Science.gov

Sample records for young chickens vaccinated

  1. EFFECTS OF LIVE ATTENUATED AND KILLED SALMONELLA VACCINES ON CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY AMONG VERY YOUNG CHICKENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to investigate the differential impact of live and killed Salmonella enteritidis (SE) vaccines on cell-mediated immunity of very young birds (2-5 weeks of age) as well as 16-week-old White Leghorn hens. The hens were vaccinated with the 2 vaccines, and two weeks later, CMI ...

  2. Efficacy, Safety, and Interactions of a Live Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Vaccine for Chickens Based on Strain IBD V877.

    PubMed

    Geerligs, Harm J; Ons, Ellen; Boelm, Gert Jan; Vancraeynest, Dieter

    2015-03-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a highly contagious disease in young chickens which can result in high morbidity and mortality and also in great economic losses. The main target for the virus is the lymphoid tissue with a special predilection for the bursa of Fabricius. Several vaccines are available to control the disease. Intermediate plus vaccines are used in chickens with high maternal antibody titers which face high infection pressure. An example of an intermediate plus vaccine is a live vaccine based on IBD strain V877. The results of an efficacy study in commercial broilers with different levels of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) showed that the V877-based IBD vaccine can break through maternal antibody titers of higher than 1100 as determined by an IBD ELISA. The safety of the vaccine was demonstrated in a study in which specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were vaccinated with a tenfold dose of the vaccine strain and a tenfold dose of the vaccine strain after five back passages in SPF chickens. The vaccine virus caused lesions, as could be expected for an intermediate plus vaccine, but the scores were not much higher than the maximal scores allowed for mild IBD vaccines in the European Pharmacopoeia, and reversion to virulence was absent. In studies in SPF chickens, there were no negative impacts by the IBD V877 vaccine on the efficacy of a live QX-like IB vaccine and a live Newcastle disease La Sota vaccine in vaccination challenge studies, although the IBD vaccine had a negative effect on the antibody response generated by the QX-like IB vaccine. It is concluded that the IBD V877 vaccine has the capacity to break through high levels of MDA, has a satisfactory safety profile, and interactions with other live vaccines are limited. In order to limit bursal lesions after vaccination it is recommended to confirm the presence of MDA before vaccinating with the V877 vaccine. PMID:26292544

  3. Formulation of novel nano-encapsulated Newcastle disease vaccine tablets for vaccination of village chickens.

    PubMed

    Wambura, Philemon N

    2011-01-01

    Formulation of nano-encapsulated vaccine tablet is a novel technique for the delivery of Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine to village chickens. Vaccine tablets were prepared using gelatin, trehalose and casein as thermostabilisers and binders, respectively, and each vaccine tablet contained a nominal oral dose of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain I-2 for a single chicken. These ND vaccine tablets maintained a titre of 10(8.5) EID(50)/0.1mL for 90days at ambient room temperatures (25-34C). When these vaccine tablets were given to village chickens, a single oral administration of the vaccine produced protective antibody response (?3.0 log(2)) against challenge with virulent NDV. The findings from the present study showed that, if the vaccine tablet formulation technique is optimised, it will allow the delivery of the ND vaccine without depending on cold chains to rural areas in tropical countries. PMID:20683657

  4. Effect of Salmonella Vaccination of Breeder Chickens on Contamination of Broiler Chicken Carcasses in Integrated Poultry Operations ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dórea, Fernanda C.; Cole, Dana J.; Hofacre, Charles; Zamperini, Katherine; Mathis, Demetrius; Doyle, Michael P.; Lee, Margie D.; Maurer, John J.

    2010-01-01

    While measures to control carcass contamination with Salmonella at the processing plant have been implemented with some success, on-farm interventions that reduce Salmonella prevalence in meat birds entering the processing plant have not translated well on a commercial scale. We determined the impact of Salmonella vaccination on commercial poultry operations by monitoring four vaccinated and four nonvaccinated breeder (parental) chicken flocks and comparing Salmonella prevalences in these flocks and their broiler, meat bird progeny. For one poultry company, their young breeders were vaccinated by using a live-attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine (Megan VAC-1) followed by a killed Salmonella bacterin consisting of S. enterica serovar Berta and S. enterica serovar Kentucky. The other participating poultry company did not vaccinate their breeders or broilers. The analysis revealed that vaccinated hens had a lower prevalence of Salmonella in the ceca (38.3% versus 64.2%; P < 0.001) and the reproductive tracts (14.22% versus 51.7%; P < 0.001). We also observed a lower Salmonella prevalence in broiler chicks (18.1% versus 33.5%; P < 0.001), acquired from vaccinated breeders, when placed at the broiler farms contracted with the poultry company. Broiler chicken farms populated with chicks from vaccinated breeders also tended to have fewer environmental samples containing Salmonella (14.4% versus 30.1%; P < 0.001). There was a lower Salmonella prevalence in broilers entering the processing plants (23.4% versus 33.5%; P < 0.001) for the poultry company that utilized this Salmonella vaccination program for its breeders. Investigation of other company-associated factors did not indicate that the difference between companies could be attributed to measures other than the vaccination program. PMID:20889797

  5. Transmission of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) between unvaccinated, sub-optimally vaccinated, and well-vaccinated SPF chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the transmissibility of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in vaccinated chickens. Chickens were vaccinated with live LaSota and challenged 21 days later with CA02. Two days after challenge, the vaccinated and infected chickens were moved into clean i...

  6. Vaccine Reduces HPV Infections in Young Men

    Cancer.gov

    An international randomized clinical trial has shown that the vaccine Gardasil can reduce the incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young men 16 to 26 years of age at the time of vaccination.

  7. Avian influenza mucosal vaccination in chickens with replication-defective recombinant adenovirus vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated protection conferred by mucosal vaccination with replication competent adenovirus (RCA)-free recombinant adenovirus expressing a codon-optimized avian influenza (AI) H5 gene (AdTW68.H5ck). Commercial layer-type chicken groups were singly vaccinated ocularly at 5 days of age, or singly v...

  8. Mycoplasma synoviae infection on Newcastle disease vaccination of chickens

    PubMed Central

    de Cssia Figueira Silva, Rita; do Nascimento, Elmiro Rosendo; de Almeida Pereira, Virgnia Lo; Barreto, Maria Lcia; do Nascimento, Maria da Graa Fichel

    2008-01-01

    Newcastle disease is characterized by respiratory manifestations in association with nervous and/or digestive symptoms. Its prevention is done by vaccination with live attenuated (lentogenic strains) and/or killed vaccines. The lentogenic strains can lead to strong post-vaccination reaction, principally due to the presence of other pathogenic agents. Among them, Mycoplasma synoviae is worldwide important, mainly in Brazil. The dissemination of this agent in poultry flocks has been achieved due to difficulties in diagnosis and disease reproduction, virulence variations among different M.synoviae strains, and attribution of typical M.synoviae disease manifestation to other disease agents. This experimental study in SPF chicks (Gallus gallus), previously infected by M.synoviae and thereafter vaccinated against Newcastle disease, was done with the objective of evaluating M.synoviae pathogenicity through assessment of post-vaccinal respiratory reactions and serologic responses to Newcastle disease virus vaccine in the absence of environmental factors. A total of 86 three days old chicks were used, being 57 infected by eye and nostril drop, with chicken activated M. synoviae strain WVU 1853. Seven days later, 21 mycoplasma infected birds plus 29 not mycoplasma infected ones were vaccinated against Newcastle disease. As results, the not infected and vaccinated birds yielded, significantly, higher and longer lasting serologic responses to Newcastle disease vaccine virus than those infected and vaccinated. Similarly, the infected and vaccinated birds yielded lower serologic reactions to M.synoviae than those only mycoplasma infected. No post-vaccinal respiratory reaction was observed in the vaccinated birds. PMID:24031234

  9. Protection of chickens against avian influenza with non-replicating adenovirus-vectored vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose vaccination with a replication competent adenovirus (RCA) -free human adenovirus (Ad) vector encoding a H7 hemagglutinin gene from a low pathogenic North American isolate (AdChNY94.H7). Chickens vaccinate...

  10. Retrospective evidence that the MHC (B haplotype) of chickens influences genetic resistance to attenuated infectious bronchitis vaccine strains in chickens.

    PubMed

    Bacon, L D; Hunter, D B; Zhang, H M; Brand, K; Etches, R

    2004-12-01

    Infectious bronchitis is a respiratory disease of chickens that is caused by the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Virtually all broiler and layer breeder flocks are routinely vaccinated against IBV. Two hatches of 1-day-old chicks from four lines were mistakenly vaccinated for infectious bronchitis using a moderately attenuated vaccine designed for chicks of an older age. The vaccination resulted in high mortality, and chicks from three of four lines died with signs typical of infectious bronchitis. The mortality that occurred using this less-attenuated vaccine was significantly influenced by the genetic line, and the MHC (B) haplotype in chickens of three B congenic lines. B congenic chickens possessing the B*15 haplotype were resistant in contrast to chickens possessing the B*13 or B*21 haplotypes. Chicks from two further hatches of the four lines were vaccinated appropriately with a more attenuated IBV vaccine, and only limited chick mortality was seen. These retrospective data from two repeated hatches confirm earlier data indicating chicken genes influence resistance to IBV, and indicate for the first time that genes tightly linked to the B haplotype are relevant in resistance to IBV. Due to extenuating circumstances it was not possible to verify results with chicks from F2 matings. Factors that may enhance definition of the role of the B haplotype in immune response to IBV, and the desirability for further analysis of a B haplotype-linked influence on immunity to IBV are discussed. PMID:15763730

  11. Vaccination of chickens using raw rice coated with novel trehalose nano-organogels containing Newcastle disease (strain I-2) vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wambura, P N

    2009-06-01

    The formulation and evaluation of trehalose nano-organogels for storage and oral delivery of Newcastle disease (ND) strain I-2 vaccine to chickens were carried out in this study. Trehalose sugar was blended with vegetable oil to form nano-organogels where trehalose also acted as a stabilizer against thermal inactivation of I-2 ND virus. Results from infectivity titration assay indicated that the titre of 10(7.5) EID(50)/0.1 mL was maintained after 12 weeks of storage of nano-organogel I-2 vaccine at ambient room temperature. Serology results showed that 33% chickens which were vaccinated with nano-organogel I-2 vaccine after 14 days had HI antibody titres of > or = 3.0 log(2) with GMT of 2.3. Moreover, results showed 100% of chickens vaccinated with nano-organogel I-2 vaccine had the mean antibody titres of 3.4 and 3.7 log(2) at 21 and 28 days after vaccination, respectively. All vaccinated chickens (100%) survived the challenge of virulent ND virus whereas all unvaccinated chickens succumbed to challenge and died of signs consistent with ND. The findings from this study showed that the nano-organogel I-2 vaccine was stable at room temperature, safe and produced protective antibody response in vaccinated chickens. Moreover the nano-organogel I-2 vaccine was used for oral administration and hence is suitable for mass vaccination. However, optimization of the formulation of trehalose nano-organogel vaccine is required in order to achieve its application potentials. PMID:19015948

  12. Methylome Analysis in Chickens Immunized with Infectious Laryngotracheitis Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, José A.; He, Yanghua; Luo, Juan; Menendez, Kimberly R.; Tablante, Nathaniel L.; Zhao, Keji; Paulson, Joseph N.; Li, Bichun; Song, Jiuzhou

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the methylome of chickens immunized with Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) vaccine derived from chicken embryos. Methyl-CpG binding domain protein-enriched genome sequencing (MBD-Seq) method was employed in the detection of the 1,155 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) across the entire genome. After validation, we ascertained the genomic DMRs distribution and annotated them regarding genes, transcription start sites (TSS) and CpG islands. We found that global DNA methylation decreased in vaccinated birds, presenting 704 hypomethylated and 451 hypermethylated DMRs, respectively. Additionally, we performed an enrichment analysis detecting gene networks, in which cancer and RNA post-transcriptional modification appeared in the first place, followed by humoral immune response, immunological disease and inflammatory disease. The top four identified canonical pathways were EIF2 signaling, regulation of EIF4 and p70S6K signaling, axonal guidance signaling and mTOR signaling, providing new insight regarding the mechanisms of ILT etiology. Lastly, the association between DNA methylation and differentially expressed genes was examined, and detected negative correlation in seventeen of the eighteen genes. PMID:26107953

  13. Avian influenza in ovo vaccination with replication defective recombinant adenovirus in chickens: Vaccine potency, antibody persistence, and maternal antibody transfer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) can be elicited in chickens in a single-dose regimen by in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad)-vector encoding the AI virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA). We evaluated vaccine potency, antibo...

  14. Vaccination and acute phase mediator production in chickens challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus; novel markers for vaccine efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to determine vaccine efficacy of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) isolates are limited in poultry because experimental infections with LPAI virus in specific pathogen free chickens rarely causes clinical disease. The most commonly used method to compare LPAI vaccine efficacy is to quant...

  15. Characterization of recombinant Raccoonpox Vaccine Vectors in Chickens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hwa, S.-H.; Iams, K.P.; Hall, J.S.; Kingstad, B.A.; Osorio, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Raccoonpox virus (RCN) has been used as a recombinant vector against several mammalian pathogens but has not been tested in birds. The replication of RCN in chick embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) and chickens was studied with the use of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 hemagglutinin (HA) as a model antigen and luciferase (luc) as a reporter gene. Although RCN replicated to low levels in CEFs, it efficiently expressed recombinant proteins and, in vivo, elicited anti-HA immunoglobulin yolk (IgY) antibody responses comparable to inactivated influenza virus. Biophotonic in vivo imaging of 1-wk-old chicks with RCN-luc showed strong expression of the luc reporter gene lasting up to 3 days postinfection. These studies demonstrate the potential of RCN as a vaccine vector for avian influenza and other poultry pathogens. ?? American Association of Avian Pathologists 2010.

  16. Embryo vaccination of chickens using a novel adjuvant formulation stimulates protective immunity against Eimeria maxima infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our previous study demonstrated that chickens immunized subcutaneously with an Eimeria recombinant profilin protein vaccine emulsified in a Quil A/cholesterol/DDA/Carbopol (QCDC) adjuvant developed partial protection against experimental avian coccidiosis compared with animals immunized with profili...

  17. Co-expression of EtMic2 protein and chicken interleukin-18 for DNA vaccine against chicken coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenyan; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Jingjing; Jiang, Xiyue; Geng, Jing; Wang, Fangkun; Xiao, Yihong; Li, Hongmei; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, a naked EtMIC2 DNA vaccine, a ChIL-18 expression vector and a EtMIC2 and ChIL-18 co-expression DNA vaccine were constructed and their protective efficacies against homologous challenge were compared and evaluated by examining the body weight gain, oocyst shedding, cecal lesion, ACI as well as specific anti-EtMic2 antibody level, the proliferation ability and percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ of splenocytes. The results showed the naked EtMIC2 DNA vaccine could increase the weight gain and decrease the oocyst shedding, but could not alleviate the cecal lesion of immunized chickens compared to unimmunized chickens. Chickens immunized with the co-expression vector pVAX1-MIC2-IL-18 exhibited much improved immune protection against challenge compared to chickens immunized with naked EtMIC2 DNA vaccine, or with naked EtMIC2 DNA vaccine and ChIL-18 expression vector applied separately. These results suggest that the co-expression of ChIL-18 with EtMic2 together could significantly improve the immune protection of the EtMic2 protein. PMID:24856455

  18. Young Hispanic Men and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Choices.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tami L; Stephens, Dionne P; Johnson-Mallard, Versie; Higgins, Melinda

    2016-03-01

    This exploratory descriptive study examined perceived vulnerabilities to human papillomavirus (HPV) and the correlation to factors influencing vaccine beliefs and vaccine decision making in young Hispanic males attending a large public urban university. Only 24% of participants believed that the HPV vaccine could prevent future problems, and 53% said they would not be vaccinated. The best predictors of HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men were agreement with doctor recommendations and belief in the vaccine's efficacy. Machismo cultural norms influence young Hispanic men's HPV-related decision making, their perceptions of the vaccine, and how they attitudinally act on what little HPV information they have access to. This study provides culturally relevant information for the development of targeted health education strategies aimed at increasing HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men. PMID:24841473

  19. Young Hispanic Men and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Choices

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Dionne P.; Johnson-Mallard, Versie; Higgins, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory descriptive study examined perceived vulnerabilities to HPV and the correlation to factors influencing vaccine beliefs and vaccine decision-making in young Hispanics males attending a large public urban university. Only 24% of participants believed the HPV vaccine could prevent future problems, and 53% said they would not be vaccinated. The best predictors of HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men were agreement with doctor recommendations and belief in the vaccine’s efficacy. Machismo cultural norms influence young Hispanic men’s HPV-related decision making, their perceptions of the vaccine, and how they attitudinally act upon what little HPV information they have access to. This study provides culturally relevant information for the development of targeted health education strategies aimed at increasing HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men. PMID:24841473

  20. Booster responses by oral vaccination with transgenic plants against chicken leucocytozoonosis.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akira; Gotanda, Tohru; Himeno, Naomi; Itchoda, Noriko; Tabayashi, Noriko; Ike, Kazunori; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Matsumura, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    We developed a transgenic potato (TrP/R7) expressing the recombinant R7 (rR7) antigen for use as an oral vaccine to protect against a chicken protozoan disease, chicken leucocytozoonosis. The TrP/R7 potato was produced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and regeneration, and the R7 gene insertion into potato chromosomes was confirmed by genomic polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridization. rR7 antigen expression in TrP/R7 potato was also confirmed by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting using an antibody against the second-generation schizont of Leucocytozoon caulleryi. A transgenic potato clone with the highest rR7 antigen expression (3 g rR7 antigen per gram of fresh-weight potato leaves) was selected, cultivated, and used in oral administration experiments to examine its ability to boost immunity. Chickens were immunized with chicken leucocytozoonosis vaccine "Hokken" by injection, and chickens that developed moderate levels of antibody titres were fed with TrP/R7 leaves. Chickens fed with TrP/R7 leaves showed increased antibody responses. In contrast, chickens fed with non-transgenic potato leaves showed a continuous decrease in antibody titres. Furthermore, chickens fed with TrP/R7 potato leaves showed strong resistance against experimental challenge with L. caulleryi infection. This study demonstrates the use of a plant-based oral vaccine to boost immunity against a protozoan disease. PMID:23607580

  1. Effect of vaccinating breeder chickens with a killed Salmonella vaccine on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Berghaus, R D; Thayer, S G; Maurer, J J; Hofacre, C L

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vaccination of breeder chickens on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks. Chickens housed on six commercial breeder farms were vaccinated with a killed Salmonella vaccine containing Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Kentucky. Unvaccinated breeders placed on six additional farms served as controls. Eggs from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks were kept separately in the hatchery, and the resulting chicks were used to populate 58 commercial broiler flock houses by using a pair-matched design. Vaccinated breeder flocks had significantly higher Salmonella-specific antibody titers than did the unvaccinated breeder flocks, although they did not differ significantly with respect to environmental Salmonella prevalences or loads. Broiler flocks that were the progeny of vaccinated breeders had significantly lower Salmonella prevalences and loads than broiler flocks that were the progeny of unvaccinated breeders. After adjusting for sample type and clustering at the farm level, the odds of detecting Salmonella in samples collected from broiler flocks originating from vaccinated breeders were 62% lower (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.38 [0.21, 0.68]) than in flocks from unvaccinated breeders. In addition, the mean load of culture-positive samples was lower in broilers from vaccinated breeders by 0.30 log most probable number per sample (95% confidence interval of -0.51, -0.09; P = 0.004), corresponding to a 50% decrease in Salmonella loads. In summary, vaccination of broiler breeder pullets increased humoral immunity in the breeders and reduced Salmonella prevalences and loads in their broiler progeny, but did not significantly decrease Salmonella in the breeder farm environment. PMID:21549042

  2. Review of oral cholera vaccines: efficacy in young children

    PubMed Central

    Aumatell, Cristina Masuet; Torrell, JM Ramon; Zuckerman, Jane N

    2011-01-01

    Background: Young children are one of the most vulnerable groups who may be infected with cholera. The following literature review of the efficacy of the currently available cholera vaccines provides a clear evidence base for the clinical administration of cholera vaccine, particularly in an epidemic situation. Aim: To assess the efficacy of oral cholera vaccines in preventing cases of cholera in young children. Methods: A systematic literature review was undertaken for the period 1983 to 2011 using PubMed and the search terms oral cholera vaccines, children, and efficacy, limited to clinical trials and human studies. Results: Oral cholera vaccine provides an acceptable level of protection in young children, with the level of protection being greater at 12 or 24 months following immunization. Conclusions: Children exposed to a potential risk of cholera are recommended to be vaccinated with an oral cholera vaccine, irrespective of whether its constituents include the B subunit. PMID:22114507

  3. Bursal transcriptome of chickens protected by DNA vaccination versus those challenged with infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Chun; Kim, Bong-Suk; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection destroys the bursa of Fabricius, causing immunosuppression and rendering chickens susceptible to secondary bacterial or viral infections. IBDV large-segment-protein-expressing DNA has been shown to confer complete protection of chickens from infectious bursal disease (IBD). The purpose of the present study was to compare DNA-vaccinated chickens and unvaccinated chickens upon IBDV challenge by transcriptomic analysis of bursa regarding innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were vaccinated intramuscularly three times at weekly intervals with IBDV large-segment-protein-expressing DNA. Chickens were challenged orally with 8.2 10(2) times the egg infective dose (EID)50 of IBDV strain variant E (VE) one week after the last vaccination. Bursae collected at 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days post-challenge (dpc) were subjected to real-time RT-PCR quantification of bursal transcripts related to innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport. The expression levels of granzyme K and CD8 in DNA-vaccinated chickens were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those in unvaccinated chickens upon IBDV challenge at 0.5 or 1 dpc. The expression levels of other genes involved in innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport were not upregulated or downregulated in DNA-vaccinated chickens during IBDV challenge. Bursal transcripts related to innate immunity and inflammation, including TLR3, MDA5, IFN-?, IFN-?, IRF-1, IRF-10, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, iNOS, granzyme A, granzyme K and IL-10, were upregulated or significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated at 3 dpc and later in unvaccinated chickens challenged with IBDV. The expression levels of genes related to immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport, including CD4, CD8, IL-2, IFN-?, IL-12(p40), IL-18, GM-CSF, GATA-3, p53, glucose transporter-2 and glucose transporter-3, were upregulated or significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated at 3 dpc and later in unvaccinated chickens challenged with IBDV. Taken together, the results indicate that the bursal transcriptome involved in innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport, except for granzyme K and CD8, was not differentially expressed in DNA-vaccinated chickens protected from IBDV challenge. PMID:25267176

  4. Characterization of 10 adjuvants for inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines against challenge with highly pathogenic AIV in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inactivated vaccines comprise 95% of all vaccine used for avian influenza virus (AIV) by dose. Optimizing the adjuvant is one way to improve vaccine efficacy. Inactivated vaccines were produced with beta-propiolactone inactivated A/chicken/BC/314514-1/2004 H7N3 low pathogenicity AIV and standardiz...

  5. Anti-idiotypic antibody with potential use as an Eimeria tenella sporozoite antigen surrogate for vaccination of chickens against coccidiosis.

    PubMed Central

    Bhogal, B S; Nollstadt, K H; Karkhanis, Y D; Schmatz, D M; Jacobson, E B

    1988-01-01

    Anti-idiotypic antibodies were raised in rabbits against four monoclonal antibodies with specificity for the surface antigenic determinants of Eimeria tenella sporozoites, the infective stage of the coccidial parasite. Two of the monoclonal antibodies (1073 and 15-1) transferred passive protection in chickens against E. tenella infection. The polyclonal anti-idiotype antibody preparations against protective monoclonal antibodies contained specificities for the paratope-associated idiotypes of these monoclonal antibodies, as assessed by the competitive inhibition of binding of the homologous idiotype-anti-idiotype by the sporozoite antigen. Competitive inhibition of binding of homologous idiotype-anti-idiotype by the parasite antigen was not observed when the anti-idiotype antibody preparations against monoclonal antibodies 1546 and 1096 were tested. The anti-idiotype 1073 and 15-1 antibodies functioned as surrogate antigens in vivo when used for vaccination of young chickens, as evidenced by the induction of partial protective immunity against subsequent challenge infection with virulent parasites and induction of antisporozoite antibodies. These data clearly support the view that anti-idiotypic antibodies raised against the paratope-associated idiotypes can mimic pathogen antigens and therefore can provide a possible alternative approach for the vaccination of chickens against coccidiosis. PMID:3258583

  6. In Ovo Vaccination with Turkey Herpesvirus Hastens Maturation of Chicken Embryo Immune Responses in Specific-Pathogen-Free Chickens.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Isabel M; Faiz, Nik M; Cortes, Aneg L; Barbosa, Taylor; Villalobos, Tarsicio; Pandiri, Arun R

    2015-09-01

    Administration of Marek's disease (MD) vaccines in ovo has become a common practice for the poultry industry. Efficacy of MD vaccines is very high, even though they are administered to chicken embryos that are immunologically immature. We have recently demonstrated that in ovo vaccination with turkey herpesvirus (HVT) results in increased activation of T cells at hatch. Our previous results suggested that in ovo vaccination with HVT might have a positive impact not only on MD protection but also on the overall maturity of the developing immune system of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of administration of HVT at 18 days of embryonation (ED) on the maturation of the embryo immune system. Four experiments were conducted in Specific-Pathogen-Free Avian Supplies (SPAFAS) chickens to evaluate the effect of administration of HVT at 18 ED on the splenic cell phenotypes at day of age (experiment 1) and on the ability of 1-day-old chickens to respond to various antigens compared with older birds (experiments 2 and 3). In addition, a fourth experiment was conducted to elucidate whether administration of other serotype's MD vaccines (CVI988 and SB-1) at 18 ED had the same effect as HVT on the spleen cell phenotypes at day of age. Our results demonstrated that 1-day-old chickens that had received HVT in ovo (1-day HVT) had higher percentages of CD45+, MHC-I+, CD45+MHC-I+, CD3+, MHC-II+, CD3+MHC-II+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD8+ cells in the spleen than 1-day-old sham-inoculated chickens (1-day sham). Moreover, spleens of 1-day HVT chickens had greater percentages of CD45+MHC-I+ cells and equal or greater numbers of CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+ cells than older unvaccinated chickens. In addition, administration of HVT at 18 ED rendered chicks at hatch more responsive to unrelated antigens such as concavalin A, phytohemagglutinin-L, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Administration of MD vaccines of other serotypes had an effect, although less remarkable than HVT, on the spleen cell phenotypes at hatch. Vaccines of all three serotypes resulted in an increased percentage of MHC-I+, CD45-MHC-I+, CD4-CD8+, and CD8+ cells, but only HVT resulted in a higher percentage of CD45+, CD45+MHC-I+, CD3+MHC-II+, and CD4+CD8- cells. Results of this study show that it is possible to hasten maturation of the chicken embryo immune system by administering HVT in ovo and open new avenues to optimize the procedure to improve and strengthen the immunocompetency of commercial chickens at hatch. PMID:26478155

  7. Differential genetic variation of chickens and MD vaccine protective efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccine protective efficacy is determined by multiple factors including host genetics, the type of vaccine, vaccine dosage, the virulence and dose of challenging viruses, and the interval between vaccination and viral challenge. Studies on human immune responses to vaccinations suggest host genetic...

  8. Immunization of broiler chickens with a commercial infectious laryngotracheitis vaccine in the drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Hayles, L B; Newby, W C; Gasperdone, H; Gilchrist, E W

    1976-01-01

    Seventy-five thousand broiler chickens in four flocks were immunized at four weeks of age with a commercial infectious laryngotracheitis vaccine administered in the drinking water. Three of the flocks exhibited a vaccine reaction represented by mild respiratory illness between seven and 14 days after vaccination. Immunity challenge experiments demonstrated 97% protection in one trial and 67% in another trial in which the dose of challenge virus was increased fourfold. In the latter trial a parallel comparative vaccination by eye administration was 87% protective. None of the vaccinated birds died of the challenge exposure whereas all the unvaccinated control chickens became ill, several showed the acute severe form of the disease and 36% died. Similar favourable results were obtained in large-scale water immunization programs involving more than 200,000 birds. Serum antibody levels determined before immunity challenge were, within wide limits, inversely related to the severity of clinical disease which developed from the challenge inoculation. PMID:187294

  9. INFLUENCE OF B-HAPLOTYPE ON THE EFFICACY OF RECOMBINANT FOWLPOX VACCINE PROTECTION AGAINST MAREK'S DISEASE IN CHICKENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV) containing glycoprotein gB genes from three serotypes of Marek's disease virus (MDV) was used to study the influence of B-haplotype on vaccine responses in chickens. Sequence analysis of the gB gene from three serotypes showed 80% homology. Chickens were vaccinated ...

  10. 9 CFR 381.67 - Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate... inspector per minute under the traditional inspection procedure for the different young chicken and...

  11. 9 CFR 381.67 - Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate... inspector per minute under the traditional inspection procedure for the different young chicken and...

  12. 9 CFR 381.67 - Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate... inspector per minute under the traditional inspection procedure for the different young chicken and...

  13. 9 CFR 381.67 - Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate... inspector per minute under the traditional inspection procedure for the different young chicken and...

  14. 9 CFR 381.67 - Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate... inspector per minute under the traditional inspection procedure for the different young chicken and...

  15. Protective immune response of chickens to oral vaccination with thermostable live Fowlpox virus vaccine (strain TPV-1) coated on oiled rice.

    PubMed

    Wambura, Philemon N; Godfrey, S K

    2010-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop and evaluate a local vaccine (strain TPV-1) against Fowl pox (FP) in chickens. Two separate groups of chickens were vaccinated with FP vaccine through oral (coated on oiled rice) and wing web stab routes, respectively. The results showed that the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titres in both vaccinated groups were comparable and significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the control chickens. It was further revealed that 14 days after vaccination HI GMT of > or =2 log(2) was recorded in chickens vaccinated by oral and wing web stab routes whereas 35 days after vaccination the HI antibody titres reached 5.6 log(2) and 6.3 log(2), respectively. Moreover, in both groups the birds showed 100% protection against challenge virus at 35 days after vaccination. The findings from the present study have shown that oral route is equally effective as wing web stab route for vaccination of chickens against FP. However, the oral route can be used in mass vaccination of birds thus avoid catching individual birds for vaccination. It was noteworthy that strain TPV-1 virus could be propagated by a simple allantoic cavity inoculation and harvesting of allantoic fluid where it survived exposure at 57 degrees C for 2 hours. If the oral vaccination technique is optimized it may be used in controlling FP in scavenging and feral chickens. In conclusion, the present study has shown that FP vaccine (strain TPV-1) was safe, thermostable, immunogenic and efficacious in vaccinated chickens. PMID:19714476

  16. HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in time. Which girls/women should receive HPV vaccination? HPV vaccination is recommended for 11 and 12 ... help prevent fainting and injuries. Why is HPV vaccination only recommended for women through age 26? HPV ...

  17. Assessment of attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains in controlling experimental Salmonella Typhimurium infection in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Yanlong; Parreira, Valeria R.; Roland, Kenneth L.; Curtiss, Roy; Prescott, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella hold considerable promise as vaccine delivery vectors for heterologous antigens in chickens. Such vaccines have the potential additional benefit of also controlling Salmonella infection in immunized birds. As a way of selecting attenuated strains with optimal immunogenic potential as antigen delivery vectors, this study screened 20 novel Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, differing in mutations associated with delayed antigen synthesis and delayed attenuation, for their efficacy in controlling colonization by virulent Salmonella Typhimurium, as well as for their persistence in the intestine and the spleen. Marked differences were observed between strains in these characteristics, which provide the basis for selection for further study as vaccine vectors. PMID:24396177

  18. Efficacy of chimeric DNA vaccines encoding Eimeria tenella 5401 and chicken IFN-? or IL-2 against coccidiosis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaokai; Huang, Xinmei; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-09-01

    Chimeric DNA vaccines encoding Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) surface antigen 5401 were constructed and their efficacies against E. tenella challenge were studied. The open reading frame (ORF) of 5401 was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T2 to express the recombinant protein and the expressed recombinant protein was identified by Western blot. The ORF of 5401 and chicken cytokine gene IFN-? or IL-2 were cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1 consecutively to construct DNA vaccines pVAX-5401-IFN-?, pVAX-5401-IL-2 and pVAX-5401. The expression of aim genes in vivo was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Fourteen-day-old chickens were inoculated twice at an interval of 7 days with 100?g of plasmids pVAX-5401, pVAX-5401-IFN-? and pVAX-5401-IL-2 or 200?g of recombinant 5401 protein by leg intramuscular injection, respectively. Seven days after the second inoculation, all chickens except the unchallenged control group were challenged orally with 5??10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. tenella. Seven days after challenge, all chickens were weighted and slaughtered to determine the effects of immunization. The results showed the recombinant protein was about 90?kDa and reacted with antiserum against soluble sporozoites. The animal experiment showed that all the DNA vaccines pVAX-5401, pVAX-5401-IFN-? or pVAX-5401-IL-2 and the recombinant 5401 protein could obviously alleviate body weight loss and cecal lesions as compared with non-vaccinated challenged control and empty vector pVAX1control. Furthermore, pVAX-5401-IFN-? or pVAX-5401-IL-2 induced anti-coccidial index (ACI) of 180.01 or 177.24 which were significantly higher than that of pVAX-5401. The results suggested that 5401 was an effective candidate antigen for vaccine. This finding also suggested that chicken IFN-? or IL-2 could effectively improve the efficacies of DNA vaccines against avian coccidiosis. PMID:26008611

  19. Influence of vaccination with avirulent herpesvirus on subsequent infection of chickens with virulent Marek's disease herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Spencer, J L; Robertson, A

    1975-08-01

    Vaccination of chickens with turkey herpesvirus (HVT) or attenuated Marek's disease herpesvirus (aMDHV) blocked infection with virulent MDHV (VMDHV) for approximately 5 weeks after contact exposure. However, there was no apparent blockage of infection when challenge virus was administered intraabdominally (IA). Evidence for infection with VMDHV was based on viral isolation by in vivo assay or by detecting precipitins to "A" antigen associated with virulent virus. The HVT stimulated production of neutralizing antibody against VMDHV in a high percentage of chickens, whereas the aMDHV was a comparatively poor inducer of such antibody. Despite this difference, both of the vaccinal viruses conferred protection against development of Marek's disease. PMID:168799

  20. Genome-wide host responses against infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine infection in chicken embryo lung cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV; gallid herpesvirus 1) infection causes high mortality and huge economic losses in the poultry industry. To protect chickens against ILTV infection, chicken-embryo origin (CEO) and tissue-culture origin (TCO) vaccines have been used. However, the transmission of vaccine ILTV from vaccinated- to unvaccinated chickens can cause severe respiratory disease. Previously, host cell responses against virulent ILTV infections were determined by microarray analysis. In this study, a microarray analysis was performed to understand host-vaccine ILTV interactions at the host gene transcription level. Results The 44 K chicken oligo microarrays were used, and the results were compared to those found in virulent ILTV infection. Total RNAs extracted from vaccine ILTV infected chicken embryo lung cells at 1, 2, 3 and 4 days post infection (dpi), compared to 0 dpi, were subjected to microarray assay using the two color hybridization method. Data analysis using JMP Genomics 5.0 and the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) program showed that 213 differentially expressed genes could be grouped into a number of functional categories including tissue development, cellular growth and proliferation, cellular movement, and inflammatory responses. Moreover, 10 possible gene networks were created by the IPA program to show intermolecular connections. Interestingly, of 213 differentially expressed genes, BMP2, C8orf79, F10, and NPY were expressed distinctly in vaccine ILTV infection when compared to virulent ILTV infection. Conclusions Comprehensive knowledge of gene expression and biological functionalities of host factors during vaccine ILTV infection can provide insight into host cellular defense mechanisms compared to those of virulent ILTV. PMID:22530940

  1. Expression of chicken parvovirus VP2 in chicken embryo fibroblasts requires codon optimization for production of naked DNA and vectored Meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 (MeHV-1) is an ideal vector for the expression of antigens from pathogenic avian organisms in order to generate vaccines. Chicken parvovirus (ChPV) is a widespread infectious virus that causes serious disease in chickens. It is one of the etiological agents largely suspe...

  2. Flagellin A Toll-Like Receptor 5 Agonist as an Adjuvant in Chicken Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Preety; Deb, Rajib; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan; Dey, Sohini

    2014-01-01

    Chicken raised under commercial conditions are vulnerable to environmental exposure to a number of pathogens. Therefore, regular vaccination of the flock is an absolute requirement to prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases. To combat infectious diseases, vaccines require inclusion of effective adjuvants that promote enhanced protection and do not cause any undesired adverse reaction when administered to birds along with the vaccine. With this perspective in mind, there is an increased need for effective better vaccine adjuvants. Efforts are being made to enhance vaccine efficacy by the use of suitable adjuvants, particularly Toll-like receptor (TLR)-based adjuvants. TLRs are among the types of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize conserved pathogen molecules. A number of studies have documented the effectiveness of flagellin as an adjuvant as well as its ability to promote cytokine production by a range of innate immune cells. This minireview summarizes our current understanding of flagellin action, its role in inducing cytokine response in chicken cells, and the potential use of flagellin as well as its combination with other TLR ligands as an adjuvant in chicken vaccines. PMID:24451328

  3. A Eukaryotic Expression Plasmid Carrying Chicken Interleukin-18 Enhances the Response to Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaokang; Zhang, Chunjie; Wu, Tingcai; Li, Yinju

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an important cytokine involved in innate and acquired immunity. In this study, we cloned the full-length chicken IL-18 (ChIL-18) gene from specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicken embryo spleen cells and provided evidence that the ChIL-18 gene in a recombinant plasmid was successfully expressed in chicken DT40 cells. ChIL-18 significantly enhanced gamma interferon (IFN-γ) mRNA expression in chicken splenocytes, which increased IFN-γ-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by macrophages. The potential genetic adjuvant activity of the ChIL-18 plasmid was examined in chickens by coinjecting ChIL-18 plasmid and inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. ChIL-18 markedly elevated serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers and anti-hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (anti-HN)-specific antibody levels, induced the secretion of both Th1- (IFN-γ) and Th2- (interleukin-4) type cytokines, promoted the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes, and increased the populations of CD3+ T cells and their subsets, CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, a virus challenge revealed that ChIL-18 contributed to protection against Newcastle disease virus challenge. Taken together, our data indicate that the coadministration of ChIL-18 plasmid and NDV vaccine induces a strong immune response at both the humoral and cellular levels and that ChIL-18 is a novel immunoadjuvant suitable for NDV vaccination. PMID:25355794

  4. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in

  5. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…

  6. Vaccination of chickens decreased Newcastle disease virus contamination in eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease is an important health issue of poultry causing major economic losses and inhibits trade worldwide. Vaccination is used as a control measure, but it is unknown whether vaccination will prevent virus contamination of eggs. In this study, hens were sham-vaccinated or received one or ...

  7. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on intranasal administration of liposomal Newcastle disease virus vaccine to SPF chickens.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Li-Ping; Chiou, Chwei-Jang; Chen, Chien-Chung; Deng, Ming-Chung; Chung, Tze-Wen; Huang, Yi-You; Liu, Der-Zen

    2009-10-15

    In order to potentiate the low immunogenicity of the inactivated Newcastle disease virus immunized into chickens by mucosal route, liposomes as a drug delivery system and LPS (lipopolysaccharide) as an immuno-stimulator were evaluated. Here, we report a new nasal delivery system of inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. The intranasal vaccine was based on different lipids to form MLV (multi-lamellar vehicles) liposomes. The liposomes had combined carrier and adjuvant activities, which induced strong systemic (serum) and local (lung and nasal) humoral responses in SPF (specific-pathogen-free) chickens, and provided protective immunity. PC-Lip (phosphatidylcholine-liposome) elicited significant mucosal secretary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) levels (p<0.05) in tracheal lavage fluid and serum IgG levels (p<0.05). In response to virulent viral challenge, birds treated with PBS (phosphate buffered saline) as control group died, whereas 80% of chickens which received PC-Lip, PC-Lip-LPS, PS-Lip (phosphatidylserine-liposome), and PS-Lip-LPS survived. HAI titers were 1:2560 in the PS-Lip-LPS group and 1:1280 in the PC-Lip, PC-Lip-LPS, and PS-Lip groups after two vaccinations. The results suggest that PC-Lip or PS-Lip might thus be suitable as a potential adjuvant for mucosal vaccination against NDV in chickens. PMID:19439366

  8. Subclinical Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection among Vaccinated Chickens, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qing-Xia; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Liu, Shuo; Wang, Su-Chun; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Hou, Guang-Yu; Liu, Xiang-Ming; Sui, Zheng-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Subclinical infection of vaccinated chickens with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N2) virus was identified through routine surveillance in China. Investigation suggested that the virus has evolved into multiple genotypes. To better control transmission of the virus, we recommend a strengthened program of education, biosecurity, rapid diagnostics, surveillance, and elimination of infected poultry. PMID:25418710

  9. Vaccination prevents virus contamination inside of eggs laid by newcastle disease virus infected chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease causes a severe systemic disease in chickens with viremia and high mortality. The transmission of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) through the egg has been suggested, but definitive proof of virus passing through the egg is lacking. Furthermore, the role of vaccination to mitigate any...

  10. Cellular and Cytokine Responses in Feathers of Chickens Vaccinated Against Marek's Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to characterize cellular and cytokine responses as indicators of cell-mediated immune response in feathers of chickens vaccinated against Mareks disease (MD). Feathers constitute the site of virus shedding in the case of Mareks disease virus (MDV). The feather sample...

  11. Vaccine by chicken line interaction alters the protective efficacy against challenge with a very virulent plus strain of Marek's disease virus in white leghorn chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by Marek’s disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic and highly contagious a-herpesvirus. MD has been controlled by vaccination but sporadic outbreaks of MD still occur in some parts of the world. Efforts to improve vaccine ef...

  12. Delayed vaccine virus replication in chickens vaccinated subcutaneously with an immune complex infectious bursal disease vaccine: Quantification of vaccine virus by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The distribution of the immune complex vaccine virus for infectious bursal disease (IBD) in tissue was examined and the viral loads of the organs were quantitatively compared. One-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) and maternally immune broiler chickens were injected subcutaneously with the vaccine. Lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues were collected at various time intervals during the experiment to test for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-RNA by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Only the bursa of Fabricius was found to be positive with unusually long viral persistence in the broiler group. The positive bursa samples were further investigated by using real-time PCR coupled with a TaqMan probe. The highest amounts of the virus were detected at its first appearance in the bursa: on day 14 post vaccination (PV) in the SPF chickens and on day 17 and day 21 PV in the maternally immune broiler group. The virus then gradually cleared, most likely due to the parallel appearance of the active immune response indicated by seroconversion. PMID:15971678

  13. Prevalence of amyloid deposition in mature healthy chickens in the flock that previously had outbreaks of vaccine-associated amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    IBI, Kanata; MURAKAMI, Tomoaki; GODA, Wael Mohamed; KOBAYASHI, Naoki; ISHIGURO, Naotaka; YANAI, Tokuma

    2015-01-01

    Avian amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is commonly observed in adult birds with chronic inflammation, such as that caused by bacterial infection. We previously described vaccine-associated AA amyloidosis in juvenile chickens. In this study, the prevalence of amyloid deposition was measured in mature healthy chickens that survived a previous outbreak of avian AA amyloidosis while they were juveniles. Herein, we analyzed the amyloid deposition in mature chickens and compared the prevalence of amyloid deposition with juvenile chickens obtained in our previous study (Murakami et al., 2013). We found that: 1) amyloid deposition in the liver was absent in mature chickens, while juvenile chickens had a rate of 24%; 2) amyloid deposition in the spleen was observed in 36% of juvenile chickens and in 40% of mature chickens; 3) amyloid deposition in the pectoral muscle of mature chickens (43.75%) was approximately half that of juvenile chickens (88%). These results suggest that additional amyloid deposition in chickens previously exposed to AA amyloidosis may not worsen with age. Further, amyloid deposition in chickens may tend to regress when causative factors, such as vaccinations and/or chronic inflammation, are absent. PMID:25985816

  14. Effect of montanide adjuvants on recombinant coccidia antigen vaccination against Eimeria infection in commercial meat-type chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of Montanide' adjuvants on protein subunit vaccination against experimental avian coccidiosis. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mi...

  15. Effects of two infectious bursal disease vaccine virus strains on hepatic microsomal enzyme activities in chickens.

    PubMed

    Crni?, Andreja Prevendar; Sakar, D; Pompe-Gotal, Jelena; Bidin, Z; Lojki?, Ivana; Cajavec, S

    2006-06-01

    The influence of two infectious bursal disease vaccines on the activities of hepatic microsomal enzymes aniline hydroxylase, ethylmorphine N-demethylase, NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, aryl sulphotransferase and p-nitrophenol UDP-glucuronyltransferase was investigated in chickens. The vaccines contained attenuated Winterfield 2512 and VMG-91 strains, respectively. The activities of enzymes were determined on postvaccination days 0, 2, 5 and 7. At the same time, post-mitochondrial supernatant, cytosolic and microsomal pellet protein concentrations were determined. As expected, the antibody titres against infectious bursal disease virus in the serum were increased in both tested groups in relation to each administered vaccine. Using RT-PCR, the presence of the VP2 gene fragment of virus in the liver of chicken was demonstrated 4 and 6 h after vaccination. The results of this study suggest that the two commercial vaccines modulate the activities of five enzymes tested, and that the two attenuated vaccines applied triggered induction and/or inhibition of phases I and II of biotransformation enzyme activities. PMID:16841765

  16. Human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance among young men in Bangalore, India

    PubMed Central

    Belani, Hrishikesh Kumar; Sekar, Poorani; Guhaniyogi, Rajarshi; Abraham, Anil; Bohjanen, Paul R.; Bohjanen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world. It can lead to anogenital, cervical, and head and neck cancer, with higher risk of malignant disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. In India, 73,000 of the 130,000 women diagnosed with cervical cancer die annually. Gardasil®, a vaccine available against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, is approved for use in women in India but not men. A backlash to post-licensure trials has created a negative public opinion of the vaccine for women. Vaccinating boys and men is an alternate approach to prevent cervical cancer in women. This study gauges facilitators and barriers to vaccination acceptance among men in Bangalore, India. Materials and methods Young men presenting to a dermatology clinic or an ART center in Bangalore, India, answered a seven-point survey assessing acceptance of the HPV vaccine, perceived barriers to vaccination, and acceptance of vaccination for their children. Ninety-three general dermatology patients and 85 patients with HIV/AIDS participated. Results There was a high degree of vaccine acceptance for both groups, 83 and 98%, respectively. Vaccine side effects and cost were cited as key barriers to vaccination, and doctor recommendation and government approval were the main facilitators. Conclusion There is potential for high acceptability of the HPV vaccine among men in India. These results can facilitate further study of vaccine acceptance among males and physician opinion and knowledge about HPV vaccine use. Vaccination of males is a hopeful strategy to protect men and women from HPV-related malignancies. PMID:24961359

  17. Presence of infectious bursal disease virus in chicken meat and effect of vaccination in decreasing the virus titers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide and impacts chicken meat importation in countries with self-declared freedom. This study sought to determine the presence of IBDV in chicken meat and the role of vaccination as a mitigation strategy. In...

  18. Rapid production of a H? N? influenza vaccine from MDCK cells for protecting chicken against influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhenghua; Lu, Zhongzheng; Wang, Lei; Huo, Zeren; Cui, Jianhua; Zheng, Tingting; Dai, Qing; Chen, Cuiling; Qin, Mengying; Chen, Meihua; Yang, Rirong

    2015-04-01

    H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses are widespread in domestic poultry, and vaccination remains the most effective way to protect the chicken population from avian influenza pandemics. Currently, egg-based H9N2 influenza vaccine production has several disadvantages and mammalian MDCK cells are being investigated as candidates for influenza vaccine production. However, little research has been conducted on low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) such as H9N2 replicating in mammalian cells using microcarrier beads in a bioreactor. In this study, we present a systematic analysis of a safe H9N2 influenza vaccine derived from MDCK cells for protecting chickens against influenza virus infection. In 2008, we isolated two novel H9N2 influenza viruses from chickens raised in southern China, and these H9N2 viruses were adapted to MDCK cells. The H9N2 virus was produced in MDCK cells in a scalable bioreactor, purified, inactivated, and investigated for use as a vaccine. The MDCK-derived H9N2 vaccine was able to induce high titers of neutralizing antibodies in chickens of different ages. Histopathological examination, direct immunofluorescence, HI assay, CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio test, and cytokine evaluation indicated that the MDCK-derived H9N2 vaccine evoked a rapid and effective immune response to protect chickens from influenza infection. High titers of H9N2-specific antibodies were maintained in chickens for 5months, and the MDCK-derived H9N2 vaccine had no effects on chicken growth. The use of MDCK cells in bioreactors for LPAIV vaccine production is an attractive option to prevent outbreaks of LPAIV in poultry. PMID:25646963

  19. Immune responses of chickens inoculated with a recombinant fowlpox vaccine coexpressing glycoprotein B of infectious laryngotracheitis virus and chicken IL-18.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Ying; Cui, Pei; Cui, Bao-An; Li, He-Ping; Jiao, Xian-Qin; Zheng, Lan-Lan; Cheng, Guo; Chao, An-Jun

    2011-11-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes severe and economically significant respiratory disease in poultry worldwide. Herein, the immunogenicity of two recombinant fowlpox viruses (rFPV-gB and rFPV-gB/IL18) containing ILTV glycoprotein B (gB) and chicken interleukin-18 (IL-18) were investigated in a challenge model. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were vaccinated by wing-web puncture with the two rFPVs and challenged with the virulent ILTV CG strain. There were differences in antibody levels elicited by either rFPV-gB/IL18 or rFPV-gB as determined using ELISA. The ratios of CD4(+) to CD8(+) in chickens immunized with rFPV-gB/IL18 were higher (P < 0.05) than in those immunized with rFPV-gB, and the level of proliferative response of the T cells in the rFPV-gB/IL18-vaccinated group was higher (P < 0.05) than that in the rFPV-gB group. All chickens immunized with rFPV-gB/IL18 were protected (10/10), whereas only eight of 10 of the chickens immunized with the rFPV-gB were protected. The results showed that the protective efficacy of the rFPV-gB vaccine could be enhanced by simultaneous expression of chicken IL-18. PMID:22077232

  20. Evaluation of a multi-epitope subunit vaccine against avian leukosis virus subgroup J in chickens.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingqing; Ma, Xingjiang; Wang, Fangkun; Li, Hongmei; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2015-12-01

    The intricate sequence and antigenic variability of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) have led to unprecedented difficulties in the development of vaccines. Much experimental evidence demonstrates that ALV-J mutants have caused immune evasion and pose a challenge for traditional efforts to develop effective vaccines. To investigate the potential of a multi-epitope vaccination strategy to prevent chickens against ALV-J infections, a recombinant chimeric multi-epitope protein X (rCMEPX) containing both immunodominant B and T epitope concentrated domains selected from the major structural protein of ALV-J using bioinformatics approach was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). Its immunogenicity and protective efficacy was studied in chickens. The results showed that rCMEPX could elicit neutralizing antibodies and cellular responses, and antibodies induced by rCMEPX could specifically recognize host cell naturally expressed ALV-J proteins, which indicated that the rCMEPX is a good immunogen. Challenge experiments showed 80% chickens that received rCMEPX were well protected against ALV-J challenge. This is the first report of a chimeric multi-epitope protein as a potential immunogen against ALV-J. PMID:26196055

  1. Vaccination of chickens with strain CVL30, a genetically defined Salmonella enteritidis aroA live oral vaccine candidate.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, G L; Venables, L M; Woodward, M J; Hormaeche, C E

    1994-01-01

    Newly hatched chicks were vaccinated orally with a genetically defined Salmonella enteritidis aroA candidate, strain CVL30. In chickens immunized with 10(5) or 10(9) CFU and challenged by the intravenous route with 10(8) CFU of S. enteritidis 109 Nalr at 8 weeks old, there were similar reductions in colonization of the spleens, livers, and ceca of vaccinees compared with unvaccinated controls. Two groups of newly hatched female chicks were vaccinated orally with 10(9) CFU of strain CVL30, and one group was revaccinated intramuscularly with 10(9) CFU at 16 weeks old. When challenged intravenously with S. enteritidis 109 Nalr at 23 weeks old, there was a reduction in the colonization of spleens, livers, ovaries, and ceca compared with unvaccinated controls. Inclusion of the intramuscular booster gave increased protection to the ovary, although the vaccine strain was isolated on one occasion from a batch of eggs laid at 20 weeks old. In chickens immunized with 10(9) CFU of strain CVL30 and challenged orally with 10(9) CFU of S. enteritidis 109 Nalr, there was a reduction in intestinal shedding of the challenge strain from vaccines compared with unvaccinated controls. Circulating immunoglobulin G antibodies to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were detected in unvaccinated controls within 7 to 10 days of oral challenge. In contrast, circulating immunoglobulin G antibodies to LPS in vaccinees were not altered by the oral challenge, which suggested that vaccination reduced or prevented invasion by the challenge strain from the gut or multiplication of the challenge strain in the tissues. Newly hatched chicks were vaccinated orally with ca. 10(9) CFU of strain CVL30, and 1 day later, the vaccines and unvaccinated controls were challenged orally with 10(5) or 10(9) CFU of S. enteritidis 109 Nalr. Colonization of the ceca and invasion from the gut by the S. enteritidis challenge strain was reduced in the vaccines up to 5 days postchallenge compared with controls. In a second trial, vaccinees and controls were challenged orally with 10(7) or 10(9) CFU of S. typhimurium 2391 Nalr. In contrast to the challenge with S. enteritidis, colonization of the ceca and invasion by the S. typhimurium strain were not greatly reduced. PMID:7927750

  2. Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Virus Infection Causes Detectable Changes in Chicken Embryos.

