Objective-To determine the effects of resveratrol (RES) on growth and immune status in chickens receiving conventional vaccinations. Animals-Two hundred forty 1-day-old layer chickens. Procedures-Chickens received conventional vaccinations throughout the study and were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in 6 replicate pens/treatment. Treatments included 1 control group (basal diet) and 3 experimental groups fed the basal diet plus 200, 400, and 800 mg of RES/kg of diet. At 40 days of age, 1 bird/pen was randomly selected to have blood and tissues collected to determine serum immunity indices; mRNA relative expression of proinflammatory cytokines in splenocytes; mRNA relative expression of nuclear transcription factor-?B, growth hormone receptor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 in hepatocytes; cell proliferation; and apoptosis. Results-Average daily gain, antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus and avian influenza viruses H5 and H9, and insulin-like growth factor-1 expression were quadratically increased with increasing RES concentration. In hepatocytes, growth hormone receptor gene mRNA relative expression was quadratically increased and nuclear transcription factor-?B gene mRNA relative expression was linearly decreased with increasing RES concentration. In splenocytes, nterleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-? mRNA relative expression was linearly decreased with increasing RES concentration. Resveratrol supplementation delayed cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis in immunocytes. With increasing RES concentration, proliferation index and relative weight of the thymus, ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ cells, and CD4+ cell count were quadratically increased, and IgM concentration was linearly increased. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Dietary resveratrol supplementation improved growth, protected immunocytes against antigen-induced apoptosis, and upregulated immune response in chickens that received conventional vaccinations. PMID:25061707
Zhang, CaiYun; Tian, YaDong; Yan, FengBin; Kang, XiangTao; Han, RuiLi; Sun, GuiRong; Zhang, HuiRu
The use of live vaccines, either attenuated or non-attenuated, for the control of coccidiosis due to Eimeria infections in broiler breeder or layer chickens is well established. Use in broilers, however, has been slow to gain acceptance. This has been partly for economic reasons, but also because of perceived adverse effects on early chick growth, particularly with non-attenuated vaccines, and
R. B. Williams
Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) causes immunosuppression in young chickens by destruction of antibody producing B cells in the Bursa of Fabricius and poses a potential threat to the poultry industry. We have examined the protective efficacy of a subunit DNA vaccine against IBDV infection in chickens in this study. An immunodominant VP2 gene fragment (VP252-417) was cloned into CMV promoter based DNA vaccine vector pVAX1 and in vitro expression of the DNA encoded antigens was confirmed by transfection of CHO cells with vaccine constructs followed by RT-PCR and western blot analysis using IBDV-antiserum. Two weeks old chickens were immunized intramuscularly with pVAXVP252-417 and the in vivo transcription of the plasmid DNA was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of DNA injected muscle tissue at different intervals of post immunization. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that the plasmid DNA was extensively distributed in muscle, spleen, kidney, liver, and bursa tissues. Chickens immunized with pVAXVP252-417 developed high titer (1:12,000) of anti-VP252-417 antibodies. Further, chicken splenocytes from pVAXVP252-417 immunized group showed a significantly high proliferation to the whole viral and recombinant antigen (P<0.01) compared to control groups, which implies that pVAXVP252-417 codes for immunogenic fragment which has epitopes capable of eliciting both B and T cell responses. This is evident by the fact that, pVAXVP252-417 immunized chicken conferred 75% protection against virulent IBDV (vIBDV) challenge compared to the control group. Thus, the present study confirms that the immunodominant VP2 fragment can be used as a potential DNA vaccine against IBDV infection in chickens. PMID:24745626
Pradhan, Satya Narayan; Prince, Prabhu Rajaiah; Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Arunkumar, Chakkaravarthy; Roy, Parimal; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri; Antony, Usha
Cassava granules coated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain V4-UPM was used to vaccinate free- range chickens in their natural habitat. Immune response, vaccine virus excretion and the efficacy of the food vaccine were assessed by standard methods. Results show that out of 218 chickens given initial food vaccine in the four locations, 138 (63.3%) produced detectable HI antibody while
Echeonwu G. O. N; Iroegbu C. U; Echeonwu B. C; Nwosuh C. I
In order to design a new Salmonella enterica vaccine, one needs to understand how naive and immune chickens interact differently when exposed to S. enterica. In this study we therefore determined the immune response of vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens after intravenous infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis). Using flow cytometry we showed that 4 days post infection (DPI), counts of CD4 and B-lymphocytes did not change, CD8 and ?? T-lymphocytes decreased and macrophages and heterophils increased in the spleen. When vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens were compared, only macrophages and heterophils were found in significantly higher counts in the spleens of the non-vaccinated chickens. The non-vaccinated chickens also expressed higher anti-LPS antibodies than the vaccinated chickens. The expression of interleukin (IL)1?, IL6, IL8, IL18, LITAF, IFN? and iNOS did not exhibit any clear pattern in the cells sorted from the spleens of vaccinated or non-vaccinated chickens. Only IL17 and IL22 showed a differential expression in the CD4 T-lymphocytes of the vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens at 4 DPI, both being expressed at a higher level in the non-vaccinated chickens. Due to a similar IFN? expression in the CD4 T-lymphocytes in both the vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens, and a variable IL17 expression oscillating around IFN? expression levels, the IL17?IFN? ratio in CD4 T-lymphocytes was found to be central for the outcome of the immune response. When IL17 was expressed at higher levels than IFN? in the non-vaccinated chickens, the Th17 immune response with a higher macrophage and heterophil infiltration in the spleen dominated. However, when the expression of IL17 was lower than that of IFN? as in the vaccinated chickens, the Th1 response with a higher resistance to S. Enteritidis infection dominated.
Matulova, Marta; Stepanova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Faldynova, Marcela; Kyrova, Kamila; Volf, Jiri; Rychlik, Ivan
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of Gumboro disease, an infectious disease of global economic importance in poultry. One of the most effective types of inactivated IBDV vaccine is produced by infecting young chickens with a virulent strain, sacrificing them and extracting the virus from the bursa of Fabricius. The goal of this study was to produce an effective subunit vaccine against IBDV thereby providing an effective means of combating the disease. In areas in which the bursa-derived vaccine is in use, this subunit vaccine would eliminate the use of live birds for the production of inactivated vaccines. The gene for viral protein 2 (VP2) of IBDV was cloned into a Pichia pastoris expression system. This efficient system allowed us to meet the need for inexpensive vaccines required by the poultry industry. Following expression and scale-up, the protein was used to vaccinate chickens, against either Gumboro disease alone or in combination with inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Full protection was conferred against IBDV following vaccination with the subunit recombinant vaccine. No untoward influence on the response to the NDV vaccine was recorded. Over 250 million birds have already been vaccinated with this vaccine. The advantages of a subunit vaccine over an inactivated one are discussed. This approach will enable rapid adjustment to new virulent strains if and when they appear. PMID:14585684
Pitcovski, Jacob; Gutter, Bezalel; Gallili, Gilad; Goldway, Martin; Perelman, Beny; Gross, Gideon; Krispel, Simha; Barbakov, Marisa; Michael, Amnon
The present investigation describes for the first time the effect of an avian metapneumovirus vaccine administered in ovo to 18-day-old chicken embryos. The application of the vaccine had no adverse effect on the hatchability or the health of the chicks post hatch. The antibody titres achieved were higher than those determined for birds vaccinated at 1 day old. Not only were the mean titres in the in ovo vaccinated groups higher, but many more birds developed a measurable antibody response than birds vaccinated at 1 day old. Variation of the vaccine dose used in ovo had little effect on the serological responses that peaked 21 to 28 days post hatch. Re-isolation of the vaccine virus was much more successful from birds vaccinated in ovo than from birds vaccinated at 1 day old, and detection of the nucleic acid by polymerase chain reaction correlated with the results of live virus isolation. PMID:15763725
Hess, M; Huggins, M B; Heincz, U
Infection of maternal, antibody-negative chickens with chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) can cause clinical disease, while infection after maternal antibodies wane often results in subclinical infection and immunosuppression. Currently, vaccines are not available for vaccination in ovo or in newly hatched chickens. Development of CIAV vaccines for in ovo use depends on the ability to generate vaccines that do not cause lesions in newly hatched chicks and that can induce an immune response regardless of maternal immunity. Immune complex (IC) vaccines have been successfully used for control of infectious bursal disease, and we used a similar approach to determine if an IC vaccine is feasible for CIAV. Immune complexes were prepared that consisted of 0.1 ml containing 10(5.4) tissue culture infective dose 50% of CIA-1 and 0.1 ml containing 10 to 160 neutralizing units (IC Positive [ICP]10 to ICP160), in which one neutralizing unit is the reciprocal of the serum dilution required to protect 50% of CU147 cells from the cytopathic effects caused by CIA-1. Virus replication was delayed comparing ICP80 and ICP160 with combinations using negative serum (IC Negative [ICN]80 or ICN160). In addition, the number of birds with hematocrit values <28% were decreased with ICP80 or ICP160 compared to ICN80 or ICN160. Seroconversion was delayed in ICP80 and ICP160 groups. To determine if ICP80 or ICN 160 protected against challenge, we vaccinated maternal, antibody-free birds at 1 day of age and challenged at 2 wk or 3 wk of age with the 01-4201 strain. Both ICP80 and ICP160 protected against replication of the challenge virus, which was measured using differential quantitative PCR with primers distinguishing between the two isolates. Thus, in principle, immune complex vaccines may offer a method to protect newly hatched chicks against challenge with field virus. However, additional studies using maternal, antibody-positive chicks in combination with in ovo vaccination will be needed to determine if immune complex vaccines will be useful to protect commercial chickens. PMID:21500642
Schat, Karel A; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva; O'Connell, Priscilla H; Piepenbrink, Michael S
Factors influencing replication of serotype 1 Marek's disease vaccines in the lung of chickens within the first 10 days of age (doa) were evaluated. In particular, the effect of vaccine efficacy, age\\/route of vaccination, and vaccine dose were examined in three experiments. In the first experiment, three vaccine pairs, each pair consisting of a high protective (HP) and a low
Isabel M. Gimeno; Aneg L. Cortes
Infectious coryza is an acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum, and this infection is associated with growth retardation and reduced egg production. Previous studies have shown that HMTp210, a 210-kDa outer-membrane protein, is the major protective antigen of Av. paragallinarum both serovars A and C. Region 2 is a serovar-specific domain in the HMTp210 protein. Although the serovar C region 2 has been reported to be an effective vaccine antigen for infectious coryza, there have been no reports on the efficacy of region 2 from serovar A. In the current study, region 2 from serovars A and C was expressed as a fusion peptide. Chickens inoculated with vaccine consisting of 0.6 ?g of the fusion peptide showed no clinical signs of disease after challenge with either serovar A or C, and there were no side effects such as swelling at the injection site. These results demonstrate that the recombinant fusion peptide derived from HMTp210 could be useful for producing effective and safe vaccines against infectious coryza in chickens. PMID:23178044
Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Baba, Susumu; Ushijima, Toshihiro; Kino, Yoichiro; Honda, Takashi; Mizokami, Hiroshi; Sakaguchi, Masashi
ABSTRACT The pathogenicity of Newcastle disease (ND) virus, isolated from ND outbreak in vaccinated chickens, was evaluated through experiments. The pathogenicity indexes (mean death time (MDT); 58 hr, intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI); 1.7 and intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI); 2.51) indicated that the ND virus was velogenic. The ND virus caused lymphocytic necrosis in the spleen with fibrinous exudation and proliferation of macrophages, sinusoidal fibrin exudation in the liver, proliferation of macrophages in the lung, lymphocytic necrosis and depletion in the bursa of Fabricius, cecal tonsils and thymus, necrosis of bone marrow, tracheitis, conjunctivitis and necrosis of feather epithelial cells in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Immunohistochemically, ND virus antigens were seen in the lesions mentioned above. The ND virus could not induce the encephalitis and pancreatitis that were observed in the natural case of ND in vaccinated chickens. There was no clinical disease in vaccinated chickens after the challenge of the ND virus. In diluted ND vaccine experiments, chickens vaccinated with a high dilution of vaccine and then challenged with the ND virus showed clinical sign and mortality with pancreatic focal necrosis. Vaccine diluted with fresh tap water had no effect on protection against the challenge of the ND virus. This study suggests that improper vaccination may be involved in outbreaks of ND in vaccinated chickens.
NAKAMURA, Kikuyasu; ITO, Mitsuru; NAKAMURA, Toshiki; YAMAMOTO, Yu; YAMADA, Manabu; MASE, Masaji; IMAI, Kunitoshi
The pathogenicity of Newcastle disease (ND) virus, isolated from ND outbreak in vaccinated chickens, was evaluated through experiments. The pathogenicity indexes (mean death time (MDT); 58 hr, intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI); 1.7 and intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI); 2.51) indicated that the ND virus was velogenic. The ND virus caused lymphocytic necrosis in the spleen with fibrinous exudation and proliferation of macrophages, sinusoidal fibrin exudation in the liver, proliferation of macrophages in the lung, lymphocytic necrosis and depletion in the bursa of Fabricius, cecal tonsils and thymus, necrosis of bone marrow, tracheitis, conjunctivitis and necrosis of feather epithelial cells in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Immunohistochemically, ND virus antigens were seen in the lesions mentioned above. The ND virus could not induce the encephalitis and pancreatitis that were observed in the natural case of ND in vaccinated chickens. There was no clinical disease in vaccinated chickens after the challenge of the ND virus. In diluted ND vaccine experiments, chickens vaccinated with a high dilution of vaccine and then challenged with the ND virus showed clinical sign and mortality with pancreatic focal necrosis. Vaccine diluted with fresh tap water had no effect on protection against the challenge of the ND virus. This study suggests that improper vaccination may be involved in outbreaks of ND in vaccinated chickens. PMID:23966012
Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Ito, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Yu; Yamada, Manabu; Mase, Masaji; Imai, Kunitoshi
Four monovalent experimental vaccines (VI, V2, V3 and V7) containing an Argentinean serovar B strain (H8) of Haemophilus paragallinarum and three different commercial vaccines, either bivalent (V4 and V5) containing serovars A and C, or trivalent (V6) containing serovars A, B and C were administered by subcutaneous or intramuscular routes as a single or double dose (at 3-week intervals) to chickens of between 6 and 10 weeks. Three to 7 weeks after the last vaccination, vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens were challenged by intrasinus inoculation with Argentinean serovar B strains of H. paragallinarum. When the vaccinated chickens were exposed to a severe challenge with the vaccinal strain (H8) some experimental vaccines protected, whereas all commercial vaccines failed to protect. The experimental vaccines manufactured in broth (V2, V3 and V7) protected more effectively than the vaccine produced in chicken embryos (VI). Failure of the commercial trivalent vaccine V6 to protect may be related to the method of manufacture. Vaccine V7 protected against challenge from either the vaccinal strain (H8) or three Argentinean serovar B strains (H6, Hll and HI2). These results confirm the necessity of including serovar B regional strains in the formulation of local vaccines. PMID:18483913
Terzolo, H R; Sandoval, V E; Pondal, F G
Using plasmid-based reverse genetics, we generated a molecularly altered virus, H5N1/PR8-5B19, containing modified HA and NA genes from A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 (GS/GD/1/96). In the H5N1/PR8-5B19 virus, the HA cleavage site was modified to resemble that of low-pathogenic avian strains and a portion of the NA stalk region was replaced by the immunodominant 5B19 epitope of the S2 glycoprotein of murine hepatitis virus (MHV). H5N1/PR8-5B19 is not lethal to embryonated eggs or chickens. Chickens immunized with the H5N1/PR8-5B19 inactivated vaccine produced high levels of HI antibody and a measurable antibody response against the MHV 5B19 epitope, and were fully protected against subsequent challenge with different highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses. H5N1/PR8-5B19 is therefore an attractive marker vaccine candidate, eliciting a strong, protective antibody response and enabling serological discrimination between vaccinated and wild-type virus-infected chickens. PMID:18501701
Li, Chengjun; Ping, Jihui; Jing, Bo; Deng, Guohua; Jiang, Yongping; Li, Yanbing; Tian, Guobin; Yu, Kangzhen; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan
Interference by maternally derived antibody (MDA) is a major problem for the vaccination of young chickens against infectious bursal disease (IBD). The choice of the timing of vaccination and of the type (degree of attenuation) of modified-live vaccine (MLV) to use is often difficult. An IBD vectored vaccine (vHVT13), in which turkey herpesvirus (HVT) is used as the vector, was recently developed. This vaccine is administered once at the hatchery, either in ovo or by the subcutaneous route, to 1-day-old chicks at a time when MDA is maximal. In terms of safety, the vHVT13 vaccine had negligible impact on the bursa of Fabricius when compared with classical IBD MLV. Vaccination and challenge studies demonstrated that this vaccine is able to protect chickens against various IBD virus (IBDV) challenge strains including very virulent, classical, and USA variant IBDV, despite the presence of high-titred IBD MDA at the time of vaccination. These data show that the vector vaccine combines a safety and efficacy profile that cannot be achieved with classical IBD vaccines. PMID:17560594
Bublot, M; Pritchard, N; Le Gros, F-X; Goutebroze, S
Raccoonpox virus (RCN) has been used as a recombinant vector against several mammalian pathogens but has not been tested in birds. The replication of RCN in chick embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) and chickens was studied with the use of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 hemagglutinin (HA) as a model antigen and luciferase (luc) as a reporter gene. Although RCN replicated to low levels in CEFs, it efficiently expressed recombinant proteins and, in vivo, elicited anti-HA immunoglobulin yolk (IgY) antibody responses comparable to inactivated influenza virus. Biophotonic in vivo imaging of 1-wk-old chicks with RCN-luc showed strong expression of the luc reporter gene lasting up to 3 days postinfection. These studies demonstrate the potential of RCN as a vaccine vector for avian influenza and other poultry pathogens. PMID:21313834
Hwa, Shi-Hsia; Iams, Keith P; Hall, Jeffrey S; Kingstad, Brock A; Osorio, Jorge E
Following the introduction of routine vaccination regimes with different types of Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines, the incidence of velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease (VVND) in commercial poultry worldwide has declined dramatically. Unfortunately, these vaccination regimes are not feasible in free-range and backyard systems of poultry production practiced in many developing countries. In this study, we sought to develop a single vaccination regime in chickens with ND vaccines to elicit a long-lasting high level of ND virus (NDV) antibodies adequate to protect chickens against ND. The level of antibody response, as measured by the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test, and the degree of protection against the virulent strain of NDV were studied in chickens immunized with different vaccines. The vaccines used were: killed-in-oil emulsion (subcutaneous; s.c.) plus live virus (oculanasal; o.n.), given concurrently; experimental vaccine (s.c.) plus live virus (o.n.), given concurrently; killed-in-oil (s.c.); experimental vaccine prepared by homogenizing commercial live vaccine and oil emulsion (s.c.); and live virus (o.n.). The results obtained in this study indicate that concurrent administration of oil emulsion and live NDV vaccines induced the best antibody response, but there was no significant difference in protection among the vaccinated groups. PMID:9533096
Folitse, R; Halvorson, D A; Sivanandan, V
Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus has been elicited in chickens by single-dose in ovo or i.m. vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (Ad)-free human Ad vector encoding the AI virus A/Turkey/Wisconsin/68 H5 (AdTW68. H5) or the A/Chicken/New York/94 H7 (AdChNY94. H7) hemagglutinin (HA). The AdTW68.H5-vaccinated chickens were protected against both H5N1 and H5N2 highly pathogenic AI virus challenges. The AdChNY94. H7-vaccinated chickens were protected against an H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus challenge. Chickens vaccinated in ovo with AdTW68.H5 followed by posthatch i.m. vaccination with AdChNY94.H7 responded to both vaccinations, with robust antibody titers against both the H5 and H7 AI proteins. The use of a synthetic AI H5 HA gene codon optimized to match the tRNA pool found in chicken cells is more potent than the cognate H5 HA gene. Mass administration of this AI vaccine can be streamlined with available robotic in ovo injectors. In addition, Ad5-vectored vaccines can be produced rapidly and the safety margin of the nonreplicating vector is superior to that of a replicating counterpart. Furthermore, this mode of vaccination will not interfere with epidemiological surveys of natural AI infections. Finally, the demonstration that Ad-vectored vaccines can be administered repeatedly without appreciably losing potency highlights the commercial potential of this new class of vaccine in poultry. PMID:19276437
Toro, H; Tang, D C
The effect of various routes of immunization on protection against challenge by virulent agents was examined in chickens. Chickens were immunized intratracheally, intranasally, per os, by crop gavage, and intramuscularly. Agents examined were killed Haemophilus paragallinarum, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and infectious bursal disease virus. Results of immunization by intratracheal administration were equivalent to those produced by parenteral administration. All vaccines effectively induced production of serum antibodies against pathogens, and all immunized chickens were protected against infection by each pathogen. PMID:8561734
Nakamura, T; Hoshi, S; Nagasawa, Y; Ueda, S
All neonates, infants and young children receive multiple priming doses and booster vaccinations in the 1st and 2nd year of life to prevent infections by viral and bacterial pathogens. Despite high vaccine compliance, outbreaks of vaccine-preventable infections are occurring worldwide. These data strongly argue for an improved understanding of the immune responses of neonates, infants and young children to vaccine antigens and further study of the exploitable mechanisms to achieve more robust and prolonged immunity with fewer primary and booster vaccinations in the pediatric population. This review will focus on our recent work involving infant and young child immunity following routine recommended vaccinations. The discussion will address vaccine responses with respect to four areas: (1) systemic antibody responses, (2) memory B-cell generation, (3) CD4 T-cell responses, and (4) APC function. PMID:24837502
Pichichero, Michael E
Summary Most avian influenza (AI) vaccination and field studies have focused on chickens and turkeys because of their high death rates and the large amounts of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus that they excrete into the environment when infected. Data on vaccination of other species against HPAI remain limited. An increasing number of studies have been conducted to test
G. Koch; M. Steensels; T. van den Berg
Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) can be elicited in chickens in a single-dose regimen by in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad)-vector encoding the AI virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA). We evaluated vaccine potency, antibody persistence, transfer of maternal antibodies (MtAb), and interference between MtAb and active in ovo or mucosal immunization with RCA-free recombinant Ad expressing a codon-optimized AIV H5 HA gene from A/turkey/WI/68 (AdTW68.H5(ck)). Vaccine coverage and intrapotency test repeatability were based on anti-H5 hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody levels detected in in ovo vaccinated chickens. Even though egg inoculation of each replicate was performed by individuals with varying expertise and with different vaccine batches, the average vaccine coverage of three replicates was 85%. The intrapotency test repeatability, which considers both positive as well as negative values, varied between 0.69 and 0.71, indicating effective vaccination. Highly pathogenic (HP) AIV challenge of chicken groups vaccinated with increasing vaccine doses showed 90% protection in chickens receiving > or = 10(8) ifu (infectious units)/bird. The protective dose 50% (PD50) was determined to be 10(6.5) ifu. Even vaccinated chickens that did not develop detectable antibody levels were effectively protected against HP AIV challenge. This result is consistent with previous findings ofAd-vector eliciting T lymphocyte responses. Higher vaccine doses significantly reduced viral shedding as determined by AIV RNA concentration in oropharyngeal swabs. Assessment of antibody persistence showed that antibody levels of in ovo immunized chickens continued to increase until 12 wk and started to decline after 18 wk of age. Intramuscular (IM) booster vaccination with the same vaccine at 16 wk of age significantly increased the antibody responses in breeder hens, and these responses were maintained at high levels throughout the experimental period (34 wk of age). AdTW68.H5(ch)-immunized breeder hens effectively transferred MtAb to progeny chickens. The level of MtAb in the progenies was consistent with the levels detected in the breeders, i.e., intramuscularly boosted breeders transferred higher concentrations of antibodies to the offspring. Maternal antibodies declined with time in the progenies and achieved marginal levels by 34 days of age. Chickens with high maternal antibody levels that were vaccinated either in ovo or via mucosal routes (ocular or spray) did not seroconvert. In contrast, chickens without MtAb successfully developed specific antibody levels after either in ovo or mucosal vaccination. These results indicate that high levels of MtAb interfered with active Ad-vectored vaccination. PMID:21793447
Mesonero, Alexander; Suarez, David L; van Santen, Edzard; Tang, De-Chu C; Toro, Haroldo
Serial passage of two infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccine strains in chickens enhanced their capacity to increase the incidence and severity of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) airsacculitis. Included in this report were the mild Massachusetts-type Connaught strain and the Arkansas 99 vaccine strain of IBV. The Connaught strain and one of two Ark 99 vaccine strains passaged in chickens increased the incidence of airsacculitis markedly compared with nonpassaged virus. The other Ark 99 vaccine virus already exacerbated MS airsacculitis, before passage in chickens, and its influence did not increase on passage. All IBV strains studied to date have either possessed this trait or reacquired it on passage in the natural host. PMID:3015106
Hopkins, S R; Yoder, H W
Factors influencing replication of serotype 1 Marek's disease vaccines in the lung of chickens within the first 10 days of age (doa) were evaluated. In particular, the effect of vaccine efficacy, age/route of vaccination, and vaccine dose were examined in three experiments. In the first experiment, three vaccine pairs, each pair consisting of a high protective (HP) and a low protective (LP) vaccine (CVI988/BP5 and CVI988-Clone C, 648A80 and 648A100, R2 and R2/23) were used to inoculate chickens subcutaneously (s.c.) with 2000 plaque-forming units (PFU) at hatch. DNA load in the lung was significantly higher in the HP vaccine group than the LP vaccine group at 5 and 10 doa in two of the three vaccine pairs. In the lung, at 5 doa, early MDV gene transcripts (ICP4 and pp38) were detected in most vaccine groups, whereas late MDV gene transcripts (gB and gI) were detected only in the HP vaccine group. In the second experiment, chickens were vaccinated in ovo or s.c. at hatch with 2000 PFU R2, R2/23, or CVI988/BP5. Compared with s.c. vaccination, in ovo vaccination resulted in higher MDV DNA load in the lung at 3 doa, lower or equal MDV DNA load at 5 doa, and lower MDV DNA load at 10 doa. In the third experiment, chickens were vaccinated s.c. at hatch with either 2000 or 10,000 PFU strain R2. There were no statistically significant differences in the load of MDV DNA in the lung after vaccination with R2 between the two doses. Our results showed that HP vaccines tend to replicate better than LP vaccines in the lung; and vaccine replication in the lung within the first 10 days of age was affected by the age/route of inoculation (in ovo versus s.c.) but not by the dose of vaccine administered. PMID:20390540
Gimeno, Isabel M; Cortes, Aneg L
The protective efficacy of DNA plasmids encoding avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1, N, or M protein was investigated in chickens. Chickens were inoculated monovalently (with plasmid pVAX1-16S1, pVAX1-16M, or pVAX1-16N alone) or multivalently (combination of the three different plasmids, pVAX1-16S1/M/N). A prime-boost immunization protocol against IBV was developed. Chickens were immunized with the multivalent DNA vaccine twice and then boosted with an inactivated vaccine once. Antibody titers of the chickens immunized with pVAX1-16S1/M/N were much higher than those of the monovalent groups (p < 0.01). A protective rate up to 90% was observed in the pVAX1-16S1/M/N group. The serum antibody titers in the prime-boost birds were significantly higher than those of the multivalent DNA vaccine group (p < 0.01) but not significantly different compared to the inactivated vaccine group at 49 days of age. Additionally, the prime-boost group also showed the highest level of IBV-specific cellular proliferation compared to the monovalent groups (p < 0.01) but no significant difference was found compared to the multivalent DNA vaccine group, and the prime-boost group completely protected from followed viral challenge.
Zhao, Yujun; Hu, Yongting; Qiu, Jianyang; Lei, Wenxin; Ji, Wenhui; Li, Xuying; Wu, Qian; Shi, Xiumin; Li, Zhong
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of 4 Chinese herbal polysaccharides on the production of serum antibodies and the proliferation of peripheral T lymphocytes, including subpopulations in vaccinated chickens. A total of 450 chickens were randomly assigned to 9 groups at 14 d of age and vaccinated first with live Newcastle disease (ND)-infectious bronchitis virus vaccine, and second with ND-infectious bronchitis oil adjuvant vaccine at 28 d of age. At the same time as the first vaccination, the chickens in groups 1 to 8 were intramuscularly injected with 4 polysaccharides at high and low dosages, respectively, once a day for 3 successive days starting on the day of the first vaccination. Group 9 (control group) was injected in the same manner with saline instead of a polysaccharide. On d 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 after the first vaccination, the temporal changes in serum ND hemagglutination inhibition antibody titer were determined by the micromethod. On d 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 after the first vaccination, the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to concanavalin A stimulation as well as the proportions of CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) peripheral blood mononuclear cells were determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method and flow cytometry, respectively. The results showed that astragalus polysaccharide and isatis root polysaccharide at low dosages, and achyranthes root polysaccharide and Chinese yam polysaccharide at high dosages significantly enhanced the ND antibody titers, concanavalin A-induced proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes, and ratio of CD4(+) to CD8(+) (P <0.05). Collectively, these findings indicate that the 4 polysaccharides possess significant immune-enhancing properties in chickens. This finding may have direct application in vaccine design and other strategies designed to potentiate immune system development and function in chickens. PMID:18029798
Qiu, Y; Hu, Y L; Cui, B A; Zhang, H Y; Kong, X F; Wang, D Y; Wang, Y G
Vaccination of commercial layer chickens is labor intensive and often results in poor rates of seroconversion, which, in turn, generally correlate with decreased flock uniformity and performance. Attempts to improve the vaccination process include numerous variations of individual shop-built vaccinators in use by the layer sector of the poultry industry. Each of these vaccinators has limitations that contribute to poor vaccinations. Major problems include the nonuniform speed of the applicator system and pressure fluctuations at the spray nozzles, which contribute to sporadic dispersion of the vaccine as the vaccinator is pushed or carried past the cages. A battery-powered, self-propelled, constant-speed vaccinator was designed and constructed that operates with constant nozzle pressure. In field use, this vaccinator has resulted in both labor savings (reduction of manpower from five to one to vaccinate 75,000 chickens) and time savings (from 45 min to 7.5 min/poultry house) as well as improved vaccination results (higher positive seroconversion rates) against the poultry pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), a bacterium associated with losses of 15.7 eggs/hen over a 45-wk laying period in MG-infected layers as compared with layers maintained free from infection with MG. PMID:15839429
Branton, S L; Roush, W B; Lott, B D; Evans, J D; Dozier, W A; Collier, S D; Bearson, S M D; Bearson, B L; Pharr, G T
The prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is gradually decreasing in poultry flocks in the EU, which may result in the demand for a vaccine that allows for the differentiation of vaccinated flocks from those infected by wild-type S. Enteritidis. In this study, we therefore constructed a (Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1) SPI1-lon mutant with or without fliC encoding for S. Enteritidis flagellin. The combination of SPI1-lon mutations resulted in attenuated but immunogenic mutant suitable for oral vaccination of poultry. In addition, the vaccination of chickens with the SPI1-lon-fliC mutant enabled the serological differentiation of vaccinated and infected chickens. The absence of fliC therefore did not affect the immunogenicity of the vaccine strain and allowed for serological differentiation of the vaccinated chickens. The SPI1-lon-fliC mutant is therefore a suitable marker vaccine strain for oral vaccination of poultry.
Matulova, Marta; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan
The prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is gradually decreasing in poultry flocks in the EU, which may result in the demand for a vaccine that allows for the differentiation of vaccinated flocks from those infected by wild-type S. Enteritidis. In this study, we therefore constructed a (Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1) SPI1-lon mutant with or without fliC encoding for S. Enteritidis flagellin. The combination of SPI1-lon mutations resulted in attenuated but immunogenic mutant suitable for oral vaccination of poultry. In addition, the vaccination of chickens with the SPI1-lon-fliC mutant enabled the serological differentiation of vaccinated and infected chickens. The absence of fliC therefore did not affect the immunogenicity of the vaccine strain and allowed for serological differentiation of the vaccinated chickens. The SPI1-lon-fliC mutant is therefore a suitable marker vaccine strain for oral vaccination of poultry. PMID:23785484
Matulova, Marta; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan
We generated a high-growth H5N1\\/PR8 virus by plasmid-based reverse genetics. The virulence associated multiple basic amino acids of the HA gene were removed, and the resulting virus is attenuated for chickens and chicken eggs. A formalin-inactivated oil-emulsion vaccine was prepared from this virus. When SPF chickens were inoculated with 0.3 ml of the vaccine, the hemagglutinin-inhibition (HI) antibody became detectable
Guobin Tian; Suhua Zhang; Yanbing Li; Zhigao Bu; Peihong Liu; Jinping Zhou; Chengjun Li; Jianzhong Shi; Kangzhen Yu; Hualan Chen
Salmonella hold considerable promise as vaccine delivery vectors for heterologous antigens in chickens. Such vaccines have the potential additional benefit of also controlling Salmonella infection in immunized birds. As a way of selecting attenuated strains with optimal immunogenic potential as antigen delivery vectors, this study screened 20 novel Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, differing in mutations associated with delayed antigen synthesis and delayed attenuation, for their efficacy in controlling colonization by virulent Salmonella Typhimurium, as well as for their persistence in the intestine and the spleen. Marked differences were observed between strains in these characteristics, which provide the basis for selection for further study as vaccine vectors. PMID:24396177
Pei, Yanlong; Parreira, Valeria R; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy; Prescott, John F
Salmonella hold considerable promise as vaccine delivery vectors for heterologous antigens in chickens. Such vaccines have the potential additional benefit of also controlling Salmonella infection in immunized birds. As a way of selecting attenuated strains with optimal immunogenic potential as antigen delivery vectors, this study screened 20 novel Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, differing in mutations associated with delayed antigen synthesis and delayed attenuation, for their efficacy in controlling colonization by virulent Salmonella Typhimurium, as well as for their persistence in the intestine and the spleen. Marked differences were observed between strains in these characteristics, which provide the basis for selection for further study as vaccine vectors.
Pei, Yanlong; Parreira, Valeria R.; Roland, Kenneth L.; Curtiss, Roy; Prescott, John F.
Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose vaccination with a replication competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus (Ad) vector encoding an H7 AI hemagglutinin (AdChNY94.H7). Chickens vaccinated in ovo with an Ad vector encoding an AI H5 (AdTW68.H5) previously described, which were subsequently vaccinated intramuscularly with AdChNY94.H7 post-hatch, responded with robust antibody titers against both the H5 and H7 AI proteins. Antibody responses to Ad vector in ovo vaccination follow a dose-response kinetic. The use of a synthetic AI H5 gene codon optimized to match the chicken cell tRNA pool was more potent than the cognate H5 gene. The use of Ad-vectored vaccines to increase resistance of chicken populations against multiple AI strains could reduce the risk of an avian-originating influenza pandemic in humans. PMID:18384919
Toro, Haroldo; Tang, De-chu C; Suarez, David L; Zhang, Jianfeng; Shi, Zhongkai
Not much is known about IBDV-pathogenesis and immune mechanisms following in ovo vaccination. In this study, we compared the immunopathogenesis of an intermediate IBDV-vaccine in post-hatch- and in ovo-inoculated chickens. In ovo-vaccinated birds recovered significantly faster from lesions of the bursa of Fabricius than post-hatch vaccinated (P<0.05). A significant accumulation of intrabursal CD8(+) T cells was observed in post-hatch but not in in ovo-vaccinated chickens (P<0.05). The innate immunity was comparable between in ovo- and post-hatch-vaccinated groups as indicated by comparable intrabursal macrophage accumulation and intrabursal IBDV-clearance. Overall, our observations indicate that IBDV in ovo vaccination may be advantageous over post-hatch. In ovo-vaccinated birds recover faster from bursa lesions and exhibit similar protection against challenge in comparison to post-hatch vaccinated. PMID:15911001
Rautenschlein, Silke; Haase, Christine
Abstract Vaccination remains a useful means for the control of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in chickens. Current vaccines can protect chickens from morbidity and mortality. However, they do not eliminate virus shedding into the environment. Therefore, novel measures must be considered in order to enhance the immunogenicity of AIV vaccines, such as through the administration of immunostimulatory compounds. One such group of compounds is Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, such as bacterial flagellin, as well as synthetic lipopeptides such as Pam3CSK4. The objective of the present study was to assess the adjuvant potential of TLR2 and TLR5 ligands flagellin and Pam3 respectively. Chickens were vaccinated twice with an inactivated H4N6 AIV vaccine, 14 days apart. Antibody-mediated responses were assessed in sera and lacrimal secretions, while cell-mediated immune response was assessed by stimulating splenocytes from vaccinated chickens in vitro with the vaccine antigen. To evaluate vaccine efficacy, chickens were challenged with the H4N6 virus, and virus shedding was assessed on day 7 post-challenge. The results suggest that both ligands significantly enhanced antigen-specific IgY antibodies, while only the Pam3 adjuvant induced greater IgM and IgA antibody levels. Chickens receiving the flagellin adjuvant had significantly higher IgY responses, as well as significantly higher hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titers compared to the no adjuvant control. With respect to cell-mediated responses, splenocytes isolated from chickens that received either TLR ligand adjuvant proliferated in response to an in vitro stimulation with vaccine antigens. Lastly, chickens receiving vaccines containing either flagellin or Pam3 adjuvants were partially protected from an experimental AIV challenge and shed significantly less virus compared to controls. Future studies may be aimed at examining the efficacy of Pam3 and flagellin adjuvants for highly pathogenic AIV strains. PMID:24797722
St Paul, Michael; Brisbin, Jennifer T; Barjesteh, Neda; Villaneueva, Alexander Ian; Parvizi, Payvand; Read, Leah R; Nagy, Eva; Sharif, Shayan
Vaccination has been a critical tool in the control of some avian influenza viruses (AIV) and has been used routinely in Pakistan to help control sporadic outbreaks of highly pathogenic (HP) H7 AIV since 1995. During that time, several AIV isolates were utilized as inactivated vaccines with varying degrees of success. In order to evaluate which H7 AIV strains may serve as optimal vaccines for diverse H7 AIVs from Pakistan we conducted vaccination-challenge studies with five H7 vaccines against challenge with two HPAIVs: A/chicken/Murree/NARC-1/1995 H7N3 and A/chicken/Karachi/SPVC-4/2004 H7N3. To further characterize the isolates antigenic cartography was used to visually demonstrate the antigenic relationships among the isolates. All vaccines provided similar protection against mortality, morbidity and shedding of challenge virus from the respiratory tract. However, some minor (not statistically significant) differences were observed and correlated with antibody levels induced by the vaccine prior to challenge. PMID:21803098
Abbas, Muhammad Athar; Spackman, Erica; Fouchier, Ron; Smith, Derek; Ahmed, Zaheer; Siddique, Naila; Sarmento, Luciana; Naeem, Khalid; McKinley, Enid T; Hameed, Abdul; Rehmani, Shafqat; Swayne, David E
We investigated the effect of in ovo administered reovirus vaccines on the immune responses of specific-pathogen-free chickens. T-cell mitogenic responses to concanavalin A were numerically lower at 9 and 12 days of age and significantly lower at 6 days of age in birds vaccinated with a commercial reovirus vaccine compared with unvaccinated birds or birds vaccinated with an experimental reovirus-antibody complex vaccine. There were no significant differences in proportions of subpopulations of helper (CD4+CD8-) or cytotoxic (CD4-CD8+) T cells except at 12 days of age, when the percentages of CD4-CD8+ cells in the two vaccinated groups were statistically higher than in the nonvaccinated group. B-cell populations were not different among vaccine groups except at 9 days of age, when the vaccinated groups had the highest level of B cells. This commercial reovirus vaccine should not be given in ovo to embryos having little or no maternal antibody, otherwise immunosuppression may occur in the chicks. The addition of the antibody complex to the vaccine prevented this T-cell immunosuppression. PMID:15077821
Guo, Z Y; Giambrone, J J; Liu, Z; Dormitorio, T V; Wu, Hongzhuan
Our previous study demonstrated that chickens immunized subcutaneously with an Eimeria recombinant profilin protein vaccine emulsified in a Quil A/cholesterol/DDA/Carbopol (QCDC) adjuvant developed partial protection against experimental avian coccidiosis compared with animals immunized with profilin alone. Because in ovo vaccination is presently used in commercial applications worldwide throughout the poultry industry, the current study was undertaken to investigate chicken embryo vaccination with profilin plus QCDC adjuvant. Eighteen day-old embryos were immunized with isotonic saline (control), profilin alone, QCDC alone, or profilin plus QCDC, and orally challenged with live Eimeria maxima at 7 days post-hatch. Body weight gain, fecal oocyst output, and intestinal cytokine transcript levels were assessed as measures of protective immunity. While immunization with profilin alone or QCDC alone did not alter body weight gain of infected chickens compared with the saline control group, vaccination with profilin plus QCDC increased body weight gain such that it was equal to the uninfected controls. Immunization with profilin plus QCDC also reduced fecal oocyst shedding compared with unimmunized controls, although in this case QCDC failed to provide an adjuvant effect since no difference was observed between the profilin-only and profilin/QCDC groups. Finally, increased levels of transcripts encoding IL-1?, IL-15, and IFN-? were seen in the intestinal tissues of animals given profilin plus QCDC compared with the profilin-only or QCDC-only groups. In summary, this study demonstrates an adjuvant effect of QCDC on body weight gain and intestinal cytokine responses following in ovo vaccination of chickens with an Eimeria profilin vaccine. PMID:20956029
Lee, Sung-Hyen; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Hong, Yeong-Ho; Min, Wongi; Lillehoj, Erik P; Yancey, Robert J; Dominowski, Paul
Protection of chicken against very virulent IBDV provided by in ovo priming with DNA vaccine and boosting with killed vaccine and the adjuvant effects of plasmid-encoded chicken interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma.
The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of in ovo prime-boost vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) using a DNA vaccine to prime in ovo followed by a killed-vaccine boost post hatching. In addition, the adjuvant effects of plasmid-encoded chicken interleukin-2 and chicken interferon-gamma were tested in conjunction with the vaccine. A plasmid DNA vaccine (pcDNA-VP243) encoding the VP2, VP4, and VP3 proteins of the very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) SH/92 strain was injected into the amniotic sac alone or in combination with a plasmid encoding chicken IL-2 (ChIL-2) or chicken IFN-gamma (ChIFN-gamma) at embryonation day 18, followed by an intramuscular injection of a commercial killed IBD vaccine at 1 week of age. The chickens were orally challenged with the vvIBDV SH/92 strain at 3 weeks of age and observed for 10 days. In ovo DNA immunization followed by a killedvaccine boost provided significantly better immunity than the other options. No mortality was observed in this group after a challenge with the vvIBDV. The prime-boost strategy was moderately effective against bursal damage, which was measured by the bursa weight/body weight ratio, the presence of IBDV RNA, and the bursal lesion score. In ovo DNA vaccination with no boost did not provide sufficient immunity, and the addition of ChIL-2 or ChIFN-gamma did not enhance protective immunity. In the ConA-induced lymphocyte proliferation assay of peripheral blood lymphocyte collected 10 days post-challenge, there was greater proliferation responses in the DNA vaccine plus boost and DNA vaccine with ChIL-2 plus boost groups compared to the other groups. These findings suggest that priming with DNA vaccine and boosting with killed vaccine is an effective strategy for protecting chickens against vvIBDV. PMID:19461208
Park, Jeong Ho; Sung, Haan Woo; Yoon, Byung Il; Kwon, Hyuk Moo
When monoflora chickens with Lactobacillus acidophilus or Streptococcus faecalis were inoculated with Clostridium perfringens either in broth culture or resuspended in Gifu anaerobic medium broth or supernatant fluid, few or no chickens died. Approximately 50% of germ-free chickens died after inoculation of C. perfringens culture, whereas no conventional birds died after inoculation of broth culture. C. perfringens in the contents of duodenum from germ-free chickens numbered about 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU)/g after inoculation 10(8) CFU broth culture per bird, but in gnotobiotic and conventional chickens this organism decreased or was not detected. When C. perfringens was cultured in intestinal contents collected from germ-free chickens, C. perfringens proliferated but alpha toxin was not detected. These findings indicate that the pathogenicity of C. perfringens was suppressed by L. acidophilus or S. faecalis administered previously or inhibited by normal intestinal flora. PMID:1903033
Fukata, T; Hadate, Y; Baba, E; Arakawa, A
With the widespread presence of influenza virus H5N1 in poultry and wildlife species, particularly migrating birds, vaccination has become an important control strategy for avian influenza (AI). In this study, the immune efficacy and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody responses induced by a recombinant fowlpox virus (FPV) vector-based rFPV–HA–NA vaccine was evaluated in SPF and commercial chickens. Four-week old SPF chickens
Chuanling Qiao; Yongping Jiang; Guobin Tian; Xiurong Wang; Chengjun Li; Xiaoguang Xin; Hualan Chen; Kangzhen Yu
The effects of crude thymus extract on the immune response and protection against challenge with virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were studied in one-day-old chick. Oral administration of thymus extract (1 ml/kg) markedly and significantly increased the total protein, albumin, globulin, Tri-iodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4) and the body weight gain in one-day-old chick. In addition, it increased the total lymphocytic count over four weeks after administration. Although vaccination also increased total protein, globulin, T4 and the total lymphocytic count but it significantly decreased the body weight gain of the chick and administration of thymus extract, before, during or after vaccination markedly improved the vaccination effectiveness with significant elevation of the globulin level and body weight gain of the chick. It also prevented the decrease in the relative weights of bursa, spleen and thyroid gland which commonly prevailed during vaccination. Chicken administered thymus extract and vaccinated with infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine showed 100% protection against challenge with IBDV. Meanwhile the vaccinated non-thymus treated group exhibited 80% protection against IBDV challenge. These results indicate a potentiating effect of thymus extract on the immune system in baby chick. These findings are supported by ELISA results that showed a marked increase in antibody titers in thymus treated groups. Additionally, microscopical examination of the bursa and the existent lymphoid hyperplasia in thymus treated groups but not vaccinated group support our findings. PMID:10458105
Abdel-Fattah, A F; Mohamed, E H; Mohamed, E S; Ramadan, G
The relationship between release properties of the model antigen, bovine serum albumin (BSA), from formulations in vitro and immune response after administration of various oil adjuvanted vaccines containing liquid paraffin was examined in chickens. The vaccine prepared at an hydrophile-lipophile-balance (HLB) number of 4.8 showed slower release of BSA and higher immune response on injected chickens than that with an HLB number of 6.0. Decreases of aqueous volume ratio in the formulation also led to slower release of BSA and higher immune response. The slower release rate of BSA showed higher ELISA antibody titer even at 20 weeks after vaccination. The ELISA antibody titer inversely was related to the constant release rate, k, calculated from the in vitro release test. The correlation coefficient was 0.863. The immune response of oil adjuvanted vaccines containing Haemophilus paragallinarum agreed well with these results with BSA. Our results indicated that a stronger and more prolonged immune response of oil adjuvanted vaccines was achieved by slower release rate of antigen from the formulation. In addition, there was a good correlation between immune response and the value of k. PMID:10907681
Fukanoki, S; Matsumoto, K; Mori, H; Takeda, R
The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox, a live anticoccidial vaccine were examined and compared with an anticoccidial drug in a trial in broiler chickens under modern commercial conditions in China. In total, 40,660 chickens were used in the present study, half of which were vaccinated with the Supercox vaccine comprising a precocious line of Eimeria tenella and non-attenuated lines of Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina, and the other half were medicated with Diclazuril delivered as feed additive at the dosage of 1mg/kg of feed. The vaccine was administered orally to 7-day-old chickens. No clinical diseases were diagnosed in any of the vaccinated birds. However, clinical coccidiosis occurred in a large proportion of medicated control birds and these chickens had to be treated with anticoccidial drugs (Diclazuril and Toltrazuril). Comparison of production performance between vaccinated birds and medicated control birds revealed that the vaccine Supercox performed better than anticoccidial drugs in terms of mortalities, costs and overall economic benefits (profits). These findings demonstrated that the use of the Supercox vaccine could control clinical coccidiosis in broilers and achieve production performance superior to that using anticoccidial drugs, particularly where drug resistance might result in failure to control clinical diseases. PMID:16876953
Suo, X; Zhang, J X; Li, Z G; Yang, C T; Min, Q R; Xu, L T; Liu, Q; Zhu, X Q
Huge productivity loss due to infectious diseases in chickens is a major problem and, hence, robust development of the poultry industry requires control of poultry health. Immunization using vaccines is routine practice; however, to combat infectious diseases, conventional vaccines as well as new-generation recombinant vaccines alone, due to relatively weak immunogenicity, may not be effective enough to provide optimum immunity. With this in mind, there is a need to incorporate better and more suitable adjuvants in the vaccines to elicit the elevated immune response in the host. Over last few decades, with the increase in the knowledge of innate immune functioning, efforts have been made to enhance vaccine potency using novel adjuvants like Toll-like receptor based adjuvant systems. In this review, we will discuss the potential use of toll-like receptor ligands as an adjuvant in vaccines against the infectious diseases of chickens. PMID:24855906
Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Deb, Rajib; Dey, Sohini; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) also known as Gumboro disease is an important viral disease in poultry industry due to significant economic losses resulting from high mortality and immunosuppression. The disease can only be controlled and prevented by proper vaccination and biosecurity. It was the objective of the study to determine the efficacy of an \\
BackgroundSustained outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in avian species increase the risk of reassortment and adaptation to humans. The ability to contain its spread in chickens would reduce this threat and help maintain the capacity for egg-based vaccine production. While vaccines offer the potential to control avian disease, a major concern of current vaccines is their potency
Srinivas Rao; Wing-Pui Kong; Chih-Jen Wei; Zhi-Yong Yang; Martha Nason; Darrel Styles; Louis J. Detolla; Erin M. Sorrell; Haichen Song; Hongquan Wan; Gloria C. Ramirez-Nieto; Daniel Perez; Gary J. Nabel; David M. Ojcius
Avian necrotic enteritis is a major economic and welfare issue throughout the global poultry industry and is caused by isolates of Clostridium perfringens that produce NetB toxin. Previously we have shown that birds directly vaccinated with inactivated C. perfringens type A culture supernatant (toxoid) combined with recombinant NetB (rNetB) protein were significantly protected from homologous and heterologous challenge. In the present study the protective effect of maternal immunization was examined. Broiler breeder hens were injected subcutaneously with genetically toxoided rNetB(S254L) alone, C. perfringens type A toxoid and toxoid combined with rNetB(S254L). Vaccination resulted in a strong serum immunoglobulin Y response to NetB in hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) formulations. Anti-NetB antibodies were transferred to the eggs and on into the hatched progeny. Subclinical necrotic enteritis was induced experimentally in the progeny and the occurrence of specific necrotic enteritis lesions evaluated. Birds derived from hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) combined with toxoid and challenged with a homologous strain (EHE-NE18) at either 14 or 21 days post-hatch had significantly lower levels of disease compared to birds from adjuvant only vaccinated hens. In addition, birds from hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) alone were significantly protected when challenged at 14 days post-hatch. These results demonstrate that maternal immunization with a NetB-enhanced toxoid vaccine is a promising method for the control of necrotic enteritis in young broiler chickens.
