. Enteritidis in dose-dependent manner, whilst the control oligonucleotide had no significant effect. In contrast, stimulation of cells infected with S. Gallinarum had no effect. The CpG or control oligonucleotide with recombinant chicken interferon-? was administered intramuscularly into chickens experimentally colonized with S. Enteritidis, although neither preparation produced any change in intestinal colonization levels to that in untreated control birds. Finally, CpG oligonucleotides were incorporated with recombinant interferon-?, double-stranded RNA (Poly I:C) and squalene as a Th1-stimulating combined adjuvant for synergistic activation of cellular immunity (CASAC) together with whole killed Salmonella as the antigen as an experimental vaccine. Following vaccination and challenge of chickens with S. Enteritidis, CASAC gave significant protection to intestinal colonization whereas the same antigen given with a proprietary adjuvant did not. Neither adjuvant increased protection to systemic infection. The data suggest that adjuvants incorporating CpG motifs and interferon-? may improve protection afforded by killed-Salmonella vaccines. PMID:22845324

  13. Effect of Age and Vaccination With a Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on the Density of Pneumococcal Nasopharyngeal Carriage

    PubMed Central

    Roca, A.; Bottomley, C.; Hill, P. C.; Bojang, A.; Egere, U.; Antonio, M.; Darboe, O.; Greenwood, B. M.; Adegbola, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background.?This study evaluated the impact of age and pneumococcal vaccination on the density of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage. Methods.?A cluster-randomized trial was conducted in rural Gambia. In 11 villages (the vaccine group), all residents received 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7), while in another 10 villages (the control group), only children <30 months old or born during the study period received PCV-7. Cross-sectional surveys (CSSs) were conducted to collect nasopharyngeal swabs before vaccination (baseline CSS) and 4, 12, and 22 months after vaccination. Pneumococcal density was defined using a semiquantitative classification (range, 1–4) among colonized individuals. An age-trend analysis of density was conducted using data from the baseline CSS. Mean pneumococcal density was compared in CSSs conducted before and after vaccination. Results.?Mean bacterial density among colonized individuals in the baseline CSS was 2.57 for vaccine-type (VT) and non–vaccine-type (NVT) pneumococci; it decreased with age (P < .001 for VT and NVT). There was a decrease in the density of VT carriage following vaccination in individuals older than 5 years (from 2.44 to 1.88; P = .001) and in younger individuals (from 2.57 to 2.11; P = .070) in the vaccinated villages. Similar decreases in density were observed with NVT within vaccinated and control villages. No significant differences were found between vaccinated and control villages in the postvaccination comparisons for either VT or NVT. Conclusions.?A high density of carriage among young subjects might partly explain why children are more efficient than adults in pneumococcal transmission. PCV-7 vaccination lowered the density of VT and of NVT pneumococcal carriage in the before-after vaccination analysis. Clinical Trials Registration.?ISRCTN51695599. PMID:22700830

  14. Reasons for non-vaccination against HPV and future vaccination intentions among 19-26 year-old women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite CDC recommendations regarding universal catch-up vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), only about ten percent of young adult women in the United States have been vaccinated. The purpose of this study was to better understand reasons for non-vaccination among insured 19-26 year-old women and to evaluate future vaccination intentions. Methods We used an administrative claims database from a large US managed care plan to identify women aged 19-26 for receipt of a mailed survey. From a sample of 1,375 women with no evidence of HPV vaccination from June 1, 2006 through April 30, 2007, 222 completed surveys were received, of which 185 were eligible for this analysis. The main outcome measures were unvaccinated women's attitudes and vaccine awareness, likelihood of future action regarding the vaccine, and reasons for inaction. Results Among the 185 non-vaccinees, 25.4% were married, 83.2% were white, and 89.2% had a college or higher level education. The vaccine was described as very important by 32.4% of subjects, and 30.1% had discussed the vaccine with a doctor and received a doctor's recommendation. Half or fewer of respondents were "very" or "extremely" likely to discuss the vaccine with their doctor (50.0%), do additional research on the vaccine (42.6%), ask a doctor to get the vaccine (37.5%), or make an appointment to get the vaccine (27.8%), while 48.0% were "somewhat", "very", or "extremely" likely to do nothing to get the vaccine. Among the latter, reasons for taking no action included being married or in a monogamous relationship (54.9%), belief that the vaccine is too new (35.4%), not having enough information about the vaccine (31.7%), concerns about side effects (24.4%), and uncertainty about insurance coverage (24.4%). Conclusions Educational interventions may be needed to enhance HPV vaccination rates among 19-26 year-old women, particularly regarding information about vaccine safety, vaccine efficacy, insurance coverage, and the value of vaccination to women in monogamous relationships. PMID:20809965