    PubMed

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; Dias de Oliveira, Barbara C E P; de Sequeira, Patrcia Carvalho; Maia de Souza, Yuli Rodrigues; Ferro, Jessica Maria dos Santos; da Silva, Igor Jos; Caputo, Luzia Ftima Gonalves; Guedes, Priscila Tavares; dos Santos, Alexandre Araujo Cunha; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo

    2015-09-01

    The yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most effective human vaccines ever created. The YF vaccine has been produced since 1937 in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with the YF 17D virus. Yet, little information is available about the infection mechanism of YF 17DD virus in this biological model. To better understand this mechanism, we infected embryos of Gallus gallus domesticus and analyzed their histopathology after 72 hours of YF infection. Some embryos showed few apoptotic bodies in infected tissues, suggesting mild focal infection processes. Confocal and super-resolution microscopic analysis allowed us to identify as targets of viral infection: skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, nervous system cells, renal tubular epithelium, lung parenchyma, and fibroblasts associated with connective tissue in the perichondrium and dermis. The virus replication was heaviest in muscle tissues. In all of these specimens, RT-PCR methods confirmed the presence of replicative intermediate and genomic YF RNA. This clearer characterization of cell targets in chicken embryos paves the way for future development of a new YF vaccine based on a new cell culture system. PMID:26371874

  3. Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Virus Infection Causes Detectable Changes in Chicken Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; Dias de Oliveira, Barbara C. E. P.; de Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho; Maia de Souza, Yuli Rodrigues; Ferro, Jessica Maria dos Santos; da Silva, Igor José; Caputo, Luzia Fátima Gonçalves; Guedes, Priscila Tavares; dos Santos, Alexandre Araujo Cunha; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most effective human vaccines ever created. The YF vaccine has been produced since 1937 in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with the YF 17D virus. Yet, little information is available about the infection mechanism of YF 17DD virus in this biological model. To better understand this mechanism, we infected embryos of Gallus gallus domesticus and analyzed their histopathology after 72 hours of YF infection. Some embryos showed few apoptotic bodies in infected tissues, suggesting mild focal infection processes. Confocal and super-resolution microscopic analysis allowed us to identify as targets of viral infection: skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, nervous system cells, renal tubular epithelium, lung parenchyma, and fibroblasts associated with connective tissue in the perichondrium and dermis. The virus replication was heaviest in muscle tissues. In all of these specimens, RT-PCR methods confirmed the presence of replicative intermediate and genomic YF RNA. This clearer characterization of cell targets in chicken embryos paves the way for future development of a new YF vaccine based on a new cell culture system. PMID:26371874

  4. Positive regulation of humoral and innate immune responses induced by inactivated Avian Influenza Virus vaccine in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Fatma; Hassanin, Ola

    2015-12-01

    Avian Influenza (AI) vaccines are widely used for mammals and birds in a trial to eliminate the Avian Influenza virus (AIV) infection from the world. However and up till now the virus is still existed via modulation of its antigenic structure to evade the pressure of host immune responses. For a complete understanding of the immune responses following AI vaccination in chickens, the modulations of the chickens humoral immune responses and interferon-alpha signaling pathway, as a fundamental part of the innate immune responses, were investigated. In our study, we measured the humoral immune response using hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. In addition, chicken interferon-alpha pathway components was measured at RNA levels using Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) following one dose of inactivated H5N1 influenza vaccine at 14 days of age. In this study, the protective levels of humoral antibody responses were observed at 14, 21 and 28 days following immunization with inactivated (Re-1/H5N1) AI vaccine. In the chicken spleen cells, up regulation in the chicken interferon-alpha pathway components (MX1 & IRF7) was existed as early as 48 h post vaccination and remained until 28 days post vaccination at the endogenous state. However, after the recall with ex-vivo stimulation, the up regulation was more pronounced in the transcriptional factor (IRF7) compared to the antiviral gene (MX1) at 28 days post vaccination. So far, from our results it appears that the inactivated H5N1 vaccine can trigger the chicken interferon-alpha signaling pathway as well as it can elicit protective humoral antibody responses. PMID:26329833

  5. Maternal immunization with vaccines containing recombinant NetB toxin partially protects progeny chickens from necrotic enteritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Avian necrotic enteritis is a major economic and welfare issue throughout the global poultry industry and is caused by isolates of Clostridium perfringens that produce NetB toxin. Previously we have shown that birds directly vaccinated with inactivated C. perfringens type A culture supernatant (toxoid) combined with recombinant NetB (rNetB) protein were significantly protected from homologous and heterologous challenge. In the present study the protective effect of maternal immunization was examined. Broiler breeder hens were injected subcutaneously with genetically toxoided rNetB(S254L) alone, C. perfringens type A toxoid and toxoid combined with rNetB(S254L). Vaccination resulted in a strong serum immunoglobulin Y response to NetB in hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) formulations. Anti-NetB antibodies were transferred to the eggs and on into the hatched progeny. Subclinical necrotic enteritis was induced experimentally in the progeny and the occurrence of specific necrotic enteritis lesions evaluated. Birds derived from hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) combined with toxoid and challenged with a homologous strain (EHE-NE18) at either 14 or 21 days post-hatch had significantly lower levels of disease compared to birds from adjuvant only vaccinated hens. In addition, birds from hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) alone were significantly protected when challenged at 14 days post-hatch. These results demonstrate that maternal immunization with a NetB-enhanced toxoid vaccine is a promising method for the control of necrotic enteritis in young broiler chickens. PMID:24219318

  6. Molecular characteristics of Polish field strains of Marek's disease herpesvirus isolated from vaccinated chickens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Twenty-nine Marek's disease virus (MDV) strains were isolated during a 3 year period (2007-2010) from vaccinated and infected chicken flocks in Poland. These strains had caused severe clinical symptoms and lesions. In spite of proper vaccination with mono- or bivalent vaccines against Marek's disease (MD), the chickens developed symptoms of MD with paralysis. Because of this we decided to investigate possible changes and mutations in the field strains that could potentially increase their virulence. We supposed that such mutations may have been caused by recombination with retroviruses of poultry - especially reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). Methods In order to detect the possible reasons of recent changes in virulence of MDV strains, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses for meq oncogene and for long-terminal repeat (LTR) region of REV were conducted. The obtained PCR products were sequenced and compared with other MDV and REV strains isolated worldwide and accessible in the GeneBank database. Results Sequencing of the meq oncogene showed a 68 basepair insertion and frame shift within 12 of 24 field strains. Interestingly, the analyses also showed 0.78, 0.8, 0.82, 1.6 kb and other random LTR-REV insertions into the MDV genome in 28 of 29 of strains. These genetic inserts were present after passage in chicken embryo kidney cells suggesting LTR integration into a non-functional region of the MDV genome. Conclusion The results indicate the presence of a recombination between MDV and REV under field conditions in Polish chicken farms. The genetic changes within the MDV genome may influence the virus replication and its features in vivo. However, there is no evidence that meq alteration and REV insertions are related to the strains' virulence. PMID:21320336

  7. Development of a subunit vaccine containing recombinant chicken anemia virus VP1 and pigeon IFN-γ.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sin Ying; Chang, Wei Chun; Yi, Hsiang Heng; Tsai, Shinn-Shong; Liu, Hung Jen; Liao, Pei-Chun; Chuang, Kuo Pin

    2015-10-15

    Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is a severe threat to the chicken industry and causes heavy economic losses worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the immune response and protective efficacy provided by a subunit vaccine containing recombinant VP1 (rVP1) and pigeon interferon-γ (rPiIFN-γ). Results indicated that rPiIFN-γ enhanced humoral immunity elicited by rVP1 as early as 10 day after primary immunization and reach the high titer after secondary immunization. When compared to chickens immunized with rVP1, inactivated vaccine, chickens immunized with rVP1+rPiIFN-γ showed faster and higher levels (p<0.05) of antibody titer. The CAV challenge result showed that the rVP1+rPiIFN-γ vaccine prevent the reducing of hematocrit values in comparison with the rVP1 or inactivated groups. The relative fold inductions of mRNA expression of Th1-type (IFN-γ), but not Th2-type (IL-4) cytokines in splenocytes isolated from chickens immunized with rVP1+rPiIFN-γ were significantly higher than those of the rVP1 or inactivated vaccine groups. In conclusion, our study found that rPiIFN-γ can enhance both humoral and cellular immunity elicited by an rVP1 vaccine. The rVP1+rPiIFN-γ vaccine may provide a new strategy vaccine against CAV in chicken. PMID:26315776

  8. Progress toward the development of polyvalent vaccination strategies against multiple viral infections in chickens using herpesvirus of turkeys as vector

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Munir

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination is the most cost effective strategy for the control and prevention of the plethora of viral diseases affecting poultry production. The major challenge for poultry vaccination is the design of vaccines that will protect against multiple pathogens via a single protective dose, delivered by mass vaccination. The Marek disease virus and the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus cause severe disease outbreaks in chickens. Vaccination with live herpesvirus of turkeys protects chickens from Marek disease and inactivated influenza viruses are used as antigens to protect chickens against influenza virus infections. We developed herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) as a vaccine vector that can act as a dual vaccine against avian influenza and Marek disease. The HVT vector was developed using reverse genetics based on an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of HVT. The BAC carrying the HVT genome was genetically modified to express the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of a highly pathogenic H7N1 virus. The resultant recombinant BAC construct containing the modified HVT sequence was transfected into chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells and HVT recombinants (rHVT-H7HA) harbouring the H7N1 HA were recovered. Analysis of cultured CEF cells infected with the rHVT-H7HA showed that HA was expressed and that the rescued rHVT-H7HA stocks were stable during several in vitro passages with no difference in growth kinetics compared with the parent HVT. Immunization of one-day-old chicks with rHVT-H7HA induced H7-specific antibodies and protected chickens challenged with homologous H7N1 virus against virus shedding, clinical disease and death. The rHVT-H7HA vaccine also induced strong and long-lasting antibody titers against H7HA in chickens that were vaccinated in ovo 3 d before hatching. This vaccine supports differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA), because no influenza virus nucleoprotein-specific antibodies were detected in the rHVT-H7HA vaccinated birds. The rHVT-H7HA not only provided protection against a lethal challenge with highly pathogenic H7N1 virus but also against highly virulent Marek disease virus and can be used as a DIVA vaccine. PMID:22705840

  9. Marek's disease vaccination, with turkey herpesvirus, and enrofloxacin modulate the activities of hepatic microsomal enzymes in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sakar, D; Prukner-Radovci?, Estela; Prevendar Crni?, Andreja; Pompe-Gotal, Jelena; Ragland, W L; Mazija, H

    2004-01-01

    Chickens were vaccinated against Marek's disease intramuscularly at one day of age. Enrofloxacin was given ad libitum in the drinking water at concentrations of 50, 100 and 250 mg/L from 8 days to 13 days of age when the animals were killed and the activities of cytochrome P-450 enzymes in the liver were measured. Vaccinated non-treated chickens served as a positive control. A negative control group was neither vaccinated nor treated. Vaccination decreased the activity of aniline hydroxylase and ethylmorphine N-demethylase in the positive control group. Subsequent application of enrofloxacin in the lowest concentration (50 mg/L) decreased, while that given at the highest level (250 mg/L) significantly increased the activity of the same microsomal enzymes. Relative liver weights and concentrations of proteins in 9000 x g supernatant were not affected by vaccination or treatment. PMID:15168752

  10. Quantitation of Mareks disease virus in vaccinated population of resistant and susceptible chicken samples using real-time PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mareks disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chicken caused by cell-associated alpha-herpesvirus, known as Mareks disease virus (MDV). MD virus load in challenged chickens has been well studied, but the difference between the virus load in vaccinated MD resistant and susceptible chicken...

  11. Protection induced by commercially available live-attenuated and recombinant viral vector vaccines against infectious laryngotracheitis virus in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Vagnozzi, Ariel; Zavala, Guillermo; Riblet, Sylva M; Mundt, Alice; Garca, Maricarmen

    2012-01-01

    Viral vector vaccines using fowl poxvirus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) as vectors and carrying infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genes are commercially available to the poultry industry in the USA. Different sectors of the broiler industry have used these vaccines in ovo or subcutaneously, achieving variable results. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of protection induced by viral vector vaccines as compared with live-attenuated ILTV vaccines. The HVT-LT vaccine was more effective than the FPV-LT vaccine in mitigating the disease and reducing levels of challenge virus when applied in ovo or subcutaneously, particularly when the challenge was performed at 57 days rather than 35 days of age. While the FPV-LT vaccine mitigated clinical signs more effectively when administered subcutaneously than in ovo, it did not reduce the concentration of challenge virus in the trachea by either application route. Detection of antibodies against ILTV glycoproteins expressed by the viral vectors was a useful criterion to assess the immunogenicity of the vectors. The presence of glycoprotein I antibodies detected pre-challenge and post challenge in chickens vaccinated with HVT-LT indicated that the vaccine induced a robust antibody response, which was paralleled by significant reduction of clinical signs. The chicken embryo origin vaccine provided optimal protection by significantly mitigating the disease and reducing the challenge virus in chickens vaccinated via eye drop. The viral vector vaccines, applied in ovo and subcutaneously, provided partial protection, reducing to some degree clinical signs, and challenge VIRUS replication in the trachea. PMID:22845318

  12. Recombinant fowlpox virus vaccines against Australian virulent Marek's disease virus: gene sequence analysis and comparison of vaccine efficacy in specific pathogen free and production chickens.

    PubMed

    Heine, H G; Foord, A J; Young, P L; Hooper, P T; Lehrbach, P R; Boyle, D B

    1997-07-01

    We have cloned and sequenced the glycoprotein genes gB, gC and gD of the Australian virulent Marek's disease virus (MDV) isolate Woodlands No. 1. The glycoprotein gB and gC sequences were identical to the homologs of other virulent MDV type 1 strains, and the glycoprotein gD sequence contained only one unique amino acid substitution. Recombinant fowlpox viruses (rFPVs) expressing the MDV glycoprotein genes were constructed and their efficacy as vaccines was evaluated in specific pathogen free (SPF) and production chickens. Vaccination with the FPV-gB recombinant protected SPF chickens from Marek's disease mortality and tumour formation following challenge with virulent MDV Woodlands No. 1. The degree of protection from Marek's disease was dependent on the vaccine dose and route of inoculation. The rFPVs expressing gC or gD did not provide protection from Marek's disease. A rFPV expressing both gB and gC did not provide enhanced protection in comparison with the rFPV-gB alone. The rFPV-gB vaccine failed to protect commercial chickens from MD mortality and provided little protection from tumour formation in comparison with the commercial herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) vaccine. The failure to provide protection against MD may be related to the impact of maternally derived immunity to MDV and FPV and possibly the genotype of the chickens. PMID:9255932

  13. Vaccination with recombinant NetB toxin partially protects broiler chickens from necrotic enteritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    NetB toxin from Clostridium perfringens is a major virulence factor in necrotic enteritis in poultry. In this study the efficacy of NetB as a vaccine antigen to protect chickens from necrotic enteritis was examined. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with purified recombinant NetB (rNetB), formalin treated bacterin and cell free toxoid with or without rNetB supplementation. Intestinal lesion scores and NetB antibody levels were measured to determine protection after mild oral gavage, moderate in-feed and heavy in-feed challenges with virulent C. perfringens isolates. Birds immunized with rNetB were significantly protected against necrotic enteritis when challenged with a mild oral dose of virulent bacteria, but were not protected when a more robust challenge was used. Bacterin and cell free toxoid without rNetB supplementation did not protect birds from moderate and severe in-feed challenge. Only birds immunized with bacterin and cell free toxoid supplemented with rNetB showed significant protection against moderate and severe in-feed challenge, with the later giving the greatest protection. Higher NetB antibody titres were observed in birds immunized with rNetB compared to those vaccinated with bacterin or toxoid, suggesting that the in vitro levels of NetB produced by virulent C. perfringens isolates are too low to induce the development of a strong immune response. These results suggest that vaccination with NetB alone may not be sufficient to protect birds from necrotic enteritis in the field, but that in combination with other cellular or cell-free antigens it can significantly protect chickens from disease. PMID:23865568

  14. Development and evaluation of an experimental vaccination program using a live avirulent Salmonella typhimurium strain to protect immunized chickens against challenge with homologous and heterologous Salmonella serotypes.

    PubMed

    Hassan, J O; Curtiss, R

    1994-12-01

    A stable live avirulent, genetically modified delta cya delta crp Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain, chi 3985, was used in several vaccination strategies to evaluate its use in the control of Salmonella infection in chickens. Oral vaccination of chickens at 1 and at 14 days of age with 10(8) CFU of chi 3985 protected against invasion of spleen, ovary, and bursa of Fabricius and colonization of the ileum and cecum in chickens challenged with 10(6) CFU of virulent homologous Salmonella strains from group B. Chickens challenged with heterologous Salmonella strains from groups C, D, and E were protected against visceral invasion of spleen and ovary, while invasion of the bursa of Fabricius and colonization of ileum and cecum was reduced in vaccinated chickens. Oral vaccination at 2 and at 4 weeks of age induced an excellent protection against challenge with virulent group B Salmonella serotypes and very good protection against challenge with group D or E Salmonella serotypes, while protection against challenge with group C Salmonella serotypes was marginal but significant. Vaccination at 2 and at 4 weeks of age also protected vaccinated chickens against challenge with 10(8) CFU of highly invasive S. typhimurium or S. enteritidis strains. The protection of chickens vaccinated with chi 3985 against challenge with homologous and heterologous Salmonella serotypes is outstanding, and the complete protection against ovarian invasion in chickens challenged with 10(8) CFU of highly invasive S. typhimurium or S. enteritidis strains suggests that vaccination of chickens with chi 3985 can complement the present hygiene- and sanitation-based Salmonella control measures. This paper reports a breakthrough in the use of live avirulent vaccine to control Salmonella carriers in chickens. PMID:7960134

  15. Genetics and Vaccine Efficacy: Host Genetic Variation Affecting Marek's Disease Vaccine Efficacy in White Leghorn Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a T cell lymphoma disease of domestic chickens induced by Marek’s disease viruses (MDV), a naturally oncogenic and highly contagious cell-associated alpha-herpesvirus. Earlier reports have shown that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype as well as non-MHC gene...

  16. Cytokine Gene Expression in Lung Mononuclear Cells of Chickens Vaccinated with Herpesvirus of Turkeys and Infected with Marek's Disease Virus.

    PubMed

    Parvizi, Payvand; Brisbin, Jennifer T; Read, Leah R; Sharif, Shayan

    2015-11-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) enters the chicken host through the respiratory system. However, little is known about the host immune responses induced by MDV in the lungs. To characterize these responses, chickens were vaccinated with herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) and challenged with the RB1B strain of MDV via the respiratory route. Lung mononuclear cells of vaccinated only, challenged only, vaccinated and challenged, as well as age-matched controls were isolated at 4, 10, and 21 days post-infection. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the expression of various cytokines. There was significant upregulation of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-10 in lung mononuclear cells of HVT-vaccinated and RB1B challenged and unvaccinated and RB1B challenged chickens. However, in lung mononuclear cells isolated from chickens that were vaccinated with HVT but remained uninfected, there was an upregulation of IL-4 and IL-13. This study indicates that MDV- and HVT-associated cytokines expressed by lung mononuclear cells are temporally regulated and that these cytokines may be involved in immunity against the virus. PMID:26447971

  17. Protection Against Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens by Regulated Delayed Lysis Salmonella Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanlong; Mo, Hua; Willingham, Crystal; Wang, Shifeng; Park, Jie-Yeun; Kong, Wei; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy

    2015-12-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE), caused by Gram-positive Clostridium perfringens type A strains, has gained more attention in the broiler industry due to governmental restrictions affecting the use of growth-promoting antibiotics in feed. To date, there is only one commercial NE vaccine available, based on the C. perfringens alpha toxin. However, recent work has suggested that the NetB toxin, not alpha toxin, is the most critical virulence factor for causing NE. These findings notwithstanding, it is clear from prior research that immune responses against both toxins can provide some protection against NE. In this study, we delivered a carboxyl-terminal fragment of alpha toxin and a GST-NetB fusion protein using a novel attenuated Salmonella vaccine strain designed to lyse after 6-10 rounds of replication in the chicken host. We immunized birds with vaccine strains producing each protein individually, a mixture of the two strains, or with a single vaccine strain that produced both proteins. Immunization with strains producing either of the single proteins was not protective, but immunization with a mixture of the two or with a single strain producing both proteins resulted in protective immunity. The vaccine strain synthesizing both PlcC and GST-NetB was able to elicit strong production of intestinal IgA, IgY, and IgM antibodies and significantly protect broilers against C. perfringens challenge against both mild and severe challenges. Although not part of our experimental plan, the broiler chicks we obtained for these studies were apparently contaminated during transit from the hatchery with group D Salmonella. Despite this drawback, the vaccines worked well, indicating applicability to real-world conditions. PMID:26629620

  18. Pichia pastoris expressed EtMic2 protein as a potential vaccine against chicken coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Chen, Peipei; Sun, Hui; Liu, Qing; Wang, Longjiang; Wang, Tiantian; Shi, Wenyan; Li, Hongmei; Xiao, Yihong; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Fangkun; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2014-09-15

    Chicken coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species leads to tremendous economic losses to the avian industry worldwide. Identification of parasite life cycle specific antigens is a critical step in recombinant protein vaccine development against Eimeria infections. In the present study, we amplified and cloned the microneme-2 (EtMIC2) gene from Eimeria tenella wild type strain SD-01, and expressed the EtMic2 protein using Pichia pastoris and Escherichia coli expression systems, respectively. The EtMic2 proteins expressed by P. pastoris and E. coli were used as vaccines to immunize chickens and their protective efficacies were compared and evaluated. The results indicated that both P. pastoris and E. coli expressed EtMic2 proteins exhibited good immunogenicity in stimulating host immune responses and the Pichia expressed EtMic2 provided better protection than the E. coli expressed EtMic2 did by significantly increasing growth rate, inducing high specific antibody response, reducing the oocyst output and cecal lesions. Particularly, the Pichia expressed EtMic2 protein exhibited much better ability in inducing cell mediated immune response than the E. coli expressed EtMic2. PMID:25047705

  19. Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SV4089 as a Potential Carrier of Oral DNA Vaccine in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Ideris, Aini; Zakaria, Zunita; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2%) and MCF-10A (0.5%) human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 109 colony-forming unit (CFU) of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens. PMID:22701301

  20. Effects of interferon-γ knockdown on vaccine-induced immunity against Marek’s disease in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Kamran; Wootton, Sarah K.; Barjesteh, Neda; Golovan, Serguei; Bendall, Andrew; Sharif, Shayan

    2015-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-γ has been shown to be associated with immunity to Marek’s disease virus (MDV). The overall objective of this study was to investigate the causal relationship between IFN-γ and vaccine-conferred immunity against MDV in chickens. To this end, 3 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting chicken IFN-γ, which had previously been shown to reduce IFN-γ expression in vitro, and a control siRNA were selected to generate recombinant avian adeno-associated virus (rAAAV) expressing short-hairpin small interfering RNAs (shRNAs). An MDV challenge trial was then conducted: chickens were vaccinated with herpesvirus of turkey (HVT), administered the rAAAV expressing shRNA, and then challenged with MDV. Tumors were observed in 4 out of 10 birds that were vaccinated with HVT and challenged but did not receive any rAAAV, 5 out of 9 birds that were administered the rAAAV containing IFN-γ shRNA, and 2 out of 10 birds that were administered a control enhanced green fluorescent protein siRNA. There was no significant difference in MDV genome load in the feather follicle epithelium of the birds that were cotreated with the vaccine and the rAAAV compared with the vaccinated MDV-infected birds. These results suggest that AAAV-based vectors can be used for the delivery of shRNA into chicken cells. However, administration of the rAAAV expressing shRNA targeting chicken IFN-γ did not seem to fully abrogate vaccine-induced protection. PMID:25673902

  1. Genomic sequence analysis of the United States infectious laryngotracheitis vaccine strains chicken embryo origin (CEO) and tissue culture origin (TCO)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genomic sequences of low and high passages of U.S. infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) vaccine strains chicken embryo origin (CEO) and tissue culture origin (TCO) these strains were determined using hybrid next generation sequencing in order to define relevant genomic changes associated with att...

  2. Comparison of live Eimeria vaccination with in-feed Salinomycin on growth and immune status in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis vaccines and coccidiostat drugs are commonly used to control Eimeria infection during commercial poultry production. The present study was conducted to compare the relative effectiveness of these two disease control strategies in broiler chickens in an experimental research facility. B...

  3. Antibody and T cell responses induced in chickens immunized with avian influenza virus N1 and NP DNA vaccine with chicken IL-15 and IL-18.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kian-Lam; Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Yeap, Swee Keong; Mohamed Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ideris, Aini; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2013-12-01

    We had examined the immunogenicity of a series of plasmid DNAs which include neuraminidase (NA) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes from avian influenza virus (AIV). The interleukin-15 (IL-15) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) as genetic adjuvants were used for immunization in combination with the N1 and NP AIV genes. In the first trial, 8 groups of chickens were established with 10 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens per group while, in the second trial 7 SPF chickens per group were used. The overall N1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titer in chickens immunized with the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 was higher compared to the chickens immunized with the pDis/N1 and this suggesting that chicken IL-15 could play a role in enhancing the humoral immune response. Besides that, the chickens that were immunized at 14-day-old (Trial 2) showed a higher N1 antibody titer compared to the chickens that were immunized at 1-day-old (Trial 1). Despite the delayed in NP antibody responses, the chickens co-administrated with IL-15 were able to induce earlier and higher antibody response compared to the pDis/NP and pDis/NP+pDis/IL-18 inoculated groups. The pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 inoculated chickens also induced higher CD8+ T cells increase than the pDis/N1 group in both trials (P<0.05). The flow cytometry results from both trials demonstrated that the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-18 groups were able to induce CD4+ T cells higher than the pDis/N1 group (P<0.05). Meanwhile, pDis/N1+pDis/IL-18 group was able to induce CD8+ T cells higher than the pDis/N1 group (P<0.05) in Trial 2 only. In the present study, pDis/NP was not significant (P>0.05) in inducing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells when co-administered with the pDis/IL-18 in both trials in comparison to the pDis/NP. Our data suggest that the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 combination has the potential to be used as a DNA vaccine against AIV in chickens. PMID:23948357

  4. A Novel Recombinant BCG Vaccine Encoding Eimeria tenella Rhomboid and Chicken IL-2 Induces Protective Immunity Against Coccidiosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiuyue; Chen, Lifeng; Zheng, Jun; Cai, Ning; Gong, Pengtao; Li, Shuhong; Li, He

    2014-01-01

    A novel recombinant Bacille Calmette-Guerin (rBCG) vaccine co-expressed Eimeria tenella rhomboid and cytokine chicken IL-2 (chIL-2) was constructed, and its efficacy against E. tenella challenge was observed. The rhomboid gene of E. tenella and chIL-2 gene were subcloned into integrative expression vector pMV361, producing vaccines rBCG pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2. Animal experiment via intranasal and subcutaneous route in chickens was carried out to evaluate the immune efficacy of the vaccines. The results indicated that these rBCG vaccines could obviously alleviate cacal lesions and oocyst output. Intranasal immunization with pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2 elicited better protective immunity against E. tenella than subcutaneous immunization. Splenocytes from chickens immunized with either rBCG pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2 had increased CD4+ and CD8+ cell production. Our data indicate recombinant BCG is able to impart partial protection against E. tenella challenge and co-expression of cytokine with antigen was an effective strategy to improve vaccine immunity. PMID:25031464

  5. Vaccination of chickens against coccidiosis ameliorates drug resistance in commercial poultry production

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, H. David; Jeffers, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance is a problem wherever livestock are raised under intensive conditions and drugs are used to combat parasitic infections. This is particularly true for the anticoccidial agents used for the prevention of coccidiosis caused by protozoa of the apicomplexan genus Eimeria in poultry. Resistance has been documented for all the dozen or so drugs approved for use in chickens and varying levels of resistance is present for those currently employed. A possible solution may be the introduction of drug-sensitive parasites into the houses where poultry are raised so that they may replace such drug-resistant organisms. This can be achieved by utilizing live vaccines that contain strains of Eimeria that were isolated before most anticoccidial compounds were introduced. Such strains are inherently drug-sensitive. Practical proposals to achieve this objective involve the alternation of vaccination with medication (known as rotation programs) in successive flocks reared in the same poultry house. A proposal for a yearly broiler production cycle involving chemotherapy and vaccination is presented. There are few, if any, examples in veterinary parasitology where it has proved possible to restore sensitivity to drugs used to control a widespread parasite. Further research is necessary to ascertain whether this can result in sustainable and long-term control of Eimeria infections in poultry. PMID:25516830

  6. Specific-pathogen-free chickens vaccinated with a live FAdV-4 vaccine are fully protected against a severe challenge even in the absence of neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Schonewille, Esther; Jaspers, Ron; Paul, Guntram; Hess, Michael

    2010-06-01

    By adapting a very virulent fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) to a fibroblast cell line (QT35) instead of growing the virus in chicken embryo liver cells or chicken kidney cells, it was possible to attenuate the virus. Birds infected with the attenuated virus (FAdV-4/QT35) on the first day of life expressed no adverse clinical signs and no mortality. Intramuscular challenge with the virulent virus grown on chicken embryo liver cells (FAdV-4/CEL) at 21 days of life induced high mortality in previously nonvaccinated birds, whereas none of the birds vaccinated at 1 day old with FAdV-4/QT35 died due to this challenge. Applying enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization assay, only a weak antibody response could be detected in some birds following vaccination, a response that increased directly after challenge. Nonvaccinated birds displayed a delayed development of antibodies after challenge as compared to previously vaccinated birds. Even birds that did not develop a measurable neutralizing antibody titer prior to challenge were protected from the adverse effects of the virulent FAdV-4/CEL, a phenomenon not described so far for FAdVs. Altogether, the present investigation underlines that neutralizing antibodies are not needed to protect chickens against a severe infection with a virulent fowl adenovirus. PMID:20608537

  7. Development of a DNA vaccine for chicken infectious anemia and its immunogenicity studies using high mobility group box 1 protein as a novel immunoadjuvant indicated induction of promising protective immune responses.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Pradeep Mahadev; Dhama, Kuldeep; Rawool, Deepak Bhiva; Wani, Mohd Yaqoob; Tiwari, Ruchi; Singh, Shambhu Dayal; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Chicken infectious anaemia (CIA) is an economically important and emerging poultry disease reported worldwide. Current CIA vaccines have limitations like, the inability of the virus to grow to high titres in embryos/cell cultures, possession of residual pathogenicity and a risk of reversion to virulence. In the present study, a DNA vaccine, encoding chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV) VP1 and VP2 genes, was developed and co-administered with truncated chicken high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1ΔC) protein in young chicks for the evaluation of vaccine immune response. CIAV VP1 and VP2 genes were cloned in pTARGET while HMGB1ΔC in PET32b vector. In vitro expression of these gene constructs was evaluated by Western blotting. Further, recombinant HMGB1ΔC was evaluated for its biological activity. The CIAV DNA vaccine administration in specific pathogen free chicks resulted in moderately protective ELISA antibody titres in the range of 4322.87 ± 359.72 to 8288.19 ± 136.38, increased CD8(+) cells, and a higher titre was observed by co-administration of novel adjuvant (HMGB1ΔC) and booster immunizations. The use of vaccine with adjuvant showed achieving antibody titres nearly 8500, titre considered as highly protective, which indicates that co-immunization of HMGB1ΔC may have a strong adjuvant activity on CIAV DNA vaccine induced immune responses. The able potential of HMGB1 protein holding strong adjuvant activity could be exploited further with trials with vaccines for other important pathogens for achieving the required protective immune responses. PMID:25448094

  8. Studies on the live-virus vaccine against infectious laryngotracheitis of chickens. II. Evaluation of the tissue-culture-modified strain C7 in laboratory and field trials.

    PubMed

    Izuchi, T; Hasegawa, A; Miyamoto, T

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory and field tests were conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity of a live-virus vaccine against infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) of chickens that was prepared using tissue-culture-modified strain C7. Eighty-three percent or more of chickens vaccinated by the ocular (OC) or intranasal (IN) route with 10(4.75) TCID50 of the attenuated strain C7 at 50 days of age were protected against challenge with a virulent strain of ILT virus without showing any clinical signs for 4 weeks post-vaccination (PV). When vaccine was administered by aerosol, however, only 65% of vaccinated chickens were protected against challenge. Fifty-seven percent of chickens vaccinated at 70 days of age maintained immunity for 6 months PV. Immune response in younger chickens was inferior to that in older ones. In the field trials, clinical observation revealed no adverse reactions caused by the vaccination, and 60% or more of broilers and 80% or more of layers vaccinated by the OC route were protected against challenge at 4 weeks PV. These results confirmed the safety and efficacy of the vaccine. PMID:6331361

  9. Improved immune responses against avian influenza virus following oral vaccination of chickens with HA DNA vaccine using attenuated Salmonella typhimurium as carrier.

    PubMed

    Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Ideris, Aini; Zakaria, Zunita; Yeap, Swee Keong; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2012-09-01

    This study evaluates the immune responses of single avian influenza virus (AIV) HA DNA vaccine immunization using attenuated Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium as an oral vaccine carrier and intramuscular (IM) DNA injection. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicks immunized once by oral gavage with 10(9) Salmonella colony-forming units containing plasmid expression vector encoding the HA gene of A/Ck/Malaysia/5858/04 (H5N1) (pcDNA3.1.H5) did not show any clinical manifestations. Serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer samples collected from the IM immunized chickens were low compared to those immunized with S. typhimurium.pcDNA3.1.H5. The highest average antibody titers were detected on day 35 post immunization for both IM and S. typhimurium.pcDNA3.1.H5 immunized groups, at 4.02.8 and 51.27.5, respectively. S. typhimurium.pcDNA3.1.H5 also elicited both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of immunized chickens as early as day 14 after immunization, at 20.52.0 and 22.91.9%, respectively. Meanwhile, the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in chickens vaccinated intramuscularly were low at 5.90.9 and 8.51.3%, respectively. Immunization of chickens with S. typhimurium.pcDNA3.1.H5 enhanced IL-1?, IL-12?, IL-15 and IL-18 expressions in spleen although no significant differences were recorded in chickens vaccinated via IM and orally with S. typhimurium and S. typhimurium.pcDNA3.1. Hence, single oral administrations of the attenuated S. typhimurium containing pcDNA3.1.H5 showed antibody, T cell and Th1-like cytokine responses against AIV in chickens. Whether the T cell response induced by vaccination is virus-specific and whether vaccination protects against AIV infection requires further study. PMID:22512819

  10. A recombinant fowlpox virus vaccine expressing glycoprotein B gene from CVI988/Rispens strain of MDV: protection studies in different chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Peng, D; Wu, X; Xing, L; Zhang, R

    1999-01-01

    Recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV) was constructed to express glycoprotein B (gB) gene from CVI988/Rispens strain of Marek's disease virus (MDV). The rFPV-gB/R alone and in combination with herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) preparations were evaluated for their protective efficacy against challenge with very virulent MDV strains Md5 and RB1B in different chickens. The rFPV-gB/R alone induced protection comparable to that by HVT vaccines in both Ab- SPF chickens and Ab+ production chickens. Significant protective synergism was observed in one of these two types of commercial production chickens when rFPV-gB/R was combined with HVT of either cell-associated or cell-free preparations. Immunogenesis studies showed that rFPV-gB/R, just like conventional vaccines, significantly reduced the level of viremia, splenocytes infection and feather follicle shedding of challenge virus in vaccinated chickens. PMID:10696446

  11. Efficacy of a DNA vaccine carrying Eimeria maxima Gam56 antigen gene against coccidiosis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinjun; Zhang, Yan; Tao, Jianping

    2013-04-01

    To control coccidiosis without using prophylactic medications, a DNA vaccine targeting the gametophyte antigen Gam56 from Eimeria maxima in chickens was constructed, and the immunogenicity and protective effects were evaluated. The ORF of Gam56 gene was cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(zeo)+. Expression of Gam56 protein in COS-7 cells transfected with recombinant plasmid pcDNA-Gam56 was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The DNA vaccine was injected intramuscularly to yellow feathered broilers of 1-week old at 3 dosages (25, 50, and 100 g/chick). Injection was repeated once 1 week later. One week after the second injection, birds were challenged orally with 510(4) sporulated oocysts of E. maxima, then weighed and killed at day 8 post challenge. Blood samples were collected and examined for specific peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation activity and serum antibody levels. Compared with control groups, the administration of pcDNA-Gam56 vaccine markedly increased the lymphocyte proliferation activity (P<0.05) at day 7 and 14 after the first immunization. The level of lymphocyte proliferation started to decrease on day 21 after the first immunization. A similar trend was seen in specific antibody levels. Among the 3 pcDNA-Gam56 immunized groups, the median dosage group displayed the highest lymphocyte proliferation and antibody levels (P<0.05). The median dosage group had the greatest relative body weight gain (89.7%), and the greatest oocyst shedding reduction (53.7%). These results indicate that median dosage of DNA vaccine had good immunogenicity and immune protection effects, and may be used in field applications for coccidiosis control. PMID:23710081

  12. Efficacy of a DNA Vaccine Carrying Eimeria maxima Gam56 Antigen Gene against Coccidiosis in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinjun; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    To control coccidiosis without using prophylactic medications, a DNA vaccine targeting the gametophyte antigen Gam56 from Eimeria maxima in chickens was constructed, and the immunogenicity and protective effects were evaluated. The ORF of Gam56 gene was cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(zeo)+. Expression of Gam56 protein in COS-7 cells transfected with recombinant plasmid pcDNA-Gam56 was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The DNA vaccine was injected intramuscularly to yellow feathered broilers of 1-week old at 3 dosages (25, 50, and 100 µg/chick). Injection was repeated once 1 week later. One week after the second injection, birds were challenged orally with 5×104 sporulated oocysts of E. maxima, then weighed and killed at day 8 post challenge. Blood samples were collected and examined for specific peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation activity and serum antibody levels. Compared with control groups, the administration of pcDNA-Gam56 vaccine markedly increased the lymphocyte proliferation activity (P<0.05) at day 7 and 14 after the first immunization. The level of lymphocyte proliferation started to decrease on day 21 after the first immunization. A similar trend was seen in specific antibody levels. Among the 3 pcDNA-Gam56 immunized groups, the median dosage group displayed the highest lymphocyte proliferation and antibody levels (P<0.05). The median dosage group had the greatest relative body weight gain (89.7%), and the greatest oocyst shedding reduction (53.7%). These results indicate that median dosage of DNA vaccine had good immunogenicity and immune protection effects, and may be used in field applications for coccidiosis control. PMID:23710081

  13. Persistence of the tissue culture origin vaccine for infectious laryngotracheitis virus in commercial chicken flocks in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Parra, Silvana H Santander; Nuez, Luis F; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete S; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino

    2015-11-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a respiratory disease of great importance that causes serious economic losses in the poultry industry. Its control is based on biosecurity procedures and vaccination programs that use live attenuated vaccines such as tissue culture origin (TCO), chicken embryo origin (CEO), and vectored vaccines. However, problems have been reported, such as the reversion of virulence, virus latency, and field virus outbreaks. Several molecular techniques have been developed to differentiate between the field and vaccine strains. This study was conducted to determine the presence of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in Brazil from 2012 to 2014. PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) was used to detect and differentiate ILTV strains; DNA sequencing and predictive RFLP analysis were also used for this purpose. Molecular analysis detected the presence of ILTV in 15 samples that were characterized as strains of TCO vaccine origin. This study showed that the ILTV TCO vaccine strain has been circulating in commercial chicken flocks in Brazil since its introduction during the 2002 outbreak. PMID:26500264

  14. Design of a predicted MHC restricted short peptide immunodiagnostic and vaccine candidate for Fowl adenovirus C in chicken infection

    PubMed Central

    Valdivia-Olarte, Hugo; Requena, David; Ramirez, Manuel; Saravia, Luis E; Izquierdo, Ray; Falconi-Agapito, Francesca; Zavaleta, Milagros; Best, Ivn; Fernndez-Daz, Manolo; Zimic, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) are the ethiologic agents of multiple pathologies in chicken. There are five different species of FAdVs grouped as FAdV-A, FAdV-B, FAdV-C, FAdV-D, and FAdV-E. It is of interest to develop immunodiagnostics and vaccine candidate for Peruvian FAdV-C in chicken infection using MHC restricted short peptide candidates. We sequenced the complete genome of one FAdV strain isolated from a chicken of a local farm. A total of 44 protein coding genes were identified in each genome. We sequenced twelve Cobb chicken MHC alleles from animals of different farms in the central coast of Peru, and subsequently determined three optimal human MHC-I and four optimal human MHC-II substitute alleles for MHC-peptide prediction. The potential MHC restricted short peptide epitope-like candidates were predicted using human specific (with determined suitable chicken substitutes) NetMHC MHC-peptide prediction model with web server features from all the FAdV genomes available. FAdV specific peptides with calculated binding values to known substituted chicken MHC-I and MHC-II were further filtered for diagnostics and potential vaccine epitopes. Promiscuity to the 3/4 optimal human MHC-I/II alleles and conservation among the available FAdV genomes was considered in this analysis. The localization on the surface of the protein was considered for class II predicted peptides. Thus, a set of class I and class II specific peptides from FAdV were reported in this study. Hence, a multiepitopic protein was built with these peptides, and subsequently tested to confirm the production of specific antibodies in chicken. PMID:26664030

  15. EFFICACY OF TWO H5N9 INACTIVATED VACCINES AGAINST CHALLENGE WITH A RECENT H5N1 HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA ISOLATED FROM A CHICKEN IN THAILAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of two avian influenza (AI) H5 inactivated vaccines containing either an American (A/turkey/Wisconsin/68 H5N9, H5N9-WI) or a Eurasian isolate (A/chicken/Italy/22A/98 H5N9 or H5N9-It). Three-week-old SPF chickens were vaccinated once and challeng...

  16. A DNA vaccine containing an infectious Marek's disease virus genome can confer protection against tumorigenic Marek's disease in chickens.

    PubMed

    Tischer, B Karsten; Schumacher, Daniel; Beer, Martin; Beyer, Jrg; Teifke, Jens Peter; Osterrieder, Kerstin; Wink, Kerstin; Zelnik, Vladimir; Fehler, Frank; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2002-10-01

    A DNA vaccine containing the infectious BAC20 clone of serotype 1 Marek's disease virus (MDV) was tested for its potential to protect against Marek's disease (MD). Chickens were immunized at 1 day old with BAC20 DNA suspended either in PBS, as calcium phosphate precipitates, incorporated into chitosan nanoparticles, in Escherichia coli DH10B cells, or bound to gold particles for gene-gun delivery. Challenge infection with MDV strain EU1 was performed at 12 days old, and four out of seven birds immunized with BAC20 DNA in saline by the intramuscular route remained free of MD until day 77 after challenge infection. A delay in the development of the disease could be observed in some animals vaccinated with other BAC20 DNA formulations, but clinical MD and tumour formation were evident in all but one bird. Five out of seven animals immunized with the vaccine virus CVI988 were protected against MD, but none out of seven birds survived EU1 challenge infection after injection of negative-control plasmid DNA. In a second animal experiment, five out of 12 chickens immunized with BAC20 DNA and six out of eight birds immunized with virus reconstituted from BAC20 DNA remained free of MD after challenge infection. In contrast, none out of 12 chickens survived challenge infection after immunization with BAC20 DNA lacking the essential gE gene or with gE-negative BAC20 virus. The results suggested that an MDV BAC DNA vaccine has potential to protect chickens against MD, but that in vivo reconstitution of vaccine virus is a prerequisite for protection. PMID:12237417

  17. New respiratory virus (chicken pox, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus) vaccines: efficacy, necessity and policy for the tropical world at present.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2009-09-01

    Several respiratory viruses are documented in medicine. Several infectious diseases due to these viruses are current global public health problems. Prevention of respiratory viral infections becomes the focus of the public health ministries of many tropical countries. Presently, there are many new vaccines for respiratory viruses. These vaccines include chicken pox vaccine, influenza vaccine and respiratory syncytial virus vaccine. In this article, the author will briefly discuss on these quoted vaccines focusing on efficacy, necessity and policy for tropical world at present. PMID:19363304

  18. Cellular and cytokine responses in feathers of chickens vaccinated against Marek's disease.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Careem, M F; Hunter, D B; Shanmuganathan, S; Haghighi, H R; Read, L; Heidari, M; Sharif, S

    2008-12-15

    In Marek's disease virus infection, feather follicle epithelium (FFE) constitutes the site of formation of infectious virus particles and virus shedding. The objective of this study was to characterize cellular and cytokine responses as indicators of cell-mediated immune response in FFE and associated feather pulp following immunization against Marek's disease. Analysis of feather tips collected between 4 and 28 days post-immunization (d.p.i.) from chickens vaccinated post-hatch with either CVI988/Rispens or herpesvirus of turkeys revealed that replication of these vaccine viruses started at 7d.p.i., peaked by 21d.p.i., and subsequently, showed a declining trend. This pattern of viral replication, which led to viral genome accumulation in feather tips, was associated with infiltration of T cell subsets particularly CD8+ T cells into the feather pulp area and the expression of cytokine genes such as interferon-gamma, which is an indication of elicitation of cell-mediated immune responses at the site of virus shedding. PMID:18722673

  19. Adjuvant effects of mannose-binding lectin ligands on the immune response to infectious bronchitis vaccine in chickens with high or low serum mannose-binding lectin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kjaerup, Rikke M; Dalgaard, Tina S; Norup, Liselotte R; Bergman, Ingrid-Maria; Sørensen, Poul; Juul-Madsen, Helle R

    2014-04-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays a major role in the immune response as a soluble pattern-recognition receptor. MBL deficiency and susceptibility to different types of infections have been subject to extensive studies over the last decades. In humans and chickens, several studies have shown that MBL participates in the protection of hosts against virus infections. Infectious bronchitis (IB) is a highly contagious disease of economic importance in the poultry industry caused by the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). MBL has earlier been described to play a potential role in the pathogenesis of IBV infection and the production of IBV-specific antibodies, which may be exploited in optimising IBV vaccine strategies. The present study shows that MBL has the capability to bind to IBV in vitro. Chickens from two inbred lines (L10H and L10L) selected for high or low MBL serum concentrations, respectively, were vaccinated against IBV with or without the addition of the MBL ligands mannan, chitosan and fructooligosaccharide (FOS). The addition of MBL ligands to the IBV vaccine, especially FOS, enhanced the production of IBV-specific IgG antibody production in L10H chickens, but not L10L chickens after the second vaccination. The addition of FOS to the vaccine also increased the number of circulating CD4+ cells in L10H chickens compared to L10L chickens. The L10H chickens as well as the L10L chickens also showed an increased number of CD4-CD8α-γδ T-cells when an MBL ligand was added to the vaccine, most pronouncedly after the first vaccination. As MBL ligands co-administered with IBV vaccine induced differences between the two chicken lines, these results indirectly suggest that MBL is involved in the immune response to IBV vaccination. Furthermore, the higher antibody response in L10H chickens receiving vaccine and FOS makes FOS a potential adjuvant candidate in an IBV vaccine. PMID:24305086

  20. Vaccination with Recombinant RNA Replicon Particles Protects Chickens from H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Halbherr, Stefan J.; Brostoff, Terza; Tippenhauer, Merve; Locher, Samira; Berger Rentsch, Marianne; Zimmer, Gert

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of subtype H5N1 not only cause a devastating disease in domestic chickens and turkeys but also pose a continuous threat to public health. In some countries, H5N1 viruses continue to circulate and evolve into new clades and subclades. The rapid evolution of these viruses represents a problem for virus diagnosis and control. In this work, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors expressing HA of subtype H5 were generated. To comply with biosafety issues the G gene was deleted from the VSV genome. The resulting vaccine vector VSV*?G(HA) was propagated on helper cells providing the VSV G protein in trans. Vaccination of chickens with a single intramuscular dose of 2108 infectious replicon particles without adjuvant conferred complete protection from lethal H5N1 infection. Subsequent application of the same vaccine strongly boosted the humoral immune response and completely prevented shedding of challenge virus and transmission to sentinel birds. The vaccine allowed serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) by employing a commercially available ELISA. Immunized chickens produced antibodies with neutralizing activity against multiple H5 viruses representing clades 1, 2.2, 2.5, and low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (classical clade). Studies using chimeric H1/H5 hemagglutinins showed that the neutralizing activity was predominantly directed against the globular head domain. In summary, these results suggest that VSV replicon particles are safe and potent DIVA vaccines that may help to control avian influenza viruses in domestic poultry. PMID:23762463

  1. Vaccination with recombinant RNA replicon particles protects chickens from H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Halbherr, Stefan J; Brostoff, Terza; Tippenhauer, Merve; Locher, Samira; Berger Rentsch, Marianne; Zimmer, Gert

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of subtype H5N1 not only cause a devastating disease in domestic chickens and turkeys but also pose a continuous threat to public health. In some countries, H5N1 viruses continue to circulate and evolve into new clades and subclades. The rapid evolution of these viruses represents a problem for virus diagnosis and control. In this work, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors expressing HA of subtype H5 were generated. To comply with biosafety issues the G gene was deleted from the VSV genome. The resulting vaccine vector VSV*?G(HA) was propagated on helper cells providing the VSV G protein in trans. Vaccination of chickens with a single intramuscular dose of 210? infectious replicon particles without adjuvant conferred complete protection from lethal H5N1 infection. Subsequent application of the same vaccine strongly boosted the humoral immune response and completely prevented shedding of challenge virus and transmission to sentinel birds. The vaccine allowed serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) by employing a commercially available ELISA. Immunized chickens produced antibodies with neutralizing activity against multiple H5 viruses representing clades 1, 2.2, 2.5, and low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (classical clade). Studies using chimeric H1/H5 hemagglutinins showed that the neutralizing activity was predominantly directed against the globular head domain. In summary, these results suggest that VSV replicon particles are safe and potent DIVA vaccines that may help to control avian influenza viruses in domestic poultry. PMID:23762463

  2. Effect of oral administration of ginseng stem-and-leaf saponins (GSLS) on the immune responses to Newcastle disease vaccine in chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lijuan; Li, Yutao; Wang, Weiyu; Wang, Yuemin; Hu, Songhua

    2011-07-12

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of oral administration of ginseng stem-and-leaf saponin (GSLS) on immune responses in chickens vaccinated with live Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines. In experiment 1, chickens were orally administered GSLS (2.5, 5, 10, and 20mg/kg) in drinking water for 3 days, and then intranasally vaccinated with ND vaccine. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test showed that the optimal dose of GSLS for enhancing HI titers was 5mg/kg. In experiment 2, chickens were fed with GSLS (5mg/kg) for 7, 5 or 3 days before vaccination. Result indicated that GSLS enhanced HI titers in a time-dependent manner. The order of the duration for drinking GSLS on increasing HI titers was 7 days>5 days>3 days. In experiment 3, chickens were fed with GSLS before or after immunization. Serum was sampled at a week interval for 5 weeks for HI test, splenic lymphocytes were prepared at weeks 2 and 4 after the booster immunization for lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) and intestinal tissues were sampled at week 4 after the booster immunization for immunohistochemistry and histological examination. Results showed that HI titer, LPT, IgA+ cells and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIELs) were significantly higher in chickens drinking GSLS before vaccination than those after vaccination. Therefore, oral administration of GSLS in drinking water at a dose of 5mg/kg for 7 days significantly increased systemic as well as gut mucosal immunity in chickens immunized with ND vaccine. Considering the immune potentiating effect of GSLS on ND vaccine, GSLS should be evaluated for its oral adjuvant effect on the immune response against other diseases such avian influenza and infectious bursal disease. PMID:21569814

  3. The effect of eukaryotic expression vectors and adjuvants on DNA vaccines in chickens using an avian influenza model.

    PubMed

    Suarez, D L; Schultz-Cherry, S

    2000-01-01

    Vaccination of poultry with naked plasmid DNA has been successfully demonstrated with several different poultry pathogens, but the technology needs to be further developed before it can be practically implemented. Many different methods can conceivably enhance the efficacy of DNA vaccines, and this report examines the use of different eukaryotic expression vectors with different promoters and different adjuvants to express the influenza hemagglutinin protein. Four different promoters in five different plasmids were used to express the hemagglutinin protein of an H5 avian influenza virus, including two different immediate early cytomegaloviruses (CMVs), Rous sarcoma virus, chicken actin, and simian virus 40 promoters. All five constructs expressed detectable hemagglutinin protein in cell culture, but the pCI-neo HA plasmid with the CMV promoter provided the best response in chickens when vaccinated intramuscularly at 1 day of age on the basis of antibody titer and survivability after challenge with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus at 6 wk postinoculation. A beneficial response was observed in birds boostered at 3 wk of age, in birds given larger amounts of DNA, and with the use of multiple injection sites to administer the vaccine. With the use of the pCI-neo construct, the effects of different adjuvants designed to increase the uptake of plasmid DNA, including 25% sucrose, diethylaminoethyl dextran, calcium phosphate, polybrene, and two different cationic liposomes, were examined. Both liposomes tested enhanced antibody titers as compared with the positive controls, but the other chemical adjuvants decreased the antibody response as compared with the control chickens that received just the plasmid alone. The results observed are promising for continued studies, but continued improvements in vaccine response and reduced costs are necessary before the technology can be commercially developed. PMID:11195640

  4. Protection Induced in Broiler Chickens following Drinking-Water Delivery of Live Infectious Laryngotracheitis Vaccines against Subsequent Challenge with Recombinant Field Virus

    PubMed Central

    Korsa, Mesula G.; Browning, Glenn F.; Coppo, Mauricio J. C.; Legione, Alistair R.; Gilkerson, James R.; Noormohammadi, Amir H.; Vaz, Paola K.; Lee, Sang-Won

    2015-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) causes acute upper respiratory tract disease in chickens. Attenuated live ILTV vaccines are often used to help control disease, but these vaccines have well documented limitations, including retention of residual virulence, incomplete protection, transmission of vaccine virus to unvaccinated birds and reversion to high levels of virulence following bird-to-bird passage. Recently, two novel ILTV field strains (class 8 and 9 ILTV viruses) emerged in Australia due to natural recombination between two genotypically distinct commercial ILTV vaccines. These recombinant field strains became dominant field strains in important poultry producing areas. In Victoria, Australia, the recombinant class 9 virus largely displaced the previously predominant class 2 ILTV strain. The ability of ILTV vaccines to protect against challenge with the novel class 9 ILTV strain has not been studied. Here, the protection induced by direct (drinking-water) and indirect (contact) exposure to four different ILTV vaccines against challenge with class 9 ILTV in commercial broilers was studied. The vaccines significantly reduced, but did not prevent, challenge virus replication in vaccinated chickens. Only one vaccine significantly reduced the severity of tracheal pathology after direct drinking-water vaccination. The results indicate that the current vaccines can be used to help control class 9 ILTV, but also indicate that these vaccines have limitations that should be considered when designing and implementing disease control programs. PMID:26366738