All vaccines that are prepared in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) contain a low level of particle-associated reverse transcriptase (RT) activity, which is produced from the avian cell substrate. The RNAs present in the particles have sequence homology to viral DNAs belonging to the ancient endogenous avian virus (EAV) family or to the avian sarcoma-leukosis virus (ALV)-related subgroup E endogenous virus loci. Although no replication-competent retrovirus has been associated with the RT activity produced from CEFs, there have been some theoretical safety concerns regarding potential consequences of integration of EAV and ALV sequences in human DNA, which may result from nonproductive infection with replication-defective particles or infection with EAV and ALV pseudotypes bearing measles virus envelopes. To address these possibilities, we have analyzed EAV and ALV particles in a measles virus vaccine equivalent (MVVE) preparation, obtained from a U.S. manufacturer, for integration and for replication in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The results show the absence of EAV and ALV integrants in DNA prepared from MVVE-inoculated human cells by direct DNA PCR and Alu PCR assays and no propagation of retrovirus in 18-day cultures of MVVE-inoculated human PBMCs by a highly sensitive PCR-based RT assay. These results provide further confidence regarding the safety of chicken RT activity in live viral vaccines and support the continued use of chick-cell-derived vaccines in humans. PMID:11158127
Shahabuddin, M; Sears, J F; Khan, A S
Use of adjuvant containing pathogen pattern recognition receptor agonists is one of the effective strategies to enhance the efficacy of licensed vaccines. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of avian influenza vaccines containing an adjuvant (CVCVA5) which was composed of polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic, resiquimod, imiquimod, muramyl dipeptide and levomisole. Avian influenza vaccines adjuvanted with CVCVA5 were found to induce significantly higher titers of hemagglutiniton inhibition antibodies (P?0.01) than those of commercial vaccines at 2-, 3- and 4-week post vaccination in both specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens and field application. Furthermore, virus shedding was reduced in SPF chickens immunized with H9-CVCVA5 vaccine after H9 subtype heterologous virus challenge. The ratios of both CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) lymphocytes were slowly elevated in chickens immunized with H9-CVCVA5 vaccine. Lymphocytes adoptive transfer study indicates that CD8(+) T lymphocyte subpopulation might have contributed to improved protection against heterologous virus challenge. Results of this study suggest that the adjuvant CVCVA5 was capable of enhancing the potency of existing avian influenza vaccines by increasing humoral and cellular immune response. PMID:24894132
Tang, Yinghua; Lu, Jihu; Wu, Peipei; Liu, Zhenxing; Tian, Zhen; Zha, Guofei; Chen, Hui; Wang, Qiaochu; Wang, Qiaoxiu; Hou, Fengxiang; Kang, Sang-Moo; Hou, Jibo
Replication of a recombinant herpesvirus of turkey vaccine expressing infectious laryngotracheitis virus genes (rHVT-LT) was evaluated in specific pathogen free (SPF) and commercial broiler chickens after various vaccination protocols (amniotic route at embryonation day [ED] 18; intra-embryonic route at ED 19; and subcutaneous at 1 day of age [s.c.]). Three experiments were conducted: in the first experiment, replication of rHVT-LT vaccine was chronologically evaluated and compared with the replication of herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) in SPF chickens; in the second experiment, the effect of different in ovo vaccination procedures on rHVT-LT vaccine replication was evaluated in SPF chickens; and in the third experiment, the effect of different in ovo vaccination procedures on rHVT-LT vaccine replication was evaluated in commercial broiler chickens with maternal antibodies against HVT and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (LTV). rHVT-LT vaccine replicated in chickens after in ovo (ED 18 and ED 19) or s.c. administration at a similar level. In vivo replication of rHVT-LT vaccine was slower than HVT vaccine. However, in vivo both rHVT-LT and HVT vaccines replicated at similar levels. Both vaccines were consistently detected in the spleen and feather pulp and at lower frequency in the lung. The frequency of samples with detectable levels of rHVT-LT DNA was lower in broiler chickens than in SPF chickens, probably due to interactions with maternal antibodies. Differences between SPF chickens and broiler chickens were found also in the transcription of the LTV glycoprotein I gene (gI). In SPF chickens, in ovo inoculation resulted in a higher number of spleen samples with detectable gI transcripts than s.c. inoculation. In broiler chickens, however, no differences in the level of gI transcripts in spleen samples were found between chickens vaccinated in ovo and those vaccinated by the s.c. route. Transcription of LTV gI gene in lung samples was very low in both SPF and broiler chickens. Further studies to evaluate the mucosal immune response elicited by rHVT-LT in chicken with and without maternal antibodies are warranted. PMID:21812719
Gimeno, Isabel M; Cortes, Aneg L; Guy, James S; Turpin, Elizabeth; Williams, Christopher
Viral vector vaccines using fowl poxvirus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) as vectors and carrying infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genes are commercially available to the poultry industry in the USA. Different sectors of the broiler industry have used these vaccines in ovo or subcutaneously, achieving variable results. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of protection induced by viral vector vaccines as compared with live-attenuated ILTV vaccines. The HVT-LT vaccine was more effective than the FPV-LT vaccine in mitigating the disease and reducing levels of challenge virus when applied in ovo or subcutaneously, particularly when the challenge was performed at 57 days rather than 35 days of age. While the FPV-LT vaccine mitigated clinical signs more effectively when administered subcutaneously than in ovo, it did not reduce the concentration of challenge virus in the trachea by either application route. Detection of antibodies against ILTV glycoproteins expressed by the viral vectors was a useful criterion to assess the immunogenicity of the vectors. The presence of glycoprotein I antibodies detected pre-challenge and post challenge in chickens vaccinated with HVT-LT indicated that the vaccine induced a robust antibody response, which was paralleled by significant reduction of clinical signs. The chicken embryo origin vaccine provided optimal protection by significantly mitigating the disease and reducing the challenge virus in chickens vaccinated via eye drop. The viral vector vaccines, applied in ovo and subcutaneously, provided partial protection, reducing to some degree clinical signs, and challenge VIRUS replication in the trachea. PMID:22845318
Vagnozzi, Ariel; Zavala, Guillermo; Riblet, Sylva M; Mundt, Alice; García, Maricarmen
A cost-effective and efficacious influenza vaccine for use in commercial poultry farms would help protect against avian influenza outbreaks. Current influenza vaccines for poultry are expensive and subtype specific, and therefore there is an urgent need to develop a universal avian influenza vaccine. We have constructed a live bacterial vaccine against avian influenza by expressing a conserved peptide from the ectodomain of M2 antigen (M2e) on the surface of Lactococcus lactis (LL). Chickens were vaccinated intranasally with the lactococcal vaccine (LL-M2e) or subcutaneously with keyhole-limpet-hemocyanin conjugated M2e (KLH-M2e). Vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds were challenged with high pathogenic avian influenza virus A subtype H5N2. Birds vaccinated with LL-M2e or KLH-M2e had median survival times of 5.5 and 6.0 days, respectively, which were significantly longer than non-vaccinated birds (3.5 days). Birds vaccinated subcutaneously with KLH-M2e had a lower mean viral burden than either of the other two groups. However, there was a significant correlation between the time of survival and M2e-specific serum IgG. The results of these trials show that birds in both vaccinated groups had significantly (P < 0.05) higher median survival times than non-vaccinated birds and that this protection could be due to M2e-specific serum IgG.
Reese, Kaleb A.; Lupfer, Christopher; Johnson, Rudd C.; Mitev, Georgi M.; Mullen, Valerie M.; Geller, Bruce L.
Meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 (MeHV-1) is an ideal vector for the expression of antigens from pathogenic avian organisms in order to generate vaccines. Chicken parvovirus (ChPV) is a widespread infectious virus that causes serious disease in chickens. It is one of the etiological agents largely suspected in causing Runting Stunting Syndrome (RSS) in chickens. Initial attempts to express the wild-type gene encoding the capsid protein VP2 of ChPV by insertion into the thymidine kinase gene of MeHV-1 were unsuccessful. However, transient expression of a codon-optimized synthetic VP2 gene cloned into the bicistronic vector pIRES2-Ds-Red2, could be demonstrated by immunocytochemical staining of transfected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). Red fluorescence could also be detected in these transfected cells since the red fluorescent protein gene is downstream from the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Strikingly, fluorescence could not be demonstrated in cells transiently transfected with the bicistronic vector containing the wild-type or non-codon-optimized VP2 gene. Immunocytochemical staining of these cells also failed to demonstrate expression of wild-type VP2, indicating that the lack of expression was at the RNA level and the VP2 protein was not toxic to CEFs. Chickens vaccinated with a DNA vaccine consisting of the bicistronic vector containing the codon-optimized VP2 elicited a humoral immune response as measured by a VP2-specific ELISA. This VP2 codon-optimized bicistronic cassette was rescued into the MeHV-1 genome generating a vectored vaccine against ChPV disease. PMID:23861017
Spatz, Stephen J; Volkening, Jeremy D; Mullis, Robert; Li, Fenglan; Mercado, John; Zsak, Laszlo
Vaccination of chickens with a commercially available killed H5N2 vaccine was being evaluated as an additional tool to enhanced biosecurity measures and intensive surveillance for control of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 disease in Hong Kong in 2002. In December 2002 to January 2003, there were outbreaks of H5N1 disease in waterfowl in two recreational parks, wild water birds,
Trevor M. Ellis; Connie Y. H. C. Leung; Mary K. W. Chow; Lucy A. Bissett; William Wong; Yi Guan; J. S. Malik Peiris
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of subtypes H5 and H7 cause fatal disease in poultry (fowl plague) but also have zoonotic potential. Currently commercially available vaccines often do not provide sufficient protection and do not allow easy discrimination between vaccinated and infected birds. Therefore, vaccination of domestic poultry against H5 and H7 HPAIV is not allowed in many countries, or is only possible after special permission has been provided. We generated a recombinant marker vaccine based on non-transmissible vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing the HA antigen of HPAIV A/FPV/Rostock/34 (H7N1) in place of the VSV G gene. This virus, VSV*DeltaG(HA), was propagated on a helper cell line providing VSV G in trans. Since no progeny virus was produced after infection of non-complementing cells, the vector was classified as biosafety level 1 organism ("safe"). Chickens were immunized via the intramuscular route. Following booster vaccination with the same replicons high titers of serum antibodies were induced, which neutralized avian influenza viruses of subtypes H7N1 and H7N7 but not H5N2. Vaccinated chickens were protected against a lethal dose of heterologous HPAIV A/chicken/Italy/445/99 (H7N1). Secretion of challenge virus was short-term and significantly reduced. Finally, it was possible to discriminate vaccinated chickens from infected ones by a simple ELISA assay. We propose that VSV replicons have the potential to be developed to high-quality vaccines for protection of poultry against different subtypes of avian influenza viruses. PMID:19135116
Kalhoro, Nazeer H; Veits, Jutta; Rautenschlein, Silke; Zimmer, Gert
We constructed a stable recombinant Marek's disease virus type 1 (rMDV1) expressing the fusion protein (F) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) by inserting the coding sequence within the US10 gene of MDV1 by homologous recombination and designated this as rMDV1-US10L(F). The NDV-F protein was significantly expressed under control of the SV40 late promoter in cultured cells infected with the rMDV1. To examine the protective efficacy of the rMDV1, specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were vaccinated with rMDV1 at one-day-old. Almost all birds (> 95%) were protected from NDV challenge via intramuscular, ocular, intranasal and intratrachial routes at 4 weeks after vaccination. The rMDV1 showed 100% protection against virulent MDV1 challenge in SPF chickens. Antibody responses against NDV-F and MDV1 antigens were observed at least up to 11 weeks after immunization. When the sera from chickens vaccinated with the rMDV1 were examined for the presence of anti-NDV-F antibody on the day of NDV challenge, the vaccinated bird group which did not survive from NDV challenge were found to show lower antibody titers than the surviving group. The rMDV1 also provided sufficient protection against NDV and MDV1 challenges in commercial chickens with maternal antibodies against NDV-F and MDV1 antigens. PMID:9491501
Sakaguchi, M; Nakamura, H; Sonoda, K; Okamura, H; Yokogawa, K; Matsuo, K; Hira, K
A recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was engineered to express the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H7. The HA gene was inserted between the genes encoding NDV fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase proteins. Within the H7 open reading frame, an NDV gene end-like sequence was eliminated by silent mutation. The expression of H7 protein was detected by western blot analysis and indirect immunofluorescence. The existence of H7 protein in the envelope of recombinant Newcastle disease virions was shown by immunoelectron microscopy. The protective efficacy of recombinant NDVH7m against virulent NDV, as well as against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), was evaluated in specific-pathogen-free chickens. After a single immunization, all chickens developed NDV-specific, as well as AIV H7-specific, antibodies and were completely protected from clinical disease after infection with a lethal dose of virulent NDV or the homologous H7N1 HPAIV, while all control animals died within four days. Shedding of AIV challenge virus was strongly reduced compared to nonvaccinated control birds. Furthermore, the immunized birds developed antibodies against the AIV nucleoprotein after challenge infection. Thus, NDVH7m could be used as a marker vaccine against subtype H7 avian influenza. PMID:19630223
Schröer, Diana; Veits, Jutta; Grund, Christian; Dauber, Malte; Keil, Günther; Granzow, Harald; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Römer-Oberdörfer, Angela
In the present work, chickens and turkeys were infected with virulent or attenuated Histomonas meleagridis to investigate and compare the effect of both isolates on birds. Thereby, histomonads of a clonal culture were propagated in vitro either for a short period of time (21 passages) to preserve virulence or for 295 passages to achieve attenuation. On the first day of life birds of each species were infected with either virulent or attenuated parasites. Throughout the experiment, all birds were examined daily for clinical signs attributable to the infection. Furthermore, the excretion of viable parasites was determined after in vitro reisolation from cloacal swabs. For the investigation of pathological changes of organs a defined number of infected birds were killed on d 4, 7, 10, 14, and 21 postinfection (PI) and necropsy was performed. By this routine, changes in livers and ceca were classified by a scoring system to evaluate the severity of lesions. Samples of cecum, liver, and lung were generated and screened for the presence of parasites by PCR and immunohistochemistry. Turkeys infected with virulent histomonads showed first clinical manifestation of histomonosis on d 10 PI, whereas the remaining birds did not express clinical signs. Positive reisolations of virulent and attenuated histomonads were obtained intermittently from individual chickens and turkeys from d 2 PI until the end of the experiment. Both species of birds displayed lesions in the ceca and the liver following infection with virulent parasites, whereas no changes occurred in birds inoculated with attenuated histomonads. The PCR revealed the dissemination of virulent histomonads in ceca, livers, and lungs of some chickens and turkeys in contrast to attenuated parasites, which were exclusively found in cecal samples. The attenuated isolate of H. meleagridis did not induce clinical signs or pathological changes and offers high safety after infection of chickens and turkeys. Therefore, the in vitro attenuation and the use of avirulent histomonads represent a viable tool for vaccination against histomonosis. PMID:21489945
Liebhart, D; Zahoor, M A; Prokofieva, I; Hess, M
A novel recombinant Bacille Calmette-Guerin (rBCG) vaccine co-expressed Eimeria tenella rhomboid and cytokine chicken IL-2 (chIL-2) was constructed, and its efficacy against E. tenella challenge was observed. The rhomboid gene of E. tenella and chIL-2 gene were subcloned into integrative expression vector pMV361, producing vaccines rBCG pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2. Animal experiment via intranasal and subcutaneous route in chickens was carried out to evaluate the immune efficacy of the vaccines. The results indicated that these rBCG vaccines could obviously alleviate cacal lesions and oocyst output. Intranasal immunization with pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2 elicited better protective immunity against E. tenella than subcutaneous immunization. Splenocytes from chickens immunized with either rBCG pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2 had increased CD4+ and CD8+ cell production. Our data indicate recombinant BCG is able to impart partial protection against E. tenella challenge and co-expression of cytokine with antigen was an effective strategy to improve vaccine immunity.
Wang, Qiuyue; Chen, Lifeng; Zheng, Jun; Cai, Ning; Gong, Pengtao; Li, Shuhong; Li, He
A novel recombinant Bacille Calmette-Guerin (rBCG) vaccine co-expressed Eimeria tenella rhomboid and cytokine chicken IL-2 (chIL-2) was constructed, and its efficacy against E. tenella challenge was observed. The rhomboid gene of E. tenella and chIL-2 gene were subcloned into integrative expression vector pMV361, producing vaccines rBCG pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2. Animal experiment via intranasal and subcutaneous route in chickens was carried out to evaluate the immune efficacy of the vaccines. The results indicated that these rBCG vaccines could obviously alleviate cacal lesions and oocyst output. Intranasal immunization with pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2 elicited better protective immunity against E. tenella than subcutaneous immunization. Splenocytes from chickens immunized with either rBCG pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2 had increased CD4(+) and CD8(+) cell production. Our data indicate recombinant BCG is able to impart partial protection against E. tenella challenge and co-expression of cytokine with antigen was an effective strategy to improve vaccine immunity. PMID:25031464
Wang, Qiuyue; Chen, Lifeng; Li, Jianhua; Zheng, Jun; Cai, Ning; Gong, Pengtao; Li, Shuhong; Li, He; Zhang, Xichen
Despite the intensive vaccination policy that has been put in place to control Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the recent emergence of NDV genotype VII strains in Korea has led to significant economic losses in the poultry industry. We assessed the ability of inactivated, oil-emulsion vaccines derived from La Sota or Ulster 2C NDV strains to protect chickens from challenge with Kr-005/00, which is a recently isolated Korean epizootic genotype VII strain. Six-week-old SPF chickens were vaccinated once and challenged three weeks later via the eye drop/intranasal route. All vaccinated birds were fully protected from disease, regardless of the vaccine strains used. All vaccinated and challenged groups showed significant sero-conversion 14 days after challenge. However, some vaccinated birds, despite being protected from disease, shed the challenge virus from their oro-pharynx and cloaca, albeit at significantly lower titers than the unvaccinated challenged control birds. The virological, serological, and epidemiological significance of our observations with regard to NDV disease eradication is discussed.
Jeon, Woo-Jin; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Lee, Young-Jeong; Jeong, Ok-Mi; Kim, Yong-Joo; Kwon, Jun-Hun
The use of virosomes as a vaccine platform has proven successful against several viruses. Here we examined the protective efficacy of a virosome-based vaccine consisting of avian influenza virus (AIV) A/Duck/Czech/56/H4N6 in chickens against a homologous AIV challenge. Virosomes adjuvanted with CpG-ODN or recombinant chicken interferon (IFN)-? significantly reduced virus shedding after virus challenge. Furthermore, immunization with virosomes adjuvanted with CpG-ODN increased hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus-specific neutralizing serum antibodies, as well as virus-specific serum IgG and mucosal IgA responses. We also found a significant increase in the expression of type I and II interferon genes in the protected birds following virus challenge. In summary, this study demonstrated the ability of virosomes adjuvanted with CpG-ODN to reduce AIV shedding, and elicit virus-specific protective antibody responses in vaccinated birds. PMID:22512311
Mallick, Amirul I; Kulkarni, Raveendra R; St Paul, Michael; Parvizi, Payvand; Nagy, Eva; Behboudi, Shahriar; Sharif, Shayan
Colonization of the avian respiratory tract with Mycoplasma gallisepticum results in a profound inflammatory response in the trachea, air sacs, conjunctiva, and lungs. A live attenuated M. gallisepticum vaccine strain, GT5, was previously shown to be protective in chickens upon challenge; however, the mechanisms by which this vaccine and others confer protection remain largely unknown. The current study evaluated several potential correlates of GT5 vaccine-mediated immune protection following challenge with the pathogenic M. gallisepticum strain Rlow. GT5-vaccinated chickens developed mild tracheal lesions, consisting of few and scattered, discrete, lymphofollicular aggregates in the lamina propria. In addition, low numbers of aggregated B, CD4+, and CD8+ cells were observed to infiltrate the trachea, in stark contrast to the large numbers infiltrating the tracheas of sham-vaccinated chickens challenged with Rlow. Lymphofollicular aggregates were rarely observed prior to day 12 postchallenge in sham-vaccinated chickens. Instead, they contained an increasingly more cellular inflammatory response characterized by expansion of the lamina propria by lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic infiltrates. This was due in part to expansion of interfollicular zones by large numbers of infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ cells and a sizeable population of immunoglobulin A (IgA)- and IgG-secreting plasma cells. GT5-vaccinated chickens also had higher serum IgG concentrations, and significantly higher numbers of M. gallisepticum-specific IgG- and IgA-secreting plasma/B cells within the trachea, than did sham-vaccinated chickens. These responses were observed as early as day 4 postchallenge, indicating the importance of antibody-mediated clearance of mycoplasma in GT5-vaccinated chickens.
Javed, Mohammed A.; Frasca, Salvatore; Rood, Debra; Cecchini, Katharine; Gladd, Martha; Geary, Steven J.; Silbart, Lawrence K.
Recurring infection of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), an avian oncogenic gammaretrovirus, has been a major obstacle in attempts to breed and release the endangered Attwater's prairie chicken (Tympanicus cupido attwateri). The aim of this study was to develop a DNA vaccine that protects the birds against REV infection. A plasmid was constructed expressing fusion proteins of REV envelope (env) and VP22 of Gallid herpesvirus 2 or REV gag and VP22. Birds vaccinated with these recombinant plasmids developed neutralizing antibodies; showed delayed replication of virus; and had significantly less infection of lymphocytes, specifically CD4+ lymphocytes. Although the vaccine did not prevent infection, it offered partial protection. Birds in field conditions and breeding facilities could potentially benefit from increased immunity when vaccinated. PMID:23805542
Drechsler, Yvonne; Tkalcic, Suzana; Saggese, Miguel D; Shivaprasad, H L; Ajithdoss, Dharani K; Collisson, Ellen W
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of subtype H5N1 not only cause a devastating disease in domestic chickens and turkeys but also pose a continuous threat to public health. In some countries, H5N1 viruses continue to circulate and evolve into new clades and subclades. The rapid evolution of these viruses represents a problem for virus diagnosis and control. In this work, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors expressing HA of subtype H5 were generated. To comply with biosafety issues the G gene was deleted from the VSV genome. The resulting vaccine vector VSV*?G(HA) was propagated on helper cells providing the VSV G protein in trans. Vaccination of chickens with a single intramuscular dose of 2×108 infectious replicon particles without adjuvant conferred complete protection from lethal H5N1 infection. Subsequent application of the same vaccine strongly boosted the humoral immune response and completely prevented shedding of challenge virus and transmission to sentinel birds. The vaccine allowed serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) by employing a commercially available ELISA. Immunized chickens produced antibodies with neutralizing activity against multiple H5 viruses representing clades 1, 2.2, 2.5, and low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (classical clade). Studies using chimeric H1/H5 hemagglutinins showed that the neutralizing activity was predominantly directed against the globular head domain. In summary, these results suggest that VSV replicon particles are safe and potent DIVA vaccines that may help to control avian influenza viruses in domestic poultry.
Halbherr, Stefan J.; Brostoff, Terza; Tippenhauer, Merve; Locher, Samira; Berger Rentsch, Marianne; Zimmer, Gert
Chicken eggs are the main source of human Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection. S. Enteritidis infects the oviduct and ovary of the chicken leading to infection of developing eggs. Therefore, control in poultry production is a major public health priority. Vaccination of hens has proved successful in control strategies in United Kingdom leading to a 70% drop in human cases since introduced. However, as hens reach sexual maturity they become immunosuppressed and it has been postulated this leads to increased susceptibility to Salmonella infection. In this study we define the changes to the systemic and reproductive tract-associated immune system of hens throughout sexual development by flow cytometry and histology and determine changes in susceptibility to experimental S. Enteritidis challenge in naive and vaccinated hens. Changes to both systemic and local immune systems occur in chickens at sexual development around 140 days of age. The population of several leukocyte classes drop, with the greatest fall in CD4+ lymphocyte numbers. Within the developing reproductive tract there an organised structure of lymphocytic aggregates with ??-T lymphocytes associated with the mucosa. At point-of-lay, this organised structure disappears and only scattered lymphocytes remain. Protection against Salmonella challenge is significantly reduced in vaccinated birds at point-of-lay, coinciding with the drop in CD4+ lymphocytes. Susceptibility to reproductive tract infection by Salmonella increased in vaccinated and naïve animals at 140 and 148 days of age. We hypothesise that the drop in ??-T lymphocytes in the tract leads to decreased innate protection of the mucosa to infection. These findings indicate that systemic and local changes to the immune system increase the susceptibility of hens to S. Enteritidis infection. The loss of protective immunity in vaccinated birds demonstrates that Salmonella control should not rely on vaccination alone, but as part of an integrated control strategy including biosecurity and improved animal welfare.
Johnston, Claire E.; Hartley, Catherine; Salisbury, Anne-Marie; Wigley, Paul
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of subtype H5N1 not only cause a devastating disease in domestic chickens and turkeys but also pose a continuous threat to public health. In some countries, H5N1 viruses continue to circulate and evolve into new clades and subclades. The rapid evolution of these viruses represents a problem for virus diagnosis and control. In this work, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors expressing HA of subtype H5 were generated. To comply with biosafety issues the G gene was deleted from the VSV genome. The resulting vaccine vector VSV*?G(HA) was propagated on helper cells providing the VSV G protein in trans. Vaccination of chickens with a single intramuscular dose of 2×10? infectious replicon particles without adjuvant conferred complete protection from lethal H5N1 infection. Subsequent application of the same vaccine strongly boosted the humoral immune response and completely prevented shedding of challenge virus and transmission to sentinel birds. The vaccine allowed serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) by employing a commercially available ELISA. Immunized chickens produced antibodies with neutralizing activity against multiple H5 viruses representing clades 1, 2.2, 2.5, and low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (classical clade). Studies using chimeric H1/H5 hemagglutinins showed that the neutralizing activity was predominantly directed against the globular head domain. In summary, these results suggest that VSV replicon particles are safe and potent DIVA vaccines that may help to control avian influenza viruses in domestic poultry. PMID:23762463
Halbherr, Stefan J; Brostoff, Terza; Tippenhauer, Merve; Locher, Samira; Berger Rentsch, Marianne; Zimmer, Gert
Purpose To establish a chick model to investigate the trends of eye growth and emmetropization after early lensectomy for congenital cataract. Methods Four monocular treatments were applied: lens extraction (LX); sham surgery/-30 D lens; LX/+20 D lens; and LX/+30-D lens (nine per group). Lens powers were selected to slightly undercorrect or overcorrect the induced hyperopia in LX eyes and to induce comparable hyperopia in sham-surgery eyes. Refractive errors and axial ocular dimensions were measured over a 28-day period. External ocular dimensions were obtained when the eyes were enucleated on the last day. Results The growth patterns of experimental (Exp) eyes varied with the type of manipulation. All eyes experiencing hyperopia initially grew more than their fellow eyes and exhibited myopic shifts in refraction. The sham/-30 D lens group showed the greatest increase in optical axial length, followed by the LX group, and then the LX/+20 D lens group. The Exp eyes of the LX/+30 D lens group, which were initially slightly myopic, grew least, and showed a small hyperopic shift. Lensectomized eyes enlarged more equatorially than axially (i.e., oblate), irrespective of the optical treatment applied. Conclusions The refractive changes observed in young, aphakic eyes are consistent with compensation for the defocus experienced, and thus emmetropization. However, differences in the effects of lensectomy compared to those of sham surgery raise the possibility that the lens is a source of essential growth factors. Alterative optical and mechanical explanations are offered for the oblate shapes of aphakic eyes.
Ai, Likun; Li, Jing; Guan, Huan; Wildsoet, Christine F.
Infectious bursal disease virus is an important poultry pathogen. It is distributed worldwide and causes significant economic losses. In this study, a system was adopted for the simultaneous monitoring of vaccine and virulent strains using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After the decay of maternal antibodies, chickens were vaccinated at the age of 37 days with a virus of intermediate virulence and challenged at 5, 10 and 14 days post vaccination (dpv). The challenge was done with IBDV strain CH/99. Sequencing of the hypervariable region of VP2 has shown that CH/99 belongs to the very virulent group of viruses. The vaccine virus could be found in the bursa of Fabricius, spleen, thymus and bone marrow until 24 dpv. The CH/99 challenge virus was found in the bursa and lymphoid organs when chickens were challenged at 5 and 10 dpv. When challenge was performed at 14 dpv, the pathogenic virus could not be found in the bursa and other lymphoid organs. PMID:24659712
Dobrosavljevi?, Ivan; Vidanovi?, Dejan; Velhner, Maja; Miljkovi?, Biljana; Lako, Branislav
In South Africa the incidence of NAD-independent Haemnophilus paragallinarum isolation from clinical cases is increasing. This study was carried out to test whether a commercially available coryza vaccine (Nobilis Coryza, Intervet International BV) could protect chickens against challenge with recent NAD-independent isolates. SPF chickens were vaccinated twice at 3 and 7 weeks of age and were challenged at 9 weeks of age with 5 different NAD-independent isolates of serotype A or C-3. The results after challenge show that the coryza vaccine induces good protection against challenge with the different South African NAD-independent isolates of H. paragallinarum, including serotype C-3. PMID:11030362
Jacobs, A A; van der Werf, J
Objective: Currently, research is focused on universal influenza vaccines based on various ectodomains of the influenza matrix protein 2 (M2e). Such vaccines are tested mostly using mouse-adapted influenza viruses and in mouse or ferret models. The aim of this study was to investigate in a chicken model the protective efficacy of vaccines based on avian-type M2e at different epitope densities.
Xintao Zhang; Ming Liu; Chunguo Liu; Jinling Du; Weilin Shi; Encheng Sun; Hongtao Li; Jianhui Li; Yun Zhang
Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P?0.01). In contrast, a decreased TTAD of all fiber fractions was observed in chickens fed on diet CF120 (P?0.05). Moreover, diet induced changes in gut morphology were observed in the large intestine of chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P?0.05). In addition, in pigs, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of intestinal microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp.) respectively (P?0.05). In conclusion, our data showed that chicory forage (Cichorium intybus L.), a novel dietary fiber source in animal nutrition, have potential beneficial properties as fiber ingredient in diets for both pigs and chickens. PMID:24341997
Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik
Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P?0.01). In contrast, a decreased TTAD of all fiber fractions was observed in chickens fed on diet CF120 (P?0.05). Moreover, diet induced changes in gut morphology were observed in the large intestine of chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P?0.05). In addition, in pigs, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of intestinal microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp.) respectively (P?0.05). In conclusion, our data showed that chicory forage (Cichorium intybus L.), a novel dietary fiber source in animal nutrition, have potential beneficial properties as fiber ingredient in diets for both pigs and chickens.
Genital Herpes, which is caused by Herpes Simplex Virus-1 or -2 (HSV-1, -2, predominantly HSV-2) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that causes a chronic latent infection with outbreak episodes linked to transmission. Antiviral therapies are effective in reducing viral shedding during these episodes, but are ineffective as a whole since many outbreaks are asymptomatic or have mild symptoms. Thus, the development of a vaccine for genital herpes is needed to control this disease. The question of how to implement such a vaccine program is an important one, and may be similar to the vaccination program for Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) for young females. We have developed a mathematical model to describe the epidemiology of vaccination targeting young females against HSV-2. The model population is delineated with respect to age group, sexual activity and infection status including oral infection of HSV-1, which may affect vaccine efficacy. A threshold parameter R(C), which determines the level of vaccine uptake needed to eradicate HSV-2, is found. Computer simulation shows that an adolescent-only vaccination program may be effective in eliminating HSV-2 disease, however, the success of extinction greatly depends on the level of vaccine uptake, the vaccine efficacy, the age of sexual maturity and safe sex practices. However, the time course of eradication would take many years. We also investigate the prevalence of infection in the total population and in women between 16-30 years of age before and after vaccination has been introduced, and show that the adolescent-only vaccination program can be effective in reducing disease prevalence in these populations depending on the level of vaccine uptake and vaccine efficacy. This will also result in a decrease of maternal-fetal transmission of HSV-2 infection. Another important, if commonsense, conclusion is that vaccination of some females reduces infection in men, which then reduces infection in women. PMID:23071536
Lou, Yijun; Qesmi, Redouane; Wang, Qian; Steben, Marc; Wu, Jianhong; Heffernan, Jane M
Spray-dried porcine blood plasma (SDBP) or blood cells (SDBC) at amounts of 20 or 40 g/kg were included to the feed mixtures that were given to young chickens within 1-28 (Exp. 1) or 1-30 (Exp. 2) days post-hatch. In comparison with the group fed mixtures containing plant components, chickens fed mixtures supplemented with 40 g/kg of SDBP significantly (p < 0.01) increased the body weight estimated on 14 day of life (Exp. 1). At the age of 28 or 30 days post-hatch, the body weight was improved significantly (p < 0.01 or 0.05) in both experiments. Significant differences (one-factorial anova) in feed conversion among particular feeding groups were stated in Exp. 1 only; however, calculations using two-factorial anova show insignificant differences depending on the used animal meal. In selected blood parameters (IgG, Ht, Hb), insignificant differences between feeding groups were stated. The use of SDBP in feed mixture significantly increased the Na retention in both experiments, and K accretion in Exp. 1 only. Application of SDBC and 40 g/kg of SDBP significantly or insignificantly improved Fe retention. Insignificant diversification of apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients was stated; the crude fat was significantly better digested in treatments fed mixtures with animal meals but kind of animal meal was without any significant effect. Significant differences in digestibility of amino acids were recorded for Pro, Cys, Val, His, Lys and Arg. In chickens fed mixture with SDBC, higher coefficients of apparent digestibility of Cys, Val and His (Exp. 1) and Cys and His (Exp. 2) than in other feeding groups were obtained. The kind of used blood by-products has not affected the histological structure of intestine wall. PMID:21561488
Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Orda, J; Kuryszko, J; Stefaniak, T
In the present study the efficacy of recombinant plasmids DNA vaccine encoding VP2 gene of very virulent strain of infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) isolated from Pakistan was investigated with or without coadministration of cytocine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN) to protect the chickens against the disease. VP2 gene of vvIBDV was successfully amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and was cloned into eukaryotic expression plasmid vector, which consisted of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immediate early enhancer and promoter, adenopartite leader sequences and SV-40 polyadenylation signal, and this was designated as pRc-VP2. Seven-day-old maternal antibodies free chickens were intramuscularly injected with 500 microg of pRc-VP2 with or without CpG ODN twice at 1-week interval. At the age of 21 days the broiler chickens were challenged with 10(5) EID(50) of homologous strain of IBDV and observed for 14 days post-challenge. Immunization with pRc-VP2 plus CpG ODN conferred protection in 93% of the chickens as evidenced by the absence of clinical signs, atrophy of bursa of Fabricius (BF) and mortality followed by the group vaccinated with attenuated IBD vaccine and boosted with killed oil based IBDV vaccine, which conferred 90% protection. The protection of chickens injected with pRc-VP2 alone was 67% where as only 20% of the chickens in the negative control group were protected. However, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibody titre in the group vaccinated with pRc-VP2 plus CpG ODN were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the group vaccinated with pRc-VP2 alone as well as the group vaccinated with commercial attenuated IBDV vaccine boosted with commercial oil adjuvanted killed IBDV vaccine. Responsiveness to a mitogenic lectin, phytoheamagglutinin-P was significantly reduced in group immunized with conventional vaccines (live boosted with killed) as compared to all the other groups (P<0.05). The results revealed that co-administration of recombinant plasmids with CpG ODN could protect chickens efficiently from IBDV challenge. PMID:16600440
Mahmood, M S; Siddique, M; Hussain, I; Khan, A; Mansoor, M K
Bioenergetics in chicken embryo fibroblast cells: Evidence of lower proton leak in spontaneously immortalized chicken embryo fibroblasts compared to young and senescent primary chicken embryo fibroblast cells.
A spontaneously immortalized chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell line (DF-1) is known to exhibit faster growth rate and greater sensitivity to oxidative stress compared to the primary parent CEF (pCEF1°) cells. Thus, major objectives of this study were to assess cell bioenergetics in pCEF1° and DF-1 cells under control conditions and in response to 4-hydroxy 2-nonenal (4-HNE) induced oxidative challenge. Cell bioenergetics were assessed by flux analysis of oxygen consumption rate (OCR). Under control conditions, DF-1 cells had higher OCR associated with ATP synthase activity and mitochondrial oxygen reserve capacity as well as lower OCR due to proton leak and non-mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity. In response to 4-HNE (0 to 30?M), DF-1 cells were more sensitive to oxidant challenge than both young (passage 8) and senescent (passage 19) pCEF1° cells. Both passages 8 and 19 pCEF1° cells exhibited higher proton leak in response to 4-HNE, but this was not observed in DF-1 cells. Inducible proton leak occurs by 4-HNE stimulated activation of uncoupling protein (UCP) and adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT). From mRNA expression data indicated that ANT and avian UCP were down-regulated and up-regulated, respectively, in DF-1 compared to pCEF1° cells. Thus, we hypothesize that DF-1 cells are unable to increase proton leak due to lower expression of ANT, but not avian UCP, and this inability to increase proton leak contributes to greater susceptibility to oxidative stress of DF-1 cells compared to pCEF1° cells. PMID:24937256
Lassiter, Kentu; Dridi, Sami; Piekarski, Alissa; Greene, Elizabeth; Hargis, Billy; Kong, Byung-Whi; Bottje, Walter
Trials to evaluate the efficacy of preventive HCV vaccines will need participation from high risk HCV seronegative injection drug users (IDUs). To guide trial planning, we assessed willingness of young IDU in San Francisco to participate in HCV vaccine efficacy trials and evaluate knowledge of vaccine trial concepts: placebo, randomization and blinding. During 2006 and 2007, a total of 67 participants completed the survey. A substantial proportion (88%) would definitely (44%) or probably (44%) be willing to participate in a randomized trial, but knowledge of vaccine trial concepts was low. Reported willingness to participate in an HCV vaccine trial decreased with increasing trial duration, with 67% of participants surveyed willing to participate in a trial of one year duration compared to 43% of participants willing to participate in a trial of 4 years duration. Willingness to enroll in HCV vaccine trials was higher in young IDU than reported by most at-risk populations in HIV vaccine trials. Educational strategies will be needed to ensure understanding of key concepts prior to implementing HCV vaccine trials.
Levy, Vivian; Evans, Jennifer L.; Stein, Ellen S.; Davidson, Peter J.; Lum, Paula J.; Hahn, Judith A.; Page, Kimberly
In the 1996 U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service's (FSIS) "Pathogen Reduction; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR/HACCP) Systems, Final Rule," Salmonella was selected for microbiological testing and monitoring. Using data from an FSIS-sponsored survey of meat and poultry slaughter establishments, inspection results, and other establishment characteristics, potential variables affecting pathogen control, as measured by Salmonella test results, were investigated. The analysis data sets included 153 federally inspected young chicken slaughter establishments, of which 111 exceeded half the Salmonella performance standard at least once from 2003 through 2005, and 121 federally inspected pork slaughter establishments, of which 28 exceeded half the Salmonella performance standard. Logistic regression results for young chicken slaughter establishments indicate they were more likely to exceed half the standard if they had higher inspection noncompliance rates (P = 0.10) and older production space (P = 0.10), and were less likely to exceed it if they used a higher percentage of raw poultry inputs purchased from outside sources (P = 0.10). Results for pork slaughter establishments indicate they were more likely to exceed half the standard if they had a higher rate of voluntary microbiological testing (P = 0.08), and were less likely to exceed it if they were larger (P = 0.08) and used a higher percentage of raw pork inputs purchased from outside sources (P = 0.02). In general, indicators of plant characteristics, food safety practices, and management philosophy are associated with different levels of pathogen control performance that vary by species slaughtered. PMID:19205457
Muth, Mary K; Fahimi, Mansour; Karns, Shawn A
The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of formalin-inactivated influenza B/Memphis/1/93 virus vaccines propagated exclusively in Vero cells, MDCK cells, or embryonated chicken eggs (hereafter referred to as eggs) were investigated. Mammalian cell-grown viruses differ from the egg-grown variant at amino acid position 198 (Pro/Thr) in the hemagglutinin gene. The level of neuraminidase activity was highest in egg-grown virus, while MDCK and Vero cell-derived viruses possessed 70 and 90% less activity, respectively. After boosting, each of the vaccines induced high levels of hemagglutinin-inhibiting, neuraminidase-inhibiting, and neutralizing antibodies that provided complete protection from MDCK-grown virus challenge. Mammalian cell-derived virus vaccines induced serum antibodies that were more cross-reactive, while those induced by egg-grown virus vaccines were more specific to the homologous antigen. Enzyme-linked immunospot analysis indicated that cell-grown virus vaccines induced high frequencies of immunoglobulin G (IgG)-producing cells directed against both cell- and egg-grown virus antigens, whereas egg-grown virus vaccine induced higher frequencies of IgG- and IgM-producing cells reacting with homologous antigen and low levels of IgG-producing cells reactive with cell-grown viruses. These studies indicate that influenza B virus variants selected in different host systems can elicit different immune responses, but these alterations had no detectable influence on the protective efficacy of the vaccines with the immunization protocol used in this study. PMID:9557744
Alymova, I V; Kodihalli, S; Govorkova, E A; Fanget, B; Gerdil, C; Webster, R G
The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of formalin-inactivated influenza B/Memphis/1/93 virus vaccines propagated exclusively in Vero cells, MDCK cells, or embryonated chicken eggs (hereafter referred to as eggs) were investigated. Mammalian cell-grown viruses differ from the egg-grown variant at amino acid position 198 (Pro/Thr) in the hemagglutinin gene. The level of neuraminidase activity was highest in egg-grown virus, while MDCK and Vero cell-derived viruses possessed 70 and 90% less activity, respectively. After boosting, each of the vaccines induced high levels of hemagglutinin-inhibiting, neuraminidase-inhibiting, and neutralizing antibodies that provided complete protection from MDCK-grown virus challenge. Mammalian cell-derived virus vaccines induced serum antibodies that were more cross-reactive, while those induced by egg-grown virus vaccines were more specific to the homologous antigen. Enzyme-linked immunospot analysis indicated that cell-grown virus vaccines induced high frequencies of immunoglobulin G (IgG)-producing cells directed against both cell- and egg-grown virus antigens, whereas egg-grown virus vaccine induced higher frequencies of IgG- and IgM-producing cells reacting with homologous antigen and low levels of IgG-producing cells reactive with cell-grown viruses. These studies indicate that influenza B virus variants selected in different host systems can elicit different immune responses, but these alterations had no detectable influence on the protective efficacy of the vaccines with the immunization protocol used in this study.
Alymova, I. V.; Kodihalli, S.; Govorkova, E. A.; Fanget, B.; Gerdil, C.; Webster, R. G.
Towards a universal vaccine for avian influenza: Protective efficacy of modified Vaccinia virus Ankara and Adenovirus vaccines expressing conserved influenza antigens in chickens challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus
Current vaccines targeting surface proteins can drive antigenic variation resulting either in the emergence of more highly pathogenic viruses or of antigenically distinct viruses that escape control by vaccination and thereby persist in the host population. Influenza vaccines typically target the highly mutable surface proteins and do not provide protection against heterologous challenge. Vaccines which induce immune responses against conserved influenza epitopes may confer protection against heterologous challenge. We report here the results of vaccination with recombinant modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and Adenovirus (Ad) expressing a fusion construct of nucleoprotein and matrix protein (NP + M1). Prime and boost vaccination regimes were trialled in different ages of chicken and were found to be safe and immunogenic. Interferon-? (IFN-?) ELISpot was used to assess the cellular immune response post secondary vaccination. In ovo Ad prime followed by a 4 week post hatch MVA boost was identified as the most immunogenic regime in one outbred and two inbred lines of chicken. Following vaccination, one inbred line (C15I) was challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N7 (A/Turkey/England/1977). Birds receiving a primary vaccination with Ad-NP + M1 and a secondary vaccination with MVA-NP + M1 exhibited reduced cloacal shedding as measured by plaque assay at 7 days post infection compared with birds vaccinated with recombinant viruses containing irrelevant antigen. This preliminary indication of efficacy demonstrates proof of concept in birds; induction of T cell responses in chickens by viral vectors containing internal influenza antigens may be a productive strategy for the development of vaccines to induce heterologous protection against influenza in poultry.