  15. [Vaccinations in pneumology].

    PubMed

    Forstner, C; Pletz, M W

    2014-10-01

    The best measure to prevent infections of the respiratory tract is the use of vaccines against important respiratory tract pathogens. The Standing Vaccination Committee at the Robert Koch Institute recommends not only children but also adult vaccination against pneumococci, influenza A/B and Bordetella pertussis, because of a high disease burden. In the present review the clinical significance and safety of those vaccinations as well as advantages and disadvantages of the currently available vaccines are discussed. PMID:25290919

  16. GREEN CHICKEN EXAM -NOVEMBER 2012 GREEN CHICKEN AND STEVEN J. MILLER

    E-print Network

    Stoiciu, Mihai

    are the problems and solutions. Question 1: The Green Chicken is planning a surprise party for his grandfatherGREEN CHICKEN EXAM - NOVEMBER 2012 GREEN CHICKEN AND STEVEN J. MILLER Question 1: The Green Chicken is planning a surprise party for his grandfather and grandmother. The sum of the ages of the grandmother

  17. GREEN CHICKEN PROBLEMS -OCTOBER 2010 J. ATWATER, G. CHICKEN, E. FITCH AND S. J. MILLER

    E-print Network

    Stoiciu, Mihai

    GREEN CHICKEN PROBLEMS - OCTOBER 2010 J. ATWATER, G. CHICKEN, E. FITCH AND S. J. MILLER Question 1 Chicken by playing the following game. Consider the first one million positive integers. Player A's goal diverges. Question 6: Let be a positive integer. Prove 1 #12;2 J. ATWATER, G. CHICKEN, E. FITCH AND S. J

  18. Cross-protection against Salmonella Typhimurium infection conferred by a live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Nandre, Rahul M; Lee, Dajeong; Lee, John Hwa

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a genetically engineered live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccine was evaluated for its ability to protect against Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) infection in chickens. The birds were orally primed with the vaccine on the 1st day of life and given an oral booster at 5 wk of age. Control birds were orally inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline. Both groups of birds were orally challenged with a virulent ST strain at 9 wk of age. Compared with the control chickens, the vaccinated chickens had significantly higher levels of systemic IgG and mucosal IgA against specific ST antigens and a significantly greater lymphoproliferative response to ST antigens. The excretion of ST into the feces was significantly lower in the vaccinated group than in the control group on days 9 and 13 d after challenge. In addition, the vaccinated group had significantly fewer pronounced gross lesions in the liver and spleen and lower bacterial counts in the internal organs than the control group after challenge. These data indicate that genetically engineered live attenuated SE may induce humoral and cellular immune responses against ST antigens and may confer protection against virulent ST challenge. PMID:25673904

  19. Role and Importance of NS1 Protein of Avian Influenza Virus to Grow in the Presence of Interferon and Evaluation of the NS1 Mutant Viruses as Potential DIVA Vaccines

    E-print Network

    Brahmakshatriya, Vinayak

    2010-10-12

    in chickens and was therefore not a safe vaccine candidate. However the killed form of H5N3/NS1-144 was a safer alternative and it also induced antibody titers and protection not significantly different from the parental H5N3 as vaccine. To further understand...

  20. Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...