  5. Immunoreactivity and morphological changes of bursal follicles in chickens infected with vaccine or wild-type strains of the infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Naoyuki; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Hikichi, Nanase; Ochiai, Mariko; Hosoda, Yuko; Ishikawa, Yoko; Shimazaki, Yoko; Oishi, Koji

    2015-08-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is characterized by immunosuppression due to the depletion of lymphocytes in the atrophied bursa of Fabricius (BF). We have sometimes encountered contradictory findings: chickens infected with the vaccine IBD virus (IBDV) strain have sometimes exhibited a highly atrophied BF, but not immunosuppression. In this study, chickens administered vaccine or wild-type strains of IBDV were later vaccinated with the B1 strain of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Bursal changes were examined histologically with a focus on the bursal follicle. The immunoreactivity to NDV was also evaluated with the hemagglutination inhibition test. In gross examination, we observed a few chickens with a severely atrophied BF in vaccine strain-administered groups (vaccine groups), and the level of severity was the same as that in the wild-type strain-administered group (wild-type group). However, these chickens retained humoral antibody responses to NDV and were revealed to possess a higher number of bursal follicles than those of the wild-type group. These results indicated that macroscopic evaluation dose not accurately reflect the immunoreactivity and degree of bursal damage in IBDV-administered chickens. We also found non-immunosuppressed chickens in the wild-type group. These non-immunosuppressed chickens retained a significantly higher number of normal follicles and total follicles according to our statistical analysis. Furthermore, a high correlation coefficient between the NDV-HI titer and the number of normal follicles was found in the wild-type group. These results implied that the retained number of normal follicles is important for the immunoreactivity of chickens infected with IBDV. PMID:25866403

  6. Immunoreactivity and morphological changes of bursal follicles in chickens infected with vaccine or wild-type strains of the infectious bursal disease virus

    PubMed Central

    AIHARA, Naoyuki; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; HIKICHI, Nanase; OCHIAI, Mariko; HOSODA, Yuko; ISHIKAWA, Yoko; SHIMAZAKI, Yoko; OISHI, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is characterized by immunosuppression due to the depletion of lymphocytes in the atrophied bursa of Fabricius (BF). We have sometimes encountered contradictory findings: chickens infected with the vaccine IBD virus (IBDV) strain have sometimes exhibited a highly atrophied BF, but not immunosuppression. In this study, chickens administered vaccine or wild-type strains of IBDV were later vaccinated with the B1 strain of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Bursal changes were examined histologically with a focus on the bursal follicle. The immunoreactivity to NDV was also evaluated with the hemagglutination inhibition test. In gross examination, we observed a few chickens with a severely atrophied BF in vaccine strain-administered groups (vaccine groups), and the level of severity was the same as that in the wild-type strain-administered group (wild-type group). However, these chickens retained humoral antibody responses to NDV and were revealed to possess a higher number of bursal follicles than those of the wild-type group. These results indicated that macroscopic evaluation dose not accurately reflect the immunoreactivity and degree of bursal damage in IBDV-administered chickens. We also found non-immunosuppressed chickens in the wild-type group. These non-immunosuppressed chickens retained a significantly higher number of normal follicles and total follicles according to our statistical analysis. Furthermore, a high correlation coefficient between the NDV-HI titer and the number of normal follicles was found in the wild-type group. These results implied that the retained number of normal follicles is important for the immunoreactivity of chickens infected with IBDV. PMID:25866403

  7. Protective Efficacy of a Single Dose of Baculovirus Hemagglutinin-Based Vaccine in Chickens and Ducks Against Homologous and Heterologous H5N1 Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Hye; Song, Byung Min; Yum, Jung; Kim, Ji An; Oh, Seung Kyoo; Kim, Hyun Soo; Cho, Gil Jae

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Outbreaks of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus in poultry and humans are ongoing. Vaccination is an efficient method for prevention of H5N1 infection. Using chickens and ducks, we assessed the efficacy of a vaccine comprising H5N1 hemagglutinin (HA) protein produced in a baculovirus expression system. The immunized chickens and ducks were protected against lethal infection by H5N1 in an antigen dose-dependent manner. Complete protection against homologous challenge and partial protection against heterologous challenge were achieved in chickens immunized with 5??g HA protein and in ducks immunized with 10??g HA protein. The IgG antibody subtype was mainly detected in the sera and tissues, including the lungs. The neuraminidase (NA) inhibition assay was negative in immunized chickens and ducks. Our results indicated that the expressed HA protein by baculovirus was immunogenic to both chickens and ducks, and the immunized chickens and ducks were protected from the lethal infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus, though ducks required more HA protein than chickens to be protected. Also, baculovirus HA-vaccinated poultry can be differentiated from infected poultry by NA inhibition assay. PMID:25211640

  8. Distribution of avian influenza H5N1 viral RNA in tissues of AI-vaccinated and unvaccinated contact chickens after experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohamed K; Kilany, Walid H; Abdelwhab, E M; Arafa, Abdel-Satar; Selim, Abdullah; Samy, Ahmed; Samir, M; Le Brun, Yvon; Jobre, Yilma; Aly, Mona M

    2012-05-01

    Avian influenza due to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAIV) H5N1 virus is not a food-borne illness but a serious panzootic disease with the potential to be pandemic. In this study, broiler chickens were vaccinated with commercial H5N1 or H5N2 inactivated vaccines prior to being challenged with an HPAIV H5N1 (clade 2.2.1 classic) virus. Challenged and non-challenged vaccinated chickens were kept together, and unvaccinated chickens served as contact groups. Post-challenge samples from skin and edible internal organs were collected from dead and sacrificed (after a 14-day observation period) birds and tested using qRT-PCR for virus detection and quantification. H5N1 vaccine protected chickens against morbidity, mortality and transmission. Virus RNA was not detected in the meat or edible organs of chickens vaccinated with H5N1 vaccine. Conversely, H5N2 vaccine did not confer clinical protection, and a significant virus load was detected in the meat and internal organs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the H5N1 virus vaccine and challenge virus strains are closely related. The results of the present study strongly suggest a need for proper selection of vaccines and their routine evaluation against newly emergent field viruses. These actions will help to reduce human exposure to HPAIV H5N1 virus from both infected live birds and slaughtered poultry. In addition, rigorous preventive measures should be put in place in order to minimize the public-health risks of avian influenza at the human-animal interface. PMID:22350650

  9. Assessment of 2 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium-based vaccines against necrotic enteritis in reducing colonization of chickens by Salmonella serovars of different serogroups.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanfen; Kulkarni, Raveendra R; Parreira, Valeria R; Poppe, Cornelius; Roland, Kenneth L; Prescott, John F

    2010-10-01

    This study assessed the protective efficacy of oral vaccination with 2 experimental attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium-vectored vaccines for necrotic enteritis in protecting chickens against intestinal colonization by common serovars of Salmonella belonging to the 4 major serogroups affecting chickens. Birds were vaccinated orally with 1 × 10⁸ colony-forming units (CFU) of 1 of the vaccine strains χ9241 and χ9352, which express a plasmid-encoded partial recombinant hypothetical protein gene (tHP) of Clostridium perfringens, at days 1 and 7 of age, and then were challenged at 14 d of age with 10⁶ CFU of Salmonella serovars Anatum, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Kentucky, or Typhimurium (representative serovars of serogroups B, C, D, and E). Birds were necropsied at 4 wk of age, and samples were collected to determine reduction in tissue and intestinal colonization. The chickens vaccinated with χ9241-tHP showed reduced colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis (serogroup D) and by Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium (serogroup B) compared with the control birds. No reduction in colonization was observed in the chickens vaccinated with χ9352-tHP. There was an association between the efficacy of these vaccine strains in protecting against necrotic enteritis, assessed on an earlier occasion, and their efficacy in protecting against Salmonella colonization. Thus, the choice of an attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine vector for delivery of heterologous antigens to chickens should be based partly on the vaccine's value in protecting against colonization by serovars within serogroups B and D. Such vectors would have the additional benefit of reducing colonization of important Salmonella serovars. PMID:21197226

  10. Protecting chickens against coccidiosis in floor pens by administering Eimeria oocysts using gel beads or spray vaccination.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Mark C; Parker, Carolyn; O'Brien, Celia; Persyn, Joseph; Barlow, Darren; Miska, Katarzyna; Fetterer, Raymond

    2013-09-01

    Control of avian coccidiosis is increasingly being achieved by the administration of low doses of Eimeria oocysts to newly hatched chicks. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of gel beads containing a mixture of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts as a vaccine to protect broilers raised in contact with litter. Newly hatched chicks were either sprayed with an aqueous suspension of Eimeria oocysts or were allowed to ingest feed containing Eimeria oocysts-incorporated gel beads. Control, 1-day-old chicks were given an equivalent number of Eimeria oocysts (10(3) total) by oral gavage or received no vaccine (nonimmunized controls). All chicks were raised in floor-pen cages in direct contact with litter. At 4 wk of age, all chickens and a control nonimmunized group received a high-dose E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella challenge infection. Chickens immunized with Eimeria oocysts in gel beads or by spray vaccination displayed significantly (P < 0.05) greater weight gain (WG) compared to nonimmunized controls. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) also showed a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in both groups relative to nonimmunized controls. Moreover, WG and FCR in both groups was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from chickens immunized by oral gavage or from nonimmunized, noninfected controls. Oocyst excretion after Eimeria challenge by all immunized groups was about 10-fold less than in nonimmunized controls. These findings indicate that immunization efficacy of gel beads and spray vaccination is improved by raising immunized chicks in contact with litter. PMID:24283127

  11. Improved immune responses to a bivalent vaccine of Newcastle disease and avian influenza in chickens by ginseng stem-leaf saponins.

    PubMed

    Yu, J; Shi, F S; Hu, S

    2015-10-15

    Our previous investigation demonstrated that ginseng stem-leaf saponins (GSLS) derived from the stems and leaves of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer promoted humoral and gut mucosal immunity in chickens vaccinated with live infectious bursa disease vaccine. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of GSLS on the immune response to a bivalent inactive vaccine of Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) in chickens immunosuppressed by cyclophosphamide (Cy). One hundred and sixty-eight specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were randomly divided into 7 groups, each containing 24 birds. Chickens in groups 3-7 received intramuscular injection of Cy at 100mg/kg BW for 3 days to induce immunosuppression. Groups 1 and 2 were injected with saline solution in the same way as groups 3-7. Following injection of Cy, groups 4-7 were orally administrated GSLS (2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg BW) or astragalus polysaccharide (APS) (200mg/L) in drinking water for 7 days; groups 1-3 were not medicated and served as control birds. After administration of GSLS or APS, groups 2-7 were subcutaneously injected with a bivalent inactive vaccine of ND and AI. After that, serum was sampled for detecting antibody titers by HI, spleen was collected for lymphocyte proliferation assay, and duodenum tissues were collected for measurement of IgA-secreting (IgA+) cells and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIELs). The results showed that injection of Cy significantly suppressed immunity in chickens; oral administration of GSLS before immunization recovered splenocyte proliferation induced by ConA and LPS, and the numbers of IgA+ cells and iIELs as well as the specific antibody response to a bivalent inactive vaccine of ND and AIin immunosuppressed chickens treated with Cy. Therefore, GSLS may be the potential agent to improve vaccination in immunosuppressed chickens. PMID:26277227

  12. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P < 0.01). In contrast, a decreased TTAD of all fiber fractions was observed in chickens fed on diet CF120 (P < 0.05). Moreover, diet induced changes in gut morphology were observed in the large intestine of chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P < 0.05). In addition, in pigs, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of intestinal microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp.) respectively (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data showed that chicory forage (Cichorium intybus L.), a novel dietary fiber source in animal nutrition, have potential beneficial properties as fiber ingredient in diets for both pigs and chickens. PMID:24341997

  13. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P?chickens fed on diet CF120 (P?chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P?chickens. PMID:24341997

  14. Pulmonary immunization of chickens using non-adjuvanted spray-freeze dried whole inactivated virus vaccine completely protects against highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Ben; Tonnis, Wouter F; Murugappan, Senthil; Rottier, Peter; Koch, Guus; Frijlink, Henderik W; Huckriede, Anke; Hinrichs, Wouter L J

    2014-11-12

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus is a major threat to public health as well as to the global poultry industry. Most fatal human infections are caused by contact with infected poultry. Therefore, preventing the virus from entering the poultry population is a priority. This is, however, problematic in emergency situations, e.g. during outbreaks in poultry, as there are currently no mass application methods to effectively vaccinate large numbers of birds within a short period of time. To evaluate the suitability of needle-free pulmonary immunization for mass vaccination of poultry against HPAI H5N1, we performed a proof-of-concept study in which we investigated whether non-adjuvanted spray-freeze-dried (SFD) whole inactivated virus (WIV) can be used as a dry powder aerosol vaccine to immunize chickens. Our results show that chickens that received SFD-WIV vaccine as aerosolized powder directly at the syrinx (the site of the tracheal bifurcation), mounted a protective antibody response after two vaccinations and survived a lethal challenge with HPAI H5N1. Furthermore, both the number of animals that shed challenge virus, as well as the level of virus shedding, were significantly reduced. Based on antibody levels and reduction of virus shedding, pulmonary vaccination with non-adjuvanted vaccine was at least as efficient as intratracheal vaccination using live virus. Animals that received aerosolized SFD-WIV vaccine by temporary passive inhalation showed partial protection (22% survival) and a delay in time-to-death, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of the method, but indicating that the efficiency of vaccination by passive inhalation needs further improvement. Altogether our results provide a proof-of-concept that pulmonary vaccination using an SFD-WIV powder vaccine is able to protect chickens from lethal HPAI challenge. If the efficacy of pulmonary vaccination by passive inhalation can be improved, this method might be suitable for mass application. PMID:25285885

  15. Vaccination coverage in French 17-year-old young adults: an assessment of mandatory and recommended vaccination statuses.

    PubMed

    Roblot, F; Robin, S; Chubilleau, C; Giraud, J; Bouffard, B; Ingrand, P

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to assess vaccination coverage (VC) in 17-year-old French young adults (YAs) participating in one mandatory Day of Defence and Citizenship (DDC). Between June 2010 and May 2011, YAs participating in 43 randomly selected mandatory sessions of the DDC programme in Poitou-Charentes (France) were asked to provide their personal vaccination record. Tetanus, diphtheria, polio, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae b, pertussis, measles, mumps and rubella vaccination status were assessed at ages 2, 6, 13 and 17 years. Of 2610 participants, 2111 (81%) supplied documents for evaluation. Of these, 1838 (87%, M:F sex ratio 0·96) were aged 17 years (9% of the global population of this age in the area). The assessment of the 17-year-olds demonstrated the following rates of complete vaccination: diphtheria-tetanus-polio 83%; measles, mumps and rubella 83%; pertussis 69%; H. influenzae b 61%; human papillomavirus 47%; and hepatitis B 40%. At age 6 years, only 46% had received two doses of the vaccine against measles. The YAs were not aware of their status but were in favour of vaccination. VC in YAs is insufficient, particularly for hepatitis B, pertussis and measles. Combined vaccines and the simplification of vaccination schedules should improve VC. Preventive messages should focus on YAs. PMID:26159149

  16. Epidemiological impact of a genital herpes type 2 vaccine for young females.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yijun; Qesmi, Redouane; Wang, Qian; Steben, Marc; Wu, Jianhong; Heffernan, Jane M

    2012-01-01

    Genital Herpes, which is caused by Herpes Simplex Virus-1 or -2 (HSV-1, -2, predominantly HSV-2) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that causes a chronic latent infection with outbreak episodes linked to transmission. Antiviral therapies are effective in reducing viral shedding during these episodes, but are ineffective as a whole since many outbreaks are asymptomatic or have mild symptoms. Thus, the development of a vaccine for genital herpes is needed to control this disease. The question of how to implement such a vaccine program is an important one, and may be similar to the vaccination program for Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) for young females. We have developed a mathematical model to describe the epidemiology of vaccination targeting young females against HSV-2. The model population is delineated with respect to age group, sexual activity and infection status including oral infection of HSV-1, which may affect vaccine efficacy. A threshold parameter R(C), which determines the level of vaccine uptake needed to eradicate HSV-2, is found. Computer simulation shows that an adolescent-only vaccination program may be effective in eliminating HSV-2 disease, however, the success of extinction greatly depends on the level of vaccine uptake, the vaccine efficacy, the age of sexual maturity and safe sex practices. However, the time course of eradication would take many years. We also investigate the prevalence of infection in the total population and in women between 16-30 years of age before and after vaccination has been introduced, and show that the adolescent-only vaccination program can be effective in reducing disease prevalence in these populations depending on the level of vaccine uptake and vaccine efficacy. This will also result in a decrease of maternal-fetal transmission of HSV-2 infection. Another important, if commonsense, conclusion is that vaccination of some females reduces infection in men, which then reduces infection in women. PMID:23071536

  17. The Views of Young Women on HPV Vaccine Communication in Four European Countries.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Dafina; Brunton, Carol Gray; Jaeger, Moritz; Lenneis, Anita; Munoz, Rocio; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Todorova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) and can cause cervical cancer. Two vaccines are available to protect against the most common strands of the virus. Vaccination programs differ across Europe but most neglect young adults, who are the group with the highest risk of contracting STIs. Our aim was to explore the views of young women from four European countriesScotland, Spain, Serbia, and Bulgaria - about the HPV vaccine communication strategy. These countries are characterized by different cervical cancer prevalence and vaccine implementation policies. We conducted focus group discussions with young women (aged 18-26) with various vaccination histories in a purposive sample. We subjected the data to thematic analysis with the purpose of identifying themes related to communication about the HPV vaccine. We recorded the information sources mentioned by participants. Participants discussed numerous sources of vaccine-related information. They approached information critically rather than naively and questioned the sources' trustworthiness and motives. Participants desired transparent information about the risks of the virus and the risks and benefits of the vaccine. These risks and benefits were individualized in view of personal and external factors. Particular aspects of the vaccine and the way information was communicated resulted in feelings of uncertainty. There were notable cross-cultural differences in experiences with HPV vaccine communication. Our results suggest that transparent risk communication about the HPV vaccine is valued by young women. In addition, both individual and culturally-dependent factors influenced experiences with, and preference for information. PMID:26149158

  18. Protection against exotic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) challenge of chickens vaccinated with NDV vaccines made from different genetic lineages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines for control of Newcastle Disease (ND) have been used for over fifty years in the United States. The available ND vaccines, both live and killed have been shown to prevent mortality and symptoms of disease. However, they typically do not prevent vaccinated birds from becoming infected and ...

  19. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccine intake evaluation by detection of virus amplification in feather pulps of vaccinated chickens.

    PubMed

    Davidson, I; Raibshtein, I; Altori, A; Elkin, N

    2016-03-18

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a respiratory disease of poultry caused by an alphaherpesvirus, ILTV. The live vaccine is applied worldwide by drinking water or by the respiratory route, and by the vent application in Israel. No system of direct evaluation of the efficacy of vaccination exists today, except of antibody elicitation, which is an indirect indication of vaccination intake and might happen due to environment exposure. We suggest for the first time an assay for evaluating the accuracy of the vaccination process by spotting the spread of the live vaccine systemically, namely by virus detection in the feather shafts of the vaccinated birds. The feathers are particularly beneficial as they are easy to collect, non-lethal for the bird, therefore advantageous for monitoring purposes. Moreover, the continuous survey of the vaccine virus unveiled the different kinetics of viremia by the different vaccination routes; while after the vent vaccination the systemic viremia peaks during the first week afterwards, after two consecutive vaccine administration by drinking water with 6 day interval, the vireamia peaks only after the second administration. A robust amplification was needed because the vaccine ILTV was present in the bird in minute quantities compared to the wild-type virus. For the vaccine virus identification in feather shafts a nested real-time PCR for the TK ILTV gene was developed. The sensitivity of detection of the nested rtPCR was greater by 1000 compared to conventional nested PCR and 10 times that real-time PCR. PMID:26784685

  20. Assessment of 2 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium-based vaccines against necrotic enteritis in reducing colonization of chickens by Salmonella serovars of different serogroups

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanfen; Kulkarni, Raveendra R.; Parreira, Valeria R.; Poppe, Cornelius; Roland, Kenneth L.; Prescott, John F.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the protective efficacy of oral vaccination with 2 experimental attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium-vectored vaccines for necrotic enteritis in protecting chickens against intestinal colonization by common serovars of Salmonella belonging to the 4 major serogroups affecting chickens. Birds were vaccinated orally with 1 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) of 1 of the vaccine strains χ9241 and χ9352, which express a plasmid-encoded partial recombinant hypothetical protein gene (tHP) of Clostridium perfringens, at days 1 and 7 of age, and then were challenged at 14 d of age with 106 CFU of Salmonella serovars Anatum, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Kentucky, or Typhimurium (representative serovars of serogroups B, C, D, and E). Birds were necropsied at 4 wk of age, and samples were collected to determine reduction in tissue and intestinal colonization. The chickens vaccinated with χ9241-tHP showed reduced colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis (serogroup D) and by Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium (serogroup B) compared with the control birds. No reduction in colonization was observed in the chickens vaccinated with χ9352-tHP. There was an association between the efficacy of these vaccine strains in protecting against necrotic enteritis, assessed on an earlier occasion, and their efficacy in protecting against Salmonella colonization. Thus, the choice of an attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine vector for delivery of heterologous antigens to chickens should be based partly on the vaccine’s value in protecting against colonization by serovars within serogroups B and D. Such vectors would have the additional benefit of reducing colonization of important Salmonella serovars. PMID:21197226

  1. Effects of strain of chickens and vaccination with turkey herpesvirus on Marek's disease and lymphoid leukosis in breeding stocks.

    PubMed

    Gavora, J S; Merritt, E S; Grunder, A A; Gowe, R S

    1975-07-01

    1. A total of 3236 females from eight meat-type strains, half of which were vaccinated for Marek's disease (MD), and 11,193 Leghorn females from ten strains, all vaccinated for MD, were adventitiously exposed to MD and lymphoid leukosis (LL) viruses and observed to 392 and 497 d of age, respectively. 2. In the meat-type birds, vaccination reduced total mortality from 43-4% to 27-1% and mortality due to MD from 16-4% to 5-4% but did not affect mortality and LL (2-9% and 3-4%). 3. In the vaccinated Leghorns total mortality was 11%, including 2-1% from MD and 1-2% from LL. 4. Significant differences between strains of chickens were found in total mortality, as well as in MD and LL mortality. 5. Strain by vaccination interaction was observed in total rearing and adult mortality, as well as in the MD mortality of adult meat-type females. 6. Leghorn strains with higher rate of egg production and meat-type strains with lower growth rate to have better viability. PMID:1156921

  2. Universal routine HPV vaccination for young girls in Uganda: a review of opportunities and potential obstacles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the existing realities in Uganda to identify opportunities and potential obstacles of providing universal routine HPV vaccination to young adolescent girls. Cervical cancer is a public health priority in Uganda where it contributes to about 5060% of all female malignancies. It is associated with a dismal 5-year relative survival of approximately 20%. With adequate financial resources, primary prevention through vaccination is feasible using existing education and health infrastructure. Cost-effectiveness studies show that at a cost of US$2 per dose, the current vaccines would be cost effective. With optimal (?70%) coverage of the target population, the lifetime risk of cervical cancer could be reduced by >50%. Uganda fulfils 4 out of the 5 criteria set by the WHO for the introduction of routine HPV vaccination to young adolescent girls. The existing political commitment, community support for immunization and the favorable laws and policy environment all provide an opportunity that should not be missed to introduce this much needed vaccine to the young adolescent girls. However, sustainable financing by the government without external assistances remains a major obstacle. Also, the existing health delivery systems would require strengthening to cope with the delivery of HPV vaccine to a population that is normally not targeted for routine vaccination. Given the high incidence of cervical cancer and in the absence of a national screening program, universal HPV vaccination of Ugandan adolescent girls is critical for cervical cancer prevention. PMID:22950658

  3. Benefits of vaccinating young adult women with a prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16 and 18) vaccine.

    PubMed

    Monsonego, J; Cortes, J; Greppe, C; Hampl, M; Joura, E; Singer, A

    2010-11-29

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The causal role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer has prompted the development of vaccines against HPV. The highest risk of HPV infection is in women aged 16-25 years. Almost all young adult women can benefit from HPV vaccination. There is strong epidemiological and clinical support for vaccination programmes that target sexually active women in this age group to prevent HPV infection, and thus avert the development of HPV-related disease. Furthermore, the implementation of HPV vaccination programmes may benefit the development or awareness of cervical cancer prevention strategies and ultimately reduce the burden of cervical cancer and improve cervical cancer control. PMID:20971114

  4. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy and its usefulness to mothers and their young infants.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Satoshi; Hisano, Michi; Komano, Jun; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Sago, Haruhiko; Yamaguchi, Koushi

    2015-04-01

    The current approach to protecting pregnant women from influenza infection and serious influenza-related complications is vaccination. It is, therefore, critical to evaluate the vaccine's safety, immunogenicity, and protection efficacy during pregnancy. However, because it is affected by previous influenza vaccination or infection, the efficacy of the seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine is difficult to evaluate in pregnant women. The A/H1N1pdm pandemic in 2009 provided us with the opportunity to evaluate the immunogenicity of the influenza vaccine unaffected by previous vaccinations or infections. Vaccination with inactivated influenza virus during pregnancy elicited neutralizing antibody titers that were sufficient and comparable to those of naturally infected individuals. Furthermore, post-pandemic surveys provided a wealth of definitive information on vaccine efficacy and safety. In addition, transplacental transfer of antibodies following vaccination protected newborn infants against influenza infection. With reports showing the effectiveness of influenza vaccine during pregnancy, it is suggested that influenza vaccination benefits both mothers and their young infants. PMID:25708925

  5. Uptake of Free HPV Vaccination among Young Women: A Comparison of Rural versus Urban Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Casey, Baretta R.; Vanderpool, Robin; Collins, Tom; Moore, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To contrast rates of initial HPV vaccine uptake, offered at no cost, between a rural clinic, a rural community college, and an urban college clinic and to identify rural versus urban differences in uptake of free booster doses. Methods: Young rural women attending rural clinics (n = 246), young women attending a rural community college (n

  6. Uptake of Free HPV Vaccination among Young Women: A Comparison of Rural versus Urban Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Casey, Baretta R.; Vanderpool, Robin; Collins, Tom; Moore, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To contrast rates of initial HPV vaccine uptake, offered at no cost, between a rural clinic, a rural community college, and an urban college clinic and to identify rural versus urban differences in uptake of free booster doses. Methods: Young rural women attending rural clinics (n = 246), young women attending a rural community college (n…

  7. An infected chicken kidney cell co-culture ELISpot for enhanced detection of T cell responses to avian influenza and vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Hernandez, Raul; Peroval, Marylene; Boyd, Amy; Balkissoon, Devanand; Staines, Karen; Smith, Adrian; Butter, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of the immune responses of chickens to the influenza virus is essential for the development of new strategies of vaccination and control. We have developed a method incorporating infected chicken kidney cells (CKC) in culture with splenocytes in an IFNγ ELISpot assay to enumerate ex vivo responses against influenza virus antigens. Splenocytes from birds challenged with influenza showed specific responses to the influenza virus, with responding cells being mainly CD8 positive. The utility of the assay was also demonstrated in the detection of an antigen specific enhancement of IFNγ producing cells from birds vaccinated with recombinant Fowlpox vectored influenza nucleoprotein and matrix protein. PMID:25450002

  8. Practice and Child Characteristics Associated with Influenza Vaccine Uptake in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Poehling, Katherine A.; Fairbrother, Gerry; Zhu, Yuwei; Donauer, Stephanie; Ambrose, Sandra; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Staat, Mary Allen; Prill, Mila M.; Finelli, Lyn; Allred, Norma J.; Bardenheier, Barbara; Szilagyi, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine both practice and child characteristics and practice strategies associated with receipt of influenza vaccine in young children during the 2004–2005 influenza season, the first season for the universal influenza vaccination recommendation for all children aged 6–23 months. Methods Clinical and demographic data from randomly selected children aged 6–23 months were obtained by chart review from a community-based cohort study in three U.S. counties. The proportion of children vaccinated by April 5, 2005 in each practice was obtained. To assess practice characteristics and strategies, sampled practices received a self-administered practice survey. Practice and child characteristics predicting complete influenza vaccination were determined using multinomial logistic regression. Results Forty-six (88%) of 52 sampled practices completed the survey and permitted chart reviews. Of 2384 children aged 6–23 months who were studied, 27% were completely vaccinated. The proportion of children completely vaccinated varied widely among practices (0–71%). Most practices (87%) implemented ≥ 1 vaccination strategy (year-round discussion with parents about influenza vaccine, evening/weekend influenza vaccine clinics, standing orders, or saving a second dose for children who had received the first of two recommended doses). Complete influenza vaccination was associated with three practice characteristics-- suburban location, lower patient volume, and vaccination strategies of evening/weekend vaccine clinics; and with child characteristics of younger age, existing high-risk conditions, ≥ 6 well visits to the practice by age 3 years, and any practice visit from October through January. Conclusion Modifiable factors associated with increased influenza vaccination coverage include October-January practice visits and evening/weekend vaccine clinics. PMID:20819893

  9. Kinetics of Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection in broiler chickens 1: effect of varying vaccination to challenge interval on vaccinal protection and load of MDV and herpesvirus of turkey in the spleen and feather dander over time.

    PubMed

    Fakhrul Islam, A F M; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W; Groves, Peter J; Underwood, Gregory J

    2008-06-01

    Two experiments in commercial broiler chickens vaccinated with herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) and challenged with Marek's disease virus (MDV) investigated the effects of the vaccination-to-challenge interval (VCI) on vaccinal protection against Marek's disease, and the kinetics of MDV and HVT load in the spleen and feather dander determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Experiment 1 in isolators tested VCI of 2, 4 and 7 days, while Experiment 2 in floor pens tested VCI of 0, 2, 4, 7 and 10 days. MDV challenge induced gross Marek's disease lesions in 14% to 74% of chickens by 56 days post-challenge. Vaccinal protection increased from approximately 40% to approximately 80% with increasing VCI between days 2 and 7 in both experiments, but not thereafter. MDV was detected in both the spleen and dander at 7 days post-challenge and increased rapidly to approximately 21 days post-challenge, after which levels plateaued, rose or fell gradually depending on treatment. HVT was also shed in significant amounts, 1 to 2 logs lower than for MDV, with a clear peak around 14 to 21 days post-vaccination. Vaccination significantly reduced the log(10)MDV load in the spleen (vaccinated, 2.99+/-0.20/10(6) spleen cells; unvaccinated, 4.60+/-0.23/10(6) spleen cells) and dander (vaccinated, 5.28+/-0.13/mg; unvaccinated, 6.00+/-0.18/mg) from infected chickens. The MDV load had a significant negative association with the VCI and the level of vaccinal protection. Measurement of dander production in Experiment 1 and the dust content of air in Experiment 2, combined with determination of the MDV load in these, enabled estimation of total daily shedding rates of MDV per chicken and of the MDV load in air for the first time. PMID:18568648

  10. Immunopotentiation of a developed Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis vaccine by thymulin and zinc in meat chicken breeders.

    PubMed

    Barbour, E K; Hamadeh, S K; Bejjani, N E; Faroon, O M; Eid, A; Sakr, W; Bouljihad, M; Spasojevic, R; Safieh-Garabedian, B

    2001-08-01

    The humoral immunity, spleen and thymus weight indices, lymphocyte count in the thymus cortex, and granuloma diameter at vaccination sites were assessed in four differently immunopotentiated groups of meat chicken breeders. Breeders in the first two groups were given a killed Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE) vaccine subcutaneously at 15 and 19 weeks of age. Breeders in the third and fourth groups were left unvaccinated. Breeders in the first group were further immunopotentiated with zinc and thymulin. Each bird in the first group was given the immunopotentiators intraperitoneally in a volume of 0.1 ml at intervals of 3 days for a period of 3 weeks, starting at 15 weeks of age. At each time, each bird in the first group received thymulin (10 ng) and ZnCl2 (1 micromol/L), using a carboxymethyl cellulose carrier, totalling 90 ng thymulin and 9 micromol of ZnCl2 per bird. Each bird in the first three groups was challenged orally with 6.7 x 10(6) cfu/ml of highly virulent SE organisms, at an age of 22 weeks. The first group, which had received zinc and thymulin, had the earliest and highest humoral immune response to SE (p<0.05). This was observed at 2 and 4 weeks after the first vaccination. In addition, the first group had the highest mean thymus weight index, and the highest mean lymphocyte count in the thymus cortex. No significant difference was observed between the first two vaccinated groups in the mean granuloma diameter developed at the two vaccination sites 48 h after administration of the vaccine (p>0.05). PMID:11519676

  11. A comparison of canine distemper vaccine and measles vaccine for the prevention of canine distemper in young puppies.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, W S; Baxendale, W

    1994-10-01

    Two groups of six-week-old beagle puppies were vaccinated with either high titre canine distemper virus or human measles virus, a third group remaining unvaccinated. All the puppies were subsequently challenged by the nasopharyngeal route at 10 weeks old with the virulent Snyder-Hill strain of canine distemper. Severe clinical signs were observed in 90 per cent of the unvaccinated dogs but both groups of vaccinated dogs survived the challenge. High temperatures were recorded in 20 per cent of the measles vaccinates and abdominal petechial rashes were observed in 60 per cent of them. The only clinical signs observed in the puppies vaccinated with distemper virus were transient rashes in 20 per cent of the group. The high titre canine distemper vaccine stimulated a humoral response quickly in 78 per cent of the puppies in the presence of maternally derived antibody and protected them against challenge with the virulent Snyder-Hill strain of distemper virus. The remaining dogs responded sluggishly but were still protected against challenge. The results of field surveys showed that 95 per cent of young puppies with different levels of maternally derived antibodies responded to the distemper component in a vaccine also containing canine parvovirus. No incompatibility was observed between the two components. PMID:7846822

  12. Display of Eimeria tenella EtMic2 protein on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a potential oral vaccine against chicken coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Wang, Longjiang; Wang, Tiantian; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Qing; Chen, Peipei; Chen, Zhengtao; Wang, Fangkun; Li, Hongmei; Xiao, Yihong; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2014-04-01

    S. cerevisiae is generally regarded as safe and benign organism and its surface display system may be used as a unique eukaryotic expression system that is suitable for expressing eukaryotic antigen. In addition to the convenience of vaccine delivery, the yeast cell wall has been shown to enhance the innate immunity when immunized with the yeast live oral vaccine. In the present study, we expressed the chicken coccidian E. tenella EtMic2, a microneme protein, on the surface of the S. cerevisiae and evaluated it as a potential oral vaccine for chicken against E. tenella challenge. The protective efficacy against a homologous challenge was evaluated by body weight gains, lesion scores and fecal oocyst shedding. The results showed that the live oral vaccine can improve weight gains, reduced cecal pathology and lower oocyst fecal shedding compared with non immunized controls. In addition, the yeast oral vaccine could stimulate humoral as well as cell mediate immune responses. These results suggested that EtMic2 displayed on the cell surface of S. cerevisiae could be used as potential live vaccine against chicken coccidiosis. PMID:24530147

  13. Study of the genetic stability of measles virus CAM-70 vaccine strain after serial passages in chicken embryo fibroblasts primary cultures.

    PubMed

    Borges, Maria Beatriz; Caride, Elena; Jabor, Alfredo V; Malachias, José Marcus N; Freire, Marcos S; Homma, Akira; Galler, Ricardo

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the genetic stability of the CAM-70 measles vaccine strain we have performed 10 serial passages of the seed lot virus FMS-7 in chicken embryo fibroblasts primary cultures (CEF) under production conditions. The nucleotide sequences of the seed lot virus, the virus from a vaccine vial (third passage) and from the 10th passage were determined and compared with each other and with sequences from other sources. The full genome analysis of the CAM-70 vaccine still considers it as the most divergent among all vaccine strains. The nucleotide sequence analyses of viral genomes from the three CAM-70 passage levels have demonstrated that they are identical. This study shows that the measles CAM-70 vaccine virus is highly adapted to its cultivation conditions and that its genetic stability contributes, in part, to the safety profile of the vaccine. PMID:18040767

  14. Sexually Related Behaviors as Predictors of HPV Vaccination Among Young Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Laurel A.; Vanderpool, Robin C.; Crosby, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore whether sexually related behaviors predict refusal of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among a sample of women aged 1826 in Appalachian Kentucky. Methods Using a convenience sample, young women attending health clinics and a community college in southeastern Kentucky were recruited to participate in a Womens Health Study. After completing a questionnaire, women received a free voucher for the three-dose HPV vaccine series. Completion of dose one served as the outcome variable. Results Women with a history of an abnormal Pap test were almost two times more likely to decline the HPV vaccine (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.143.20, p = 0.015), and women who reported they had never had a Pap test were four times more likely to decline the vaccine (AOR 4.02, 95% CI 1.1314.32, p = 0.032). Women engaging in mutual masturbation were nearly two times more likely to decline the free vaccine (AOR 1.91, 95% CI 1.173.10, p = 0.009). Use of hormonal birth control showed a protective effect against refusal of the free HPV vaccine (AOR 0.593, 95% CI 0.440.80, p = 0.001). Conclusions Among this sample of Appalachian women, those engaging in behaviors that increase their risk for HPV infection were more likely to refuse the vaccine. Conversely, those women engaging in protective health behaviors were more likely to accept the vaccine. These findings suggest that those women not being vaccinated may be the very group most likely to benefit from vaccination. Cervical cancer prevention programs need to be creative in efforts to reach young women most in need of the vaccine based on a higher profile of sexually related behaviors and the proxy measure of this risk (having an abnormal Pap test result). PMID:22136319

  15. Safety and immunogenicity of a novel therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding chicken type II collagen for rheumatoid arthritis in normal rats.

    PubMed

    Juan, Long; Xiao, Zhao; Song, Yun; Zhijian, Zhang; Jing, Jin; Kun, Yu; Yuna, Hao; Dongfa, Dai; Lili, Ding; Liuxin, Tan; Fei, Liang; Nan, Liu; Fang, Yuan; Yuying, Sun; Yongzhi, Xi

    2015-12-01

    Current clinically available treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fail to cure the disease or unsatisfactorily halt disease progression. To overcome these limitations, the development of therapeutic DNA vaccines and boosters may offer new promising strategies. Because type II collagen (CII) as a critical autoantigen in RA and native chicken type II collagen (nCCII) has been used to effectively treat RA, we previously developed a novel therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding CCII (pcDNA-CCOL2A1) with efficacy comparable to that of the current "gold standard", methotrexate(MTX). Here, we systemically evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of the pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine in normal Wistar rats. Group 1 received only a single intramuscular injection into the hind leg with pcDNA-CCOL2A1 at the maximum dosage of 3 mg/kg on day 0; Group 2 was injected with normal saline (NS) as a negative control. All rats were monitored daily for any systemic adverse events, reactions at the injection site, and changes in body weights. Plasma and tissues from all experimental rats were collected on day 14 for routine examinations of hematology and biochemistry parameters, anti-CII IgG antibody reactivity, and histopathology. Our results indicated clearly that at the maximum dosage of 3 mg/kg, the pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine was safe and well-tolerated. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths occurred in the pcDNA-CCOL2A1 group compared with the NS group. Furthermore, no major alterations were observed in hematology, biochemistry, and histopathology, even at the maximum dose. In particularly, no anti-CII IgG antibodies were detected in vaccinated normal rats at 14 d after vaccination; this was relevant because we previously demonstrated that the pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine, when administered at the therapeutic dosage of 300μg/kg alone, did not induce anti-CII IgG antibody production and significantly reduced levels of anti-CII IgG antibodies in the plasma of rats with established collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). This is the first study demonstrating the safety and immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine encoding CCII for treating RA in normal rats. These results may support the use of this novel therapeutic DNA vaccine for the treatment of RA in the future. PMID:26697972

  16. Waning immunity against mumps in vaccinated young adults, France 2013.

    PubMed

    Vygen, Sabine; Fischer, Aurélie; Meurice, Laure; Mounchetrou Njoya, Ibrahim; Gregoris, Marina; Ndiaye, Bakhao; Ghenassia, Adrien; Poujol, Isabelle; Stahl, Jean Paul; Antona, Denise; Le Strat, Yann; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Rolland, Patrick

    2016-03-10

    In 2013, 15 clusters of mumps were notified in France; 72% (82/114) of the cases had been vaccinated twice with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. To determine whether the risk of mumps increased with time since the last vaccination, we conducted a case-control study among clusters in universities and military barracks. A confirmed case had an inflammation of a salivary gland plus laboratory confirmation in 2013. A probable case presented with inflammation of a salivary gland in 2013 either lasting for > 2 days or with epidemiological link to a confirmed case. Controls had no mumps symptoms and attended the same university course, student party or military barracks. We collected clinical and vaccination data via web questionnaire and medical records. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) using logistic regression. 59% (50/85) of cases and 62% (199/321) of controls had been vaccinated twice. The odds of mumps increased for twice-vaccinated individuals by 10% for every year that had passed since the second dose (aOR 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.19; p = 0.02). Mumps immunity waned with increasing time since vaccination. Our findings contributed to the French High Council of Public Health's decision to recommend a third MMR dose during outbreaks for individuals whose second dose dates > 10 years. PMID:26987576

  17. Vaccination with Clostridium perfringens recombinant proteins in combination with Montanide ISA 71 VG adjuvant increases protection against experimental necrotic enteritis in commercial broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was performed to compare four Clostridium perfringens recombinant proteins as vaccine candidates using the Montanide ISA 71 VG adjuvant in an experimental model of necrotic enteritis. Broiler chickens were immunized with clostridial recombinant proteins with ISA 71 VG, and intestinal le...

  18. The immune adjuvant response of polysaccharides from Atractylodis macrocephalae Koidz in chickens vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaona; Sun, Wenjing; Zhang, Shijie; Meng, Guangju; Qi, Chunhua; Fan, Wentao; Wang, Yuge; Liu, Jianzhu

    2016-05-01

    Build on our previous research, polysaccharides from the rhizome of Atractylodis macrocephalae Koidz (RAMPS), RAMPStp and RAMPS60c were prepared and the structural characterization and immune response of ND vaccine in chicken were investigated. Immune organ index, Lymphocyte proliferation, antibody titers, cell cycle distribution, and percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells were determined. GPC analysis showed that the Mn of RAMPS with two peaks were 1.29×10(5) and 1.74×10(3), respectively. GC-MS analysis revealed that RAMPS was composed of glucose, mannose, arabinose, galactose, xylose, d-Ribose and rhamnose, with mass percentages of 66.39%, 21.24%, 5.64%, 2.65%, 2.30%, 1.15% and 0.64%, respectively. NMR spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that a preliminary structure of RAMPS was proposed as 1,3-linked β-d-Galp and 1,6-linked β-d-Galpresidues. In vivo test showed that RAMPStp and RAMPS60c could promote peripheral lymphocytes proliferation and entering into S and G2/M phases, enhance serum HI antibody titer and effectively improve the percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in chickens vaccinated with ND vaccine at most time points. The actions of RAMPStp and RAMPS60c were stronger than that of Lev, and RAMPStp presented the best efficacy. These results indicated that RAMPStp and RAMPS60c characterize of the immune-enhancing activity and RAMPStp possessed the strongest activity. It would be anticipated as a component of new-type immunopotentiator. PMID:26877012

  19. CpG Improves Influenza Vaccine Efficacy in Young Adult but Not Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Alejandro; Co, Mary; Mathew, Anuja

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown a reduced efficacy of influenza vaccines in the elderly compared to young adults. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a commercially available inactivated influenza vaccine (Fluzone®) in young adult and aged mice. C57/BL6 mice were administered a single or double immunization of Fluzone® with or without CpG and challenged intranasally with H1N1 A/California/09 virus. A double immunization of Fluzone® adjuvanted with CpG elicited the highest level of protection in young adult mice which was associated with increases in influenza specific IgG, elevated HAI titres, reduced viral titres and lung inflammation. In contrast, the vaccine schedule which provided fully protective immunity in young adult mice conferred limited protection in aged mice. Antigen presenting cells from aged mice were found to be less responsive to in vitro stimulation by Fluzone and CpG which may partially explain this result. Our data are supportive of studies that have shown limited effectiveness of influenza vaccines in the elderly and provide important information relevant to the design of more immunogenic vaccines in this age group. PMID:26934728

  20. Protective efficacy of stockpiled vaccine against H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolated from a chicken in Kumamoto prefecture, Japan, in 2014.

    PubMed

    Gamoh, Koichiro; Nakamizo, Mari; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Shoko

    2016-02-01

    H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have spread worldwide, and antigenic variants of different clades have been selected. In this study, the national stockpiled vaccine prepared from A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-1/2004 (H5N1) strain was evaluated for the protective efficacy against H5N8 HPAI virus isolated in Kumamoto prefecture, Japan, in April 2014. In the challenge test, all of the vaccinated chickens survived without showing any clinical signs and reduced virus shedding. It was concluded that the present stockpiled vaccine was effective against the H5N8 HPAI virus. PMID:26290130

  1. Maternal antibody induced by recombinant gp85 protein vaccine adjuvanted with CpG-ODN protects against ALV-J early infection in chickens.

    PubMed

    Dou, Wenwen; Li, Hongmei; Cheng, Ziqiang; Zhao, Peng; Liu, Jianzhu; Cui, Zhizhong; Liu, Haigang; Jing, Weifang; Guo, Huijun

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the efficacy of a recombinant protein vaccine encoding the gp85 gene from the subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) co-administered with cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) or Freund's adjuvants was investigated for the protection against early ALV-J infection in chickens. The gp85 gene from ALV-J was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant protein was injected intramuscularly into the breeder hens along with CpG-ODN or Freund's adjuvants, and the antibodies in the serum were assayed regularly post inoculation. The fertilized eggs from the vaccinated hens were hatched, the hatched chickens were challenged with 10(2.2) 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) ALV-J on 1 day, and the maternal antibodies in the hatched chickens were examined regularly before and after the challenge. The viremia was determined weekly, and a histopathological analysis of the immunosuppressive lesions was performed. The results suggest that the gp85 recombinant protein was successfully prepared and was inoculated with CpG-ODN adjuvant into breeder hens to induce serological antibody against ALV-J in the hens and in the hatched chickens. The positive maternal antibodies in the hatched chickens provided effective protection for most chickens against viremia and dramatically decreased the number of immunosuppressive lesions; these protective effects were better than those of the gp85 recombinant protein plus Freund's adjuvant. The data will provide a scientific basis for the application of the ALV-J subunit vaccine to control ALV-J infection in chicken flocks. PMID:23831319

  2. Passive antibody transfer in chickens to model maternal antibody after avian influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Olivia B; Estevez, Carlos; Yu, Qingzhong; Suarez, David L

    2013-04-15

    Birds transfer maternal antibodies (MAb) to their offspring through the egg yolk where the antibody is absorbed and enters the circulatory system. Maternal antibodies provide early protection from disease, but may interfere with the vaccination efficacy in the chick. MAb are thought to interfere with vaccine antigen processing that reduces the subsequent immune response. Once MAb titers are depleted, the chick will respond to vaccination, but they are also susceptible to viral infection. This study examines the effect of MAb on seroconversion to different viral-vectored avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines. Chicks were given passively transferred antibodies (PTA) using AIV hyperimmunized serum, and subsequently vaccinated with a fowlpox-AIV recombinant vaccine (FPr) or a Newcastle disease virus-AIV recombinant vaccine (NDVr). Our results indicate that passively transferred antibodies led to significant reduction of seroconversion and clinical protection from virulent challenge in recombinant virus vaccinated chicks thus demonstrating maternal antibody interference to vaccination. The passive antibody transfer model system provides an important tool to evaluate maternal antibody interference to vaccination. PMID:23398721

  3. Predictors of Initial Uptake of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Uptake Among Rural Appalachian Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Richard A.; Vanderpool, Robin C.; Dignan, Mark; Bates, Wallace

    2016-01-01

    Women in Appalachian Kentucky experience a high burden of cervical cancer and have low rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. The purpose of this study was to identify normative influences predicting initial HPV vaccine uptake among a sample of young women in southeastern Kentucky. Women (N = 495), ages 18 through 26 years, were recruited from clinics and community colleges. After completing a questionnaire, women received a free voucher for HPV vaccination. Whether women redeemed the voucher for Dose 1 served as the primary outcome variable. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to estimate the influence of healthcare providers, friends, mothers, and fathers on vaccine uptake. One-quarter of the total sample (25.9 %) received Dose 1. Uptake was higher in the clinic sample (45.1 %) than in the college sample (6.9 %). On multivariate analysis, women indicating that their healthcare provider suggested the vaccine, that their friends would definitely want them to be vaccinated, and that their fathers would definitely want them to receive the vaccine all were 1.6 times more likely to receive Dose 1. Interaction effects occurred between recruitment site (clinic vs. community college) and all three of the normative influences retaining multivariate significance, indicating that the associations only applied to the clinic sample. HPV vaccine interventions may benefit from highlighting paternal endorsement, healthcare provider recommendation, and peer support. PMID:23325057

  4. Delivery cost of human papillomavirus vaccination of young adolescent girls in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Odaga, John; Rout, Swampa Sarit; Ngoc, Diep Nguyen Thi; Menezes, Lysander; Araujo, Maria Ana Mendoza; LaMontagne, D Scott

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the incremental delivery cost of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young adolescent girls in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam. Methods Data were collected from a sample of facilities that participated in five demonstration projects for HPV vaccine delivery: school-based delivery was used in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam; health-centre-based delivery was also used in Viet Nam; and integrated delivery, which involved existing health services, was also used in Uganda. Microcosting methods were used to guide data collection on the use of resources (i.e. staff, supplies and equipment) and data were obtained from government, demonstration project and health centre administrative records. Delivery costs were expressed in 2009 United States dollars (US$). Exclusively project-related expenses and the cost of the vaccine were excluded. Findings The economic delivery cost per vaccine dose ranged from US$1.44 for integrated outreach in Uganda to US$3.88 for school-based delivery in Peru. In Viet Nam, the lowest cost per dose was US$1.92 for health-centre-based delivery. Cost profiles revealed that, in general, the largest contributing factors were project start-up costs and recurrent personnel costs. The delivery cost of HPV vaccine was higher than published costs for traditional vaccines recommended by the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Conclusion The cost of delivering HPV vaccine to young adolescent girls in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam was higher than that for vaccines currently in the EPI schedule. The cost per vaccine dose was lower when delivery was integrated into existing health services. PMID:23940406

  5. Long-Term T-Cell-Mediated Immunologic Memory to Hepatitis B Vaccine in Young Adults Following Neonatal Vaccination.

    PubMed Central

    Saffar, Hiva; Saffar, Mohammed Jafar; Ajami, Abolghasem; Khalilian, Ali Reza; Shams-Esfandabad, Kian; Mirabi, Araz Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The long-term duration of cell-mediated immunity induced by neonatal hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination is unknown. Objectives: Study was designed to determine the cellular immunity memory status among young adults twenty years after infantile HB immunization. Patients and Methods: Study subjects were party selected from a recent seroepidemiologic study in young adults, who had been vaccinated against HBV twenty years earlier. Just before and ten to 14 days after one dose of HBV vaccine booster injection, blood samples were obtained and sera concentration of cytokines (interleukin 2 and interferon) was measured. More than twofold increase after boosting was considered positive immune response. With regard to the serum level of antibody against HBV surface antigen (HBsAb) before boosting, the subjects were divided into four groups as follow: GI, HBsAb titer < 2; GII, titer 2 to 9.9; GIII, titer 10 to 99; and GIV, titers ? 100 IU/L. Mean concentration level (MCL) of each cytokines for each group at preboosting and postboosting and the proportion of responders in each groups were determined. Paired descriptive statistical analysis method (t test) was used to compare the MCL of each cytokines in each and between groups and the frequency of responders in each group. Results: Before boosting, among 176 boosted individuals, 75 (42.6%) had HBsAb 10 IU/L and were considered seroprotected. Among 101 serosusceptible persons, more than 80% of boosted individuals showed more than twofold increase in cytokines concentration, which meant positive HBsAg-specific cell-mediated immunity. MCL of both cytokines after boosting in GIV were decreased more than twofold, possibly because of recent natural boosting. Conclusions: Findings showed that neonatal HBV immunization was efficacious in inducing long-term immunity and cell-mediated immune memory for up to two decades, and booster vaccination are not required. Further monitoring of vaccinated subjects for HBV infections are recommended. PMID:25368659

  6. Perceptions of Sexual Risk Compensation Following Posttrial HIV Vaccine Uptake Among Young South Africans

    PubMed Central

    MacPhail, Catherine L.; Sayles, Jennifer N.; Cunningham, William; Newman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about the impact of risk compensation on advances in biomedical Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention technologies have been documented. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study using focus group discussions with young South African men and women (aged 1824 years) to explore perceptions of risk compensation among young South Africans with regard to a hypothetical posttrial HIV vaccine. During the discussions participants expressed their disquiet about the potential for risk compensation and the manner in which this might manifest among young people. Discussions specifically focused on reductions in condom use, an increase in multiple partners and increased frequency of sex. The discussions also indicated contradictory feelings about HIV vaccines: appreciation for their development tempered by concerns about loss of control and undermining morality. Women were particularly concerned with the possibility of increased partner concurrency and infidelity. We suggest that concerns in HIV vaccine target populations about the impact of possible risk compensation be incorporated into strategies to for vaccine introduction once vaccines move from the hypothetical to reality. PMID:22218269

  7. Characterisation of genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from NDV vaccinated chickens, and the efficacy of LaSota and recombinant genotype VII vaccines against challenge with velogenic NDV

    PubMed Central

    Roohani, Kiarash; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ideris, Aini; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    A Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolate designated IBS002 was isolated from a commercial broiler farm in Malaysia. The virus was characterised as a virulent strain based on the multiple basic amino acid motif of the fusion (F) cleavage site 112RRRKGF117 and length of the C-terminus extension of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene. Furthermore, IBS002 was classified as a velogenic NDV with mean death time (MDT) of 51.2 h and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) of 1.76. A genetic distance analysis based on the full-length F and HN genes showed that both velogenic viruses used in this study, genotype VII NDV isolate IBS002 and genotype VIII NDV isolate AF2240-I, had high genetic variations with genotype II LaSota vaccine. In this study, the protection efficacy of the recombinant genotype VII NDV inactivated vaccine was also evaluated when added to an existing commercial vaccination program against challenge with velogenic NDV IBS002 and NDV AF2240-I in commercial broilers. The results indicated that both LaSota and recombinant genotype VII vaccines offered full protection against challenge with AF2240-I. However, the LaSota vaccine only conferred partial protection against IBS002. In addition, significantly reduced viral shedding was observed in the recombinant genotype VII-vaccinated chickens compared to LaSota-vaccinated chickens. PMID:25643805

  8. Characterisation of genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from NDV vaccinated chickens, and the efficacy of LaSota and recombinant genotype VII vaccines against challenge with velogenic NDV.