Boyd, Amy C.; Ruiz-Hernandez, Raul; Peroval, Marylene Y.; Carson, Connor; Balkissoon, Devanand; Staines, Karen; Turner, Alison V.; Hill, Adrian V.S.; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Butter, Colin
Towards a universal vaccine for avian influenza: protective efficacy of modified Vaccinia virus Ankara and Adenovirus vaccines expressing conserved influenza antigens in chickens challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus.
Current vaccines targeting surface proteins can drive antigenic variation resulting either in the emergence of more highly pathogenic viruses or of antigenically distinct viruses that escape control by vaccination and thereby persist in the host population. Influenza vaccines typically target the highly mutable surface proteins and do not provide protection against heterologous challenge. Vaccines which induce immune responses against conserved influenza epitopes may confer protection against heterologous challenge. We report here the results of vaccination with recombinant modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and Adenovirus (Ad) expressing a fusion construct of nucleoprotein and matrix protein (NP+M1). Prime and boost vaccination regimes were trialled in different ages of chicken and were found to be safe and immunogenic. Interferon-? (IFN-?) ELISpot was used to assess the cellular immune response post secondary vaccination. In ovo Ad prime followed by a 4 week post hatch MVA boost was identified as the most immunogenic regime in one outbred and two inbred lines of chicken. Following vaccination, one inbred line (C15I) was challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N7 (A/Turkey/England/1977). Birds receiving a primary vaccination with Ad-NP+M1 and a secondary vaccination with MVA-NP+M1 exhibited reduced cloacal shedding as measured by plaque assay at 7 days post infection compared with birds vaccinated with recombinant viruses containing irrelevant antigen. This preliminary indication of efficacy demonstrates proof of concept in birds; induction of T cell responses in chickens by viral vectors containing internal influenza antigens may be a productive strategy for the development of vaccines to induce heterologous protection against influenza in poultry. PMID:23200938
Boyd, Amy C; Ruiz-Hernandez, Raul; Peroval, Marylene Y; Carson, Connor; Balkissoon, Devanand; Staines, Karen; Turner, Alison V; Hill, Adrian V S; Gilbert, Sarah C; Butter, Colin
In the present study, we describe the development of a DNA vaccine against chicken anemia virus. The VP1 and VP2 genes of CAV were amplified and cloned into pBudCE4.1 to construct two DNA vaccines, namely, pBudVP1 and pBudVP2-VP1. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that co-expression of VP1 with VP2 are required to induce significant levels of antibody against CAV. Subsequently, the vaccines were tested in 2-week-old SPF chickens. Chickens immunized with the DNA-plasmid pBudVP2-VP1 showed positive neutralizing antibody titer against CAV. Furthermore, VP1-specific proliferation induction of splenocytes and also high serum levels of Th1 cytokines, IL-2 and IFN-? were detected in the pBudVP2-VP1-vaccinated chickens. These results suggest that the recombinant DNA plasmid co-expressing VP1 and VP2 can be used as a potential DNA vaccine against CAV. PMID:21146874
Moeini, Hassan; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Yusoff, Khatijah
Infectious bursal disease was reported in a flock of 7-week old vaccinated chickens. Clinical findings and post-mortem changes were classical as well as the microscopic pathology of the bursa. Bursal homogenates from dead birds were positive for IBD virus antigen in agar gel diffusion test (AGDT). Convalescent sera obtained from birds 14 days following the onset of clinical signs were also positive for IBD virus antibody in AGDT. Seven-week old susceptible birds, each infected i/m with 0.1 ml of a bursal preparation from the outbreak, showed clinical signs of IBD on the 3rd day and were all dead by the 6th day. Their bursae were also positive for IBD virus antigen in AGDT. This is the first recorded outbreak of IBD in Southern Nigeria following inoculation with a locally produced vaccine. PMID:1668870
Onunkwo, O; Okoye, J O
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical dysplasia and cancer, and of genital warts. Few studies have examined attitudes to HPV vaccination since the introduction of HPV vaccines. We aimed to investigate the reasons for young women's acceptance or rejection of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine after its general availability in Denmark. METHOD: A literature review assessed attitudes
Gitte Lee Mortensen
In ovo vaccination remains an attractive option for the mass application of vaccines to poultry, ensuring a uniform application of vaccine in a cost-effective manner. However, the number of vaccines that can be delivered safely by this method is limited. Several infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccines can be given in ovo though most are delivered post-hatch and there are no currently licensed embryo-safe infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines. Reduction in the dose of vaccines given in ovo is one possibility to ensure embryo safety though efficacy can be reduced when low doses are used. We have investigated the use of embryo-safe IBDV and IBV vaccines and the effects of co-delivery of a turkey herpesvirus recombinant expressing bioactive chicken IL-2 (IL-2/HVT). Co-delivery of the IL-2/HVT with low doses of the IBDV or IBV vaccines significantly increased the antibody response against these viruses. In addition the protection against challenge with virulent IBDV or IBV was increased significantly. This suggests that the co-delivery of IL-2/HVT with low doses of other vaccines in ovo may be one method to increase the number of vaccines that can be given safely and efficaciously via in ovo vaccination. PMID:17996994
Tarpey, I; van Loon, A A; de Haas, N; Davis, P J; Orbell, S; Cavanagh, D; Britton, P; Casais, R; Sondermeijer, P; Sundick, R
A recombinant fowlpox vaccine with an H5 hemagglutinin gene insert protected chickens against clinical signs and death following challenge by nine different highly pathogenic H5 avian influenza viruses. The challenge viruses had 87.3 to 100% deduced hemagglutinin amino acid sequence similarity with the recombinant vaccine, and represented diversely geographic and spatial backgrounds; i.e. isolated from four different continents over a
David E. Swayne; Maricarmen Garcia; Joan R. Beck; Nikki Kinney; David L. Suarez
The basic objective of this study was to enumerate whether co-administration of interferon-? (IFN-?) and/or interleukin-4 (IL-4) gene along with a bivalent Newcastle disease (ND) DNA vaccine construct could modulate the immune response to the DNA vaccine in chickens. pVIVO2 vector carrying Haemaglutinin-Neuraminidase (HN) and Fusion (F) genes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) at its two cloning sites was used as a DNA vaccine. The same vector was used to clone the chicken IFN-? and IL-4 genes at the multiple cloning site-1 separately. In vitro expression of IFN-? and IL-4 gene constructs was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and that of HN and F genes by indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) in addition to RT-PCR. The chickens were immunized thrice intramuscularly at 21, 36 and 46 days of age with the bivalent DNA vaccine alone, or in combination with IFN-?/IL-4 or both cytokine gene constructs. The bivalent DNA vaccine led to increase in both NDV specific antibodies as assessed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and haemagglutination inhibition test (HI) and cell mediated immune (CMI) response as assessed by lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) employing MTT assay. Co-administration of the DNA vaccine with IL-4 gene resulted in highest IgY levels while IFN-? produced highest CMI response. The DNA vaccine alone could afford only 10% protection against challenge infection by velogenic NDV. This protection was increased to 40% when IL-4 gene construct was co-administered with the DNA vaccine. Co-injection of IFN-? as well as the combination of IFN-? and IL-4 gene constructs with the DNA vaccine yielded 20% protection. Our study suggests that IL-4 may prove to be more appropriate as a genetic adjuvant than IFN-? for ND DNA vaccine. PMID:21820185
Sawant, P M; Verma, P C; Subudhi, P K; Chaturvedi, U; Singh, M; Kumar, Rajeev; Tiwari, A K
Several studies have reported that intramuscular injection of DNA vaccines against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) induces protective immune responses. In the present study, we developed oral and nasal DNA vaccines that carried the S1 gene and N gene of IBV delivered by attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains SL/pV-S1 and SL/pV-N, respectively. The safety and stability of recombinant Salmonella vaccine were evaluated. Following oral and nasal administration to chickens, the serum and mucosal samples were collected and antibodies against IBV were measured. Chickens were then challenged with IBV strain M41 by the nasal-ocular route 3 weeks after boosting. The results showed that oral and nasal immunization with coadministered SL/pV-S1 and SL/pV-N elicited significant IBV-specific humoral and mucosal immune responses and conferred protective efficacy against IBV challenge higher than that in chickens immunized only with SL/pV-S1. The current study shows that novel DNA vaccines delivered by attenuated S. Typhimurium may be promising candidates for the prevention of infectious bronchitis (IB).These vaccines are efficacious, easily produced economically, and able to be delivered orally and nasally rather than injected. Coadministration of SL/pV-S1 and SL/pV-N may represent an effective mucosal vaccination regimen. PMID:21593235
Jiao, Hongmei; Pan, Zhiming; Yin, Yuelan; Geng, Shizhong; Sun, Lin; Jiao, Xinan
Several studies have reported that intramuscular injection of DNA vaccines against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) induces protective immune responses. In the present study, we developed oral and nasal DNA vaccines that carried the S1 gene and N gene of IBV delivered by attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains SL/pV-S1 and SL/pV-N, respectively. The safety and stability of recombinant Salmonella vaccine were evaluated. Following oral and nasal administration to chickens, the serum and mucosal samples were collected and antibodies against IBV were measured. Chickens were then challenged with IBV strain M41 by the nasal-ocular route 3 weeks after boosting. The results showed that oral and nasal immunization with coadministered SL/pV-S1 and SL/pV-N elicited significant IBV-specific humoral and mucosal immune responses and conferred protective efficacy against IBV challenge higher than that in chickens immunized only with SL/pV-S1. The current study shows that novel DNA vaccines delivered by attenuated S. Typhimurium may be promising candidates for the prevention of infectious bronchitis (IB).These vaccines are efficacious, easily produced economically, and able to be delivered orally and nasally rather than injected. Coadministration of SL/pV-S1 and SL/pV-N may represent an effective mucosal vaccination regimen.
Jiao, Hongmei; Pan, Zhiming; Yin, Yuelan; Geng, Shizhong; Sun, Lin; Jiao, Xinan
Recombinant baculoviruses containing the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein gene of the viscerotropic velogenic (vv) Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolate, Kr-005/00, and a lentogenic La Sota strain of the NDV were constructed in an attempt to develop an effective subunit vaccine to the recent epizootic vvNDV. The level of protection was determined by evaluating the clinical signs, mortality, and virus shedding from the oropharynx and cloaca of chickens after a challenge with vvNDV Kr-005/00. The recombinant ND F (rND F) and recombinant HN (rND HN) glycoproteins derived from the velogenic strain provided good protection against the clinical signs and mortality, showing a 0.00 PI value and 100% protection after a booster immunization. On the other hand, the combined rND F + HN glycoprotein derived from the velogenic strain induced complete protection (0.00 PI value and 100% protection) and significantly reduced the amount of virus shedding even after a single immunization. The rND F and rND HN glycoproteins derived from the velogenic strain had a slightly, but not significantly, greater protective effect than the lentogenic strain. These results suggest that the combined rND F + HN glycoprotein derived from vvNDV can be an ideal subunit marker vaccine candidate in chickens in a future ND eradication program.
Lee, Youn-Jeong; Sung, Haan-Woo; Choi, Jun-Gu; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Yoon, Hachung; Kim, Jae-Hong
Recombinant baculoviruses containing the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein gene of the viscerotropic velogenic (vv) Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolate, Kr-005/00, and a lentogenic La Sota strain of the NDV were constructed in an attempt to develop an effective subunit vaccine to the recent epizootic vvNDV. The level of protection was determined by evaluating the clinical signs, mortality, and virus shedding from the oropharynx and cloaca of chickens after a challenge with vvNDV Kr-005/00. The recombinant ND F (rND F) and recombinant HN (rND HN) glycoproteins derived from the velogenic strain provided good protection against the clinical signs and mortality, showing a 0.00 PI value and 100% protection after a booster immunization. On the other hand, the combined rND F + HN glycoprotein derived from the velogenic strain induced complete protection (0.00 PI value and 100% protection) and significantly reduced the amount of virus shedding even after a single immunization. The rND F and rND HN glycoproteins derived from the velogenic strain had a slightly, but not significantly, greater protective effect than the lentogenic strain. These results suggest that the combined rND F + HN glycoprotein derived from vvNDV can be an ideal subunit marker vaccine candidate in chickens in a future ND eradication program. PMID:18716451
Lee, Youn-Jeong; Sung, Haan-Woo; Choi, Jun-Gu; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Yoon, Hachung; Kim, Jae-Hong; Song, Chang-Seon
Background Studies have shown that the VP22 gene of Marek's Disease Virus type-1 (MDV-1) has the property of movement between cells from the original cell of expression into the neighboring cells. The ability to facilitate the spreading of the linked proteins was used to improve the potency of the constructed DNA vaccines against chicken anemia virus (CAV). Methods The VP1 and VP2 genes of CAV isolate SMSC-1 were amplified and inserted into eukaryotic co-expression vector, pBudCE4.1 to construct pBudVP2-VP1. We also constructed pBudVP2-VP1/VP22 encoding CAV VP2 and the VP22 of MDV-1 linked to the CAV VP1. In vitro expression of the genes was confirmed by using RT-PCR, Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence. The vaccines were then tested in 2-week-old SPF chickens which were inoculated with the DNA plasmid constructs by the intramuscular route. After in vivo expression studies, immune responses of the immunized chickens were evaluated pre- and post-immunization. Results Chickens vaccinated with pBudVP2-VP1/VP22 exhibited a significant increase in antibody titers to CAV and also proliferation induction of splenocytes in comparison to the chickens vaccinated with pBudVP2-VP1. Furthermore, the pBudVP2-VP1/VP22-vaccinated group showed higher level of the Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-?. Conclusions This study showed that MDV-1 VP22 gene is capable of enhancing the potency of DNA vaccine against CAV when fused with the CAV VP1 gene.
The effect of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection or vaccination of Conn. F-strain MG on 45 weeks of egg production was analyzed using production records from 132 flocks of commercial layer hens. The flocks were located in Pennsylvania, and the data were collected for two years. On the average, layers maintained free from infection with MG laid 15.7 more eggs/hen housed than the MG-infected layers; figures were adjusted for layer-strain effect. This adjusted advantage decreased to 8.7 eggs/hen housed when uninfected flocks were compared with vaccinated flocks. Adjusted average production of vaccinated flocks was 7.0 eggs/hens housed more than production of MG-infected flocks. Egg production of four layer strains was observed with respect to vaccination or natural infection with MG. The four strains responded similarly whether vaccinated or infected. Route of vaccination and age of layer at time of vaccination influenced egg production of vaccinated birds. The adjusted average production/hen housed was 4.9 eggs greater for birds vaccinated via drinking water than for birds vaccinated via spray. The adjusted average was 10.3 eggs/hen housed greater for birds vaccinated between 8 and 18 weeks of age than for birds vaccinated after 18 weeks. PMID:7259680
Carpenter, T E; Mallinson, E T; Miller, K F; Gentry, R F; Schwartz, L D
Abstract Objective To estimate the incremental delivery cost of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young adolescent girls in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam. Methods Data were collected from a sample of facilities that participated in five demonstration projects for HPV vaccine delivery: school-based delivery was used in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam; health-centre-based delivery was also used in Viet Nam; and integrated delivery, which involved existing health services, was also used in Uganda. Microcosting methods were used to guide data collection on the use of resources (i.e. staff, supplies and equipment) and data were obtained from government, demonstration project and health centre administrative records. Delivery costs were expressed in 2009 United States dollars (US$). Exclusively project-related expenses and the cost of the vaccine were excluded. Findings The economic delivery cost per vaccine dose ranged from US$ 1.44 for integrated outreach in Uganda to US$ 3.88 for school-based delivery in Peru. In Viet Nam, the lowest cost per dose was US$ 1.92 for health-centre-based delivery. Cost profiles revealed that, in general, the largest contributing factors were project start-up costs and recurrent personnel costs. The delivery cost of HPV vaccine was higher than published costs for traditional vaccines recommended by the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Conclusion The cost of delivering HPV vaccine to young adolescent girls in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam was higher than that for vaccines currently in the EPI schedule. The cost per vaccine dose was lower when delivery was integrated into existing health services.
Van Minh, Hoang; Odaga, John; Rout, Swampa Sarit; Ngoc, Diep Nguyen Thi; Menezes, Lysander; Araujo, Maria Ana Mendoza; LaMontagne, D Scott
Infectious laryngotracheitis is an acute, contagious, upper respiratory disease of chickens caused by gallid herpes virus 1. Due to mortality rates that can reach up to 70% depending on the virulence of the virus, the disease is of great economic importance to the poultry industry. In this study, 15-d-old specific pathogen-free White Leghorn chickens were used to perform transcriptome analysis of chicken trachea immunized with infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine. Myosin and several collagen-related genes were downregulated in the immunized group, suggesting that normal function and structure may be compromised. In addition, we identified some cytokine receptors and several immune genes, such as Granzyme A (GZMA), CD4 molecule (CD4), CD8a molecule (CD8A), and CD8b molecule (CD8B), that were upregulated upon vaccination. The gene ontology analysis shows that genes included in the biological process cluster were related to antigen processing and presentation, positive regulation of immune system processes, T cell selection, and positive regulation of T cell activation. In conclusion, chicken embryo origin vaccine activation of the major histocompatibility complex 1 and 2 pathways provides insight for evaluation and design of infectious laryngotracheitis vaccines. PMID:24706961
Luo, Juan; Carrillo, José A; Menendez, Kimberly R; Tablante, Nathaniel L; Song, Jiuzhou
These guidelines are intended to aid those engaged in poultry research in the design, implementation and interpretation of laboratory, floor-pen and field studies for the assessment of the efficacy and safety of live anticoccidial vaccines for immunization of chickens and turkeys against Eimeria species. In addition to efficacy and safety requirements, manufacture, quality control and licensing considerations are discussed. The
H. D. Chapman; B. Roberts; M. W. Shirley; R. B. Williams
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus causes one of the most economically devastating poultry diseases. An HPAI vaccine to prevent the disease in commercial and backyard birds must be effective, safe, and inexpensive. Recently, we demonstrated the efficacy of an adenovirus-based H5N1 HPAI vaccine (Ad5.HA) in chickens. To further evaluate the potential of the Ad5.HA vaccine and its cost-effectiveness, studies to determine the minimal effective dose and optimal route of administration in chickens were performed. A dose as low as 10(7) viral particles (vp) of adenovirus-based H5N1 vaccine per chicken was sufficient to generate a robust humoral immune response, which correlated with the previously reported level of protection. Several routes of administration, including intratracheal, conjunctival, subcutaneous, and in ovo routes, were evaluated for optimal vaccine administration. However, only the subcutaneous route of immunization induced a satisfactory level of influenza virus-specific antibodies. Importantly, these studies established that the vaccine-induced immunity was cross-reactive against an H5N1 strain from a different clade, emphasizing the potential of cross-protection. Our results suggest that the Ad5.HA HPAI vaccine is safe and effective, with the potential of cross-clade protection. The ease of manufacturing and cost-effectiveness make Ad5.HA an excellent avian influenza vaccine candidate with the ability to protect poultry from HPAI virus infection. Considering the limitations of the influenza vaccine technology currently used for poultry applications, any effort aimed at overcoming those limitations is highly significant. PMID:20660133
Steitz, Julia; Wagner, Robert A; Bristol, Tyler; Gao, Wentao; Donis, Ruben O; Gambotto, Andrea
Concerns about the impact of risk compensation on advances in biomedical Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention technologies have been documented. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study using focus group discussions with young South African men and women (aged 18–24 years) to explore perceptions of risk compensation among young South Africans with regard to a hypothetical posttrial HIV vaccine. During the discussions participants expressed their disquiet about the potential for risk compensation and the manner in which this might manifest among young people. Discussions specifically focused on reductions in condom use, an increase in multiple partners and increased frequency of sex. The discussions also indicated contradictory feelings about HIV vaccines: appreciation for their development tempered by concerns about loss of control and undermining morality. Women were particularly concerned with the possibility of increased partner concurrency and infidelity. We suggest that concerns in HIV vaccine target populations about the impact of possible risk compensation be incorporated into strategies to for vaccine introduction once vaccines move from the hypothetical to reality.
MacPhail, Catherine L.; Sayles, Jennifer N.; Cunningham, William; Newman, Peter
Previous findings of low levels of reverse transcriptase (RT) activity in chick cell-derived measles and mumps vaccines showed this activity to be associated with virus particles containing RNA of both subgroup E endogenous avian leukosis viruses (ALV-E) and endogenous avian viruses (EAV). These particles originate from chicken embryonic fibroblast (CEF) substrates used for propagating vaccine strains. To better characterize vaccine-associated ALV-E, we examined the endogenous ALV proviruses (ev loci) present in a White Leghorn CEF substrate pool by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Five ev loci were detected, ev-1, ev-3, ev-6, ev-18, andev-19. Both ev-18 and ev-19 can express infectious ALV-E, while ev-1, ev-3, and ev-6 are defective. We analyzed the full-length sequence of ev-1 and identified an adenosine insertion within the pol RT-? region at position 5026, which results in a truncated RT-? and integrase. We defined the 1,692-bp deletion in the gag-pol region of ev-3, and we found that in ev-6, sequences from the 5? long terminal repeat to the 5? pol region were absent. Based on the sequences of the ev loci, RT-PCR assays were developed to examine expression of ALV-E particles (EV) in CEF supernatants. Both ev-1- and ev-3-like RNA sequences were identified, as well as two other RNA sequences with intact pol regions, presumably of ev-18 and ev-19 origin. Inoculation of susceptible quail fibroblasts with CEF culture supernatants from both 5-azacytidine-induced and noninduced CEF led to ALV infection, confirming the presence of infectious ALV-E. Our data demonstrate that both defective and nondefective ev loci can be present in CEF vaccine substrates and suggest that both ev classes may contribute to the ALV present in vaccines.
Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Heneine, Walid
Chickens lack the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and sense avian influenza virus (AIV) infections by means of the melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 product (chMDA5). Plasmid-driven expression of the N-terminal half of chMDA5 containing the caspase activation and recruitment domains [chMDA5(1-483)] triggers interferon-? responses in chicken cells. We hypothesized that mimicking virus infection by chMDA5(1-483) expression may enhance vaccine-induced adaptive immunity. In order to test this, the potential genetic adjuvant properties of chMDA5(1-483) were evaluated in vivo in combination with a suboptimal quantity of a plasmid DNA vaccine expressing haemagglutinin (HA) of H5N1 AIV. Co-administration of the HA plasmid with plasmid DNA for chMDA5(1-483) expression resulted in approximately 10-fold higher HA-specific antibody responses than injection of the HA plasmid mixed with empty vector DNA as control. Accordingly, compared with HA DNA vaccination alone, the chMDA5(1-483)-adjuvanted HA DNA vaccine mediated enhanced protection against a lethal H5N1 challenge infection in chickens, with reduced clinical signs and cloacal virus shedding. These data demonstrate that innate immune activation by expression of signaling domains of RIG-I-like receptors can be exploited to enhance vaccine efficacy.
Liniger, Matthias; Summerfield, Artur; Ruggli, Nicolas
Abstract Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are of great concern to the worldwide community as well as the poultry industry. Although existing vaccines are successful in limiting the spread of the virus, these vaccines do not eliminate virus shedding into the environment. As a result, it is of great importance to enhance the efficacy of existing AIV vaccines. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to utilize the immunostimulatory Toll-like receptor ligands poly I:C, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and CpG DNA motifs, either alone or in combination with each other, as adjuvants to enhance the immunogenicity of an inactivated AIV vaccine. Chickens were vaccinated twice, 14 days apart. Antibody-mediated responses were assessed by collected sera and lacrimal secretions, while cell-mediated immunity was assessed by stimulating splenocytes from vaccinated chickens in vitro with the vaccine antigen. The results suggest that CpG alone served as the best single-ligand adjuvant compared to poly I:C or LPS, as it significantly enhanced antibody-mediated responses, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Furthermore, upon combining CpG with poly I:C, a robust antibody-mediated and cell-mediated immune response was elicited, resulting in an enhanced hemagglutination inhibition titer and splenocyte proliferation respectively. Future studies may be aimed at assessing the efficacy of the poly I:C and CpG combination adjuvant in protecting against AIV infection. PMID:24797893
St Paul, Michael; Barjesteh, Neda; Brisbin, Jennifer T; Villaneueva, Alexander Ian; Read, Leah R; Hodgins, Douglas; Nagy, Eva; Sharif, Shayan
Children aged 11 to <24 months received 2 intranasal doses of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) or placebo, 35±7 days apart. Dose 1 was administered concomitantly with a combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (Priorix). Seroresponses to measles and mumps were similar between groups. Compared with placebo, response rates to rubella in LAIV+Priorix recipients were statistically lower at a 15IU\\/mL
Lucy Chai See Lum; Charissa Fay Borja-Tabora; Robert F. Breiman; Timo Vesikari; Benjamin P. Sablan; Oh Moh Chay; Taweewong Tantracheewathorn; Heinz-Josef Schmitt; Yu-Lung Lau; Piyaporn Bowonkiratikachorn; John S. Tam; Bee Wah Lee; Kah Kee Tan; Jerzy Pejcz; Sungho Cha; Maricruz Gutierrez-Brito; Petras Kaltenis; Andre Vertruyen; Hanna Czajka; Jurgis Bojarskas; W. Abdullah Brooks; Sheau-Mei Cheng; Ruth Rappaport; Sherryl Baker; William C. Gruber; Bruce D. Forrest
Commercial vaccines for in ovo vaccination have not yet been developed for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the major coronavirus in the poultry industry. Recombinant IBVs based on the Beaudette strain expressing the Beaudette spike protein (Beau-R) or that from the virulent M41 strain (BeauR-M41(S)) were assessed for their potential as prototype vaccines for application to 18-day-old embryos. Pathogenicity was assessed
I. Tarpey; S. J. Orbell; P. Britton; R. Casais; T. Hodgson; F. Lin; E. Hogan; D. Cavanagh
An earlier report (M. Sakaguchi et al., Vaccine 16:472-479, 1998) showed that recombinant Marek's disease virus type 1 (rMDV1) expressing the fusion (F) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV-F) under the control of the simian virus 40 late promoter [rMDV1-US10L(F)] protected specific pathogen-free chickens from NDV challenge, but not commercial chickens with maternal antibodies against NDV and MDV1. In the present study, we constructed an improved polyvalent vaccine based on MDV1 against MDV and NDV in commercial chickens with maternal antibodies. The study can be summarized as follows. (i) We constructed rMDV1 expressing NDV-F under the control of the MDV1 glycoprotein B (gB) promoter [rMDV1-US10P(F)]. (ii) Much less NDV-F protein was expressed in cells infected with rMDV1-US10P(F) than in those infected with rMDV1-US10L(F). (iii) The antibody response against NDV-F and MDV1 antigens of commercial chickens vaccinated with rMDV1-US10P(F) was much stronger and faster than with rMDV1-US10L(F), and a high level of antibody against NDV-F persisted for over 80 weeks postvaccination. (iv) rMDV1-US10P(F) was readily reisolated from the vaccinated chickens, and the recovered viruses were found to express NDV-F. (v) Vaccination of commercial chickens having maternal antibodies to rMDV1-US10P(F) completely protected them from NDV challenge. (vi) rMDV1-US10P(F) offered the same degree of protection against very virulent MDV1 as the parental MDV1 and commercial vaccines. These results indicate that rMDV1-US10P(F) is an effective and stable polyvalent vaccine against both Marek's and Newcastle diseases even in the presence of maternal antibodies. PMID:10708438
Sonoda, K; Sakaguchi, M; Okamura, H; Yokogawa, K; Tokunaga, E; Tokiyoshi, S; Kawaguchi, Y; Hirai, K
Concerns about the impact of risk compensation on advances in biomedical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention technologies have been documented. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study using focus group discussions with young South African men and women (aged 18 to 24 years) to explore perceptions of risk compensation with regard to a hypothetical posttrial HIV vaccine. During the discussions, participants expressed their disquiet about the potential for risk compensation and the manner in which this might manifest among young people. Discussions specifically focused on reductions in condom use, an increase in multiple partners, and increased frequency of sex. The discussions also revealed contradictory feelings about HIV vaccines: appreciation for their development tempered by concerns about loss of control and undermining morality. Women were particularly concerned with the possibility of increased partner concurrency and infidelity. We suggest that concerns in HIV vaccine target populations about the impact of possible risk compensation be incorporated into strategies for vaccine introduction once vaccines move from the hypothetical to reality. PMID:22218269
Macphail, Catherine L; Sayles, Jennifer N; Cunningham, William; Newman, Peter A
Recombinant strains of herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) were constructed that contain either the fusion protein gene or the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) inserted into a nonessential gene of HVT. Expression of the NDV antigens was regulated from a strong promoter element derived from the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat. Recombinant HVT strains were stable and fully infectious in cell culture and in chickens. Chickens receiving a single intra-abdominal inoculation at 1 day of age with recombinant HVT expressing the NDV fusion protein had an immunological response and were protected (> 90%) against lethal intramuscular challenge at 28 days of age with the neurotropic velogenic NDV strain Texas GB. Recombinant HVT expressing the NDV hemagglutinin-neuraminidase provided partial protection (47%) against the same challenge. Chickens vaccinated with recombinant HVT vaccines had low levels of protection against NDV replication in the trachea when challenged ocularly. Recombinant HVT vaccines and the parent HVT strain provided similar levels of protection to chickens challenged with the very virulent RB1B strain of Marek's disease virus, indicating that insertion of foreign sequences into the HVT genome did not compromise the ability of HVT to protect against Marek's disease. PMID:1485872
Morgan, R W; Gelb, J; Schreurs, C S; Lütticken, D; Rosenberger, J K; Sondermeijer, P J
The genomic sequences of low and high passages of the United States infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) vaccine strains CEO and TCO were determined using hybrid next generation sequencing in order to define genomic changes associated with attenuation and reversion to virulence. Phylogenetic analysis of available full genomes grouped strains into three major clades: TCO, CEO, and Australian. Comparative genomics revealed that TCO attenuation is likely the result of an ORF C truncation. Genes involved in attenuation are generally clade-specific, however four genes ORF C, UL27, UL28 and UL39 commonly contained various mutations across the CEO and TCO lineages. The Thr644 mutation in the UL27 gene encoding glycoprotein B was identified in all virulent US strains. The US10 gene was identified as a potential virulence factor for the TCO revertant 81658. The UL41 gene was responsible for the robust gain in virulence of CEO-Fowl Laryngotracheitis(®) after 20 passages in chickens. PMID:23537957
García, Maricarmen; Volkening, Jeremy; Riblet, Sylva; Spatz, Stephen
1. Chick embryos were orally immunised at day 16 of incubation by injection of heat?killed Campylobacter jejuni organisms into the amniotic fluid. The response to vaccination was observed at 5 d after hatching or, in some birds which received a postnatal oral booster vaccination, at 7 d after hatching, and the response was observed at 14 d of age.2. The
S. M. Noor; A. J. Husband; P. R. Widders
A trial was carried out in 1-day-old broiler chicks raised for 54 days in floorpens under simulated commercial conditions, but isolated from all extraneous virulent coccidial infections, to demonstrate the safety of ‘Paracox’ attenuated vaccine administered at the recommended dose when chicks were 7 days old. The vaccine did not adversely affect the water consumption, faecal moisture or litter condition
R. B. Williams
To investigate whether the efficacy of live vaccines is influenced by the mode of vaccine delivery, a widely-used UK live commercial Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine was delivered to pullet chicks either by spray, in drinking water, or in combination with a bivalent vaccine containing inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium. The birds were subsequently challenged with 10(2) or 10(8) colony-forming units (cfu) of Salmonella Enteritidis through drinking water at either six or 20 weeks of age. Ten days after the challenge, the birds were euthanased and their caecal contents cultured for Salmonella. All of the vaccinated groups contained fewer Salmonella Enteritidis-positive birds than the unvaccinated groups. The 'spray-vaccinated' group contained significantly fewer Salmonella Enteritidis-positive birds than the 'water-vaccinated' group after challenge with 10(8) cfu at 20 weeks. However, there was little or no difference at the other challenge time points between the groups that received vaccine through different modes of delivery. PMID:20675624
Atterbury, R J; Davies, R H; Carrique-Mas, J J; Morris, V; Harrison, D; Tucker, V; Allen, V M
Increases in circulating acute phase protein (APP) levels occur in reaction to systemic infections in animals. However, no previous research has been conducted to monitor possible changes in APP levels of birds in response to prelay vaccinations of various live attenuated Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines in conjunction with their subsequent use as an overlay vaccine during the production period. Serum concentrations of the APP, ?1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), were determined on d 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 after subjecting commercial laying hens to one of the following treatments at 10 wk of age (woa): 1) control (no vaccination); 2) ts-11 strain M. gallisepticum (ts11MG) vaccination; 3) M. gallisepticum-bacterin (MGBac) vaccination; and 4) ts11MG and MGBac combination (ts11MG & MGBac) vaccination. Furthermore, at 45 woa, the birds in half of the units assigned to each treatment group were vaccinated with high-passage F-strain M. gallisepticum (HpFMG). Birds in treatment 1 that were (single control) and were not (double control) vaccinated with HpFMG, and birds in treatments 2, 3, and 4 that were vaccinated with HpFMG were further tested during lay on d 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 after vaccination. On d 7, 14, and 28 postvaccination at 10 woa, the ts11MG & MGBac, ts11MG, and MGBac group AGP concentrations were not different from one another, but all were higher than those in the control group. Similarly, on d 3, 7, and 14 postvaccination, the single control, and the MGBac ts11MG, and ts11MG & MGBac treatment groups that were later vaccinated with HpFMG at 45 woa, were not different, but all were higher than that in the double control group. In conclusion, elevated circulation AGP concentrations may be used to detect and confirm subclinical infections in pullets up to 28 d after having been vaccinated with ts11MG, MGBac, or their combination. Furthermore, in association with depressed performance, elevated serum AGP concentrations in layers may be used to confirm HpFMG infections up to 28 d after its use as a vaccine. PMID:24879689
Peebles, E D; Jacob, R; Branton, S L; Gerard, P D
In this study, we evaluated the ability of different Campylobacter phenotypes (biofilm versus planktonic) to colonize young poultry. It has been suggested that a persistent Campylobacter biofilm reservoir may be involved in the initial contamination of poultry flocks. Campylobacter jejuni cultured adherent to agar was utilized as the biofilm model and C. jejuni cultured in broth was evaluated as the planktonic model. In 2 independent trials, 1-d-old broiler chicks were given 1 of 3 treatments: 1) 10(5) cfu.mL(-1) of C. jejuni cultured in broth, 2) 10(5) cfu.mL(-1) of C. jejuni cultured adherent to agar, or 3) no C. jejuni (negative control). Cecal contents of all birds were evaluated by culturing 12 d after the initial challenge with C. jejuni. In both trials, birds challenged with C. jejuni cultured in broth had approximately 3 to 4 log higher cecal Campylobacter concentration than birds challenged with C. jejuni cultured adherent to agar. Using 2 cell lines (INT 407 and DF1), virulence of C. jejuni cultured in broth versus adherent to agar also was evaluated by challenging monolayers of eukaryotic cells with 1 of 3 treatments: 1) 10(5) cfu.mL(-1) of C. jejuni cultured in broth, 2) 10(5) cfu.mL(-1) of C. jejuni cultured adherent to agar, or 3) no C. jejuni (negative control). The virulence study also showed differences of C. jejuni cultured in broth or agar in attachment and invasion abilities to tissue culture cells, but differences were not as consistent as with the chick colonization study. This study indicates that phenotype may play a role in colonization of chickens and virulence by C. jejuni. PMID:19359701
Hanning, I; Donoghue, D J; Jarquin, R; Kumar, G S; Aguiar, V F; Metcalf, J H; Reyes-Herrera, I; Slavik, M
Available avian influenza (AIV) serological diagnostic tests cannot distinguish vaccinated from naturally infected birds. Differentiation of vaccinated from infected animals (DIVA) is currently advocated as a means of achieving the full control of H5N1. In this study, for the first time, recombinant ectodomain of M2 protein (M2e) of avian influenza virus (H5N1 strain) was used for the DIVA serology test. M2e was cloned into pMAL-P4X vector and expressed in E. coli cells. We used Western blot to recognize the expressed M2e-MBP protein by chicken antisera produced against live H5N1 virus. Also, the specificity of M2e-MBP protein was compared to the M2e synthetic peptide via ELISA. In M2e-MBP ELISA, all sera raised against the live avian influenza viruses were positive for M2e antibodies, whereas sera from killed virus vaccination were negative. Furthermore, M2e-MBP ELISA of the field sera obtained from vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens showed negative results, while challenged vaccinated chickens demonstrated strong positive reactions. H5N1-originated recombinant M2e protein induced broad-spectrum response and successfully reacted with antibodies against other AIV strains such as H5N2, H9N2, H7N7, and H11N6. The application of the recombinant protein instead of synthetic peptide has the advantages of continues access to an inexpensive reagent for performing a large scale screening. Moreover, recombinant proteins provide the possibility of testing the DIVA results with an additional technique such a Western blotting which is not possible in the case of synthetic proteins. All together, the results of the present investigation show that recombinant M2e-MBP can be used as a robust and inexpensive solution for DIVA test. PMID:23437243
Hemmatzadeh, Farhid; Sumarningsih, Sumarningsih; Tarigan, Simson; Indriani, Risa; Dharmayanti, N L P Indi; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Igniatovic, Jagoda
Attempts to solve the problem of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg) infection of poultry by a combination of eradication and antibiotic treatment have at best met with only partial success. As a result of the continuing economic burden of the disease, there has been a renewed interest in vaccination as a tool in the control of Mg. A particularly pressing problem exists in the commercial egg industry, where the occurrence of MG infection of layer hens at the onset of egg production leads to a marked depression in productivity. Vaccination with the F strain of Mg has been demonstrated to efficacious in the alleviation of this problem, and the procedure is widely employed in the USA. Under field conditions of vaccination the F strain was found to be virtually nonpathogenic, although challenge experiments show that it retains some pathogenicity. The strain is carried in the trachea of vaccinated layers for as long as one year, but only spreads slowly. A specific serological response to Mg is produced in response to vaccination. To some extent, this response is dose dependent, but it is quantitatively less than that produced by virulent strains introduced by the same route. It has been suggested that the continued presence of a nonvirulent Mg in the upper respiratory tract, and the concomitant local immunological response, may prevent infection by field strains of Mg. In fact, judicious vaccination procedures appear to lead to the displacement of pathogenic Mg by the vaccine strain. By these means, it may be possible to eradicate Mg from flocks while maintaining production. PMID:7287410
Levisohn, S; Kleven, S H
Commercial vaccines for in ovo vaccination have not yet been developed for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the major coronavirus in the poultry industry. Recombinant IBVs based on the Beaudette strain expressing the Beaudette spike protein (Beau-R) or that from the virulent M41 strain (BeauR-M41(S)) were assessed for their potential as prototype vaccines for application to 18-day-old embryos. Pathogenicity was assessed by observing the effect on hatchability, and/or the production of nasal discharge and/or the effects on ciliary activity in the trachea at various time points post hatch. In contrast to commercial IBV vaccines given in ovo, the Beau-R and BeauR-M41(S) strains did not reduce hatchability or cause nasal discharge, and caused minimal damage to the ciliated epithelium of the trachea. The presence of the spike protein from a virulent virus did not increase the pathogenicity of the virus according to the criteria used. Assessment of the BeauR-M41(S) strain for efficacy showed that it protected up to 90% of chicks against challenge with virulent IB virus (M41) in a dose dependent manner. Further egg passage of the BeauR-M41(S) strain (BeauR-M41(S) EP10) did not increase its pathogenicity though it did improve its efficacy, based on serology and protection against a virulent challenge. BeauR-M41(S) EP10 was more efficacious than BeauR-M41(S) protecting more birds against virulent challenge and providing a better serological antibody response. BeauR-M41(S) EP10 induced a serological response similar to that of a commercial vaccine given at day-old though the commercial vaccine provided slightly higher efficacy. These results are promising for the development of embryo safe efficacious IBV vaccines for in ovo application. PMID:16860445
Tarpey, I; Orbell, S J; Britton, P; Casais, R; Hodgson, T; Lin, F; Hogan, E; Cavanagh, D
We investigated the potential of a herpesvirus of turkey (HVT)-based recombinant virus (rHVT) as an in in ovo vaccine to protect specific-pathogen-free chickens against Newcastle disease (ND) and Marek's disease (MD). The rHVT, designed to express fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoproteins of the lentogenic Hitchner B1 strain of ND virus (NDV), as well as glycoproteins A and B of
S. K. Reddy; J. M. Sharma; J. Ahmad; D. N. Reddy; J. K. McMillen; S. M. Cook; M. A. Wild; R. D. Schwartz
Several live attenuated influenza virus A\\/California\\/7\\/09 (H1N1) (CA09) candidate vaccine variants that possess the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments from the CA09 virus and six internal protein gene segments from the cold-adapted influenza virus A\\/Ann Arbor\\/6\\/60 (H2N2) virus were generated by reverse genetics. The reassortant viruses replicated relatively poorly in embryonated chicken eggs. To improve virus growth in
Zhongying Chen; Weijia Wang; Helen Zhou; Amorsolo L. Suguitan; C. Shambaugh; L. Kim; J. Zhao; G. Kemble; H. Jin
The influences of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) vaccine inoculation during the pullet period on the subsequent productive and reproductive performance of parent broiler chicken breeders on a multi-age farm were evaluated. Three thousand breeders were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups that were either vaccinated with FMG (FMG-vaccinated group) or not vaccinated with FMG (FMG-free group). Body weight and egg production were determined through approximately 50 wk of age. Egg weight and feed conversion was determined at 26, 32, 35, 38, and 43 wk of age. Egg quality parameters, including eggshell strength, egg-specific gravity, egg shape index, blood-meat spots, Haugh unit score, eggshell thickness, yolk:albumen ratio, percentage yolk, albumen and eggshell weights, and percentage fertility, hatchability, and second-quality chicks were determined at 26, 32, and 43 wk of age. Air sacs were examined and lesions were scored at 20, 32, and 50 wk of age. The number of mature ovarian follicles, histologies of ovary, and lengths, and histologies of the infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus, and vagina were determined. In the present study, an increase in egg production of broiler breeder hens in the FMG-vaccinated group during peak of lay was compared with the FMG-free group. Feed conversion of hens in the FMG-vaccinated group was significantly less at 32, 35, 38, and 43 wk of age. Eggs from hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly higher Haugh units score at 26 wk of age and had a significantly higher eggshell thickness and lower incidence of blood-meat spots at 32 wk. Hatching eggs from hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly higher hatchability. The mean lesion score of air-sac lesion of birds in the FMG-vaccinated group was significantly less than FMG-vaccinated group. Uteruses of hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly longer length compared with the FMG-free group at 32 wk of age. The results indicate that inoculation of commercial parent broiler chicken breeders with the FMG vaccine before laying may prevent infection by field M. gallisepticum, and facilitate productive and reproductive performance. PMID:23687149
Liu, J J; Ding, L; Wei, J Z; Li, Y
Much of the impact of Marek's disease in broiler chickens is considered to be due to immunosuppression induced by Marek's disease virus (MDV). The present study evaluates the effects of an Australian isolate of pathogenic MDV (strain MPF 57) and a non-pathogenic vaccinal strain of herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) (strain FC 126) on the immune system of commercial broiler chickens for 35 days following challenge at days 0 or 3 of age. It also investigates the extent of protection provided by HVT vaccine against MDV-induced immunosuppression. Immune system variables, including relative lymphoid organ weight, blood lymphocyte phenotype (CD45+/CD3+, putatively T, and CD45+/LC+, putatively B) and antibody production following vaccination against infectious bronchitis (IB) at hatch, were used to assess the immune status of chickens. Immunosuppression was also assessed by susceptibility to secondary challenge with pathogenic Escherichia coli on day 29 post-MDV challenge. MDV infection reduced the weight of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius, the numbers of circulating T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes, and IB antibody titre. The timing of these effects varied. MDV infection greatly increased susceptibility to E. coli infection. HVT alone caused mild depletion of T and B lymphocytes but no effect on immune organ weight or IB titre. Vaccination with HVT provided good protection against most of the immunosuppressive effects of MDV but not against MDV-induced growth impairment and reduced responsiveness to IB vaccination, suggesting that recent Australian strains of MDV may be evolving in virulence to overcome the protective effects of HVT. PMID:12427339
Islam, A F M F; Wong, C W; Walkden-Brown, S W; Colditz, I G; Arzey, K E; Groves, P J
Conjugation of carbohydrate antigens to protein carriers significantly improves the immune response to many carbohydrates. In order to evaluate the potential for this approach to improve the performance of pneumococcal vaccine in the elderly, we evaluated pneumococcal polysaccharide-derived oligosaccharides conjugated to cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197) (CRM-OS) in 49 older adults over 60 years of age (median age, 66 years) and compared the results to those from 50 younger adults under age 45 (median age, 27 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to receive licensed 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PS) which contain 25 micrograms of polysaccharide per serotype, or 5-valent CRM-OS, which contains 10 micrograms of oligosaccharide per serotype, in double-blind fashion. Both vaccines were associated with moderate local pain on administration. Antibody responses to type 14 were seen in the majority of both younger and older subjects following administration of both CRM-OS and PS, and there was no significant improvement of responses with CRM-OS in either age group. Antibody responses in young adults to the less immunogenic type 6B were seen in only 36% of subjects receiving PS and in 56% of subjects receiving CRM-OS (P = 0.15), and the geometric mean 6B titer 1 month after vaccination was higher in CRM-OS recipients (10.9 versus 3.7 micrograms/ml; P = 0.04). However, 6B responses were poor following the administration of either vaccine to elderly adults and there was no difference between results with CRM-OS and those with PS in this age group. Relatively few subjects developed measurable mucosal immunoglobulin A responses in nasal secretions following administration of either vaccine. Revaccination of CRM-OS recipients with PS at 2 months did not result in significant additional responses to 6B or 14. Though CRM-OS is possibly more immunogenic in young adults, the formulation of the pneumococcal glycoconjugate vaccine used in this study does not appear to offer an advantage to the elderly for types 6B or 14.
Shelly, M A; Jacoby, H; Riley, G J; Graves, B T; Pichichero, M; Treanor, J J
Efficacy of Single Dose of a Bivalent Vaccine Containing Inactivated Newcastle Disease Virus and Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus against Lethal HPAI and NDV Infection in Chickens
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are 2 devastating diseases of poultry, which cause great economic losses to the poultry industry. In the present study, we developed a bivalent vaccine containing antigens of inactivated ND and reassortant HPAI H5N1 viruses as a candidate poultry vaccine, and we evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in specific pathogen-free chickens. The 6?2 reassortant H5N1 vaccine strain containing the surface genes of the A/Chicken/Korea/ES/2003(H5N1) virus was successfully generated by reverse genetics. A polybasic cleavage site of the hemagglutinin segment was replaced by a monobasic cleavage site. We characterized the reverse genetics-derived reassortant HPAI H5N1 clade 2.5 vaccine strain by evaluating its growth kinetics in eggs, minimum effective dose in chickens, and cross-clade immunogenicity against HPAI clade 1 and 2. The bivalent vaccine was prepared by emulsifying inactivated ND (La Sota strain) and reassortant HPAI viruses with Montanide ISA 70 adjuvant. A single immunization with this vaccine induced high levels of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers and protected chickens against a lethal challenge with the wild-type HPAI and ND viruses. Our results demonstrate that the bivalent, inactivated vaccine developed in this study is a promising approach for the control of both HPAI H5N1 and ND viral infections.
Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Jang, Yo-Han; Seong, Baik-Lin; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon
Seeds of a Chinese traditional medicine plant, Cochinchina momordica were used in the present study for the improvement of influenza vaccine (H5N1) in chicken. Crude extraction from Cochinchina momordica seed (ECMS) was obtained by ethanol extraction method. In experiment No. 1, two weeks old chickens were immunized with influenza vaccine (H5N1) alone or combined with ECMS (5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 ?g/dose). Serum IgG antibody levels (by ELISA) as well as effects on daily weight gain were measured on 0, 7, 14 and 28th day after immunization. Results revealed that all ECMS groups numerically increased the antibody levels while 10 and 20 ?g/dose groups significantly (P<0.05) enhanced total IgG antibody on day 28, when compared with control. Average daily weight gain was also significantly higher in 20 ?g/dose ECMS group. Adjuvant effect was also confirmed in experiment No. 2 when chickens were immunized with 20 ?g/dose ECMS and antibody titer was measured through hemagglutination inhibition (HI). It is concluded that ECMS has potential to improve the immune responses and deserve further study as an adjuvant.
Rajput, Zahid Iqbal; Xiao, Chen-wen; Hu, Song-hua; Arijo, Abdullah G.; Soomro, Noor Mohammad
Mumps outbreaks in populations with high 2-dose vaccination coverage and among young adults are increasingly reported. However, data on the duration of vaccine-induced protection conferred by mumps vaccines are scarce. As part of a supra-regional outbreak in Germany 2010/11, we conducted two retrospective cohort studies in a primary school and among adult ice hockey teams to determine mumps vaccine effectiveness (VE). Via questionnaires we collected information on demography, clinical manifestations, and reviewed vaccination cards. We estimated VE as 1-RR, RR being the rate ratio of disease among two-times or one-time mumps-vaccinated compared with unvaccinated persons. The response rate was 92.6% (100/108-children cohort) and 91.7% (44/48-adult cohort). Fourteen cases were identified in the children and 6 in the adult cohort. In the children cohort (mean age: 9 y), 2-dose VE was 91.9% (95% CI 81.0-96.5%). In the adult cohort (mean age: 26 y), no cases occurred among the 13 2-times vaccinated, while 1-dose VE was 50.0% (95% CI -9.4-87.1%). Average time since last vaccination showed no significant difference for cases and non-cases, but cases were younger at age of last mumps vaccination (children cohort: 2 vs. 3 y, P = 0.04; adult cohort: 1 vs. 4 y, P = 0.03). We did not observe signs of waning immunity in the children cohort. Due to the small sample size VE in the adult cohort should be interpreted with caution. Given the estimated VE, very high 2-dose vaccination coverage is required to prevent future outbreaks. Intervention efforts to increase coverage must especially target young adults who received<2 vaccinations during childhood. PMID:24091837
Takla, Anja; Böhmer, Merle M; Klinc, Christina; Kurz, Norbert; Schaffer, Alice; Stich, Heribert; Stöcker, Petra; Wichmann, Ole; Koch, Judith
Background This study aimed at investigating a potential effect caused by coccidia on the immune response to vaccine- and very virulent infectious bursal disase virus (vvIBDV) in SPF chickens. Methods Two groups of three weeks old SPF chickens were vaccinated prior to inoculation with coccidia and challenge with virulent IBDV, all within a period of eight days. Two control groups were similarly treated, except that challenge with field virus was omitted in one group while inoculation with coccidia was omitted in the other group. Clinical signs, lesions in the intestines caused by coccidia, lesions in the bursa of Fabricius caused by IBDV, IBDV-antibody titres, and virus detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were compared among the groups. Lymphoid tissues and swab samples were analysed by general RT-PCR, and positive results were identified by strain specific duplex (DPX) RT-PCR. Results In the tripple-infected groups, vaccine strain IBDV was detected in spleen and thymus tissues, and no field virus was detected in bursa samples, contrary to the double-infected groups. Conclusion The results suggest an enhancing effect on the immune response caused by subclinical coccidiosis and vvIBDV acting in concert.
Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt J; Bisgaard, Magne
The chemical composition of spray dried porcine blood by-products is characterised by wide variation in crude protein contents. In spray dried porcine blood plasma (SDBP) it varied between 670-780?g/kg, in spray dried blood cells (SDBC) between 830-930?g/kg, and in bone protein hydrolysate (BPH) in a range of 740-780?g/kg. Compared with fish meal, these feeds are poor in Met and Lys. Moreover, in BPH deep deficits of Met, Cys, Thr and other amino acids were found. The experiment comprised 7 dietary treatments: SDBP, SDBC, and BPH, each at an inclusion rate of 20 or 40?g/kg diet, plus a control. The addition of 20 or 40?g/kg of the analysed meals into feeds for very young chickens (1-28?d post hatch) significantly decreased the body weight (BW) of birds. Only the treatments with 40?g/kg of SDBP and SDBC showed no significant difference in BW as compared with the control. There were no significant differences between treatments and type of meal for feed intake, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations in blood. Addition of bone protein and blood cell meals to feed decreased the IgG concentration in blood and caused shortening of the femur and tibia bones. However, changes in the mineral composition of bones were not significantly affected by the type of meal used. The blood by-products, which are rich in microelements, improved retention of Ca and Cu only. In comparison to control chickens, significantly better accretion of these minerals was found in treatments containing 20?g/kg of SDBP or 40?g/kg of SDBC. Great variability in apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in chickens was determined. In this respect, some significant differences related to the type of meal fed were confirmed for Asp, Pro, Val, Tyr and His. In general, the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids was about 2-3 percentage units better in chickens fed on diets containing the animal by products than in control birds. PMID:22029787
Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Orda, J; Skorupi?ska, J; S?upczy?ska, M; Kuryszko, J
Background H6N1 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) are frequently isolated in Taiwan and lead to significant economic losses,\\u000a either directly or indirectly through association with other infectious diseases. This study investigates immune responses\\u000a to three different vaccines following a H6N1 challenge in different local breeds.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Experimental animals were sampled from six local chicken breeds maintained at the National Chung-Hsing University,
Chi-Sheng Chang; Michèle Tixier-Boichard; Olympe Chazara; Yen-Pai Lee; Chih-Feng Chen; Poa-Chun Chang; Jan-Wei Chen; Bertrand Bed’hom
LEVELS OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN-A IN TRACHEA, GUT AND BILE SAMPLES OF CHICKENS VACCINATED AGAINST NEWCASTLE DISEASE. Niveles de inmunoglobulina A en muestras de tráquea, intestino y bilis provenientes de aves vacunadas contra la enfermedad de Newcastle
Immunoglobulin-A (IgA) response to Newcastle diseases virus (NDV) vaccination was assessed using enzyme-linked immu- nosorbent assay. Total and NDV specific IgA levels were de- termined in tracheal washings, intestinal washings and bile. Chickens were primed with an in ovo recombinant avian adeno-associated vaccine coding for the NDV hemagglutinin- neuraminidase gene (rAAAV) and revaccinated with B1 or La- Sota strains of
Francisco Perozo; Giovanny Finol; Yaneth Mavárez
Cellular immune responses of both CD4 and CD8 memory/effector T cells were evaluated in healthy young adults who received two doses of live attenuated influenza A (H5N2) vaccine. The vaccine was developed by reassortment of nonpathogenic avian A/Duck/Potsdam/1402-6/68 (H5N2) and cold-adapted A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2) viruses. T-cell responses were measured by standard methods of intracellular cytokine staining of gamma interferon (IFN-?)-producing cells and a novel T-cell recognition of antigen-presenting cells by protein capture (TRAP) assay based on the trogocytosis phenomenon, namely, plasma membrane exchange between interacting immune cells. TRAP enables the detection of activated trogocytosis-positive T cells after virus stimulation. We showed that two doses of live attenuated influenza A (H5N2) vaccine promoted both CD4 and CD8 T-memory-cell responses in peripheral blood of healthy young subjects in the clinical study. Significant differences in geometric mean titers (GMTs) of influenza A (H5N2)-specific IFN-?(+) cells were observed at day 42 following the second vaccination, while peak levels of trogocytosis(+) T cells were detected earlier, on the 21st day after the second vaccination. The inverse correlation of baseline levels compared to postvaccine fold changes in GMTs of influenza-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells demonstrated that baseline levels of these specific cells could be considered a predictive factor of vaccine immunogenicity. PMID:21813657
Chirkova, T V; Naykhin, A N; Petukhova, G D; Korenkov, D A; Donina, S A; Mironov, A N; Rudenko, L G
The Clostridium-related poultry disease, necrotic enteritis (NE), causes substantial economic losses on a global scale. In the present study, a mixture of two plant-derived phytonutrients, Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin (XT), was evaluated for its effects on local and systemic immune responses using a co-infection model of experimental NE in commercial broilers. Chickens were fed from hatch with a diet supplemented with XT, or with a non-supplemented control diet, and either uninfected or orally challenged with virulent Eimeria maxima oocysts at 14 d and Clostridium perfringens at 18 d of age. Parameters of protective immunity were as follows: (1) body weight; (2) gut lesions; (3) serum levels of C. perfringens ?-toxin and NE B-like (NetB) toxin; (4) serum levels of antibodies to ?-toxin and NetB toxin; (5) levels of gene transcripts encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the intestine and spleen. Infected chickens fed the XT-supplemented diet had increased body weight and reduced gut lesion scores compared with infected birds given the non-supplemented diet. The XT-fed group also displayed decreased serum ?-toxin levels and reduced intestinal IL-8, lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-? factor (LITAF), IL-17A and IL-17F mRNA levels, while cytokine/chemokine levels in splenocytes increased in the XT-fed group, compared with the animals fed the control diet. In conclusion, the present study documents the molecular and cellular immune changes following dietary supplementation with extracts of Capsicum and turmeric that may be relevant to protective immunity against avian NE. PMID:23566550
Lee, Sung Hyen; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lillehoj, Erik P; Min, Wongi; Bravo, David M
Background Vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is recommended for adolescent young women prior to sexual debut to reduce cervical cancer related mortality and morbidity. Understanding factors affecting decision-making of HPV vaccination of young women is important so that effective interventions can be developed which address barriers to uptake in population groups less likely to receive the HPV vaccine. Methods We undertook a qualitative systematic review and evidence synthesis to examine decision-making relating to the HPV vaccination of young women in high-income countries. A comprehensive search of databases from inception to March 2012 was undertaken to identify eligible studies reporting the perspectives of key stakeholders including policy makers, professionals involved in programme, parents, and young women. Factors affecting uptake of the vaccine were examined at different levels of the socio-ecological model (policy, community, organisational, interpersonal and intrapersonal). Results Forty-one studies were included. Whether young women receive the HPV vaccine is strongly governed by the decisions of policy makers, healthcare professionals, and parents. These decisions are shaped by: financial considerations; social norms and values relating to sexual activity, and; trust in vaccination programmes and healthcare providers. Financial constraints may be overcome through universal healthcare systems offering the HPV vaccine free at the point of delivery. In the healthcare setting, judgements by healthcare professionals about whether to recommend the vaccine may restrict a young woman’s access to the vaccine irrespective of her own beliefs and preferences. Parents may decide not to allow their daughters to be vaccinated, based on cultural or religious perceptions about sexual activity. Conclusions Barriers to the uptake of the HPV vaccine have implications for young women’s future sexual, physical and reproductive health. Interventions to address barriers to uptake of the vaccine should target appropriate, and multiple, levels of the socio-ecological model. Issues of trust require clear, accessible, and sometimes culturally appropriate, information about the HPV vaccination programme. Although young women are central to the HPV vaccination programme, their views are underrepresented in the qualitative literature. Future research should consider young women’s perceptions of, and involvement in, consent and decision-making.
The risk and the size of an outbreak of avian influenza virus (AIV) could be restricted by vaccination of poultry. A vaccine used for rapid intervention during an AIV outbreak should be safe, highly effective after a single administration and suitable for mass application. In the case of AIV, aerosol vaccination using live virus is not desirable because of its
Eveline D. de Geus; Johanna M. J. Rebel; Lonneke Vervelde
Very little is known about geographic variation in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake among young adult women in the US. To investigate this, we analyzed data from 12 US states collected through the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System between 2008 and 2010. Among 2632 young adult women (18-26 years old) who responded to HPV vaccine uptake questions, weighted vaccine initiation and completion rates were: 28.0% and 17.0% overall, 14.0% and 6.6% in the South, 28.7% and 19.3% in the Midwest/West, and 37.2% and 23.1% in the Northeast (P<0.001), respectively. Log-binomial regression analysis showed that women living in the South were less likely to initiate (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60-0.83) or complete (aPR 0.61, 95% CI, 0.53-0.71) the HPV vaccine series compared to women living in the Northeast. Interventions programs to improve HPV vaccine uptake in the Southern states are warranted. PMID:24071591
Rahman, Mahbubur; Laz, Tabassum H; Berenson, Abbey B
The attenuation of infectious bronchitis (IB) QX-like virus strain L1148 is described. The virus was passaged multiple times in embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs, and at different passage levels samples were tested for safety for the respiratory tract and kidneys in 1-day-old SPF chickens. There was a clear decrease in pathogenicity for the respiratory tract and kidneys when
H. J. Geerligs; G.-J. Boelm; C. A. M. Meinders; B. G. E. Stuurman; J. Symons; J. Tarres-Call; T. Bru; R. Vila; M. Mombarg; K. Karaca; W. Wijmenga; M. Kumar
A study was made of the formation of immune globulins in vitro by lymphoid tissues from neonatal chicks. Incorporation of 14C-amino acid into ?M and ?G was demonstrated by means of radioimmunoelectrophoresis. Results were correlated with observations made on tissue sections stained for the presence of immune globulins with fluorescein-labelled antisera. The bursa of Fabricius synthesized ?M as early as the 18th day of embryonic development, and was significantly more active than the spleen in the production of immune globulins during the 1st week after hatching. Medullary cells of the bursa follicles contained immune globulins. Synthesis of ?M by the spleen became detectable on day 7. Comparable activities in immune globulin formation in bursa and spleen were obtained by day 15, while the spleen was much more active than the bursa in 3-month-old chickens. The thymus produced no ?M but started to produce ?G during the 2nd week after hatching. Bursa and spleen from 8-day-old germ-free chicks showed similar synthesis of ?M, as did organs from normal animals. The significance of this early ?M synthesis and its possible independence of antigenic stimulation are discussed. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIGS. 4-5FIG. 6-7FIG. 8-9
Thorbecke, G. J.; Warner, N. L.; Hochwald, G. M.; Ohanian, S. H.
Glycolysis and glycogenolysis are involved in memory processing in day-old chickens and, aside from the provision of energy for neuronal and astrocytic energy metabolism these pathways enable astrocytes to supply neurones with precursor for transmitter glutamate by glucose-based de novo synthesis. We have previously shown that memory processing for bead discrimination learning is dependent on glycolysis; however, the metabolic inhibitor used, iodoacetate, inhibits pyruvate formation from both glucose and glycogen. At specific time points after training transient reductions in brain glycogen content occur, mirrored by increases in glutamate/glutamine content. In the present study, we used intracerebral injection of a glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor, 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol (DAB), which does not affect glucose breakdown, to evaluate the role of glycogen metabolism in memory consolidation. Dose-dependent inhibition of learning occurred when DAB was administered at specific time periods in relation to training: (i) 5 min before training, (ii) around 30 min posttraining, and (iii) 55 min posttraining. After injection at either of the two earlier periods, memory disappeared after consolidation 30 min postlearning, and after injection 55 min after learning memory was absent at 70 min. The memory loss caused by early administration could be prevented after training by central injection of the glutamate precursor glutamine or the astrocyte-specific substrate acetate together with aspartate, substituting for pyruvate carboxylation. Thus, glycogenolysis is essential for learning in this paradigm and, aside from energy supply considerations, we suggest that an important role for glycogenolysis is to provide neurones with glutamine as the precursor for neuronal glutamate and GABA. PMID:16819764
Gibbs, Marie E; Anderson, Damian G; Hertz, Leif
To reduce the embryonic pathogenicity of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), escape mutants of the La Sota strain were produced with selected monoclonal antibodies. Immunoselection resulted in the elimination of an epitope by single amino acid substitution (F and HN molecule) or in a conformational change (HN molecule). The embryonic pathogenicity of these escape mutants was reduced and their dose was optimised for in ovo vaccination. Because antibody responses and protection of in ovo vaccinated chicks were similar to controls vaccinated at hatch with the La Sota strain, immunoselection appears a valuable technique to produce attenuated NDV strains, which are candidate in ovo vaccines. PMID:16343701
Mast, Jan; Nanbru, Cécile; Decaesstecker, Mireille; Lambrecht, Bénédicte; Couvreur, Bernard; Meulemans, Guy; van den Berg, Thierry
Different vaccine strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum have been used on multiple-age commercial layer farms in an effort to protect birds against virulent field-strain infections. Use of the F-strain of M. gallisepticum (FMG), as an overlay vaccine during lay, may be necessary because of the lower level of protection afforded by M. gallisepticum vaccines of low virulence given before lay. Two replicate trials were conducted to investigate effects of live and killed M. gallisepticum vaccines administered individually and in combination before lay, in conjunction with an FMG vaccine overlay after peak egg production (EP), on the performance characteristics of commercial layers. The following treatments were utilized at 10 wk of age (woa): 1) control (no vaccinations); 2) ts11 strain M. gallisepticum (ts11MG) vaccine; 3) M. gallisepticum-Bacterin vaccine (MG-Bacterin); and 4) ts11MG and MG-Bacterin vaccines combination. At 45 woa, half of the birds were overlaid with an FMG vaccine. Hen mortality, BW, egg weight, percentage hen-day EP, egg blood spots, and egg meat spots were determined at various time periods between 18 and 52 woa. The data from each trial were pooled. Treatment did not affect performance in interval I (23 to 45 woa). However, during interval II (46 to 52 woa), the EP of control and MG-Bacterin-vaccinated birds that later received an FMG vaccine overlay was lower than that in the other treatment groups. Furthermore, treatment application reduced bird BW during interval II. Despite the effects on BW and EP, no differences were observed for egg blood or meat spots among the various treatments. It is suggested that the vaccination of commercial layers before lay with ts11MG, but not MG-Bacterin, may reduce the negative impacts of an FMG overlay vaccination given during lay. These results establish that the vaccination of pullets with ts11MG in combination with the vaccination of hens with an FMG overlay, for continual protection against field-strain M. gallisepticum infections, may be used without suppressing performance. PMID:24879690
Jacob, R; Branton, S L; Evans, J D; Leigh, S A; Peebles, E D
The aim of this experiment was to compare the responses of young broiler chickens directly with the responses of turkeys to different dietary phytase concentrations. Nine hundred sixty birds (480 female Ross 308 broilers, and 480 female BUT6 turkeys) were reared in 64 floor pens from 0 to 21 d of age. Each species was fed a nutritionally complete (12.79 MJ/kg of AME, 231 g/kg of CP vs. 11.75 MJ/kg of AME, 285 g/kg of CP for chickens and turkeys, respectively), low-P (28 and 37 g/kg available P for chickens and turkeys, respectively) corn (maize)-soy feed supplemented with either 0, 250, 500, or 2,500 phytase units (phytase/kg of feed) to give a total of 4 diets per species. The study was conducted in a split-plot design and each dietary treatment was replicated 8 times. Performance, AME, sialic acid (SA) excretions, and ileal villus morphology of 21-d-old broiler chickens and turkeys were determined. Overall, chickens grew faster and consumed more than turkeys throughout the study period. Dietary enzyme concentrations linearly increased the feed intake and weight gain of birds. The results were improved, on average, as follows: feed intake by 11.2 and 6.5%, gain by 10.2 and 13.2%, feed efficiency by 0 and 7.6%, AME by 1.4 and 5.7%, and AME intake by 13.1 and 9.8% for chickens and turkeys, respectively. The AME data were subject to a species x phytase interaction, whereby increasing the phytase dosage led to significant increments in parameters for turkeys but not broilers; broilers recovered significantly more energy from the ration than did turkeys. A quadratic relationship existed between dietary AME and phytase concentrations. Turkeys excreted more SA than did chickens in the absence of phytase, whereas supplementation with phytase (250 and 500 phytase units) reduced the excretion of SA in turkeys. Enzyme supplementation did not affect the ileal villus morphometry of the 2 species. We concluded that both species can tolerate phytase concentrations much higher than 1,000 phytase units and that these concentrations have further beneficial effects compared with lower phytase concentrations. The work reported here supports the hypothesis that supplementing turkey diets with phytase will need to be considered independently of chicken diets, considering the components in the diets, such that optimal responses can be obtained. PMID:17369542
Pirgozliev, V; Oduguwa, O; Acamovic, T; Bedford, M R
Assessing history of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is important for monitoring vaccine uptake, impact, and effectiveness. Based on data collected from 1720 women with high-grade cervical lesions reported to a statewide surveillance system in Connecticut, we found that available medical records did not contain HPV vaccination information for 34% of women, and 43% of women could not be reached for interview. When both were used for data collection, concordance of vaccination history (83%) and sensitivity of self-report (96%) were both high. Reviewing medical records based on self-reported information about vaccine providers increased confirmation of vaccination histories in this sample by 18%. The vaccine registry in Connecticut is not currently utilized for HPV vaccinations, but efforts to increase use for adolescent vaccines could be useful in the future to overcome limitations of other sources. PMID:24713369
Niccolai, Linda M; McBride, Vanessa; Julian, Pamela R
In order to develop a novel, safe and immunogenic fowl typhoid (FT) vaccine candidate, a Salmonella Gallinarum ghost with controlled expression of the bacteriophage PhiX174 lysis gene E was constructed using pMMP99 plasmid in this study. The formation of the Salmonella Gallinarum ghost with tunnel formation and loss of cytoplasmic contents was observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. No viable cells were detectable 24?h after the induction of gene E expression by an increase in temperature from 37?°C to 42?°C. The safety and protective efficacy of the Salmonella Gallinarum ghost vaccine was tested in chickens that were divided into four groups: group A (non-immunized control), group B (orally immunized), group C (subcutaneously immunized) and group D (intramuscularly immunized). The birds were immunized at day 7 of age. None of the immunized animals showed any adverse reactions such as abnormal behavior, mortality, or signs of FT such as anorexia, depression, or diarrhea. These birds were subsequently challenged with a virulent Salmonella Gallinarum strain at 3?weeks post-immunization (wpi). Significant protection against the virulent challenge was observed in all immunized groups based on mortality and post-mortem lesions compared to the non-immunized control group. In addition, immunization with the Salmonella Gallinarum ghosts induced significantly high systemic IgG response in all immunized groups. Among the groups, orally-vaccinated group B showed significantly higher levels of secreted IgA. A potent antigen-specific lymphocyte activation response along with significantly increased percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes found in all immunized groups clearly indicate the induction of cellular immune responses. Overall, these findings suggest that the newly constructed Salmonella Gallinarum ghost appears to be a safe, highly immunogenic, and efficient non-living bacterial vaccine candidate that protects against FT. PMID:22620989
Chaudhari, Atul A; Jawale, Chetan V; Kim, Sam Woong; Lee, John Hwa
Viral vector vaccines using fowl poxvirus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) as vectors and carrying infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genes are commercially available to the poultry industry in the USA. Different sectors of the broiler industry have used these vaccines in ovo or subcutaneously, achieving variable results. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of
Ariel Vagnozzi; Guillermo Zavala; Sylva M. Riblet; Alice Mundt; Maricarmen García
We evaluated immune response to the seasonal influenza vaccine in young and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Immune measures included the in vivo serum response to the vaccine by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and ELISA in 22 patients (14 young, 8 elderly) and 65 healthy age-matched controls (37 young, 28 elderly). B cell-specific biomarkers of optimal vaccine response were measured ex vivo by switched memory B cells and plasmablasts and in vitro by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) in stimulated cells. Markers of systemic and B cell-intrinsic inflammation were also measured. Results show that in vivo responses, as well as B cell-specific markers identified above, decrease by age in healthy individuals but not in T2D patients. This occurred despite high levels of B cell-intrinsic inflammation (TNF-?) in T2D patients, which was surprising as we had previously demonstrated this negatively impacts B cell function. These results altogether suggest that valid protection against influenza can be achieved in T2D patients and proposed mechanisms are discussed. PMID:23711934
Frasca, Daniela; Diaz, Alain; Romero, Maria; Mendez, Nicholas V; Landin, Ana Marie; Ryan, John G; Blomberg, Bonnie B
A Single Electroporation Delivery of a DNA Vaccine Containing the Hemagglutinin Gene of Asian H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus Generated a Protective Antibody Response in Chickens against a North American Virus Strain
Protection against the avian influenza (AI) H5N1 virus is suspected to be mainly conferred by the presence of antibodies directed against the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the virus. A single electroporation delivery of 100 or 250 ?g of a DNA vaccine construct, pCAG-HA, carrying the HA gene of strain A/Hanoi/30408/2005 (H5N1), in chickens led to the development of anti-HA antibody response in 16 of 17 immunized birds, as measured by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), and an indirect ELISA. Birds vaccinated by electroporation (n = 11) were protected from experimental AI challenge with strain A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/1/1983 (H5N2) as judged by low viral load, absence of clinical symptoms, and absence of mortality (n = 11). In contrast, only two out of 10 birds vaccinated with the same vaccine dose (100 or 250 ?g) but without electroporation developed antibodies. These birds showed high viral loads and significant morbidity and mortality after the challenge. Seroconversion was reduced in birds electroporated with a low vaccine dose (10 ?g), but the antibody-positive birds were protected against virus challenge. Nonelectroporation delivery of a low-dose vaccine did not result in seroconversion, and the birds were as susceptible as those in the control groups that received the control pCAG vector. Electroporation delivery of the DNA vaccine led to enhanced antibody responses and to protection against the AI virus challenge. The HI test, cELISA, or indirect ELISA for anti-H5 antibodies might serve as a good predictor of the potency and efficacy of a DNA immunization strategy against AI in chickens.
Pasick, John; Kobinger, Gary P.; Hannaman, Drew; Berhane, Yohannes; Clavijo, Alfonso; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia
Newcastle disease virus is a major threat to poultry and in ovo vaccines are needed. A live in ovo vaccine for Newcastle disease virus, which was licensed but not marketed, was unsafe. It killed 32% of line 0 chicks and 10% of vaccine Lohmann (VALO) chicks using the maximum recommended dose that infected about 40% of the embryos. VALO's made more antibody than line 0's whether infected in ovo or by contact. The vaccine interrupted the massive development of the air capillaries between injection and hatch 3 days later. Cytokines, delivered as DNA in plasmids, did not function as adjuvants. IFN-gamma prevented infection. IL-4 or IL-18 had little or no effect. Line 0 chicks that had been infected by contact were protected and so the unsafe in ovo vaccination of a minority could protect the majority. PMID:17321645
Dilaveris, Dimitrios; Chen, Changlin; Kaiser, Pete; Russell, Peter H
The aim of the study was to determine the influence of adenovirus infection on the replication of Marek's disease virus vaccine strain Rispens/CVI988 during in vitro co-infection studies. Adenovirus field strain JN-5/10j was isolated from sick chickens. The study was conducted in chicken embryo fibroblast cultures (CEF). Monolayers of CEFs were infected with Rispens strain and field adenovirus strain JN-5/10j with different doses (10(1.0)-10(3.0) TCID50) in the following manner: a) simultaneously, b) first, infection with Rispens strain and after 24 h infection with adenovirus strain JN-5/10j and c) infection with adenovirus strain JN-5/10j 24 h before infection with Rispens strain. After 18, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of incubation, the copy number of the pp38 gene of Rispens strain was determined using Real-time PCR. The results indicated that the Adenovirus infection before the infection with Rispens strain reduced the replication of the pp38 gene after 48 h by 2 log10. PMID:24724464
Niczyporuk, J S; Wo?niakowski, G; Samorek-Salamonowicz, E; Czekaj, H
A phase 2 clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the antibody responses to bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bPIV3) vaccination in young infants. Three groups were tested as follows: placebo (n=66) and 10(5) (n=64) or 10(6) (n=62) TCID(50) of bPIV3. The vaccine or placebo was administered intranasally at ages 2, 4, 6, and 12-15 months, and serum specimens were collected at ages 2, 6, 7, 12-15, and 13-16 months. Serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and IgA antibody titers against bPIV3 and human PIV3 (hPIV3) were measured. The results indicate that antibody responses to bPIV3 vaccination are more likely to be detected by the bPIV3 IgA and HI assays than by the hPIV3 IgA and HI assays, that bPIV3-induced antibody response can be differentiated from hPIV3-induced antibody response most reliably by comparing bPIV3 and hPIV3 HI titers, and that bPIV3 vaccine prevents vaccine recipients from developing antibody profiles of hPIV3 primary infection. PMID:11509996
Lee, M S; Greenberg, D P; Yeh, S H; Yogev, R; Reisinger, K S; Ward, J I; Blatter, M M; Cho, I; Holmes, S J; Cordova, J M; August, M J; Chen, W; Mehta, H B; Coelingh, K L; Mendelman, P M
This study investigated whether a single amino acid change in the hemagglutinin (HA) molecule influenced the efficacy of formalin-inactivated influenza A (H3N1) vaccine candidates derived from high-growth reassortants between the standard donor of high-yield genes (A/PR/8/34 [H1N1]) and host cell variants generated from the same clinical isolate (A/Memphis/7/90 [H3N2]) by passage in embryonated chicken eggs. Two clones of the isolate generated by growth in eggs differed from the parent virus (represented by an MDCK cell-grown counterpart) solely by the presence of Lys (instead of Glu) at position 156 or Ile (instead of Ser) at position 186 in the HA1 subunit. The protective efficacy of egg-grown HA Lys-156 and HA Ile-186 reassortant variants was compared with that of the MDCK cell-grown reassortant vaccine. Classically, antibody titers in serum have been used to demonstrate vaccine efficacy. Here, parameters of B-cell responsiveness were monitored, including the kinetics, character, and localization of the primary antibody-forming cell (AFC) response and the development of B-cell memory in lymphoid tissues associated with the priming site (spleen) and responsive to pulmonary challenge with infectious virus (upper and lower respiratory tract lymph nodes). We show that the egg-grown HA Lys-156 variant induced an AFC profile vastly different from that elicited by the other two reassortant vaccines. The vaccine was poorly immunogenic; it induced antibodies that were cross-reactive prior to challenge but which, postchallenge with a lethal dose of the MDCK cell-grown reassortant virus, were targeted primarily to the HA Lys-156 variant, were of the immunoglobulin M isotype, were nonprotective, and were derived from the spleen. In contrast, the egg-grown HA Ile-186 variant was remarkably like the MDCK cell-grown virus in that protective immunoglobulin G antibodies were unaffected by the Ile-186 substitution but poorly recognized HA with Lys-156. Furthermore, memory AFC responsiveness was localized to regional lymphoid tissue in the upper respiratory tract, where challenge HA was found. Thus, it is recommended that in the selection of vaccine candidates, virus populations with the egg-adapted HA Lys-156 substitution be eliminated and that, instead, egg-grown isolates which minimally contain Ile-186 be used as logical alternatives to MDCK cell-grown viruses.
Kodihalli, S; Justewicz, D M; Gubareva, L V; Webster, R G
Antigenic variants of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) have selected and are prevailing in poultry populations in Asia. In the present study, the potency of inactivated influenza vaccine prepared from a non-pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus, A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-3/2007 (H5N1), was assessed by challenging with H5N1 HPAIV variants, A/muscovy duck/Vietnam/OIE-559/2011 (H5N1), A/whooper swan/Hokkaido/4/2011 (H5N1), and A/peregrine falcon/Hong Kong/810/2009 (H5N1) belonging to clades 1, 184.108.40.206, and 2.3.4, respectively. All chickens immunized with the Vac-3 vaccine survived without showing any clinical signs after intranasal challenge either with A/whooper swan/Hokkaido/4/2011 (H5N1) or A/muscovy duck/Vietnam/OIE-559/2011 (H5N1). After challenge with A/peregrine falcon/Hong Kong/810/2009 (H5N1), 10 out of 12 vaccinated chickens survived and the other 2 died on 4 or 7 post-challenge days. The Vac-3 vaccine of 2.4-fold antigen concentration conferred complete protective immunity in chickens against challenge with A/peregrine falcon/Hong Kong/810/2009 (H5N1). PMID:23462521
Shichinohe, Shintaro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Noda, Yu; Nomoto, Yuka; Honda, Takashi; Takikawa, Noriyasu; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi
Yellow fever vaccine–associated viscerotropic disease is a rare sequela of live-attenuated virus vaccine. Elderly persons and persons who have had thymectomies have increased susceptibility. A review of published and other data suggested a higher than expected number of deaths from yellow fever vaccine–associated viscerotropic disease among women 19–34 years of age without known immunodeficiency.
A comparative analysis of antibody and cell-mediated immune responses was performed in ambulatory medically stable elderly and young adults who received the standard-dose of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine, containing 15 ?g of hemagglutinin (HA) per virus strain, or a high-dose vaccine containing 60 ?g HA per virus strain. Among the elderly, the high dose vaccine induced greater HAI (hemagglutination inhibition) and virus neutralization antibody titers than the standard dose vaccine. These responses, however, did not achieve the magnitude of those induced by the standard dose vaccine in young adults. Vaccine-specific circulating T cells producing IFN-? were detected in the elderly and young adults following immunization. However, there were no significant differences in the IFN-? responses among groups. On the other hand, the standard dose vaccine in the elderly resulted in the highest proportion of complete non-responders who failed to elicit either an HAI or an IFN-? response. This study provides further evidence that a higher dose vaccine for the elderly may result in enhanced immune responses which are predicted to improve protection although still of lower magnitude than those induced in younger healthier individuals.
Chen, Wilbur H.; Cross, Alan S.; Edelman, Robert; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Blackwelder, William C.; Pasetti, Marcela F.
Tetanus toxoid (TT) was assessed as a positive marker for avian influenza (AI) virus vaccination in chickens, in a vaccination and challenge study. Chickens were vaccinated twice with inactivated AI H5N2 virus vaccine, and then challenged three weeks later with highly pathogenic AI H5N1 virus. Vaccinated chickens were compared with other groups that were either sham-vaccinated or vaccinated with virus
C. M. James-Berry; D. Middleton; J. P. Mansfield; S. G. Fenwick; T. M. Ellis
Chickens given 200 oocysts of Eimeria tenella at day?old followed by a dose of between 300 to 500 oocysts at 8 days of age were afforded substantial protection against challenge at 15 and 22 days of age.Chickens given 2,000 oocysts of E. acervulina at day?old were partially protected against challenge infection given at 15 or 22 days of age. When
P. L. Long; Joyce Johnson; M. E. McKenzie; Evelyn Perry; M. S. T. J. Crane; P. K. Murray
Pathogenicity of a QX strain of infectious bronchitis virus in specific pathogen free and commercial broiler chickens, and evaluation of protection induced by a vaccination programme based on the Ma5 and 4\\/91 serotypes
The aims of this study were firstly to evaluate the pathogenicity of an Italian isolate of the QX strain of infectious bronchitis (IB) virus using 1-day-old female specific pathogen free chicks (layer type) and 1-day-old female commercial broiler type chickens, and secondly to assess the level of protection induced in these birds by a vaccination programme including the IB Massachusetts
Calogero Terregino; Anna Toffan; Maria Serena Beato; Roberta De Nardi; Marta Vascellari; Amelio Meini; Giovanni Ortali; Marzia Mancin; Ilaria Capua
To evaluate the immunogenicity and tolerability of Epaxal® in infants and children, 30 infants (aged 6–7 months) and 30 children (aged 5–7 years) received a single intramuscular dose of the aluminium-free virosomal hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine Epaxal® and a booster dose after 12 months. Anti-HAV antibody titres were measured at baseline (before injection), at 1 and 12 months after
V. Usonis; V. Bakasénas; R. Valentelis; G. Katiliene; D. Vidzeniene; C. Herzog
Background: Before the widespread use of vaccine, mumps was the most common cause of viral meningitis (up to 10% of mumps infections). Vaccination programs have resulted in a drop of more than 99% in the number of reported mumps cases in the United States and Canada. Although rare in Canada, outbreaks have recently occurred through- out the world, including a
Gaynor Watson-Creed; Andrea Saunders; Jeffrey Scott; Luis Lowe; Janice Pettipas; Todd F. Hatchette
We evaluated in a prospective study the immune response of naïve subjects to a single dose of inactivated Hepatitis A vaccine. Ninety-seven percent of the vaccinees sero-converted 1 month after vaccination and 93% were still positive 2 years later. All of the vaccinees had a strong booster response 2 years after the single dose. Avaxim was more immunogenic than Vaqta
Nadav Orr; Eyal Klement; David Gillis; Tamar Sela; Raid Kayouf; Estela Derazne; Itamar Grotto; Ran Balicer; Michael Huerta; Lisa Aviram; Ruhama Ambar; Yoram Epstein; Yuval Heled; Dani Cohen
Concerns exist regarding reproductive health, including potential infertility, among young adults with military-related occupational exposures. This study evaluated infertility diagnoses in a large population of healthy young adults in relation to prior s...
C. J. Sevick G. R. Gumbs I. G. Jacobson M. A. Ryan T. C. Smith
Background: The epidemiological impact and the duration of protection provided by infant hepatitis B (HB) vaccination are unknown. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection seromarkers in young adults who have been vaccinated against HBV as the first group of Iranian neonates during 1993 and 1994. Patients and Methods: We recruited 510 young adults with a history of complete HB vaccination at birth. HBV seromarkers (HB surface antigen (HBs Ag), antibody against HBs Ag (Anti-HBs), and antibody against HB core antigen (Anti-HBc) were measured using ELISA method. Anti-HBs titers ? 10 IU/L were considered protective and titers more than 300 IU/L were indicative of a natural boosting. Positive results for Anti-HBc and HBs Ag were considered as breakthrough infection and possible vaccine failure, respectively. The history of acute symptomatic clinical hepatitis was also investigated. Results: Anti-HBs seropositivity rate was detected in 224 of 510 [95% CI: 39-47] young adults. Breakthrough infection (positive sera for Anti-HBc without chronic infection) was observed in 18 [95% CI: 2.5-3.5] subjects. There were neither HBs Ag positive results nor symptomatic hepatitis cases. Conclusions: The study results indicated that the neonatal HBV immunization induced a long-term protection against HBV and was very efficacious in reducing chronic HBV infection rate in vaccinated young adults in Iran.
Saffar, Hiva; Ajami, Abolghasem; Saffar, Mohammed Jafar; Shojaei, Jalil; Sotudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Shams-Esfandabad, Kiarash; Khalilian, Ali Reza
Until recently, awareness of the sexually transmitted infection human papillomavirus (HPV)—the virus that causes cervical cancer—was relatively low. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with HPV knowledge now that HPV vaccines have become widely available. Young adult women (n = 739; aged 18-26 years) attending Florida State University who had not yet initiated HPV vaccination completed a survey between March-August 2009. The survey assessed HPV awareness, HPV knowledge, demographics, socio-political variables, sexual history, and health history variables. Over 97% of participants were aware of HPV prior to study enrollment; however, knowledge of HPV was only moderate. A multivariate regression analysis examining factors related to HPV knowledge revealed five independent correlates: Latina ethnicity, premarital sex values, number of lifetime sexual partners, history of cervical dysplasia, and HIV testing. These variables accounted for 14% of the variance in HPV knowledge. Less knowledge was observed for Latinas and women opposed to premarital sex. Greater knowledge was observed for women who had been tested for HIV and women with more sexual partners or a history of cervical dysplasia. These findings can inform future HPV vaccination campaigns and may be particularly useful in developing interventions for individuals with the largest deficits in HPV knowledge.
Gerend, Mary A.; Shepherd, Janet E.
Background.?The safety and immunogenicity of high-dose pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) vaccination in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–infected children, adolescents, and young adults are unknown. Methods.?Two 30-?g doses of 2009 Novartis pH1N1 monovalent vaccine (Fluvirin) were administered 21–28 days apart to perinatally HIV-1–infected children, adolescents, and young adults. Antibodies were measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay at baseline, 21–28 days after first vaccination, 7–13 days after the second vaccination, and 7 months after the first vaccination. Results.?Among the 155 participants, 54 were aged 4–8 years, 51 were aged 9–17 years, and 50 were aged 18–24 years. After 2 doses of Fluvirin, seroresponse (?4-fold rise in HAI titers) was demonstrated in 79.6%, 84.8%, and 83% of participants in the aforementioned age groups, respectively, and seroprotection (HAI titers ?40) was shown in 79.6%, 82.6%, and 85.1%, respectively. Of those lacking seroresponse (n = 43) or seroprotection (n = 37) after the first vaccination, 46.5% and 40.5% achieved seroresponse or seroprotection, respectively, after the second vaccination. Among participants who lacked seroprotection at entry, a “complete response” (both seroresponse and seroprotection) after first vaccination was associated with higher baseline log10 HAI titer and non-Hispanic ethnicity. No serious vaccine-related events occurred. Conclusion.?Two doses of double-strength pH1N1 vaccine are safe and immunogenic and may provide improved protection against influenza in perinatally HIV-1–infected children and youth. Clinical Trials Registration.?NCT00992836.
Flynn, Patricia M.; Nachman, Sharon; Muresan, Petronella; Fenton, Terence; Spector, Stephen A.; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Pass, Robert; Yogev, Ram; Burchett, Sandra; Heckman, Barbara; Bloom, Anthony; Utech, L. Jill; Anthony, Patricia; Petzold, Elizabeth; Levy, Wende; Siberry, George K.; Ebiasah, Ruth; Miller, Judi; Handelsman, Edward; Weinberg, Adriana
The effect of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and Humate (HU) in broiler diets on antibody titers against Avian Influenza virus (AIV) was evaluated. A completely randomized experimental design was used, and chicks were divided into 8 treatment groups, with 4 replicates per treatment and 10 chicks per replicate. Treatments were: 1) negative control group (CTL-), neither vaccinated against AIV nor given additives; 2) positive control (CTL+) or broilers were vaccinated against AIV + 0 additives; 3,4 and 5) CTL+ plus diet supplemented with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% HU, respectively; 6,7 and 8) CTL+ plus diet supplemented with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% MOS, respectively. For antibody analyses, blood samples were weekly collected by wing veins and the titers of antibody against AIV were measured by haemagglutination-inhibition test (HI). Compared to the positive control, the antibody titers against AIV were determined significantly lower in negative control group from 28 to 42 days of age. The inclusion of MOS resulted in increased antibody titers against AIV in the fourth, fifth and sixth weeks of age. MOS was effective in stimulating the humoral immune responses against AIV vaccine viruses. This study demonstrated an increase in the antibody titers in broilers fed diets containing 0.3% HU. In general, results of this study demonstrated that MOS proved to be much more effective on antibody production against AIV in broiler chicks than HU. Immune function could be modified with dietary HU and MOS supplementation. PMID:20872288
Tohid, Toloei; Hasan, Ghahri; Alireza, Talebi
For statistical, animal welfare and financial reasons the choice of the number of chickens per group in experiments is important. This estimation, together with the number of tracheal organ cultures (TOCs) that need to be examined from each chicken in order to assess protection, should be based on the difference in level of protection that one would like to be able to detect (effect size), the expected variability of the results between and within the chickens, the desired confidence level and the power of the study. To obtain data that would facilitate this estimation, a meta-analysis was performed on the data from 18 infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccination-challenge experiments performed at the Dutch Animal Health Service Deventer, the Netherlands (GD) in order to determine and quantify the source of variation in the mean level of protection of different groups. For the calculations, 137 groups of chickens were subdivided into 10 clusters based on age (young or adult), vaccination (none, homologous or heterologous), challenge (IBV or mock infected) and location of vaccination (isolator at GD or in the field). The results were used to estimate the required number of chickens per group for the different clusters using 2, 5 or 10 TOCs per chicken to be able to detect effect sizes of 6.25%, 12.5%, 25% and 50% between groups of chickens with 95% confidence (P<0.05) and 80% power. The number of chickens that was required for the mentioned effect sizes varied greatly from 2 to 650. This meta-analysis provided data that allow research workers to estimate the number of chickens that should be included in each group in order to obtain reliable results based on particular combinations of infectious bronchitis vaccination and challenge strains as defined by the presented clusters. PMID:23391176
de Wit, J J; Boelm, G J; van Gerwe, T J W M; Swart, W A J M
Background HIV/AIDS continues to destroy the lives of young people especially in low-income countries. The inclusion of youths in HIV vaccine trials is of utmost importance in obtaining an effective vaccine that is acceptable to them. Objective To characterize the willingness of young adults in Tanzania to participate in an HIV vaccine trial and the factors that influence this willingness. Design Four hundred and fifty young adults who visited a youth-friendly Infectious Diseases Clinic (IDC) from February 2012 to September 2012 completed a self-administered questionnaire concerning sociodemographic information, their knowledge about and perception of HIV vaccine studies, and the availability of social support. Results Of our participants, 50.6% expressed willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials, and this willingness was positively correlated with having some knowledge about HIV vaccine studies (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI: 1.4–3.4), a positive perception toward such studies (AOR, 2.3; 95% CI: 1.5–3.6), having a relationship with someone who could help them make a decision (AOR, 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3–4.9), and age at the time of sexual debut (AOR, 2.6; 95% CI 1.0–6.7) for 15- to 19-year-olds and (AOR, 2.7; 95% CI 1.0–7.1) for older participants. Conclusions The participants exhibited a moderate willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials, which was associated with a positive perception of and some knowledge about such trials, having a relationship with someone who might influence their decision as well as age at time of sexual debut. More efforts should be made to inform the youths about specific HIV vaccine trials and related matters, as well as to engage significant others in the decision-making process.
Mbunda, Theodora; Bakari, Muhammad; Tarimo, Edith A. M.; Sandstrom, Eric; Kulane, Asli
In light of the recurrent outbreaks of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), there is a pressing need for the development of vaccines that allow rapid mass vaccination. In this study, we introduced by reverse genetics temperature-sensitive mutations in the PB1 and PB2 genes of an avian influenza virus, A/Guinea Fowl/Hong Kong/WF10/99 (H9N2) (WF10). Further genetic modifications were introduced into the PB1 gene to enhance the attenuated (att) phenotype of the virus in vivo. Using the att WF10 as a backbone, we substituted neuraminidase (NA) for hemagglutinin (HA) for vaccine purposes. In chickens, a vaccination scheme consisting of a single dose of an att H7N2 vaccine virus at 2 weeks of age and subsequent challenge with the wild-type H7N2 LPAI virus resulted in complete protection. We further extended our vaccination strategy against the HPAI H5N1. In this case, we reconstituted an att H5N1 vaccine virus, whose HA and NA genes were derived from an Asian H5N1 virus. A single-dose immunization in ovo with the att H5N1 vaccine virus in 18-day-old chicken embryos resulted in more than 60% protection for 4-week-old chickens and 100% protection for 9- to 12-week-old chickens. Boosting at 2 weeks posthatching provided 100% protection against challenge with the HPAI H5N1 virus for chickens as young as 4 weeks old, with undetectable virus shedding postchallenge. Our results highlight the potential of live att avian influenza vaccines for mass vaccination in poultry. PMID:17596317
Song, Haichen; Nieto, Gloria Ramirez; Perez, Daniel R
Background Vaccination is the preferred preventive strategy against influenza. Though health behaviors are known to affect immunity and vaccine delivery modes utilize different immune processes, data regarding the preferred influenza vaccine type among adults endorsing specific health-related behaviors (alcohol use, tobacco use, and exercise level) are limited. Methods The relative effectiveness of two currently available influenza vaccines were compared for prevention of influenza-like illness during 2 well-matched influenza seasons (2006/2007, 2008/2009) among US military personnel aged 18–49 years. Relative vaccine effectiveness was compared between those self-reporting and not reporting recent smoking history and potential alcohol problem, and by exercise level using Cox proportional hazard modeling adjusted for sociodemographic and military factors, geographic area, and other health behaviors. Results 28,929 vaccination events and 3936 influenza-like illness events over both influenza seasons were studied. Of subjects, 27.5% were smokers, 7.7% had a potential alcohol-related problem, 10.5% reported minimal exercise, and 4.4% reported high exercise levels. Overall, the risk of influenza-like illness did not significantly differ between live attenuated and trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine recipients (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.90–1.06). In the final adjusted model, the relative effectiveness of the 2 vaccine types did not differ by smoking status (p?=?0.10), alcohol status (p?=?0.21), or activity level (p?=?0.11). Conclusions Live attenuated and trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines were similarly effective in preventing influenza-like illness among young adults and did not differ by health-related behavior status. Influenza vaccine efforts should continue to focus simply on delivering vaccine.
Sevick, Carter; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.; Blair, Patrick J.; Faix, Dennis
Objectives: Willingness to participate in HIV-1 vaccine trials and associated factors were investigated in a sample of 2670 Royal Thai Army conscripted recruits. Methods: Self administered questionnaires were used. Data were collected during the final visit of a longitudinal cohort study of HIV-1 epidemiology. Cross sectional analysis of data from this visit was performed. Results: 32% of the respondents reported they would "definitely" join an HIV-1 vaccine trial. Greater willingness was associated with perceived risk of HIV-1 infection and a desire to help Thai society, although tangible incentives and intentions to reduce condom use in a vaccine trial also were associated with increased willingness. Concerns about physical harm and anticipated social pressure from family not to join were the most substantial impediments to willingness. Concerns about "social harm" (for example, participation would give appearance of having AIDS virus, a partner might refuse sex) also appeared to inhibit interest in joining trials and approached significance. Conclusions: Willingness to participate was somewhat greater than in other investigations of non-injection drug user (IDU) cohorts in Thailand, with fewer concerns expressed about physical harm. Motivations appear to involve tradeoffs among perceived risk, anticipated social pressure, altruism, and tangible rewards. The absence of significant problems associated with vaccine trials to date, along with the presence of educational interventions in the study may help explain the lower level of concerns here relative to other Thai studies. Key Words: HIV; vaccine; Thailand
Jenkins, R; Torugsa, K; Markowitz, L; Mason, C; Jamroentana, V; Brown, A; Nitayaphan, S
Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection. In Italy, HPV vaccination is now offered free of charge to 12-year-old females. However, some regional health authorities have extended free vaccination to other age-groups, especially to girls under 18 years of age. We conducted a multicentre epidemiological study to ascertain the prevalence of different genotypes of HPV in young Italian women with normal cytology, with the aim of evaluating the possibility of extending vaccination to older females. Methods The study was performed in 2010. Women aged 16–26 years with normal cytology were studied. Cervical samples were analyzed to identify the presence of HPV by PCR amplification of a segment of ORF L1 (450 bp). All positive HPV-DNA samples underwent viral genotype analysis by means of a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Results Positivity for at least one HPV genotype was found in 18.2% of the 566 women recruited: 48.1% in the 16–17 age-class, 15.4 in the 18–20 age-class, 21.9% in the 21–23 age-class, and 15.5% in the 24–26 age-class; 10.1% of women were infected by at least one high-risk HPV genotype. HPV-16 was the most prevalent genotype. Only 4 (0.7%), 4 (0.7%) and 3 (0.5%) women were infected by HPV-18, HPV-6 and HPV-11, respectively. Of the HPV-DNA-positive women, 64.1% presented only one viral genotype, while 24.3% had multiple infections. The HPV genotypes most often involved in multiple infections were high-risk. A high prevalence was noted in the first years of sexual activity (48.1% of HPV-DNA-positive women aged 16–17 years); HPV prevalence subsequently declined and stabilized. The estimate of cumulative proportions of young women free from any HPV infection at each age was evaluated; 93.3% and 97.1% of 26 year-old women proved free from HPV-16 and/or HPV-18 and from HPV-6 and/or HPV-11, respectively. Conclusions Our findings confirm the crucial importance of conducting studies on women without cytological damage, in order to optimise and up-date preventive interventions against HPV infection, and suggest that vaccinating 26-year-old females at the time of their first pap-test is to be recommend, though this issue should be further explored.
Randomized Trial on the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM, an Investigational Quadrivalent Meningococcal Glycoconjugate Vaccine, Administered Concomitantly with a Combined Tetanus, Reduced Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine in Adolescents and Young Adults? †
This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, when administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, in subjects aged 11 to 25 years. Subjects received either MenACWY-CRM and Tdap, MenACWY-CRM and saline placebo, or Tdap and saline placebo. No significant increase in reactogenicity and no clinically significant vaccine-related adverse events (AEs) occurred when MenACWY-CRM and Tdap were administered concomitantly. Similar immunogenic responses to diphtheria, tetanus, and meningococcal (serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y) antigens were observed, regardless of concomitant vaccine administration. Antipertussis antibody responses were comparable between vaccine groups for filamentous hemagglutinin and were slightly lower, although not clinically significantly, for pertussis toxoid and pertactin when the two vaccines were administered concomitantly. These results indicate that the investigational MenACWY-CRM vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic and that it can be coadministered with Tdap to adolescents and young adults.
Gasparini, Roberto; Conversano, Michele; Bona, Gianni; Gabutti, Giovanni; Anemona, Alessandra; Dull, Peter M.; Ceddia, Francesca
Randomized trial on the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM, an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine, administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine in adolescents and young adults.
This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, when administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, in subjects aged 11 to 25 years. Subjects received either MenACWY-CRM and Tdap, MenACWY-CRM and saline placebo, or Tdap and saline placebo. No significant increase in reactogenicity and no clinically significant vaccine-related adverse events (AEs) occurred when MenACWY-CRM and Tdap were administered concomitantly. Similar immunogenic responses to diphtheria, tetanus, and meningococcal (serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y) antigens were observed, regardless of concomitant vaccine administration. Antipertussis antibody responses were comparable between vaccine groups for filamentous hemagglutinin and were slightly lower, although not clinically significantly, for pertussis toxoid and pertactin when the two vaccines were administered concomitantly. These results indicate that the investigational MenACWY-CRM vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic and that it can be coadministered with Tdap to adolescents and young adults. PMID:20164251
Gasparini, Roberto; Conversano, Michele; Bona, Gianni; Gabutti, Giovanni; Anemona, Alessandra; Dull, Peter M; Ceddia, Francesca
Background.?Diagnoses of genital warts (GW) in genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics have been increasing in England for many years. In 2008, an HPV immunization program began with a bivalent vaccine (Cervarix). This was expected to markedly reduce infections and disease due to human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 but not HPV 6/11 infections or disease. However, from 2009 to 2011 there were decreases in reported diagnoses of GW in young females at GUM clinics. Methods.?Using data from GUM clinics and a sample of general practices (GPs) throughout England, we analyzed rates of GW diagnoses by age, year of diagnosis, and estimated immunization coverage. Results.?The overall reduction in GW diagnoses at GUM clinics between 2008 and 2011 was 13.3% among 16- to 19-year-old females, with the greatest decline of 20.8% in 17-year-olds. Declines were positively associated with estimated immunization coverage. A similar pattern was seen in GP diagnoses, but not among older women, and for other GUM consultations. Conclusions.?Several factors might contribute to declines in GW. However, the size and pattern of the declines strongly suggest that we are observing an unexpected, moderately protective effect of HPV 16/18 vaccination against GW.
Howell-Jones, Rebecca; Soldan, Kate; Wetten, Sally; Mesher, David; Williams, Tim; Gill, O. Noel; Hughes, Gwenda
OBJECTIVE.We sought to evaluate the impact of intense influenza media coverage during the 2003-2004 influenza season on the influenza vaccination status of children 6 to 59 months of age. METHODS.Children 6 to 59 months of age who presented to a large, academic pediatric continuity clinic or affiliated acute care clinic in the summer of 2004 were enrolled. A parental survey
K. K. Ma; W. Schaffner; C. Colmenares; J. Howser; J. Jones; K. A. Poehling
In this study, we assessed in humans the immunogenicity and safety of one dose (7.5 or 15 ?g of hemagglutinin [HA]) of a whole-virion inactivated prepandemic influenza vaccine adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide. The vaccine strain was made by reverse genetics from the highly pathogenic avian A/Chicken/Astana/6/05 (H5N1) clade 2.2 strain isolated from a dead bird in Kazakhstan. The humoral immune response was evaluated after a single vaccination by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays. The vaccine was safe and immunogenic, inducing seroconversion in 55% of the evaluated patients, with a geometric mean titer (GMT) of 17.1 and a geometric mean increase (GMI) of 3.42 after a dose of 7.5 ?g in the HI test against the vaccine strain. The rate of seroconversion increased up to 70% when the dose of 15 ?g was used. The percentages of individuals achieving anti-HA titers of ?1:40 were 52.5% and 57.5% for the 7.5- and 15-?g dose groups, respectively. Similar results were obtained when antibodies were analyzed in an MN test. Substantial cross-neutralization titers (seroconversion in 35% and 52.5% of subjects in the two dose groups, respectively) were detected against heterologous clade 1 strain NIBRG14 (H5N1). Thus, one dose of this whole-virion prepandemic vaccine adjuvanted with aluminum has the potential to be effective against H5N1 viruses of different clades.
Sansyzbay, Abylay R.; Erofeeva, Marianna K.; Khairullin, Berik M.; Sandybayev, Nurlan T.; Kydyrbayev, Zhailaubay K.; Mamadaliyev, Seidigapbar M.; Kassenov, Markhabat M.; Sergeeva, Maria V.; Krivitskaya, Vera Z.; Kiselev, Oleg I.; Stukova, Marina A.
Pneumonia Hospitalizations Among Young Children Before and After Introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine - United State, 1997-2006. Morbidity and Morality Weekly Report, Vol. 58, No. 1, january 16, 2009.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading bacterial cause of community-acquired pneumonia hospitalizations and an important cause of bacteremia and meningitis, especially among young children and older adults. A 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7...
Background Introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in national programs has proceeded apace since 2006, mostly in high-income countries. Recently concluded pilots of HPV vaccination in low-income countries have provided important lessons learned for these settings; however, rigorous evaluations of the feasibility of these delivery strategies that effectively reach young adolescents have been few. This paper presents results from a qualitative evaluation of a demonstration program which implemented school-based and health center–based HPV vaccinations to all girls in grade 6, or 11 years of age, for two years in four districts of Vietnam. Methods Using semi-structured interviews of 131 health and education staff from local, district, province, and national levels and 26 focus-group discussions with local project implementers (n?=?153), we conducted a qualitative two-year evaluation to measure the impact of HPV vaccinations on the health and education systems. Results HPV vaccine delivery at schools or health centers was made feasible by: a. close collaboration between the health and education sectors, b. detailed planning for implementation, c. clearly defined roles and responsibilities for project implementers, d. effective management and supervision of vaccinations during delivery, and e. engagement with community organizations for support. Both the health and education systems were temporarily challenged with the extra workload, but the disruptions were short-lived (a few days for each of three doses) and perceived as worth the longer-term benefit of cervical cancer prevention. Conclusion The learning from Vietnam has identified critical elements for successful vaccine delivery that can provide a model for other countries to consider during their planning of national rollout of HPV vaccine.
Development of influenza H7N9 virus like particle (VLP) vaccine: homologous A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) protection and heterologous A/chicken/Jalisco/CPA1/2012 (H7N3) cross-protection in vaccinated mice challenged with H7N9 virus.
The recent emergence of severe human illness caused by avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) viruses in China has precipitated a global effort to rapidly develop and test vaccine candidates. To date, non-A(H7N9) H7 subtype influenza vaccine candidates have been poorly immunogenic and difficulties in production of A(H7N9) virus seed strains have been encountered. A candidate recombinant A(H7N9) vaccine consisting of full length, unmodified hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) from the A/Anhui/1/2013 and the matrix 1 (M1) protein from the A/Indonesia/05/2005 (H5N1) were cloned into a baculovirus vector. Baculovirus infected Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells secreted virus like particles (VLP) composed of HA, NA, and M1 that resemble mature influenza virions. Genetic construction of vaccine from acquisition of an H7N9 genomic sequence to production of A(H7N9) VLP occurred in 26 days. The immunogenicity and efficacy of A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) VLP vaccine administered on days 0 and 14 were evaluated in a lethal wild-type challenge Balb/c mouse model. Control groups included a non-homologous H7 vaccine (A/chicken/Jalisco/CPA1/2012 (H7N3)-VLP), and A/Indonesia/05/2005 (H5N1)-VLP, or placebo. All vaccines were administered with or without ISCOMATRIX. A(H7N9) VLP elicited hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) antibody titers of ? 1:64 against the homologous virus, cross-reactive HAI against the heterologous A(H7N3), and 3- to 4-fold higher HAI responses in corresponding ISCOMATRIX subgroups. Similarly, all doses of H7N9 VLP elicited anti-neuraminidase (NA) antibody, with 3- to 4-fold higher responses measured in the corresponding ISCOMATRIX subgroups. The non-homologous H7 vaccine induced both H7N3 and H7N9 HAI but no N9 anti-NA antibodies. A lethal murine wild-type A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) challenge demonstrated 100% survival of all animals receiving A(H7N9) and A(H7N3) vaccine, versus 0% survival in A(H5N1) vaccine and placebo groups. Together, the data demonstrate that recombinant H7N9 vaccine can be rapidly developed that was immunogenic and efficacious supporting testing in man as a pandemic influenza H7N9 vaccine candidate. PMID:23891795
Smith, Gale E; Flyer, David C; Raghunandan, Ramadevi; Liu, Ye; Wei, Ziping; Wu, Yingyun; Kpamegan, Eloi; Courbron, Denise; Fries, Louis F; Glenn, Gregory M
H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) has continued to spread and poses a significant threat to both animal and human health. Current influenza vaccine strategies have limitations that prevent their effective use for widespread inoculation of animals in the field. Vaccine strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), however, have been used successfully to easily vaccinate large numbers of animals.
Jinying Ge; Guohua Deng; Zhiyuan Wen; Guobing Tian; Yong Wang; Jianzhong Shi; Xijun Wang; Yanbing Li; Sen Hu; Yongping Jiang; Chinglai Yang; Kangzhen Yu; Zhigao Bu; Hualan Chen
Recombinant fowlpox viruses coexpressing chicken type I IFN and Newcastle disease virus HN and F genes: influence of IFN on protective efficacy and humoral responses of chickens following in ovo or post-hatch administration of recombinant viruses.
We have constructed recombinant (r) fowl pox viruses (FPVs) coexpressing chicken type I interferon (IFN) and/or hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) proteins of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). We administered rFPVs and FPV into embryonated chicken eggs at 17 days of embryonation or in chickens after hatch. Administration of FPV or rFPVs did not influence hatchability and survival of hatched chicks. In ovo or after hatch vaccination of chickens with the recombinant viruses resulted in protection against challenge with virulent FPV and NDV. Chickens vaccinated with FPV or FPV-NDV recombinant had significantly lower body weight 2 weeks following vaccination. This loss in body weight was not detected in chickens receiving FPV-IFN and FPV-NDV-IFN recombinants. Chickens vaccinated with FPV coexpressing IFN and NDV genes produced less antibodies against NDV in comparison with chickens vaccinated with FPV expressing NDV genes. PMID:9711795
Karaca, K; Sharma, J M; Winslow, B J; Junker, D E; Reddy, S; Cochran, M; McMillen, J
Comparison of vaccine subpopulation selection, viral loads, vaccine virus persistence in trachea and cloaca, and mucosal antibody responses after vaccination with two different Arkansas Delmarva Poultry Industry -derived infectious bronchitis virus vaccines.
Factors responsible for the persistence of Arkansas Delmarva Poultry Industry (ArkDPI)-derived infectious bronchitis vaccines in commercial flocks and the high frequency of isolation of ArkDPI-type infectious bronchitis viruses in respiratory cases are still unclear. We compared dynamics of vaccine viral subpopulations, viral loads, persistence in trachea and cloaca, and the magnitude of infectious bronchitis virus (1BV)-specific antibody induction after vaccination with two commercial ArkDPI-derived Arkansas (Ark) serotype vaccines. One of the vaccines (coded vaccine B) produced significantly higher vaccine virus heterogeneity in vaccinated chickens than the other vaccine (coded A). Chickens vaccinated with vaccine B had significantly higher viral loads in tears at 5 days postvaccination (DPV) than those vaccinated with vaccine A. Vaccine B also induced a significantly higher lachrymal immunoglobulin M response at 11 DPV, an earlier peak of IBV-specific lachrymal immunoglobulin A, and higher serum antibodies than vaccine A. In addition, a significantly higher proportion of birds vaccinated with vaccine B had vaccine virus detected in the trachea at 20 DPV than those vaccinated with vaccine A. Furthermore, the virus detected at 20 DPV in most of the chickens vaccinated with vaccine B was a single specific subpopulation (subpopulation 4) selected from multiple vaccine subpopulations detected earlier at 5 and 7 DPV in the same chickens. On the other hand, a higher proportion of chickens vaccinated with vaccine A had virus detected in cloacal swabs at 20 DPV. Thus we found differences in mucosal antibody induction and selection and persistence of vaccine viruses between two ArkDPI-derived vaccines from different manufacturers. The higher vaccine virus heterogeneity observed in chickens vaccinated with vaccine B compared with those vaccinated with vaccine A may be responsible for these differences. Thus the high frequency of Ark IBV viruses in the field may be due to the inherent ability of some ArkDPI-derived vaccine viruses to be selected and persist in vaccinated chickens. Vaccine virus persistence may offer genetic material for recombination or may undergo mutations with the potential to result in increased virulence. PMID:24758121
Ndegwa, Eunice N; Toro, Haroldo; van Santen, Vicky L
The recent increase of pertussis in young adults in Japan is hypothesized to be due in part to waning protection from the acellular pertussis vaccine. While a booster immunization may prevent an epidemic of pertussis among these young adults, little is known about the safety and immunogenicity of such a booster with the diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), which is currently available in Japan. One hundred and eleven medical students with a mean age of 19.4 years were randomly divided into 2 groups of 55 and 56 subjects and received, respectively, 0.2 or 0.5 ml of DTaP. Immunogenicity was assessed by performing the immunoassay using serum, and the geometric mean concentration (GMC), GMC ratio (GMCR), seropositive rate, and booster response rate were calculated. Adverse reactions and adverse events were monitored for 7 days after vaccination. After booster vaccination in the two groups, significant increases were found in the antibodies against pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, diphtheria toxoid, and tetanus toxoid, and the booster response rates for all subjects reached 100%. The GMCs and GMCRs against all antigens were significantly higher in the 0.5-ml group than in the 0.2-ml group. No serious adverse events were observed. Frequencies of local reactions were similar in the 2 groups, although the frequency of severe local swelling was significantly higher in the 0.5-ml group. These data support the acceptability of booster immunization using both 0.2 and 0.5 ml of DTaP for young adults for controlling pertussis. (This study was registered at UMIN-CTR under registration number UMIN000010672.)
Okada, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Uno, Shingo; Otsuka, Yasuko; Shimanoe, Chisato; Nanri, Hinako; Horita, Mikako; Ozaki, Iwata; Nishida, Yuichiro; Tanaka, Keitaro
7-Valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) immunization in adulthood can inhibit allergic asthma in mouse model. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of infant PCV7 immunization on young adulthood CD4(+)T cell subsets in a murine allergic airway disease (AAD) model. Our study indicated that infant PCV7 immunization can inhibit young adulthood airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) by inducing the production of Foxp3(+)Treg, Th1 cells and their cytokines IL-10 and IFN-?, inhibiting the production of Th2, Th17 cells and their cytokines IL-13 and IL-17A in BALB/c mice model. These results suggested that infant PCV7 immunization may serve as an effective measure to prevent young adulthood mice AAD. PMID:24560673
Zhang, Liqun; Gao, Hui; Yang, Ting; Yang, Baohui; Jiang, Xiaoli; Wang, Lijia; Wang, Qinghong; Luo, Zhengxiu; Liu, Enmei; Fu, Zhou
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control.
Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J
In ovo vaccination is an alternative approach to post?hatch vaccination of chickens, particularly in broilers. Vaccination at embryonation day 18 helps to ‘close the window’ of susceptibility i.e. the time between vaccination and early exposure to infectious agents compared with post?hatch vaccination. Attempts on embryonal vaccination as a mode of vaccine delivery were approached from the observation that chickens already
T. Negash; E. Gruys
This open, randomized phase I study evaluated the safety and reactogenicity of an experimental meningococcal serogroup B (MenB) vaccine obtained from outer membrane vesicle detoxified L3-derived lipooligosaccharide. Healthy young adults (n = 150) were randomized to receive either experimental vaccine (provided in five formulations, n = 25 in each group) or VA-Mengoc-BC (control, n = 25) administered on a 0- to 6-week/6-month schedule. Serum bactericidal assays performed against three MenB wild-type strains assessed the immune response, defined as a 4-fold increase from pre- to postvaccination. No serious adverse events related to vaccination were reported. Pain at the injection site, fatigue, and headache were the most commonly reported adverse events. Solicited adverse events graded level 3 (i.e., preventing daily activity) were pain (up to 17% of the test subjects versus 32% of the controls), fatigue (up to 12% of the test subjects versus 8% of the controls), and headache (up to 4% of any group). Swelling graded level 3 (greater than 50 mm) occurred in up to 4% of the test subjects versus 8% of the controls. The immune responses ranged from 5% to 36% across experimental vaccines for the L3 H44-76 strain (versus 27% for the control), from 0% to 11% for the L3 NZ98/124 strain (versus 23% for the control), and from 0% to 13% for the L2 760676 strain (versus 59% for the control). All geometric mean titers were below those measured with the control vaccine. The five experimental formulations were safe and well tolerated but tended to be less immunogenic than the control vaccine.
Bonvehi, Pablo; Boutriau, Dominique; Casellas, Javier; Weynants, Vincent; Feron, Christiane; Poolman, Jan
Viral vector vaccines using fowl poxvirus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) carrying Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genes are commercially available to the poultry industry in the United States. Different sectors of the broiler industry have used these vaccines in ovo or subcutaneously achieving variable results. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of protection induced by
Ariel Vagnozzi; Guillermo Zavala; Sylva M. Riblet; Alice Mundt; Maricarmen García
Newcastle disease (ND) is a severe threat to the poultry industry and is caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Many countries maintain a vaccination policy, but NDV is rapidly evolving as shown by the discovery of several new genotypes in the last decades. We tested the efficacy of the currently used classical commercial ND vaccine based on the genotype II strain VG/GA, applied under standard field conditions, against outbreak strains. Field vaccinated broilers were challenged with four different viruses belonging to genotype II, V or VII. A large proportion of field vaccinated broilers showed suboptimal immunity and the protection level against early and recent NDV isolates was dramatically low. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in protection afforded by a genotype II vaccine against a genotype II virus challenge compared to a challenge with viruses belonging to the other genotypes. This study suggests that the susceptibility of vaccinated poultry to NDV infection is not the result of vaccine mismatch, but rather of poor vaccination practices. PMID:24894134
Dortmans, J C F M; Venema-Kemper, S; Peeters, B P H; Koch, G
Mycoplasma gallisepticum causes a lymphoproliferative response in the tracheal mucosa of infected birds. The studies reported here aimed to determine, using immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent staining, which lymphocyte subsets were infiltrating the mucosa during the acute and chronic phases of disease and to determine whether these subsets differed in birds that had been vaccinated with strain ts-11. In vaccinates there was
J. E. Gaunson; C. J. Philip; K. G. Whithear; G. F. Browning
The first large-scale broiler trials under modern commercial conditions of Paracox®, a live attenuated anticoccidial vaccine administered in the drinking-water, arereported from the United Kingdom. The vaccine, comprising all seven of the species of Eimeria that parasitise the domesticated fowl, was compared with anticoccidial drug shuttles (halofuginone then salinomycin, or nicarbazin then monensin) in nine trials comprising over 936 000
R. B Williams; W. W. H Carlyle; D. R Bond; I. a. g Brown
Because inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and Haemophilus influenzae b vaccine are advised in many programs and may be incorporated further in other programs, we undertook a study to determine whether the administration of a tetravalent preparation of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-IPV mixed in one syringe with tetanus-conjugate H. influenzae b vaccine (DTP-IPV-PRPT) is associated with increased reactogenicity or interference with immunogenicity of individual vaccine components. In a placebo-controlled, double blind study, a total of 161 infants were enrolled (80 DTP-IPV-PRPT and 81 DTP-IPV-placebo). Vaccine was administered at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. Oral poliovirus vaccine was added at 7 months of age and a booster of oral poliovirus vaccine and DTP-IPV was also administered at 12 months of age, according to the policy in Israel. Local and systemic side effects were similar in both groups except for irritability after the second dose and use of acetaminophen which we observed slightly but significantly more often in the DTP-IPV-PRPT recipients. After the third dose the geometric mean titers of anti-polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate antibodies were 3.7 and 0.05 micrograms/ml in the PRPT and placebo groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Higher tetanus antitoxin titers were observed among recipients of DPT-IPV-placebo (1.1 IU/ml vs. 0.7 IU/ml, P = 0.003). A similar trend was found for pertussis agglutinin titers (93.4 vs. 65.4, P = 0.054). No difference was observed for anti-diphtheria toxoid and poliovirus 1, 2, and 3.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8072816
Dagan, R; Botujansky, C; Watemberg, N; Arbelli, Y; Belmaker, I; Ethevenaux, C; Fritzell, B
Comparative study of the protective effect against Salmonella colonisation in newly hatched SPF chickens using live, attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains, wild-type Salmonella strains or a competitive exclusion product.
There is a need to prevent intestinal colonisation by Salmonella enteritidis and S. typhimurium in newly hatched chicks. Treatment with an undefined bacterial flora is not acceptable to regulatory agencies in some countries because of the potential risk of transmitting pathogens. A defined culture with a potency and stability equivalent to those of an undefined culture has not yet been developed. Since attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains could possess the colonisation characteristics but not the virulence of Salmonella wild-type strains, they could inhibit colonisation of the challenge organism. S. typhimurium live vaccines registered in Germany (Zoosaloral H, Salmonella vac T), S. enteritidis aroA and S. typhimurium aroA strains, S. enteritidis, S. typhimurium and S. infantis wild-type strains or a competitive exclusion product (Broilact) were used as pretreatment cultures and evaluated for their inhibitory effects against S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium colonisation in newly hatched SPF chickens. Day-old chicks were administered a pretreatment culture and infected orally with variants of S. enteritidis or S. typhimurium wild type-strains resistant to nalidixic acid or rifampicin 1 day after pretreatment. On days 2 and 6 after infection, viable numbers of the challenge strain in liver and caeca were determined. The results for birds pretreated with Broilact showed a distinct protective effect against both S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium at a challenge dose of 10(4) cfu/bird. After pretreatment of chicks with S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium wild-type strains, the greatest degree of inhibition of caecal colonisation was produced using isogenic strains. Colonisation after infection with non-isogenic strains could not be prevented but only reduced for a brief period. These effects were also observed after administration of aroA strains of S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium but the protective effect was considerably lower than after pretreatment with wild-type Salmonella strains. Inoculation with attenuated S. typhimurium vaccines resulted in a weak but significantly reduced colonisation by S. typhimurium. Colonisation by S. enteritidis could not be diminished by either of the S. typhimurium vaccine strains. The results indicate in principle the potency of Salmonella vaccine strains to inhibit Salmonella wild-type colonisation in newly hatched chicks. Potential vaccine candidates should be tested for their capacity to prevent intestinal colonisation in newly hatched chicks. PMID:9105931
Methner, U; Barrow, P A; Martin, G; Meyer, H
Exposure to drugs of abuse during embryogenesis may adversely affect nervous, immune, and endocrine systems development. We compared exposure on embryonic day 18 (E18) by single or multiple cocaine (COC) injections (56.25 mg/kg total dose for both) or saline on hatching and activity measures. In saline-exposed controls, repeated testing, age, and gender affected activity levels. A single or multiple COC injections increased the median latency to explore and multiple COC injections decreased the median number of lines crossed by female chicks in the open field. We also determined if pretreatment with the serotonin2 (5-HT2) receptor antagonist ritanserin could attenuate COC's effects on open-field behavior as well as behaviors sensitive to immune system stimulation (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness behavior). Eggs containing embryos were pretreated on E17 with 0.4 mg ritanserin/kg or its vehicle followed by multiple COC injections or saline on E18. E18 COC treatment decreased the median number of lines crossed and distress vocalizations in females. Ritanserin pretreatment mitigated the COC induced effects. E18 COC exposure also suppressed LPS-induced sickness behaviors in both males and females, increasing food consumption and the time spent awake and active, as well as decreasing the time spent sleeping. Ritanserin alone had no effect on the food consumed or time spent active, nor did this dose affect COC-induced alterations in sickness behavior. Ritanserin alone decreased time spent sleeping and also failed to affect the COC-induced suppression. Thus, embryonic COC exposure can suppress open field and LPS-induced sickness behavior in the young chick, and ritanserin pretreatment can block the former, but not the latter effects at the dose chosen for these experiments. PMID:9715802
Schrott, L M; Getty, M E; Wacnik, P W; Sparber, S B
IgG subclass antibody responses are not fully understood. Alum-adjuvanted H5N1whole virion inactivated vaccine (WIV), a genetically reassortant vaccine seed strain originating from H5N1/A/Vietnam/1194/2004 and PR-8, induced significantly stronger antibody responses in neutralizing antibodies in children. In this report, IgG subclass antibody responses were investigated, and most serum samples were positive for IgG1 antibody before immunization. A significant response (more than 4-fold increase) of IgG1 antibody was observed in 67/193 (34.7%) and that of gG4 antibodies in 42/193(21.8%). Children <4 years of age showed a significant increase in IgG subclass antibodies but those ?4 years showed lower responses. Alum- adjuvanted H5N1WIV induced an efficient immune response in young children especially <4 years. PMID:23102974
Nakayama, Tetsuo; Kumagai, Takuji; Ishii, Ken J; Ihara, Toshiaki
In 2009, we successfully produced a high-yield live attenuated H1N1pdm A/California/7/2009 vaccine (CA/09 LAIV) by substitution of three residues (K119E, A186D, and D222G) in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. Since then, we have generated and evaluated additional H1N1pdm vaccine candidates from viruses isolated in 2010 and 2011. The 2010 strains with the new HA substitutions near the HA receptor binding site (N125D and D127E or D127E and K209E) grew well in eggs and formed large plaques in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Introduction of these acidic amino acids into the HA of CA/09 also improved vaccine virus growth in eggs to a titer comparable to that of CA/09 LAIV. However, the high growth of A/Gilroy/231/2011 (Gil/11) vaccine virus required modification in both the HA and the NA segments. The residue at position 369 of the NA was found to be critical for virus replication in MDCK cells and eggs. These HA and NA residues had minimal impact on viral entry but greatly improved viral release from infected cells. Our data implied that the HA receptor binding and NA receptor cleaving function of the poor-growth H1N1pdm virus was not well balanced for virus replication in host cells. The high-growth vaccine candidates described in this study maintained vaccine virus antigenicity and induced high levels of neutralizing antibodies in immunized ferrets, making them suitable for vaccine production. The identification of the amino acids and their roles in viral replication should greatly help vaccine manufacturers to produce high-yield reassortant vaccine viruses against the future drifted H1N1pdm viruses.
Wang, Weijia; Lu, Janine; Cotter, Christopher R.; Wen, Katie; Jin, Hong
Background Anal cancer remains rare (incidence of ?1.5 per 100,000 women annually) but rates are increasing in many countries. Human papillomavirus-16 (HPV16) infection causes most cases. We evaluated vaccine efficacy (VE) of an ASO4-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine against anal HPV16/18 infection. Methods In a randomized double-blind controlled trial designed to evaluate VE against persistent cervical HPV16/18 infections and associated precancerous lesions in Costa Rica, 4210 healthy women underwent anal specimen collection (4224 of 5968= 70.8% of eligible women) at the final blinded study visit 4 years after vaccination to evaluate anal HPV16/18 VE. Cervical HPV16/18 VE among the same women at the same visit was calculated as a comparator. For this ancillary work, analyses were conducted in a restricted cohort of women both cervical HPV16/18 DNA negative and HPV 16/18 seronegative prior at enrollment (N=1989), and in the full cohort (all women with an anal specimen). Findings In the restricted cohort, VE against prevalent HPV16/18 anal infection measured one-time, four-years post-vaccination was 83.6% (95%CI 66.7% to 92.8%), which was comparable to cervical HPV16/18 VE (87.9%, 95%CI 77.4% to 94.0%). In the full cohort, HPV16/18 VE was statistically lower at the anus (62.0%, 95%CI 47.1% to 73.1%) compared to the cervix (76.4%, 95%CI 67.0% to 83.5%) (p for anatomic-site interaction =0.03). Significant and comparable VE estimates against a composite endpoint of HPV31/33/45 (i.e.: cross-protection) was observed at the anus and cervix. Interpretation The ASO4-adjuvanted vaccine affords strong protection against anal HPV, particularly among women more likely to be HPV naïve at vaccination. Funding. The Costa Rica HPV Vaccine Trial is sponsored and funded by the NCI (contract N01-CP-11005), with funding support from the National Institutes of Health Office of Research on Women's Health, and conducted with support from the Ministry of Health of Costa Rica. Vaccine was provided for our trial by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK), under a Clinical Trials Agreement with the NCI.
Kreimer, Aimee R.; Gonzalez, Paula; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Porras, Carolina; Schiffman, Mark; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Solomon, Diane; Jimenez, Silvia; Schiller, John T.; Lowy, Douglas R.; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Struijk, Linda; Quint, Wim; Chen, Sabrina; Wacholder, Sholom; Hildesheim, Allan; Herrero, Rolando
Influenza virus vaccination is recommended for children, but so far, active vaccination has not been achieved because most parents lack knowledge of vaccine safety and many doctors are reluctant to administer vaccine due to concerns that steroids might alter immunogenicity. The aim of this study was to compare the immunogenicity and safety of inactivated trivalent split influenza virus vaccine between children with recurrent wheezing and healthy children of the same age group. Sixty-eight healthy children and 62 children with recurrent wheezing took part in this study. Seroconversion rates, seroprotection rates, geometric mean titers (GMTs), and geometric mean titer ratios (GMTRs) were measured by a hemagglutination inhibition assay for the assessment of immunogenicity. Solicited and unsolicited local and systemic adverse events were measured for the assessment of safety. Regarding immunogenicity, the seroconversion and seroprotection rates showed no difference overall between healthy children and children with recurrent wheezing. Also, no difference was observed between steroid-treated and nontreated groups with recurrent wheezing. Generally, the GMTs after vaccination were higher in the one-dose vaccination groups for healthy children and children with recurrent wheezing, but the GMTRs revealed different results according to strain in the two groups. Regarding safety, solicited local and systemic adverse events showed no differences between healthy children and children with recurrent wheezing. This study demonstrates that inactivated split influenza virus vaccine is able to induce protective immune responses in healthy children, as observed in previous studies, as well as in children with recurrent wheezing who require frequent steroid treatment.
Bae, E. Young; Choi, Ui Yoon; Kwon, Hyo Jin; Jeong, Dae Chul; Rhim, Jung Woo; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Kyung Il
Eggs are the means through which chickens reproduce. Hens lay the eggs and incubate them so they will grow. The egg has all of the nutrients the chicken embryo needs to develop into a baby chick and helps protect it as it matures.
Peter N/A (None;)
In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…
Allergic reactions after vaccination are very rare. Even if the vaccine is not clearly the cause of possible side effects, including possible allergic reactions occurring after vaccine administration, they should be reported to the appropriate authorized body. Allergic reaction occuring to other vaccine components are more likely than to the active agent, for instance to gelatine, egg protein, chicken protein, dextran, thimerosal, antimicrobials, etc. All patients with suspected allergy to vaccine components should be evaluated by an allergist. Immediate-type allergy skin testing should be performed in patients who appear to have had an allergic reaction after vaccination. This testing should help confirm that the reaction was IgE mediated and identify the responsible vaccine component. If the skin test result is negative, it is extremely unlikely that the patient will develop an allergic reaction and the patient can be vaccinated. In patients with suggestive history and positive skin tests results to vaccine components, the clinician can consider administering the alternative vaccine or the same vaccine in graded doses while observing the patient. Mild local reactions, fever, and other constitutional symptoms after vaccinations are not contraindications to subsequent doses. PMID:22930937
Turkalj, Mirjana; Erceg, Damir
In a previous study, it was found that the antibody response to a nonvaccine pertussis antigen in children who were vaccine failures was reduced compared with the response in nonvaccinated children who had pertussis. In two acellular pertussis vaccine efficacy trials in Sweden, we studied the convalescent-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) geometric mean values (GMVs) in response to pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae (FIM 2/3) in vaccine failures and controls with pertussis. In Germany, the antibody responses to Bordetella pertussis antigens PT, FHA, PRN, and FIM-2 were analyzed by ELISA according to time of serum collection after onset of illness in children with pertussis who were vaccine failures or who were previously unvaccinated. Antibody values were also compared by severity of clinical illness. In Sweden, infants who had received a PT toxoid vaccine and who were vaccine failures had a blunted response to the nonvaccine antigen FHA compared with the response in children who had received a PT/FHA vaccine. Similarly, infants who had pertussis and who had received a PT/FHA vaccine had a blunted response to the nonvaccine antigens PRN and FIM 2/3 compared with the response in children who were vaccine failures and who had received a PT, FHA, PRN, and FIM 2/3 vaccine. In Germany, in sera collected from 0 to 15 days after pertussis illness onset, the GMVs for all 4 antigens (PT, FHA, PRN, and FIM-2) were significantly lower in an unvaccinated group than in children who were diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine failures. In the unvaccinated group, the GMV of the PT antibody rose rapidly over time so that it was similar to that of the DTaP vaccine recipients at the 16- to 30-day period. In contrast, the antibody responses to FHA, PRN, and FIM-2 at all time periods were lower in the diphtheria-tetanus vaccine (DT) recipients than in the DTaP vaccine failures. In both Sweden and Germany, children with less severe illness had lower antibody responses than children with typical pertussis. Our findings indicate that upon exposure and infection, previous vaccinees have more-robust antibody responses to the antigens contained in the vaccine they had received than to Bordetella antigens that were not in the vaccine they had received. In addition, over time the antibody responses to FHA, PRN, and FIM-2 were greater in children with vaccine failure (primed subjects) than in unvaccinated children (unprimed subjects) whereas the responses to PT were similar in the primed and unprimed children, as determined from sera collected after 15 days of illness. Our findings lend support to the idea that DTaP vaccines should contain multiple antigens.
Cherry, James D.; Heininger, Ulrich; Richards, David M.; Storsaeter, Jann; Gustafsson, Lennart; Ljungman, Margaretha; Hallander, Hans O.
In a previous study, it was found that the antibody response to a nonvaccine pertussis antigen in children who were vaccine failures was reduced compared with the response in nonvaccinated children who had pertussis. In two acellular pertussis vaccine efficacy trials in Sweden, we studied the convalescent-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) geometric mean values (GMVs) in response to pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae (FIM 2/3) in vaccine failures and controls with pertussis. In Germany, the antibody responses to Bordetella pertussis antigens PT, FHA, PRN, and FIM-2 were analyzed by ELISA according to time of serum collection after onset of illness in children with pertussis who were vaccine failures or who were previously unvaccinated. Antibody values were also compared by severity of clinical illness. In Sweden, infants who had received a PT toxoid vaccine and who were vaccine failures had a blunted response to the nonvaccine antigen FHA compared with the response in children who had received a PT/FHA vaccine. Similarly, infants who had pertussis and who had received a PT/FHA vaccine had a blunted response to the nonvaccine antigens PRN and FIM 2/3 compared with the response in children who were vaccine failures and who had received a PT, FHA, PRN, and FIM 2/3 vaccine. In Germany, in sera collected from 0 to 15 days after pertussis illness onset, the GMVs for all 4 antigens (PT, FHA, PRN, and FIM-2) were significantly lower in an unvaccinated group than in children who were diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine failures. In the unvaccinated group, the GMV of the PT antibody rose rapidly over time so that it was similar to that of the DTaP vaccine recipients at the 16- to 30-day period. In contrast, the antibody responses to FHA, PRN, and FIM-2 at all time periods were lower in the diphtheria-tetanus vaccine (DT) recipients than in the DTaP vaccine failures. In both Sweden and Germany, children with less severe illness had lower antibody responses than children with typical pertussis. Our findings indicate that upon exposure and infection, previous vaccinees have more-robust antibody responses to the antigens contained in the vaccine they had received than to Bordetella antigens that were not in the vaccine they had received. In addition, over time the antibody responses to FHA, PRN, and FIM-2 were greater in children with vaccine failure (primed subjects) than in unvaccinated children (unprimed subjects) whereas the responses to PT were similar in the primed and unprimed children, as determined from sera collected after 15 days of illness. Our findings lend support to the idea that DTaP vaccines should contain multiple antigens. PMID:20335431
Cherry, James D; Heininger, Ulrich; Richards, David M; Storsaeter, Jann; Gustafsson, Lennart; Ljungman, Margaretha; Hallander, Hans O
The antibody responses of chickens to killed or viable Pasteurella tularensis were determined. Three preparations were employed: viable organisms of the live vaccine strain LVS, viable cells of strain SCHU S4 (highly virulent for most laboratory animals b...
J. E. Nutter
France is facing since 2008 a re-emerging measles outbreak affecting a high proportion of adults currently not or not correctly vaccinated. The non application since 30 years of the immunization program on measles mumps and rubella is the cause of this situation, despite the efficacy and the good tolerance of this vaccine has been demonstrated. The present epidemic is expected to go on, as long as the millions of measles susceptible people have not been either affected or vaccinated. A 95% protection rate is needed to interrupt the circulation of the virus. So, the objective of the French Plan for elimination of measles and congenital rubella is to reach at least a 95% vaccination coverage for the first dose and 80% for the second dose. The immunization recommendations should be strictly respected: first dose of MMR vaccine at 12 months and second dose within the second year of life. In this context, catch up immunization of children, adolescents and young adults (up to 30 year) not or not correctly vaccinated is particularly important, as well as the post exposure prophylactic measures, including vaccination. PMID:21425529
Public health information and educational interventions regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) have focused on the link between vaginal sex and cervical cancer among women. Many people are unaware that HPV can be transmitted through oral sex or that HPV causes oral cancers. Given that HPV infections and unprotected oral sex are increasing, research on oral sex-related HPV risk is important. This study examined the effect of a brief informational intervention regarding HPV and oral sex on the sexual risk cognitions of young adults. College students (N = 238) read information on HPV, oral sex, and oral cancer or no information. Participants then completed measures of oral sex and HPV knowledge, oral sex willingness, HPV vaccination likelihood, and risk perceptions. Participants who read the information on HPV and oral sex and cancer (compared to those who did not) reported greater knowledge, perceived risk and concern, and lower willingness to engage in oral sex. These effects were only significant among women. However, men reported a higher likelihood of future HPV vaccination compared to women who had not yet received the vaccine. Focusing on oral sex and cancer, this study adds to research investigating ways to reduce HPV infections. PMID:22236342
Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Houlihan, Amy E; Walsh, Laura A
The objective of this study was to compare the safety of all modified live virus vaccines commercially available in Europe against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) under the same experimental conditions. For this purpose, one hundred and twenty three-week-old piglets, divided into five groups, were used. On day 0 of the experiment, nine pigs per group were removed and the remaining fifteen were vaccinated with the commercial vaccines Ingelvac PRRS MLV, Amervac PRRS, Pyrsvac-183 and Porcilis PRRS by the IM route or were mock vaccinated and used as controls. On day 3, the nine unvaccinated pigs were re-introduced into their respective groups and served as sentinel pigs. Clinical signs were recorded daily and lung lesions were determined on days 7, 14 and 21, when 5 vaccinated pigs per group were euthanized. Blood samples and swabs were taken every three days and different organs were collected at necropsy to determine the presence of PRRSV. None of the vaccines studied caused detectable clinical signs in vaccinated pigs although lung lesions were found. Altogether, these results indicate that all vaccines can be considered clinically safe. However, some differences were found in virological parameters. Thus, neither Pyrsvac-183 nor Porcilis PRRS could be detected in porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cultures or in lung sections used to determine PRRSV by immunohistochemistry, indicating that these viruses might have lost their ability to replicate in PAM. This inability to replicate in PAM might be related to the lower transmission rate and the delay in the onset of viremia observed in these groups
Chickens fed 200ppb aflatoxin from 10 days of age were evaluated for their immune response to a modified live infectious laryngotracheitis vaccine. Vaccination was administered at age 4 and 12 weeks. Antibody titers to the vaccine were reduced in chickens given dietary aflatoxin. After 7 weeks, aflatoxin feeding was continued for one month in a treated group and was withdrawn
Mohammad Majid Ebrahimi; Shahla Shahsavandi
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a serious public health problem, especially in developing countries, where available vaccines are not part of the vaccination calendar. We evaluated different respiratory mucosa immunization protocols that included the nasal administration of Lactococcus lactis-pneumococcal protective protein A (PppA) live, inactivated, and in association with a probiotic (Lc) to young mice. The animals that received Lc by the oral and nasal route presented the highest levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG anti-PppA antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) and IgG in serum, which no doubt contributed to the protection against infection. However, only the groups that received the live and inactivated vaccine associated with the oral administration of the probiotic were able to prevent lung colonization by S. pneumoniae serotypes 3 and 14 in a respiratory infection model. This would be related to a preferential stimulation of the T helper type 1 (Th1) cells at local and systemic levels and with a moderate Th2 and Th17 response, shown by the cytokine profile induced in BAL and by the results of the IgG1/IgG2a ratio at local and systemic levels. Nasal immunization with the inactivated recombinant strain associated with oral Lc administration was able to stimulate the specific cellular and humoral immune response and afford protection against the challenge with the two S. pneumoniae serotypes. The results obtained show the probiotic-inactivated vaccine association as a valuable alternative for application to human health, especially in at-risk populations, and are the first report of a safe and effective immunization strategy using an inactivated recombinant strain.