    PubMed

    Roohani, Kiarash; Tan, Sheau Wei; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ideris, Aini; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2015-12-30

    A Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolate designated IBS002 was isolated from a commercial broiler farm in Malaysia. The virus was characterised as a virulent strain based on the multiple basic amino acid motif of the fusion (F) cleavage site (112)RRRKGF(117) and length of the C-terminus extension of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene. Furthermore, IBS002 was classified as a velogenic NDV with mean death time (MDT) of 51.2 h and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) of 1.76. A genetic distance analysis based on the full-length F and HN genes showed that both velogenic viruses used in this study, genotype VII NDV isolate IBS002 and genotype VIII NDV isolate AF2240-I, had high genetic variations with genotype II LaSota vaccine. In this study, the protection efficacy of the recombinant genotype VII NDV inactivated vaccine was also evaluated when added to an existing commercial vaccination program against challenge with velogenic NDV IBS002 and NDV AF2240-I in commercial broilers. The results indicated that both LaSota and recombinant genotype VII vaccines offered full protection against challenge with AF2240-I. However, the LaSota vaccine only conferred partial protection against IBS002. In addition, significantly reduced viral shedding was observed in the recombinant genotype VII-vaccinated chickens compared to LaSota-vaccinated chickens. PMID:25643805

  9. Oral infection with the Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum 9R attenuated live vaccine as a model to characterise immunity to fowl typhoid in the chicken

    PubMed Central

    Wigley, Paul; Hulme, Scott; Powers, Claire; Beal, Richard; Smith, Adrian; Barrow, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum (S. Gallinarum) is the causative agent of fowl typhoid, a severe systemic disease of chickens that results in high mortality amongst infected flocks. Due to its virulence, the immune response to S. Gallinarum is poorly characterised. In this study we have utilised infection by the live attenuated S. Gallinarum 9R vaccine strain in inbred chickens to characterise humoral, cellular and cytokine responses to systemic salmonellosis. Results Infection with 9R results in a mild systemic infection. Bacterial clearance at three weeks post infection coincides with increases in circulating anti-Salmonella antibodies, increased T cell proliferation to Salmonella challenge and increased expression of interferon gamma. These responses peak at four weeks post infection, then decline. Only modest increases of expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β were detected early in the infection. Conclusion Infection of chickens with the 9R vaccine strain induces a mild form of systemic salmonellosis. This induces both cellular and humoral immune responses, which peak soon after bacterial clearance. Unlike enteric-associated Salmonella infections the immune response is not prolonged, reflecting the absence of persistence of Salmonella in the gastrointestinal tract. The findings here indicate that the use of the S. Gallinarum 9R vaccine strain is an effective model to study immunity to systemic salmonellosis in the chicken and may be employed in further studies to determine which components of the immune response are needed for protection. PMID:16221297

  10. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of an Eimeria vaccine candidate based on Eimeria tenella immune mapped protein 1 and chicken CD40 ligand.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guangwen; Lin, Qian; Qiu, Jianhan; Qin, Mei; Tang, Xinming; Suo, Xun; Huang, Zhijian; Liu, Xianyong

    2015-05-30

    The CD40 ligand (CD40L) has shown potential as a powerful immunological adjuvant in various studies. Here, the efficacy of a chimeric subunit vaccine, consisting of Eimeria tenella immune mapped protein 1 (EtIMP1) and chicken CD40L, was evaluated against E. tenella infection. The recombinant EtIMP1-CD40L was purified from E. coli over-expressing this protein. Chickens were vaccinated with EtIMP1-CD40L without adjuvant or EtIMP1 with Freund's adjuvant. Immunization of chickens with EtIMP1-CD40L fusion protein resulted in stronger IFN-? secretion and IgA response than that with only recombinant EtIMP1 with Freund's adjuvant. The clinical effect (cecal lesions, body weights gain, and oocysts shedding) of the EtIMP1-CD40L without adjuvant was also better than that of the EtIMP1 with adjuvant, as evidenced by the difference between the two groups in the oocyst output of E. tenella-challenged chickens. The results suggest that the EtIMP1-CD40L fusion protein can be used as an effective immunogen in the development of subunit vaccines against Eimeria infection. PMID:25840621

  11. Genomic sequence analysis of the United States infectious laryngotracheitis vaccine strains chicken embryo origin (CEO) and tissue culture origin (TCO).

    PubMed

    Garca, Maricarmen; Volkening, Jeremy; Riblet, Sylva; Spatz, Stephen

    2013-05-25

    The genomic sequences of low and high passages of the United States infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) vaccine strains CEO and TCO were determined using hybrid next generation sequencing in order to define genomic changes associated with attenuation and reversion to virulence. Phylogenetic analysis of available full genomes grouped strains into three major clades: TCO, CEO, and Australian. Comparative genomics revealed that TCO attenuation is likely the result of an ORF C truncation. Genes involved in attenuation are generally clade-specific, however four genes ORF C, UL27, UL28 and UL39 commonly contained various mutations across the CEO and TCO lineages. The Thr644 mutation in the UL27 gene encoding glycoprotein B was identified in all virulent US strains. The US10 gene was identified as a potential virulence factor for the TCO revertant 81658. The UL41 gene was responsible for the robust gain in virulence of CEO-Fowl Laryngotracheitis() after 20 passages in chickens. PMID:23537957

  12. Uptake of Free HPV Vaccination Among Young Women: A Comparison of Rural Versus Urban Rates

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Richard A.; Casey, Baretta R.; Vanderpool, Robin; Collins, Tom; Moore, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To contrast rates of initial HPV vaccine uptake, offered at no cost, between a rural clinic, a rural community college, and an urban college clinic and to identify rural versus urban differences in uptake of free booster doses. Methods Young rural women attending rural clinics (n = 246), young women attending a rural community college (n = 251) and young women attending an urban university health clinic (n = 209) were recruited in Kentucky. After completing a brief questionnaire, women received a free voucher for HPV vaccination. Whether women redeemed the voucher for the initial dose of vaccine served as the study outcome variable. Findings In controlled analyses, the contrast in initial uptake between urban clinic women (reference category) and rural college women was significant (P < .0001). However, the contrast in initial uptake between urban clinic women (reference category) and rural clinic women was not significant (P = .42). The model predicting uptake of subsequent doses among those with initial uptake (n = 235) also indicated significant differences as a function of recruitment location, with rural clinic women being about 7 times more likely than urban clinic women (P < .0001) to not return for at least 1 follow-up dose. The contrast between urban clinic women and rural college women was also significant (P = .014). Conclusion Initial uptake of free HPV vaccination among young rural college women may be problematic. Moreover, uptake of subsequent free doses among rural women may be problematic regardless of whether contact is made in a clinic or through college recruitment. PMID:21967381

  13. H7 avian influenza virus vaccines protect chickens against challenge with antigenically diverse isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination has been a critical tool in the control of some avian influenza viruses (AIV) and has been used routinely in Pakistan to help control sporadic outbreaks of highly pathogenic (HP) H7 AIV since 1995. During that time, several AIV isolates were utilized as inactivated vaccines with varying...

  14. Passive antibody transfer in chickens to model maternal antibody after avian influenza vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal antibodies (MAb) may interfere with avian influenza (AI) vaccination. MAb interference prevents an immune response by binding to the vaccine antigen. Once MAb titers are depleted, the chick is susceptible to a circulating AI virus. This study examined the affect of MAb on seroconversion ...

  15. Vaccination of chickens against avian influenza using yeast cell surface display of H5 hemagglutinin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional vaccination methods for avian influenza (AI) require costly and time-consuming injection of individual birds, often multiple times, in order to produce protection. These vaccines are difficult to change quickly in response to new threats as manufacturing takes time. Yeast are an ideal ...

  16. Newcastle Disease Virus-Based Live Attenuated Vaccine Completely Protects Chickens and Mice from Lethal Challenge of Homologous and Heterologous H5N1 Avian Influenza Viruses?

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jinying; Deng, Guohua; Wen, Zhiyuan; Tian, Guobing; Wang, Yong; Shi, Jianzhong; Wang, Xijun; Li, Yanbing; Hu, Sen; Jiang, Yongping; Yang, Chinglai; Yu, Kangzhen; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2007-01-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) has continued to spread and poses a significant threat to both animal and human health. Current influenza vaccine strategies have limitations that prevent their effective use for widespread inoculation of animals in the field. Vaccine strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), however, have been used successfully to easily vaccinate large numbers of animals. In this study, we used reverse genetics to construct a NDV that expressed an H5 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA). Both a wild-type and a mutated HA open reading frame (ORF) from the HPAIV wild bird isolate, A/Bar-headed goose/Qinghai/3/2005 (H5N1), were inserted into the intergenic region between the P and M genes of the LaSota NDV vaccine strain. The recombinant viruses stably expressing the wild-type and mutant HA genes were found to be innocuous after intracerebral inoculation of 1-day-old chickens. A single dose of the recombinant viruses in chickens induced both NDV- and AIV H5-specific antibodies and completely protected chickens from challenge with a lethal dose of both velogenic NDV and homologous and heterologous H5N1 HPAIV. In addition, BALB/c mice immunized with the recombinant NDV-based vaccine produced H5 AIV-specific antibodies and were completely protected from homologous and heterologous lethal virus challenge. Our results indicate that recombinant NDV is suitable as a bivalent live attenuated vaccine against both NDV and AIV infection in poultry. The recombinant NDV vaccine may also have potential use in high-risk human individuals to control the pandemic spread of lethal avian influenza. PMID:17050610

  17. Supplemented vaccination with tandem repeat M2e virus-like particles enhances protection against homologous and heterologous HPAI H5 viruses in chickens.

    PubMed

    Song, Byung-Min; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Jung, Suk Chan; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Yu-Na; Kang, Sang-Moo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2016-01-27

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 viruses derived from A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 have been continuously circulating globally, severely affecting the public health and poultry industries. The matrix 2 protein ectodomain (M2e) is considered a promising candidate for a universal cross-protective influenza vaccine that provides more effective control over HPAI H5 viruses harboring variant hemagglutinin (HA)-antigens. Here, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a tandem repeat construct of heterologous M2e presented on virus-like particles (M2e5x VLPs) either alone or as a supplement against HPAI H5 viruses in a chicken model. Chickens immunized with M2e5x VLPs alone induced M2e-specific antibodies but were not protected against HPAI H5. The homo- and cross-protective efficacy of M2e5x VLP-supplemented vaccination of chickens was also examined. Importantly, supplementation with M2e5x VLPs induced significantly higher levels of antibodies specific for M2e and different viruses as well as provided improved protection against homologous and heterologous HPAI H5 viruses. Considering the limited efficacy of inactivated vaccines, supplement vaccination with M2e5x VLPs may be an effective measure for preventing outbreaks of HPAI viruses that have the ability to constantly change their antigenic properties in poultry. PMID:26691568

  18. Safety of live attenuated influenza vaccine in young people with egg allergy: multicentre prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Southern, Jo; Andrews, Nick J; Miller, Elizabeth; Erlewyn-Lajeunesse, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Study question How safe is live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), which contains egg protein, in young people with egg allergy? Methods In this open label, phase IV intervention study, 779 young people (2-18 years) with egg allergy were recruited from 30 UK allergy centres and immunised with LAIV. The cohort included 270 (34.7%) young people with previous anaphylaxis to egg, of whom 157 (20.1%) had experienced respiratory and/or cardiovascular symptoms. 445 (57.1%) had doctor diagnosed asthma or recurrent wheeze. Participants were observed for at least 30 minutes after vaccination and followed-up by telephone 72 hours later. Participants with a history of recurrent wheeze or asthma underwent further follow-up four weeks later. The main outcome measure was incidence of an adverse event within two hours of vaccination in young people with egg allergy. Study answer and limitations No systemic allergic reactions occurred (upper 95% confidence interval for population 0.47% and in participants with anaphylaxis to egg 1.36%). Nine participants (1.2%, 95% CI 0.5% to 2.2%) experienced mild symptoms, potentially consistent with a local, IgE mediated allergic reaction. Delayed events potentially related to the vaccine were reported in 221 participants. 62 participants (8.1%, 95% CI for population 6.3% to 10.3%) experienced lower respiratory tract symptoms within 72 hours, including 29 with parent reported wheeze. No participants were admitted to hospital. No increase in lower respiratory tract symptoms occurred in the four weeks after vaccination (assessed with asthma control test). The study cohort may represent young people with more severe allergy requiring specialist input, since they were recruited from secondary and tertiary allergy centres. What this study adds LAIV is associated with a low risk of systemic allergic reactions in young people with egg allergy. The vaccine seems to be well tolerated in those with well controlled asthma or recurrent wheeze. Funding, competing interests, data sharing This report is independent research commissioned and funded by a Department of Health policy research programme grant to the National Vaccine Evaluation Consortium. Additional funding was provided by the NIHR Clinical Research Networks, Health Protection Scotland (Edinburgh site), and Health & Social Care Services in Northern Ireland (Belfast site). PJT and MEL had support from the Department of Health for the submitted work; PJT has received research grants from the Medical Research Council and NIHR. No additional data available. Study registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02111512) and the EU Clinical Trials Register EudraCT (2014-001537-92). PMID:26645895

  19. Systemic immune responses to an inactivated, whole H9N2 avian influenza virus vaccine using class B CpG oligonucleotides in chickens.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shirene M; Alkie, Tamiru N; Hodgins, Douglas C; Nagy, va; Shojadoost, Bahram; Sharif, Shayan

    2015-07-31

    Commercial vaccines against avian influenza viruses (AIV) in chickens consist mainly of inactivated AIV, requiring parenteral administration and co-delivery of an adjuvant. Limitations in T helper 1 or T helper 2 biased responses generated by these vaccines emphasize the need for alternative, more efficacious adjuvants. The Toll-like receptor (TLR) 21 ligand, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN), has been established as immunomodulatory in chickens. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the adjuvant potential of high (20?g) and low (2?g) doses of CpG ODN 2007 (CpG 2007) and CpG ODN 1826 (CpG 1826) when administered to chickens with a formalin-inactivated H9N2 AIV. Antibody responses in sera were evaluated in 90 specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens after intramuscular administration of vaccine formulations at 7 and 21 days post-hatch. Antibody responses were assessed based on haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (VN) assays; virus-specific IgM and IgY antibody responses were evaluated by ELISA. The results suggest that the vaccine formulation containing low dose CpG 2007 was significantly more effective at generating neutralizing (both HI and VN) responses than formulations with high or low doses of CpG 1826 or high dose CpG 2007. Neutralizing responses elicited by low dose CpG 2007 significantly exceeded those generated by a squalene-based adjuvanted vaccine formulation during peak responses. A significantly higher IgM response was elicited by the formulation containing low dose CpG 2007 compared to high and low doses of 1826. Although the low dose of CpG 2007 elicited a higher IgY response than CpG 1826, the difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, 2?g of CpG 2007 is potentially promising as a vaccine adjuvant when delivered intramuscularly with inactivated H9N2 virus to chickens. Future studies may be directed at determining the mucosal antibody responses to the same vaccine formulations. PMID:26092309

  20. Evaluation of protective efficacy of live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum vaccine strains against fowl typhoid in chickens.

    PubMed

    Laniewski, Paweł; Mitra, Arindam; Karaca, Kemal; Khan, Ayub; Prasad, Rajeev; Curtiss, Roy; Roland, Kenneth L

    2014-09-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum is the etiological agent of fowl typhoid, which constitutes a considerable economic problem for poultry growers in developing countries. The vaccination of chickens seems to be the most effective strategy to control the disease in those areas. We constructed S. Gallinarum strains with a deletion of the global regulatory gene fur and evaluated their virulence and protective efficacy in Rhode Island Red chicks and Brown Leghorn layers. The fur deletion mutant was avirulent and, when delivered orally to chicks, elicited excellent protection against lethal S. Gallinarum challenge. It was not as effective when given orally to older birds, although it was highly immunogenic when delivered by intramuscular injection. We also examined the effect of a pmi mutant and a combination of fur deletions with mutations in the pmi and rfaH genes, which affect O-antigen synthesis, and ansB, whose product inhibits host T-cell responses. The S. Gallinarum Δpmi mutant was only partially attenuated, and the ΔansB mutant was fully virulent. The Δfur Δpmi and Δfur ΔansB double mutants were attenuated but not protective when delivered orally to the chicks. However, a Δpmi Δfur strain was highly immunogenic when administered intramuscularly. All together, our results show that the fur gene is essential for the virulence of S. Gallinarum, and the fur mutant is effective as a live recombinant vaccine against fowl typhoid. PMID:24990908

  1. Evaluation of Protective Efficacy of Live Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Gallinarum Vaccine Strains against Fowl Typhoid in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Łaniewski, Paweł; Mitra, Arindam; Karaca, Kemal; Khan, Ayub; Prasad, Rajeev; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum is the etiological agent of fowl typhoid, which constitutes a considerable economic problem for poultry growers in developing countries. The vaccination of chickens seems to be the most effective strategy to control the disease in those areas. We constructed S. Gallinarum strains with a deletion of the global regulatory gene fur and evaluated their virulence and protective efficacy in Rhode Island Red chicks and Brown Leghorn layers. The fur deletion mutant was avirulent and, when delivered orally to chicks, elicited excellent protection against lethal S. Gallinarum challenge. It was not as effective when given orally to older birds, although it was highly immunogenic when delivered by intramuscular injection. We also examined the effect of a pmi mutant and a combination of fur deletions with mutations in the pmi and rfaH genes, which affect O-antigen synthesis, and ansB, whose product inhibits host T-cell responses. The S. Gallinarum Δpmi mutant was only partially attenuated, and the ΔansB mutant was fully virulent. The Δfur Δpmi and Δfur ΔansB double mutants were attenuated but not protective when delivered orally to the chicks. However, a Δpmi Δfur strain was highly immunogenic when administered intramuscularly. All together, our results show that the fur gene is essential for the virulence of S. Gallinarum, and the fur mutant is effective as a live recombinant vaccine against fowl typhoid. PMID:24990908

  2. Effect of heterosubtypic immunity on infection with attenuated influenza A virus vaccines in young children.

    PubMed Central

    Steinhoff, M C; Fries, L F; Karron, R A; Clements, M L; Murphy, B R

    1993-01-01

    Resistance to infection with an influenza A virus conferred by previous infection with an influenza A virus belonging to another subtype is called heterosubtypic immunity. Heterosubtypic immunity is demonstrable in laboratory animals but is believed to be weak in humans. The present study examined whether heterosubtypic immunity from previous influenza virus infection induced resistance to infection with an attenuated influenza A vaccine virus. Two groups of vaccinees consisting of young infants and children who received either influenza A H1N1 or H3N2 attenuated virus were studied. Influenza A H3N2 virus vaccine recipients were classified by their preexisting H1N1 heterosubtypic antibody level induced by prior infection with wild-type virus, and the H1N1 vaccinees were classified by their history of infection with H3N2 vaccine virus. For both groups of vaccinees, the rates of seroconversion and virus shedding and the level of vaccine virus replication were compared in subjects with and without heterosubtypic immunity. In 48 influenza A H3N2 virus and 39 H1N1 virus vaccinees, heterosubtypic immunity had no demonstrable effect on infectivity, immunogenicity, or replication of attenuated vaccine virus. These observations confirm the weak nature of heterosubtypic immunity in humans and suggest that it will not limit the utility of live attenuated influenza A viruses in young infants and children. PMID:8463393

  3. Perceptions of sexual risk compensation following posttrial HIV vaccine uptake among young South Africans.

    PubMed

    Macphail, Catherine L; Sayles, Jennifer N; Cunningham, William; Newman, Peter A

    2012-05-01

    Concerns about the impact of risk compensation on advances in biomedical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention technologies have been documented. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study using focus group discussions with young South African men and women (aged 18 to 24 years) to explore perceptions of risk compensation with regard to a hypothetical posttrial HIV vaccine. During the discussions, participants expressed their disquiet about the potential for risk compensation and the manner in which this might manifest among young people. Discussions specifically focused on reductions in condom use, an increase in multiple partners, and increased frequency of sex. The discussions also revealed contradictory feelings about HIV vaccines: appreciation for their development tempered by concerns about loss of control and undermining morality. Women were particularly concerned with the possibility of increased partner concurrency and infidelity. We suggest that concerns in HIV vaccine target populations about the impact of possible risk compensation be incorporated into strategies for vaccine introduction once vaccines move from the hypothetical to reality. PMID:22218269

  4. Development and immunogenicity of recombinant GapA(+) Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine strain ts-11 expressing infectious bronchitis virus-S1 glycoprotein and chicken interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Shil, Pollob K; Kanci, Anna; Browning, Glenn F; Markham, Philip F

    2011-04-12

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a major pathogen of poultry that causes chronic respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys. A live attenuated vaccine, ts-11, has been used for the control of MG in several countries. The efficacy of this vaccine is highly dose dependent and the flock antibody response is weak. To improve the functionality of the vaccine and investigate its potential as a delivery vector for foreign antigens and immunomodulatory proteins, we developed a derivative of ts-11 expressing infectious bronchitis virus-S1 glycoprotein (IBV-S1) and releasing chicken interleukin-6 into the extracellular milieu (MG ts-11 C3 (+CS)) using a transposon-based delivery vector. Following administration of MG ts-11 C3 (+CS) to chickens by eye-drop, an antibody response to MG and IBV-S1, as determined by the rapid serum agglutination test (RSA) and Western blotting, respectively, could be detected. Birds inoculated with the recombinant vaccine had significantly enhanced weight gain and were partially protected against damage by pathogenic IBV. These results indicate that the ChIL-6 released by MG ts-11 C3 (+CS) may have had a non-specific effect on growth rate. They also suggest that ts-11 is a promising vaccine vector, capable of delivering heterologous protective antigens, and may also provide non-specific benefits when engineered to express immunomodulatory proteins. With some improvements in the expression system, it could be used to induce a targeted immune response against specific mucosal pathogens, and co-expression of several antigens would allow development of a novel multivalent vaccine. PMID:21354248

  5. Interaction of dietary protein level on dose response relationships during aflatoxicosis in young chickens.

    PubMed

    Richardson, K E; Nelson, L A; Hamilton, P B

    1987-06-01

    It is well known that the effect of aflatoxin is enhanced by a low protein diet, but whether this is associated with a lower apparent minimum effective dose, increased slope of response curves, or both has not been investigated previously. Aflatoxin at 12 dosages ranging from 0 to 2.34 micrograms/g of feed was fed to eight groups of 10 young chickens per treatment consuming a 10.00 or 12.75% protein diet for 3 weeks. The body weights, liver weights relative to body weights, and total lipid content of the livers were determined. Mathematical models were fitted to the data and from the appropriate equations the dose-response curves were predicted as continuous functions of aflatoxin concentration. A quadratic polynomial fit body weight data on the 12.75% protein diet whereas a plateau-linear model fit body weight data on the 10.00% protein diet. This implies that in a low protein diet aflatoxin affects only one of the factors controlling growth. Plateau-linear models fit liver relative weight and liver lipid content data on both 10.00 and 12.75% diets. For both variables the lower protein diet decreased the apparent minimum effective dose and increased the positive slope of the linear response. The apparent minimum effective doses (micrograms of aflatoxin per gram of feed) in this experimental system were calculated from the modeling approach to be 1.21 and 2.00 for body weight, 1.08 and 1.65 for liver lipids, and 1.45 and 2.34 for liver relative weight in 10.00 and 12.75% protein diets, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3658888

  6. Response of layer and broiler strain chickens to parenteral administration of a live Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine.

    PubMed

    Groves, Peter J; Sharpe, Sue M; Cox, Julian M

    2015-07-01

    Responses to the parenteral administration of a live aroA deletion Salmonella serovar Typhimurium vaccine given to three brown egg layer strains and two broiler strains were studied. Twenty-five birds of each strain were reared together in floor pens to 6 weeks of age and then moved as individual strains to new floor pens and injected with 10(8) colony forming units (CFU) per bird of the vaccine bacteria intramuscularly or subcutaneously, 10(6) CFU per bird subcutaneously, or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) subcutaneously as a vaccination control. Three birds of one layer strain were injected intramuscularly with 0.5mg/ bird S. Typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to evaluate whether response was similar for vaccine and endotoxin. Birds were weighed, and rectal temperatures recorded at the time of injection, then observed over 24 hours. Rectal temperatures were measured and blood samples collected for serum IL-6 assay at 3 hours post injection (PI). At 12 hours PI blood samples were drawn for analyses for plasma phosphorus (P), glucose (Glu), cholesterol (Cho), aspartate transaminase (AST), total protein (Ptn) and creatinine kinase (CK). Blood was sampled 14 days PI and tested for serum antibody to S. Typhimurium. Vaccination resulted in significant seroconversion by 14 days PI in all strains compared to the controls. The three layer strains exhibited a clinical malaise, evident within 90 minutes of injection, lasting for 12 hours, with complete recovery by 24 hours PI. Only the 10(8) CFU dose given subcutaneously produced an increase in rectal temperature 3 hours PI. Vaccination had no effect on IL-6 or Ptn. All vaccine doses increased P and the higher dose by either route decreased Cho in all bird strains. The 10(8) vaccine dose increased Glu and intramuscular injection markedly elevated CK only in the layer strains. The response was not completely congruous with that to LPS alone. The results highlight the need for consideration of differences in response of bird strain when consideration is given to the parenteral administration of live Salmonella vaccines. PMID:26009756

  7. Influences of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine on productive and reproductive performance of commercial parent broiler chicken breeders on a multi-age farm.

    PubMed

    Liu, J J; Ding, L; Wei, J Z; Li, Y

    2013-06-01

    The influences of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) vaccine inoculation during the pullet period on the subsequent productive and reproductive performance of parent broiler chicken breeders on a multi-age farm were evaluated. Three thousand breeders were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups that were either vaccinated with FMG (FMG-vaccinated group) or not vaccinated with FMG (FMG-free group). Body weight and egg production were determined through approximately 50 wk of age. Egg weight and feed conversion was determined at 26, 32, 35, 38, and 43 wk of age. Egg quality parameters, including eggshell strength, egg-specific gravity, egg shape index, blood-meat spots, Haugh unit score, eggshell thickness, yolk:albumen ratio, percentage yolk, albumen and eggshell weights, and percentage fertility, hatchability, and second-quality chicks were determined at 26, 32, and 43 wk of age. Air sacs were examined and lesions were scored at 20, 32, and 50 wk of age. The number of mature ovarian follicles, histologies of ovary, and lengths, and histologies of the infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus, and vagina were determined. In the present study, an increase in egg production of broiler breeder hens in the FMG-vaccinated group during peak of lay was compared with the FMG-free group. Feed conversion of hens in the FMG-vaccinated group was significantly less at 32, 35, 38, and 43 wk of age. Eggs from hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly higher Haugh units score at 26 wk of age and had a significantly higher eggshell thickness and lower incidence of blood-meat spots at 32 wk. Hatching eggs from hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly higher hatchability. The mean lesion score of air-sac lesion of birds in the FMG-vaccinated group was significantly less than FMG-vaccinated group. Uteruses of hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly longer length compared with the FMG-free group at 32 wk of age. The results indicate that inoculation of commercial parent broiler chicken breeders with the FMG vaccine before laying may prevent infection by field M. gallisepticum, and facilitate productive and reproductive performance. PMID:23687149

  8. Identification and characterization of a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza A virus during an outbreak in vaccinated chickens in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amen, O; Vemula, S V; Zhao, J; Ibrahim, R; Hussein, A; Hewlett, I K; Moussa, S; Mittal, S K

    2015-12-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) H5N1 viruses continue to be a major veterinary and public health problem in Egypt. Continued surveillance of these viruses is necessary to devise strategies to control the spread of the virus and to monitor its evolutionary patterns. This is a report of the identification of a variant strain of HPAI H5N1 virus during an outbreak in 2010 in vaccinated chicken flocks in a poultry farm in Assiut, Egypt. Vaccination of chickens with an oil-emulsified inactivated A/chicken/Mexico/232/94 (H5N2) vaccine induced high levels of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers reaching up to 9 log2. However, all flocks irrespective of the number of vaccine doses and the resultant HI titer levels came down with severe influenza infections. The qRT-PCR and rapid antigen test confirmed the influenza virus to be from H5N1 subtype. Sequencing of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene fragment from ten independent samples demonstrated that a single H5N1 strain was involved. This strain belonged to clade 2.2.1 and had several mutations in the receptor-binding site of the HA protein, thereby producing a variant strain of HPAI H5N1 virus which was antigenically different from the parent clade 2.2.1 virus circulating in Egypt at that time. In order to define the variability in HPAI H5N1 viruses over time in Egypt, we sequenced another H5N1 virus that was causing infections in chickens in 2014. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both viruses had further distanced from the parent virus circulating during 2010. This study highlights that the antigenic mutations in HPAI H5N1 viruses represent a definitive challenge for the development of an effective vaccine for poultry. Overall, the results emphasize the need for continued surveillance of H5N1 outbreaks and extensive characterization of virus isolates from vaccinated and non-vaccinated poultry populations to better understand genetic changes and their implications. PMID:26363196

  9. Immunosuppressive effects of Marek's disease virus (MDV) and herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) in broiler chickens and the protective effect of HVT vaccination against MDV challenge.

    PubMed

    Islam, A F M F; Wong, C W; Walkden-Brown, S W; Colditz, I G; Arzey, K E; Groves, P J

    2002-10-01

    Much of the impact of Marek's disease in broiler chickens is considered to be due to immunosuppression induced by Marek's disease virus (MDV). The present study evaluates the effects of an Australian isolate of pathogenic MDV (strain MPF 57) and a non-pathogenic vaccinal strain of herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) (strain FC 126) on the immune system of commercial broiler chickens for 35 days following challenge at days 0 or 3 of age. It also investigates the extent of protection provided by HVT vaccine against MDV-induced immunosuppression. Immune system variables, including relative lymphoid organ weight, blood lymphocyte phenotype (CD45+/CD3+, putatively T, and CD45+/LC+, putatively B) and antibody production following vaccination against infectious bronchitis (IB) at hatch, were used to assess the immune status of chickens. Immunosuppression was also assessed by susceptibility to secondary challenge with pathogenic Escherichia coli on day 29 post-MDV challenge. MDV infection reduced the weight of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius, the numbers of circulating T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes, and IB antibody titre. The timing of these effects varied. MDV infection greatly increased susceptibility to E. coli infection. HVT alone caused mild depletion of T and B lymphocytes but no effect on immune organ weight or IB titre. Vaccination with HVT provided good protection against most of the immunosuppressive effects of MDV but not against MDV-induced growth impairment and reduced responsiveness to IB vaccination, suggesting that recent Australian strains of MDV may be evolving in virulence to overcome the protective effects of HVT. PMID:12427339

  10. Effect of a commercial paratyphus vaccine on the development of pigeon circovirus infection in young pigeons (Columba livia domestica).

    PubMed

    Duchatel, Jean Pierre; Jauniaux, Thierry; Smyth, Joan; Habsch, Isabelle; de Bournonville, Marc; Losson, Bertrand; Todd, Danny

    2010-06-01

    Infection with pigeon circovirus (PiCV) has been associated with young pigeon disease syndrome (YPDS), which is considered to be a multifactorial disease. The factors that determine whether birds succumb to clinical disease are not known. To evaluate the potential effect of vaccination with a commercial paratyphus vaccine on the progression of PiCV infection in young pigeons, forty 6-week-old pigeons naturally infected with PiCV were randomly assigned to two equal groups. The pigeons of one group were vaccinated at 6 and 9 weeks of age, and pigeons of the second group were unvaccinated controls. Cloacal swab and blood samples collected from all the birds were tested for PiCV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Three weeks after the second vaccination, all pigeons were euthanatized, and tissues were collected for PiCV PCR analysis and histopathologic evaluation. No significant difference in the number of PCR-positive cloacal swab and blood samples was found between the vaccinated and control pigeons. Positive PCR results in tissue samples also were not significantly different between the groups, with 18 positive samples in vaccinated birds (90%) and 16 in control birds (80%). Characteristic botryoid inclusions were detected in more vaccinated than control pigeons, but this difference was not significant. In this study, vaccination with a commercial paratyphus vaccine was not a risk factor for development of young pigeon disease syndrome. PMID:20806655

  11. Different counteracting host immune responses to clade 2.2.1.1 and 2.2.1.2 Egyptian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in nave and vaccinated chickens.

    PubMed

    Samy, Ahmed A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; El-Sanousi, Ahmed A; Nasef, Soad A; Naguib, Mahmoud M; Abdelwhab, E M; Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko

    2016-02-01

    In Egypt, two distinct lineages of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, "classic 2.2.1.2" and "variant 2.2.1.1" strains, have evolved. The underlying host immune responses counteracting these viruses in chickens remain not well understood. In the present study, the cytokine responses to a classic strain (C121) and those to a variant strain (V1063) were compared in nave and vaccinated chickens. In nave chickens, the C121 replicated more efficiently than the V1063. Both the C121 and the V1063 increased interferon (IFN)-? and interleukin (IL)-10 gene expression at 48h post inoculation (hpi) in the lung and spleen but the levels of these cytokines were lower in chickens infected with the C121 than those infected with the V1063. In contrast, in chickens vaccinated with inactivated C121-based vaccine, the C121 replicated less than the V1063. Both challenge with the C121 and that with the V1063 did not increase IFN-? gene expression at 48 hpi; rather, the C121 increased IL-4 gene expression in the lung accompanied with lower viral titer and higher HI titers. These results suggested that the pathogenicity of HPAI viruses correlated with IFN-?-producing helper and/or cytotoxic T cell responses in nave chickens, whereas vaccine efficacy to HPAI viruses correlated with IL-4 producing helper T cell responses in the lung in vaccinated chickens. It implies that IL-4 in the lung, in addition to the traditional serum HI titers, could be used to screen novel vaccine strategies, such as strains, adjuvant, prime/boost protocols, against HPAI in chickens. PMID:26790942

  12. Influenza vaccine concurrently administered with a combination measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine to young children.

    PubMed

    Lum, Lucy Chai See; Borja-Tabora, Charissa Fay; Breiman, Robert F; Vesikari, Timo; Sablan, Benjamin P; Chay, Oh Moh; Tantracheewathorn, Taweewong; Schmitt, Heinz-Josef; Lau, Yu-Lung; Bowonkiratikachorn, Piyaporn; Tam, John S; Lee, Bee Wah; Tan, Kah Kee; Pejcz, Jerzy; Cha, Sungho; Gutierrez-Brito, Maricruz; Kaltenis, Petras; Vertruyen, Andre; Czajka, Hanna; Bojarskas, Jurgis; Brooks, W Abdullah; Cheng, Sheau-Mei; Rappaport, Ruth; Baker, Sherryl; Gruber, William C; Forrest, Bruce D

    2010-02-10

    Children aged 11 to <24 months received 2 intranasal doses of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) or placebo, 35+/-7 days apart. Dose 1 was administered concomitantly with a combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (Priorix). Seroresponses to measles and mumps were similar between groups. Compared with placebo, response rates to rubella in LAIV+Priorix recipients were statistically lower at a 15 IU/mL threshold (83.9% vs 78.0%) and the prespecified noninferiority criteria were not met. In a post hoc analysis using an alternate widely accepted threshold of 10 IU/mL, the noninferiority criteria were met (93.4% vs 89.8%). Concomitant administration with Priorix did not affect the overall influenza protection rate of LAIV (78.4% and 63.8% against antigenically similar influenza strains and any strain, respectively). PMID:20003918

  13. Presence of virulent Newcastle disease virus in vaccinated chickens in farms in Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sites where virulent Newcastle disease virus persists in endemic countries are unknown. Evidence presented here shows that the same strain that caused a previous outbreak was present in both apparently healthy and sick vaccinated birds from multiple farms that had high average specific antibody...

  14. Passive antibody transfer in chickens to model maternal antibody after avian influenza vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birds transfer maternal antibodies (MAb) to their offspring through the egg yolk where the antibody is absorbed and enters the circulatory system. These maternal antibodies, depending on the pathogen, can provide early protection from some diseases, but it may also interfere with the vaccination re...

  15. Passive antibody transfer in chickens to model maternal antibody after avian influenza vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birds transfer maternal antibodies (MAb) to their offspring through the egg yolk where the antibody is absorbed and enters the circulatory system. Maternal antibodies provide early protection from disease, but may interfere with the vaccination efficacy in the chick. MAb are thought to interfere wit...

  16. Supplemental dietary L-arginine attenuates intestinal mucosal disruption during a coccidial vaccine challenge in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jianzhuang; Applegate, Todd J; Liu, Shasha; Guo, Yuming; Eicher, Susan D

    2014-10-14

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary arginine (Arg) supplementation on intestinal structure and functionality in broiler chickens subjected to coccidial challenge. The present study was a randomised complete block design employing a 3נ2 factorial arrangement (n 8) with three dietary concentrations of Arg (111, 133 and 202g/kg) with or without coccidial vaccine challenge (unchallenged and coccidial challenge). On day 14, birds were orally administered with coccidial vaccine or saline. On day 21, birds were killed to obtain jejunal tissue and mucosal samples for histological, gene expression and mucosal immunity measurements. Within 7d of the challenge, there was a decrease in body-weight gain and feed intake, and an increase in the feed:gain ratio (P<005). Jejunal inflammation was evidenced by villus damage, crypt dilation and goblet cell depletion. Coccidial challenge increased mucosal secretory IgA concentration and inflammatory gene (iNOS, IL-1?, IL-8 and MyD88) mRNA expression levels (P<005), as well as reduced jejunal Mucin-2, IgA and IL-1RI mRNA expression levels (P<005). Increasing Arg concentration (1) increased jejunal villus height (P<005) and linearly increased jejunal crypt depth (P<005); (2) quadratically increased mucosal maltase activity (P<005) and linearly decreased mucosal secretory IgG concentration (P<005) within the coccidiosis-challenged groups; and (3) linearly decreased jejunal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA expression level (P<005) within the coccidiosis-challenged groups. The mRNA expression of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 pathway genes (mTOR and RPS6KB1) and the anti-apoptosis gene Bcl-2 quadratically responded to increasing dietary Arg supplementation (P<005). These results indicate that dietary Arg supplementation attenuates intestinal mucosal disruption in coccidiosis-challenged chickens probably through suppressing TLR4 and activating mTOR complex 1 pathways. PMID:25181320

  17. Reduction in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in young women in British Columbia after introduction of the HPV vaccine: An ecological analysis.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Gina S; Naus, Monika; Money, Deborah M; Dobson, Simon R; Miller, Dianne; Krajden, Mel; van Niekerk, Dirk J; Coldman, Andrew J

    2015-10-15

    We report on the rates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in young women aged 15-22 years of age in British Columbia before and after the introduction of an HPV vaccine program. Rates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2+ for each age stratum (15-22) in the calendar years 2004-2012 for the province of British Columbia were obtained from the BC Cancer Agency's population-based cervical cancer program. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) of CIN2+ were described and compared before and after HPV vaccine program introduction in cohorts born in vaccine eligible years, and in non-vaccine eligible years using piece-wise Poisson regression analysis, and adjusted for age. Between 2004 and 2012, rates of CIN2 and CIN2+ in young women aged 15-22 years in the province of British Columbia have decreased overall. After the introduction of the HPV vaccine program, the age adjusted IRR for CIN2+ for young women aged 15-17 years decreased significantly from 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86-0.98 p?young women 18-22 years. After introduction of HPV vaccine program, IRR for CIN2+ in young women 15-17 was significantly reduced for CIN2+ (0.14; 95% CI: 0.04- 0.47; p?young women aged 15-17 years in British Columbia after the introduction of the HPV vaccine in young women despite vaccine uptake levels below 70%. PMID:25754686

  18. Expression of H5 hemagglutinin vaccine antigen in common duckweed (Lemna minor) protects against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge in immunized chickens.

    PubMed

    Bertran, Kateri; Thomas, Colleen; Guo, Xuan; Bublot, Michel; Pritchard, Nikki; Regan, Jeffrey T; Cox, Kevin M; Gasdaska, John R; Dickey, Lynn F; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2015-07-01

    A synthetic hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1) (Indo/03) was expressed in aquatic plant Lemna minor (rLemna-HA). In Experiment 1, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on birds immunized with 0.2?g or 2.3 ?g HA and challenged with 10(6) mean chicken embryo infectious doses (EID50) of homologous virus strain. Both dosages of rLemna-HA conferred clinical protection and dramatically reduced viral shedding. Almost all the birds immunized with either dosage of rLemna-HA elicited HA antibody titers against Indo/03 antigen, suggesting an association between levels of anti-Indo/03 antibodies and protection. In Experiment 2, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on birds immunized with 0.9 ?g or 2.2 ?g HA and challenged with 10(6) EID50 of heterologous H5N1 virus strains A/chicken/Vietnam/NCVD-421/2010 (VN/10) or A/chicken/West Java/PWT-WIJ/2006 (PWT/06). Birds challenged with VN/10 exhibited 100% survival regardless of immunization dosage, while birds challenged with PWT/06 had 50% and 30% mortality at 0.9 ?g HA and 2.2 ?g HA, respectively. For each challenge virus, viral shedding titers from 2.2 ?g HA vaccinated birds were significantly lower than those from 0.9?g HA vaccinated birds, and titers from both immunized groups were in turn significantly lower than those from sham vaccinated birds. Even if immunized birds elicited HA titers against the vaccine antigen Indo/03, only the groups challenged with VN/10 developed humoral immunity against the challenge antigen. None (rLemna-HA 0.9 ?g HA) and 40% (rLemna-HA 2.2 ?g HA) of the immunized birds challenged with PWT/06 elicited pre-challenge antibody titers, respectively. In conclusion, Lemna-expressed HA demonstrated complete protective immunity against homologous challenge and suboptimal protection against heterologous challenge, the latter being similar to results from inactivated whole virus vaccines. Transgenic duckweed-derived HA could be a good alternative for producing high quality antigen for an injectable vaccine against H5N1 HPAI viruses. PMID:26067184

  19. SAFETY EVALUATION IN CHICKENS OF CANDIDATE HUMAN VACCINES AGAINST POTENTIAL PANDEMIC STRAINS OF INFLUENZA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two candidate formalin-inactivated vaccines, derived from high-growth reassortant viruses with the HA and NA genes from avian viruses in a background of genes derived from A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8), were prepared against H5N1 and H9N2 subtypes (designated as H5N1/PR8 and H9N2/PR8 respectively). These...

  20. SAFETY EVALUATION IN CHICKENS OF CANDIDATE HUMAN VACCINES AGAINST POTENTIAL PANDEMIC STRAINS OF INFLUENZA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two candidate formalin-inactivated vaccines, made from high-growth reassortant viruses with the HA and NA genes from avian viruses in a background of genes derived from A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8), were prepared against H5N1 and H9N2 subtypes (designated as H5N1/PR8 and H9N2/PR8 respectively). These vi...

  1. Effects of different vaccine combinations against Mycoplasma gallisepticum on blood characteristics in commercial layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E David; Jacob, Roymon; Branton, Scott L; Evans, Jeffrey D; Leigh, Spencer A; Gerard, Patrick D

    2015-09-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a major and economically significant pathogen of avian species. When administered before lay, F-strain MG (FMG) can reduce egg production during lay, but the ts-11 strain of MG (ts11MG) does not exert this effect. Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of pre-lay vaccinations of ts11MG, MG-Bacterin (MGBac), or their combination, in conjunction with an FMG challenge overlay after peak production on the blood characteristics of commercial layers. In each trial, 160 mycoplasma-free Hy-Line W-36 layers were housed in negative-pressure biological isolation units (4 units per treatment, 10 birds per unit) from 9 through 52 wk of age (woa). The following vaccination treatments were administered at 10 woa: 1) Control (no vaccinations); 2) MGBac; 3) ts11MG; and 4) ts11MG and MGBac combination (ts11MG+MGBac). At 45 woa, half of the birds were challenged with a laboratory stock of high-passage FMG. Parameters measured in both trials were whole-blood hematocrit and serum concentrations of cholesterol (SCHOL), triglycerides, calcium, and total protein (STP). An agetreatment interaction (P=0.04) was observed for STP between 23 and 43 woa. The STP concentration in the ts11MG and ts11MG+MGBac groups was higher at 33 woa, but was lower at 43 woa, in comparison to the Control group. Also, at 38 woa, the STP of the ts11MG+MGBac group was higher than that of the MGBac group. Although use of the ts11MG vaccine alone or in combination with MGBac may influence circulating STP concentrations when administered before lay, it remains effective in protecting layers against the adverse effect of a post-peak challenge of FMG on egg production, as was observed in a previous companion study. PMID:26217033

  2. Circulating CXCR5+PD-1+ response predicts influenza vaccine antibody responses in young adults but not elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Herati, Ramin Sedaghat; Reuter, Morgan A.; Dolfi, Douglas V.; Mansfield, Kathleen D.; Aung, Htin; Badwan, Osama Z.; Kurupati, Raj K.; Kannan, Senthil; Ertl, Hildegund; Schmader, Kenneth E.; Betts, Michael R.; Canaday, David H.; Wherry, E. John

    2014-01-01

    Although influenza vaccination is recommended for all adults annually, the incidence of vaccine failure, defined as weak or absent increase in neutralizing antibody titers, is increased in the elderly compared to young adults. The T follicular helper subset of CD4 T cells (Tfh) provides B cell help in germinal centers and is necessary for class-switched antibody responses. Previous studies suggested a role for circulating T follicular helper cells (cTfh) following influenza vaccination in adults, but cTfh have not been studied in elderly adults where weak vaccine responses are often observed. Here, we studied cTfh expressing CXCR5 and Programmed Death 1 (PD-1). cTfh from elderly adults were present at reduced frequency, had decreased in vitro B cell help ability, and greater expression of inducible costimulator (ICOS) compared to young adults. At seven days after inactivated influenza vaccination, cTfh correlated with influenza vaccine-specific IgM and IgG responses in young adults but not in elderly adults. In sum, we have identified aging-related changes in cTfh that correlated with reduced influenza vaccine responses. Future rational vaccine design efforts should incorporate Tfh measurement as an immune correlate of protection, particularly in the setting of aging. PMID:25172499

  3. Vaccinations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  4. Seroprevalence of fowl pox antibody in indigenous chickens in jos north and South council areas of plateau state, Nigeria: implication for vector vaccine.

    PubMed

    Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede

    2012-01-01

    Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease. PMID:23762578

  5. Genomic and phylogenetic characterization of novel, recombinant H5N2 avian influenza virus strains isolated from vaccinated chickens with clinical symptoms in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huaiying; Meng, Fang; Huang, Dihai; Sheng, Xiaodan; Wang, Youling; Zhang, Wei; Chang, Weishan; Wang, Leyi; Qin, Zhuoming

    2015-03-01

    Infection of poultry with diverse lineages of H5N2 avian influenza viruses has been documented for over three decades in different parts of the world, with limited outbreaks caused by this highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. In the present study, three avian H5N2 influenza viruses, A/chicken/Shijiazhuang/1209/2013, A/chicken/Chiping/0321/2014, and A/chicken/Laiwu/0313/2014, were isolated from chickens with clinical symptoms of avian influenza. Complete genomic and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that all three isolates are novel recombinant viruses with hemagglutinin (HA) and matrix (M) genes derived from H5N1, and remaining genes derived from H9N2-like viruses. The HA cleavage motif in all three strains (PQIEGRRRKR/GL) is characteristic of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strain. These results indicate the occurrence of H5N2 recombination and highlight the importance of continued surveillance of the H5N2 subtype virus and reformulation of vaccine strains. PMID:25723387

  6. Reduction of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in eggs from chickens once or twice vaccinated with an oil-emulsified inactivated H5 avian influenza vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The negative impact of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection on egg production and deposition of virus in eggs, as well as any protective effect of vaccination, is unknown. Individually housed non-vaccinated, sham-vaccinated and inactivated H5N9 vaccinated once or twice adult Wh...

  7. Racial and ethnic differences in HPV knowledge, attitudes, and vaccination rates among low-income African-American, Haitian, Latina and Caucasian young adult women

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jack A.; Mercilus, Glory; Wilbur, MaryAnn B.; Figaro, Jean; Perkins, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine facilitators and barriers to HPV vaccine uptake in African-American, Haitian, Latina, and White women ages 1822 and to determine vaccination completion rates among participants over 5 years. Design Using semi-structured interviews and medical record review, we assessed HPV knowledge and attitudes towards HPV vaccination among young women. We then determined their subsequent HPV vaccination initiation and completion rates. We used constructs from the Health Belief Model and methods based in grounded theory and content analysis to identify attitudes towards HPV vaccination cues to initiate vaccination, perception of HPV, and how communication about issues of sexuality may impact vaccine uptake. Participants We enrolled 132 African-American, Haitian, Latina, and White women aged 1822 years who visited an urban academic medical center and two affiliated community health centers between the years 2007 and 2012. Main Outcome Measures Intent to vaccinate and actual vaccination rates Results Of 132 participants, 116 (90%) stated that they were somewhat or very likely to accept HPV vaccination if offered by their physician, but only 51% initiated the vaccination over the next 5 years. Seventy-eight percent of those who initiated vaccination completed the 3 doses of the HPV vaccine series. Forty-five percent (45%, n=50) of the adolescents who started the series completed three doses over a five year period: forty-two percent African-American (n=16), thirty-three percent Haitian (n=13), sixty-three percent Latina (n=10), and sixty-five White young women (n=11) completed the three-dose series. Despite low knowledge, they reported high levels of trust in physicians and were willing to vaccinate if recommended by their physicians. Conclusion Desire for HPV vaccination is high among older adolescents, physician recommendation and use of every clinic visit opportunity may improve vaccine uptake in young women. More White young women completed the HPV vaccine series compared with other race and ethnic young women. PMID:24602302

  8. The immunoglobulin M response to rubella vaccine in young adult women.

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, P. P.; Edwards, J. M.; Porter, A. D.; Tedder, R. S.; Haslehurst, J.

    1984-01-01

    Rubella vaccination histories were taken from 333 young women working in the head office of a retail organization: 29% said they had had vaccine and 47% said they had not. The remainder did not know. Forty-six per cent of those less than or equal to 25 years old (who should have been offered vaccine at school), and 6% of those greater than 25 years old, said they had been vaccinated. When screened for immunity to rubella by radial haemolysis (RH) 3% had a low level of antibody (less than 15 i.u./ml) and 11% had no antibody. After immunization with Cendevax the specific rubella IgM response was measured by an IgM antibody capture radioimmunassay (MACRIA). It was only detectable in the group without RH antibody, and was present in 26/31 of them. The IgM response to Cendevax was strongest in specimens taken 20-39 days after immunization, but in 10 out of 11 cases tested was still present at around 71 days. The specific IgM responses to Cendevax were very similar to those in women given Almevax in an earlier study, when measured in parallel tests. Taking both vaccines together, specific IgM was present in 35 out of 36 vaccinees without pre-existing antibody tested between 40 and 77 days post-immunization. Detection of specific IgM by MACRIA would therefore be an effective means of determining susceptibility retrospectively in rubella vaccinees found to be pregnant. PMID:6376624

  9. Modulation of systemic and mucosal immunity against an inactivated vaccine of Newcastle disease virus by oral co-administration of live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chicken interleukin-18 and interferon-α

    PubMed Central

    RAHMAN, Md. Masudur; UYANGAA, Erdenebelig; HAN, Young Woo; HUR, Jin; PARK, Sang-Youel; LEE, John Hwa; KIM, Koanhoi; EO, Seong Kug

    2014-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease of chickens causing significant economic losses worldwide. Due to limitations in the efficacy against currently circulating ND viruses, existing vaccination strategies require improvements, and incorporating immunomodulatory cytokines with existing vaccines might be a novel approach. Here, we investigated the systemic and mucosal immunomodulatory properties of oral co-administration of chicken interleukin-18 (chIL-18) and chicken interferon-α (chIFN-α) using attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium on an inactivated ND vaccine. Our results demonstrate that oral administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIL-18 or chIFN-α provided enhanced systemic and mucosal immune responses, as determined by serum hemagglutination inhibition antibody and NDV Ag-specific IgG as well as NDV Ag-specific IgA in lung and duodenal lavages of chickens immunized with inactivated ND vaccine via the intramuscular or intranasal route. Notably, combined oral administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIL-18 and chIFN-α significantly enhanced systemic and mucosal immunity in ND-vaccinated chickens, compared to single administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIL-18 or chIFN-α. In addition, oral co-administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIL-18 and chIFN-α provided enhanced NDV Ag-specific proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and Th1-biased cell-mediated immunity, compared to single administration of either construct. Therefore, our results provide valuable insight into the modulation of systemic and mucosal immunity by incorporation of immunomodulatory chIL-18 and chIFN-α using Salmonella vaccines into existing ND vaccines. PMID:25502364

  10. Modulation of systemic and mucosal immunity against an inactivated vaccine of Newcastle disease virus by oral co-administration of live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chicken interleukin-18 and interferon-α.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Masudur; Uyangaa, Erdenebelig; Han, Young Woo; Hur, Jin; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John Hwa; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug

    2015-04-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease of chickens causing significant economic losses worldwide. Due to limitations in the efficacy against currently circulating ND viruses, existing vaccination strategies require improvements, and incorporating immunomodulatory cytokines with existing vaccines might be a novel approach. Here, we investigated the systemic and mucosal immunomodulatory properties of oral co-administration of chicken interleukin-18 (chIL-18) and chicken interferon-α (chIFN-α) using attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium on an inactivated ND vaccine. Our results demonstrate that oral administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIL-18 or chIFN-α provided enhanced systemic and mucosal immune responses, as determined by serum hemagglutination inhibition antibody and NDV Ag-specific IgG as well as NDV Ag-specific IgA in lung and duodenal lavages of chickens immunized with inactivated ND vaccine via the intramuscular or intranasal route. Notably, combined oral administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIL-18 and chIFN-α significantly enhanced systemic and mucosal immunity in ND-vaccinated chickens, compared to single administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIL-18 or chIFN-α. In addition, oral co-administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIL-18 and chIFN-α provided enhanced NDV Ag-specific proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and Th1-biased cell-mediated immunity, compared to single administration of either construct. Therefore, our results provide valuable insight into the modulation of systemic and mucosal immunity by incorporation of immunomodulatory chIL-18 and chIFN-α using Salmonella vaccines into existing ND vaccines. PMID:25502364

  11. Chemical composition and biological value of spray dried porcine blood by-products and bone protein hydrolysate for young chickens.

    PubMed

    Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Orda, J; Skorupi?ska, J; S?upczy?ska, M; Kuryszko, J

    2011-10-01

    The chemical composition of spray dried porcine blood by-products is characterised by wide variation in crude protein contents. In spray dried porcine blood plasma (SDBP) it varied between 670-780?g/kg, in spray dried blood cells (SDBC) between 830-930?g/kg, and in bone protein hydrolysate (BPH) in a range of 740-780?g/kg. Compared with fish meal, these feeds are poor in Met and Lys. Moreover, in BPH deep deficits of Met, Cys, Thr and other amino acids were found. The experiment comprised 7 dietary treatments: SDBP, SDBC, and BPH, each at an inclusion rate of 20 or 40?g/kg diet, plus a control. The addition of 20 or 40?g/kg of the analysed meals into feeds for very young chickens (1-28?d post hatch) significantly decreased the body weight (BW) of birds. Only the treatments with 40?g/kg of SDBP and SDBC showed no significant difference in BW as compared with the control. There were no significant differences between treatments and type of meal for feed intake, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations in blood. Addition of bone protein and blood cell meals to feed decreased the IgG concentration in blood and caused shortening of the femur and tibia bones. However, changes in the mineral composition of bones were not significantly affected by the type of meal used. The blood by-products, which are rich in microelements, improved retention of Ca and Cu only. In comparison to control chickens, significantly better accretion of these minerals was found in treatments containing 20?g/kg of SDBP or 40?g/kg of SDBC. Great variability in apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in chickens was determined. In this respect, some significant differences related to the type of meal fed were confirmed for Asp, Pro, Val, Tyr and His. In general, the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids was about 2-3 percentage units better in chickens fed on diets containing the animal by products than in control birds. PMID:22029787

  12. Different immune responses to three different vaccines following H6N1 low pathogenic avian influenza virus challenge in Taiwanese local chicken breeds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background H6N1 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) are frequently isolated in Taiwan and lead to significant economic losses, either directly or indirectly through association with other infectious diseases. This study investigates immune responses to three different vaccines following a H6N1 challenge in different local breeds. Methods Experimental animals were sampled from six local chicken breeds maintained at the National Chung-Hsing University, namely Hsin-Yi, Ju-Chi, Hua-Tung (Taiwan), Quemoy (Quemoy Island), Shek-Ki (China), Nagoya (Japan) and a specific pathogen free (SPF) White Leghorn line. A total number of 338 chickens have been distributed between a control and a challenge group, H6N1 challenge was performed at 7 weeks of age; vaccination against Newcastle Disease (ND), Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) and Infectious Bronchitis (IB) was performed at 11 weeks. The anti-H6N1 LPAIV antibody titers were measured by ELISA at days 0, 7, 14 and 21 after challenge, and the anti-ND, anti-IBD and anti-IB antibody titers were measured by inhibition of hemagglutination test and ELISA at days 0, 14, 28 after vaccination. Results There was no effect of the H6N1 LPAIV challenge at 7 weeks of age on the subsequent responses to ND and IBD vaccine at 11 weeks of age, but, surprisingly, the H6N1 LPAIV challenge significantly affected antibody levels to IB vaccine in some breeds, since IB0 and IB14 antibody titers were lower in the challenge groups. However, there was no significant difference in IB28 antibody titers among the experimental groups. Conclusions Local breeds have different immune response to H6N1 LPAIV challenge and subsequent vaccines. Differences dealt mainly with kinetics of response and with peak values. Quemoy exhibited higher antibody levels to H6N1, ND and IBD. The negative effect of the H6N1 LPAIV challenge on IB vaccine response may be related to the fact that both viruses target the lung tissues, and the type of local immune response induced by LPAIV challenge may not be favourable for birds to make optimum IB-specific antibody response. PMID:21645314

  13. Administration of Poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene] (PCEP) and Avian Beta Defensin as Adjuvants in Inactivated Inclusion Body Hepatitis Virus and its Hexon Protein-Based Experimental Vaccine Formulations in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Dar, Arshud; Tipu, Masroor; Townsend, Hugh; Potter, Andy; Gerdts, Volker; Tikoo, Suresh

    2015-12-01

    Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) is one of the major infectious diseases adversely affecting the poultry industry of the United States and Canada. Currently, no effective and safe vaccine is available for the control of IBH virus (IBHV) infection in chickens. However, based on the excellent safety and immunogenic profiles of experimental veterinary vaccines developed with the use of new generation adjuvants, we hypothesized that characterization of vaccine formulations containing inactivated IBHV or its capsid protein hexon as antigens, along with poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene] (PCEP) and avian beta defensin 2 (ABD2) as vaccine adjuvants, will be helpful in development of an effective and safe vaccine formulation for IBH. Our data demonstrated that experimental administration of vaccine formulations containing inactivated IBHV and a mixture of PCEP with or without ABD2 as an adjuvant induced significantly higher antibody responses compared with other vaccine formulations, while hexon protein-based vaccine formulations showed relatively lower levels of antibody responses. Thus, a vaccine formulation containing inactivated IBHV with PCEP or a mixture of PCEP and ABD2 (with a reduced dosage of PCEP) as an adjuvant may serve as a potential vaccine candidate. However, in order to overcome the risks associated with whole virus inactivated vaccines, characterization of additional viral capsid proteins, including fiber protein and penton of IBHV along with hexon protein in combination with more new generation adjuvants, will be helpful in further improvements of vaccines against IBHV infection. PMID:26629626

  14. Evaluation of flagellum-related proteins FliD and FspA as subunit vaccines against Campylobacter jejuni colonisation in chickens.

    PubMed

    Chintoan-Uta, C; Cassady-Cain, R L; Stevens, M P

    2016-04-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of food-borne diarrhoea in humans in the developed world and consumption of contaminated poultry meat is the main source of infection. Vaccination of broilers could reduce carcass contamination and zoonotic infections. Towards this aim, we evaluated recombinant anti-Campylobacter subunit vaccines based on the flagellum-capping protein FliD and the flagellum-secreted protein FspA as they are immunogenic in chickens and the flagellum is vital for colonisation. In three studies, a recombinant FliD vaccine induced a transient but reproducible and statistically significant decrease of c. 2log10CFU/g in caecal colonisation levels at 49 days post-primary vaccination on the day of hatch. Levels of serum IgY specific to FliD positively correlated with caecal bacterial counts in individual birds, indicating that such antibodies may not play a role in protection. The data add to the limited repertoire of candidate antigens for the control of a key foodborne zoonosis. PMID:26921781

  15. Development, characterization and optimization of a new suspension chicken-induced pluripotent cell line for the production of Newcastle disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Shittu, Ismaila; Zhu, Ziying; Lu, Yangqing; Hutcheson, Jessica M; Stice, Steven L; West, Franklin D; Donadeu, Meritxell; Dungu, Baptiste; Fadly, Aly M; Zavala, Guillermo; Ferguson-Noel, Naola; Afonso, Claudio L

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, substrates for production of viral poultry vaccines have been embryonated eggs or adherent primary cell cultures. The difficulties and cost involved in scaling up these substrates in cases of increased demand have been a limitation for vaccine production. Here, we assess the ability of a newly developed chicken-induced pluripotent cell line, BA3, to support replication and growth of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota vaccine strain. The characteristics and growth profile of the cells were also investigated. BA3 cells could grow in suspension in different media to a high density of up to 7.0נ10(6)cells/mL and showed rapid proliferation with doubling time of 21h. Upon infection, a high virus titer of 1.02נ10(8)EID50/mL was obtained at 24h post infection using a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 5. In addition, the cell line was shown to be free of endogenous and exogenous Avian Leukosis viruses, Reticuloendotheliosis virus, Fowl Adenovirus, Marek's disease virus, and several Mycoplasma species. In conclusion, BA3 cell line is potentially an excellent candidate for vaccine production due to its highly desirable industrially friendly characteristics of growing to high cell density and capability of growth in serum free medium. PMID:26586283

  16. Vaccines

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    Vaccinations are injections of antigens into the body. Once the antigens enter the blood, they circulate along ... suppressor T cells stop the attack. After a vaccination, the body will have a memory of an ...

  17. Factors associated with the persuasiveness of direct-to-consumer advertising on HPV vaccination among young women.

    PubMed

    Manika, Danae; Ball, Jennifer G; Stout, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study explored young women's response to direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising (DTCA) for a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. In particular, the study examined (a) the association of factors stemming from consumer research with actual and intended behavioral responses to DTCA for HPV and (b) key elements drawn from commonly used health-related theories to determine the strongest associations with behavioral intentions regarding the HPV vaccine. Survey findings showed that vaccinated women indicated that DTCA played a role in their decision to get vaccinated against HPV more so than those who were not vaccinated. Trust in DTCA for an HPV vaccine brand was significantly related to intentions to seek more information about the vaccine. Also, perceived barriers had the only significant association with behavioral intentions when taking into account perceived threat and response efficacy. These results provide practical implications for key industry decision makers and health communication professionals on the design of effective theory-based health communication message content for an HPV vaccine brand with consequent social implications. PMID:24708436

  18. Lymphatic involution and early mortality in the young chicken produced by 2.2 GeV protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montour, J. L.; Shellabarger, C. J.

    1972-01-01

    Young single-comb white Leghorn cockerels were subjected to single acute doses of either 2.2 GeV protons or 250 kVp X-rays. Since young chickens exposed in the lethal range die within 48 hours of exposure, an hourly tabulation of deaths was recorded for this length of time after exposure. Animals which were exposed to sublethal doses were killed five days after exposure and their major lymphatic organs, (thymus, bursa, and spleen), removed and weighed. In the lethal range, animals exposed to 2.2 GeV protons died sooner than those receiving similar doses of X-rays, but total mortality was similar in each case at similar dose levels. The 48 hour LD sub 50 was determined to be 710 rad. Measured five days after exposure, 50% depression ED sub 50 for lymphatic organs occurred as follows: (1) thymus, 350 rad; (2) pursa, 500 rad, and (3) spleen, 450 rad. In all case R.B.E. values were not different from unity.

  19. Use of Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccines in Adolescents and Young Adults: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2015.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Jessica R; Rubin, Lorry; Folaranmi, Temitope; Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael R; Patel, Manisha; Martin, Stacey W

    2015-10-23

    At its June 2015 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended that adolescents and young adults aged 1623 years may be vaccinated with a serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine to provide short-term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease. This report summarizes the deliberations of ACIP, the rationale for its decision, and recommendations for use of MenB vaccines in adolescents and young adults. Two MenB vaccines have recently been licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the United States and approved for use in persons aged 1025 years: MenB-FHbp (Trumenba, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) and MenB-4C (Bexsero, Novartis Vaccines). Both MenB vaccines were licensed based on statutory regulations for accelerated approval, which enabled FDA to approve the MenB vaccines for serious or life-threatening diseases based on safety and demonstration that vaccine effectiveness, as measured by bactericidal antibody responses with assays using several MenB test strains that were representative of prevalent strains in the United States, is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. As a requirement for accelerated approval, confirmatory studies in the postmarketing period will be conducted to verify and further describe the effectiveness of the vaccines against an extended number of MenB strains that represent a broader diversity of endemic disease. Additional postlicensure safety data are also needed and will be reviewed by ACIP as they become available. PMID:26492381

  20. Antigenic cartography of H9N2 virus and its impact on the vaccine efficacy in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H9 subtype of avian influenza virus (AIV) is wide-spread in Asia and the Middle East. The efficacy of vaccines is enhanced by the antigenic match of the hemagglutinin protein (HA) between the vaccine and the field strain. To determine how antigenic variations affect the vaccine efficacy, speci...

  1. Effect of in ovo vaccination and anticoccidials on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on used litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on used litter. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either chemi...

  2. The role of rpoS, hmp, and ssrAB in Salmonella enterica Gallinarum and evaluation of a triple-deletion mutant as a live vaccine candidate in Lohmann layer chickens

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Youngjae; Park, Yoon Mee; Barate, Abhijit Kashinath; Park, So-Yeon; Park, Hee Jeong; Lee, Mi Rae; Truong, Quang Lam; Yoon, Jang Won

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica Gallinarum (SG) causes fowl typhoid (FT), a septicemic disease in avian species. We constructed deletion mutants lacking the stress sigma factor RpoS, the nitric oxide (NO)-detoxifying flavohemoglobin Hmp, and the SsrA/SsrB regulator to confirm the functions of these factors in SG. All gene products were fully functional in wild-type (WT) SG whereas mutants harboring single mutations or a combination of rpoS, hmp, and ssrAB mutations showed hypersusceptibility to H2O2, loss of NO metabolism, and absence of Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-2 expression, respectively. A triple-deletion mutant, SGΔ3 (SGΔrpoSΔhmpΔssrAB), was evaluated for attenuated virulence and protection efficacy in two-week-old Lohmann layer chickens. The SGΔ3 mutant did not cause any mortality after inoculation with either 1 × 106 or 1 × 108 colony-forming units (CFUs) of bacteria. Significantly lower numbers of salmonellae were recovered from the liver and spleen of chickens inoculated with the SGΔ3 mutant compared to chickens inoculated with WT SG. Vaccination with the SGΔ3 mutant conferred complete protection against challenge with virulent SG on the chickens comparable to the group vaccinated with a conventional vaccine strain, SG9R. Overall, these results indicate that SGΔ3 could be a promising candidate for a live Salmonella vaccine against FT. PMID:25549217

  3. Effects of in ovo vaccination and anticoccidials on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either ...

  4. Development of a high throughput TaqMan assay for the detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in vector vaccinated chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) causes an acute, highly contagious upper-respiratory disease of chickens. Sensitive detection of the causative alphaherpesvirus is important in clinical investigations and experimental studies. In particular, it is essential to quantify the viral genome co...

  5. Dietary supplementation of young broiler chickens with Capsicum and turmeric oleoresins increases resistance to necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Hyen; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lillehoj, Erik P; Min, Wongi; Bravo, David M

    2013-09-14

    The Clostridium-related poultry disease, necrotic enteritis (NE), causes substantial economic losses on a global scale. In the present study, a mixture of two plant-derived phytonutrients, Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin (XT), was evaluated for its effects on local and systemic immune responses using a co-infection model of experimental NE in commercial broilers. Chickens were fed from hatch with a diet supplemented with XT, or with a non-supplemented control diet, and either uninfected or orally challenged with virulent Eimeria maxima oocysts at 14 d and Clostridium perfringens at 18 d of age. Parameters of protective immunity were as follows: (1) body weight; (2) gut lesions; (3) serum levels of C. perfringens α-toxin and NE B-like (NetB) toxin; (4) serum levels of antibodies to α-toxin and NetB toxin; (5) levels of gene transcripts encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the intestine and spleen. Infected chickens fed the XT-supplemented diet had increased body weight and reduced gut lesion scores compared with infected birds given the non-supplemented diet. The XT-fed group also displayed decreased serum α-toxin levels and reduced intestinal IL-8, lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF), IL-17A and IL-17F mRNA levels, while cytokine/chemokine levels in splenocytes increased in the XT-fed group, compared with the animals fed the control diet. In conclusion, the present study documents the molecular and cellular immune changes following dietary supplementation with extracts of Capsicum and turmeric that may be relevant to protective immunity against avian NE. PMID:23566550

  6. Evaluation of humoral and cellular immune responses to a DNA vaccine encoding chicken type II collagen for rheumatoid arthritis in normal rats

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhao; Juan, Long; Song, Yun; Zhijian, Zhang; Jing, Jin; Kun, Yu; Yuna, Hao; Dongfa, Dai; Lili, Ding; Liuxin, Tan; Fei, Liang; Nan, Liu; Fang, Yuan; Yuying, Sun; Yongzhi, Xi

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in the development of effective therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is finding a method for the specific inhibition of the inflammatory disease processes without the induction of generalized immunosuppression. Of note, the development of therapeutic DNA vaccines and boosters that may restore immunological tolerance remains a high priority. pcDNA-CCOL2A1 is a therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding chicken type II collagen(CCII). This vaccine was developed by our laboratory and has been shown to exhibit efficacy comparable to that of the current “gold standard” treatment, methotrexate (MTX). Here, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with anti-CII IgG antibodies, quantified the expression levels of Th1, Th2, and Th3 cytokines, and performed flow cytometric analyses of different T-cell subsets, including Th1, Th2, Th17, Tc, Ts, Treg, and CD4+CD29+T cells to systemically evaluate humoral and cellular immune responses to pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine in normal rats. Similar to our observations at maximum dosage of 3 mg/kg, vaccination of normal rats with 300 μg/kg pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine did not induce the production of anti-CII IgG. Furthermore, no significant changes were observed in the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12(IL-23p40), monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, regulated on activation in normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in vaccinated normal rats relative to that in controls(P > 0.05). However, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β levels were significantly increased on days 10 and 14, while interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were significantly decreased on days 28 and 35 after vaccination(P < 0.05). Similarly, there were no significant differences in the percentages of Tc, Ts, Th1/Th2, and Th17 cells between the 2 groups(P > 0.05), with the exception of Treg cells, which were significantly reduced on days 14 and 21 after vaccination (P < 0.05), and CD4+CD29+T cells, which were significantly increased on days 7 and 14 after vaccination(P < 0.05).Taken together, these results suggested that pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine did not markedly affect the balance of immune system components in vaccinated normal rats, indicating that this DNA vaccine may have clinical applications in the treatment of RA. PMID:25763999

  7. A case study: lessons learned from human papillomavirus vaccine development: approval of a vaccine for use in children and young adolescents for prevention of an adult disease.

    PubMed

    Garner, Elizabeth I O

    2010-07-01

    This article presents the adolescent clinical trials program for the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (Merck and Co, Inc, Whitehouse Station, NJ) as a case study of the development of a preventive intervention for use in young adolescents to protect against a future sexually transmitted infection and its associated diseases. In light of similarities in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV with regard to sexual transmission and the associated social and ethical issues related to prevention trial development, lessons learned from the approach taken to the inclusion of adolescents in the quadrivalent HPV vaccine program have potential relevance to future HIV prevention trials. Epidemiologic support for HPV vaccination in adolescents and a regulatory-approved approach to immunogenicity studies for bridging of efficacy from adults formed the basis for including young adolescents in the HPV program. The successful achievement of regulatory approval for use of this prophylactic intervention in young adolescents for prevention of a sexually transmitted infection that is most frequently not acquired before mid to late adolescence required understanding of the particular challenges of studying the vulnerable adolescent population with respect to issues such as federal regulations, the role of parents, confidentiality, empowerment, and retention, and awareness of the social and political context within which prevention interventions are introduced. PMID:20571424

  8. Barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccination of young women in high-income countries: a qualitative systematic review and evidence synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is recommended for adolescent young women prior to sexual debut to reduce cervical cancer related mortality and morbidity. Understanding factors affecting decision-making of HPV vaccination of young women is important so that effective interventions can be developed which address barriers to uptake in population groups less likely to receive the HPV vaccine. Methods We undertook a qualitative systematic review and evidence synthesis to examine decision-making relating to the HPV vaccination of young women in high-income countries. A comprehensive search of databases from inception to March 2012 was undertaken to identify eligible studies reporting the perspectives of key stakeholders including policy makers, professionals involved in programme, parents, and young women. Factors affecting uptake of the vaccine were examined at different levels of the socio-ecological model (policy, community, organisational, interpersonal and intrapersonal). Results Forty-one studies were included. Whether young women receive the HPV vaccine is strongly governed by the decisions of policy makers, healthcare professionals, and parents. These decisions are shaped by: financial considerations; social norms and values relating to sexual activity, and; trust in vaccination programmes and healthcare providers. Financial constraints may be overcome through universal healthcare systems offering the HPV vaccine free at the point of delivery. In the healthcare setting, judgements by healthcare professionals about whether to recommend the vaccine may restrict a young woman’s access to the vaccine irrespective of her own beliefs and preferences. Parents may decide not to allow their daughters to be vaccinated, based on cultural or religious perceptions about sexual activity. Conclusions Barriers to the uptake of the HPV vaccine have implications for young women’s future sexual, physical and reproductive health. Interventions to address barriers to uptake of the vaccine should target appropriate, and multiple, levels of the socio-ecological model. Issues of trust require clear, accessible, and sometimes culturally appropriate, information about the HPV vaccination programme. Although young women are central to the HPV vaccination programme, their views are underrepresented in the qualitative literature. Future research should consider young women’s perceptions of, and involvement in, consent and decision-making. PMID:25004868

  9. Protective efficacy afforded by live Pasteurella multocida vaccines in chickens is independent of lipopolysaccharide outer core structure.

    PubMed

    Harper, Marina; John, Marietta; Edmunds, Mark; Wright, Amy; Ford, Mark; Turni, Conny; Blackall, P J; Cox, Andrew; Adler, Ben; Boyce, John D

    2016-03-29

    Pasteurella multocida is a major animal pathogen that causes a range of diseases including fowl cholera. P. multocida infections result in considerable losses to layer and breeder flocks in poultry industries worldwide. Both killed whole-cell and live-attenuated vaccines are available; these vaccines vary in their protective efficacy, particularly against heterologous strains. Moreover, until recently there was no knowledge of P. multocida LPS genetics and structure to determine precisely how LPS structure affects the protective capacity of these vaccines. In this study we show that defined lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutants presented as killed whole-cell vaccines elicited solid protective immunity only against P. multocida challenge strains expressing highly similar or identical LPS structures. This finding indicates that vaccination of commercial flocks with P. multocida killed cell formulations will not protect against strains producing an LPS structure different to that produced by strains included in the vaccine formulation. Conversely, protective immunity conferred by vaccination with live P. multocida strains was found to be largely independent of LPS structure. Birds vaccinated with a range of live mutants belonging to the L1 and L3 LPS genotypes, each expressing a specific truncated LPS structure, were protected against challenge with the parent strain. Moreover, birds vaccinated with any of the five LPS mutants belonging to the L1 LPS genotype were also protected against challenge with an unrelated strain and two of the five groups vaccinated with live LPS mutants belonging to the L3 genotype were protected against challenge with an unrelated strain. In summary, vaccination with live P. multocida aroA mutants producing full-length L1 or L3 LPS or vaccination with live strains producing shortened L1 LPS elicited strong protective immunity against both homologous and heterologous challenge. PMID:26892738

  10. Geographic variation in human papillomavirus vaccination uptake among young adult women in the United States during 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Laz, Tabassum H.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about geographic variation in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake among young adult women in the US. To investigate this, we analyzed data from 12 US states collected through the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System between 2008 and 2010. Among 2,632 young adult women (18–26 years old) who responded to HPV vaccine uptake questions, weighted vaccine initiation and completion rates were: 28.0% and 17.0% overall, 14.0% and 6.6% in the South, 28.7% and 19.3% in the Midwest/West, and 37.2% and 23.1% in the Northeast (P<.001), respectively. Log-binomial regression analysis showed that women living in the South were less likely to initiate (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60–0.83) or complete (aPR 0.61, 95% CI, 0.53–0.71) the HPV vaccine series compared to women living in the Northeast. Interventions programs to improve HPV vaccine uptake in the Southern states are warranted. PMID:24071591

  11. Seropositivity among Korean Young Adults Approximately 2 Years after a Single-Dose Vaccination against Hepatitis A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Woong-Sub; Sohn, Haesook; Lee, Moo-Sik; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Hwasung; Oh, Gyung-Jae; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    We previously observed 80.7% seropositivity and a significant interaction between gender and hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine type (Havrix vs. Epaxal) on the seropositivity approximately 11 months after single-dose HAV vaccinations in Korean young adults. Our objective was to evaluate seropositivity approximately 2 years after a single-dose HAV vaccination and the influence of demographic characteristics on seropositivity, including the interaction between gender and vaccine type. Seronegative medical school students were randomly vaccinated with Havrix or Epaxal. Based on a total serum anti-HAV antibody titer cutoff of 20 IU/mL, 338 participants (76.0%) of the 445 vaccinees were seropositive 2025 months after a single-dose HAV vaccination. The seropositive rates were similar after vaccination with Havrix (77.0%) and Epaxal (74.9%). Univariate analysis indicated that female (p = 0.052) and less obese (p < 0.001) participants had a higher seropositive rate, whereas other characteristics such as age, alcohol use, smoking history, vaccine type, and follow-up duration were not associated with seropositivity. Multivariate analysis indicated that women (p = 0.026) and participants with moderate alcohol use (p < 0.001) showed significantly higher seropositive rates than men and participants with no or low alcohol use, respectively. The seropositive rates after vaccination with Havrix and Epaxal were 70.9% and 67.5% in men and 87.7% and 91.3% in women, respectively (p for interaction = 0.304). Compared with the seropositive rate approximately 11 months after vaccination, the seropositive rate decreased substantially only in men in the Havrix group (11.0% points), and consequently, the interaction between gender and vaccine type disappeared while seropositivity remained high (87.7% and 91.3% in Havrix and Epaxal groups, respectively) among women approximately 2 years after vaccination. Further studies are needed to assess whether the seropositive rate would be maintained in all groups more than 2 years after a single-dose HAV vaccination. PMID:26540392

  12. [VACCINES].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, Vincente

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines are an extraordinary instrument of immunization of the population against infectious diseases. Around them there are many ethical issues. One of the most debated is what to do with certain groups opposition to vaccination of their children. States have managed in different ways the conflict between the duty of vaccination and the refusal to use vaccines: some impose the vaccination and others simply promote it. In this article we deal with which of these two approaches is the most suitable from an ethical and legal point of view. We stand up for the second option, which is the current one in Spain, and we propose some measures which should be kept in mind to improve immunization programs. PMID:26685562

  13. Two decades after vaccine license: hepatitis B immunization and infection among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed Central

    MacKellar, D A; Valleroy, L A; Secura, G M; McFarland, W; Shehan, D; Ford, W; LaLota, M; Celentano, D D; Koblin, B A; Torian, L V; Thiede, H; Janssen, R S

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated hepatitis B immunization coverage and the extent of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among young men who have sex with men (MSM), a group for whom hepatitis B vaccine has been recommended since 1982. METHODS: We analyzed data from 3432 MSM, aged 15 to 22 years, randomly sampled at 194 gay-identified venues in 7 US metropolitan areas from 1994 through 1998. Participants were interviewed, counseled, and tested for serologic markers of HBV infection. RESULTS: Immunization coverage was 9% and the prevalence of markers of HBV infection was 11%. HBV infection ranged from 2% among 15-year-olds to 17% among 22-year-olds. Among participants susceptible to HBV infection, 96% used a regular source of health care or accessed the health care system for HIV or sexually transmitted disease testing. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the availability of an effective vaccine for nearly 2 decades, our findings suggest that few adolescent and young adult MSM in the United States are vaccinated against hepatitis B. Health care providers should intensify their efforts to identify and vaccinate young MSM who are susceptible to HBV. PMID:11392942

  14. Construction of a Salmonella Gallinarum ghost as a novel inactivated vaccine candidate and its protective efficacy against fowl typhoid in chickens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In order to develop a novel, safe and immunogenic fowl typhoid (FT) vaccine candidate, a Salmonella Gallinarum ghost with controlled expression of the bacteriophage PhiX174 lysis gene E was constructed using pMMP99 plasmid in this study. The formation of the Salmonella Gallinarum ghost with tunnel formation and loss of cytoplasmic contents was observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. No viable cells were detectable 24 h after the induction of gene E expression by an increase in temperature from 37 °C to 42 °C. The safety and protective efficacy of the Salmonella Gallinarum ghost vaccine was tested in chickens that were divided into four groups: group A (non-immunized control), group B (orally immunized), group C (subcutaneously immunized) and group D (intramuscularly immunized). The birds were immunized at day 7 of age. None of the immunized animals showed any adverse reactions such as abnormal behavior, mortality, or signs of FT such as anorexia, depression, or diarrhea. These birds were subsequently challenged with a virulent Salmonella Gallinarum strain at 3 weeks post-immunization (wpi). Significant protection against the virulent challenge was observed in all immunized groups based on mortality and post-mortem lesions compared to the non-immunized control group. In addition, immunization with the Salmonella Gallinarum ghosts induced significantly high systemic IgG response in all immunized groups. Among the groups, orally-vaccinated group B showed significantly higher levels of secreted IgA. A potent antigen-specific lymphocyte activation response along with significantly increased percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes found in all immunized groups clearly indicate the induction of cellular immune responses. Overall, these findings suggest that the newly constructed Salmonella Gallinarum ghost appears to be a safe, highly immunogenic, and efficient non-living bacterial vaccine candidate that protects against FT. PMID:22620989

  15. Effects of different vaccine combinations against Mycoplasma gallisepticum on the internal egg and eggshell characteristics of commercial layer chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Live F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) vaccines are presently being used to help control field strain MG outbreaks. However, they may exert some adverse effects on egg production. Live strains of MG of lesser virulence as well as killed vaccines have little or no effect on egg production, bu...

  16. Differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) using the NS1 protein of avian influenza virus in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of avian influenza (AI) vaccination in poultry would have greater world-wide acceptance if a reliable test that clearly discriminates naturally infected from vaccinated only animals (DIVA) was available. Because the non-structural protein (NS1) is expressed in infected cells, and is not pac...

  17. The impact of H9N2 avian influenza virus vaccine antigenic variation on virus infectious dose in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H9 subtype of avian influenza virus is wide-spread in the areas of Asia and Middle East. Selection of effective vaccines that provide effective protection mainly depends on the antigenic match of the hemagglutinin protein (HA), between the vaccine and the field strain. To determine how the ant...

  18. A Single Electroporation Delivery of a DNA Vaccine Containing the Hemagglutinin Gene of Asian H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus Generated a Protective Antibody Response in Chickens against a North American Virus Strain

    PubMed Central

    Pasick, John; Kobinger, Gary P.; Hannaman, Drew; Berhane, Yohannes; Clavijo, Alfonso; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Protection against the avian influenza (AI) H5N1 virus is suspected to be mainly conferred by the presence of antibodies directed against the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the virus. A single electroporation delivery of 100 or 250 ?g of a DNA vaccine construct, pCAG-HA, carrying the HA gene of strain A/Hanoi/30408/2005 (H5N1), in chickens led to the development of anti-HA antibody response in 16 of 17 immunized birds, as measured by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), and an indirect ELISA. Birds vaccinated by electroporation (n = 11) were protected from experimental AI challenge with strain A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/1/1983 (H5N2) as judged by low viral load, absence of clinical symptoms, and absence of mortality (n = 11). In contrast, only two out of 10 birds vaccinated with the same vaccine dose (100 or 250 ?g) but without electroporation developed antibodies. These birds showed high viral loads and significant morbidity and mortality after the challenge. Seroconversion was reduced in birds electroporated with a low vaccine dose (10 ?g), but the antibody-positive birds were protected against virus challenge. Nonelectroporation delivery of a low-dose vaccine did not result in seroconversion, and the birds were as susceptible as those in the control groups that received the control pCAG vector. Electroporation delivery of the DNA vaccine led to enhanced antibody responses and to protection against the AI virus challenge. The HI test, cELISA, or indirect ELISA for anti-H5 antibodies might serve as a good predictor of the potency and efficacy of a DNA immunization strategy against AI in chickens. PMID:23365205

  19. Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored H7 and H5 Live Vaccines Protect Chickens from Challenge with H7N9 or H5N1 Avian Influenza Viruses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qinfang; Mena, Ignacio; Ma, Jingjiao; Bawa, Bhupinder; Krammer, Florian; Lyoo, Young S; Lang, Yuekun; Morozov, Igor; Mahardika, Gusti Ngurah; Ma, Wenjun; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Richt, Juergen A

    2015-07-01

    Sporadic human infections by a novel H7N9 virus occurred over a large geographic region in China. In this study, we show that Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-vectored H7 (NDV-H7) and NDV-H5 vaccines are able to induce antibodies with high hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers and completely protect chickens from challenge with the novel H7N9 or highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses, respectively. Notably, a baculovirus-expressed H7 protein failed to protect chickens from H7N9 virus infection. PMID:25926639

  20. Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored H7 and H5 Live Vaccines Protect Chickens from Challenge with H7N9 or H5N1 Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qinfang; Mena, Ignacio; Ma, Jingjiao; Bawa, Bhupinder; Krammer, Florian; Lyoo, Young S.; Lang, Yuekun; Morozov, Igor; Mahardika, Gusti Ngurah; Ma, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic human infections by a novel H7N9 virus occurred over a large geographic region in China. In this study, we show that Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-vectored H7 (NDV-H7) and NDV-H5 vaccines are able to induce antibodies with high hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers and completely protect chickens from challenge with the novel H7N9 or highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses, respectively. Notably, a baculovirus-expressed H7 protein failed to protect chickens from H7N9 virus infection. PMID:25926639

  1. Quantification of rHVT-F genome load in feather follicles by specific real-time qPCR as an indicator of NDV-specific humoral immunity induced by day-old vaccination in SPF chickens.

    PubMed

    Rauw, F; Van Borm, S; Welby, S; Ngabirano, E; Gardin, Y; Palya, V; Lambrecht, B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to look for a reliable molecular method for confirmation of uptake of recombinant turkey herpesvirus vaccine against Newcastle disease (rHVT-F) and for use as a valuable prediction tool of Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-specific immune response in chickens deprived of maternally derived antibody (MDA). A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR) specific to rHVT-F was developed. The method was applied to various tissue samples taken from specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens experimentally inoculated at day-old with one dose of rHVT-F vaccine over a 6-week period. Among the tested tissues, the rHVT-F vaccine was detected predominantly in the bursa of Fabricius (BF) and the lung for the first week, followed by a progressive decline from 9 days onwards. Then, an increase of genome load was observed in the feather follicles (FF) with a peak at 2 weeks, rising to a level almost 10(3)-fold greater than in the other tissues. Importantly, the rHVT-F genome load in FF appeared to be strongly correlated to the humoral immunity specific to NDV as evaluated by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and NDV-specific IgG, IgM and IgA ELISAs. This is the first report of quantification of rHVT-F vaccine in FF and its correlation with the induction of ND-specific immune response in chickens with no MDA. Our data indicate that the application of this real-time qPCR assay on FF samples taken from chickens in the field may be used to confirm rHVT-F vaccine administration and uptake with the important added benefit of offering a non-disruptive sampling procedure. PMID:25687165

  2. Effects of heat stress on peripheral T and B lymphocyte profiles and IgG and IgM serum levels in broiler chickens vaccinated for Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Honda, Bruno Takashi Bueno; Calefi, Atilio Sersun; Costola-de-Souza, Carolina; Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley Moreno; da Silva Fonseca, Juliana Garcia; de Paula, Viviane Ferraz; Palermo-Neto, João

    2015-10-01

    Multiple factors, such as environment, nutritional status, and disease, induce stress in animals during livestock production. It has been shown that poultry exposed to stressors for prolonged periods had decreases in their performance parameters, mortality and decreased host resistance to pathogenic agents. It seems that early age stress may have long-lasting impact and could possibly modify the expression of their genetic potential on growth performance and immunity. This study aimed to discuss the effects of early-age heat stress on the blood lymphocyte phenotypes (B and T lymphocytes) and plasma immunoglobulin levels (IgM and IgG) in chickens vaccinated against paramixovirus of the Newcastle (NC) disease (LaSota strain). For this purpose, 96 male chickens (Cobb) were divided into 4 groups: 1) control (C), 2) heat-stressed (HS), 3) control vaccinated (C/V), and 4) heat-stressed and Vaccinated (HS/V). The NC vaccine was administered twice on experimental day (ED) 7 and ED14, and the heat stress (38 ± 1°C) was applied from ED2 to ED6. The data showed that HS increased the corticosterone serum levels in the HS group compared with the control groups (C and C/V groups). At ED7, increased concentrations of IgM were observed in birds in the HS and HS/V groups compared with C and C/V animals; chickens from the HS/V group presented increased IgG levels compared with those in the birds of the C group. The heat stress shifted the immune cell profile from B-lymphocyte to a T-cytotoxic and T-helper lymphocyte profile, and this immune cell pattern persisted until the end of the study period. It was concluded that heat stress immunomodulated the immune function response of the chickens to the NC disease vaccine challenge. PMID:26362974

  3. Supplemental dietary L-arginine attenuates intestinal mucosal disruption during a coccidial vaccine challenge in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary arginine (Arg) supplementation on intestinal barrier integrity in broiler chickens undergoing coccidial challenge. The design of this study was a randomized complete block employing a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (n = 8) with 3 level of Arg (1.11,...

  4. [Current events in vaccination].

    PubMed

    Aubert, M; Aumatre, H; Beytout, J; Bloch, K; Bouhour, D; Callamand, P; Chave, C; Cheymol, J; Combadire, B; Dahlab, A; Denis, F; De Pontual, L; Dodet, B; Dommergues, M-A; Dufour, V; Gagneur, A; Gaillat, J; Gaudelus, J; Gavazzi, G; Gillet, Y; Gras-le-Guen, C; Haas, H; Hanslik, T; Hau-Rainsard, I; Larnaudie, S; Launay, O; Lorrot, M; Loulergue, P; Malvy, D; Marchand, S; Picherot, G; Pinquier, D; Pulcini, C; Rabaud, C; Regnier, F; Reinert, P; Sana, C; Savagner, C; Soubeyrand, B; Stephan, J-L; Strady, C

    2011-11-01

    The annual meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) ; which brought together nearly 5000 participants from over 80 countries in Vancouver, Canada, October 21 to 24, 2010 ; provided a review of the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, evaluated vaccination programmes and presented new vaccines under development. With 12,500 deaths in the United States in 2009-2010, the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic was actually less deadly than the seasonal flu. But it essentially hit the young, and the toll calculated in years of life lost is high. The monovalent vaccines, whether live attenuated or inactivated with or without adjuvants, were well tolerated in toddlers, children, adults and pregnant women. In order to protect infants against pertussis, family members are urged to get their booster shots. The introduction of the 13-valent Pneumococcal conjugated vaccine in the beginning of 2010 may solve - but for how long ? - the problem of serotype replacement, responsible for the re-increasing incidence of invasive Pneumococcal infections observed in countries that had introduced the 7-valent vaccine. The efficacy of a rotavirus vaccine has been confirmed, with a reduction in hospitalization in the United States and a reduction in gastroenteritis-related deaths in Mexico. In the United States, vaccination of pre-adolescents against human papillomavirus (HPV) has not resulted in any specific undesirable effects. Routine vaccination against chicken pox, recommended since 1995, has not had an impact on the evolution of the incidence of shingles. Vaccination against shingles, recommended in the United States for subjects 60 years and over, shows an effectiveness of 55 %, according to a cohort study (Kaiser Permanente, Southern California). Although some propose the development of personalized vaccines according to individual genetic characteristics, the priority remains with increasing vaccine coverage, not only in infants but also in adults and the elderly. Vaccine calendars that cover a whole lifetime should be promoted, since the vaccination of adults and seniors is a determining factor of good health at all ages. PMID:22019286

  5. [Current events in vaccination].

    PubMed

    Aubert, M; Aumatre, H; Beytout, J; Bloch, K; Bouhour, D; Callamand, P; Chave, C; Cheymol, J; Combadire, B; Dahlab, A; Denis, F; De Pontual, L; Dodet, B; Dommergues, M A; Dufour, V; Gagneur, A; Gaillat, J; Gaudelus, J; Gavazzi, G; Gillet, Y; Gras-le-Guen, C; Haas, H; Hanslik, T; Hau-Rainsard, I; Larnaudie, S; Launay, O; Lorrot, M; Loulergue, P; Malvy, D; Marchand, S; Picherot, G; Pinquier, D; Pulcini, C; Rabaud, C; Regnier, F; Reinert, P; Sana, C; Savagner, C; Soubeyrand, B; Stephan, J L; Strady, C

    2011-05-01

    The annual meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA); which brought together nearly 5000 participants from over 80 countries in Vancouver, Canada, October 21 to 24, 2010; provided a review of the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, evaluated vaccination programmes and presented new vaccines under development. With 12,500 deaths in the United States in 2009-2010, the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic was actually less deadly than the seasonal flu. But it essentially hit the young, and the toll calculated in years of life lost is high. The monovalent vaccines, whether live attenuated or inactivated with or without adjuvants, were well tolerated in toddlers, children, adults and pregnant women. In order to protect infants against pertussis, family members are urged to get their booster shots. The introduction of the 13-valent Pneumococcal conjugated vaccine in the beginning of 2010 may solve--but for how long?--the problem of serotype replacement, responsible for the re-increasing incidence of invasive Pneumococcal infections observed in countries that had introduced the 7-valent vaccine. The efficacy of a rotavirus vaccine has been confirmed, with a reduction in hospitalization in the United States and a reduction in gastroenteritis-related deaths in Mexico. In the United States, vaccination of pre-adolescents against human papillomavirus (HPV) has not resulted in any specific undesirable effects. Routine vaccination against chicken pox, recommended since 1995, has not had an impact on the evolution of the incidence of shingles. Vaccination against shingles, recommended in the United States for subjects 60 years and over, shows an effectiveness of 55%, according to a cohort study (Kaiser Permanente, Southern California). Although some propose the development of personalized vaccines according to individual genetic characteristics, the priority remains with increasing vaccine coverage, not only in infants but also in adults and the elderly. Vaccine calendars that cover a whole lifetime should be promoted, since the vaccination of adults and seniors is a determining factor of good health at all ages. PMID:21489733

  6. Health care use and opportunities for human papillomavirus vaccination among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Meites, Elissa; Krishna, Nevin K; Markowitz, Lauri E; Oster, Alexandra M

    2013-02-01

    We studied 2941 young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men using National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System data. Within the past 12 months, 88.9% used health care, suggesting many opportunities for recommended care including human papillomavirus vaccination. However, only 61.3% disclosed male-male sexual attraction/behavior to a provider, which may result in some opportunities being missed. PMID:23321994

  7. Molecular characterization of H9N2 avian influenza viruses isolated from vaccinated broiler chickens in northeast Iran.

    PubMed

    Bahari, Pejman; Pourbakhsh, Seyed Ali; Shoushtari, Hamid; Bahmaninejad, Mohammad Ali

    2015-08-01

    Avian influenza is a highly contagious respiratory disease of poultry caused by influenza A viruses, family Orthomyxoviridae. H9N2 avian influenza outbreaks are a major problem of the poultry industry in Iran. To determine the genetic differences between field viruses and the vaccine strain, the genomes of four strains isolated in 2011 from vaccinated broiler flocks with a history of respiratory illness were sequenced. Genetic and serological comparisons were made. Sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes indicated that the isolated strains shared nucleotide homologies of 91.6-93.9 and 90.2-91.7% with the vaccine strain, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of HA and NA genes showed that all strains isolated in this study fell into the same group and belonged to the influenza A virus (A)/quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 H9N2 sublineage. Several amino acids have changed at the antigenic sites in HA in the field viruses. Extra potential glycosylation sites were observed in the HA and NA proteins expressed by the current isolates relative to those in the vaccine strain. The deduced amino acid sequence at the cleavage site of HA in recent isolates is the KSSR/GLF motif, whereas it is RSSR/GLF in the vaccine strain. A serological analysis revealed that the currently circulating strains are antigenically distinct from the vaccine strain. These results suggest that the commercial vaccine is insufficiently genetically and antigenically similar to the viruses currently circulating in the region. These findings confirm that it is important to monitor the genetic and antigenic variations in H9N2 influenza viruses when selecting a vaccine strain. PMID:26055889

  8. Studies on antilymphocyte antibody in the chicken. II. Effect of antithymus and rabbit antibursa globulin on immune reactions in young chickens

    PubMed Central

    Jankovi?, B. D.; Isakovi?, Katarina; Petrovi?, Spomenka; Vuji?, Drinka; Horvat, J.

    1970-01-01

    Four-week-old chickens repeatedly injected intraperitoneally with heterologous antithymus globulin (ATG) and antibursa globulin (ABG) were immunized, in the course of treatment, with bovine ?-globulin (BGG). The ATG and ABG depressed the production of anti-BGG antibody. On the other hand, only ATG was effective in suppressing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Immunoelectrophoretic analysis of sera from chickens treated with ATG, ABG and NRG (normal rabbit globulin) revealed that those globulins are themselves immunogenic. ATG and ABG induced in the spleen a moderate depletion of lymphocytes and plasma cells respectively. These reagents produced lymphocytopenia and granulocytopenia, but a similar, although less expressed, effect on leucocytes in the peripheral blood could be induced by NRG. Thymus, bursa, caecal tonsil, Peyer's patches and lymphoid masses of the intestine were not influenced by ATG, ABG and NRG. The results are discussed and interpreted as further evidence for the delineation between immune functions of the thymus and the bursa of Fabricius in the chicken. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4099669

  9. An appraisal of theoretical approaches to examining behaviours in relation to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young women

    PubMed Central

    Batista Ferrer, Harriet; Audrey, Suzanne; Trotter, Caroline; Hickman, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background Interventions to increase uptake of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination by young women may be more effective if they are underpinned by an appropriate theoretical model or framework. The aims of this review were: to describe the theoretical models or frameworks used to explain behaviours in relation to HPV vaccination of young women, and: to consider the appropriateness of the theoretical models or frameworks used for informing the development of interventions to increase uptake. Methods Primary studies were identified through a comprehensive search of databases from inception to December 2013. Results Thirty-four relevant studies were identified, of which 31 incorporated psychological health behaviour models or frameworks and three used socio-cultural models or theories. The primary studies used a variety of approaches to measure a diverse range of outcomes in relation to behaviours of professionals, parents, and young women. The majority appeared to use theory appropriately throughout. About half of the quantitative studies presented data in relation to goodness of fit tests and the proportion of the variability in the data. Conclusion Due to diverse approaches and inconsistent findings across studies, the current contribution of theory to understanding and promoting HPV vaccination uptake is difficult to assess. Ecological frameworks encourage the integration of individual and social approaches by encouraging exploration of the intrapersonal, interpersonal, organisational, community and policy levels when examining public health issues. Given the small number of studies using such approach, combined with the importance of these factors in predicting behaviour, more research in this area is warranted. PMID:26314783

  10. Effects of yeast cell wall-derived mannan-oligosaccharides on jejunal gene expression in young broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Xiao, R; Power, R F; Mallonee, D; Routt, K; Spangler, L; Pescatore, A J; Cantor, A H; Ao, T; Pierce, J L; Dawson, K A

    2012-07-01

    The use of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) has gained in popularity in recent years due to regulatory restrictions of using AGP in food animal production. Benefits of MOS usage include improvement on animal performance, feed efficiency, and gastrointestinal health. The molecular mechanisms of these functions however are not clear. The goal of the current study was to use a transcriptomics approach to investigate the effects of MOS on the intestinal gene expression profile of young broilers and characterize biological gene pathways responsible for the actions of MOS. One hundred and twenty 1-d-old Cobb 500 broiler chicks were randomly divided into 2 groups and were fed either a standard wheat-soybean meal-based (control) diet or the same diet supplemented with 2.2 g/kg of MOS (Bio-Mos, Alltech, Nicholasville, KY) for 3 wk, followed by jejunal gene expression profiling analysis using chicken-specific Affymetrix microarrays. Results indicated that a total of 672 genes were differentially expressed (P < 0.01 and fold change >1.2) in the jejunum by MOS supplementation. Association analysis indicated that differentially expressed genes are involved in diverse biological functions including energy production, cell death, and protein translation. Expression of 77 protein synthesis-related genes was differentially regulated by MOS in the jejunum. Further pathway analysis indicated that 15 genes related to oxidative phosphorylation were upregulated in the jejunum, and expression of genes important in cellular stress response, such as peroxiredoxin 1, superoxide dismutase 1, and thioredoxin, were also increased by MOS. Differential expression of genes associated with cellular immune processes, including lysozyme, lumican, ? 2-microglobin, apolipoprotein A-1, and fibronectin 1, were also observed in MOS-fed broilers. In summary, this study systematically identified biological functions and gene pathways that are important in mediating the biological effects of MOS in broilers. PMID:22700513

  11. Effective Dual Method Contraceptive Use and HPV Vaccination Among U.S. Adolescent and Young Adult Females

    PubMed Central

    Vanderpool, Robin C.; Williams, Corrine M.; Klawitter, Amy R.; Eddens, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Problem Behavior Theory posits that risky behaviors cluster in individuals, implying that protective behaviors may follow a similar pattern. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the protective behavior of effective dual method contraception use at first and most recent sexual intercourse is associated with HPV vaccination among adolescent and young adult females. Methods National Survey of Family Growth (20062010) data were used to examine the association between womens contraception use during first and most recent sexual intercourse and HPV vaccination. Women aged 15 to 24 years (n = 1,820) served as the study sample. Findings At first and last sexual intercourse, effective dual method contraception use was reported by 15.3% and 16.8% women, respectively; 27.8% reported receiving at least one dose of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Higher HPV vaccination rates were observed among dual method users at first and last sexual intercourse (36.4% and 48.2%, respectively). This trend was also observed across age groups (1519 year olds vs. 2024 year olds). In adjusted models, among all respondents, dual users at last sexual intercourse were significantly more likely to be vaccinated, whereas at first sexual intercourse only younger dual users were more likely to report HPV vaccination. Conclusions Findings suggest that the protective behavior of dual method contraceptive use at first and most recent sexual intercourse may serve as a predictor of another complementary health behavior, HPV vaccination, particularly among adolescent females. More research is needed to understand behavioral clustering to design related multi-focused womens health interventions. PMID:25213746

  12. Decline in in-patient treatments of genital warts among young Australians following the national HPV vaccination program

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been a rapid decline in the number of young heterosexuals diagnosed with genital warts at outpatient sexual health services since the national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program started in Australia in 2007. We assessed the impact of the vaccination program on the number of in-patient treatments for genital warts. Methods Data on in-patient treatments of genital warts in all private hospitals were extracted from the Medicare website. Medicare is the universal health insurance scheme of Australia. In the vaccine period (20072011) and pre-vaccine period (20002007) we calculated the percentage change in treatment numbers and trends in annual treatment rates in private hospitals. Australian population data were used to calculate rates. Summary rate ratios of average annual trends were determined. Results Between 2000 and 2011, 6,014 women and 936 men aged 1544?years underwent in-patient treatment for genital warts in private hospitals. In 1524?year old women, there was a significant decreasing trend in annual treatment rates of vulval/vaginal warts in the vaccine period (overall decrease of 85.3% in treatment numbers from 2007 to 2011) compared to no significant trend in the pre-vaccine period (summary rate ratio (SRR)?=?0.33, p?vaccine and pre-vaccine periods (overall decrease of 33% vs. 24.3%), but the rate of change was greater in the vaccine period (SRR?=?0.60, p?vaccine period (decrease of 70.6%) compared to an increasing trend in the pre-vaccine period (SRR?=?0.76, p?=?0.02). In 2534?year old men there was a significant decreasing trend in the vaccine period compared to no change in the pre-vaccine period (SRR?=?0.81, p?=?0.04) and in 3544?year old men there was no significant change in rates of penile warts both periods, but the rate of change was greater in the vaccine period (SRR?=?0.70, p?=?0.02). Conclusions The marked decline in in-patient treatment of vulval/vaginal warts in the youngest women is probably attributable to the HPV vaccine program. The moderate decline in in-patient treatments for penile warts in men probably reflects herd immunity. PMID:23506489

  13. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among Young Adult Gay and Bisexual Men in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McRee, Annie-Laurie; Katz, Mira L.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among gay and bisexual men, a population with high rates of HPV infection and HPV-related disease. Methods. A national sample of gay and bisexual men aged 18 to 26 years (n?=?428) completed online surveys in fall 2013. We identified correlates of HPV vaccination using multivariate logistic regression. Results. Overall, 13% of participants had received any doses of the HPV vaccine. About 83% who had received a health care provider recommendation for vaccination were vaccinated, compared with only 5% without a recommendation (P?Vaccination was lower among participants who perceived greater barriers to getting vaccinated (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.27, 0.78). Vaccination was higher among participants with higher levels of worry about getting HPV-related disease (OR?=?1.54; 95% CI?=? 1.05, 2.27) or perceived positive social norms of HPV vaccination (OR?=?1.57; 95% CI?=? 1.02, 2.43). Conclusions. HPV vaccine coverage is low among gay and bisexual men in the United States. Future efforts should focus on increasing provider recommendation for vaccination and should target other modifiable factors. PMID:25393178

  14. Severe Upper Extremity Dysfunction After 4CMenB Vaccination in a Young Infant.

    PubMed

    Tenenbaum, Tobias; Niessen, Johanna; Schroten, Horst

    2016-01-01

    The 4-component meningococcal serogroup B vaccine 4CMenB (Bexsero) is the first vaccine against this serogroup and has been approved by licensing authorities in Europe, Canada and Australia. Therefore, the vaccine may enter soon nationwide vaccine recommendation schemes. We report on a case of a 5-month-old infant who developed prolonged upper extremity dysfunction after the second injection of the 4CMenB vaccine in the left deltoid muscle and was concomitantly applied with 2 routine vaccinations. Myositis, periostitis, (peri-) vasculitis and axillary inflammation were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Two months after initial initiation of an anti-inflammatory and an antibiotic treatment, symptoms completely resolved. Administration of 3 vaccines requires clear recommendations for the preferred injection site in infants because increased reactogenicity of 4CMenB may lead to local severe adverse events. PMID:26379162

  15. Systematic Review of the Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Dosing Schedules on Vaccine-type Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Among Young Children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) are being implemented globally using a variety of different schedules. The optimal schedule to maximize protection of vaccinated children against vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (VT-IPD) is not known. Methods: To assess the relative benefit of various PCV dosing schedules, we conducted a systematic review of studies published in English from 1994 to 2010 (supplemented post hoc with studies from 2011) on PCV effectiveness against VT-IPD among children targeted to receive vaccine. Data on 2-dose and 3-dose primary series, both with and without a booster (2+0, 2+1, 3+0 and 3+1), were included. For observational studies using surveillance data or case counts, we calculated percentage reduction in VT-IPD before and after PCV introduction. Results: Of 4 randomized controlled trials and 31 observational studies reporting VT-IPD among young children, none evaluated a 2+0 complete series, 7 (19%) evaluated 2+1, 4 (11%) 3+0 and 27 (75%) 3+1. Most (86%) studies were from North America or Europe. Only 1 study (observational) directly compared 2 schedules (3+0 vs. 3+1); results supported the use of a booster dose. In clinical trials, vaccine efficacy ranged from 65% to 71% with 3+0 and 83% to 94% with 3+1. Surveillance data and case counts demonstrate reductions in VT-IPD of up to 100% with 2+1 (6 studies) or 3+1 (17 studies) schedules and up to 90% with 3+0 (2 studies). Reductions were observed as early as 1 year after PCV introduction. Conclusions: These data support the use of 2+1, 3+0 and 3+1 schedules, although most data of PCV impact on VT-IPD among young children are from high-income countries using 3+1. Differences between schedules for impact on VT-IPD are difficult to discern based on available data. PMID:24336053

  16. An observational study of the temporal and spatial patterns of Marek's-disease-associated leukosis condemnation of young chickens in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David A; Dunn, John R; Dunn, Patricia A; Read, Andrew F

    2015-07-01

    Marek's disease, a disease primarily affecting immature chickens, is a worldwide problem that has on at least three occasions threatened the poultry industry in the United States. A rich dataset to study the epidemiology of this disease is available because the United States Department of Agriculture has required mandatory inspections of all commercially sold poultry of significant scale since the mid-20th century with over 99% of all chickens inspected. This dataset includes monthly totals aggregated by state since 1961 of the number of "young chickens" inspected and the number with "leukosis", a condemnation category that is almost always associated with Marek's disease in this category of birds. The objective of this study was to analyze temporal and spatial patterns in this condemnation data to gain insight into the ecology and epidemiology of the causative virus. We extracted visual patterns in the data using seasonal trend decomposition, and we tested for statistical significance using extended linear modeling techniques. The analysis confirmed previous findings that there are differences in leukosis condemnation rates between states, across years, and within years. The analysis also revealed several patterns not previously highlighted, including spatial and temporal autocorrelations in leukosis condemnation, changes to the amplitude of seasonality over time, and increasing within-year variation in condemnation rate over time. These patterns suggest that locally shared farm practices, virus transmission between farms, or viral persistence may be important to understanding the dynamics of the disease. We also discuss the plausibility of other potential explanations for these patterns. PMID:25998661

  17. The peptide motif of the single dominantly expressed class I molecule of the chicken MHC can explain the response to a molecular defined vaccine of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV).