Vintini, E; Villena, J; Alvarez, S; Medina, M
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a serious public health problem, especially in developing countries, where available vaccines are not part of the vaccination calendar. We evaluated different respiratory mucosa immunization protocols that included the nasal administration of Lactococcus lactis-pneumococcal protective protein A (PppA) live, inactivated, and in association with a probiotic (Lc) to young mice. The animals that received Lc by the oral and nasal route presented the highest levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG anti-PppA antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) and IgG in serum, which no doubt contributed to the protection against infection. However, only the groups that received the live and inactivated vaccine associated with the oral administration of the probiotic were able to prevent lung colonization by S. pneumoniae serotypes 3 and 14 in a respiratory infection model. This would be related to a preferential stimulation of the T helper type 1 (Th1) cells at local and systemic levels and with a moderate Th2 and Th17 response, shown by the cytokine profile induced in BAL and by the results of the IgG1/IgG2a ratio at local and systemic levels. Nasal immunization with the inactivated recombinant strain associated with oral Lc administration was able to stimulate the specific cellular and humoral immune response and afford protection against the challenge with the two S. pneumoniae serotypes. The results obtained show the probiotic-inactivated vaccine association as a valuable alternative for application to human health, especially in at-risk populations, and are the first report of a safe and effective immunization strategy using an inactivated recombinant strain. PMID:20002449
Vintiñi, E; Villena, J; Alvarez, S; Medina, M
The antigen used in influenza vaccines is directly derived from influenza viruses. It is produced in embryonated chicken eggs for both inactivated and live attenuated influenza vaccines. As a consequence, all influenza vaccines contain varying amounts of residual egg proteins, depending on the specific manufacturing process of the vaccine. The degree of purity of influenza vaccines can be assessed by
O. Kürsteiner; C. Moser; H. Lazar; P. Durrer
SUMMARY A pen trial with 720 Ross 308 male chicks evaluated effects of Paracox-5 vaccination at d 1, dietary mannan oligosaccharide (MOS; Bio-Mos at 2, 1, and 0.5 kg\\/tonne in starter, grower, and finisher, respectively), and d-15 Eimeria challenge on d-22 lesions and 1 to 42-d live performance. Available floor area in each of 24 floor pens was 2.1 m2,
L. Nollet; G. Huyghebaert; P. Spring
Marek's disease (MD) and lymphoid leukosis (LL) are two distinct viral diseases that cause tumor mortality in chickens. Marek's disease, being horizontally transmitted, is controlled through biosecu- rity measures and vaccination. Prevention of early exposure before vaccine immunity is established is most important. Some multi-house growing farms have converted to all single-age placements to break the ongoing cycle of transmission.
KENTON S. KREAGER
Experiments were conducted to determine the nature of the interaction of high levels of vitamin A and vitamin E-selenium nutrition in the chicken. Results showed that chicks were protected from the vitamin E-selenium deficiency disease exudative diathesis (ED) by a high dietary level of vitamin A (1.0 X 10Â° lU\\/kg) which moderately depressed growth. A greater concentration (1.5 X 10\\
G. F. COMBS
Background In mid 2010, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was replaced by the 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) for childhood immunization in Italy. Our objective in this study was to obtain a snapshot of pneumococcal carriage frequency, colonizing serotypes, and antibiotic resistance in healthy children in two Italian cities one year after PCV13 was introduced. Methods Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 571 children aged 0-5 years from November 2011-April 2012. Pneumococcal isolates were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Penicillin and/or erythromycin non-susceptible isolates were analyzed by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Results Among the children examined, 81.2% had received at least one dose of PCV7 or PCV13 and 74.9% had completed the recommended vaccination schedule for their age. Among the latter, 57.3% of children had received PCV7, 27.1% PCV13, and 15.6% a combination of the two vaccines. The overall carriage rate was 32.9%, with children aged 6-35 months the most prone to pneumococcal colonization (6-23 months OR: 3.75; 95% CI: 2.19-6.43 and 24-35 months OR: 3.15, 95%CI: 2.36-4.22). A total of 184 pneumococcal isolates were serotyped and divided into PCV7 (5.4%), PCV13 (18.0%), and non-PCV13 (82.0%) serotypes. Serotypes 6C, 24F, and 19A were the most prevalent (10.3%, 8.6%, and 8.1%, respectively). The proportion of penicillin non-susceptible (MIC >0.6 mg/L) isolates was 30.9%, while 42.3% were erythromycin resistant. Non-PCV13 serotypes accounted for 75.4% and 70.8% of the penicillin and erythromycin non-susceptible isolates, respectively. Conclusions Our results revealed low rates of PCV7 and PCV13 serotypes in Italian children, potentially due to the effects of vaccination. As the use of PCV13 continues, its potential impact on vaccine serotypes such as 19A and cross-reactive serotypes such as 6C will be assessed, with this study providing a baseline for further analysis of surveillance isolates.
Camilli, Romina; Daprai, Laura; Cavrini, Francesca; Lombardo, Donatella; D'Ambrosio, Fabio; Del Grosso, Maria; Vescio, Maria Fenicia; Landini, Maria Paola; Pascucci, Maria Grazia; Torresani, Erminio; Garlaschi, Maria Laura; Sambri, Vittorio; Pantosti, Annalisa
Background The relationship between pneumococcal conjugate vaccine–induced antibody responses and protection against community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute otitis media (AOM) is unclear. This study assessed the impact of the ten-valent pneumococcal nontypable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on these end points. The primary objective was to demonstrate vaccine efficacy (VE) in a per-protocol analysis against likely bacterial CAP (B-CAP: radiologically confirmed CAP with alveolar consolidation/pleural effusion on chest X-ray, or non-alveolar infiltrates and C-reactive protein ? 40 µg/ml); other protocol-specified outcomes were also assessed. Methods and Findings This phase III double-blind randomized controlled study was conducted between 28 June 2007 and 28 July 2011 in Argentine, Panamanian, and Colombian populations with good access to health care. Approximately 24,000 infants received PHiD-CV or hepatitis control vaccine (hepatitis B for primary vaccination, hepatitis A at booster) at 2, 4, 6, and 15–18 mo of age. Interim analysis of the primary end point was planned when 535 first B-CAP episodes, occurring ?2 wk after dose 3, were identified in the per-protocol cohort. After a mean follow-up of 23 mo (PHiD-CV, n?=?10,295; control, n?=?10,201), per-protocol VE was 22.0% (95% CI: 7.7, 34.2; one-sided p?=?0.002) against B-CAP (conclusive for primary objective) and 25.7% (95% CI: 8.4%, 39.6%) against World Health Organization–defined consolidated CAP. Intent-to-treat VE was 18.2% (95% CI: 5.5%, 29.1%) against B-CAP and 23.4% (95% CI: 8.8%, 35.7%) against consolidated CAP. End-of-study per-protocol analyses were performed after a mean follow-up of 28–30 mo for CAP and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) (PHiD-CV, n?=?10,211; control, n?=?10,140) and AOM (n?=?3,010 and 2,979, respectively). Per-protocol VE was 16.1% (95% CI: ?1.1%, 30.4%; one-sided p?=?0.032) against clinically confirmed AOM, 67.1% (95% CI: 17.0%, 86.9%) against vaccine serotype clinically confirmed AOM, 100% (95% CI: 74.3%, 100%) against vaccine serotype IPD, and 65.0% (95% CI: 11.1%, 86.2%) against any IPD. Results were consistent between intent-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. Serious adverse events were reported for 21.5% (95% CI: 20.7%, 22.2%) and 22.6% (95% CI: 21.9%, 23.4%) of PHiD-CV and control recipients, respectively. There were 19 deaths (n?=?11,798; 0.16%) in the PHiD-CV group and 26 deaths (n?=?11,799; 0.22%) in the control group. A significant study limitation was the lower than expected number of captured AOM cases. Conclusions Efficacy was demonstrated against a broad range of pneumococcal diseases commonly encountered in young children in clinical practice. Trial registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00466947 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Tregnaghi, Miguel W.; Saez-Llorens, Xavier; Lopez, Pio; Abate, Hector; Smith, Enrique; Posleman, Adriana; Calvo, Arlene; Wong, Digna; Cortes-Barbosa, Carlos; Ceballos, Ana; Tregnaghi, Marcelo; Sierra, Alexandra; Rodriguez, Mirna; Troitino, Marisol; Carabajal, Carlos; Falaschi, Andrea; Leandro, Ana; Castrejon, Maria Mercedes; Lepetic, Alejandro; Lommel, Patricia; Hausdorff, William P.; Borys, Dorota; Guinazu, Javier Ruiz; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Yarzabal, Juan P.; Schuerman, Lode
In ovo vaccination is an alternative approach to post-hatch vaccination of chickens, particularly in broilers. Vaccination at embryonation day 18 helps to 'close the window' of susceptibility i.e. the time between vaccination and early exposure to infectious agents compared with post-hatch vaccination. Attempts on embryonal vaccination as a mode of vaccine delivery were approached from the observation that chickens already develop certain immunologic functions before hatching. The immune system in birds begins to develop early during embryogenesis and various immune reactions have been induced in the late stage chicken embryos. Compared with post-hatch vaccination, in ovo vaccination stimulates both the innate and adaptive immune responses with the advantage that because of the prenatal immunization, in ovo vaccinated chicks have developed an appreciable degree of protection by the time of hatch. Effects of maternal antibodies on vaccines to be used for in ovo vaccination can be prevented by developing vaccines that are insensitive to maternal antibodies. It has been described that vaccination of chicken embryos at embryonation day 18 did not significantly affect the immune competence of hatched chickens. The apparent absence of tolerance in chicks hatched from embryos exposed to an antigen at the late stage of embryonation implies the feasibility of in ovo vaccination. Investigations on in ovo vaccination to produce safe and efficient vaccines are still in progress. Currently a large number of vaccines are under investigation for viral, bacterial and protozoal diseases. PMID:15230052
Negash, T; al-Garib, S O; Gruys, E
Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is an important cause of lower respiratory tract illness in children, yet a licensed vaccine or antiviral drug is not available. We evaluated the safety, tolerability, infectivity, and immunogenicity of two intranasal, live-attenuated HPIV3 vaccines, designated rHPIV3-NB and rB/HPIV3, that were cDNA-derived chimeras of HPIV3 and bovine PIV3 (BPIV3). These were evaluated in adults, HPIV3 seropositive children, and HPIV3 seronegative children. A total of 112 subjects participated in these studies. Both rB/HPIV3 and rHPIV3-NB were highly restricted in replication in adults and seropositive children but readily infected seronegative children, who shed mean peak virus titers of 102.8 vs. 103.7 pfu/mL, respectively. Although rB/HPIV3 was more restricted in replication in seronegative children than rHPIV3-NB, it induced significantly higher titers of hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibodies against HPIV3. Taken together, these data suggest that the rB/HPIV3 vaccine is the preferred candidate for further clinical development.
Karron, Ruth A.; Thumar, Bhagvanji; Schappell, Elizabeth; Surman, Sonja; Murphy, Brian R.; Collins, Peter L.; Schmidt, Alexander C.
Avian AA amyloidosis is commonly observed in adult birds afflicted with bacterial infections or chronic inflammatory disorders. Experimental AA amyloidosis in birds can be induced by repeated inflammatory stimulation, such as injection with casein or vaccination with oil-emulsified bacterins. However, the transmission of amyloidosis among avian species has not been studied well to date. In the present study, we confirm the potential induction of avian AA amyloidosis by inoculation of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) vaccine or Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine. To determine the transmission of chicken AA amyloidosis among white hens, we induced experimental AA amyloidosis in vaccinated chickens by intravenous or oral administration of chicken AA fibrils. Amyloid deposits were observed in chickens injected with SE and inoculated with chicken AA fibrils intravenously (21/26: 81%) and orally (8/12: 67%). These results suggest that chicken AA amyloidosis can be induced by vaccinations, and may be transmitted among like species by oral administration. PMID:23548152
Murakami, Tomoaki; Muhammad, Naeem; Inoshima, Yasuo; Yanai, Tokuma; Goryo, Masanobu; Ishiguro, Naotaka
In recent years, numerous human infections with avian influenza viruses in Asia have raised the concern that the next influenza pandemic is imminent. The most effective way to combat human avian influenza is through vaccination of the public. In this study, we developed an influenza A recombinant protein (rH5HA) directed against the hemagglutinin (HA) of a classic H5N1 high pathogenic avian influenza virus isolated in South China in 1996. Following purification of the recombinant protein expressed from a baculovirus expression system, we evaluated the efficiency of rH5HA on specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken, commercial chicken, and in BALB/c mice in an infection-protection model. The results demonstrated that rH5HA induced antibody responses and provided full protection in both SPF chickens and commercial chickens. Protective immunity was generated within 2 weeks in chickens as young as 7-day post-hatch using a minimum amount of rH5HA protein (2?g/bird/vaccination). The serum antibody generated from rH5HA immunization was protective and lasted more than 6 months. Our data also demonstrated that rH5HA immunization protected BALB/c mice from a lethal challenge with pathogenic avian influenza virus. These results suggested that vaccination with rH5HA could be a vaccine candidate for the control of H5N1 avian influenza in poultry, in mice, and potentially in other mammals including human. PMID:24055355
Liu, Guangliang; Zhang, Fangfang; Shi, Jianzhong; Tian, Guobing; Chen, Hualan; Yu, Kangzheng; Meng, Qingwen
Due to variations in serotypes among different strains of avian infectious bronchitis viruses (IBV), vaccination of chicks with imported vaccines fails to protect them from IBV infections in Taiwan. Therefore, we develop attenuated vaccines from local strains in Taiwan. A Taiwan Group I (TW I) strain was passaged 74 times through specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicken embryonated eggs, and then tested in SPF chickens. The attenuated vaccine was not pathogenic in 1-week-old chicks, had a neutralization index (NI) of greater than 4.4 and efficacy of 90% when inoculated birds were challenged with a field IBV strain. Similar results were obtained for a vaccine made from a Taiwan Group II IBV strain. Additionally, the TW I attenuated vaccine strain had no reversion to virulence after five back passages in chicks. In conclusion, these attenuated vaccines have potential for controlling local Taiwanese IBV infections in chickens. PMID:16239054
Huang, Yuan-Pin; Wang, Ching-Ho
Selection of immunizations should be based on requirements and on risk of infection. According to the International Health Regulations, many countries require yellow fever vaccination and proof thereof as the International Certificate of vaccination. Additionally selected countries require proof of vaccination against cholera and meningococcal disease. A consultation for travel health advice is always an opportunity to ascertain that routine immunizations have been performed. Recommended immunizations often are more important for traveller's health than the required or routine ones. The most frequent vaccine preventable infection in non-immune travellers to developing countries is hepatitis A with an average incidence rate of 0.3% per month; in high risk backpackers or foreign-aid-volunteers this rate is 2.0%. Many immunizations are recommended for special risk groups only: there is a growing tendency in many countries to immunize all young travellers to developing countries against hepatitis B, as it is uncertain who will voluntarily or involuntarily get exposed. The attack rate of influenza in intercontinental travel is estimated to be 1%. Immunity against poliomyelitis remains essential for travel to Africa and parts of Asia. Many of the 0.2-0.4% who experience an animal bite are at risk of rabies. Typhoid fever is diagnosed with an incidence rate of 0.03% per month among travellers to the Indian subcontinent, North and West Africa (except Tunisia), and Peru, elsewhere this rate is 10-fold lower. Meningococcal disease, Japanese encephalitis, cholera and tuberculosis have been reported in travellers, but these infections are rare in this population. Although no travel health vaccine is cost beneficial, most professionals will offer protection against the frequent risks, while most would find it ridiculous to use all available vaccines in every traveller. It is essentially an arbitrary decision made on the risk level one wishes to recommend protection--but the priorities need to be set correctly. PMID:12615383
Steffen, Robert; Baños, Ana; deBernardis, Chiara
1. The immune responses induced by recombinant plasmids containing Newcastle disease virus (NDV) F (pVAX.nd.f) or HN (pcDNA.nd.hn) genes separately or in combination in bi-cistronic (pIRES.nd.hn.f) constructs were evaluated in maternal antibody-positive commercial chicks. 2. Immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase tests demonstrated the expression of both F and HN proteins in Vero cells. Real-time PCR analysis revealed the expression of HN and/or F genes in muscle, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), spleen and liver after immunisation. 3. Chicks inoculated intramuscularly thrice (two booster doses) with pVAX.nd.f and pcDNA.nd.hn did not develop detectable haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies. In contrast, an increase in a NDV-specific cell-mediated immune response was demonstrated. 4. After challenge with virulent NDV, chicks immunised with the recombinant plasmids as well as those in control groups succumbed to Newcastle disease. 5. Based on these results, it is concluded that DNA vaccines containing HN and/or F genes fail to protect commercial chicks, possibly due to interference from maternal antibodies. PMID:18409084
Rajawat, Y S; Sundaresan, N R; Ravindra, P V; Kantaraja, C; Ratta, B; Sudhagar, M; Rai, A; Saxena, V K; Palia, S K; Tiwari, A K
The I-2 thermostable live Newcastle disease vaccine was successfully produced and tested at the National Veterinary Research Institute in Mozambique. Local production of the vaccine has facilitated the supply of a low-cost, thermostable ND vaccine suitable for use in the control of ND in village chickens. For the vaccine to be used successfully in the field, the development of appropriate
R. G. Alders; R. Fringe; B. V. Mata
Effects of parental immunity and method of vaccination were studied in broiler chickens vaccinated with a commercial LaSota vaccine and challenged with the Fontana strain of velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease (VVND). Immunity was satisfactory from all methods of vaccination used. PMID:1164321
Benson, H N; Wenger, D R; Beard, P D
The ontogeny of the humoral immune response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), a non?infective antigen, and to killed Escherichia coli (E. coli), a disease?related antigen, was compared in young chicks of three poultry populations: a White Leghorn layer strain and two strains of White Rock broiler breeders.SRBC were injected intravenously into randomly selected groups of chicks every 3 days
B. A. Peleg; E. D. Heller; J. Pitkovsky
Seasonal influenza causes clinical illness and hospitalization in all age groups; however, conventional inactivated vaccines have only limited efficacy in young children. MF59®, an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant, has been used since the 1990s to enhance the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in the elderly, a population with waning immune function due to immunosenescence. Clinical trials now provide information to support a favorable immunogenicity and safety profile of MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine in young children. Published data indicate that Fluad®, a trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine with MF59, was immunogenic and well tolerated in young children, with a benefit/risk ratio that supports routine clinical use. A recent clinical trial also shows that Fluad provides high efficacy against PCR-confirmed influenza. Based on the results of clinical studies in children, the use of MF59-adjuvanted vaccine offers the potential to enhance efficacy and make vaccination a viable prevention and control strategy in this population.
Banzhoff, Angelika; Stoddard, Jeffrey J.
Virus particles exposed to specific anti-virus antibodies result in the formation of immune complexes (Icx). Recent vaccination strategies have employed this feature, and an infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine based on Icx has been released and is expected to replace conventional IBDV vaccines. We evaluated whether chicken recombinant antibodies (rAb) specific for IBDV, rather than conventional chicken anti-IBDV sera,
J. Ignjatovic; G. Gould; L. Trinidad; S. Sapats
Salmonella Gallinarum biovar Pullorum (S. Gallinarum biovar Pullorum) is the causative agent of pullorum disease (PD) in chickens which results in considerable economic losses to the poultry industries in developing countries. PCR-Signature Tagged Mutagenesis was used to identify virulence determinants of S. Gallinarum biovar Pullorum and novel attenuated live vaccine candidates for use against this disease. A library of 1800 signature-tagged S. Gallinarum biovar Pullorum mutants was constructed and screened for virulence-associated genes in chickens. The attenuation of 10 mutants was confirmed by in vivo and in vitro competitive index (CI) studies. The transposons were found to be located in SPI-1 (2/10 mutants), SPI-2 (3/10), the virulence plasmid (1/10) and non-SPI genes (4/10). One highly attenuated spiC mutant persisted in spleen and liver for less than 10 days and induced high levels of circulating antibody and protective immunity against oral challenge in young broiler chickens. The spiC mutant is a potential new vaccine candidate for use with chickens against this disease. PMID:24355532
Geng, Shizhong; Jiao, Xinan; Barrow, Paul; Pan, Zhiming; Chen, Xiang
Spray application of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccines is a labor- and time-saving means of mass vaccination of layer chickens. Recent assessment of spray characteristics of nozzles commonly used to apply MG vaccine in layer chicken operations has shown that the amount of respirable droplets (< 5 microm) is negligible. Topical application of vaccine onto the eye surface has been suggested as a route of vaccination, but no estimates of vaccine load delivered via spray application were found in the literature. Estimates of eye surface area were developed using digital imaging; 24 layer pullets were used for analysis, and the mean eye surface area, corrected for corneal curvature, was found to be 0.609 cm2. This surface area was then used to estimate vaccine load for commercially available live MG vaccine sprayed through popular nozzles. Less than 3000 colony-forming units can be expected for direct deposition onto the surface of an eye. PMID:21313856
Purswell, J L; Mayer, J J; Evans, J D; Branton, S L; Davis, J D
STUDY OBJECTIVESThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a mass vaccination programme carried out in Catalonia (Spain) in the last quarter of 1997 in response to an upsurge of serogroup C meningococcal disease (SCMD).DESIGNVaccination coverage in the 18 month to 19 years age group was investigated by means of a specific vaccination register. Vaccination effectiveness was
L Salleras; A Domínguez; G Prats; I Parron; P Muñoz
Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe diarrhea disease in infants and young children worldwide and continues to have a major global impact on childhood morbidity and mortality. Vaccination is the only control measure likely to have a significant impact on the incidence of severe dehydrating rotavirus disease. In 1999, a highly efficacious rotavirus vaccine licensed in the United States, RotaShield, was withdrawn from the market after 14 months because of its association with intussusception. Two new live, oral, attenuated rotavirus vaccines were licensed in 2006: the pentavalent bovine-human reassortant vaccine (RotaTeq) and the monovalent human rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix). Both vaccines have demonstrated very good safety and efficacy profiles in large clinical trials in western industrialized countries and in Latin America. Careful surveillance has not revealed any increased risk of intussusception in the vaccinated groups with either vaccine. The new rotavirus vaccines are now introduced for routine use in a number of industrialized and developing countries. These new safe and effective rotavirus vaccines offer the best hope of reducing the toll of acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in both developed and developing countries.
Dennehy, Penelope H.
The efficacy of a trivalent oil-adjuvant Coryza vaccine containing serotypes A, B and C of Haemophilus paragallinarum has been compared with that of a bivalent oil-adjuvant Coryza vaccine containing serotypes A and C and that of a commercially available, bivalent A1(OH)3-potentiated vaccine, containing types A and C. The trivalent vaccine, given at 10 and 17 weeks of age, provided the best protection. Even at 55 weeks after booster vaccination, chickens were still significantly protected, following severe challenge with either of the three serotypes of Haemophilus paragallinarum. Both bivalent vaccines did not protect against type B challenge. Furthermore the oil-adjuvant vaccines induced higher HI-A titers, which correlate with protection, compared to the A1(OH)3-potentiated vaccine. The results show that type B strains are pathogenic and constitute a distinct immunotype and thus a Coryza vaccine should contain three serotypes to obtain a broader protection against all serotypes. PMID:1514236
Jacobs, A A; Cuenen, W; Storm, P K
Adverse reactions to vaccines are highly varied, ranging from mild local reactions to fatal outcomes. In the last few years many adverse reactions have been attributed to vaccines, often without justification. In agreement with the World Health Organization, these reactions can be classified as follows, depending on the cause: vaccination-induced reactions (due to an effect of the vaccine itself or to an idiosyncrasy); reactions due to errors in storage, manipulation and/or administration; and coincidental reactions (no causal relationship with the vaccine). Hypersensitivity reactions fall into six categories, depending on the causative agent: reactions due to some component of the infectious agent or one of its products; reactions due to adjuvants: aluminium hydroxide; reactions due to stabilizers: gelatin; reactions due to preservatives: thiomersal; reactions due to antibiotics: neomycin; and reactions due to a biological culture medium: chicken embryo cells. Allergic children should not be excluded from the normal vaccine calendar. Immunologically, allergic individuals are more susceptible to infection and to microbial and viral diseases, which often play an aggravating role. Rubella, whooping cough, and influenza usually exacerbate respiratory allergies. Non-vaccination carries a marked risk of contracting serious diseases such as poliomyelitis, tetanus, and diphtheria, etc. In a not too distant future, the techniques of genetic recombination and monoclonal antibody production will allow the creation of vaccines from organisms that cannot be cultivated in the laboratory or that produce small quantities of antigen. These techniques will also lead to identification of the antigens with the greatest immunogenic power and, consequently, to extremely pure vaccines. The adverse reactions to vaccines referred to our service account for between 0.59 % and 1.27 % of first visits in the last three years. We recorded a total of 48 adverse reactions to vaccines. Of these, 44 were attributed to the tetanus vaccine (92 %), 2 to the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (4 %) and 2 to the meningitis A and C vaccine (4 %). Clinical features consisted of urticaria (11 cases), urticaria with angioedema (7 cases), pseudo-shock (5 cases), fever and urticaria (4 cases), local reactions (4 cases), persistent crying with exanthema (3 cases), giant local reactions with angioedema of the limb (3 cases), anaphylaxis (3 cases), fever > 39.5 C (2 cases), bronchospasm (1 case), and severe atopic dermatitis (1 case).A regimen of hyposensitization to tetanus toxoid was required in 20 patients (45 %); in three, this could not be completed due to generalized urticaria but all the patients presented protective titers with diluted vaccine. PMID:12783762
Eseverri, J L; Ranea, S; Marin, A
Growth of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) rickettsiae in duck embryo cell (DEC) cultures and chicken embryo cell (CEC) cultures was evaluated. Experimental lots of duck embryo cell- and chicken embryo cell-grown Rocky Mountain spotted fever vaccines and a commercial lot of yolk sac-grown vaccine were compared for protective efficacy in rhesus monkeys. Incidence and magnitude of antibody response, febrile response, and rickettsemia, as well as incidence of fatalities, suggested that both cell culture-derived vaccines were more immunogenic than the yolk sac-grown vaccine.
Kenyon, R H; Sammons, L S; Pedersen, C E
As part of our characterization of the developmental consequences of prenatal cocaine exposure, cocaine was injected into eggs containing viable chicken embryos on embryonic day (E) 18 and the fever response to the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and a delayed-type hypersensitivity response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) were assessed postnatally. E18 cocaine exposure did not affect basal body temperature. LPS induced a fever in the chicks at 4 h post-injection on post-hatch day (D) 4 and 2 h post-injection on D24. E18 cocaine exposure suppressed the peak LPS-induced fever by 50% at both ages. E18 cocaine exposure also suppressed the hypersensitivity reaction to an intradermal injection of PHA on D17, while having no effect on the response to a saline injection. To determine the importance of serotonin(2) (5-HT(2)) receptors in the developmental toxicity of cocaine, varying doses of the 5-HT(2) antagonist ritanserin were injected on E17 followed by cocaine on E18. Ritanserin, like cocaine, did not alter basal temperature, but it dose-relatedly attenuated or blocked cocaine's effect on LPS-induced fever on both D4 and D24. Ritanserin pretreatment was also able to block the blunted isolation stress response seen in D16 chicks following E18 cocaine exposure. Thus, late prenatal cocaine exposure significantly alters adaptive fever and hypersensitivity responses, and embryonic 5-HT(2) receptors played a mediating role in the fever effect. PMID:11557098
Schrott, L M; Sparber, S B
Three experiments were conducted to determine the influence of vitamin A on the utilization and amelioration of toxicity of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-(OH)D3), and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2D3) in young broiler chicks. Two levels of vitamin A (1,500 and 45,000 IU\\/kg or 450 and 13,500 mg) were fed in all experiments. In Experiment 1, chicks were fed six levels of vitamin
A. ABURTO; H. M. EDWARDS; W. M. BRITTON
Contaminated vaccine is one unexpected and potential origin of virus infection. In order to investigate the most likely cause of disease in a broiler breeder company of Shandong Province, all 17 batches of live-virus vaccines used in the affected flocks and 478 tissue samples were tested by dot-blot hybridization, nested PCR, and IFA. The results suggested the outbreak of disease was most probably due to the vaccination of REV-contaminated MD-CVI988/Rispens vaccines and ND-LaSota+IB-H120 vaccines. Furthermore, the REV was probably transmitted to the commercial chickens through congenital transmission.
Zhu, Shufen; Guo, Wenlong; Sheng, Pengcheng; Wang, Zunmin; Zhao, Changliang; Zhao, Qingyou; Zhu, Ruiliang
A serological survey for antibody to chicken anaemia agent (CAA) was carried out by indirect immunofluorescence. Antibody to CAA was widespread in broiler breeders and in parent and commercial layers in the UK. Antibody to CAA was also detected in five of 11 specific pathogen?free (SPF) chicken flocks tested; positive flocks included those being used for vaccine production or as
M. S. McNulty; T. J. Connor; F. McNeilly; K. S. Kirkpatrick; J. B. McFerran
The Indonesian response to the outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is being strengthened by increased intersectoral commitment and greater availability of staff and resources. Vaccination against avian influenza has been used widely in large commercial sectors but less so in other sectors. Generally, there has been a reduction in outbreaks and in the impact of HPAI on the commercial industry. Afield trial is described that might provide insight into the efficacy of vaccination on farms in sector 3. Preliminary data suggest that vaccination of layers induces high titres, whereas vaccination of native chickens might be difficult owing to a low response in these breeds. A much greater commitment of management, staff and resources is required before vaccination can become part of a successful sustainable campaign to eradicate HPAI. For success, the commercial poultry industry must become an integral part of the control programme, providing information and having the opportunity to identify or modify the priorities of the control programme. PMID:18411946
Sawitri Siregar, E; Darminto; Weaver, J; Bouma, A
Protease activation mutants of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/FPV/Rostock/34 (H7N1) have been generated that are fully dependent on the presence of trypsin for growth in cell culture. Unlike wild-type virus, the mutants do not induce systemic infection in chicken embryos and show low pathogenicity in both chicken embryos and adult chickens. Inactivated vaccines prepared from the mutants protected chickens and mice very efficiently against infection with highly pathogenic wild-type virus in a cross-reactive manner. The potential of these mutants to be used as veterinary and prepandemic vaccines will be discussed.
Wagner, Ralf; Gabriel, Gulsah; Schlesner, Matthias; Alex, Nina; Herwig, Astrid; Werner, Ortrud; Klenk, Hans-Dieter
Two experiments determined the influence of an experimental reovirus-antibody complex vaccine on Mareks disease virus (MDV) vaccine when used in ovo. Designs were the same except that specific-pathogen-free (SPF) broiler eggs were used in Experiment 1 and commercial broiler eggs with maternal antibodies against reovirus were used in Experiment 2. At 18 days of incubation, embryos were separated into four groups and inoculated with either diluent, MDV vaccine, reovirus-antibody complex vaccine, or a combination of reovirus-antibody complex and MDV vaccine. At 5 days of age, half the chickens in each group were challenged with MDV. At 7 wk old, all were euthanatized, weighed, and examined. At 7 days of age, remaining chickens in each group were challenged with reovirus. At 21 days old, chickens were euthanatized and weighed. No vaccine adversely affected hatchability or posthatch mortality in SPF or commercial chickens. There were no significant differences in protection against reovirus challenge when vaccines were used separately or in combination, and lesion scores were nearly identical in all vaccinated groups in both experiments. However, percentage of protection against reovirus was lower in Experiment 2, indicating an adverse effect of maternal immunity on efficacy of the reovirus vaccine. There were no significant differences in protection against MDV when the vaccines were used separately or combined. Severity of MDV lesions was nearly identical in all vaccinated groups in both experiments. However, the combination of vaccines gave numerically lower protection against MDV than MDV vaccine alone. Use of a larger number of birds, as in field conditions, may result in statistically lower protection for the vaccine combination. Large field trials are needed to determine the potential of the reovirus-antibody complex vaccine. PMID:14708983
Guo, Z Y; Giambrone, J J; Dormitorio, T V; Wu, Hongzhuan
Background One third of the world’s population is thought to have latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) with the potential for subsequent reactivation of disease. To better characterize this important population, studies comparing Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and the new interferon-? release assays including QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) have been conducted in different parts of the world, but most of these have been in countries with a low incidence of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the use of QFT-GIT assay as compared with TST in the diagnosis of LTBI in Ethiopia, a country with a high burden of TB and routine BCG vaccination at birth. Methods Healthy medical and paramedical male students at the Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia were enrolled into the study from December 2008 to February 2009. The TST and QFTG-IT assay were performed using standard methods. Results The mean age of the study participants was 20.9 years. From a total of 107 study participants, 46.7% (95%CI: 37.0% to 56.6%) had a positive TST result (TST?10 mm), 43.9% (95%CI: 34.3% to 53.9%) had a positive QFT-GIT assay result and 44.9% (95%CI: 35.2% to 54.8%) had BCG scar. There was strong agreement between TST (TST ?10mm) and QFT-GIT assay (Kappa?=?0.83, p value?=?0.000). Conclusion The TST and QFT-GIT assay show similar efficacy for the diagnosis of LTBI in healthy young adults residing in Ethiopia, a country with high TB incidence.
Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) is a highly contagious disease of chickens, which is controlled by live and inactivated vaccines. In this study, we evaluated a novel approach to vaccinate chickens against IBDV using DNA vaccinology. Plasmid DNA was administered in ovo to 18-day-old embryos. The DNA vaccine expresses the polyprotein VP2-VP4-VP3 of IBDV. The VP2 gene expresses epitopes of
L. Moura; M. Liu; V. N. Vakharia
Protective immunity against avian influenza virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose in ovo vaccination with a non-replicating human adenovirus vector encoding an H5N9 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin. Vaccinated chickens were protected against both H5N1 (89% hemagglutinin homology; 68% protection) and H5N2 (94% hemagglutinin homology; 100% protection) highly pathogenic avian influenza virus challenges. This vaccine can be mass-administered using available
Haroldo Toro; De-chu C. Tang; David L. Suarez; Matt J. Sylte; Jennifer Pfeiffer; Kent R. Van Kampen
The present extension study, conducted in children originally vaccinated at 12–14 mo or 3–5 y of age, assessed antibody persistence and immune memory induced by an investigational tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT). In the original study, participants were randomized to receive one dose of MenACWY-TT or licensed age-appropriate meningococcal control vaccines. Fifteen months post-vaccination, all participants underwent serum sampling to evaluate antibody persistence and participants previously vaccinated as toddlers received a polysaccharide challenge to assess immune memory development. Exploratory comparisons showed that (1) All children and ? 92.3% of the toddlers maintained serum bactericidal (rSBA) titers ? 1:8 at 15 mo post MenACWY-TT vaccination; statistically significantly higher rSBA geometric mean titers (GMTs) were observed compared with control vaccines. (2) At one month after polysaccharide challenge, all toddlers primed with MenACWY-TT or with the monovalent serogroup C conjugate vaccine had rSBA titers ? 1:8 and ? 1:128 for serogroup C and similar rSBA-GMTs; rSBA-GMTs for serogroups A, W-135 and Y were statistically significantly higher in toddlers primed with MenACWY-TT compared with the control vaccine. Thus, a single dose of MenACWY-TT induced persisting antibodies in toddlers and children and immune memory in toddlers. This study has been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00126984.
Knuf, Markus; Baine, Yaela; Bianco, Veronique; Boutriau, Dominique; Miller, Jacqueline M.
The use of vaccines for the prophylaxis of influenza in children is limited. This is despite high annual rates of influenza in children and despite the complications caused by influenza in children with chronic respiratory illnesses. The disease burden of influenza on infants and young children is reviewed and the potential of recommended influenza vaccination in healthy children, to reduce
Christian Herzog; Ian C Metcalfe; Urs B Schaad
Vaccines are the most powerful means to prevent and diminish the burden of infectious disease. However, there are limitations to their use: vaccines are not yet available for all infectious diseases (including human immunodeficiency virus and respiratory syncytial virus), they sometimes lack efficacy, the response to vaccination is limited by maternal antibodies in very young infants, and the response to
T. G. Kimman; R. J. Vandebriel; B. Hoebee
The virulence of four South African field isolates of NAD-dependent Haemophilus paragallinarum and two field isolates of NAD-independent H. paragallinarum has previously been tested in unvaccinated chickens. In this study, the disease profiles caused by the NAD-dependent isolates of H. paragallinarum in vaccinated chickens were studied. It was shown that the clinical signs induced in the vaccinated chickens were substantially less severe than were those in unvaccinated chickens, as was expected. However, due to the high virulence of the serovar C-3 isolates, clinical signs in the vaccinated chickens challenged with this isolate were still detected. These were as severe as those occurring in unvaccinated chickens challenged with serovar B-1 isolates. Although the clinical signs induced in unvaccinated birds challenged with serovar A-1 were more severe than those occurring when vaccinated birds were challenged with serovar C-3, the overall disease profiles were similar. Substantial clinical signs were recorded in vaccinated birds challenged with serovar C-3. This could be interpreted as vaccination failure if the disease profile obtained in unvaccinated birds is not considered. It was found that a high level of protection was provided by this vaccine against challenge by serovar C-3. The high virulence of this serovar resulted in the development of clinical signs in vaccinated birds. These findings could possibly explain the large number of so-called vaccination failures that are reported in South Africa. PMID:15991700
Bragg, R R
The study of learning and memory using the chicken model has relied on three learning paradigms, passive avoidance learning, imprinting and the pebble floor task. Passive avoidance learning and imprinting have been used predominantly in very young chickens and cannot be used to access learning and memory in older chickens. We have established a new behavioural learning paradigm, Discriminative Taste Aversion Learning (DTAL), that can be used with both young and older animals. The task requires chickens to discriminate between food crumbs dyed either red or yellow with one colour being associated with the aversive tasting substance, methylanthranilate. Learning can be tested at various times after the training session by presenting chickens with the coloured food crumbs without an aversive taste. Both chickens tested at 5 and 15 days post-hatch learned to avoid the aversive crumbs. Furthermore, the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin (30 mM; 10 microl per hemisphere) injected into the intermediate medial hyperstriatum ventrale 15 min pre-training or 45 min post-training blocked long-term memory for the DTAL task when tested 24 h later. Memory for the task was unaffected by anisomycin injection 120 min post-training or in control animals injected with saline at similar times. The timing of the cellular processes of protein synthesis needed for consolidation of the DTAL appears to be similar to those described for the other behavioural paradigms in young chickens. PMID:12482676
Atkinson, Rebbekah; Bevilaqua, Lia R M; Rostas, John A P; Hunter, Mick
Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the recent advancements of recombinant outer membrane protein (OMP) vaccines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) vaccines, inactivated vaccines, attenuated vaccines and DNA vaccines against leptospirosis are reviewed. A comparison of these vaccines may lead to development of new potential methods to combat leptospirosis and facilitate the leptospirosis vaccine research. Moreover, a vaccine ontology database was built for the scientists working on the leptospirosis vaccines as a starting tool.
Wang, Zhijun; Jin, Li; Wegrzyn, Alicja
The adjuvant activity of GLP was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiment, the effects of GLP on chicken peripheral lymphocytes proliferation were compared by MTT assay. The results showed that GLP could significantly enhance lymphocytes proliferation singly or synergistically with ConA. The interferon-gamma (IFN-?) mRNA levels of chicken peripheral lymphocytes stimulated by GLP synergistically with ConA were measured using fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that GLP could promote interferon-? mRNA levels in peripheral lymphocytes. In vivo experiment, 175 14-day-old chickens were randomly divided into 7 groups. The chickens except blank control (BC) group were vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine, repeated vaccination at 28 days old. At the same time of the first vaccination, the chickens in experimental groups were orally administrated with 5 different doses of GLP respectively, whereas vaccination control (VC) and BC groups were treated with physiological saline, once a day for three successive days. On Day 7, 14, 21 and 28 after the first vaccination, the peripheral lymphocytes proliferation and serum ND antibody titer were determined. The results showed that GLP could significantly promote lymphocyte proliferation and enhance serum antibody titer. The results indicated that GLP may be a novel immunomodulator. PMID:24530324
Zhang, Ping; Ding, Ronglong; Jiang, Shanxiang; Ji, Liwei; Pan, Mingming; Liu, Li; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiuge; Huang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Guanjun; Peng, Lin; Ji, Hui
A commercial reovirus vaccine alone or experimental reovirus vaccine plus antibody complex were inoculated into 18-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) broiler embryos at 0.1 of the recommended chick dose. The following groups were used: group 1A was not vaccinated or challenged; group 1B was not vaccinated, but was challenged with virulent reovirus; group 2 received the vaccine complexed with 1/4 dilution of antiserum; group 3 received the vaccine with 1/8 dilution of antiserum; group 4 received the vaccine with 1/16 dilution of antiserum, and group 5 received vaccine alone. At 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days of age, serum was collected and antibody against avian reovirus was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). At the same times, spleens were collected and vaccine virus detected by inoculating chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) and examining for cytopathic effect. At 15 days of age, chickens in groups 2-5 were challenged with reovirus. At 22 days of age, birds were euthanatized and weighed. Efficacy of the vaccines was based on safety, percent protection, and antibody response. In ovo vaccination with the commercial or experimental vaccines did not adversely affect hatchability of SPF chickens. The vaccine complexed with antibody resulted in significantly less posthatch mortality (3.7%) when compared to mortality of chickens that received vaccine alone (17%). Both vaccine virus recovery and antibody response were delayed at least 3 days in birds receiving the experimental vaccines. In evo administration of reovirus antibody complex vaccines provided at least 70% protection. The experimental reovirus-antibody complex vaccines were safe and efficacious when given in ovo to SPF broiler embryos. PMID:14708991
Guo, Z Y; Giambrone, J J; Wu, Hongzhuan; Dormitorio, T
Serum samples from 465 subjects aged between 1 and 25 years were tested for antibody against hepatitis A virus (HAV) [anti-HAV IgG and IgM] to determine the seroprevalence of HAV antibody and do a cost-benefit analysis for decision making about vaccination against HAV among the general population of Bangladesh. A high prevalence of anti-HAV (74.8%) was observed in the study population; the whole study population was found positive for anti-HAV by the age of 25 years. On performing the cost-benefit analysis, it was found that the cost for vaccination with screening for anti-HAV was almost three times cheaper than vaccination without screening. Thus, in the present socioeconomic condition of Bangladesh, a policy based on screening for HAV antibody before vaccination is recommended. PMID:19172060
Ahmed, M; Munshi, S U; Nessa, A; Ullah, M S; Tabassum, S; Islam, M N
Research on footrot in small ruminants, which is caused by Dichelobacter nodosus, has led to development of vaccines and their application for control, treatment and eradication of the disease in sheep. Footrot vaccines have evolved over decades to contain monovalent whole cell, multivalent recombinant fimbrial, and finally mono or bivalent recombinant fimbrial antigens. Initially whole cell vaccines made against the few known serogroups of D. nodosus were found to be inefficient in control of the disease in the field, which was attributed to the presence of other unidentified serogroups and also the use of inefficient adjuvants. Fimbriae or pili, which are the basis for antigenic variation, were found to be the major protective and also curative antigens but they are not cross protective between the different serogroups. Multivalent vaccines incorporating all the known serogroups have been proven to be of limited efficacy due to the phenomenon of antigenic competition. Recent studies in Nepal, Bhutan and Australia have shown that outbreak-specific vaccination which involves targeting identified serogroups with mono- or bivalent recombinant fimbrial vaccines, can be very effective in sheep and goats. Where multiple serogroups are present in a flock, antigenic competition can be overcome by sequentially targeting the serogroups with different bivalent vaccines every 3 months. A common antigen which would confer immunity to all serogroups would be the ideal immunogen but the initial studies were not successful in this area. Until universal antigen/s are available, flock specific mono or bivalent fimbrial vaccines are likely to be the most effective tool for control and eradication of footrot in sheep and goats. Future research in footrot vaccines should be focused on improving the duration of prophylaxis by incorporating new and emerging immunomodulators or adjuvants with modified delivery vehicles, discovering a common antigen and understanding the mechanisms of acquired immunity. PMID:24736003
Dhungyel, Om; Hunter, James; Whittington, Richard
As Marek's disease virus continues to evolve towards greater virulence, more efficacious vaccines will be required in the future. We expressed chicken interleukin-2 (IL-2) from a turkey herpesvirus (HVT) in an attempt to increase the efficacy of HVT as a vaccine against Marek's disease. The recombinant IL-2\\/HVT was safe for in ovo vaccination, although it replicated less in the birds
I. Tarpey; P. J. Davis; P. Sondermeijer; C. van Geffen; I. Verstegen; V. E. J. C. Schijns; Jill Kolodsick; R. Sundick
Studies of killed rubella virus vaccines included various attempts to propagate low passage monkey kidney and rabbit kidney adapted Gilchrist strain in embryonated duck and chicken eggs and in cell cultures derived from duck and chick embryo tissues. Expe...
R. N. Hull C. B. Reimer F. T. Counter
Anthrax, an uncommon disease in humans, is caused by a large bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. The risk of inhalation infection is the main indication for anthrax vaccination. Pre-exposure vaccination is provided by an acellular vaccine (anthrax vaccine adsorbed or AVA), which contains anthrax toxin elements and results in protective immunity after 3 to 6 doses. Anthrax vaccine precipitated (AVP) is administered at primovaccination in 3 doses with a booster dose after 6 months. To evoke and maintain protective immunity, it is necessary to administer a booster dose once at 12 months. In Russia, live spore vaccine (STI) has been used in a two-dose schedule. Current anthrax vaccines show considerable local and general reactogenicity (erythema, induration, soreness, fever). Serious adverse reactions occur in about 1% of vaccinations. New second-generation vaccines in current research programs include recombinant live vaccines and recombinant sub-unit vaccines. PMID:15977694
Splino, Miroslav; Patocka, Jiri; Prymula, Roman; Chlibek, Roman
Rubella vaccination programmes aim to prevent congenital rubella infections. Previously differing programmes have now converged according to the following principle: First vaccination should be given at the age of 15 months (together with measles and mumps vaccine) to both boys and girls, in order to diminish the circulation of the wild virus. Teenage girls require (re-)vaccination to ensure their immunity.
Poultry products are an important source of Salmonella enterica. An effective way to reduce food poisoning due to Salmonella would be to breed chickens more resistant to Salmonella. Unfortunately host responses to Salmonella are complex with many factors involved. To learn more about responses to Salmonella in young chickens, a cDNA microarray analysis was performed to compare gene expression profiles
Saskia van Hemert; Arjan J. W. Hoekman; Mari A. Smits; Johanna M. J. Rebel
The purpose of this study is to investigate feasibility of sodium lauryl sulfoacetate (SLS) as an immunoadjuvant in chickens. After treating with 62.5, 125, 250, or 500??g/mL SLS in vitro, lymphocyte proliferation assay of chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that the OD570 values of all experimental groups, as well as Con A-stimulated group, were significantly higher than that of the untreated control group. After injection with 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0?mg/kg of SLS for 3 consecutive days, chickens were vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine against Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and the immunoadjuvant effects of SLS were evaluated on the basis of immune organ index, antibody response, and CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio. The results confirmed that SLS could enhance NDV-specific antibody response and increase CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio in vivo. Furthermore, SLS could improve NDV-specific antibody response in thiamphenicol-treated chickens. These data indicate that SLS not only can improve humoral immune response but also reverse the immunosuppressive effect of thiamphenicol in chickens.
Cheng, DaRong; Zhu, ShanYuan; Sun, HuaiChang
The question whether personal or family history of convulsions is a contraindication to pertussis vaccine is answered by recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee. It is known that infants and young children who have had febrile or non-febrile convulsions are more likely to have convulsions after pertussis vaccine. A family history of seizures is not associated with such convulsions, however. In the U.S., risk of contracting pertussis is low, so pertussis vaccine can be deferred, and only DT (diphtheria-tetanus toxoid) inoculations can be offered until it is determined whether a neurological disorder is evolving. The procedure of evaluating seizures in children given pertussis vaccine is presented in a flow diagram. First, if the convulsions occur within 48 hours after a DPT dose, DT should be given. If a 3rd dose of DPT has been administered, and at least 6 months have elapsed since the last convulsion, DPT can be continued. If either case applies, a thorough physical exam and history, with lab tests should be done to evaluate whether an evolving neurological disorder is present: if not, DPT can be continued. A minimum of 3 doses of DPT at 4 week intervals is necessary to protect against whooping cough. Other contraindications include hypersensitivity to the vaccine and a severe reaction such as shock, persistent screaming, fever over 40.5 degrees C., or serious neurological symptoms. There is no evidence for a link between thrombocytopenic purpura or hemolytic anemia and pertussis vaccine. PMID:12281268
A fowlpox virus expressing the chicken infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1 gene of the LX4 strain (rFPV-IBVS1) and a fowlpox virus co-expressing the S1 gene and the chicken type II interferon gene (rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFN?) were constructed. These viruses were assessed for their immunological efficacy on specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens challenged with a virulent IBV. Although the antibody levels in the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFN?-vaccinated group
Yun-Feng Wang; Yong-Ke Sun; Zhan-Cheng Tian; Xing-Ming Shi; Guang-Zhi Tong; Sheng-Wang Liu; Hai-Dong Zhi; Xian-Gang Kong; Mei Wang
CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken coops on the farm were used by both chickens and turkeys. The yards around the buildings were once fenced in to give the poultry brooding space. - Kineth Farm, Chicken Coop, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA
FASEB Breakthroughs in Bioscience article. Scientist Peyton Rous used Plymouth Rock chickens to make his Nobel Prize winning discovery that viruses can cause cancer. Chickens, rabbits, and mice were among the animal models that made invaluable contributions to the development of the HPV vaccine to protect against cervical cancer.
Studies on the biology of the avian species of Eimeria are currently benefiting from the availability of a comprehensive sequence for the nuclear genome of Eimeria tenella. Allied to some recent advances in transgenic technologies and genetic approaches to identify protective antigens, some elements are now being assembled that should be helpful for the development of a new generation of vaccines. In the meantime, control of avian coccidiosis by vaccination represents a major success in the fight against infections caused by parasitic protozoa. Live vaccines that comprise defined populations of oocysts are used routinely and this form of vaccination is based upon the long-established fact that chickens infected with coccidial parasites rapidly develop protective immunity against challenge infections with the same species. Populations of wild-type Eimeria parasites were the basis of the first live vaccines introduced around 50 years ago and the more recent introduction of safer, live-attenuated, vaccines has had a significant impact on coccidiosis control in many areas of the world. In Europe the introduction of vaccination has coincided with declining drug efficacy (on account of drug resistance) and increasing concerns by consumers about the inclusion of in-feed medication and prospects for drug residues in meat. The use of attenuated vaccines throughout the world has also stimulated a greater interest in the vaccines that comprise wild-type parasites and, during the past 3 years worldwide, around 3x10(9) doses of each type of vaccine have been used. The need for only small numbers of live parasites to induce effective protective immunity and the recognition that Eimeria spp. are generally very potent immunogens has stimulated efforts to develop other types of vaccines. None has succeeded except for the licensing, within several countries in 2002, of a vaccine (CoxAbic vaccine; Abic, Israel) that protects via the maternal transfer of immunoglobulin to the young chick. Building on the success of viral vaccines that are delivered via the embryonating egg, an in ovo coccidiosis vaccine (Inovocox, Embrex Inc.) is currently in development. Following successful field trials in 2001, the product will be ready for Food and Drug Administration approval in 2005 and a manufacturing plant will begin production for sale in late 2005. Limited progress has been achieved towards the development of subunit or recombinant vaccines. No products are available and studies to identify potential antigens remain compromised by an absence of effective in vitro assays that correlate with the induction of protective immunity in the host. To date, only a relatively small portfolio of molecules has been evaluated for an ability to induce protection in vivo. Although Eimeria are effective immunogens, it is probable that to date none of the antigens that induce potent protective immune responses during the course of natural infection has been isolated. PMID:16230106
Shirley, Martin W; Smith, Adrian L; Tomley, Fiona M
The objective of this study was to determine the putative neuropathological effects in young chickens after administration of a single dose of 55 mg/kg bw chlorpyrifos. The gross lesions of the nervous system comprised of congestions in the brain. Microscopic examination of brain showed mild congestion of cerebral blood vessels and mild perivascular cuffing of lymphomononuclear cells in the cerebral cortex and necrosis of the neurons. The interesting findings were the presence of cytoplasmic vacuolations of cerebral neurons and swelling of the endothelial cell of the cerebral capillaries. Cerebellum showed congestion and hemorrhages in the granular layer and necrosis of Purkinje cell. Sciatic nerve exhibited mild edema, swelling and degeneration of axons, and swelling of Schwann cells. There was a significant inhibition of plasma cholinesterase enzyme activity in chickens administered with chlorpyrifos compared to chickens of control group. The study revealed that administration of chlorpyrifos produces neuropathological lesions in chickens shortly after exposure.
Kammon, A. M.; Brar, R. S.; Sodhi, S.; Banga, H. S.; Sandhu, H. S.
Orally administered bacterin of killed Haemophilus paragallinarum effectively induced production of serum hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies in chickens, and all immunized chickens were protected from subsequent infection. Although one intramuscular dose of 10(8) cells adjuvanted with aluminium phosphate gel (equivalent to commercial vaccine) induced protective immunity, two oral doses of 10(10) cells each with no adjuvants were required to induce effective immunity. PMID:7980277
Nakamura, T; Hoshi, S; Nagasawa, Y; Ueda, S
The invention provides vaccination protocols for administering immunogens to a primate host in order to promote the formation of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against primate immunodeficiency viruses. In some embodiments, the vaccination protocols compri...
L. Stamataos N. L. Haigwood W. Blay
Vaccines are complex products that are manufactured in highly dynamic processes. Cellular substrates are one critical component that can have an enormous impact on reactogenicity of the final preparation, level of attenuation of a live virus, yield of infectious units or antigens, and cost per vaccine dose. Such parameters contribute to feasibility and affordability of vaccine programs both in industrialized countries and developing regions. This review summarizes the diversity of cellular substrates for propagation of viral vaccines from primary tissue explants and embryonated chicken eggs to designed continuous cell lines of human and avian origin.
Jordan, Ingo; Sandig, Volker
Vaccination is the most effective means for the prevention of influenza, including pandemic strains. An ideal pandemic influenza vaccine should provide effective protection with the fewest number of doses in the shortest amount of time, and among the greatest proportion of the population. The current manufacturing processes required for embryonated chicken-egg-based influenza vaccines are limited in their ability to respond to pandemic situations - these limitations include problems with surge capacity, the need for egg-adapted strains, the possibility of contamination, and the presence of trace egg protein. Several vaccine strategies to circumvent the deficiencies intrinsic to an egg-based influenza vaccine are in various phases of development. These include the use of cell-culture-based growth systems, concomitant use of adjuvants, whole virus vaccines, recombinant protein vaccines, plasmid DNA vaccines, virus-like particle vaccines, and universal flu vaccines.
BackgroundBecause they can generate comparable predictions, mathematical models are ideal tools for evaluating alternative drug or vaccine allocation strategies. To remain credible, however, results must be consistent. Authors of a recent assessment of possible influenza vaccination strategies conclude that older children, adolescents, and young adults are the optimal targets, no matter the objective, and argue for vaccinating them. Authors of
John Glasser; Denis Taneri; Zhilan Feng; Jen-Hsiang Chuang; Peet Tüll; William Thompson; Mary Mason McCauley; James Alexander
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are highly effective in preventing invasive disease in infants and young children, with favorable safety and immunogenicity profiles. These pediatric vaccines have also shown efficacy in reducing cases of non-invasive disease (i.e. otitis media, pneumonia). Recently, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have demonstrated additional protective qualities that may enhance their use worldwide. For example, they can reduce nasopharyngeal acquisition
Katherine L O’Brien; Ron Dagan
The influenza virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs was possible early in 1930er years and allowed the influenza vaccine production. Most influenza vaccines were derived from this, but actually new virus cell culture methods are established. For better tolerability, influenza vaccines include only antigen proportions (split- and subunit vaccines) but with the disadvantage of minor vaccine efficacy. This was compared with the addition of adjuvants. Aluminium salts are used for many decades and still in use to enhance the effect of vaccines. New formulations are MF59, AS03, AS04 or toll- like receptor-agonists. Also virosomal formulations and "ISCOMs"(Immune Stimulating Complexes) are newly designed and compromises enhanced immune reactions. Actually a broad range of various influenza vaccines exist and are available for a very different group of patients (which depends on physical conditions, age, immune status or allergies). PMID:22048938
Allwinn, R; Doerr, H W
Live attenuated vaccines have been extensively used to control infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT). Most vaccines are registered\\/recommended for use via eye-drop although vaccination via drinking-water is commonly used in the field. Drinking-water vaccination has been associated with non-uniform protection. Bird-to-bird passage of chicken-embryo-originated (CEO) ILT vaccines have been shown to result in reversion to virulence. The purpose of this study was
Mauricio J. C. Coppo; Joanne M. Devlin; Amir H. Noormohammadi
In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)
Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul
Meningococcal diseases are serious threats to global health, and new vaccines specifically tailored to meet the age-related needs of various geographical areas are required. This paper focuses on the meningococcal conjugate vaccines developed by GSK Biologicals. Two combined conjugate vaccines were developed to help protect infants and young children in countries where the incidence of meningococcal serogroup C or serogroup C and Y disease is important: Hib-MenC-TT vaccine, which offers protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C diseases, is approved in several countries; and Hib-MenCY-TT vaccine, which adds N. meningitidis serogroup Y antigen, is currently in the final stages of development. Additionally, a tetravalent conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) designed to help protect against four meningococcal serogroups is presently being evaluated for global use in all age groups. All of these vaccines were shown to be highly immunogenic and to have clinically acceptable safety profiles.
Miller, Jacqueline M.; Mesaros, Narcisa; Van Der Wielen, Marie; Baine, Yaela
Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is characterized by high fever and high mortality in pigs of all ages and has severely affected the pork industry of China in the last few years. An attenuated HP-PRRSV strain, TJM, was obtained by passaging HP-PRRSV strain TJ on MARC-145 cells for 92 passages. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)- and antibody-free pigs were inoculated intramuscularly with TJM (10(5.0) 50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID(50)]) and challenged at 28, 60, 120, and 180 days postimmunization (dpi). The results showed that 5/5, 5/5, 5/5, and 4/5 immunized pigs were protected from the lethal challenge and did not develop fever and clinical diseases at each challenge, respectively. Compared to control pigs, vaccinated pigs showed much milder pathological lesions and gained significantly more weight (P < 0.01). Sequence analysis of different passages of strain TJ showed that the attenuation resulted in a deletion of a continuous 120 amino acids (aa), in addition to the discontinuous 30-aa deletion in the nsp2 region. The analysis also demonstrated that the 120-aa deletion was genetically stable in vivo. These results suggested that HP-PRRSV TJM was efficacious against a lethal challenge with a virulent HP-PRRSV strain, and effective protection could last at least 4 months. Therefore, strain TJM is a good candidate for an efficacious modified live virus vaccine as well as a useful molecular marker vaccine against HP-PRRSV. PMID:22695163
Leng, Xue; Li, Zhenguang; Xia, Mingqi; He, Yanliang; Wu, Hua
Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is characterized by high fever and high mortality in pigs of all ages and has severely affected the pork industry of China in the last few years. An attenuated HP-PRRSV strain, TJM, was obtained by passaging HP-PRRSV strain TJ on MARC-145 cells for 92 passages. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)- and antibody-free pigs were inoculated intramuscularly with TJM (105.0 50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50]) and challenged at 28, 60, 120, and 180 days postimmunization (dpi). The results showed that 5/5, 5/5, 5/5, and 4/5 immunized pigs were protected from the lethal challenge and did not develop fever and clinical diseases at each challenge, respectively. Compared to control pigs, vaccinated pigs showed much milder pathological lesions and gained significantly more weight (P < 0.01). Sequence analysis of different passages of strain TJ showed that the attenuation resulted in a deletion of a continuous 120 amino acids (aa), in addition to the discontinuous 30-aa deletion in the nsp2 region. The analysis also demonstrated that the 120-aa deletion was genetically stable in vivo. These results suggested that HP-PRRSV TJM was efficacious against a lethal challenge with a virulent HP-PRRSV strain, and effective protection could last at least 4 months. Therefore, strain TJM is a good candidate for an efficacious modified live virus vaccine as well as a useful molecular marker vaccine against HP-PRRSV.
Leng, Xue; Li, Zhenguang; Xia, Mingqi; He, Yanliang
Pneumococcal disease is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, there is a lack of epidemiological data to describe the vaccine-preventable burden of disease. New pneumococcal conjugate vaccines offer hope of preventing infant pneumococcal disease. The efficacy of the 7- and 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) against invasive vaccine-type pneumococcal disease in young children is between 77 and 97%. The PCV vaccine efficacy against radiological pneumonia in HIV-negative infants for the 7- or 9-valent PCV is 23-30%. The vaccine efficacy in HIV-positive infants is lower--65% against invasive vaccine-type pneumococcal disease and no significant efficacy against radiological pneumonia. The 7-valent PCV showed modest efficacy against acute otitis media (7%) but seems to be more effective in preventing recurrent or severe disease. The high cost of these new vaccines is a barrier to their widespread introduction. The development of other pneumococcal vaccine candidates with wider serotype coverage should be encouraged. These vaccines should be affordable for all countries, particularly those with the highest burden of disease. In addition, other vaccination strategies such as maternal and neonatal immunisation and combinations of fewer doses of the PCV combined with an early dose of the cheaper pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine need to be assessed further. PMID:15720885
Russell, Fiona M; Mulholland, E K
The continuous outbreaks of fatal Newcastle disease (ND) in commercial poultry flocks demonstrate that current vaccination strategies are not fully efficacious and should be improved by new generation of vaccines. In this context, maternally immune conventional layer chickens were vaccinated in ovo with a turkey herpesvirus recombinant expressing the fusion (F) gene of NDV (rHVT-ND) and\\/or at day-old with an
Fabienne Rauw; Yannick Gardin; Vilmos Palya; Sofia Anbari; Sophie Lemaire; Marc Boschmans; Thierry van den Berg; Bénédicte Lambrecht
A real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was utilized to study the in vivo replication of Marek's disease vaccine viruses and of virulent oncogenic strains. In the first of four experiments, the growth of the herpes virus of turkeys (HVT) vaccine was detectable in various organs of infected chicken embryos, with the highest viral loads being present in the spleen. No
Jianming Tan; Julie Cooke; Nadeene Clarke; Gregory A. Tannock
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an important cause of disease in chickens and turkeys. As infection can occur early in life and spread of the virus throughout a flock is rapid, an early onset of immunity post-vaccination would be advantageous. We have studied the serological immune response and the onset of protective immunity of an aMPV vaccine delivered to chickens via the in ovo route compared to oculonasal delivery at day old. A 1000-fold lower dose delivered in ovo to chicken specific pathogen free (SPF) embryos, than vaccination at day old, provided a significantly higher antibody response. In the presence of maternally derived antibody (MDA), there was no significant difference in antibody response between the vaccination routes. However, the onset of immunity (OOI) for the vaccine delivered to MDA positive chicken embryos was 5 days post-hatch in comparison to 8 days post-hatch for the same dose of vaccine given at day old indicating that chicks would be protected against disease earlier in the field if vaccinated by the in ovo route. In further experiments the OOI for a turkey vaccine delivered to MDA positive turkey embryos was shown to be 8 days post-hatch. PMID:17462834
Tarpey, I; Huggins, M B
Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.
Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing
In the poultry industry, infections with avian influenza virus (AIV) can result in significant economic losses. The risk and the size of an outbreak might be restricted by vaccination of poultry. A vaccine that would be used for rapid intervention during an outbreak should be safe to use, highly effective after a single administration and be suitable for mass application. A vaccine that could be applied by spray or aerosol would be suitable for mass application, but respiratory applied inactivated influenza is poorly immunogenic and needs to be adjuvanted. We chose aluminum OH, chitosan, cholera toxin B subunit (CT-B), and Stimune as adjuvant for an aerosolized vaccine with inactivated H9N2. Each adjuvant was tested in two doses. None of the adjuvanted vaccines induced AIV-specific antibodies after single vaccination, measured 1 and 3 weeks after vaccination by aerosol, in contrast to the intramuscularly applied vaccine. The aerosolized vaccine did enter the chickens' respiratory tract as CT-B-specific serum antibodies were detected after 1 week in chickens vaccinated with the CT-B-adjuvanted vaccine. Chickens showed no adverse effects after the aerosol vaccination based on weight gain and clinical signs. The failure to detect AIV-specific antibodies might be due to the concentration of the inactivated virus. PMID:21683456
de Geus, Eveline D; van Haarlem, Daphne A; Poetri, Okti N; de Wit, J J Sjaak; Vervelde, Lonneke
Renewed awareness of the significant morbidity and mortality that Shigella causes among young children in developing countries combined with technological innovations in vaccinology has led to the development of novel vaccine strategies in the past five years. Along with advancement of classical vaccines in clinical trials and new sophisticated measurements of immunological responses, much new data has been produced lending promise to the potential for production of safe and effective Shigella vaccines. Herein we review the recent progress in Shigella vaccine development within the framework of persistent obstacles.
Barry, Eileen M.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Fasano, Alessio; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.
To further understand the effect of co-infection of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens, the experiment was made to study the pathogenicity, the weight of body and immune organs, response to newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus subtype H9 (AIV-H9) vaccination. Chickens were randomly divided into four groups, which includes injection groups (REV, ALV-J, REV plus ALV-J), and negative control group. The pathogenesis experiments indicated that chickens co-infected with REV and ALV-J had significantly higher mortality rate than those of the chickens infected with REV or ALV-J alone (P<0.05). Chickens inoculated with REV and ALV-J had significantly lower weights than chickens in all other groups (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the two single infection groups and co-infection group (P>0.05) on bursa and thymus over body wt ratios, however, chickens co-infected with REV and ALV-J had significantly lower titers than REV-infected chickens and ALV-J-infected chickens on HI antibody titers to ND and AIV-H9 after vaccination (P<0.05). These findings suggested that the co-infection of REV and ALV-J caused more serious growth retardation and immunosuppression in SPF chickens. PMID:25042879
Dong, Xuan; Ju, Sidi; Zhao, Peng; Li, Yang; Meng, Fanfeng; Sun, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is the causative agent of chronic respiratory disease in laye r chickens. The live MG vaccine strains that are available for use in layer chickens include F, ts-11 and 6\\/85. The MG vaccine strains ts-11 and 6\\/85 are safer than F and they have little or no potential of spreading from bird to bird. However, ts-11 and
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes colibacillosis, which is responsible for morbidity and mortality in chickens. Gene expression patterns have previously been demonstrated to differ between chicken populations that are resistant vs. susceptible to bacterial infection, but little is currently known about gene expression response to APEC. Increased understanding of gene expression patterns associated with resistance will facilitate genetic selection to increase resistance to APEC. Male broiler chicks were vaccinated at 2 weeks of age and challenged with APEC at 4 weeks of age. Peripheral blood leukocytes were collected at 1 and 5 day post-infection. Lesions on the liver, pericardium, and air sacs were used to assign a mild or severe pathology status to non-vaccinated, challenged chicks. Ten treatment groups were therefore generated with a priori factors of vaccination, challenge, day post-infection, and the a posteriori factor of pathology status. Global transcriptomic response was evaluated using the Agilent 44K chicken microarray. APEC infection resulted in more up-regulation than down-regulation of differentially expressed genes. Immune response and metabolic processes were enriched with differentially expressed genes. Although vaccination significantly reduced lesions in challenged bird, there was no detectable effect of vaccination on gene expression. This study investigated the transcriptomic differences in host responses associated with mild vs. severe pathology, in addition to the effects of vaccination and challenge, thus revealing genes and networks associated with response to APEC and providing a foundation for future studies on, and genetic selection for, genetic resistance to APEC.
Sandford, Erin E.; Orr, Megan; Shelby, Mandy; Li, Xianyao; Zhou, Huaijun; Johnson, Timothy J.; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Liu, Peng; Nolan, Lisa K.; Lamont, Susan J.
BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccination in infants and children with existing health complications is current practice in many countries, but healthy children are also susceptible to influenza, sometimes with complications. The under-recognised burden of disease in young children is greater than in elderly populations and the number of paediatric influenza cases reported does not reflect the actual frequency of influenza. DISCUSSION: Vaccination
Vytautas Usonis; Ioana Anca; Francis André; Roman Chlibek; Inga Ivaskeviciene; Atanas Mangarov; Zsófia Mészner; Roman Prymula; Pavol Šimurka; Eda Tamm; Goran Tešovi?
Protective immunity against avian influenza virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose in ovo vaccination with a non-replicating human adenovirus vector encoding an H5N9 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin. Vaccinated chickens were protected against both H5N1 (89% hemagglutinin homology; 68% protection) and H5N2 (94% hemagglutinin homology; 100% protection) highly pathogenic avian influenza virus challenges. This vaccine can be mass-administered using available robotic in ovo injectors which provide a major advantage over current vaccination regimens. In addition, this class of adenovirus-vectored vaccines can be produced rapidly with improved safety since they do not contain any replication-competent adenoviruses. Furthermore, this mode of vaccination is compatible with epidemiological surveys of natural avian influenza virus infections. PMID:17055126
Toro, Haroldo; Tang, De-chu C; Suarez, David L; Sylte, Matt J; Pfeiffer, Jennifer; Van Kampen, Kent R
Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), an alphaherpesvirus, causes respiratory disease in chickens and is currently controlled by vaccination with conventionally attenuated virus strains. These vaccines have limitations because of residual pathogenicity and reversion to virulence, suggesting that a novel vaccine strain that lacks virulence gene(s) may enhance disease control. Glycoprotein G (gG) has recently been identified as a virulence factor in ILTV. In this study the immunogenicity and relative pathogenicity of gG deficient ILTV was investigated in SPF chickens. Birds vaccinated with gG deficient ILTV were protected against clinical signs of disease following challenge with virulent ILTV and gG deficient ILTV was also shown to be less pathogenic than currently available commercial vaccine strains. Thus gG deficient ILTV appears to have potential as a vaccine candidate. PMID:17316926
Devlin, Joanne M; Browning, Glenn F; Hartley, Carol A; Gilkerson, James R
Inoculation of mice with hemagglutinin (HA)-expressing DNA affords reliable protection against lethal influenza virus infection, while in chickens the same strategy has yielded variable results. Here we show that gene gun delivery of DNA encoding an H5 HA protein confers complete immune protection to chickens challenged with lethal H5 viruses. In tests of the influence of promoter selection on vaccine
SHANTHA KODIHALLI; JOEL R. HAYNES; HARRIET L. ROBINSON
\\u000a The biotechnology revolution which began in the 1970s with the advent of genetic engineering, coupled with major developments\\u000a in fermentation and downstream processing technology, has had major impacts on research, development and production of vaccines.\\u000a In the case of vaccine production, the effect of recombinant DNA techniques has been to make vaccines available against agents\\u000a where previously production and isolation
The Recombinant Vaccines: Strategies for Candidate Discovery and Vaccine Delivery conference, organized by EuroSciCon, hosted a group of UK-based and international scientists from as far afield as Malaysia and Australia. Genomic analyses of pathogens and elucidation of mechanisms of pathogenesis has advanced candidate discovery and development of vaccines. Therefore, it was timely that this conference featured, in addition to detailed expositions of target selection and clinical trials, presentations on manufacturability, scale-up and delivery of vaccines. Ten talks were presented. This meeting report describes the key topics presented and the themes that emerged from this conference. PMID:20450319
Barnard, Ross Thomas
Experiments were conducted in chickens to understand the effects of oral immunomodulation. Heat inactivated M phlei, a commensal Mycobacterium and a non-specific immunomodulator, was administered orally prior to live Newcastle disease F (ND F) strain vaccination. In experimental birds it lead to an enhanced cell mediated Immune response (CMI) against the vaccine. There was a reduction in the Haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies. However, it did not affect the protection against a virulent challenge, as the protection percentage was more or less same in vaccinated birds irrespective of the M.phlei administration. M. phlei administration could not enhance the immune response to inactivated ND F vaccine administered orally. The results indicate that M. phlei favours a CMI response to orally administered live ND F vaccine. It may be of potential use in enhancing CMI against vaccines and a cheaper alternative to costlier recombinant cytokines. PMID:11883522
Sreekumar, E; Das, S K
Numerous vaccination strategies have been evaluated to develop effective vaccines against Campylobacter jejuni colonization in poultry but with limited success. The following experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of biodegradable and biocompatible poly (lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticle (NP) encapsulated outer membrane proteins (OMP) of C. jejuni. Chickens were vaccinated with different routes [subcutaneous (s/c) or oral] and doses (25, 125, or 250 µg) of candidate nanoparticle vaccine with appropriate control groups. Serum and cloacal fecal samples were taken at regular intervals of time, and the birds were euthanized 7 d postchallenge with C. jejuni. The results were interpreted based on anti-OMP immunoglobulin response in chicken and intestinal colonization of C. jejuni. The C. jejuni colonization in cecal and cloacal contents at 7 d postchallenge was below the detection limit in the s/c vaccinated groups, but the other groups demonstrated varying degrees of colonization. The serum IgA was higher in the group vaccinated s/c with OMP only compared with the rest of the groups. The serum- and fecal-IgY titers were consistently higher in the s/c vaccinated groups (with or without NP) than the rest of the groups. Elevated levels of OMP specific serum antibodies correlated with below the limit of detection levels of Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens receiving 125 ?g of OMP alone and the OMP+NP vaccine s/c. In conclusion, the s/c route of vaccination with or without NP encapsulated OMP of C. jejuni may serve as a candidate vaccine for control of C. jejuni colonization in chickens. PMID:23873570
Annamalai, T; Pina-Mimbela, R; Kumar, A; Binjawadagi, B; Liu, Z; Renukaradhya, G J; Rajashekara, G
In 1997, 2002 and 2003 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was diagnosed on chicken farms in Hong Kong. Following the February-April 2002 outbreak, vaccination using a killed oil-adjuvanted H5N2 avian influenza vaccine was evaluated as an additional control measure on 22 farms within a 2-km radius of the four farms that were depopulated following infection with HPAI H5N1 virus. Vaccination
T. M. Ellis; L. D. Sims; H. K. H. Wong; L. A. Bissett; K. C. Dyrting
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes economically important immunosuppressive disease in young chickens. The self-assembling capsid protein (VP2) from IBDV strain IR01 was expressed in Pichia pastoris resulting in the formation of homomeric, 23-nm infectious bursal disease subviral particles (IBD-SVPs) with a yield of 76 mg/l before and 38 mg/l after purification. Anti-IBDV antibodies were detected in chickens injected with purified IBD-SVPs or fed with either purified IBD-SVPs or inactivated P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 (cell-encapsulated). Challenge studies using the heterologous classical IBDV strain (MB3) showed that intramuscular vaccination with 20 µg purified IBD-SVPs conferred full protection, achieved complete virus clearance and prevented bursal damage and atrophy, compared with only 40% protection, 0-10% virus clearance accompanied by severe atrophy and substantial bursal damage in mock-vaccinated and challenge controls. The commercial IBDV vaccine also conferred full protection and achieved complete virus clearance, albeit with partial bursal atrophy. Oral administration of 500 µg purified IBD-SVPs with and without adjuvant conferred 100% protection but achieved only 60% virus clearance with adjuvant and none without it. Moderate bursal damage was observed in both cases but the inclusion of adjuvant resulted in bursal atrophy similar to that observed with live-attenuated vaccine and parenteral administration of 20 µg purified IBD-SVPs. The oral administration of 250 mg P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 resulted in 100% protection with adjuvant and 60% without, accompanied by moderate bursal damage and atrophy in both groups, whereas 25 mg P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 resulted in 90-100% protection with moderate bursal lesions and severe atrophy. Finally, the oral delivery of 50 µg purified IBD-SVPs achieved 40-60% protection with severe bursal lesions and atrophy. Both oral and parenteral administration of yeast-derived IBD-VP2 can therefore induce a specific and protective immune response against IBDV without affecting the growth rate of chickens. PMID:24376665
Taghavian, Omid; Spiegel, Holger; Hauck, Rüdiger; Hafez, Hafez M; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes economically important immunosuppressive disease in young chickens. The self-assembling capsid protein (VP2) from IBDV strain IR01 was expressed in Pichia pastoris resulting in the formation of homomeric, 23-nm infectious bursal disease subviral particles (IBD-SVPs) with a yield of 76 mg/l before and 38 mg/l after purification. Anti-IBDV antibodies were detected in chickens injected with purified IBD-SVPs or fed with either purified IBD-SVPs or inactivated P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 (cell-encapsulated). Challenge studies using the heterologous classical IBDV strain (MB3) showed that intramuscular vaccination with 20 µg purified IBD-SVPs conferred full protection, achieved complete virus clearance and prevented bursal damage and atrophy, compared with only 40% protection, 0–10% virus clearance accompanied by severe atrophy and substantial bursal damage in mock-vaccinated and challenge controls. The commercial IBDV vaccine also conferred full protection and achieved complete virus clearance, albeit with partial bursal atrophy. Oral administration of 500 µg purified IBD-SVPs with and without adjuvant conferred 100% protection but achieved only 60% virus clearance with adjuvant and none without it. Moderate bursal damage was observed in both cases but the inclusion of adjuvant resulted in bursal atrophy similar to that observed with live-attenuated vaccine and parenteral administration of 20 µg purified IBD-SVPs. The oral administration of 250 mg P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 resulted in 100% protection with adjuvant and 60% without, accompanied by moderate bursal damage and atrophy in both groups, whereas 25 mg P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 resulted in 90–100% protection with moderate bursal lesions and severe atrophy. Finally, the oral delivery of 50 µg purified IBD-SVPs achieved 40–60% protection with severe bursal lesions and atrophy. Both oral and parenteral administration of yeast-derived IBD-VP2 can therefore induce a specific and protective immune response against IBDV without affecting the growth rate of chickens.
Taghavian, Omid; Spiegel, Holger; Hauck, Rudiger; Hafez, Hafez M.; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan
Infection of poultry with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium poses a significant risk to public health through contamination of meat from infected animals. Vaccination has been proposed to control infections in chickens. However, the vaccines are currently largely empirical, and our understanding of the mechanisms that underpin immune clearance and protection in avian salmonellosis is not complete. In this study we
G. S. K. Withanage; Paul Wigley; Pete Kaiser; Pietro Mastroeni; Heather Brooks; Claire Powers; Richard Beal; Paul Barrow; Duncan Maskell; Ian McConnell
Emerging pathogenic viruses, such as avian influenza (AI), represent a serious threat to the poultry industry and human health. The development of novel therapeutics to protect against these viruses is critical and necessitates understanding the host immune mechanisms to find new pathways for protection against virus infection. Interferon (IFN) is a major antiviral arm of the immune system and is generally the first line of defence against virus. The multiple genes orchestrated by IFN upregulation are not well characterised in chickens due to a lack of reagents and research efforts. Here we have identified chicken ZAP (chZAP), an IFN stimulated gene (ISG), that has antiviral properties in human models, and show that chZAP is upregulated in response to PAMPs. Moreover, we show that chZAP is upregulated in vivo following particular viral infections. This data will benefit further studies that aim to understand antiviral response pathways in the chicken. PMID:24877657
Goossens, Kate E; Karpala, Adam J; Ward, Alistair; Bean, Andrew G D
Human papillomavirus causes viral-dependent cancers, including cervical, anal, vulvar, penile, vaginal, and oropharyngeal, and condyloma acuminata. In the last decade, HPV prophylactic vaccine has been developed and spread worldwide after many large-scale clinical studies. These studies demonstrate significant clinical efficacy for prevention of HPV16/18/6/11-related diseases. In particular, prevention of cervical cancer should be the most important role in the world. In Japan, incidence of cervical cancer does not increase, but the peak of age of the patients at 2005 is 25-45 years old and became 20 years younger than that at 1985. The current two HPV vaccines can prevent the infection of HPV16/18 among high-risk HPVs and will provide a significant impact especially on young-age onset cervical cancer. Furthermore, quadrivalent HPV vaccine, Gardasil, has shown population impact that is decrease of patients with condyloma acuminate in several countries. The clinical efficacy seems to be convincing. Here HPV vaccine will be reviewed based on the literatures. PMID:23189827
A limited outbreak of nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis (NIB) occurred in three Delmarva (DMV) commercial broiler chicken flocks in 2011. Isolates of NIB virus (NIBV)--DMV/1639/11, DMV/3432/11, and DMV/3902/11--were characterized by sequence analysis of the N-terminal subunit (S1) of the spike (S) gene. Findings indicated that the isolates were identical to each other and to PA/9579A/10, a 2010 isolate from poultry in Pennsylvania. The 2010 and 2011 isolates appear to have originated from a 1997-2000 NIB outbreak in Pennsylvania. DMV/1639/11 and PA/9579A/10 were determined to be nephropathogenic in susceptible chickens, yielding virus reisolations from kidney and inducing characteristic interstitial nephritis microscopic lesions. In a controlled laboratory study, 40% of chickens vaccinated with a combination live vaccine containing infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains Massachusetts (Mass) + Connecticut (Conn) were positive on virus isolation attempts after challenge with DMV/1639/11, compared with only 13% of Mass + Arkansas (Ark) vaccinates. Both combination vaccines gave partial protection against the development of DMV/1639/11-induced renal lesions. Although numerically fewer chickens vaccinated with Mass + Conn had interstitial nephritis compared with those vaccinated with Mass + Ark, neither vaccine combination offered greater protection (P < 0.05) than observed in unvaccinated chickens challenged with DMV/1639/11. Mass + Ark vaccinations, applied under commercial conditions in the hatchery (spray) and on-farm (spray), did not protect the trachea or kidney from DMV/1639/11 challenge. Serologic testing of broiler flocks found < 3% (2 of 69) tested to possess specific antibodies to DMV/1639/11, indicating the virus had not become established in the region. PMID:23678731
Gelb, Jack; Ladman, Brian S; Pope, Conrad R; Ruano, J Miguel; Brannick, Erin M; Bautista, Daniel A; Coughlin, Colleen M; Preskenis, Lauren A
We examined the effects of vitamin E (VE) and Arg on the subpopulations of T lymphocytes in pe- ripheral blood after an infectious bursal disease virus vaccination (20 d old, n = 54). Broiler chickens were fed diets with normal levels of Arg (NARG, 1.2%) or high levels of Arg (HARG, 2.2%) and 3 levels of VE (40, 80, or
S. T. Abdukalykova; X. Zhao; C. A. Ruiz-Feria
Necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens is caused by Clostridium perfringens. Currently, no vaccine against NE is available and immunity to NE is not well characterized. Our previous studies showed that immunity to NE followed oral infection by virulent rather than avirulent C. perfringens strains and identified immunogenic secreted proteins apparently uniquely produced by virulent C. perfringens isolates. These proteins
R. R. Kulkarni; V. R. Parreira; S. Sharif; J. F. Prescott
Abstract Background In June 2006, the first vaccine to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission was approved for use in females in the United States. Because the vaccine was approved for females as young as 9, its success depends on parents' and individuals' willingness to accept vaccination. Little is known about how attitudes toward this vaccine will be influenced by the way the vaccine is portrayed in the media or in public debate. Methods To assess the effects of information framing on intentions to vaccinate self or female children, if appropriate, 635 adults read one of three short descriptive paragraphs about the vaccine, each of which emphasized a different aspect of the vaccine. Participants were then asked about their intentions to vaccinate under cost or no-cost conditions. Results Women who read that the vaccine protects only against cervical cancer had significantly higher intentions to vaccinate themselves when the vaccine was available at little or no cost compared with women who read alternate versions of the descriptive paragraph, F(2,325)?=?5.74, p?=?0.004. Conclusions How the HPV vaccine is framed may affect vaccination intentions under certain conditions. Women may be more receptive to the vaccine if it is framed as a cervical cancer prevention tool rather than a sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention tool.
Weiner, Judith L.; Kelly, Bridget J.; Hornik, Robert C.; Cappella, Joseph N.
The efficacy of experimental inactivated infectious coryza vaccines produced by a commercial vaccine manufacturer was evaluated. The vaccines, containing as the adjuvant phase either a double-emulsion mineral oil system or aluminum-hydroxide gel, were administered to 6-week-old chickens as a single dose. Some vaccines were a monovalent product containing a Page serovar C Haemophilus paragallinarum strain, and others were a bivalent product containing both Page serovar A and serovar C strains. After 3 weeks, all chickens were challenged by infraorbital sinus inoculation of virulent H. paragallinarum, either Page serovar C (strain HP31) or Page serovar A (strain HP14). The monovalent serovar C double-emulsion-based vaccines gave significant protection against a serovar C challenge, with the level of protection varying from 60% to 100%. The monovalent serovar C aluminum-hydroxide-gel vaccine also gave significant protection (94%) against a serovar C challenge. The bivalent double-emulsion vaccine gave significant protection against challenge from both serovars (100% for serovar C and 83% for serovar A). Although no major adverse reactions were detected, some chickens receiving both the double-emulsion vaccines and the aluminum-hydroxide vaccine developed relatively minor granulomatous reactions at the site of injection. PMID:1417593
Blackall, P J; Eaves, L E; Rogers, D G; Firth, G
The threat of new disease pandemics has spurred the development of biologic vaccines, which promise tremendous improvements in global and local health. Several lend themselves to the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. But the uncertainties of whom to vaccinate raise the question of whether the health care system can make these promising products viable.
ADAMS, KATHERINE T.
Schistosomiasis is a major neglected tropical disease of public health importance to a billion people. An estimated 200 million people are currently infected; an additional 779 million individuals are at risk to acquire the infection in 74 countries. Despite many years of implementation of mass anti-parasitic drug therapy programs and other control measures, this disease has not been contained and continues to spread to new geographic areas. The discovery of a protective vaccine still remains the most potentially effective means for the control of this disease, especially if the vaccine provides long-term immunity against the infection. A vaccine would contribute to the reduction of schistosomiasis morbidity through induced immune responses leading to decrease in parasite load and reduced egg production. This vaccine could be administered to children between the ages of 3 and 12 years to prevent severe infection in a particularly high risk population. This review summarizes the current status of schistosomiasis vaccine development.
Siddiqui, Bilal A.; Ganley-Leal, Lisa
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes highly contagious, immunosuppressive disease that leads to high mortality in young chickens. The purpose of this study was to look for the genetic regulation of the immune acute immune response to IBDV in our selected lines. Chicks of a F2 generation of two lines divergently selected for early high (HH) or low (LL) antibody (Ab) response to Escherichia coLi vaccination were challenged with virulent IBDV. Viral load in infected bursae was used to determine resistant (R) and susceptible (S) birds. By using a 13K chicken cDNA microarray, and pooled spleen mRNA of R, S and non-challenged, control (C) chicks, several genes were identified with differential expression associated with host resistance to IBDV. These genes were also subjected to RT-PCR on individual samples to verify the results obtained from microarrays. The major finding was the co-upregulation of seven genes--ETS2, H963, RGS1, ABIN-2, CREM/ICER, DUSP1 and CXCR4- in several R, but not S or C individuals, and characterized by a high correlation of expression levels. Resistance also generally coincided with reduced transcript levels of acute-phase serum amyloid A (A-SAA) and increased levels of IL-8. Based on reported functions of these genes, these findings suggest that resistance was mediated by the activation of specific cellular mechanisms, indicated by increased activity of splenic macrophages and T-lymphocytes 3 days post-challenge. PMID:18817297
Koren, E; Zhou, H; Cahaner, A; Heller, E D; Pitcovski, J; Lamont, S J
Learners read or listen to the book "Chickens Arenât the Only Ones" to discover multiple animals whose babies hatch from eggs. In a developmentally appropriate activity, learners build clay models of hatchlings and explore characteristics of different animals. Includes extensions for suggested further study.
Houston, Children'S M.
Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection results in numerous clinical signs including a reduction in egg production in laying chickens. Attempts to prevent mycoplasmosis have included vaccination with both killed and attenuated live M. gallisepticum strains. Live vaccines provide reduction in clinical signs and have been shown to replace indigenous strains when used in a consistent program for several placements. Antibiotic therapy is another option for controlling losses associated with mycoplasmosis. Therapeutic antibiotics with activity against mycoplasma approved for use in poultry include tetracyclines and tylosin. These drugs also are approved for feed efficiency when administered in the feed at levels below the therapeutic index for mycoplasma. The data presented here suggest that birds vaccinated with the live 6/85 strain of M. gallisepticum and then fed tylosin, at the approved level for feed efficiency, exhibit a serologic vaccine response similar to that of unmedicated birds but show improved feed efficiency. PMID:11922337
Evans, Robert D; Trites, James D; Cochrane, Robert L
We investigated embryo tissues targeted by replication competent adenovirus (Ad)-free recombinant Ad expressing a codon-optimized avian influenza (AI) H5 gene from A/turkey/WI/68 (AdH5) when injected into 18-day embryonated eggs. We also evaluated the effects of concurrent in ovo vaccination with the experimental AdH5 vaccine and commercially available Marek's disease virus (MDV) vaccine combinations Rispens/turkey herpesvirus (HVT) or HVT/SB-1. Computed tomography indicates that in ovo injection on day 18 of incubation places the solution in the amnion cavity, allantoic cavity, or both. Ad DNA was consistently detected in the chorioallantoic membranes as well as in the embryonic bursa of Fabricius, esophagus, and thymus 3 days postinoculation. H5 expression in these tissues also was detected by immunofluorescence assay. These results indicate possible swallowing of vaccine virus contained in the amnion. In contrast, vaccine localization in the allantoic fluid would have allowed bursal exposure through the cloaca. When the AdH5 vaccine was used in combination with MDV, chickens responding to the AdH5 vaccine had similar AI antibody levels compared with AdH5-only-vaccinated birds. However, combined vaccinated groups showed reduced vaccine coverage to AI, suggesting some level of interference. The combination of AdH5 with MDV Rispens/HVT affected the vaccine coverage to AI more severely. This result suggests that the replication rate of the more aggressive Rispens strain of serotype 1 may have interfered with the Ad-vectored vaccine. Increasing the Ad concentration produced similar AI antibody titers and AI vaccine coverage when applied alone or in combination with the HVT/SB-1 vaccine. Ad DNA was detected in hatched chickens 2 days after hatch but was undetectable on day 9 after hatch. MDV DNA was detected in feather follicles of all vaccinated birds at 12 days of age. Thus, Ad-vector vaccination does not interfere with the efficacy of MDV vaccination by using any of the commonly used vaccine strains. PMID:22312988
Breedlove, C; Minc, J K; Tang, D C; van Santen, V L; van Ginkel, F W; Toro, H
The effect of attenuated Histomonas meleagridis on pullets was investigated and the protection of vaccinated adult laying hens against a severe challenge was studied in the same experimental setting. Four groups of 25 pullets were set up at 18 weeks of life and birds in two groups were vaccinated with in vitro-attenuated H. meleagridis. Chickens in two groups (vaccinated and non-vaccinated) were challenged 5 weeks later with virulent histomonads, while the remaining groups were retained until termination of the study 11 weeks post vaccination. Vaccination of pullets did not have any impact on their subsequent performance. Egg production of non-vaccinated but challenged birds dropped significantly (P ? 0.05) between 2 and 4 weeks post challenge (p.c.) to 58.7%, compared with 90% in control chickens. At 4 weeks p.c., the drop in egg production in vaccinated and challenged birds was significantly lower (P=0.02) than in non-protected layers. Pathological changes were found only in challenged birds 2 and 6 weeks p.c. Several non-vaccinated birds showed severe lesions in the caeca with sporadic involvement of the liver and atrophy of the reproductive tract. Vaccination prior to challenge reduced the incidence of pathological findings. For the first time, vaccination of pullets with in vitro-attenuated histomonads could be shown to be an effective and safe prophylactic tool to prevent a severe drop in egg production of commercial layers following experimental infection. PMID:23391185
Liebhart, D; Sulejmanovic, T; Grafl, B; Tichy, A; Hess, M
Cancer vaccines have been extensively tested in animal models, and in humans. Initial studies focused on first generation vaccines based on whole cell preparations or tumor lysates derived from autologous or allogeneic tumors. Clinical studies conducted with such candidate vaccines contributed to establish the feasibility of immunizing cancer patients against their own tumors. Significant clinical benefits were observed, both in terms of long term survival and recurrence rate, in some of these trials. More recently, however, cancer vaccines targeting well-characterized tumor-associated antigens, i.e. molecules selectively or preferentially expressed by cancer cells but not by normal cells, have been designed and tested in humans. Results obtained as of today with these second-generation vaccines suggest that they are safe and that they can elicit humoral and cellular responses against tumor-specific antigens, without inducing unacceptable clinical signs of autoimmunity. Advances in tumor biology and tumor immunity have helped to better understand the mechanisms displayed by a number of tumors to escape host immunity. This bulk of new knowledge will be used to design future cancer vaccines, which will likely target multiple TAAs, presented by different antigen presentation platforms, in association with synthetic adjuvants and/or immunostimulatory cytokines. Lastly, specific tools allowing to assess in a qualitative and quantitative manner immune responses are critically needed in order to establish correlates between clinical and immune responses in patients receiving experimental vaccines. PMID:11163653
In vitro and in vivo assays have been used for the detection of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) in live virus vaccines of poultry. The presence of REV is confirmed by the demonstration of viral antigen or provirus in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) or in specific-pathogen-free chickens inoculated with vaccine. Using REV polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies, CEFs inoculated with vaccines can be examined for REV by immunofluorescence or immunoperoxidase staining methods. Cell lysates from such inoculated CEFs can also be used for detection of REV major group-specific antigen (p30) by an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Detection of proviral DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays that amplifies the 291 base pairs product of REV LTR has been shown to be a sensitive and specific method for detection of various strains of REV in infected CEFs and in the blood of SPF chickens inoculated with contaminated fowlpox virus (FPV) vaccines. Recently, using PCR tests that amplify REV envelope and REV 3' LTR sequences provided a more accurate assessment of the insertion of REV provirus in FPV than PCR assays that amplify the REV 5' LTR. This paper reviews the most common methods used for testing live virus vaccines of poultry for contamination with REV. PMID:17058506
Fadly, A; Garcia, M C
The objective of this study was to determine the decay rate of maternal antibodies against major broiler chicken pathogens. A total of 30 one-day-old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and reared in isolation. These chicks were retrieved from a parent flock that received a routine vaccination program. Chicks were bled at hatch and sequentially thereafter every 5 d through 30 d of age. Maternal antibody titers were measured by ELISA for avian encephalomyelitis (AEV), avian influenza virus (AIV), chicken anemia virus (CAV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), and reovirus (Reo). Maternal antibody titers for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were measured using a hemagglutination inhibition test. Half-life estimates of maternal antibody titers were 5.3, 4.2, 7, 5.1, 3.9, 3.8, 4.9, 4.1, 6.3, and 4.7 d for AEV, AIV, CAV, IBDV, IBV, ILTV, MG, MS, NDV, and Reo, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences among half-lives of maternal antibody titers against certain pathogens. Furthermore, all maternal antibody titers were depleted by 10 d of age except for IBDV. PMID:23960115
Gharaibeh, Saad; Mahmoud, Kamel
Live attenuated pandemic influenza vaccine: Clinical studies on A\\/17\\/California\\/2009\\/38 (H1N1) and licensing of the Russian-developed technology to WHO for pandemic influenza preparedness in developing countries
In February 2009, Nobilon granted the World Health Organization (WHO) a non-exclusive licence to develop, register, manufacture, use and sell seasonal a pandemic live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) produced on embryonated chicken eggs. WHO was permitted to grant sub-licences to vaccine manufacturers in developing countries within the framework of its influenza vaccine technology transfer initiative. In parallel, the Institute of
Larisa Rudenko; Han van den Bosch; Irina Kiseleva; Alexander Mironov; Anatoly Naikhin; Natalie Larionova; Dimitry Bushmenkov
Evaluation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to study the specific humoral immune response of Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) and domestic geese (Anser anser var. domestica) after vaccination against Newcastle disease virus
In this study, an indirect Newcastle disease virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for waterfowl was evaluated concerning its efficiency and its suitability to monitor the antibody response in Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) and domestic geese (Anser anser var. domestica) following vaccination with a commercial inactivated NDV vaccine for chickens. Three weeks after vaccination seroconversion was already evident in the ELISA.