    PubMed

    Butter, Colin; Staines, Karen; van Hateren, Andrew; Davison, T Fred; Kaufman, Jim

    2013-08-01

    In contrast to typical mammals, the chicken MHC (the BF-BL region of the B locus) has strong genetic associations with resistance and susceptibility to infectious pathogens as well as responses to vaccines. We have shown that the chicken MHC encodes a single dominantly expressed class I molecule whose peptide-binding motifs can determine resistance to viral pathogens, such as Rous sarcoma virus and Marek's disease virus. In this report, we examine the response to a molecular defined vaccine, fp-IBD1, which consists of a fowlpox virus vector carrying the VP2 gene of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) fused with ?-galactosidase. We vaccinated parental lines and two backcross families with fp-IBD1, challenged with the virulent IBDV strain F52/70, and measured damage to the bursa. We found that the MHC haplotype B15 from line 15I confers no protection, whereas B2 from line 61 and B12 from line C determine protection, although another locus from line 61 was also important. Using our peptide motifs, we found that many more peptides from VP2 were predicted to bind to the dominantly expressed class I molecule BF2*1201 than BF2*1501. Moreover, most of the peptides predicted to bind BF2*1201 did in fact bind, while none bound BF2*1501. Using peptide vaccination, we identified one B12 peptide that conferred protection to challenge, as assessed by bursal damage and viremia. Thus, we show the strong genetic association of the chicken MHC to a T cell vaccine can be explained by peptide presentation by the single dominantly expressed class I molecule. PMID:23644721

  18. Seroprevalence of measles, mumps and rubella among young adults, after 20 years of universal 2-dose MMR vaccination in Israel.

    PubMed

    Levine, Hagai; Zarka, Salman; Ankol, Omer E; Rozhavski, Vladi; Davidovitch, Nadav; Aboudy, Yair; Balicer, Ran D

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based vaccination policy is important for the global and local efforts of achieving control over measles. In 2007, the first Israeli birth cohort to be twice vaccinated during childhood with Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine reached adulthood. In parallel, Israel experienced its largest measles outbreak since 1994. We aimed to assess the seroprevalence of measles IgG antibodies and concordance with rubella and mumps seroprevalence among young Israeli adults born 1988-9 in comparison to previous birth cohorts, in order to inform evidence based prevention policy. We conducted a seroprevalence study of IgG antibodies among 439 Israeli adults born in 1988-9, based on a representative sample of sera collected at age 18-19 upon recruitment to mandatory military service in 2007. In total, 85.7% were seropositive for measles as compared with 95.6% in the 1996 recruitment (P < 0.001). The absolute decline was significant both for males (8.8%, P = 0.001) and females (12.1%, P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in seropositivity by gender, years of education, country of birth or smoking status. Rubella seropositivity among measles seropositives was 90.4%, significantly (P < 0.001) higher than 72.1% among measles seronegatives. Mumps seropositivity among measles seropositives was 87.0%, significantly (P < 0.001) higher than 62.3% among measles seronegatives. Results were similar for Israeli-born only. Our findings indicate that measles seroprevalence decreased after the last change in vaccination policy and reach sub-optimal level. Until global eradication is reached, a proactive vaccination program to supplement routine childhood vaccination program should be considered in Israel and in other countries. PMID:25891446

  19. Vaccine protection of chickens against the 2012 mexican H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In June of 2012, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N3 was reported poultry in Jalisco, Mexico. Since that time the virus has spread to many surrounding States and new outbreaks continue to be reported. Vaccine trials were performed to determine protective efficacy of an inact...

  20. Effects of live and killed vaccines against Mycoplasma gallisepticum on the performance characteristics of commercial layer chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a major and economically significant pathogen of avian species. Different strains of MG have been used as vaccines in multiple-age commercial layer farms in an effort to protect the birds against more virulent field strains. The lower level of protection afforded b...

  1. Residual susceptibility to measles among young adults in Victoria, Australia following a national targeted measles-mumps-rubella vaccination campaign

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Heath A; Gidding, Heather F; Karapanagiotidis, Theo; Leydon, Jennie A; Riddell, Michaela A

    2007-01-01

    Background Past measles immunisation policies in Australia have resulted in a cohort of young adults who have been inadequately vaccinated, but who also have low levels of naturally acquired immunity because immunisation programs have decreased the circulation of wild virus. A measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) immunisation campaign aimed at addressing this susceptibility to measles among young adults was conducted in Australia in 2001–2. By estimating age-specific immunity, we aimed to evaluate the success of this campaign in the state of Victoria. Methods We conducted serosurveys after the young adult MMR program at state and national levels to estimate immunity among young adults born between 1968–82. We compared results of the Victorian (state) surveys with the Victorian component of the national surveys and compared both surveys with surveys conducted before the campaign. We also reviewed all laboratory confirmed measles cases in Victoria between 2000–4. Results The Victorian state serosurveys indicated no significant change in immunity of the cohort following the young adult MMR campaign (83.9% immune pre and 85.5% immune post campaign) while the Victorian component of the national serosurvey indicated a significant decline in immunity (91.0% to 84.2%; p = 0.006). Both surveys indicated about 15% susceptibility to measles among young Victorian adults after the campaign. Measles outbreaks in Victoria between 2000–4 confirmed the susceptibility of young adults. Outbreaks involved a median of 2.5 cases with a median age of 24.5 years. Conclusion In Victoria, the young adult MMR program appears to have had no effect on residual susceptibility to measles among the 1968–82 birth cohort. Young adults in Victoria, as in other countries where past immunisation policies have left a residual susceptible cohort, represent a potential problem for the maintenance of measles elimination. PMID:17555601

  2. Motivation for HPV Vaccination Among Young Adult Men: Validation of TTM Decisional Balance and Self-Efficacy Constructs.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Anne C; Amoyal, Nicole R; Paiva, Andrea L; Prochaska, James O

    2016-01-01

    Purpose . In the United States, 36% of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers occur among men. HPV vaccination can substantially reduce the risk of HPV infection; however, the vast majority of men are unvaccinated. This study developed and validated transtheoretical model-based measures for HPV vaccination in young adult men. Design . Cross-sectional measurement development. Setting . Online survey of young adult men. Subjects . Three hundred twenty-nine mostly college-attending men, ages 18 to 26. Measures . Stage of change, decisional balance (pros/cons), and self-efficacy. Analysis . The sample was randomly split into halves for exploratory principal components analysis (PCA), followed by confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) to test measurement models. Multivariate analyses examined relationships between scales. Results . For decisional balance, PCA revealed two uncorrelated five-item factors (pros α = .78; cons α = .83). For the self-efficacy scale, PCA revealed a single-factor solution (α = .83). CFA confirmed that the two-factor uncorrelated model for decisional balance and a single-factor model for self-efficacy. Follow-up analyses of variance supported the theoretically predicted relationships between stage of change, pros, and self-efficacy. Conclusion . This study resulted in reliable and valid measures of pros and self-efficacy for HPV vaccination that can be used in future clinical research. PMID:25806567

  3. Safety and immunogenicity of Salmonella typhi Ty21a vaccine in young Thai children.

    PubMed Central

    Cryz, S J; Vanprapar, N; Thisyakorn, U; Olanratmanee, T; Losonsky, G; Levine, M M; Chearskul, S

    1993-01-01

    Salmonella typhi Ty21a vaccine in a liquid formulation was evaluated in 634 Thai children 2 to 6 years of age. The seroconversion rate was 69% for those who received vaccine versus 14% for those who received placebo (P < 0.005). The immune responses among vaccine recipients ranged from 60% in 3-year-olds to 81% for 6-year-olds. PMID:8432597

  4. Vaccination with virus-like particles containing H5 antigens from three H5N1 clades protects chickens from H5N1 and H5N8 influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Tumpey, Terrence M; Hidajat, Rachmat; Zsak, Aniko; Chrzastek, Klaudia; Tretyakova, Irina; Pushko, Peter

    2016-03-18

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, especially H5N1 strains, represent a public health threat and cause widespread morbidity and mortality in domestic poultry. Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a promising novel vaccine approach to control avian influenza including HPAI strains. Influenza VLPs contain viral hemagglutinin (HA), which can be expressed in cell culture within highly immunogenic VLPs that morphologically and antigenically resemble influenza virions, except VLPs are non-infectious. Here we describe a recombinant VLP containing HA proteins derived from three distinct clades of H5N1 viruses as an experimental, broadly protective H5 avian influenza vaccine. A baculovirus vector was configured to co-express the H5 genes from recent H5N1 HPAI isolates A/chicken/Germany/2014 (clade 2.3.4.4), A/chicken/West Java/Subang/29/2007 (clade 2.1.3) and A/chicken/Egypt/121/2012 (clade 2.2.1). Co-expression of these genes in Sf9 cells along with influenza neuraminidase (NA) and retrovirus gag genes resulted in production of triple-clade H555 VLPs that exhibited hemagglutination activity and morphologically resembled influenza virions. Vaccination of chickens with these VLPs resulted in induction of serum antibody responses and efficient protection against experimental challenges with three different viruses including the recent U.S. H5N8 HPAI isolate. We conclude that these novel triple-clade VLPs represent a feasible strategy for simultaneously evoking protective antibodies against multiple variants of H5 influenza virus. PMID:26868083

  5. Safety and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in HIV-infected and HIV-negative adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Giacomet, Vania; Penagini, Francesca; Trabattoni, Daria; Vigan, Alessandra; Rainone, Veronica; Bernazzani, Giada; Bonardi, Claudia Maria; Clerici, Mario; Bedogni, Giorgio; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2014-09-29

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is highly prevalent and can lead to cancer; the development of safe and efficacious vaccines for HPV is a major public health concern. The two licensed HPV vaccines contain recombinant virus-like particles of HPV 16 and 18; one of such vaccines also protects against HPV types 6 and 11 which cause genital warts. We determined safety and immunogenicity of quadrivalent HPV vaccine in HIV-infected and HIV-negative adolescents and young adults, aged 13-27 years. The seroconversion rate, assessed by antibody titers, 1 month after the administration of the third vaccine dose was 0.85 (95% CI 0.75-0.95) in the HIV-infected group and 0.91 (0.83-0.99) in the HIV-negative subjects (p=0.52). The vaccine was generally safe and well tolerated; the most common side effect was local pain and the most frequent systemic side effect was headache. This is the first report on response to HPV vaccination in both female and male HIV-infected adolescents and young adults and highlights that this population may benefit from HPV immunoprophylaxis. Further studies are needed to examine the long term efficacy of this vaccine in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:25149430

  6. Compound 48/80 acts as a potent mucosal adjuvant for vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in young mice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lingbin; Liu, Yusi; Wang, Hong; Liao, Pu; Song, Zhixin; Gao, Song; Wu, Yingying; Zhang, Xuemei; Yin, Yibing; Xu, Wenchun

    2015-02-18

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major respiratory pathogen, is a leading cause of death among children worldwide. Mucosal vaccination is a recommended method to prevent respiratory infection. However, development of mucosal vaccination is usually hindered due to the lack of safe and effective mucosal adjuvants. Mast cell activator compound 48/80 (C48/80) has been used as a mucosal adjuvant in immunization of adult mice, but its adjuvanticity is not clear in the immunization of young mice. In this study, the adjuvanticity of C48/80 was evaluated when intranasally co-administrated with a pneumococcal vaccine candidate strain SPY1 in a young mice model in comparison with a classical mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT) and a relatively safe mucosal adjuvant Pam2CSK4. All three adjuvants enhanced antibody responses, whereas serum IgG titers were maintained at a stable level during the 3 months after the last immunization only in the SPY1+C48/80 and SPY1+CT groups. Furthermore, both the SPY1+CT group and the SPY1+C48/80 group induced strong Th17 immune response. Notably, C48/80 showed the exceptional ability to promote the clearance of nasal pneumococcal colonization which CT and Pam2CSK4 did not show. We found that C48/80's ability to induce protection against nasal pneumococcal colonization depended on B cells and IL-17A. Additionally, C48/80, as a mucosal adjuvant, showed a greater ability to protect young mice against lethal pneumococcal infection than CT. In comparison with CT, C48/80 also showed a favorable safety. These results reveal a promising perspective for using C48/80 as a mucosal adjuvant to improve protection against pneumococcal diseases early in life. PMID:25595867

  7. Virus-specific antibodies interfere with avian influenza infection in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes from young or aged chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) infection was examined in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte cultures (PBMC) that were collected from 1-day-old chicks or from 52-week-old chickens. Virus-specific antibodies were incubated with AIV to model maternal antibody interference in vitro. Interferon-alpha (I...

  8. [Preventive vaccination strategy during the perinatal period].

    PubMed

    Pinquier, Didier; Gagneur, Amaud; Gaudelus, Jol; Marret, Stphane

    2010-12-20

    Preventive vaccination strategy around the birth is a global approach requiring the coordination of several actors. To be efficacious, general practitioners are in the front line to provide preventive care and health education. The perinatal period represents a privileged situation from listening to this approach of vaccine prevention. The raising awareness around the birth contains several additional steps to bring to the future mother and child the best protection against infectious diseases with vaccine prevention. By being vaccinated, parents and other family members indirectly provide protection to very young infants until they are old enough to be vaccinated and so directly protected themselves. Numerous opportunities exist to make sensitive the parents in this preventive way, for them and their child, whether it is from the adolescence in the adulthood above all parental project, on the occasion of a pregnancy, at birth, during the stay in maternity hospital, or along the first weeks of the postpartum. The general practitioner is the key actor to coordinate this global approach in perinatal health around the mother, his child and his family. The arrival of the newborn will be the opportunity to update vaccinations of the whole family particularly according chicken pox, measles, rubella, whooping cough and flu vaccines. PMID:21425528

  9. Young Womens Sexual and Reproductive Health Post HPV Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Ports, Katie A.; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica L; Mosavel, Maghboeba; Murithi, Lydia Karuta

    2014-01-01

    In the present study the authors sought to explore, in greater depth, the impact that HPV vaccination has on college-aged womens reproductive and sexual health. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 HPV-vaccinated, college women and analyzed for reoccurring themes. Although findings revealed that womens HPV-related knowledge was suboptimal, most women correctly believed that they were still at risk for HPV after having received the vaccination. Women indicated that having the HPV vaccine made them more aware of sexually transmitted infections and prompted them to continue to take care of their sexual health. Women reported that having the HPV vaccine did not influence their condom use or birth control choices, and they believed that obtaining Pap smears was still important. These results help us to understand the impact of HPV vaccination on womens reproductive and sexual health. These findings are promising and reinforce the importance of educating women about behaviors that will help them maintain reproductive and sexually healthy lives. PMID:24910854

  10. Antigenic evolution of H9N2 chicken influenza viruses isolated in China during 2009-2013 and selection of a candidate vaccine strain with broad cross-reactivity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yandi; Xu, Guanlong; Zhang, Guozhong; Wen, Chu; Anwar, Furkat; Wang, Shuoguo; Lemmon, Gordon; Wang, Jinliang; Carter, Robert; Wang, Min; Sun, Honglei; Sun, Yipeng; Zhao, Jixun; Wu, Gang; Webster, Robert G; Liu, Jinhua; Pu, Juan

    2016-01-15

    We previously demonstrated that H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) isolated from 1994 to 2008 evolved into distinct antigenic groups (C, D, and E) and then underwent antigenic drift from commercial vaccines, causing a country-wide outbreak during 2010-2013. In this study, H9N2 AIVs isolated from chickens during 2009-2013 were antigenically analyzed by performing hemagglutination inhibition and neutralization assays using a panel of polyclonal antibodies. Our findings confirmed the antigenic drift of recent H9N2 viruses from the commercial vaccine and showed that most of these antigenic variants form a novel HI antigenic group, F, with a few belonging to groups D and E. Slight antigenic variation was observed in group F viruses. Genetic analysis of amino acid sequences deduced from hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences indicated that 9 of 15 mutations predominant in the 2009-2013 viruses can be mapped to known antigenic sites, which might be responsible for the novel antigenicity of group F. These antigenic changes make it necessary to modify the influenza vaccine to ensure efficient protection. A vaccine candidate, Ck/HeB/YT/10, was selected and provided significant protection against viruses from different antigenic groups in terms of reduction in virus shedding, suggesting broad cross-reactivity. Taken together, our results indicate that the H9N2 chicken influenza viruses in China have evolved from distinct antigenic groups into a novel group F that became dominant during the country-wide outbreak and now seems to be undergoing new antigenic divergence. Systematic surveillance and timely updating of vaccine strains are important for viral prevention and control in the future. PMID:26711021

  11. Antiviral and antitumoral effects of recombinant chicken myelomonocytic growth factor in virally induced lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Djeraba, Aouatef; Kut, Emmanuel; Rasschaert, Denis; Quéré, Pascale

    2002-10-01

    Chicken myelomonocytic growth factor (cMGF) is a 27-kDa glycoprotein that stimulates the growth and activation of cells from the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Recombinant cMGF was produced in a prokaryotic (Escherichia coli) expression system and purified via a C-terminal His-tag. Treatment of 2-week-old histocompatible B(13)/B(13) chickens highly susceptible to Marek's disease (MD) with rcMGF (two daily injections of 50 microg rcMGF per chicken) enhanced background and LPS-inducible systemic NO (NO3- + NO2-) responses 3 days later. NO has antiviral activity on Marek's disease virus (MDV), a herpesvirus specifically inducing T cell-lymphomas in chickens. When the very virulent strain of MDV RBI-B was inoculated 3 days after treatment with rcMGF, MDV viremia was significantly inhibited and development of visceral tumors was drastically reduced. Combination of rcMGF with partially protective vaccination using a herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) further reducedtumor burden and significantly delayed mortality, but only in very young birds. In conclusion, rcMGF might be worth considering as a stimulator of innate immune response in chickens, such as activation of macrophages and NO production, and thus be beneficial for its antiviral and antitumoral effects in vaccination against MD lymphoma. PMID:12433057

  12. A Mumps Outbreak in Vojvodina, Serbia, in 2012 Underlines the Need for Additional Vaccination Opportunities for Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nedeljković, Jasminka; Kovačević-Jovanović, Vesna; Milošević, Vesna; Šeguljev, Zorica; Petrovic, Vladimir; Muller, Claude P.; Hübschen, Judith M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, mumps was introduced from Bosnia and Herzegovina to Vojvodina, causing an outbreak with 335 reported cases. The present manuscript analyses the epidemiological and laboratory characteristics of this outbreak, identifies its main causes and suggests potential future preventive measures. Sera of 133 patients were tested for mumps-specific antibodies by ELISA and 15 nose/throat swabs were investigated for mumps virus RNA by RT-PCR. IgG antibodies were found in 127 patients (95.5%). Mumps infection was laboratory-confirmed in 53 patients, including 44 IgM and 9 PCR positive cases. All other 282 cases were classified as epidemiologically-confirmed. More than half of the patients (n = 181, 54%) were 20–29 years old, followed by the 15–19 age bracket (n = 95, 28.4%). Twice as many males as females were affected (67% versus 33%). Disease complications were reported in 13 cases (3.9%), including 9 patients with orchitis and 4 with pancreatitis. According to medical records or anamnestic data, 190 patients (56.7%) were immunized with two doses and 35 (10.4%) with one dose of mumps-containing vaccine. The Serbian sequences corresponded to a minor genotype G variant detected during the 2011/2012 mumps outbreak in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Vaccine failures, the initial one-dose immunization policy and a vaccine shortage between 1999 and 2002 contributed to the outbreak. Additional vaccination opportunities should be offered to young adults during transition periods in their life trajectories. PMID:26496490

  13. A Mumps Outbreak in Vojvodina, Serbia, in 2012 Underlines the Need for Additional Vaccination Opportunities for Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Nedeljkovi?, Jasminka; Kova?evi?-Jovanovi?, Vesna; Miloevi?, Vesna; eguljev, Zorica; Petrovic, Vladimir; Muller, Claude P; Hbschen, Judith M

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, mumps was introduced from Bosnia and Herzegovina to Vojvodina, causing an outbreak with 335 reported cases. The present manuscript analyses the epidemiological and laboratory characteristics of this outbreak, identifies its main causes and suggests potential future preventive measures. Sera of 133 patients were tested for mumps-specific antibodies by ELISA and 15 nose/throat swabs were investigated for mumps virus RNA by RT-PCR. IgG antibodies were found in 127 patients (95.5%). Mumps infection was laboratory-confirmed in 53 patients, including 44 IgM and 9 PCR positive cases. All other 282 cases were classified as epidemiologically-confirmed. More than half of the patients (n = 181, 54%) were 20-29 years old, followed by the 15-19 age bracket (n = 95, 28.4%). Twice as many males as females were affected (67% versus 33%). Disease complications were reported in 13 cases (3.9%), including 9 patients with orchitis and 4 with pancreatitis. According to medical records or anamnestic data, 190 patients (56.7%) were immunized with two doses and 35 (10.4%) with one dose of mumps-containing vaccine. The Serbian sequences corresponded to a minor genotype G variant detected during the 2011/2012 mumps outbreak in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Vaccine failures, the initial one-dose immunization policy and a vaccine shortage between 1999 and 2002 contributed to the outbreak. Additional vaccination opportunities should be offered to young adults during transition periods in their life trajectories. PMID:26496490

  14. Sodium and chloride requirements of young broiler chickens fed corn-soybean diets (one to twenty-one days of age).

    PubMed

    Oviedo-Rondn, E O; Murakami, A E; Furlan, A C; Moreira, I; Macari, M

    2001-05-01

    Sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) nutritional requirements, dietary electrolyte balance (DEB), and their effects on acid-base balance, litter moisture, and tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) incidence for young broiler chickens were evaluated in two trials. One-day-old Cobb broilers were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments, five replicates, and 50 birds per experimental unit. Treatments used in both experiments were a basal diet with 0.10% Na+ (Experiment 1) or Cl- (Experiment 2) supplemented to result in diets with Na+ or Cl- levels of 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, or 0.35%, respectively. In Experiment 1, results indicated an optimum Na+ requirement of 0.26%. Sodium levels caused a linear increase in arterial blood gas parameters, indicating an alkalogenic effect of Na+. The hypertrophic area of growth plate in the proximal tibiotarsi decreased with Na+ levels. The TD incidence decreased with increases in dietary Na+. Litter moisture increased linearly with sodium levels. In Experiment 2, the Cl- requirement was estimated as 0.25%. Chloride levels caused a quadratic effect (P < or = 0.01) on blood gas parameters, with an estimated equilibrium [blood base excess (BE) = 0] at 0.30% of dietary Cl-. No Cl- treatment effects (P > or = 0.05) were observed on litter moisture or TD incidence. The best DEB for maximum performance was 298 to 315 mEq/kg in Experiment 1 and 246 to 264 mEq/kg in Experiment 2. We concluded that the Na+ and Cl- requirements for optimum performance of young broiler chickens were 0.28 and 0.25%, respectively. PMID:11372708

  15. Health-Related Behaviors and Effectiveness of Trivalent Inactivated versus Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in Preventing Influenza-Like Illness among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sevick, Carter; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.; Blair, Patrick J.; Faix, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Background Vaccination is the preferred preventive strategy against influenza. Though health behaviors are known to affect immunity and vaccine delivery modes utilize different immune processes, data regarding the preferred influenza vaccine type among adults endorsing specific health-related behaviors (alcohol use, tobacco use, and exercise level) are limited. Methods The relative effectiveness of two currently available influenza vaccines were compared for prevention of influenza-like illness during 2 well-matched influenza seasons (2006/2007, 2008/2009) among US military personnel aged 1849 years. Relative vaccine effectiveness was compared between those self-reporting and not reporting recent smoking history and potential alcohol problem, and by exercise level using Cox proportional hazard modeling adjusted for sociodemographic and military factors, geographic area, and other health behaviors. Results 28,929 vaccination events and 3936 influenza-like illness events over both influenza seasons were studied. Of subjects, 27.5% were smokers, 7.7% had a potential alcohol-related problem, 10.5% reported minimal exercise, and 4.4% reported high exercise levels. Overall, the risk of influenza-like illness did not significantly differ between live attenuated and trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine recipients (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.901.06). In the final adjusted model, the relative effectiveness of the 2 vaccine types did not differ by smoking status (p?=?0.10), alcohol status (p?=?0.21), or activity level (p?=?0.11). Conclusions Live attenuated and trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines were similarly effective in preventing influenza-like illness among young adults and did not differ by health-related behavior status. Influenza vaccine efforts should continue to focus simply on delivering vaccine. PMID:25013931

  16. Genetic transformation of novel isolates of chicken Lactobacillus bearing probiotic features for expression of heterologous proteins: a tool to develop live oral vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Rodrigo M; Moreira, João Luiz S; Souza, Marcelo R; Fátima Horta, M; Teixeira, Santuza MR; Neumann, Elisabeth; Nicoli, Jacques R; Nunes, Álvaro C

    2006-01-01

    Background The use of lactic acid bacteria as vehicles to delivery antigens to immunize animals is a promising issue. When genetically modified, these bacteria can induce a specific local and systemic immune response against selected pathogens. Gastric acid and bile salts tolerance, production of antagonistic substances against pathogenic microorganisms, and adhesive ability to gut epithelium are other important characteristics that make these bacteria useful for oral immunization. Results Bacteria isolated on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium (MRS) from different gastrointestinal portions of broiler chicks were evaluated for their resistance to artificial gastric acid and bile salts, production of hydrogen peroxide, and cell surface hydrophobicity. Thirty-eight isolates were first typed at species level by PCR amplification of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers using universal primers that anneal within 16S and 23S genes, followed by restriction digestion analyses of PCR amplicons (PCR-ARDRA). An expression cassette was assembled onto the pCR2.1-Topo vector by cloning the promoter, leader peptide, cell wall anchor and terminator sequences derived from the laminin binding S-layer protein gene of L. crispatus strain F5.7 (lbs gene). A sequence encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was inserted as reporter gene, and an erythromycin resistance gene was added as selective marker. All constructs were able to express GFP in the cloning host E. coli XL1-Blue and different Lactobacillus strains as verified by FACS and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Conclusion Lactobacillus isolated from gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens and selected for probiotic characteristics can be genetically modified by introducing an expression cassette into the lbs locus. The transformed bacteria expressed on its cell wall surface different fluorescent proteins used as reporters of promoter function. It is possible then that similar bacterial model expressing pathogen antigens can be used as live oral vaccines to immunize broilers against infectious diseases. PMID:16396687

  17. Chinese herbal ingredients are effective immune stimulators for chickens infected with the Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Kong, X-F; Hu, Y-L; Yin, Y-L; Wu, G-Y; Rui, R; Wang, D-Y; Yang, C-B

    2006-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of 4 Chinese herbal ingredients (CHI) as immune stimulators for an active vaccine in chickens using both in vitro and in vivo assays. The CHI used were Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), Isatis root polysaccharide (IRPS), Propolis polysaccharide, and Epimedium flavone at various concentrations. Two hundred 14-d-old male White Roman chickens were randomly divided into 10 groups. Chickens in groups 1 to 9 were inoculated with the New-castle disease virus (NDV) strain IV vaccine by intranasal and intraocular administration. Chickens in groups 1 to 8 were also administered subcutaneously on the dorsal region of the neck with 0.5 mL of the corresponding CHI at 2 doses: 29 and 58 mg/kg of BW for APS and IRPS and 7.25 and 14.5 mg/kg of BW for the others, once daily for 3 successive days. In group 9 (CHI-free control) and group 10 (both vaccine- and CHI-free control), chickens were injected with 0.5 mL of physiological saline. New-castle disease virus-specific serum hemagglutination inhibition antibody (Ab) production in immunized chickens was quantified using established methods. The results indicate that a majority of the CHI used at appropriate concentrations were effective in enhancing in vitro proliferation of chick embryo fibroblasts in response to the NDV infection. In vivo administration of CHI to vaccinated chickens (7.25 to 58 mg/kg of BW, depending on type) increased serum anti-NDV hemagglutination inhibition Ab titer concentrations, compared with the administration the NDV alone. For all CHI, a beneficial effect on the Ab production was observed on d 21 after the initiation of the vaccination. On the basis of the in vivo doses used, Propolis polysaccharide and Epimedium flavone were more potent than APS and IRPS in promoting the humoral immune response in the young birds (P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggest that appropriate doses of CHI can be used as novel, effective immune stimulators for chickens. PMID:17135673

  18. Protective efficacy of reverse genetics based on inactivated American and Asian neuraminidase DIVA marker vaccines against highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza has become endemic in several countries, and vaccination is commonly being used. Vaccination can affect surveillance, and therefore there is considerable interest in DIVA (differentiate infected from vaccinated animals) vaccine strategies. Using reverse...

  19. RECOMBINANT PARAMYXOVIRUS TYPE 1-AVIAN INFLUENZA-H7 VIRUS AS A VACCINE FOR PROTECTION OF CHICKENS AGAINST INFLUENZA AND NEWCASTLE DISEASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current vaccines to prevent avian influenza rely upon labor-intensive parenteral injection. A more advantageous vaccine would be capable of administration by mass immunization methods such as spray or water vaccination. A recombinant vaccine (rNDV-AIV-H7) was constructed by using a lentogenic Paramy...

  20. A randomized comparison of three bivalent Streptococcus pneumoniae glycoprotein conjugate vaccines in young children: effect of polysaccharide size and linkage characteristics.

    PubMed

    Steinhoff, M C; Edwards, K; Keyserling, H; Thoms, M L; Johnson, C; Madore, D; Hogerman, D

    1994-05-01

    Because most childhood invasive pneumococcal disease occurs before the age of 2 years, the development of a pneumococcal vaccine that is immunogenic in infants is a priority. We assessed the safety and serum antibody responses to two dose levels of three bivalent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (CPS)-protein conjugate vaccines incorporating the poorly immunogenic serotypes 6A and 23F. The conjugate vaccines differed in CPS size and chemical linkage, but all used a nontoxic cross-reactive mutant diphtheria toxin (CRM197) as the protein carrier. 118 young children 18 to 30 months of age received a single immunization with one of the three glycoconjugates or with licensed pneumococcal vaccine. Sera were obtained before and 1 month after immunization and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serotype-specific antibody titers. The 23F CPS was more immunogenic than the 6A CPS in all vaccine formats. The most immunogenic 23F conjugate vaccine consisted of native CPS directly linked to the carrier protein; smaller CPS or the use of a six-carbon linker did not appear to enhance immunogenicity in these young children. Conjugation of two pneumococcal CPSs is associated with an increase in immunogenicity, and the characteristics of the CPS and of the CPS-protein linkage appear to influence the antibody response. PMID:8072818

  1. Kinetic analysis of T cells and antibody production in chickens infected with Marek's disease virus.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Hattori, M; Ohashi, K; Sugimoto, C; Onuma, M

    1995-10-01

    In chickens inoculated with a Marek's disease (MD) vaccine and subsequently with virulent MD virus (MDV), CD4+ T cell population was drastically decreased following a transient increase at 21 days after hatching (16 days after MDV infection). To elucidate the immune response after the decrease of CD4+ T cell population, the antibody production against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was examined in these chickens. Chickens challenged with a virulent MDV after MD vaccination produced lower titers, of anti-SRBC antibody than untreated control chickens. Antibody production against SRBC was also lowered in vaccinated chickens or chickens challenged with a virulent MDV. PMID:8593309

  2. Protection against H7N3 high pathogenicity avian influenza in chickens immunized with a recombinant fowlpox and an inactivated avian influenza vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning on June 2012, an H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epizootic was reported in the State of Jalisco (Mexico), with some 22.4 million chickens that died, were slaughtered on affected farms or were preemptively culled on neighboring farms. In the current study, layer chickens were ...

  3. Declining Genital Warts in Young Women in England Associated With HPV 16/18 Vaccination: An Ecological Study

    PubMed Central

    Howell-Jones, Rebecca; Soldan, Kate; Wetten, Sally; Mesher, David; Williams, Tim; Gill, O. Noel; Hughes, Gwenda

    2013-01-01

    Background.?Diagnoses of genital warts (GW) in genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics have been increasing in England for many years. In 2008, an HPV immunization program began with a bivalent vaccine (Cervarix). This was expected to markedly reduce infections and disease due to human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 but not HPV 6/11 infections or disease. However, from 2009 to 2011 there were decreases in reported diagnoses of GW in young females at GUM clinics. Methods.?Using data from GUM clinics and a sample of general practices (GPs) throughout England, we analyzed rates of GW diagnoses by age, year of diagnosis, and estimated immunization coverage. Results.?The overall reduction in GW diagnoses at GUM clinics between 2008 and 2011 was 13.3% among 16- to 19-year-old females, with the greatest decline of 20.8% in 17-year-olds. Declines were positively associated with estimated immunization coverage. A similar pattern was seen in GP diagnoses, but not among older women, and for other GUM consultations. Conclusions.?Several factors might contribute to declines in GW. However, the size and pattern of the declines strongly suggest that we are observing an unexpected, moderately protective effect of HPV 16/18 vaccination against GW. PMID:24092908

  4. Cardiac Safety of Modified Vaccinia Ankara for Vaccination against Smallpox in a Young, Healthy Study Population

    PubMed Central

    Zitzmann-Roth, Eva-Maria; von Sonnenburg, Frank; de la Motte, Stephan; Arndtz-Wiedemann, Nathaly; von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Uebler, Nadine; Vollmar, Jens; Virgin, Garth; Chaplin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional smallpox vaccines based on replicating vaccinia virus (VV) strains (e.g. Lister Elstree, NYCBOH) are associated with a high incidence of myo-/pericarditis, a severe inflammatory cardiac complication. A new smallpox vaccine candidate based on a non-replicating Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) poxvirus has been assessed for cardiac safety in a large placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods Cardiac safety of one and two doses of MVA compared to placebo was assessed in 745 healthy subjects. Vaccinia-naïve subjects received either one dose of MVA and one dose of placebo, two doses of MVA, or two doses of placebo by subcutaneous injection four weeks apart; vaccinia-experienced subjects received a single dose of MVA. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AE) and cardiac safety parameters (recorded as Adverse Events of Special Interest, AESI) were monitored after each injection. Results A total of 5 possibly related AESI (3 cases of palpitations, 2 of tachycardia) were reported during the study. No case of myo- or pericarditis occurred. One possibly related serious AE (SAE) was reported during the 6-month follow-up period (sarcoidosis). The most frequently observed AEs were injection site reactions. Conclusions Vaccination with MVA was safe and well tolerated and did not increase the risk for development of myo-/pericarditis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00316524 PMID:25879867

  5. An observational study of the temporal and spatial patterns of Marek’s-disease-associated leukosis condemnation of young chickens in the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, John R.; Dunn, Patricia A.; Read, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    Marek’s disease, a disease primarily affecting immature chickens, is a worldwide problem that has on at least three occasions threatened the poultry industry in the United States. A rich dataset to study the epidemiology of this disease is available because the United States Department of Agriculture has required mandatory inspections of all commercially sold poultry of significant scale since the mid-20th century with over 99% of all chickens inspected. This dataset includes monthly totals aggregated by state since 1961 of the number of “young chickens” inspected and the number with “leukosis”, a condemnation category that is almost always associated with Marek’s disease in this category of birds. The objective of this study was to analyze temporal and spatial patterns in this condemnation data to gain insight into the ecology and epidemiology of the causative virus. We extracted visual patterns in the data using seasonal trend decomposition, and we tested for statistical significance using extended linear modeling techniques. The analysis confirmed previous findings that there are differences in leukosis condemnation rates between states, across years, and within years. The analysis also revealed several patterns not previously highlighted, including spatial and temporal autocorrelations in leukosis condemnation, changes to the amplitude of seasonality over time, and increasing within-year variation in condemnation rate over time. These patterns suggest that locally shared farm practices, virus transmission between farms, or viral persistence may be important to understanding the dynamics of the disease. We also discuss the plausibility of other potential explanations for these patterns. PMID:25998661

  6. Skin thickness in young infants and adolescents: Applications for intradermal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Akihiko; Aizawa, Yuta; Sato, Isamu; Hirano, Harunobu; Sakai, Takatsugu; Mori, Masaaki

    2015-06-26

    As compared with standard intramuscular and subcutaneous vaccines, intradermal (ID) vaccines elicit a more potent immune response in both adults and children, with equivalent dosage or antigen dose sparing. Recently, various devices for ID injection have been developed; the length of needles ranges in 0.6-1.5 mm. However, skin thickness must be measured to determine optimal needle length for ID vaccines. Use of ID vaccines in infants and children is appealing because children require more vaccines than do adults; however, information on skin thickness in infants and children is limited. We used ultrasound echography to measure skin thickness in Japanese infants aged 2 months (n=78) and adolescents aged 13-15 years (n=82). Mean (range) deltoid and suprascapular skin thickness was 1.67 mm (1.16-2.39 mm) and 1.83 mm (1.24-2.60 mm), respectively, in infants and 1.81 mm (1.25-3.00 mm) and 2.43 mm (1.51-3.95 mm), respectively, in adolescents. Among infants who underwent re-measurement of skin thickness at age 6 months (n=11), mean deltoid skin thickness (1.84 mm) was significantly greater than at age 2 months (1.60 mm) (P<0.001). In contrast, no significant difference was observed in suprascapular skin thickness (1.79 mm vs. 1.67 mm, respectively; P=0.17). Gender was not associated with skin thickness in either age group. Skin thickness was positively correlated with body weight in adolescents (r=0.43, P<0.001 in deltoid region; r=0.30, P=0.01 in suprascapular region). In conclusion, this is the first study to evaluate skin thickness in different age groups of children, including at age 2 months. Skin thickness gradually increased from age 2 months to age 13-15 years, but no consistent trend was noted in analysis stratified by measurement site, gender, or age. These findings suggest that an appropriate length of ID device needle for infants and children is likely to be less than 1.2mm and a special device with shorter length of needle is warranted for infants and children. PMID:25944297

  7. Vaccination of SPF chickens with recombinant HVT expressing the HA from H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza protects against lethal challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination is an important tool in the protection of poultry against avian influenza (AI). For field use, the overwhelming majority of AI vaccines produced are inactivated whole virus formulated into an oil emulsion and to a lesser degree recombinant vectored vaccines (e.g. virus expressing AI gen...

  8. A heterologous neuraminidase subtype strategy for the differentiation of vaccinated and infected animals (DIVA) strategy for avian influenza virus using a more flexible neuraminidase inhibition test in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The option of vaccinating poultry against avian influenza (AI) as a control tool is gaining greater acceptance by the government and poultry industry world-wide. One reservation about vaccination with killed whole virus vaccines is the loss of the ability to use serologic surveillance to identify i...

  9. Determination of minimum units of hemagglutinin content of emulsified inactivated Newcastle disease virus vaccine for clinical protection of white leghorn chickens from lethal challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potency of inactivated Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines are currently determined using vaccination and challenge of experimental animals. If the minimum amount of killed viral antigen required for clinical protection can be determined using other methods, vaccines meeting these criteria might be...

  10. Long-term persistence of systemic and mucosal immune response to HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in preteen/adolescent girls and young women.

    PubMed

    Petäjä, Tiina; Pedersen, Court; Poder, Airi; Strauss, Gitte; Catteau, Gregory; Thomas, Florence; Lehtinen, Matti; Descamps, Dominique

    2011-11-01

    Vaccination against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is one key intervention for cervical cancer prevention. This follow-up study assessed the persistence of the systemic and mucosal immune responses together with the safety profile of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to young women aged 10-25 years. Serum and cervicovaginal secretion (CVS) samples were collected at prespecified time-points during the 48-month follow-up period. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody levels in serum and CVS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). At Month 48, all subjects remained seropositive for serum anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies. As previously observed, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies levels (ELISA Units/mL) were higher in subjects vaccinated at the age of 10-14 years (2862.2 and 940.8) compared to subjects vaccinated at the age of 15-25 years (1186.2 and 469.8). Moreover, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies in CVS were still detectable for subjects aged 15-25 years (84.1% and 69.7%, respectively). There was a strong correlation between serum and CVS anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies levels (correlation coefficients = 0.84 and 0.90 at Month 48, respectively) supporting the hypothesis of transudation or exudation of serum immunoglobulin G antibodies through the cervical epithelium. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile. In conclusion, this follow-up study shows that the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to preteen/adolescents girls and young women induces long-term systemic and mucosal immune response and has a clinically acceptable safety profile up to 4 years after the first vaccine dose. PMID:21190190

  11. The immunologists' debt to the chicken.

    PubMed

    Davison, T F

    2003-03-01

    The immune system of the chicken is an invaluable model for studying basic immunology and has made seminal contributions to fundamental immunological principles. Graft versus host responses and the key role of lymphocytes in adaptive immunity were first described in work with chicken embryos and chickens. 2. Most notably, the bursa of Fabricius provided the first substantive evidence that there are two major lineages of lymphocytes. Bursa-derived lymphocytes, or B cells, make antibodies while thymus-derived, or T cells, are involved in cell-mediated immune responses. 3. Gene conversion, the mechanism used by the chicken to produce its antibody repertoire, was first described in the chicken and requires the unique environment of the bursa. Subsequently it has been shown that some mammals also use gene conversion. 4. The chicken's Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), the first non-mammalian MHC to be sequenced, is minimal, compact and some 20-fold smaller than that of mammals. Uniquely, the chicken MHC is strongly associated with resistance to infectious diseases. 5. The first attenuated vaccine was developed by Louis Pasteur against a chicken pathogen, fowl cholera, and the first vaccine against a natural occurring cancer agent, Marek's disease virus, was developed for the chicken. 6. Vaccination of chick embryos on the 18th d of incubation, another breakthrough using chickens, provides protection early after hatching. In ovo vaccination now is widely practised by the poultry industry. 7. Evidence that widespread and intensive vaccination can lead to increased virulence with some pathogens, such as Marek's disease virus and infectious bursal disease virus, was first described with chicken populations. It warns of the need to develop mo resustainable vaccination strategies in future and provides useful lessons for other species, including in the human population. 8. Recombinant DNA technologies now provide the opportunity for the rational design of new vaccines. Such vaccines could contain the protective immunogenic elements from several pathogens and immunomodulatory molecules to direct and enhance immune responses so providing improved protection. The important thing will be to design vaccines that are sustainable and do not drive pathogens to ever-increasing virulence. PMID:12737220

  12. Clinical Studies of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Conjugate Vaccines in Adults and Young Children.

    PubMed

    Szu, Shousun Chen; Ahmed, Amina

    2014-12-01

    Pediatric immunization has been the most effective measure to prevent and reduce the burden of infectious diseases in children. The recent inclusion of pneumococcal and meningococcal polysaccharide conjugates in infant immunization further reinforces their importance. Currently there is no human vaccine against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections. This review focuses on the human EHEC vaccine that has been studied clinically, in particular, the polysaccharide conjugate against E. coli O157. The surface polysaccharide antigen, O-specific polysaccharide, was linked to rEPA, recombinant exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In adults and children 2 to 5 years old, O157-rEPA conjugates, shown to be safe, induced high levels of antilipopolysaccharide immunoglobulin G with bactericidal activities against E. coli O157, a functional bioassay that mimics the killing of inoculum in vivo. A similar construct using the B subunit of Shiga toxin (Stx) 1 as the carrier protein elicited both bactericidal and toxin-neutralizing antibodies in mice. So far there is no clinical study of Stx-based human vaccine. Passive immunization of Stx-specific antibodies with humanized, chimeric, or human monoclonal antibodies, produced in transgenic mice, showed promising data in animal models and offered high prospects. Demonstrations of their safety and effectiveness in treating hemolytic-uremic syndrome or patients with EHEC infections are under way, and results are much anticipated. For future development, other virulence factors such as the nontoxic Stx B subunit or intimin should be included, either as carrier protein in conjugates or as independent components. The additional antigens from O157 may provide broader coverage to non-O157 Stx-producing E. coli and facilitate both preventive and therapeutic treatment. PMID:26104443

  13. Characterization of the 2012 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H7N3 Virus Isolated from Poultry in an Outbreak in Mexico: Pathobiology and Vaccine Protection

    PubMed Central

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Guzman, Sofia G.; Ricardez, Yadira; Spackman, Erica; Bertran, Kateri; Suarez, David L.; Swayne, David E.

    2013-01-01

    In June of 2012, an H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was identified as the cause of a severe disease outbreak in commercial laying chicken farms in Mexico. The purpose of this study was to characterize the Mexican 2012 H7N3 HPAI virus (A/chicken/Jalisco/CPA1/2012) and determine the protection against the virus conferred by different H7 inactivated vaccines in chickens. Both adult and young chickens intranasally inoculated with the virus became infected and died at between 2 and 4 days postinoculation (p.i.). High virus titers and viral replication in many tissues were demonstrated at 2 days p.i. in infected birds. The virus from Jalisco, Mexico, had high sequence similarity of greater than 97% to the sequences of wild bird viruses from North America in all eight gene segments. The hemagglutinin gene of the virus contained a 24-nucleotide insert at the hemagglutinin cleavage site which had 100% sequence identity to chicken 28S rRNA, suggesting that the insert was the result of nonhomologous recombination with the host genome. For vaccine protection studies, both U.S. H7 low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses and a 2006 Mexican H7 LPAI virus were tested as antigens in experimental oil emulsion vaccines and injected into chickens 3 weeks prior to challenge. All H7 vaccines tested provided ?90% protection against clinical disease after challenge and decreased the number of birds shedding virus and the titers of virus shed. This study demonstrates the pathological consequences of the infection of chickens with the 2012 Mexican lineage H7N3 HPAI virus and provides support for effective programs of vaccination against this virus in poultry. PMID:23760232

  14. Information Vaccine: Using Graphic Novels as an HIV/AIDS Prevention Resource for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Kendra S.; Gavigan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    HIV/AIDS infections are growing at an alarming rate for young adults. In 2009, youth, ages 13-29, accounted for 39% of all new HIV infections in the U.S. (Division of HIV/ AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 2011). South Carolina ranks eighth in the nation for new HIV cases, while the capital city of Columbia ranks seventh…

  15. Vaccine protection of chickens against antigenically diverse H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza isolates with a live HVT vector vaccine expressing the influenza hemagglutinin gene derived from a clade 2.2 avian influenza vi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination is an important tool in the protection of poultry against avian influenza (AI). For field use, the overwhelming majority of AI vaccines produced are inactivated whole virus formulated into an oil emulsion. However, recombinant vectored vaccines are gaining use for their ability to induce...

  16. Human papillomavirus knowledge, vaccine acceptance, and vaccine series completion among female entertainment and sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia: the Young Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Wadhera, Priya; Evans, Jennifer L; Stein, Ellen; Gandhi, Monica; Couture, Marie-Claude; Sansothy, Neth; Sichan, Keo; Maher, Lisa; Kaldor, John; Page, Kimberly; Kien

    2015-10-01

    Human papillomavirus is a common sexually transmitted infection and the causative agent for cervical cancer, a frequently occurring malignant disease among women in developing countries. We assessed human papillomavirus awareness prior to the delivery of a brief information and education intervention, and human papillomavirus vaccine provision to female entertainment and sex workers (N = 220). At baseline, only 23.6% of women had heard of human papillomavirus. Following the educational intervention, 90% answered all the human papillomavirus knowledge questions correctly. Of 192 participants attending the first quarterly cohort visit where vaccine was offered, 149 (78%) were eligible for vaccination; HIV-positive (n = 32) and pregnant (n = 11) women were excluded. Acceptance of vaccine among eligible women was universal, and 79.2% completed the three-dose vaccination series. Women who reported use of amphetamine-type stimulants had significantly and independently lower odds of vaccine completion (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.24; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08, 0.69). New pregnancies also had an impact on vaccine completion: 5.4% (8/149 5.4%) who started the series had to stop due to new pregnancy. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of a simple education intervention designed to increase human papillomavirus knowledge and the feasibility of successful human papillomavirus vaccine in a population that is often difficult to engage in preventive health care. PMID:25505042

  17. HPV knowledge, vaccine acceptance, and vaccine series completion among female entertainment and sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia: the Young Women's Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Wadhera, Priya; Evans, Jennifer L; Stein, Ellen; Gandhi, Monica; Couture, Marie-Claude; Sansothy, Neth; Sichan, Keo; Maher, Lisa; Kaldor, John; Page, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) and the causative agent for cervical cancer, a frequently occurring malignant disease among women in developing countries. We assessed HPV awareness prior to the delivery of a brief information and education intervention, and HPV vaccine provision to female entertainment and sex workers (N=220). At baseline, only 23.6% of women had heard of HPV. Following the educational intervention, 90% answered all the HPV knowledge questions correctly. Of 192 participants attending the first quarterly cohort visit where vaccine was offered, 149 (78%) were eligible for vaccination; HIV-positive (n=32) and pregnant (n=11) women were excluded. Acceptance of vaccine among eligible women was universal, and 79.2% completed the three-dose vaccination series. Women who reported use of amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) had significantly and independently lower odds of vaccine completion (Adjusted OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.08, 0.69). New pregnancies also had an impact on vaccine completion: 5.4% (8/149 5.4%) who started the series had to stop due to new pregnancy. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of a simple education intervention designed to increase HPV knowledge and the feasibility of successful HPV vaccine in a population that is often difficult to engage in preventive health care. PMID:25505042

  18. A mutation in the NLRC5 promoter limits NF-?B signaling after Salmonella Enteritidis infection in the spleen of young chickens.

    PubMed

    Chang, Guobin; Liu, Xiangping; Ma, Teng; Xu, Lu; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Zhiteng; Guo, Xiaomin; Xu, Qi; Chen, Guohong

    2015-09-01

    To date, the functions of the NLRC5 in chickens remain undefined. In the current study, chicken NLRC5 was cloned and an A1017G mutation was detected in its promoter region. The relative expression levels of the NLRC5 and key NF-?B pathway genes, IKK?, IKK?, NF-?B, IL-6, IL-1? and IFN-?, in the spleens of wild and mutant type birds, AA and GG, were determined using FQ-PCR at 7 day post-infection (DPI) with Salmonella Enteritidis. Additionally, the bacterial burden in the caecum and various immune response parameters were measured to evaluate immune responses. All of the examined immune response parameters were significantly different between the AA chickens and the GG chickens. Specifically, the mRNA expression levels of IKK?, NF-?B, IL-6, IL-1? and IFN-? were higher in AA chickens than those in GG chickens, while the mRNA expression levels of NLRC5 were lower in AA chickens than those in GG chickens (P<0.05). Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of TLR4 and MyD88 were not affected in either group. Collectively, considering former NLRC5 functional study in vitro, the wild genotype birds presented with better resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis through the actions of the NLRC5 and subsequent inhibition of the NF-?B pathway in chickens. PMID:25979675

  19. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  20. Effects of increased dosages of the Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine MYCOVAC-L® in layer chickens subsequently challenged with virulent M. gallisepticum: egg production and serologic response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten wk old Hy-Line Commercial W-36 pullets were spray vaccinated with MYCOVAC-L® at the manufacturer’s recommended dosage (1X) or at fifteen-times (15X) that rate. At 22 or 45 wks of age, subsets of 1X and 15X vaccinated pullets were challenged via intraocular inoculation with the virulent Mycoplas...