Rafaela Häuslaigner; Jana Sonnenburg; Sonja Kothlow; Bernd Kaspers; Christoph Staubach; Christian Grund
Infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the important viral diseases of chickens, and in spite of regular vaccination, IB is a continuous problem in Canadian poultry operations. In an earlier study using sentinel chickens we determined the incidence of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in Ontario commercial layer flocks. The objective of this study was to determine the pathogenicity of 5 nonvaccine-related IBV isolates recovered from the sentinel birds. The clinical signs, gross, and histological lesions in specific pathogen-free chickens indicated that all 5 isolates caused mild lesions in the respiratory tract. An important finding of this study was the significantly lower average daily weight gain among virus-inoculated groups of chickens during the acute phase of infection. Based on sequences of part of the S1 gene IBV-ON2, IBV-ON3, and IBV-ON5 formed a cluster and they were closely related to strain CU-82792. IBV-ON4 had 98.7% identity with the strain PA/1220/9, a nephropathogenic variant.
Grgiae, Helena; Hunter, D. Bruce; Hunton, Peter; Nagy, Eva
The pathogenicity of two strains (B4 and C2) of Eimeria mitis was studied using young broiler chickens. Both strains of coccidia were pathogenic, and C2 strain was more virulent than B4. Growth of the broilers was depressed as early as day 3 postinoculation (PI), but the depression was greatest during days 5 and 6 PI. Feed conversion and shank skin pigment of the young broiler chickens were concomitantly affected by infections of E. mitis. Infection subsided by day 7 or 8 PI and was accompanied by a compensatory growth. The drugs effective against the infections were halofuginone, lasalocid, monensin, and nicarbazin. The least efficacious were zoalene and amprolium plus ethopabate. PMID:1567309
Fitz-Coy, S H; Edgar, S A
\\u000a Cancer vaccines offer the unique opportunity to provide specific and direct antitumor recognition and killing by recruiting\\u000a both T- and B-cell arms of the immune system while avoiding nonspecific toxicities. Because of this exquisite sensitivity\\u000a and specificity, cancer vaccines in theory could also be safely integrated with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Thus,\\u000a the major advantage of immune-based therapies lies in
DNA vaccines use eukaryotic expression vectors to produce immunizing proteins in the vaccinated host. Popular methods of delivery are intramuscular and intradermal saline injections of DNA and gene gun bombardment of skin with DNA-coated gold beads. The method of DNA inoculation (gene gun versus intramuscular injection) and the form of the DNA-expressed antigen (cell-associated versus secreted) determine whether T-cell help
Harriet L. Robinson; Celia Aurora Tiglao Torres
... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Print this page Share this page ... About the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Vaccine Adverse Events The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System ( ...
After an extensive worldwide eradication program, the last nonlaboratory case of smallpox occurred in 1977 in Somalia. In 1972, routine smallpox immunization was discontinued in the United States, and since 1983, vaccine production has been halted. Stockpiled vaccine has been used only for laboratory researchers working on orthopoxviruses. In recent years, there has been concern that smallpox virus stocks may be in the hands of bioterrorists, and this concern has been heightened by the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001. Because most of the population is considered to be nonimmune, there is debate as to whether smallpox immunization should be resumed. This statement reviews the current status of smallpox vaccine, the adverse effects that were associated with smallpox vaccine in the past, and the major proposals for vaccine use. The statement provides the rationale for a policy based on the so-called ring vaccination strategy recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in which cases of smallpox are rapidly identified, infected individuals are isolated, and contacts of the infected individuals as well as their contacts are immunized immediately. PMID:12359807
Newcastle disease (ND) is a major threat to poultry, but the outbreak of the disease is well controlled by the vaccination. Recently, in ovo administration technology has been realized as a safe, efficacious, and convenient method for chicken vaccination. However, no in ovo administration has been applied for ND or other live vaccines that are highly pathogenic against chicken embryos. We found that an attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was applicable for an in ovo vaccination by adsorbing the virus to aluminum hydroxide (AH). Pathogenicity to chicken embryos of the AH-adsorbed NDV could be decreased compared with the administration of the virus alone. Namely, in ovo administration of the AH-adsorbed attenuated NDV resulted in improved hatchability and survival rate and better antibody responses of protection-level immunity compared with the administration of NDV alone. However, further improvements in hatchability and survival rate are necessary for practical application. From these results, in ovo vaccination with the AH-adsorbed attenuated NDV was revealed to be safe and immunogenic to chicken embryos. The use of AH-adsorbed attenuated live viruses might be applicable for in ovo vaccinations against not only ND but also other avian infectious diseases. PMID:19848078
Ohta, Hideyuki; Ezoe, Shinsuke; Yamazaki, Kenichi; Kawai, Toru; Honda, Takashi
Vaccination is the principal means to reduce the impact of influenza infection. Effective vaccination programs require a reliable and safe production system. Traditionally, influenza vaccines are produced in embryonated chicken eggs. Over the last two decades, new cell culture-derived vaccines have been licensed and manufactured, and other vaccines are still in various phases of development. Vero cells have been used for the development of a wide variety of vaccines including influenza vaccines. Pandemic and avian influenza vaccines derived from Vero cells have been shown to be well tolerated and immunogenic in animal and Phase I-II clinical studies. A Phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a trivalent influenza vaccine produced in Vero-cell culture was conducted in 7250 adults aged 18-49 years. Overall protective efficacy for antigenically matched influenza vaccine was 78.5%. The vaccine was well tolerated with no treatment-related serious adverse events and compared favorably with egg-derived vaccines from previous trials. Vero-cell-derived influenza vaccines have the potential to be an important parts of the influenza vaccine strategy, especially if an avian-derived strain becomes predominant or the demand outstrips the capacity of egg-based production systems. PMID:22913252
Chan, Candice Yuen-Yue; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah
The effect of a live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine on the horizontal transmission of this Mycoplasma species was quantified in an experimental animal transmission model in specific pathogen free White Layers. Two identical trials were performed, each consisting of two experimental groups and one control group. The experimental groups each consisted of 20 birds 21 weeks of age, which were housed following a pair-wise design. One group was vaccinated twice with a commercially available live attenuated M. gallisepticum vaccine, while the other group was not vaccinated. Each pair of the experimental group consisted of a challenged chicken (10(4) colony-forming units intratracheally) and a susceptible in-contact bird. The control group consisted of 10 twice-vaccinated birds housed in pairs and five individually housed non-vaccinated birds. The infection was monitored by serology, culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The vaccine strain and the challenge strain were distinguished by a specific polymerase chain reaction and by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. In both experiments, all non-vaccinated challenged chickens and their in-contact 'partners' became infected with M. gallisepticum. In the vaccinated challenged and corresponding in-contact birds, a total of 19 and 13 chickens, respectively, became infected with M. gallisepticum. Analysis of the M. gallisepticum shedding patterns showed a significant effect of vaccination on the shedding levels of the vaccinated in-contact chickens. Moreover, the Cox Proportional Hazard analysis indicated that the rate of M. gallisepticum transmission from challenged to in-contact birds in the vaccinated group was 0.356 times that of the non-vaccinated group. In addition, the overall estimate of R (the average number of secondary cases infected by one typical infectious case) of the vaccinated group (R = 4.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.6 to 49.9) was significantly lower than that of the non-vaccinated group (R = infinity, 95% confidence interval = 9.9 to infinity). However, the overall estimate of R in the vaccinated group still exceeded 1, which indicates that the effect of the vaccination on the horizontal transmission M. gallisepticum is insufficient to stop its spread under these experimental conditions. PMID:16990145
Feberwee, A; Landman, W J M; von Banniseht-Wysmuller, Th; Klinkenberg, D; Vernooij, J C M; Gielkens, A L J; Stegeman, J A
Rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) are the two most important causes of viral gastroenteritis. While vaccine remains an effective prophylactic strategy, development of other approaches, such as passive immunization to control and treat clinical infection and illness of these two pathogens, is necessary. Previously we demonstrated that high titers of NoV-specific IgY were readily developed by immunization of chickens with the NoV P particles. In this study, we developed a dual IgY against both RV and NoV through immunization of chickens with a divalent vaccine comprising neutralizing antigens of both RV and NoV. This divalent vaccine, named P-VP8(?) particle, is made of the NoV P particle as a carrier with the RV spike protein VP8(?) as a surface insertion. Approximately 45mg of IgY were readily obtained from each yolk with high titers of anti-P particle and anti-VP8(?) antibodies detected by ELISA, Western blot, HBGA blocking (NoV and RV) and neutralization (RV) assays. Reductions of RV replication were observed with viruses treated with the IgY before and after inoculation into cells, suggesting an application of the IgY as both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment. Collectively, our data suggested that the P-VP8(?) based IgY could serve as a practical approach against both NoV and RV. PMID:23267830
Dai, Ying-Chun; Zhang, Xu-Fu; Tan, Ming; Huang, Pengwei; Lei, Wen; Fang, Hao; Zhong, Weiming; Jiang, Xi
The strategy of prenatal maternal immunization to protect the pregnant woman and her infant was first used with tetanus toxoid, when it was recognized that young infants had very high rates of tetanus disease, well before the age when infant immunizations are provided. Antenatal immunization has now been recommended and utilized for additional vaccines to prevent infections in pregnancy and the young infant. There are several issues to consider which are unique to the strategy of antenatal immunization. The first is that immunization of the pregnant woman will affect the woman who receives the vaccine, her developing fetus, and the young infant for several months after delivery. For this discussion, we will consider the availability of data for the maternal-fetal-infant triad in 4 aspects: This discussion will review available data from vaccines for prevention of tetanus, pneumococcal, influenza and pertussis infections used in antenatal maternal immunization programs. PMID:23973343
Steinhoff, Mark C
Rabies prevention in travelers is a controversial issue. According to experts, the decision to vaccinate results from an individual risk assessment based on the duration of stay, the likelihood of engagement in at-risk activities, the age of the traveler, the rabies endemicity and access to appropriate medical care in the country of destination. However, no detailed information is available regarding the last two determinants in many regions. Twenty-two cases of rabies were reported in tourists, expatriates and migrant travelers over the last decade, including three cases following short-term travel of no more than two weeks. Studies on rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in travelers show that overall, 0.4% (range 0.01-2.3%) of travelers have experienced an at-risk bite per month of stay in a rabies-endemic country, while 31% of expatriates and 12% of tourists were vaccinated against rabies before traveling. The main reason cited by travelers for not being vaccinated is the cost of the vaccine. The majority of patients who sustained a high risk injury was not vaccinated against rabies before traveling and were not properly treated abroad. From available studies, the following risk factors for injuries sustained from potentially rabid animals may be identified: traveling to South-East Asia, India or North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism. The duration of travel does not appear to be a risk factor. It should be noted that "at-risk activities" have not been addressed in these studies. Detailed rabies distribution maps and information on the availability of rabies biologics are urgently needed in order to identify those travelers who need pre-travel vaccination. Meanwhile, cost-minimization of rabies pre-exposure vaccination may be achieved in several ways, notably by using the intra-dermal method of vaccination. PMID:22085557
Gautret, Philippe; Parola, Philippe
Observed developmental changes in a UCR to acoustic stimulation in young Hubbard?×?Hubbard chickens. Specifically, durations of distress call (peep) suppression were measured after the onsets of tones that differed in intensity and frequency in 384 newly hatched and 4-day-old chicks. Resuppression was also measured after a 6% change in the frequency of these tones, once Ss had habituated to the
Lincoln Gray; Edwin W. Rubel
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a striking disease in susceptible poultry, which leads to severe economic losses. Inactivated vaccines are the most widely used vaccines in avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccination programs. However, these vaccines interfere with the serological detection of wild-type AIV infections in immunized populations. The use of vaccines that allow differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA strategy) would stop current stamping-out policies. Therefore, novel vaccination strategies are needed to allow improved protection of animals and humans against HPAI virus (HPAIV) infection. The presented study analyzed for the first time the immunogenic capacity of plant-expressed full-length hemagglutinin (rHA0) of HPAIV H5N1 in several vaccine formulations within the highly relevant host species chicken. We were able to express plant-expressed rHA0 at high levels and could show that, when administered with potent adjuvants, it is highly immunogenic and can fully protect chicken against lethal challenge infection. Real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and serological tests demonstrated only marginally increased virus replication in animals vaccinated with plant-derived rHA0 compared to animals immunized with an inactivated reference vaccine. In addition, the use of plant-expressed rHA0 also allowed an easy serological differentiation of vaccinated from AIV-infected animals based on antibodies against the influenza virus NP protein.
Kalthoff, Donata; Giritch, Anatoli; Geisler, Katharina; Bettmann, Ulrike; Klimyuk, Victor; Hehnen, Hans-Robert; Gleba, Yuri; Beer, Martin
Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) is a recently described species of bacterium associated with respiratory disease, growth retardation, mortality, and decreased egg production in chickens and turkeys. Pneumonia, pleuritis, and airsacculitis characterise the infection. ORT has been isolated in many countries but it is still considered exotic in Brazil. Up to date it is prohibited to import and produce reagents for diagnostic and vaccination control. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the bacteria in chickens. Four isolates were obtained from tracheal swabs of broilers. They were isolated in blood agar with gentamicin and showed biochemical, morphological, antigenic and genetic characteristics of ORT. The results confirm that ORT is present in Brazil. PMID:15766941
Canal, C W; Leão, J A; Rocha, S L S; Macagnan, M; Lima-Rosa, C A V; Oliveira, S D; Back, A
The ability of Vibrio cholerae to persist in bodies of water will continue to confound our ability to eradicate cholera through improvements to infrastructure, and thus cholera vaccines are needed. We aim for an inexpensive vaccine that can provide long-lasting protection from all epidemic cholera infections, currently caused by O1 or O139 serogroups. Recent insights into correlates of protection, epidemiology and pathogenesis may help us design improved vaccines. This notwithstanding, we have come to appreciate that even marginally protective vaccines, such as oral whole-cell killed vaccines, if widely distributed, can provide significant protection, owing to herd immunity. Further efforts are still required to provide more effective protection of young children.
Bishop, Anne L; Camilli, Andrew
Successful vaccination of the elderly against important infectious pathogens which cause high morbidity and mortality represents a growing public health priority. Building upon the theme of aging and immunosenescence, we review mechanisms of human immunosenescence and the immune response to currently-licensed vaccines. We discuss the difficulties in identifying the risk factors that, in addition to aging, cause immunosenescence and address the relative paucity of vaccine studies in the elderly. We conclude that vaccine responses are blunted in the elderly when compared to that of healthy young adults. However, it is also clear that our understanding of the mechanisms underlying immunosenescence is limited and much remains to be learned in order to improve the effectiveness of next generation vaccines.
Chen, Wilbur H.; Kozlovsky, Bernard F.; Effros, Rita B.; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Edelman, Robert; Sztein, Marcelo B.
Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes acute respiratory disease in poultry. Live attenuated ILTV vaccines have been used extensively to help control outbreaks of disease. Two Australian-origin attenuated vaccine strains, SA2 and A20 ILTV, are commercially available and are in frequent use in Australia. Both these vaccines are of chicken embryo origin (CEO). The A20 ILTV strain
Sang-Won Lee; Joanne M. Devlin; John F. Markham; Amir H. Noormohammadi; Glenn F. Browning; Nino P. Ficorilli; Carol A. Hartley; Philip F. Markham
Recombinant fowlpox viruses (rFPV) expressing the fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoproteins of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) as well as chicken type I interferon (IFN) or type II IFN were used to vaccinate specific pathogen-free (SPF) turkeys in ovo. No significant changes in the hatchability, survival rate, performance and weight gain were observed after vaccination with the rFPV vaccines in comparison to
Silke Rautenschlein; Jagdev M Sharma; Barbara J Winslow; Janis McMillen; David Junker; Mark Cochran
The AcmA binding domains of Lactococcus lactis were used to display the VP1 protein of chicken anemia virus (CAV) on Lactobacillus acidophilus. One and two repeats of the cell wall binding domain of acmA gene were amplified from L. lactis MG1363 genome and then inserted into co-expression vector, pBudCE4.1. The VP1 gene of CAV was then fused to the acmA sequences and the VP2 gene was cloned into the second MCS of the same vector before transformation into Escherichia coli. The expressed recombinant proteins were purified using a His-tag affinity column and mixed with a culture of L. acidophilus. Whole cell ELISA and immunofluorescence assay showed the binding of the recombinant VP1 protein on the surface of the bacterial cells. The lactobacilli cells carrying the CAV VP1 protein were used to immunize specific pathogen-free chickens through the oral route. A moderate level of neutralizing antibody to CAV was detected in the serum of the immunized chickens. A VP1-specific proliferative response was observed in splenocytes of the chickens after oral immunization. The vaccinated groups also showed increased levels of Th1 cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, and IFN-?. These observations suggest that L. acidophilus can be used in the delivery of vaccines to chickens. PMID:21181148
Moeini, Hassan; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Shafee, Norazizah; Yusoff, Khatijah
Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is a common and serious health problem that is best prevented by the pneumococcal vaccine. The first vaccine approved by the U.S. Federal Drug Administration in 1977 contained 14 polysaccharide antigens. An improved vaccine introduced in 1983 included 23 polysaccharide antigens. Both vaccines were effective for immunocompetent adults; however, young children and immunocompromised adults remained susceptible. A pediatric vaccine was developed consisting of the capsular antigens of seven pneumococcal serotypes commonly found in children. The antigens in this preparation are covalently conjugated to diphtheria protein to make them more antigenic. The conjugate vaccine was expanded to include 13 serotypes by 2010. Although more immunogenic, the conjugate vaccine has fewer serotypes than the older 23-valent vaccine. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that children at risk for pneumococcal pneumonia as defined by the presence of chronic disease should receive the 13-valent conjugated vaccine. Adults at risk for pneumococcal pneumonia, which includes those over 65 years of age and those who have a chronic disease, should receive the 23-polysaccharide vaccine. Immunosuppressed patients of any age should receive both vaccines. Adults should be revaccinated once at age 65 years or older with the 23-polysaccharide vaccine provided that at least 5 years have elapsed since the previous vaccination. PMID:25032872
Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Schraufnagel, Dean E
Since the introduction of DNA vaccines two decades ago, this attractive strategy has been hampered by its low immunogenicity in humans. Studies conducted to improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines have shown that understanding the mechanism of action of DNA vaccines might be the key to successfully improving their immunogenicity. Our current understanding is that DNA vaccines induce innate and adaptive immune responses in two ways: (1) encoded protein (or polypeptide) antigen(s) by the DNA plasmid can be expressed in stromal cells (i.e., muscle cells) as well as DCs, where these antigens are processed and presented to naïve CD4 or CD8 T cells either by direct or cross presentation, respectively; and (2) the transfected DNA plasmid itself may bind to an un-identified cytosolic DNA sensor and activate the TBK1-STING pathway and the production of type I interferons (IFNs) which function as an adjuvant. Recent studies investigating double-stranded cytosolic DNA sensor(s) have highlighted new mechanisms in which cytosolic DNA may release secondary metabolites, which are in turn recognized by a novel DNA sensing machinery. Here, we discuss these new metabolites and the possibilities of translating this knowledge into improved immunogenicity for DNA vaccines.
Coban, Cevayir; Kobiyama, Kouji; Jounai, Nao; Tozuka, Miyuki; Ishii, Ken J
The gene fragment coding for Arbor Acres (AA) chicken C3d gene (chC3d) was cloned and expressed as a component of fusion proteins for its potential use as a vaccine for chickens and for in vitro experiments. This fragment of complement protein C3 (C3d) has been shown to strengthen B-cell responses when complexed with antigen. Three potential vaccine constructs were engineered to contain two, four, and six copies of chC3d-P29 coding gene, which was linked to the F gene of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an economically important pathogen of chicken that is classified as a class A contagious disease of poultry by the Office international des épizooties (OIE). The cloned chC3d protein and different repeats of C3d-P29 proteins contained in the F gene of NDV (C3d-F-P29.n) were generated separately in Escherichia coli and CEF cells with the help of expression vectors. All recombinant proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. The results with different repeats of C3d-F-P29.n revealed that C3d-P29 could enhance immunogenicity. Six or more repeats of C3d-P29 may be necessary for efficient enhancement of antigen-specific immune responses. To date, published research into the adjuvant activities of C3d has been limited to experiments in mice, rabbits, and cattle, and adjuvant properties of C3d have not been assessed in poultry using homologous C3d in association with antigens relevant to the target species. The chicken C3d fusion proteins detailed in this study are the first reports and they provide a basis for immunization trials in chicken, studies of receptor binding and cell activation of chicken lymphocytes, and investigations of new types of vaccines, including genetic recombinant and DNA vaccines for future use against chicken pathogens. PMID:18788947
Liu, Dong; Niu, Zhong-Xiang
Measles virus (MV) hemagglutinin (MV-H) and fusion (MV-F) proteins induce plaque reduction neutral- izing (PRN) antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses that protect against clinical measles. DNA vaccines that encode MV-H and MV-F are being investigated as a new generation of measles vaccine to protect infants too young to receive currently licensed attenuated measles vaccines. However, it is unclear whether DNA
Man Ki Song; Christofer J. Vindurampulle; Alejandra V. E. Capozzo; Jeffrey Ulmer; John M. Polo; Marcela F. Pasetti; Eileen M. Barry; Myron M. Levine
Despite being recognized as one of the most successful public health measures, vaccination is perceived as unsafe and unnecessary by a growing number of individuals. Lack of confidence in vaccines is now considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. Vaccine hesitancy is believed to be responsible for decreasing vaccine coverage and an increasing risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. First, we will characterize vaccine hesitancy and suggest the possible causes of the apparent increase in vaccine hesitancy in the developed world. Then we will look at determinants of individual decision-making about vaccination. PMID:23584253
Dubé, Eve; Laberge, Caroline; Guay, Maryse; Bramadat, Paul; Roy, Réal; Bettinger, Julie
Development of an in vitro Eimeria (E.) tenella model could be valuable as a tool for vaccine, coccidiostats or molecular biology research. 1.0 × 104 sporozoites per 0.1 mL were inoculated into the allantoic cavity of ten-day-old chicken embryos. The complete lifecycle of E. tenella was accomplished in eight-nine days at 37 °C and 70% humidity. The addition of 100 U insulin to the embryos could remarkably improve the output of oocysts. The development of the parasite within the embryos was systematically observed, allowing guidelines to be set regarding the appropriate times at which different developmental stages of the parasite may be sampled.
Jiang, L.; Zhao, Q.; Zhu, S.; Han, H.; Dong, H.; Huang, B.
The present study was designed to assess and compare three different formulations of the new Onderstepoort infectious coryza (IC) quadrivalent vaccine, which contain an NAD-independent strain of Avibacterium paragallinarum (previously known as Haemophilus paragallinarum), and a commercial IC vaccine, not containing an NAD-independent strain, for their safety and ability to protect chickens of varying ages against virulent challenges with four different serovars of A. paragallinarum, including the NAD-independent strain of the C-3 serovar. Four groups of 140 chickens each were vaccinated at the age of 17 weeks and revaccinated at the age of 19 weeks with each of the four vaccine formulations. A similar sized group of non-vaccinated chickens was used as control. Two rounds of challenge were conducted: a group of chicken in each vaccination group was challenged between 31 and 35 weeks of age, while another group was challenged between 51 and 55 weeks of age. The "in-contact" challenge model was used in this experiment. For each vaccination group, the four challenge strains representing four local serovars were used in each challenge round. The efficacy of the vaccines was compared based on overall protection levels obtained and the duration of protection. The safety of the different vaccines was determined by the severity of post-vaccination reactions. The need for the incorporation of the NAD-independent strain in the vaccine was evidenced by the low protection level against NAD-independent challenge recorded in the group of birds vaccinated with the commercial vaccine. The results obtained confirmed not only the variation in virulence of different South African serovars, with serovar C-3 being the most virulent and serovar B having almost no virulence but also the age related increase in susceptibility. The importance of a suitable formulation of the vaccine is discussed. PMID:21105597
Dungu, B; Brett, B; MacDonald, R; Deville, S; Dupuis, L; Theron, J; Bragg, R R
A real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was utilized to study the in vivo replication of Marek's disease vaccine viruses and of virulent oncogenic strains. In the first of four experiments, the growth of the herpes virus of turkeys (HVT) vaccine was detectable in various organs of infected chicken embryos, with the highest viral loads being present in the spleen. No evidence was obtained for replication of serotype-1 Marek's disease viruses in embryos. In the second experiment, viral loads were measured in several organs of chickens after administration of the Rispens and HVT vaccines immediately after hatching. Lowest levels were noted for the Rispens strain after 1 to 8 weeks. By contrast, HVT vaccine grew well in all tested organs, with the highest loads being present in the spleen. Highest loads were observed in unvaccinated birds after challenge with the highly virulent strain MPF57 at day 8, especially in lymphoid organs. A positive relationship was observed between viral load and clinical signs, including tumour formation. In a third study, viral loads were measured in the organs of chickens administered the Rispens vaccine on the day of hatch and challenged at day 8 with MPF57. High levels of clinical protection were afforded against MPF57 by the Rispens vaccine but, in confirmation of earlier findings, sterilizing immunity was not induced. In a fourth study, two experiments were conducted--in which viral loads were measured after challenge of chickens vaccinated with HVT in ovo or at day 1 after hatching. Similar protection was achieved in birds vaccinated in ovo on embryonic days 11 and 17, although protection was slightly, but not significantly, lower than for birds vaccinated at day 1. PMID:17899458
Tan, Jianming; Cooke, Julie; Clarke, Nadeene; Tannock, Gregory A
Cholera remains today a major health problem in most developing countries. The long-term control of cholera depends on the improvement of hygiene but this is a distant goal for many countries. The availability of an effective cholera vaccine is thus important for the prevention of cholera in such countries. More than a century after the first attempt to vaccinate against cholera by Ferran in Spain, there is still no truly effective cholera vaccine. A bacterial fraction vaccine, referred to as CH1 +2 was prepared by Professor A. Dodin. A field trial of this vaccine was carried out in Zaire in 1983. Significant protection was observed but this vaccine was not evaluated in additional trials. Two other oral cholera vaccines, developed in Sweden and in the USA, were widely experimented on human beings: a combination of cholera toxin B-subunit and inactivated bacterial cells, and a live attenuated vaccine containing the genetically manipulated Vibrio cholerae O1 strain CVD 103-HgR. Despite their efficiency as evaluated in field trials (inactivated vaccine) or on volunteers (live vaccine), these vaccines have drawbacks that may limit their usefulness as practical vaccines. Protection induced by the inactivated vaccine was transient in young children, lasting only approximately for six months. One of the safety concerns associated with live vaccines is a possible reversion to virulence. Efforts should be continued to find a better cholera vaccine. A new vaccine development program based upon the hypothesis that immunoglobulin G directed to the O-specific polysaccharide of Vibrio cholerae O1 could confer protective immunity to cholera. This program may lead to the development of a cholera conjugate vaccine to elicit protection in infants. PMID:10078377
Fournier, J M
Direct injection of antigen into bursal tissue of young chickens followed by subsequent intravenous immunization markedly stimulated agglutinin production against Brucella abortus. In contrast, preliminary intravenous immunization did not produce stimulation. The promoting effect of intrabursal injection was antigen-specific. Antigen injection into the bursa reduced the extent to which subsequent bursectomy suppresses the immune response. Bursa cells from young chickens which had been injected with antigen intrabursally were active in transferring the ability to give a secondary response to B. abortus when injected into bursectomized-irradiated chickens. The cells derived from chickens primed intravenously or from normal chickens were inactive. The implant of bursa cells from the 18-day-old chickens which had been injected with antigen intrabursally or intravenously at 11 days of age showed a promoting effect in restoring the ability to give secondary responses to both of B. abortus and Salmonella pullorum as compared with that of the implant of the bursa cells from unimmunized donors. These findings are discussed in relation to the existence of precursor cells that can respond to the antigen with a potential to enhance the antibody response to subsequent antigenic stimuli but are not yet mature enough to produce the antibody.
Matsuda, H; Baba, T; Bito, Y
Both in vivo and in vitro techniques are used to investigate the development of the vertebrate heart using the chicken embryo as a model system. Simultaneously, the students are exposed to the physiology of embryonic blood flow, the electrical circuitry of the developing heart, and the effects of reproductive toxins on heart rate. Classical embryological microtechniques, explantation of the embryo, surgical removal of the beating heart, and isolation of the heart chambers, are conducted. Student teams devise a hypothesis concerning the effects of caffeine or alcohol on the in vivo or in vitro heart rate.
PhD Jacqueline S McLaughlin (Berks-Lehigh Valley College Biology)
A baculovirus-derived recombinant VP2 (rVP2) subunit vaccine elicited anti-infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) antibodies in commercial flocks. The induced antibody levels were similar to those evoked against IBDV by a commercial vaccine. The levels remained higher than that of the negative controls for at least four and a half months in commercial chickens. The antibodies were also transferred to their offspring and were detected in the blood of the progeny for at least 20 days after hatching. These results, along with former data, that show that antibodies elicited by baculovirus rVP2 confer protection to chickens from IBDV [J. Pitcovski et al. (1996), Insect cell-derived VP2 of infectious bursal disease confers protection against the disease in chickens. Avian Diseases, 40, 753-761], imply that the baculovirus-derived rVP2 subunit may serve as a successful vaccine for commercial breeding flocks. PMID:19184783
Yehuda, H; Goldway, M; Gutter, B; Michael, A; Godfried, Y; Shaaltiel, Y; Levi, B Z; Pitcovski, J
Influenza vaccine strains have been traditionally developed by annual reassortment between vaccine donor strain and the epidemic virulent strains. The classical method requires screening and genotyping of the vaccine strain among various reassortant viruses, which are usually laborious and time-consuming. Here we developed an efficient reverse genetic system to generate the 6:2 reassortant vaccine virus from cDNAs derived from the influenza RNAs. Thus, cDNAs of the two RNAs coding for surface antigens, haemagglutinin and neuraminidase from the epidemic virus and the 6 internal genes from the donor strain were transfected into cells and the infectious viruses of 6:2 defined RNA ratio were rescued. X-31 virus (a high- growth virus in embryonated eggs) and its cold-adapted strain X-31 ca were judiciously chosen as donor strains for the generation of inactivated vaccine and live-attenuated vaccine, respectively. The growth properties of these recombinant viruses in embryonated chicken eggs and MDCK cell were indistinguishable as compared to those generated by classical reassortment process. Based on the reverse genetic system, we generated 6+2 reassortant avian influenza vaccine strains corresponding to the A/Chicken/Korea/ MS96 (H9N2) and A/Indonesia/5/2005 (H5N1). The results would serve as technical platform for the generation of both injectable inactivated vaccine and the nasal spray live attenuated vaccine for the prevention of influenza epidemics and pandemics. PMID:20054235
Jung, Eun Ju; Lee, Kwang Hee; Seong, Baik Lin
Outbreaks of infectious coryza have been reported in vaccinated flocks in different countries, indicating that new serotype(s) of Haemophilus paragallinarum may have evolved. Several field isolates from vaccinated flocks in the US, Ecuador, Argentina and Zimbabwe were examined and, apart from one serotype C strain, all were typed as serotype B. An inactivated commercial trivalent vaccine, containing serotypes A, B and C, protected against challenge with the serotype C isolate but protection against challenge with serotype B isolates was weaker, suggesting that they might represent a new variant immunotype. An experimental tetravalent oil adjuvant vaccine, containing one of the serotype B isolates, appeared immunogenic against all isolates after one vaccination. Its efficacy and safety were further tested in layer chickens housed under field conditions. Chickens were vaccinated at 8 and 16 weeks of age while controls were unvaccinated. Vaccinates and controls were challenged with type A, B, C and variant type B at 25, 45 or 65 weeks of age. There was good protection (P<0.05) against all four immunotypes after all challenges. No systemic reactions were observed and local reactions were similar to those found with the commercial trivalent vaccine. The tetravalent vaccine may therefore be a good choice for control of new field isolates. PMID:12850915
Jacobs, Anton A C; van den Berg, Karin; Malo, Aris
The recurrent outbreaks of fatal Newcastle disease (ND) in commercial poultry flocks throughout the world indicate that routine vaccinations are failing to sufficiently induce the high levels of immunity necessary to control ND. There is a need for vaccination programmes that could be initiated at 1-day-old for mass application and which would induce a long-lasting immunity, with no need for a booster vaccination at a later age. In this context, the duration of immunity delivered by a vaccination programme including a recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys expressing the F gene of ND virus (rHVT-ND) and live ND vaccine at 1-day-old was compared with a classical programme that included a conventional live and an inactivated ND vaccine at the same age in commercial layer chickens. The humoral, cell-mediated and local immunity were followed weekly and birds were challenged with a viscerotropic velogenic ND virus strain at 6 and 10 weeks of age. We determined that immunity induced by the vaccination programme involving the rHVT-ND vaccine was more protective than that provided by the conventional vaccine-based regime. This might be related to a T-helper type 1 (Th1) cellular-driven immunological response, in contrast to the T-helper type 2 (Th2) humoral-oriented immune response provided by the current conventional vaccine-based vaccination programmes. PMID:24283258
Rauw, F; Gardin, Y; Palya, V; van den Berg, T; Lambrecht, B
Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…
Bowman, Darcia Harris
Evidence that immunological effector mechanisms contribute to the elimination of leukemic blasts in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation supports the concept that the immune system plays a prominent role in the control of leukemic disease. For patients with high-risk acute leukemia, relapse prevention in the setting of minimal residual disease is paramount. This review discusses vaccine strategies aimed to stimulate a
Ludmila Glouchkova; Birgit Ackermann; Dagmar Dilloo
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes a highly contagious disease in young chicks and leads to significant economic losses in the poultry industry. To determine a suitable cell line for IBDV infection, replication, and growth kinetics of the virus, DF-1 cells and chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) were used. The population doubling per day (Pd/D) was found to be higher in DF-1 as compared to CEF cells. A suitable time of infection (TOI) was established for increased production of virus and greater infectivity titers. The DF-1 and CEF cells were found to be susceptible to infection by producing marked cytopathic effects (CPEs), and the growth curves of IBDV in DF-1 and CEF cells were evaluated by infectivity assay using tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50). The cytopathic effects of the virus in DF-1 and CEF cells were found to be similar, but higher viral titers were detected in the DF-1 cells as compared to CEF. Thus the DF-1 cell line had a higher growth potential and infectivity, which will be of advantage in vaccine production. PMID:24949455
Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Sivasubramanian, Chandran; Chung, Ill-Min; Thiruvengadam, Muthu
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes a highly contagious disease in young chicks and leads to significant economic losses in the poultry industry. To determine a suitable cell line for IBDV infection, replication, and growth kinetics of the virus, DF-1 cells and chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) were used. The population doubling per day (Pd/D) was found to be higher in DF-1 as compared to CEF cells. A suitable time of infection (TOI) was established for increased production of virus and greater infectivity titers. The DF-1 and CEF cells were found to be susceptible to infection by producing marked cytopathic effects (CPEs), and the growth curves of IBDV in DF-1 and CEF cells were evaluated by infectivity assay using tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50). The cytopathic effects of the virus in DF-1 and CEF cells were found to be similar, but higher viral titers were detected in the DF-1 cells as compared to CEF. Thus the DF-1 cell line had a higher growth potential and infectivity, which will be of advantage in vaccine production.
Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Sivasubramanian, Chandran; Chung, Ill-Min; Thiruvengadam, Muthu
Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection with an estimated worldwide prevalence of 9-13% and approximately 6 million people being infected each year. Mostly acquired during adolescence or young adulthood, HPV presents clinically as anogenital warts and may progress to precancerous lesions and cancers of the cervix, vagina, vulva, penis and anus, and oropharynx. HPV infection is considered to contribute to almost 100% cervical cancers and at least 80% of anal and 40-60% of vulvar, vaginal, and penile cancers. At present, two prophylactic HPV vaccines are commercially available and both are prepared from purified L1 structural proteins. These proteins self-assemble to form virus-like particles that induce a protective immunity. Gardasil(®) is a quadrivalent vaccine against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 and is recommended for use in females 9-26 years of age, for the prevention of cervical, vulvar, and vaginal cancers and intraepithelial neoplasia and condyloma acuminata and recently for vaccination in boys and men 9-26 years of age for the prevention of genital warts. Cervarix™ is a bivalent vaccine approved for the prevention of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions caused by HPV 16 and 18, in females 10-25 years. HPV vaccines are safe and efficacious against type-specific HPV-induced anogenital warts, precancerous lesions, and cervical cancer. The vaccines are most effective when given before the onset of sexual activity and provide long-term protection. Effective vaccination coverage in young adolescent females will substantially reduce the incidence of these anogenital malignancy-related morbidity and mortality. There is need to generate India-specific data on HPV epidemiology and HPV vaccination efficacy as well as continue worldwide surveillance and development of newer vaccines. PMID:22021967
Pandhi, Deepika; Sonthalia, Sidharth
Avian influenza vaccines for poultry are based on hemagglutinin proteins, and protection is specific to the vaccine subtype. Over 113 billion doses have been used between 2002 and 2010 for high pathogenicity avian influenza control. No universal vaccines are currently available. The majority of avian influenza vaccines are inactivated whole influenza viruses that are grown in embryonating eggs, inactivated, emulsified in oil adjuvant systems, and injected into chickens. Live virus-vectored vaccines such as recombinant viruses of fowl pox, Newcastle disease, herpesvirus of turkeys and duck enteritis containing inserts of avian influenza virus hemagglutinin genes have been used on a more limited basis. In studies to evaluate vaccine efficacy and potency, the protocol design and its implementation should address the biosafety level needed for the work, provide information required for approval by Institutional Biosafety and Animal Care Committees, contain information on seed strain selection, provide needed information on animal subjects and their relevant parameters, and address the selection and use of challenge viruses. Various metrics have been used to directly measure vaccine induced protection. These include prevention of death, clinical signs, and lesions; prevention of decreases in egg production and alterations in egg quality; quantification of the reduction in virus replication and shedding from the respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tracts; and prevention of contact transmission in in vivo poultry experiments. In addition, indirect measures of vaccine potency and protection can be developed and validated against the direct measures and include serological assays in vaccinated poultry and assessment of the content of hemagglutinin antigen in the vaccine. These indirect assessments of protection are useful in determining if vaccine batches have a consistent ability to protect. For adequate potency, vaccines should contain 50 mean protective doses of antigen, which corresponds to 0.3-7.8 ?g of hemagglutinin protein, depending on immunogenicity of individual seed strains. PMID:24899430
Swayne, David E
Automated in ovo vaccination is an efficient method for mass immunization of poultry. Although in ovo vaccination has been used to mass immunize chickens against several infectious diseases, there are common poultry diseases for which in ovo-compatible vaccines are not commercially available. It was recently demonstrated that in ovo administration of a nonreplicating human adenovirus vector encoding an avian influenza virus hemagglutinin induced protective immunity against highly pathogenic avian influenza. The advantages of this new class of poultry vaccine include in ovo delivery of a wide variety of pathogen-derived antigens, high potency in a single-dose regimen, rapid production in response to increased demand, no replication of the vector, no pre-existing immunity to human adenovirus in chickens, compatibility with automated in ovo administration and no interference with epidemiological surveys of natural infections. PMID:17542759
Avakian, Alan P; Poston, Rebecca M; Kong, Fan-kun; Van Kampen, Kent R; Tang, De-chu C
Embryonated chicken eggs and primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) have been used for decades as a means of manufacturing human and veterinary vaccines. However, these egg and CEF-based production systems are associated with many serious limitations in terms of their regulatory acceptability, production capacity, and supply chain risks. The development of a safer, cheaper, and more efficient cell substrate for vaccine production would represent a significant business advantage for vaccine manufacturers. Building on the exceptional properties of avian embryonic stem cells, Vivalis has created a new cell substrate, the Duck EB66® cell line. This article describes how this cell substrate was derived, the manufacture and qualification of a master cell bank, and the evaluation of the cell substrate for the manufacture of vaccines and human therapeutic proteins. PMID:21502045
Brown, Stephen W; Mehtali, Majid
ObjectivesIf approved for use in young males in the United States, prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine may reduce the incidence of HPV-related disease in vaccinated males and their sexual partners. We aimed to characterise heterosexual men's willingness to get HPV vaccine and identify correlates of vaccine acceptability.MethodsParticipants were from a national sample of heterosexual men (n=297) aged 18–59 y from
Paul L Reiter; Noel T Brewer; Jennifer S Smith
The Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals (IVAC), a state-owned vaccine manufacturer, initiated research into avian influenza vaccines in the early 1990 s in response to the threat of a highly pathogenic avian influenza pandemic. Successful results from laboratory studies on A(H5N1) influenza virus attracted seed funds and led to participation in the WHO technology transfer project to enhance influenza vaccine production in developing countries. IVAC's goal is to produce 500,000 doses of inactivated monovalent whole-virion influenza vaccine per year by 2012, and progressively increase capacity to more than 1 million doses to protect essential populations in Viet Nam in the event of an influenza pandemic. The WHO seed grants, supplemented by other international partner support, enabled IVAC to build in a very short time an influenza vaccine manufacturing plant under Good Manufacturing Practice and relevant biosafety standards, a waste treatment system and a dedicated chicken farm for high-quality eggs. Much of the equipment and instrumentation required for vaccine production has been installed and tested for functional operation. Staff have been trained on site and at specialized courses which provided comprehensive manuals on egg-based manufacturing processes and biosafety. Following process validation, clinical trials will start in 2011 and the first domestic influenza vaccine doses are expected in 2012. PMID:21684426
Hoa, L K; Hiep, L V; Be, L V
Over the past 80 years, biosecurity measures and vaccines have been used to prevent the occurrence of outbreaks of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT). Despite these control strategies, ILT continues to have an impact on intensive poultry industries. Attenuated vaccines, particularly those derived by passage in chicken embryos, have been associated with a number of side effects, including residual virulence, transmission to naïve birds, establishment of latent infections with subsequent reactivation and shedding of virus, and reversion to virulence after in vivo passage. Most recently, recombination between attenuated ILT vaccines in the field has been shown to be responsible for the emergence of new virulent viruses that have caused widespread disease. To address some of these issues, new-generation virally vectored recombinant vaccines have been developed and recently released in some countries. In addition, recombinant deletion mutants of ILT virus have been proposed as vaccine candidates. In this review, recent advances in the understanding of the epidemiology of traditionally attenuated ILT vaccines as well as in the development and use of new generation vaccines are examined. Next-generation vaccines, along with more appropriate immunological screening strategies, are identified as particularly promising options to enhance ILT control in the future. PMID:23718807
Coppo, Mauricio J C; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Browning, Glenn F; Devlin, Joanne M
The antigen used in influenza vaccines is directly derived from influenza viruses. It is produced in embryonated chicken eggs for both inactivated and live attenuated influenza vaccines. As a consequence, all influenza vaccines contain varying amounts of residual egg proteins, depending on the specific manufacturing process of the vaccine. The degree of purity of influenza vaccines can be assessed by quantifying the total amount of protein in relation to the amount of specific antigen. Alternatively, ovalbumin can be used as surrogate marker, representing the amount of egg-derived proteins present in the vaccine. Egg proteins, such as ovalbumin, are classified as sensitising agents. Their presence in a vaccine may be linked to adverse reactions. Such a vaccine is not suitable for subjects with a known history of egg-allergy. This population is currently excluded from influenza vaccination programs. Influenza vaccines are intended for annual re-immunisation. This repeated administration may lead to an immunity against ovalbumin and other egg proteins, which in turn may provoke increased local and systemic reactions and a reduced tolerability profile of the product. Comparing several influenza vaccines present on the market, ELISA and Western blot analysis showed clearly a very low level of ovalbumin in Inflexal V. Furthermore, data showed, that Inflexal V is the influenza vaccine with the lowest ovalbumin content. PMID:16828206
Kürsteiner, O; Moser, C; Lazar, H; Durrer, P
Eggs have been consumed throughout human history, though the full potential of this nutritionally complete food has yet to be realized in many resource-poor settings around the world. Eggs provide essential fatty acids, proteins, choline, vitamins A and B12 , selenium, and other critical nutrients at levels above or comparable to those found in other animal-source foods, but they are relatively more affordable. Cultural beliefs about the digestibility and cleanliness of eggs, as well as environmental concerns arising from hygiene practices and toxin exposures, remain as barriers to widespread egg consumption. There is also regional variability in egg intake levels. In Latin American countries, on average, greater proportions of young children consume eggs than in Asian or African countries. In China and Indonesia, nutrition education and social marketing have been associated with greater amounts of eggs in the diets of young children, though generally, evidence from interventions is minimal. Homestead chicken-and-egg production with appropriate vaccination, extension service, and other supports can simultaneously address poverty and nutrition in very poor rural households. With undernutrition remaining a significant problem in many parts of the world, eggs may be an uncracked part of the solution. PMID:24807641
Iannotti, Lora L; Lutter, Chessa K; Bunn, David A; Stewart, Christine P
Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an economically important viral disease with worldwide distribution. Every country with an intensive poultry industry has infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The virus rapidly spreads from bird to bird through horizontal transmission by aerosol or ingestion. Sentinel bird studies were carried out in southern Ontario and IBV has been isolated from layer flocks. Genetic analysis of the S1 region of the strains showed that they were not vaccine related. The pathogenicity of selected Ontario variants of IBV isolates was studied and the subsequent work was to determine the degree of protection against field isolates provided by a commonly used vaccine MILDVAC-Ma5 in Ontario. The protection was evaluated by challenging immunized chickens with the respiratory (IBV-ON1) and nephropathogenic (IBV-ON4) viruses. The mean vaccine efficacy for IBV-ON1 was 66.7% indicating that a Massachusetts serotype vaccine would provide some protection against IBV field isolates. PMID:19794894
Grgi?, Helena; Hunter, D Bruce; Hunton, Peter; Nagy, Eva
Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an economically important viral disease with worldwide distribution. Every country with an intensive poultry industry has infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The virus rapidly spreads from bird to bird throug