  1. Immunogenicity and efficacy of fowlpox-vectored and inactivated avian influenza vaccines alone or in a prime-boost schedule in chickens with maternal antibodies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inactivated and fowlpox (FP)-vectored vaccines have been used to control avian influenza (AI) in poultry. In endemic countries, breeder flocks are vaccinated and therefore, maternally-derived antibodies (MDA) are transferred to their progeny. Results of several immunogenicity and efficacy studies ...

  2. Production of Marek's disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ben-Nathan, D; Lustig, S

    1990-01-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is one of the viral infections that attack poultry and are widespread throughout the world. Vaccination is widely used for the protection of chickens against outbreaks of MD, and commercial vaccines have been used since 1970. There are vaccines derived from three avian herpesvirus serotypes which are propagated in CEF or DEF cell cultures. Most of them are used successfully for vaccination against MDV and are effective and safe. In problem areas where the monovalent vaccine gives poor protection, the use of a bivalent or polyvalent vaccine is recommended for the successful prevention of virulent MDV. PMID:2171556

  3. [Vaccines pharmacovigilance].

    PubMed

    Autret-Leca, Elisabeth; Jonville-Bra, Annie-Pierre; Beau-Salinas, Frdrique

    2004-03-15

    The pharmacovigilance of vaccines has the particularity of concerning medications with a preventative target, used in healthy subjects, who are often young. Their individual benefit is deferred and unknown, whereas their risk is immediate. Certain undesirable effects are linked to the antigen of live attenuated vaccines (post-MMR lymphocytic meningitis). Other non-specific effects are linked to other different components of the vaccines (macrophage and aluminium myofasciitis). Undesirable events susceptible to being due to the vaccination are identified and managed according to standardised procedures of pharmacovigilance, that is to say, based on "spontaneous notification", generation of an alert, confirmed or not by studies of pharmaco-epidemiology. The studies of pharmaco-epidemiology: have made evident oedematous reactions with cyanosis or purpura, with the vaccines containing the Haemophilus b valence, and the absence of an association with sudden death of the newborn; have excluded the existence of an elevated risk of demyelinisation or auto-immune disease associated with vaccination against hepatitis B, without being able to exclude a slight risk; go against the finding of an association between Crohn's disease and/or autisim and the MMR vaccination. Only their frequently encountered undesirable effects are well identified at the moment of commercialisation. Post-marketing surveillance of vaccines (declaration to the regional pharmacovigilance centres) allow the detection of possible rare and serious effects and the evaluation of the real vaccination risk. Thus it must be intensive and systematic. PMID:15176512

  4. Parents' knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow young males to receive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Banura, Cecily; Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH) supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008-2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s) to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10-23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s) to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s) to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p = 0.003), believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p = 0.006), thought their son(s) couldn't contract HPV (p = 0.010), didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p = 0.002), knew that males could not acquire HPV (p = 0.000) and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p = 0.000). Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s) of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital. PMID:25203053

  5. Effects of age and strain on the expression of leptin receptor, neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin in the hypothalamus of young chickens.

    PubMed

    Huang, J X; Lu, L; Xi, L; Luo, X G; Liu, B

    2010-10-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to study changes in the expression of the hypothalamic leptin receptor, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) with age during the early neonatal period in two different strains of chickens: Beijing-You (BY) and Arbor Acres (AA). 2. Compared with BY chickens, AA chickens ate more, and grew faster. Hypothalamic NPY concentrations of both strains increased with age until d 7 followed by a decline. Hypothalamic NPY of BY chickens on d 7 was lower than in AA chickens at the same age. 3. No difference with age was observed in hypothalamic α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) of BY chickens, while hypothalamic α-MSH in AA chickens on d 0 was higher than on the other days. Compared with AA chickens, BY chickens showed lower hypothalamic α-MSH on d 0. 4. Similar developmental changes between two strains were observed in the expression of leptin receptor, NPY or POMC genes in the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic mRNA of leptin receptor on d 0 was higher than on d 1 and 7. Unlike NPY, hypothalamic NPY mRNA on d 0 was higher than on the other days. 5. Hypothalamic POMC mRNA decreased gradually with age until 7 d followed by a slight increase. 6. The results showed that the developmental changes of hypothalamic signal molecules varied with age and strain. NPY, α-MSH and leptin receptor might be involved in the early programming of feed intake in newly hatched chickens. PMID:21058074

  6. Expression of H5 hemagglutinin vaccine antigen in common duckweed (Lemna minor) protects against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge in immunized chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A synthetic hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1) (Indo/03) was expressed in aquatic plant Lemna minor (rLemna-HA). In Experiment 1, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on specific pathogen free (SPF) birds immunized with 0.2 ...

  7. Effects of different vaccine combinations against Mycoplasma gallisepticum on the internal egg and eggshell characteristics of commercial layer chickens 1,2,3.

    PubMed

    Jacob, R; Branton, S L; Evans, J D; Leigh, S A; Peebles, E D

    2015-05-01

    Live F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) vaccines are presently being used to help control field-strain MG outbreaks. However, they may exert some adverse effects on egg production. Live strains of MG of lesser virulence as well as killed vaccines have little or no effect on egg production, but afford lower levels of protection. This has led to research investigating their use in combination with a subsequent overlay vaccination of FMG given later in the production cycle. In the present study, 2 trials were conducted to investigate the effects of prelay vaccinations of live and killed MG vaccines or their combination, in conjunction with an FMG vaccine overlay after peak production, on the egg characteristics of commercial layers. The following vaccination treatments were administered at 10 wk of age (woa): 1) unvaccinated (Control), 2) MG-Bacterin (MGBac) vaccine, 3) ts-11 strain MG (ts11MG) vaccine, and 4) MGBac and ts11MG combination (MGBac + ts11MG). At 45 woa, half of the birds were overlaid with an FMG vaccine. In each trial, internal egg and eggshell parameters including egg weight (EW), Haugh unit score (HU), eggshell breaking strength (EBS), percentage yolk weight (PYW), percentage albumen weight (PAW), percentage eggshell weight (PSW), eggshell weight per unit surface area (SWUSA), percentage yolk moisture (PYM), and percent total lipids (PYL) were determined at various time periods between 21 and 52 woa. At 28 woa, SWUSA was lower in the ts11MG and MGBac + ts11MG groups compared to the Control group. Conversely, at 43 woa, SWUSA was higher in the ts11MG than in the MGBac group. Between 23 and 43 woa, PYL was higher in the MGBac and ts11MG groups in comparison to the Control group. In conclusion, vaccination with MGBac alone or in combination with ts11MG at 10 woa with or without an FMG vaccine overlay at 45 woa does not adversely affect the internal egg or eggshell quality of commercial layers throughout lay. PMID:25701207

  8. Infant 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization alters young adulthood CD4(+)T cell subsets in allergic airway disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liqun; Gao, Hui; Yang, Ting; Yang, Baohui; Jiang, Xiaoli; Wang, Lijia; Wang, Qinghong; Luo, Zhengxiu; Liu, Enmei; Fu, Zhou

    2014-04-11

    7-Valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) immunization in adulthood can inhibit allergic asthma in mouse model. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of infant PCV7 immunization on young adulthood CD4(+)T cell subsets in a murine allergic airway disease (AAD) model. Our study indicated that infant PCV7 immunization can inhibit young adulthood airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) by inducing the production of Foxp3(+)Treg, Th1 cells and their cytokines IL-10 and IFN-?, inhibiting the production of Th2, Th17 cells and their cytokines IL-13 and IL-17A in BALB/c mice model. These results suggested that infant PCV7 immunization may serve as an effective measure to prevent young adulthood mice AAD. PMID:24560673

  9. Chicken Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct

  10. Chicken Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  11. Evaluation of inactivated avian influenza H7 vaccines for protection of chickens against a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H7N3 isolated from chickens in Jalisco, Mexico, during 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N3 was reported poultry in Jalisco, Mexico, beginning in June of 2012. To date more than 11 million birds have died or been slaughtered in an effort to stop the spread of disease. In response to the outbreak, vaccine efficacy trials wer...

  12. Human papilloma virus vaccination induces strong human papilloma virus specific cell-mediated immune responses in HIV-infected adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Rainone, Veronica; Giacomet, Vania; Penagini, Francesca; Fabiano, Valentina; Calascibetta, Francesca; Mameli, Chiara; Pisanelli, Stefania; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Clerici, Mario; Trabattoni, Daria

    2015-03-27

    The ability of a quadrivalent human papilloma virus (HPV)-16/18/6/11 virus-like particles vaccine (Gardasil) to elicit HPV-specific cell-mediated immune responses was evaluated in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated HIV-infected young adults. Results showed that, after three doses of vaccine, central memory and effector memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes, as well as HPV-specific interleukin (IL)2(+)/CD4(+), interferon-gamma (IFN-?(+))/CD4(+), IFN-?(+)/CD8(+) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocytes and Perforin and Granzyme B secreting CD8(+) T lymphocytes were significantly increased. Notably, results obtained in HIV-infected patients were comparable to those seen in HIV-uninfected age-matched healthy controls. PMID:25849837

  13. Efficacy of a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine against anal HPV16/18 infection among young women: a nested analysis within the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kreimer, Aime R.; Gonzalz, Paula; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Porras, Carolina; Schiffman, Mark; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Solomon, Diane; Jimenez, Silvia; Schiller, John T.; Lowy, Douglas R.; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Struijk, Linda; Quint, Wim; Chen, Sabrina; Wacholder, Sholom; Hildesheim, Allan; Herrero, Rolando

    2011-01-01

    Background Anal cancer remains rare (incidence of ?1.5 per 100,000 women annually) but rates are increasing in many countries. Human papillomavirus-16 (HPV16) infection causes most cases. We evaluated vaccine efficacy (VE) of an ASO4-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine against anal HPV16/18 infection. Methods In a randomized double-blind controlled trial designed to evaluate VE against persistent cervical HPV16/18 infections and associated precancerous lesions in Costa Rica, 4210 healthy women underwent anal specimen collection (4224 of 5968= 70.8% of eligible women) at the final blinded study visit 4 years after vaccination to evaluate anal HPV16/18 VE. Cervical HPV16/18 VE among the same women at the same visit was calculated as a comparator. For this ancillary work, analyses were conducted in a restricted cohort of women both cervical HPV16/18 DNA negative and HPV 16/18 seronegative prior at enrollment (N=1989), and in the full cohort (all women with an anal specimen). Findings In the restricted cohort, VE against prevalent HPV16/18 anal infection measured one-time, four-years post-vaccination was 83.6% (95%CI 66.7% to 92.8%), which was comparable to cervical HPV16/18 VE (87.9%, 95%CI 77.4% to 94.0%). In the full cohort, HPV16/18 VE was statistically lower at the anus (62.0%, 95%CI 47.1% to 73.1%) compared to the cervix (76.4%, 95%CI 67.0% to 83.5%) (p for anatomic-site interaction =0.03). Significant and comparable VE estimates against a composite endpoint of HPV31/33/45 (i.e.: cross-protection) was observed at the anus and cervix. Interpretation The ASO4-adjuvanted vaccine affords strong protection against anal HPV, particularly among women more likely to be HPV nave at vaccination. Funding. The Costa Rica HPV Vaccine Trial is sponsored and funded by the NCI (contract N01-CP-11005), with funding support from the National Institutes of Health Office of Research on Women's Health, and conducted with support from the Ministry of Health of Costa Rica. Vaccine was provided for our trial by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK), under a Clinical Trials Agreement with the NCI. PMID:21865087

  14. Effects of feed grade L-methionine on intestinal redox status, intestinal development, and growth performance of young chickens compared with conventional DL-methionine.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y B; Ferket, P; Park, I; Malheiros, R D; Kim, S W

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to test the effects of supplemental L-Met on redox status, gut development, and growth performance of young broiler chickens compared with DL-Met. A total of 888 (half male and half female) 1-d-old Ross 308 chickens were weighed and randomly allotted to 7 treatments in a randomized complete block design for 21 d, including a basal diet (BD), the BD + 0.095% L-Met or DL-Met, the BD + 0.190% L-Met or DL-Met, and the BD + 0.285% L-Met or DL-Met (representing 60, 70, 80, and 90% of the Met + Cys requirement). Feed disappearance and BW were recorded every 7 d. Liver and duodenum samples were collected on d 0, 7, and 21 to measure redox status and intestine morphology. On d 7, chicks fed a diet supplemented with either 0.285% L-Met or 0.285% DL-Met had increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of glutathione (GSH) and reduced (P < 0.05) protein carbonyl (PC) and malonedialdehyde contents in duodenum mucosa compared with chicks fed the BD. Chicks fed a diet supplemented with 0.285% L-Met had greater (P < 0.05) villus width compared with chicks fed a diet supplemented with 0.285% DL-Met. Chicks fed a diet supplemented with 0.285% L-Met had lower (P < 0.05) crypt depth and greater (P < 0.05) villus height:crypt depth ratio compared with chicks fed a diet supplemented with 0.285% DL-Met or the BD. On d 21, chicks fed a diet supplemented with 0.285% L-Met had increased (P < 0.01) concentrations of GSH and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) but reduced (P < 0.05) PC content in duodenum mucosa compared with chicks fed a diet supplemented with 0.285% DL-Met and the BD. Chicks fed a diet supplemented with 0.285% L-Met had greater (P < 0.05) villus height compared with chicks fed the BD. During the entire 21-d supplementation of either L-Met or DL-Met, ADG and G:F were enhanced (P < 0.01) compared with chicks fed the BD. Chicks fed diets supplemented with L-Met had greater (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F than chicks fed diets supplemented with DL-Met. The relative bioavailability of L-Met to DL-Met for ADG and G:F was 138.2 and 140.7%, respectively. Overall, supplementation of either L-Met or DL-Met has beneficial effects on villus development in association with increased GSH production and levels of TAC and reduced protein oxidation in duodenum. Supplementation of L-Met served a better function on redox status and development of the gut of chicks compared with DL-Met. Chicks fed diets with L-Met had better growth response than chicks fed diets with DL-Met. PMID:26115284

  15. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... unsatisfactory. (b) Potency test. A vaccination-challenge test shall be conducted using susceptible chickens 2 to 6 weeks of age at time of vaccination, properly identified and obtained from the same source and... observation for at least 14 days. (2) After at least 14 days post-vaccination, the vaccinates and at least...

  16. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... unsatisfactory. (b) Potency test. A vaccination-challenge test shall be conducted using susceptible chickens 2 to 6 weeks of age at time of vaccination, properly identified and obtained from the same source and... observation for at least 14 days. (2) After at least 14 days post-vaccination, the vaccinates and at least...

  17. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... unsatisfactory. (b) Potency test. A vaccination-challenge test shall be conducted using susceptible chickens 2 to 6 weeks of age at time of vaccination, properly identified and obtained from the same source and... observation for at least 14 days. (2) After at least 14 days post-vaccination, the vaccinates and at least...

  18. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... unsatisfactory. (b) Potency test. A vaccination-challenge test shall be conducted using susceptible chickens 2 to 6 weeks of age at time of vaccination, properly identified and obtained from the same source and... observation for at least 14 days. (2) After at least 14 days post-vaccination, the vaccinates and at least...

  19. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... unsatisfactory. (b) Potency test. A vaccination-challenge test shall be conducted using susceptible chickens 2 to 6 weeks of age at time of vaccination, properly identified and obtained from the same source and... observation for at least 14 days. (2) After at least 14 days post-vaccination, the vaccinates and at least...

  20. Restoration of sensitivity to salinomycin in Eimeria following 5 flocks of broiler chickens reared in floor-pens using drug programs and vaccination to control coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, H D; Jeffers, T K

    2015-05-01

    Five successive flocks of broilers were reared in floor-pens and given different drug programs or were vaccinated against coccidiosis. Oocysts of Eimeria were isolated from the litter of pens during the fifth flock and their sensitivity to salinomycin (Sal) investigated by measuring new oocyst production following infection of medicated and unmedicated birds. Parasites obtained following 5 flocks given Sal were not well-controlled and it was concluded that they were partially resistant to the drug. Parasites obtained following 4 unmedicated flocks and one medicated flock were better controlled by Sal and it was concluded that in the absence of continuous medication there had been an improvement in drug efficacy. Sal almost completely suppressed oocyst production of isolates from treatments in which medication was followed by vaccination, indicating that when a drug program is followed by vaccination, restoration of sensitivity to Sal had occurred. PMID:25796273

  1. Rotavirus vaccine: a review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Goel Manish; Arun, Kumar; Bilas, Jain Ram; Ruchi, Jain; Pardeep, Khanna; Pradeep, Siwach

    2012-12-01

    Worldwide, large proportion i.e., 37% of deaths due to diarrhea in young children is attributed to rotavirus. A monovalent P1A[8] G1 vaccine and a pentavalent bovine-human reassortant vaccine human rotavirus vaccine had shown good clinical efficacy without any increase in intussusception among vaccine recipients. WHO recommends that the first dose of rotavirus vaccine should be administered to infants up to age of 6-15 weeks irrespective of the prior history of rotavirus infection and the maximum age for administering the last dose of the vaccine should be 32 weeks. Booster doses are not recommended. The current update reviews the issues related to rotavirus vaccines and their usages like milestones in the development of rotavirus vaccines, concerns regarding their efficacy and cost-effectiveness, immunity after natural infection, potential for changes in virus strains, current recommendations, post marketing surveillance, and future challenges and scope for further research regarding rotavirus vaccines. PMID:25145068

  2. A study of vaccination against Marek's disease with an attenuated Marek's disease virus.

    PubMed

    Jackson, C A; Biggs, P M; Bell, R A; Lancaster, F M; Milne, B S

    1974-04-01

    Approximately 2,000 day-old white leghorn chickens were distributed into 10 pens and half the pens vaccinated with the attenuated strain of HPRS-16. At 72 weeks of age, mortality from non-specific death and Marek's disease was 17.6% and 15.6% respectively, in vaccinated chickens compared with 14.2% and 51.7% in unvaccinated chickens. Body weights of vaccinated chickens were 5.6% higher at 8 weeks of age than unvaccinated chickens. Vaccinated chickens consumed 2.3% more feed and the hen housed egg production and hen day egg production were 58.7% and 7.0% greater than unvaccinated chickens. Vaccination resulted in a 3.8 fold increase in net margin over food and bird costs per bird housed at 16 weeks. Active antibody production to 'A' antigen occurred later and in a smaller proportion of vaccinated chickens than unvaccinated chickens. Viraemia due to vaccination was detected at 2 weeks of age and viraemia due to field virus was detected at 5 weeks of age. The incidence and titres of viraemia due to field virus were higher in unvaccinated chickens compared with vaccinated chickens. No evidence of spread of vaccine virus to unvaccinated chickens could be found. Acute, classical and apathogenic strains of field virus were isolated from vaccinated chickens and strains of field virus were found to persist throughout the life of the vaccinated chickens. Mild classical and/or apathogenic strains were first apparent at 18 weeks of age and increased in proportion thereafter, forming the majority of isolates from 52 weeks of age. Data on individual birds suggested a direct relationship between virus titre and lesion (or Marek's disease) frequency. PMID:18777267

  3. From vanA Enterococcus hirae to vanA Enterococcus faecium: a Study of Feed Supplementation with Avoparcin and Tylosin in Young Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Robredo, Beatriz; Singh, Kavindra V.; Baquero, Fernando; Murray, Barbara E.; Torres, Carmen

    1999-01-01

    Fifteen newborn chickens were isolated in separate cages after 1 month of living together, divided into three groups, and challenged for 5 weeks with seed food which either was supplemented with avoparcin (10 mg/kg of animal food) or tylosin (40 mg/kg) or was nonsupplemented. At 9 weeks of age and after the 5-week challenge, all chickens received nonsupplemented feed for 4 additional weeks. At 4, 9, and 13 weeks of life, feces were collected and inoculated on M-Enterococcus agar plates with and without vancomycin (4 ?g/ml). vanA-containing Enterococcus hirae was isolated from 11 of 15 chickens before antibiotic challenge, without detection of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. At 9 weeks of age and after the 5-week avoparcin challenge, vanA E. hirae strains were no longer detected, but five of five chickens now had vanA E. faecium. At a lower frequency, vanA E. faecium had also displaced vanA E. hirae in both the tylosin group (one of four chickens) and the control group (two of five chickens). One month after avoparcin discontinuation, the number of chickens colonized with vanA E. faecium decreased from five to one. All vanA-containing E. hirae strains detected in the first month of life and most of the vanA-containing E. faecium strains detected in the second month of life showed identical ApaI and SmaI restriction patterns, respectively, when analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All vanA E. hirae isolates transferred glycopeptide and macrolide resistance to Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 in vitro; the level of glycopeptide resistance was higher in the transconjugants than in the donor E. hirae strains. These data suggest that E. hirae may be a significant source of vanA determinants with the potential of transfer to other enterococcal species from humans or animals. PMID:10223926

  4. Young

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, jumps up from the lunar surface as he salutes the U.S. Flag at the Descartes landing site during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1). Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this picture. The Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' is on the left. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked beside the LM. The object behind Young in the shade of the LM is the Far Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph. Stone Mountain dominates the background in this lunar scene.

  5. Characterization of the live LaSota-vaccine strain-induced protection in chickens upon early challenge with a virulent Newcastle disease virus of heterologous genotype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a major threat to the international poultry industry, causing bird mortality, reduction in growth and egg production and trade restrictions. The primary strategy available to the poultry industry to control Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the causative agent of ND, is vaccin...

  6. A computationally optimized broadly reactive H5 hemagglutinin vaccine provides protection against homologous and heterologous H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since its emergence in 1996 in China, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus has continuously evolved into different genetic clades that have created challenges to maintaining antigenically relevant H5N1 vaccine seeds. Therefore, a universal (multi-hemagglutinin [HA] subtype) or more c...

  7. Variation in protection by seven inactivated H5 vaccine strains against eight H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is an important pathogen for poultry. Vaccines have assisted in control for poultry, and for human pandemic preparedness. However the genetic diversity and rapid antigenic drifting of the field viruses have led to inadequate protection. This s...

  8. Addition of the immunostimulatory oligonucleotide IMT504 to a seasonal flu vaccine increases hemagglutinin antibody titers in young adult and elder rats, and expands the anti-hemagglutinin antibody repertoire.

    PubMed

    Montaner, Alejandro Daniel; Denichilo, Analía; Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Fló, Juan; López, Ricardo Agustin; Pontoriero, Andrea; Savy, Vilma; Baumeister, Elsa; Frank, Ronald; Zorzopulos, Jorge; Elías, Fernanda

    2011-08-01

    Flu vaccines are partially protective in infants and elder people. New adjuvants such as immunostimulatory oligonucleotides (ODNs) are strong candidates to solve this problem, because a combination with several antigens has demonstrated effectiveness. Here, we report that IMT504, the prototype of a major class of immunostimulatory ODNs, is a potent adjuvant of the influenza vaccine in young adult and elderly rats. Flu vaccines that use virosomes or whole viral particles as antigens were combined with IMT504 and injected in rats. Young adult and elderly animals vaccinated with IMT504-adjuvated preparations reached antibody titers 20-fold and 15-fold higher than controls, respectively. Antibody titers remained high throughout a 120 day-period. Animals injected with the IMT504-adjuvated vaccine showed expansion of the anti-hemagglutinin antibody repertoire and a significant increase in the antibody titer with hemagglutination inhibition capacity when confronted to viral strains included or not in the vaccine. This indicates that the addition of IMT504 in flu vaccines may contribute to the development of significant cross-protective immune response against shifted or drifted flu strains. PMID:21793787

  9. Safety of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Modified Live Virus (MLV) vaccine strains in a young pig infection model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the safety of all modified live virus vaccines commercially available in Europe against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) under the same experimental conditions. For this purpose, one hundred and twenty three-week-old piglets, divided into five groups, were used. On day 0 of the experiment, nine pigs per group were removed and the remaining fifteen were vaccinated with the commercial vaccines Ingelvac PRRS MLV, Amervac PRRS, Pyrsvac-183 and Porcilis PRRS by the IM route or were mock vaccinated and used as controls. On day 3, the nine unvaccinated pigs were re-introduced into their respective groups and served as sentinel pigs. Clinical signs were recorded daily and lung lesions were determined on days 7, 14 and 21, when 5 vaccinated pigs per group were euthanized. Blood samples and swabs were taken every three days and different organs were collected at necropsy to determine the presence of PRRSV. None of the vaccines studied caused detectable clinical signs in vaccinated pigs although lung lesions were found. Altogether, these results indicate that all vaccines can be considered clinically safe. However, some differences were found in virological parameters. Thus, neither Pyrsvac-183 nor Porcilis PRRS could be detected in porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cultures or in lung sections used to determine PRRSV by immunohistochemistry, indicating that these viruses might have lost their ability to replicate in PAM. This inability to replicate in PAM might be related to the lower transmission rate and the delay in the onset of viremia observed in these groups PMID:24308693

  10. Vaccination and early protection against non-host-specific Salmonella serotypes in poultry: exploitation of innate immunity and microbial activity.

    PubMed Central

    Van Immerseel, F.; Methner, U.; Rychlik, I.; Nagy, B.; Velge, P.; Martin, G.; Foster, N.; Ducatelle, R.; Barrow, P. A.

    2005-01-01

    A recent European Union Directive required member states to put monitoring and control programmes in place, of which vaccination is a central component. Live Salmonella vaccines generally confer better protection than killed vaccines, because the former stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immunity. Administering Salmonella bacteria orally to newly hatched chickens results in extensive gut colonization and a strong adaptive immune stimulus but broiler chickens are immunologically immature. However, colonization exerts a variety of rapid (within 24 h) protective effects. These include specific colonization-inhibition (competitive exclusion) in which the protective bacteria exert a profound resistance to establishment and colonization by other related bacteria. This is thought to be primarily a metabolic attribute of the vaccinating bacteria but may also involve competition for attachment sites. The presence of large numbers of bacteria originating from a live Salmonella vaccine in the intestine can also induce infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells into the intestinal wall, which confers resistance to invasion and systemic spread by virulent Salmonella strains. This opens new perspectives for vaccine usage in broilers, layers and breeding poultry but also in other animals which show increased susceptibility to infection because of their young age or for other reasons, such as oral chemoprophylaxis or chemotherapy, where the lack of established normal gut flora is an issue. We recommend that all live vaccines considered for oral administration should be tested for their ability to induce the two protective effects described above. Further developments in live Salmonella vaccines are, however, currently hindered by fears associated with the use and release of live vaccines which may be genetically modified. PMID:16274493

  11. An observational study of the temporal and spatial patterns of Marek's-disease-associated leukosis condemnation of young chickens in the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek's disease, a disease primarily affecting immature chickens, is a worldwide problem that has on at least three occasions threatened the poultry industry in the United States. A rich dataset to study the epidemiology of this disease is available because the United States Department of Agricultu...

  12. Serological examination of sera from hyperimmunized chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection of avian influenza (AI) H5 and H7 antibody in commercial poultry is a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) notifiable event and impacts trade. Chickens and turkeys which had been vaccinated with an oil-emulsion H1N1/H3N2 influenza autogenous vaccine were inoculated with inactivated ...

  13. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination timing and autism among young african american boys: a reanalysis of CDC data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A significant number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder suffer a loss of previously-acquired skills, suggesting neurodegeneration or a type of progressive encephalopathy with an etiological basis occurring after birth. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectof the age at which children got their first Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine on autism incidence. This is a reanalysis of the data set, obtained from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Protection (CDC), used for the Destefano et al. 2004 publication on the timing of the first MMR vaccine and autism diagnoses. Methods The author embarked on the present study to evaluate whether a relationship exists between child age when the first MMR vaccine was administered among cases diagnosed with autism and controls born between 1986 through 1993 among school children in metropolitan Atlanta. The Pearsons chi-squared method was used to assess relative risks of receiving an autism diagnosis within the total cohort as well as among different race and gender categories. Results When comparing cases and controls receiving their first MMR vaccine before and after 36 months of age, there was a statistically significant increase in autism cases specifically among African American males who received the first MMR prior to 36 months of age. Relative risks for males in general and African American males were 1.69 (p=0.0138) and 3.36 (p=0.0019), respectively. Additionally, African American males showed an odds ratio of 1.73 (p=0.0200) for autism cases in children receiving their first MMR vaccine prior to 24 months of age versus 24 months of age and thereafter. Conclusions The present study provides new epidemiologic evidence showing that African American males receiving the MMR vaccine prior to 24 months of age or 36 months of age are more likely to receive an autism diagnosis. PMID:25114790

  14. Long-term follow-up study of rubella antibodies in naturally immune and vaccinated young adults.

    PubMed

    Christenson, B; Bttiger, M

    1994-01-01

    Selective rubella vaccination of 12-year-old schoolgirls was introduced in Sweden in 1973 and at the same time a long-term follow-up cohort study was initiated. In 1982, a two-dose programme with a combined vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) was introduced and vaccinations were given at the ages of 18 months and 12 years to both boys and girls. The cohort initially comprised 486 girls. It was followed for between 8 and 16 years. All the girls enrolled were seronegative before vaccination and had seroconverted to a haemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) titre of at least 1:16. On the last test occasion 16 years later, 22% had titre values below 1:16, and 6% lacked detectable antibodies against rubella (< 1:8). A fourfold or greater rise in titre was seen in 36% of the girls during the first 8 years of observation, whereas during the following 8 years only 1% showed a significant increase of titre values. The geometric mean titre declined from 1:110 to 1:34 during the first 8 years and further to 1:18 during the following 8 years. From 1982 to 1990, the seroimmunity to rubella of 18-year-old girls and boys was studied yearly. The number studied was 3308 18-year-old schoolgirls and 6347 18-year-old recruits born between 1964 and 1972. The recruits were divided into two groups, 4610 unvaccinated and born in 1964-1969 and 1737 vaccinated and born in 1970-1972. Seropositive recruits in the first group were thus naturally immune only, while the second group had a mixture of natural and vaccine-induced immunity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8303939

  15. Blood Stage Malaria Vaccine Eliciting High Antigen-Specific Antibody Concentrations Confers No Protection to Young Children in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ogutu, Bernhards R.; Apollo, Odika J.; McKinney, Denise; Okoth, Willis; Siangla, Joram; Dubovsky, Filip; Tucker, Kathryn; Waitumbi, John N.; Diggs, Carter; Wittes, Janet; Malkin, Elissa; Leach, Amanda; Soisson, Lorraine A.; Milman, Jessica B.; Otieno, Lucas; Holland, Carolyn A.; Polhemus, Mark; Remich, Shon A.; Ockenhouse, Christian F.; Cohen, Joe; Ballou, W. Ripley; Martin, Samuel K.; Angov, Evelina; Stewart, V. Ann; Lyon, Jeffrey A.; Heppner, D. Gray; Withers, Mark R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The antigen, falciparum malaria protein 1 (FMP1), represents the 42-kDa C-terminal fragment of merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) of the 3D7 clone of P. falciparum. Formulated with AS02 (a proprietary Adjuvant System), it constitutes the FMP1/AS02 candidate malaria vaccine. We evaluated this vaccine's safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy in African children. Methods A randomised, double-blind, Phase IIb, comparator-controlled trial.The trial was conducted in 13 field stations of one mile radii within Kombewa Division, Nyanza Province, Western Kenya, an area of holoendemic transmission of P. falciparum. We enrolled 400 children aged 12–47 months in general good health.Children were randomised in a 1∶1 fashion to receive either FMP1/AS02 (50 µg) or Rabipur® rabies vaccine. Vaccinations were administered on a 0, 1, and 2 month schedule. The primary study endpoint was time to first clinical episode of P. falciparum malaria (temperature ≥37.5°C with asexual parasitaemia of ≥50,000 parasites/µL of blood) occurring between 14 days and six months after a third dose. Case detection was both active and passive. Safety and immunogenicity were evaluated for eight months after first immunisations; vaccine efficacy (VE) was measured over a six-month period following third vaccinations. Results 374 of 400 children received all three doses and completed six months of follow-up. FMP1/AS02 had a good safety profile and was well-tolerated but more reactogenic than the comparator. Geometric mean anti-MSP-142 antibody concentrations increased from1.3 µg/mL to 27.3 µg/mL in the FMP1/AS02 recipients, but were unchanged in controls. 97 children in the FMP1/AS02 group and 98 controls had a primary endpoint episode. Overall VE was 5.1% (95% CI: −26% to +28%; p-value = 0.7). Conclusions FMP1/AS02 is not a promising candidate for further development as a monovalent malaria vaccine. Future MSP-142 vaccine development should focus on other formulations and antigen constructs. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00223990 PMID:19262754

  16. Randomized Phase I: Safety, Immunogenicity and Mucosal Antiviral Activity in Young Healthy Women Vaccinated with HIV-1 Gp41 P1 Peptide on Virosomes

    PubMed Central

    Leroux-Roels, Geert; Maes, Cathy; Clement, Frdric; van Engelenburg, Frank; van den Dobbelsteen, Marieke; Adler, Michael; Amacker, Mario; Lopalco, Lucia; Bomsel, Morgane; Chalifour, Anick; Fleury, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Mucosal antibodies harboring various antiviral activities may best protect mucosal surfaces against early HIV-1 entry at mucosal sites and they should be ideally induced by prophylactic HIV-1 vaccines for optimal prevention of sexually transmitted HIV-1. A phase I, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in twenty-four healthy HIV-uninfected young women. The study objectives were to assess the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of virosomes harboring surface HIV-1 gp41-derived P1 lipidated peptides (MYM-V101). Participants received placebo or MYM-V101 vaccine at 10 ?g/dose or 50 ?g/dose intramuscularly at week 0 and 8, and intranasally at week 16 and 24. MYM-V101 was safe and well-tolerated at both doses administered by the intramuscular and intranasal routes, with the majority of subjects remaining free of local and general symptoms. P1-specific serum IgGs and IgAs were induced in all high dose recipients after the first injection. After the last vaccination, vaginal and rectal P1-specific IgGs could be detected in all high dose recipients. Approximately 63% and 43% of the low and high dose recipients were respectively tested positive for vaginal P1-IgAs, while 29% of the subjects from the high dose group tested positive for rectal IgAs. Serum samples had total specific IgG and IgA antibody concentrations ?0.4 ?g/mL, while mucosal samples were usually below 0.01 ?g/mL. Vaginal secretions from MYM-V101 vaccinated subjects were inhibiting HIV-1 transcytosis but had no detectable neutralizing activity. P1-specific Th1 responses could not be detected on PBMC. This study demonstrates the excellent safety and tolerability of MYM-V101, eliciting systemic and mucosal antibodies in the majority of subjects. Vaccine-induced mucosal anti-gp41 antibodies toward conserved gp41 motifs were harboring HIV-1 transcytosis inhibition activity and may contribute to reduce sexually-transmitted HIV-1. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01084343 PMID:23437055

  17. How to Inform: Comparing Written and Video Education Interventions to Increase Human Papillomavirus Knowledge and Vaccination Intentions in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Lau, Elsa; Perez, Samara; Delisle, Vanessa; Amsel, Rhonda; Rosberger, Zeev

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) educational interventions on increasing HPV knowledge and vaccination intentions in college students. Participants: Male (n = 60) and female (n = 140) undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 20.4, SD = 2.3) recruited from a university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from October 2009 to

  18. How to Inform: Comparing Written and Video Education Interventions to Increase Human Papillomavirus Knowledge and Vaccination Intentions in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Lau, Elsa; Perez, Samara; Delisle, Vanessa; Amsel, Rhonda; Rosberger, Zeev

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) educational interventions on increasing HPV knowledge and vaccination intentions in college students. Participants: Male (n = 60) and female (n = 140) undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 20.4, SD = 2.3) recruited from a university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from October 2009 to…

  19. Alleviation of body weight loss by dietary methionine is independent of insulin-like growth factor-I in protein-starved young chickens.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Kenji; Oki, Mai; Tsukada, Akira; Kita, Kazumi

    2011-08-01

    It is well known that in protein-starved chickens, small amounts of amino acid supplement, especially methionine, reduces nitrogen excretion and thereby improves nitrogen balance. On the other hand, excess intake of methionine causes growth depression and the growth-depressive effect of excess methionine can be alleviated by consumption of dietary glycine. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is one of various growth-promoting factors relating to the efficiency of animal production and is known to be very sensitive to changes in nutritional status. In the present study, the interactive effect of glycine on nitrogen sparing effect of methionine in protein-starved chickens was examined. In addition, the relation of IGF-I and its specific binding protein to the nitrogen sparing effect of supplemented methionine was also investigated. Two-days refeeding of methionine supplemented to protein-free diet could promptly alleviate body weight loss in protein-starved chickens, and the alleviation of body weight loss by methionine was not improved by glycine supplements. Moreover, such acute alleviation of body weight loss by dietary methionine was independent of the change in plasma IGF-I concentration. PMID:21794015

  20. Deoxynivalenol in chicken feed alters the vaccinal immune response and clinical biochemical serum parameters but not the intestinal and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ghareeb, K; Awad, W A; Zebeli, Q; Böhm, J

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the impacts of deoxynivalenol (DON) feeding either alone or in combination with a microbial feed additive (MFA) on the immune response to a viral vaccine and serum clinical chemical parameters. Forty 1-day-old boiler chicks were weighed and randomly divided into four groups, 10 birds in each group: (i) control group fed with basal diet; (ii) DON group fed with basal diet artificially contaminated with 10 mg DON/kg feed; (iii) DON + MFA group fed with basal diet contaminated with 10 mg DON/kg feed and supplemented with 2.5 kg of MFA/ton feed; and (iv) MFA group fed with basal diet supplemented with 2.5 kg of MFA/ton feed. At 35 days of age, birds were slaughtered and blood was collected for investigating the antibody titre against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and clinical chemical parameters. The results showed that DON reduced (p = 0.032) the titre against IBV, decreased (p = 0.005) the level of alanine transaminase (ALT) (4.2 ± 0.5 U/l) compared with control birds (6.4 ± 0.5 U/l), increased (p = 0.002) the serum cholesterol concentration (144 ± 6 mg/dl) compared with their control counterparts (123 ± 5 mg/dl) and increased (p = 0.074) the amount of circulating triglycerides (62.25 ± 7.50 mg/dl) compared with controls (39.55 ± 4.74). These results indicate that dietary DON altered the humoral immune response to viral vaccine and affected the serum clinical biochemistry. However, DON in combination with MFA did not affect serum IBV titre. Taken together, DON in the feed of broilers produced an impairment of the success of IBV vaccine and affected the health of birds. PMID:25900321

  1. Sexual behaviour and risk factors for the acquisition of human papillomavirus infections in young people in Italy: suggestions for future vaccination policies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection. The main risk factors correlated with HPV infection are: early sexual debut, the number of partners, frequency and type of sexual contact and partners sexual histories. We surveyed sexual habits among young people in order to provide information that might orient decision-makers in adopting HPV multi-cohort vaccination policies. Methods We administered a questionnaire to students (1424?years old) in five Italian cities. Results 7298 questionnaires were analyzed (4962 females and 2336 males); 55.3% of females (95% CI 53.956.7) and 52.5% of males (95% CI 50.554.5) reported regular sexual activity. The mean age at sexual debut was 15.7??1.6 and 15.6??1.6 for females and males, respectively, and the median age was 16 for both sexes. With regard to contraceptive use during the last year, 63.6% of males and 62.8% of females responded affirmatively; 42.6% of males and 42.8% of females used condoms. Conclusion The results reveal precocious sexual activity among respondents, with the mean age at first intercourse declining as age decreases. Condom use proved to be scant. Considering lifestyle-related risk factors, males appear to have a higher probability of acquiring HPV infection than females. These data support the importance of promoting multi-cohort HPV vaccination strategies for females up to 25?years of age. It is essential to improve vaccination coverage through different broad-spectrum strategies, including campaigns to increase awareness of sexually transmitted diseases and their prevention. PMID:22871132

  2. Effects of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein DConjugate Vaccine on Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Colonization in Young Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van den Bergh, Menno R.; Spijkerman, Judith; Swinnen, Kristien M.; Franois, Nancy A.; Pascal, Thierry G.; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode; IJzerman, Ed P. F.; Bruin, Jacob P.; van der Ende, Arie; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background.?This study evaluated the effects of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein Dconjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization compared with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) in young children. Methods.?A randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands, initiated 2 years after 7vCRM introduction, was conducted between 1 April 2008 and 1 December 2010. Infants (N = 780) received either PHiD-CV or 7vCRM (2:1) at 2, 3, 4, and 1113 months of age. Nasopharyngeal samples taken at 5, 11, 14, 18, and 24 months of age were cultured to detect Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Polymerase chain reaction assays quantified H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae and confirmed H. influenzae as nontypeable (NTHi). Primary outcome measure was vaccine efficacy (VE) against NTHi colonization. Results.?In both groups, NTHi colonization increased with age from 33% in 5-month-olds to 65% in 24-month-olds. Three months postbooster, VE against colonization was 0.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], ?21.8% to 18.4%) and VE against acquisition 10.9% (95% CI, ?31.3% to 38.9%). At each sampling moment, no differences between groups in either NTHi prevalence or H. influenzae density were detected. Streptococcus pneumoniae (range, 39%57%), M. catarrhalis (range, 63%69%), and S. aureus (range, 9%30%) colonization patterns were similar between groups. Conclusions.?PHiD-CV had no differential effect on nasopharyngeal NTHi colonization or H. influenzae density in healthy Dutch children up to 2 years of age, implying that herd effects for NTHi are not to be expected. Other bacterial colonization patterns were also similar. Clinical Trials Registration?NCT00652951. PMID:23118268

  3. Influenza Vaccine, Inactivated or Recombinant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is more dangerous for some people. Infants and young children, people 65 years of age and older, pregnant women, ... at 1 or 2 additional cases per million people vaccinated. This is much lower ... prevented by flu vaccine. Young children who get the flu shot along with ...

  4. A subunit vaccine candidate derived from a classic H5N1 avian influenza virus in China protects fowls and BALB/c mice from lethal challenge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangliang; Zhang, Fangfang; Shi, Jianzhong; Tian, Guobing; Chen, Hualan; Yu, Kangzheng; Meng, Qingwen

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, numerous human infections with avian influenza viruses in Asia have raised the concern that the next influenza pandemic is imminent. The most effective way to combat human avian influenza is through vaccination of the public. In this study, we developed an influenza A recombinant protein (rH5HA) directed against the hemagglutinin (HA) of a classic H5N1 high pathogenic avian influenza virus isolated in South China in 1996. Following purification of the recombinant protein expressed from a baculovirus expression system, we evaluated the efficiency of rH5HA on specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken, commercial chicken, and in BALB/c mice in an infection-protection model. The results demonstrated that rH5HA induced antibody responses and provided full protection in both SPF chickens and commercial chickens. Protective immunity was generated within 2 weeks in chickens as young as 7-day post-hatch using a minimum amount of rH5HA protein (2μg/bird/vaccination). The serum antibody generated from rH5HA immunization was protective and lasted more than 6 months. Our data also demonstrated that rH5HA immunization protected BALB/c mice from a lethal challenge with pathogenic avian influenza virus. These results suggested that vaccination with rH5HA could be a vaccine candidate for the control of H5N1 avian influenza in poultry, in mice, and potentially in other mammals including human. PMID:24055355

  5. Efficacy of Pneumococcal Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Young Latin American Children: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tregnaghi, Miguel W.; Sez-Llorens, Xavier; Lpez, Pio; Abate, Hector; Smith, Enrique; Psleman, Adriana; Calvo, Arlene; Wong, Digna; Cortes-Barbosa, Carlos; Ceballos, Ana; Tregnaghi, Marcelo; Sierra, Alexandra; Rodriguez, Mirna; Troitio, Marisol; Carabajal, Carlos; Falaschi, Andrea; Leandro, Ana; Castrejn, Maria Mercedes; Lepetic, Alejandro; Lommel, Patricia; Hausdorff, William P.; Borys, Dorota; Guiaz, Javier Ruiz; Ortega-Barra, Eduardo; Yarzbal, Juan P.; Schuerman, Lode

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between pneumococcal conjugate vaccineinduced antibody responses and protection against community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute otitis media (AOM) is unclear. This study assessed the impact of the ten-valent pneumococcal nontypable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on these end points. The primary objective was to demonstrate vaccine efficacy (VE) in a per-protocol analysis against likely bacterial CAP (B-CAP: radiologically confirmed CAP with alveolar consolidation/pleural effusion on chest X-ray, or non-alveolar infiltrates and C-reactive protein ? 40 g/ml); other protocol-specified outcomes were also assessed. Methods and Findings This phase III double-blind randomized controlled study was conducted between 28 June 2007 and 28 July 2011 in Argentine, Panamanian, and Colombian populations with good access to health care. Approximately 24,000 infants received PHiD-CV or hepatitis control vaccine (hepatitis B for primary vaccination, hepatitis A at booster) at 2, 4, 6, and 1518 mo of age. Interim analysis of the primary end point was planned when 535 first B-CAP episodes, occurring ?2 wk after dose 3, were identified in the per-protocol cohort. After a mean follow-up of 23 mo (PHiD-CV, n?=?10,295; control, n?=?10,201), per-protocol VE was 22.0% (95% CI: 7.7, 34.2; one-sided p?=?0.002) against B-CAP (conclusive for primary objective) and 25.7% (95% CI: 8.4%, 39.6%) against World Health Organizationdefined consolidated CAP. Intent-to-treat VE was 18.2% (95% CI: 5.5%, 29.1%) against B-CAP and 23.4% (95% CI: 8.8%, 35.7%) against consolidated CAP. End-of-study per-protocol analyses were performed after a mean follow-up of 2830 mo for CAP and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) (PHiD-CV, n?=?10,211; control, n?=?10,140) and AOM (n?=?3,010 and 2,979, respectively). Per-protocol VE was 16.1% (95% CI: ?1.1%, 30.4%; one-sided p?=?0.032) against clinically confirmed AOM, 67.1% (95% CI: 17.0%, 86.9%) against vaccine serotype clinically confirmed AOM, 100% (95% CI: 74.3%, 100%) against vaccine serotype IPD, and 65.0% (95% CI: 11.1%, 86.2%) against any IPD. Results were consistent between intent-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. Serious adverse events were reported for 21.5% (95% CI: 20.7%, 22.2%) and 22.6% (95% CI: 21.9%, 23.4%) of PHiD-CV and control recipients, respectively. There were 19 deaths (n?=?11,798; 0.16%) in the PHiD-CV group and 26 deaths (n?=?11,799; 0.22%) in the control group. A significant study limitation was the lower than expected number of captured AOM cases. Conclusions Efficacy was demonstrated against a broad range of pneumococcal diseases commonly encountered in young children in clinical practice. Trial registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00466947 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24892763

  6. Recent Advances in Mycoplasma gallisepticum Vaccine Administration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines to layer chickens generally occurs at 9 to 10 weeks of age. Mycoplasma organisms are extremely fastidious in the laboratory and difficult to grow. Very little attention has been accorded to optimizing parameters for vaccine administration in th...

  7. Practical aspects of vaccination of poultry against avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic (HP) AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination f...

  8. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... found at " Thimerosal and Flu Vaccines" Can a breastfeeding women get a flu vaccine? Yes. Breastfeeding women should get the flu vaccine to protect ... they are too young to be vaccinated themselves. Breastfeeding women can get either a flu shot or ...

  9. A model for the transfer of passive immunity against Newcastle disease and avian influenza in specific pathogen free chickens.

    PubMed

    Lardinois, Amlyne; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bndicte; Steensels, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    Chicks possess maternally derived antibody (MDA) against pathogens and vaccines previously encountered by the dams. This passive immunity is important in early life, when the immune system is immature and unable to fight off infection. On the other hand, MDA can also affect the development of the immune system and interfere with vaccination against avian diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI). The effect of MDA is generally investigated by studying the progeny of vaccinated dams, which is time-consuming, poorly flexible and expensive. Moreover, the antibody titres obtained are not homogeneous. In this study, a model was developed to offer a faster, more reproducible and cheaper way to study passive immunity in specific pathogen free chickens by injection of a polyclonal serum into the egg yolk at embryonic day 14, combined with an intraperitoneal injection at day 1. A satisfactory model, with consistent, homogeneous antibody titres, as well as persistence close to natural passive immunity, could be obtained for ND virus. On the other hand, the application of this optimized protocol in an H5 AI context induced only a low artificial passive immunity compared with that described in the literature for the progeny of AI vaccinated dams. This artificial model should facilitate future studies regarding the effect of passive immunity on vaccine efficacy at a young age and its effect on immune system development. PMID:24397892

  10. 9 CFR 113.36 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Detection of pathogens by the chicken... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.36 Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test. The test for...,000 doses. (b) At least 25 healthy susceptible young chickens, properly identified and obtained...

  11. 9 CFR 113.36 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Detection of pathogens by the chicken... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.36 Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test. The test for...,000 doses. (b) At least 25 healthy susceptible young chickens, properly identified and obtained...

  12. 9 CFR 113.36 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Detection of pathogens by the chicken... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.36 Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test. The test for...,000 doses. (b) At least 25 healthy susceptible young chickens, properly identified and obtained...

  13. 9 CFR 113.36 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Detection of pathogens by the chicken... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.36 Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test. The test for...,000 doses. (b) At least 25 healthy susceptible young chickens, properly identified and obtained...

  14. Qualitative map of Salmonella contamination on the chicken carcass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella contamination of poultry is a global public health problem. The objective of this study was to map the distribution of Salmonella on the chicken carcass for the purpose of improving poultry inspection and food safety. Young chickens (n = 70) in the Cornish game hen class were obtained a...

  15. The role of antigenic composition of Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines in ND control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates from recent outbreaks are the same serotype but are antigenically different from current vaccine strains. Recent experiments in chickens with an inactivated vaccine show significantly less virus shed in birds vaccinated with homologous vaccines compar...

  16. Tuberculosis Vaccine Types and Timings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, the design of new vaccines directed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the most successful bacterial pathogen on the planet, has focused on prophylactic candidates that would be given to individuals while they are still young. It is becoming more apparent, however, that there are several types of vaccine candidates now under development that could be used under various conditions. Thus, in addition to prophylactic vaccines, such as recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG or BCG-boosting vaccines, other applications include vaccines that could prevent infection, vaccines that could be given in emergency situations as postexposure vaccines, vaccines that could be used to facilitate chemotherapy, and vaccines that could be used to reduce or prevent relapse and reactivation disease. These approaches are discussed here, including the type of immunity we are trying to specifically target, as well as the limitations of these approaches. PMID:25540272

  17. Protective avian influenza in ovo vaccination with non-replicating human adenovirus vector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus was elicited in chickens by single dose in ovo vaccination with a replication competent adenovirus (RCA) -free human adenovirus vector (Ad5) encoding an avian AI virus H5 hemagglutinin. Vaccinated chickens were protected against both H5N1 and H5...

  18. Effective influenza vaccines for children

    PubMed Central

    Banzhoff, Angelika; Stoddard, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal influenza causes clinical illness and hospitalization in all age groups; however, conventional inactivated vaccines have only limited efficacy in young children. MF59, an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant, has been used since the 1990s to enhance the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in the elderly, a population with waning immune function due to immunosenescence. Clinical trials now provide information to support a favorable immunogenicity and safety profile of MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine in young children. Published data indicate that Fluad, a trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine with MF59, was immunogenic and well tolerated in young children, with a benefit/risk ratio that supports routine clinical use. A recent clinical trial also shows that Fluad provides high efficacy against PCR-confirmed influenza. Based on the results of clinical studies in children, the use of MF59-adjuvanted vaccine offers the potential to enhance efficacy and make vaccination a viable prevention and control strategy in this population. PMID:22327501

  19. Induction of systemic and mucosal immunity and maintenance of its memory against influenza A virus by nasal vaccination using a new mucosal adjuvant SF-10 derived from pulmonary surfactant in young cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Dai; Kimoto, Takashi; Sakai, Satoko; Takahashi, Etsuhisa; Kim, Hyejin; Kido, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Induction of systemic and mucosal immunity and maintenance of its memory was investigated in 12 young male cynomolgus monkeys after intranasal instillation of flu vaccine using a new mucosal adjuvant SF-10 derived from pulmonary surfactant constituents. Split-product of influenza virus A/California/7/2009(H1N1)pdm hemagglutinin vaccine (HAv) at 15μg with or without SF-10 and the adjuvant alone were instilled intranasally three times every 2 weeks. SF-10-adjuvanted HAv (SF-10-HAv) elicited significantly higher HAv-specific IgG and hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) titers in serum and HAv-specific secretory IgA and its neutralizing activities in nasal washes compared with HAv antigen and SF-10 alone. Significant cross-neutralizing activities of nasal washes after the third vaccination to several other H1N1 and H3N2 strains were observed. HI titers in serum and neutralizing activities in nasal washes reached peak levels at 6 weeks after initial vaccination, then gradually decreased after 10 weeks and returned to the baseline levels at 36 weeks. A single intranasal revaccination of SF-10-HAv at 36 weeks rapidly and significantly increased both immunity in serum and nasal washes compared with naïve monkeys. Revaccination by one or two doses achieved almost maximal immunity at 2 or 4 weeks after instillation. Statistically significant adverse effects (e.g., body weight loss, elevated body temperature, nasal discharge, change in peripheral blood leukocyte and platelet counts) were not observed for 2 weeks after vaccination of SF-10-HAv, HAv or SF-10 and also during the experimental period. These results in young monkey model suggest the potential of clinical use SF-10 for intranasal flu vaccine. PMID:26954466

  20. Comparative efficacy of North American and antigenically matched reverse genetics derived H5N9 DIVA marker vaccines against highly pathogenic Asian H5N1 avian influenza in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza has become endemic in several countries in Asia and Africa, and vaccination is being widely used as a control tool. However, there is a need for efficacious vaccines preferably utilizing a DIVA (differentiate infected from vaccinated animals) marker strat...

  1. Accuracy of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold in Tube for diagnosing tuberculosis in a young pediatric population previously vaccinated with Bacille Calmette-Gurin

    PubMed Central

    Vallada, Marcelo Genofre; Okay, Thelma Suely; Del Negro, Gilda Maria B.; Antonio, Claudio Amaral; Yamamoto, Lidia; Ramos, Sonia Regina T. S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of an interferongamma release assay (QuantiFERON-TB Gold in Tube) for diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a young pediatric population. Methods: 195 children previously vaccinated with BCG were evaluated, being 184 healthy individuals with no clinical or epidemiological evidence of mycobacterial infection, and 11 with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, according to clinical, radiological, and laboratory parameters. A blood sample was obtained from each child and processed according to the manufacturer's instructions. The assay performance was evaluated by a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: In the group of 184 non-infected children, 130 (70.6%) were under the age of four years (mean age of 35 months). In this group, 177 children (96.2%) had negative test results, six (3.2%) had indeterminate results, and one (0.5%) had a positive result. In the group of 11 infected children, the mean age was 58.5 months, and two of them (18%) had negative results. The ROC curve had an area under the curve of 0.88 (95%CI 0.82-0.92; p<0.001), disclosing a predictive positive value of 81.8% for the test (95%CI 46.3-97.4). The assay sensitivity was 81.8% (95%CI 48.2-97.2) and the specificity was 98.8% (95%CI 96-99.8). Conclusions: In the present study, the QuantiFERON-TB Gold in Tube performance for diagnosing M. tuberculosis infection was appropriate in a young pediatric population. PMID:24676183

  2. Polymorphisms of Chicken TLR3 and 7 in Different Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Wenke; An, Jian; Wu, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate immune responses via the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), thus playing important roles in host defense. Among the chicken (Ch) TLR family, ChTLR3 and 7 have been shown to recognize viral RNA. In our earlier studies, we have reported polymorphisms of TLR1, 2, 4, 5, 15 and 21. In the present study, we amplified TLR3 and 7 genes from different chicken breeds and analyzed their sequences. We identified 7 amino acid polymorphism sites in ChTLR3 with 6 outer part sites and 1 inner part site, and 4 amino acid polymorphism sites in ChTLR7 with 3 outer part sites and 1 inner part site. These results demonstrate that ChTLR genes are polymorphic among different chicken breeds, suggesting a varied resistance across numerous chicken breeds. This information might help improve chicken health by breeding and vaccination. PMID:25781886

  3. Identification of specific long noncoding RNA profiles in chicken with different susceptibility to Marek's disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is an avian herpesvirus-induced lymphoma in chicken, which causes more than $1 billion economic loss in poultry industry worldwide. Breeding of genetically resistant chickens has become an important measure in MD control to augment vaccination. Evidently, a better understanding ...

  4. Prevalence and cross-immunity of Eimeria species on Korean chicken farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epidemiology of Eimeria species in poultry flocks is important to increase the effectiveness of vaccinations and prophylactic strategies on chicken farms. In this study, fecal samples from 356 chicken farms were collected randomly and examined for the prevalence of Eimeria species. Through micro...

  5. Transcriptome and proteome profiling of host responses to Marek's disease virus in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mareks disease (MD) is an immunosuppressive and proliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly oncogenic cell-associated alpha-herpesvirus, named Mareks disease virus (MDV). Despite the availability of highly efficacious vaccines for control of MD and existence of lines of chickens ...

  6. Seroconversion of Hepatitis B Vaccine in Young Children in the Kassena Nankana District of Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dassah, Sylvester; Sakyi, Samuel A.; Frempong, Margaret T.; Luuse, Arnold T.; Ephraim, Richard K. D.; Anto, Enoch O.; Oduro, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is an important public health problem that requires high priority efforts towards prevention and control. Active immunization is the single most important and effective preventive measure against HBV infection. As a protective measure, Ghana introduced the mass immunization program against hepatitis B infection in children in 2002 in her Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). This study evaluated seroconversion (the point in time when the amount of antibody in the blood becomes detectable) and seroprotection (the point in time when the amount of antibody in the blood is enough to confer protection from the antigen that induced it production) status of children under this mass immunization program and measured their antibody levels five years after immunization. Materials and Method 200 archived plasma samples of children between the ages of 110 years were retrieved from a previous cross-sectional study by researchers from NHRC between 2009 and 2010. Of these, 104 have completed the EPI and were screened for HBsAg. Those found to be HBsAg-seronegative were stratified into three groups according to their age at which the last vaccine was administered. Their anti-HBsAg titer levels were estimated by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Results Two (1.9%) samples were HBsAg seropositive and were excluded from further analyses. 10 more samples were excluded from analyses because they were insufficient. The anti-HBs titers recorded ranged from 1.021 IU/L to 751.64 IU/L indicating a 100% seroconversion rate. In group one (06 months), 87.9% were seroprotected. Group two (2-3yrs) had 78.3% seroprotection and group three (3-5yrs) had 41.7% seroprotection. There was no significant difference between group 1 and 2. However, there was a significant difference between group 1 and 3 (p = 0.0137) and between group 2 and 3 (p = 0.0390) respectively. There was no significant difference between male and female children. Conclusion All the children who received doses of hepatitis B vaccine at 6, 10 and 14 weeks in the immunization program seroconverted, but their levels of protection waned with increasing years. Booster doses are therefore recommended after 5 years. PMID:26716979

  7. Probable Congenital Transmission of Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Caused by Vaccination with Contaminated Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shufen; Guo, Wenlong; Sheng, Pengcheng; Wang, Zunmin; Zhao, Changliang; Zhao, Qingyou; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2012-01-01

    Contaminated vaccine is one unexpected and potential origin of virus infection. In order to investigate the most likely cause of disease in a broiler breeder company of Shandong Province, all 17 batches of live-virus vaccines used in the affected flocks and 478 tissue samples were tested by dot-blot hybridization, nested PCR, and IFA. The results suggested the outbreak of disease was most probably due to the vaccination of REV-contaminated MD-CVI988/Rispens vaccines and ND-LaSota+IB-H120 vaccines. Furthermore, the REV was probably transmitted to the commercial chickens through congenital transmission. PMID:22912872

  8. Diphtheria Vaccination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Diphtheria Vaccination Pronounced (dif-THEER-ee-a) On this Page ... only a part of the pertussis organism.) Diphtheria Vaccination: Who Needs It? Side Effects of DTaP vaccine ...

  9. Smallpox Vaccination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Smallpox Vaccination On this Page What You Should Know About ... like many other vaccines. For that reason, the vaccination site must be cared for carefully to prevent ...

  10. Molecular characterization of infectious bursal disease viruses detected in vaccinated commercial broiler flocks in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Ndashe, Kunda; Simulundu, Edgar; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Moonga, Ladslav; Ogawa, Hirohito; Takada, Ayato; Mweene, Aaron S

    2016-03-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious, and immunosuppressive viral disease of young chickens and remains one of the economically most important diseases threatening the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, 16 and 11 nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR) and part of VP1, respectively, of IBD virus (IBDV) detected in vaccinated broiler chickens in Lusaka in 2012 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these Zambian IBDVs separated into three genotypes of very virulent (VV) IBDVs. Although the majority of these viruses belonged to the African VV type (VV1), which consisted of viruses from West Africa, South Africa and Zambia, one virus belonged to the East African VV type (VV2). Interestingly, a Zambian IBDV belonging to the VV3 genotype (composed of viruses from several continents) clustered with attenuated vaccine strains. Although sequence analysis of VP2-HVR showed that all detected Zambian IBDVs had conserved putative virulence marker amino acids (i.e., 222A, 242I, 256I, 294I and 299S), one virus had two unique amino acid substitutions, N280S and E300A. This study demonstrates the diversity of Zambian IBDVs and documents for the first time the possible involvement of attenuated vaccine strains in the epidemiology of IBD in Zambia. Strict biosecurity of poultry farms, monitoring of live vaccine use in the field, surveillance and characterization of IBDV in poultry and development of a vaccine from local or regional IBDV field strains are recommended for improved IBD control in Zambia. PMID:26597187

  11. Safety and Immunogenicity of Human Papillomavirus-16/18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine: A Randomized Trial in 1025-Year-Old HIV-Seronegative African Girls and Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Sow, Papa Salif; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Kiviat, Nancy; Changalucha, John; Mbaye, Khardiata Diallo; Brown, Joelle; Bousso, Kouro; Kavishe, Bazil; Andreasen, Aura; Toure, Macoumba; Kapiga, Saidi; Mayaud, Philippe; Hayes, Richard; Lebacq, Marie; Herazeh, Marjan; Thomas, Florence; Descamps, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Background.?Cervical cancer is a major public health problem for women in sub-Saharan Africa. Availability of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine could have an important public health impact. Methods.?In this phase IIIb, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial (NCT00481767), healthy African girls and young women seronegative for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were stratified by age (1014 or 1525 years) and randomized (2:1) to receive either HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (n = 450) or placebo (n = 226) at 0, 1, and 6 months. The primary objective was to evaluate HPV-16/18 antibody responses at month 7. Seropositivity rates and corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results.?In the according-to-protocol analysis at month 7, 100% of initially seronegative participants in the vaccine group were seropositive for both antiHPV-16 and antiHPV-18 antibodies (n = 130 and n = 128 for 1014-year-olds, respectively; n = 190 and n = 212 for 1525-year-olds). GMTs for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were higher in 1014-year-olds (18 423 [95% confidence interval, 16 18520 970] and 6487 [55907529] enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units (EU)/mL, respectively) than in 1525-year-olds (10 683 [956711 930] and 3743 [34004120] EU/mL, respectively). Seropositivity was maintained at month 12. No participant withdrew owing to adverse events. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions.?The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine was highly immunogenic and had a clinically acceptable safety profile when administered to healthy HIV-seronegative African girls and young women. PMID:23242542

  12. [Mercury in vaccines].

    PubMed

    Hessel, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Thiomersal, also called thimerosal, is an ethyl mercury derivative used as a preservative to prevent bacterial contamination of multidose vaccine vials after they have been opened. Exposure to low doses of thiomersal has essentially been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Nevertheless there is no evidence that allergy to thiomersal could be induced by thiomersal-containing vaccines. Allergy to thiomersal is usually of delayed-hypersensitivity type, but its detection through cutaneous tests is not very reliable. Hypersensitivity to thiomersal is not considered as a contraindication to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines. In 1999 in the USA, thiomersal was present in approximately 30 different childhood vaccines, whereas there were only 2 in France. Although there were no evidence of neurological toxicity in infants related to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines, the FDA considered that the cumulative dose of mercury received by young infants following vaccination was high enough (although lower than the FDA threshold for methyl mercury) to request vaccine manufacturers to remove thiomersal from vaccine formulations. Since 2002, all childhood vaccines used in Europe and the USA are thiomersal-free or contain only minute amounts of thiomersal. Recently published studies have shown that the mercury levels in the blood, faeces and urine of children who had received thiomersal-containing vaccines were much lower than those accepted by the American Environmental Protection Agency. It has also been demonstrated that the elimination of mercury in children was much faster than what was expected on the basis of studies conducted with methyl mercury originating from food. Recently, the hypothesis that mercury contained in vaccines could be the cause of autism and other neurological developmental disorders created a new debate in the medical community and the general public. To date, none of the epidemiological studies conducted in Europe and elsewhere support this assumption. Although any effort should be made to avoid useless exposure of vaccinees to a potentially toxic compound, it should be emphasized that 1) public communication on this issue has led to a decrease in the hepatitis B vaccination coverage of children born to HBs Ag positive mothers in the US; 2) this issue was not really relevant in France where until 2002, apart from two hepatitis B vaccines, all childhood vaccines were thiomersal-free, and 3) in developing countries using multidose vaccine vials, moving to thiomersal-free vaccines in unidose presentations would represent such an incremental cost that millions of children would no more have access to vaccination. Therefore the World Health Organisation still recommends the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines as part of the expanded programme of immunisation. PMID:15146581

  13. Chicken soup and sickness

    MedlinePLUS

    Chicken soup, a popular home remedy for the common cold since at least the 12th century, may really ... chicken soup reduce the inflammation associated with the common cold, thus providing some relief of symptoms. Although researchers ...

  14. Natural history of human papillomavirus infection in non-vaccinated young males: low clearance probability in high-risk genotypes.

    PubMed

    Cai, T; Perletti, G; Meacci, F; Magri, V; Verze, P; Palmieri, A; Mazzoli, S; Santi, R; Nesi, G; Mirone, V; Bartoletti, R

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the clearance of type-specific genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in heterosexual, non-HPV-vaccinated males whose female partners were positive to HPV DNA tests. All consecutive men attending the same sexually transmitted diseases (STD) centre between January 2005 and December 2006 were considered for this study. All subjects (n = 1009) underwent a urologic visit and microbiological tests on first void, midstream urine and total ejaculate samples. One hundred and five patients were positive for HPV DNA (10.4 %; mean age: 34.8 ± 5.8 years) and consented to clinical examination and molecular diagnostic assays for HPV detection scheduled every 6 months (median surveillance period of 53.2 months). HPV genotypes were classified as high risk, probable high risk and low risk. HPV-positive samples which did not hybridise with any of the type-specific probes were referred to as positive non-genotypeable. At enrollment, the distribution of HPV genotypes was as follows: high-risk HPV (n = 37), probable high-risk HPV (n = 6), low-risk HPV (n = 23) and non-genotypeable HPV (n = 39). A high HPV genotype concordance between stable sexual partners emerged (kappa = 0.92; p < 0.001). At the end of the study, 71/105 (67.6 %) subjects were negative for HPV (mean virus clearance time: 24.3 months). With regard to the HPV genotype, virus clearance was observed in 14/37 (37.8 %) high-risk HPV cases, 6/6 (100 %) probable high-risk HPV cases, 20/23 (86.9 %) low-risk HPV cases and 31/39 (79.5 %) non-genotypeable cases. The high-risk HPV genotypes showed the lowest rate and probability of viral clearance (p < 0.001). In our series, high-risk HPV infections were more likely to persist over time when compared with other HPV genotypes. PMID:26753992

  15. Reducing Campylobacter jejuni Colonization of Poultry via Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Neal-McKinney, Jason M.; Samuelson, Derrick R.; Eucker, Tyson P.; Nissen, Mark S.; Crespo, Rocio; Konkel, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease worldwide. While C. jejuni is a commensal organism in chickens, case-studies have demonstrated a link between infection with C. jejuni and the consumption of foods that have been cross-contaminated with raw or undercooked poultry. We hypothesized that vaccination of chickens with C. jejuni surface-exposed colonization proteins (SECPs) would reduce the ability of C. jejuni to colonize chickens, thereby reducing the contamination of poultry products at the retail level and potentially providing a safer food product for consumers. To test our hypothesis, we injected chickens with recombinant C. jejuni peptides from CadF, FlaA, FlpA, CmeC, and a CadF-FlaA-FlpA fusion protein. Seven days following challenge, chickens were necropsied and cecal contents were serially diluted and plated to determine the number of C. jejuni per gram of material. The sera from the chickens were also analyzed to determine the concentration and specificity of antibodies reactive against the C. jejuni SECPs. Vaccination of chickens with the CadF, FlaA, and FlpA peptides resulted in a reduction in the number of C. jejuni in the ceca compared to the non-vaccinated C. jejuni-challenged group. The greatest reduction in C. jejuni colonization was observed in chickens injected with the FlaA, FlpA, or CadF-FlaA-FlpA fusion proteins. Vaccination of chickens with different SECPs resulted in the production of C. jejuni-specific IgY antibodies. In summary, we show that the vaccination of poultry with individual C. jejuni SECPs or a combination of SECPs provides protection of chickens from C. jejuni colonization. PMID:25474206

  16. Pain in adolescent girls receiving human papillomavirus vaccine with concomitantly administered vaccines.

    PubMed

    Walter, Emmanuel B; Kemper, Alex R; Dolor, Rowena J; Dunne, Eileen F

    2015-02-01

    Using the Faces Pain Scale - Revised, we assessed injection site pain 10 minutes after vaccination in young females randomized to receive either quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) before or after concomitantly administered vaccines. Although pain was modestly more after HPV4 injection than after other vaccines, the pain intensity after HPV4 injection was significantly less in those who received HPV4 before receiving other concomitant vaccines. PMID:25170553

  17. Vaccine hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, Eve; Laberge, Caroline; Guay, Maryse; Bramadat, Paul; Roy, Réal; Bettinger, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being recognized as one of the most successful public health measures, vaccination is perceived as unsafe and unnecessary by a growing number of individuals. Lack of confidence in vaccines is now considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. Vaccine hesitancy is believed to be responsible for decreasing vaccine coverage and an increasing risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. First, we will characterize vaccine hesitancy and suggest the possible causes of the apparent increase in vaccine hesitancy in the developed world. Then we will look at determinants of individual decision-making about vaccination. PMID:23584253

  18. Antibody titers against vaccine and contemporary wild poliovirus type 1 in children immunized with IPV+OPV and young adults immunized with OPV.

    PubMed

    Lukashev, Alexander N; Yarmolskaya, Maria S; Shumilina, Elena Yu; Sychev, Daniil A; Kozlovskaya, Liubov I

    2016-02-01

    In 2010, a type 1 poliovirus outbreak in Congo with 445 lethal cases was caused by a virus that was neutralized by sera of German adults vaccinated with inactivated polio vaccine with a reduced efficiency. This seroprevalence study was done in two cohorts immunized with other vaccination schedules. Russian children aged 3-6 years immunized with a combination of inactivated and live polio vaccines were reasonably well protected against any wild type poliovirus 1, including the Congolese isolate. Adults aged 20-29 years immunized only with live vaccine were apparently protected against the vaccine strain (92% seropositive), but only 50% had detectable antibodies against the Congo-2010 isolate. Both waning immunity and serological divergence of the Congolese virus could contribute to this result. PMID:26657881

  19. Streptococcal infection in young pigs. V. An immunogenic polysaccharide from Streptococcus suis type 2 with particular reference to vaccination against streptococcal meningitis in pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, S. D.; Clifton-Hadley, F.; Tai, J.

    1980-01-01

    Of 17 pigs vaccinated with STreptococcus suis type-2 capsular polysaccharide plus Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant, all developed opsonizing antibody against Str. suis type 2. Of 14 pigs vaccinated with type-2 polysaccharide alone, 4 (possibly 6) developed opsonizing antibody. It is possible that some pigs vaccinated with polysaccharide plus Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant developed opsonizing antibody in response to a 'booster' injection of polysaccharide alone. Of 21 unvaccinated control pigs, late bleeding from 3 showed opsonizing activity against Str. suis type 2. PMID:7451960

  20. Development and evaluation of a Salmonella typhimurium flagellin based chimeric DNA vaccine against infectious bursal disease of poultry.

    PubMed

    Deb, Rajib; Dey, Sohini; Madhan Mohan, C; Gaikwad, Satish; Kamble, Nitin; Khulape, Sagar A; Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Maity, Hemanta Kumar; Pathak, Dinesh Chandra

    2015-10-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute immunosuppressive disease of young chicks, caused by a double-stranded RNA virus. VP2 being the major capsid protein of the virus is an ideal vaccine candidate possessing the neutralizing epitopes. The present study involves the use of flagellin (fliC) as a genetic adjuvant to improve the immune response of VP2 based DNA vaccine against IBD. Our findings revealed that birds immunized with plasmid pCIVP2fliC showed robust immune response than pCIVP2 immunized groups. Further, challenge study proved that genetic fusion of fliC and VP2 can provide a comparatively higher level of protection against vvIBDV challenge in chickens than VP2 alone. These results thus indicate that Salmonella flagellin could enhance the immune responses and protection efficacy of a DNA vaccine candidate against IBDV infection in chickens, highlighting the potential of flagellin as a genetic adjuvant in the prevention of vvIBDV infection. PMID:26412511

  1. Update: Vaccines for women, adolescence through adulthood.

    PubMed

    Akinsanya-Beysolow, Iyabode; Wolfe, Charles Skip

    2009-08-01

    Abstract Recommendations for routine vaccination of adolescents and adults are continually evolving; new vaccines are licensed, and ongoing studies lead to updated recommendations for existing vaccines. Although vaccination is important for both sexes, some recent developments are particularly relevant for women and girls. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, licensed in 2006, is the first vaccine administered exclusively to women. Another recently licensed vaccine, adult and adolescent tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap), is especially important for women who plan to become pregnant and for new mothers to help prevent pertussis disease in infants who are too young to be vaccinated themselves. Other vaccines, such as influenza and rubella, are also important for pregnant women. Several vaccine safety issues are of particular relevance to women, namely, the theoretical risk of administering live vaccines during pregnancy and data suggesting that adolescent females might be at higher risk for syncope following vaccination. Obstetrician-gynecologists are the primary, and sometimes only, contact with the healthcare system for many adolescent and adult women and, as such, are uniquely positioned to provide vaccination services to the country's female population. Vaccine costs, storage and handling requirements, lack of access to immunization information systems (also known as vaccine registries), and unfamiliarity with current recommendations are potential obstacles to ensuring that all adolescent females and women are appropriately vaccinated. Obstetrician-gynecologists can help reduce some of these obstacles by availing themselves of existing vaccination resources. PMID:19627241

  2. Introduction of an update system for vaccine strains of veterinary influenza vaccines in Japan.

    PubMed

    Gamoh, Koichiro; Nakamura, Shigeyuki

    2015-03-01

    The basic countermeasures used to control highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) are early detection procedures and the culling of affected chickens. However, if successive HPAI outbreaks occur, the vaccination may be an option for controlling HPAI. Therefore, avian influenza (AI) vaccines are stocked by the Japanese government. By contrast, equine influenza (EI) vaccine is an effective tool for preventing or controlling EI. Because antigenic drifts affect the efficacy of AI and EI vaccines, the vaccine strains should be updated rapidly. However, the development and registration of veterinary vaccines usually takes several years. In response to this issue, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries (MAFF) established a system that allows AI and EI vaccine strains to be updated rapidly. National Veterinary Assay Laboratory, MAFF, established a vaccine strains selection committee for veterinary influenza vaccine. The main agendas involve determining whether the current vaccine strains need to be updated and selecting the most appropriate vaccine strains. The committee concluded that A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-3/2007(H5N1) was added to the strains of stockpiled AI vaccines and that the EI vaccine strains did not need to be changed, but that the clade 2 viruses of the Florida sub-lineage strain, A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010(H3N8) was added to the EI vaccine strain. PMID:25614371

  3. Protection from clinical disease against three highly virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus after in ovo application of an antibody-antigen complex vaccine in maternal antibody-positive chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worldwide, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) remains one of the most economically important diseases of poultry. Current vaccination strategies for commercial poultry include the use of inactivated and live NDV vaccines that typically induce protection against less virulent field viruses. The value of...

  4. Invasiveness and persistence of Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, and a genetically defined S. enteritidis aroA strain in young chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, G L; Venables, L M; Woodward, M J; Hormaeche, C E

    1994-01-01

    Newly hatched chicks were dosed orally with a Salmonella typhimurium wild-type strain, an S. enteritidis wild-type strain, and a genetically defined S. enteritidis aroA vaccine candidate, strain CVL30. The S. typhimurium strain, 2391 Nalr, was virulent in newly hatched chicks and caused deaths in 7 of 20 chicks after an oral dose of 10(5) organisms. The S. enteritidis wild-type strain, LA5, caused death in 1 of 25 chicks and gross pathology including pericarditis and perihepatitis in 6 of the 24 survivors after an oral dose of 10(9) organisms. S. enteritidis aroA CVL30, attenuated by ca. 6.5 log10 in BALB/c mice, was nonvirulent when administered orally to chicks and did not cause morbidity. When newly hatched chicks were dosed, the pattern of invasion and colonization of the reticuloendothelial system by strain CVL30 was similar to that of its parent strain, LA5, irrespective of the dose. Oral inoculation of newly hatched chicks with < 10 organisms of S. enteritidis LA5 or CVL30 was followed by multiplication in the cecal contents. Within 3 days of hatching, the pH of the cecal contents was reduced from ca. 7 to 5. Samples of gut contents were inoculated in vitro. The S. enteritidis strains multiplied in samples taken from the ileum and duodenum irrespective of age but multiplied in the cecal samples from newly hatched chicks only. Invasion from the gut by S. enteritidis LA5 and CVL30 was both age and dose dependent. PMID:7927749

  5. Safety and reactogenicity of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, 18) L1 viral-like-particle vaccine in older adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Palefsky, Joel M; Giuliano, Anna R; Goldstone, Stephen; Aranda, Carlos; Jessen, Heiko; Hillman, Richard J; Ferris, Daron; Coutlee, Francois; Vardas, Eftyhia; Marshall, J Brooke; Vuocolo, Scott; Haupt, Richard M; Guris, Dalya; Garner, Elizabeth IO

    2011-01-01

    Background Prophylactic vaccination with a quadrivalent HPV (types 6, 11, 16, 18) vaccine (qHPV) has been shown to prevent infection with HPV 6/11/16/18 and associated disease in women and more recently, in men. Here we report on the safety and reactogenicity of the qHPV vaccine in males. A total of 4,065 healthy males aged 1626 years were enrolled into a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Subjects were randomized 1:1 to receive qHPV vaccine or placebo at day 1, month 2 and month 6. Safety and tolerability were assessed via the collection of reported adverse experiences (AEs). All serious AEs (vaccine- or procedure-related or not) and all deaths occurring during the study were recorded. Safety analyses were conducted in all subjects who received at least one dose of vaccine or placebo. The proportion of subjects who reported at least one injection-site AE was higher in the qHPV vaccine group versus the placebo group (60.1% vs. 53.7%, respectively), however most of these AEs were mild/moderate in intensity. The incidence of at least one systemic AE was comparable between the vaccine and placebo groups (31.7% vs. 31.4%, respectively). There were no vaccine-related serious AEs or deaths. The occurrence of AEs did not increase with each successive injection, and among trial participants who were seropositive for at least one vaccine HPV type at enrollment, the profile of adverse events was similar to that of the entire study cohort. The qHPV vaccine was generally well tolerated in males aged 1626 years and had a favorable safety profile. PMID:21712645

  6. Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

  7. Haemophilus influenzae Type b Carriage among Young Children in Metropolitan Atlanta in the Context of Vaccine Shortage and Booster Dose Deferral ?

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jennifer Dolan; Jackson, Michael L.; Sharma, Dolly; Mair, Raydel; Bach, Michelle C.; Castillo, Dana; Ejigiri, O. Grace; Satola, Sarah; Cohn, Amanda C.; Jerris, Robert; Jain, Shabnam; Farley, Monica M.; Mayer, Leonard W.; Messonnier, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    Short-term deferral of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine booster dose during a recent U.S. Hib vaccine shortage did not result in widespread Hib carriage in Atlanta, as the Hib carriage rate was found to be 0.3% (1/342). Hib colonization was significantly more common among males and day care attendees. PMID:22012977

  8. Efficacy of human papillomavirus 16 and 18 (HPV-16/18) AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infection and precancer in young women: final event-driven analysis of the randomized, double-blind PATRICIA trial.

    PubMed

    Apter, Dan; Wheeler, Cosette M; Paavonen, Jorma; Castellsagu, Xavier; Garland, Suzanne M; Skinner, S Rachel; Naud, Paulo; Salmern, Jorge; Chow, Song-Nan; Kitchener, Henry C; Teixeira, Julio C; Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Limson, Genara; Szarewski, Anne; Romanowski, Barbara; Aoki, Fred Y; Schwarz, Tino F; Poppe, Willy A J; Bosch, F Xavier; Mindel, Adrian; de Sutter, Philippe; Hardt, Karin; Zahaf, Toufik; Descamps, Dominique; Struyf, Frank; Lehtinen, Matti; Dubin, Gary

    2015-04-01

    We report final event-driven analysis data on the immunogenicity and efficacy of the human papillomavirus 16 and 18 ((HPV-16/18) AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in young women aged 15 to 25 years from the PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults (PATRICIA). The total vaccinated cohort (TVC) included all randomized participants who received at least one vaccine dose (vaccine, n = 9,319; control, n = 9,325) at months 0, 1, and/or 6. The TVC-naive (vaccine, n = 5,822; control, n = 5,819) had no evidence of high-risk HPV infection at baseline, approximating adolescent girls targeted by most HPV vaccination programs. Mean follow-up was approximately 39 months after the first vaccine dose in each cohort. At baseline, 26% of women in the TVC had evidence of past and/or current HPV-16/18 infection. HPV-16 and HPV-18 antibody titers postvaccination tended to be higher among 15- to 17-year-olds than among 18- to 25-year-olds. In the TVC, vaccine efficacy (VE) against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or greater (CIN1+), CIN2+, and CIN3+ associated with HPV-16/18 was 55.5% (96.1% confidence interval [CI], 43.2, 65.3), 52.8% (37.5, 64.7), and 33.6% (-1.1, 56.9). VE against CIN1+, CIN2+, and CIN3+ irrespective of HPV DNA was 21.7% (10.7, 31.4), 30.4% (16.4, 42.1), and 33.4% (9.1, 51.5) and was consistently significant only in 15- to 17-year-old women (27.4% [10.8, 40.9], 41.8% [22.3, 56.7], and 55.8% [19.2, 76.9]). In the TVC-naive, VE against CIN1+, CIN2+, and CIN3+ associated with HPV-16/18 was 96.5% (89.0, 99.4), 98.4% (90.4, 100), and 100% (64.7, 100), and irrespective of HPV DNA it was 50.1% (35.9, 61.4), 70.2% (54.7, 80.9), and 87.0% (54.9, 97.7). VE against 12-month persistent infection with HPV-16/18 was 89.9% (84.0, 94.0), and that against HPV-31/33/45/51 was 49.0% (34.7, 60.3). In conclusion, vaccinating adolescents before sexual debut has a substantial impact on the overall incidence of high-grade cervical abnormalities, and catch-up vaccination up to 18 years of age is most likely effective. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT001226810.). PMID:25651922

  9. Efficacy of Human Papillomavirus 16 and 18 (HPV-16/18) AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine against Cervical Infection and Precancer in Young Women: Final Event-Driven Analysis of the Randomized, Double-Blind PATRICIA Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Cosette M.; Paavonen, Jorma; Castellsagu, Xavier; Garland, Suzanne M.; Skinner, S. Rachel; Naud, Paulo; Salmern, Jorge; Chow, Song-Nan; Kitchener, Henry C.; Teixeira, Julio C.; Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Limson, Genara; Szarewski, Anne; Romanowski, Barbara; Aoki, Fred Y.; Schwarz, Tino F.; Poppe, Willy A. J.; Bosch, F. Xavier; Mindel, Adrian; de Sutter, Philippe; Hardt, Karin; Zahaf, Toufik; Descamps, Dominique; Struyf, Frank; Lehtinen, Matti; Dubin, Gary

    2015-01-01

    We report final event-driven analysis data on the immunogenicity and efficacy of the human papillomavirus 16 and 18 ((HPV-16/18) AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in young women aged 15 to 25 years from the PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults (PATRICIA). The total vaccinated cohort (TVC) included all randomized participants who received at least one vaccine dose (vaccine, n = 9,319; control, n = 9,325) at months 0, 1, and/or 6. The TVC-naive (vaccine, n = 5,822; control, n = 5,819) had no evidence of high-risk HPV infection at baseline, approximating adolescent girls targeted by most HPV vaccination programs. Mean follow-up was approximately 39 months after the first vaccine dose in each cohort. At baseline, 26% of women in the TVC had evidence of past and/or current HPV-16/18 infection. HPV-16 and HPV-18 antibody titers postvaccination tended to be higher among 15- to 17-year-olds than among 18- to 25-year-olds. In the TVC, vaccine efficacy (VE) against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or greater (CIN1+), CIN2+, and CIN3+ associated with HPV-16/18 was 55.5% (96.1% confidence interval [CI], 43.2, 65.3), 52.8% (37.5, 64.7), and 33.6% (?1.1, 56.9). VE against CIN1+, CIN2+, and CIN3+ irrespective of HPV DNA was 21.7% (10.7, 31.4), 30.4% (16.4, 42.1), and 33.4% (9.1, 51.5) and was consistently significant only in 15- to 17-year-old women (27.4% [10.8, 40.9], 41.8% [22.3, 56.7], and 55.8% [19.2, 76.9]). In the TVC-naive, VE against CIN1+, CIN2+, and CIN3+ associated with HPV-16/18 was 96.5% (89.0, 99.4), 98.4% (90.4, 100), and 100% (64.7, 100), and irrespective of HPV DNA it was 50.1% (35.9, 61.4), 70.2% (54.7, 80.9), and 87.0% (54.9, 97.7). VE against 12-month persistent infection with HPV-16/18 was 89.9% (84.0, 94.0), and that against HPV-31/33/45/51 was 49.0% (34.7, 60.3). In conclusion, vaccinating adolescents before sexual debut has a substantial impact on the overall incidence of high-grade cervical abnormalities, and catch-up vaccination up to 18 years of age is most likely effective. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT001226810.) PMID:25651922

  10. HPV vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... and Gynecologists. Committee Opinion No. 588: Human Papillomavirus Vaccination. Obstet Gynecol . 2014;123(3):712-718. PMID: ...

  11. ACUTE PHASE IMMUNE GENE PROFILING OF SPLEEN AND PEYER’S PATCH IN NAÏVE AND VACCINATED CHICKENS FOLLOWING AVIAN INFLUENZA A (H5N1) VIRUS INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advances in immunogenomic and proteomic tools are facilitating the characterization of complex host-pathogen immunobiology. In this study, we applied functional genomics tools to investigate the early immunological response of chickens to highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV). ...

  12. ACUTE PHASE IMMUNE GENE PROFILING OF SPLEEN AND PEYER’S PATCH IN NAÏVE AND VACCINATED CHICKENS FOLLOWING AVIAN INFLUENZA A (H5N1) VIRUS INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we applied functional genomics tools to investigate the early immunological response of chickens to highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV). Infection with HPAIV usually results in the rapid death of poultry. The aim of this study was to identify host immune genes which a...

  13. What About Vaccinating Newborns?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this review, results from studies evaluating immune competency of the pre-ruminant calf are discussed. It has been believed that vaccination of the young calf is not effective. Recent studies, however, have revealed that certain aspects of the neonatal calf’s immune system are fully intact or e...

  14. Aging and Cancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Gravekamp, Claudia; Chandra, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Cancer vaccination is less effective at old than at young age, due to T cell unresponsiveness. This is caused by age-related changes of the immune system. Major immune defects at older age are lack of nave T cells, impaired activation pathways of T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APC), and age-related changes in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Also innate immune responses are affected by aging, but this seems less abundant than adaptive immune responses. In this review we compared various cancer vaccine studies at young and old age, demonstrating the importance of both innate and adaptive immune responses for cancer immunotherapy. Moreover, we found suggestive evidence that innate immune responses could help improve adaptive immune responses through cancer vaccination in old age. PMID:24579737

  15. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. PMID:26541249

  16. Vaccine acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Ford, John A; Mahgoub, Hamid; Shankar, Ananda Giri

    2013-01-01

    The United Kingdom has had a long history with vaccine acceptability dating back to Edward Jenners theory of small pox vaccination. More recently, the discredited, Wakefield study published in 1998 continues to cause MMR skepticism. In pregnant women pertussis vaccination has been considerably more successful than influenza vaccination. Influenza vaccine uptake in healthcare workers remains poor. The media, politicians, and health reforms have contributed to the mixed coverage for these vaccines. In this article we examine vaccine acceptability from a UK perspective, and consider the future impact this is likely to have on the introduction of rotavirus and shingles vaccine in the UK in 2013. PMID:24025731

  17. Vaccine Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccine Safety Smallpox Vaccine Safety Common Concerns Adjuvants Autism CDC Statement: 2004 Pediatrics Paper on MMR and Autism Fainting (Syncope) Febrile Seizures Guillain-Barre Syndrome Multiple ...

  18. Non-thermal plasma for inactivated-vaccine preparation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guomin; Zhu, Ruihao; Yang, Licong; Wang, Kaile; Zhang, Qian; Su, Xia; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-02-17

    Vaccines are of great importance in controlling the spread of infectious diseases in poultry farming. The safety and efficacy of vaccines are also essential. To explore the feasibility of a novel technology (non-thermal plasma) in inactivated vaccine preparation, an alternating current atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma (NTP) jet with Ar/O2/N2 as the operating gas was used to inactivate a Newcastle disease virus (NDV, LaSota) strain and H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV, A/Chicken/Hebei/WD/98) for vaccine preparation. The results showed that complete inactivation could be achieved with 2min of NTP treatment for both NDV and AIV. Moreover, a proper NTP treatment time is needed for inactivation of a virus without destruction of the antigenic determinants. Compared to traditional formaldehyde-inactivated vaccine, the vaccine made from NDV treated by NTP for 2min (NTP-2min-NDV-vaccine) could induce a higher NDV-specific antibody titer in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, and the results of a chicken challenge experiment showed that NTP-2min-NDV-vaccine could protect SPF chickens from a lethal NDV challenge. Vaccines made from AIV treated by NTP for 2min (NTP-2min-AIV-vaccine) also showed a similar AIV-specific antibody titer compared with traditional AIV vaccines prepared using formaldehyde inactivation. Studies of the morphological changes of the virus, chemical analysis of NDV allantoic fluid and optical emission spectrum analysis of NTP suggested that reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species produced by NTP played an important role in the virus inactivation process. All of these results demonstrated that it could be feasible to use non-thermal NTP as an alternative strategy to prepare inactivated vaccines for Newcastle disease and avian influenza. PMID:26529075

  19. Efficacy and Safety of the RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Vaccine during 18 Months after Vaccination: A Phase 3 Randomized, Controlled Trial in Children and Young Infants at 11 African Sites

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A malaria vaccine could be an important addition to current control strategies. We report the safety and vaccine efficacy (VE) of the RTS,S/AS01 vaccine during 18 mo following vaccination at 11 African sites with varying malaria transmission. Methods and Findings 6,537 infants aged 6–12 wk and 8,923 children aged 5–17 mo were randomized to receive three doses of RTS,S/AS01 or comparator vaccine. VE against clinical malaria in children during the 18 mo after vaccine dose 3 (per protocol) was 46% (95% CI 42% to 50%) (range 40% to 77%; VE, p<0.01 across all sites). VE during the 20 mo after vaccine dose 1 (intention to treat [ITT]) was 45% (95% CI 41% to 49%). VE against severe malaria, malaria hospitalization, and all-cause hospitalization was 34% (95% CI 15% to 48%), 41% (95% CI 30% to 50%), and 19% (95% CI 11% to 27%), respectively (ITT). VE against clinical malaria in infants was 27% (95% CI 20% to 32%, per protocol; 27% [95% CI 21% to 33%], ITT), with no significant protection against severe malaria, malaria hospitalization, or all-cause hospitalization. Post-vaccination anti-circumsporozoite antibody geometric mean titer varied from 348 to 787 EU/ml across sites in children and from 117 to 335 EU/ml in infants (per protocol). VE waned over time in both age categories (Schoenfeld residuals p<0.001). The number of clinical and severe malaria cases averted per 1,000 children vaccinated ranged across sites from 37 to 2,365 and from −1 to 49, respectively; corresponding ranges among infants were −10 to 1,402 and −13 to 37, respectively (ITT). Meningitis was reported as a serious adverse event in 16/5,949 and 1/2,974 children and in 9/4,358 and 3/2,179 infants in the RTS,S/AS01 and control groups, respectively. Conclusions RTS,S/AS01 prevented many cases of clinical and severe malaria over the 18 mo after vaccine dose 3, with the highest impact in areas with the greatest malaria incidence. VE was higher in children than in infants, but even at modest levels of VE, the number of malaria cases averted was substantial. RTS,S/AS01 could be an important addition to current malaria control in Africa. Trial registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00866619 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25072396

  20. Studies of infectious laryngotracheitis vaccines: immunity in broilers.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, J R; Glisson, J R; Goodwin, M A; Resurreccion, R S; Villegas, P; Brown, J

    1989-01-01

    Broiler chickens were vaccinated at 18 days of age against infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) using chicken-embryo-origin (CEO) and tissue-culture-origin (TCO) vaccines, each vaccine given either by drinking water, spray, or eyedrop. Controls were not vaccinated. The broilers were challenged 3 weeks later with virulent ILT virus (USDA challenge strain). Serum samples taken before challenge were analyzed by a virus neutralization (VN) test to determine titers due to vaccination. Both vaccines, regardless of route of administration, produced low VN titers, geometric mean titer (GMT) being less than 4.0 in all vaccinated groups. When administered by the same route, the CEO vaccine produced higher titers than the TCO vaccine. Titers following drinking-water or eyedrop administration of vaccines were higher than titers following spray vaccination. There was an inverse relationship between pre-challenge VN titers of groups of birds and the percentage of birds in the groups dying from ILT virus challenge. The drinking-water route of vaccination provided the most protection, while the spray provided the least. PMID:2549939

  1. Structural changes in the small intestine associated with the uptake of polyvinyl pyrrolidone by the young ferret, rabbit, guinea-pig, cat and chicken

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Rufus M.; Hardy, R. N.

    1970-01-01

    1. The entry of [125I]polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) of mean mol. wt. 160,000 (K. 60) into the epithelial cells of the small intestine has been measured in new-born animals of five species. 2. The distribution along the intestine of cells capable of taking up [125I]PVP and the decrease and eventual cessation of uptake (closure) with increasing age have been investigated, and have been related to changes in the histological appearance of the small intestine. 3. The small intestine of the ferret took up PVP readily until 33-34 days after birth. From 34 to 37 days of age PVP uptake declined sharply and disappeared completely by 40-45 days. 4. In the ferret, unlike other species studied, some PVP was taken up by the duodenum. This continued for the first 4 weeks after birth. Thereafter PVP uptake gradually became confined to the terminal ileum. 5. In the guinea-pig, PVP uptake was limited to the first 48 hr after birth. During this period the site of uptake was progressively restricted to the terminal ileum. 6. In the rabbit, PVP could be taken up in the distal two-thirds of the small intestine for at least 20 days after birth. A decline in uptake occurred between 20 and 22 days after birth in most animals. 7. Wide individual variations were seen in the kitten, but PVP uptake was seen in some animals up to 14 days after birth. 8. Newly hatched chicks and chicks tested 48 hr after hatching did not take up PVP. 9. Histological examination of the small intestine with the light microscope demonstrated that in all species PVP uptake was associated with the presence of vacuoles in the epithelial cells of the villus. 10. In the young guinea-pig, large PAS-positive granules were seen in the macrophages of the lamina propria. These appeared to migrate through the epithelium into the intestinal lumen. The significance of this finding and its relation to macromolecular uptake remain unclear. ImagesPlate 1Plate 2Plate 3 PMID:5499802

  2. Analysis of delayed TBE-vaccine booster after primary vaccination.

    PubMed

    Aerssens, Annelies; Cochez, Christel; Niedrig, Matthias; Heyman, Paul; Kühlmann-Rabens, Ilona; Soentjens, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    An open, uncontrolled single centre study was conducted in the Travel Clinic at the Military Hospital, Brussels. Eighty-eight subjects were recruited who had a primary series of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccine more than 5 years ago and who never received a booster dose afterwards. Response rate after booster vaccination was very high: 84 out of 88 subjects (95.5%) had neutralizing antibodies on plaque reduction neutralization test and all (100%) had IgG antibodies on ELISA, on Day 21-28 after booster vaccination. This study adds valuable information to the common situation of delayed booster interval. The results of our study indicate that in young healthy travellers (<50 years), one booster vaccination after a primary series of TBE vaccine in the past is sufficient to obtain protective antibodies, even if primary vaccination is much longer than the recommended booster interval of 5 years. PMID:26858269

  3. Impact of vaccination on infection with Vietnam H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in hens and the eggs they lay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infections in chickens decrease egg production and eggs that are laid contain HPAIV. Vaccination once or twice was examined as a way to protect chickens from Vietnamese H5N1 HPAIV. Eighty-three percent of hens without vaccination died within 3 days ...

  4. Effects of immune stress on growth performance, immunity, and cecal microflora in chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, X J; Li, W L; Feng, Y; Yao, J H

    2011-12-01

    Immune stress is the loss of immune homeostasis by external forces. This study investigated the effects of different types of immune stress on growth performance, immunity, and the distribution of cecal microflora in broiler chickens. In total, 540 one-day-old Cobb 500 broilers were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 5 (n = 108 birds/group) treatments: 1) no vaccination; 2) simplified vaccination, which included the infectious bronchitis vaccine (H120), the inactivated avian influenza vaccine (AI), the live vaccine strain Clone-30 of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and the combined inactive vaccine for infectious bursal diseases and the Newcastle disease vaccine (ND-IB); 3) normal vaccination (simplified vaccination + second dose of ND-IB, H120, and AI); 4) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stress (normal vaccination+LPS); or 5) cyclophosphamide (CPM) stress (normal vaccination+CPM).The results showed that the average BW and average feed intake decreased significantly after treatment with LPS or CPM (P < 0.05). Chickens that were challenged by LPS or CPM had a lower ileal CP digestibility than that of the control group (P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, the levels of secreted IgA decreased significantly at 42 d of age in the chickens that were treated with LPS or CPM (P < 0.01). The proliferation of the peripheral blood mononuclear cell and the levels of serum IgG in the LPS-challenged chickens were higher than those in the control group chickens at 21 and 42 d of age, respectively (P < 0.05). Six clusters were identified at 21 d of age, but cluster 6 was a single sample. Only 5 clusters were identified at 42 d of age. The enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR fingerprints of the cecal samples from the no vaccination and the simplified vaccination groups clustered together with high coefficients. The ERIC-PCR fingerprints of the 3 cecal samples from the CPM and LPS treatment groups clustered together with high coefficients among them. The ERIC-PCR fingerprints of the microbial flora of the cecal contents revealed the potential effects of immune stress on the microbial populations of treated birds. These data suggest that broilers with simplified vaccinations or without vaccinations can achieve the same growth performance as broilers with general vaccinations, but immune stress can break the homeostasis of cecal microflora and impair intestinal mucosal immune function. PMID:22080012

  5. Influenza Vaccination Strategies: Comparing Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Saranya; Brokstad, Karl A.; Cox, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza is a major respiratory pathogen causing annual outbreaks and occasional pandemics. Influenza vaccination is the major method of prophylaxis. Currently annual influenza vaccination is recommended for groups at high risk of complications from influenza infection such as pregnant women, young children, people with underlying disease and the elderly, along with occupational groups such a healthcare workers and farm workers. There are two main types of vaccines available: the parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine and the intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine. The inactivated vaccines are licensed from 6 months of age and have been used for more than 50 years with a good safety profile. Inactivated vaccines are standardized according to the presence of the viral major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and protection is mediated by the induction of vaccine strain specific antibody responses. In contrast, the live attenuated vaccines are licensed in Europe for children from 2–17 years of age and provide a multifaceted immune response with local and systemic antibody and T cell responses but with no clear correlate of protection. Here we discuss the immunological immune responses elicited by the two vaccines and discuss future work to better define correlates of protection. PMID:26343192

  6. Protection against infectious laryngotracheitis by in ovo vaccination with commercially available viral vector recombinant vaccines.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Deirdre I; Vagnozzi, Ariel; Dorea, Fernanda; Riblet, Sylva M; Mundt, Alice; Zavala, Guillermo; Garca, Maricarmen

    2010-12-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease is mainly controlled through biosecurity and by vaccination with live-attenuated vaccines. The chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines, although proven to be effective in experimental settings, have limited efficacy in controlling the disease in dense broiler production sites due to unrestricted use and poor mass vaccination coverage. These factors allowed CEO vaccines to regain virulence, causing long lasting and, consequently, severe outbreaks of the disease. A new generation of viral vector fowl poxvirus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) vaccines carrying ILTV genes has been developed and such vaccines are commercially available. These vaccines are characterized by their lack of transmission, lack of ILTV-associated latent infections, and no reversion to virulence. HVT-vectored ILTV recombinant vaccines were originally approved for subcutaneous HVT or transcutaneous (pox) delivery. The increased incidence of ILTV outbreaks in broiler production sites encouraged the broiler industry to deliver the FPV-LT and HVT-LT recombinant vaccines in ovo. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protection induced by ILTV viral vector recombinant vaccines after in ovo application in 18-day-old commercial broiler embryos. The protection induced by recombinant ILTV vaccines was assessed by their ability to prevent clinical signs and mortality; to reduce challenge virus replication in the trachea; to prevent an increase in body temperature; and to prevent a decrease in body weight gain after challenge. In this study, both recombinant-vectored ILTV vaccines provided partial protection, thereby mitigating the disease, but did not reduce challenge virus loads in the trachea. PMID:21313847

  7. Current status of vaccines against infectious bursal disease.

    PubMed

    Mller, Hermann; Mundt, Egbert; Eterradossi, Nicolas; Islam, M Rafiqul

    2012-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the aetiological agent of the acute and highly contagious infectious bursal disease (IBD) or "Gumboro disease". IBD is one of the economically most important diseases that affects commercially produced chickens worldwide. Along with strict hygiene management of poultry farms, vaccination programmes with inactivated and live attenuated viruses have been used to prevent IBD. Live vaccines show a different degree of attenuation; many of them may cause bursal atrophy and thus immunosuppression with poor immune response to vaccination against other pathogens and an increase in vulnerability to various types of infections as possible consequences. Depending on their intrinsic characteristics or on the vaccination procedures, some of the vaccines may not induce full protection against the very virulent IBDV strains and antigenic variants observed in the last three decades. As chickens are most susceptible to IBDV in their first weeks of life, active immunity to the virus has to be induced early after hatching. However, maternally derived IBDV-specific antibodies may interfere with early vaccination with live vaccines. Thus new technologies and second-generation vaccines including rationally designed and subunit vaccines have been developed. Recently, live viral vector vaccines have been licensed in several countries and are reaching the market. Here, the current status of IBD vaccines is discussed. PMID:22515532

  8. The human papillomavirus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ljubojevi?, Suzana

    2006-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) among sexually active couples. Its annual incidence is approximately 5.5 million. Overall, an estimated 75% of sexually active men and women have been exposed to HPV at some point in their lives. HPV-16 and -18 account for about 70% of cancers of the cervix, vagina and anus, and for about 30%-40% of cancers of the vulva, penis and orophaynx. Cancer of the cervix uteri is the second most cancer among women worldwide. Cancer of the penis is a rare cancer, accounting for less than 0.5% of cancers in men. Spontaneous clearance of HPV infection is accompanied by humoral and cellular immune response against virus-specific antigens. Two vaccines, prophylactic and therapeutic ones, are considered. Prophylactic vaccines use L1 and L2 capsid proteins to induce production of conformationally-specific antibodies. They block HPV infection. Lone L1 and L2 proteins self-assemble into a capsid that is identical to the complete virion. In this way, an antibody-mediated response is induced before the body actually comes into contact with the live virion. Therapeutic vaccines are being developed to protect HPV-positive persons against tumor development. For these vaccines, researchers are targeting the activity of the E6 and E7 oncoproteines.On June 8, 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved an HPV vaccine for clinical use. The HPV vaccine that has been approved is the quadrivalent vaccine that consists of recombinant viral-like particles (VLPs) of HPV 6, 11, 16, 18 mixed with an aluminum-containing adjuvant. It is manufactured by Merck & Co., Inc. and sold under the name of Gardasil?. The new vaccine is approved for use in females 9-26 years of age. The primary target population for vaccination should be females aged 11-12 years. However, vaccination can be given to girls as young as 9 years of age. Vaccination can receive women aged 13-26 years who have been sexually active. There are still no data on the vaccine efficacy in women older than 26, and currently no data to demonstrate the efficacy of vaccination in males; male subjects should not be vaccinated until such data become available. The vaccine is to be administered intramuscularly either into the deltoid muscle of the arm or the high anteriolateral area of the leg. Each patient receives three 0.5 mL doses given according to the following schedule: first dose is given at the elected date, second dose two months after the first dose, and third dose six months after the first dose. According to statements from Merck, the list price of the vaccine is 120 USD per dose. GlaxoSmithKline is now conducting a phase III trial of a bivalent (HPV 16, 18) vaccine, and it is going to be presented under the name of Cervarix. Similar results to those obtained with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine have been reported with the bivalent vaccine. It is expected to be released in June next year. Evaluation of the HPV vaccine efficiency in preventing dysplasia and cancer has been recommended as a globally accepted endpoint for population based studies. PMID:17010274

  9. CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken coops on the farm were used by both chickens and turkeys. The yards around the buildings were once fenced in to give the poultry brooding space. - Kineth Farm, Chicken Coop, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  10. Protection induced by infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccines alone and combined with Newcastle disease virus and/or infectious bronchitis virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Vagnozzi, Ariel; Garca, Maricarmen; Riblet, Sylva M; Zavala, Guillermo

    2010-12-01

    Two types of live attenuated vaccines have been used worldwide for the control of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV): 1) chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines; and 2) tissue culture origin vaccines (TCO). However, the disease persists in spite of extensive use of vaccination, particularly in areas of intense broiler production. Among the factors that may influence the efficiency of ILTV live attenuated vaccines is a possible interference of Newcastle Disease virus (NDV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines with the protection induced by ILTV vaccines. The protection induced by CEO and TCO vaccines was evaluated when administered at 14 days of age alone or in combination with the B1 type strain of NDV (B1) and/or the Arkansas (ARK) and Massachusetts (MASS) serotypes of IBV vaccines. Two weeks after vaccination (28 days of age), the chickens were challenged with a virulent ILTV field strain (63140 isolate, group V genotype). Protection was evaluated at 5 and 7 days postchallenge by scoring clinical signs and quantifying the challenge virus load in the trachea using real-time PCR (qPCR). In addition, the viral load of the vaccine viruses (ILTV, NDV, and IBV) was quantified 3 and 5 days postvaccination also using qPCR. The results of this study indicate that the NDV (B1) and IBV (ARK) vaccines and a multivalent vaccine constituted by NDV (B1) and IBV (ARK and MASS) did not interfere with the protection induced by the CEO ILTV vaccine. However, the NDV (BI) and the multivalent (B1/MASS/ARK) vaccines interfered with the protection induced by the TCO vaccine (P < 0.05). Either in combination or by themselves, the NDV and IBV vaccines decreased the tracheal replication of the TCO vaccine and the protection induced by this vaccine, since the ILTV-vaccinated and -challenged chickens displayed significantly more severe clinical signs and ILTV load (P < 0.05) than chickens vaccinated with the TCO vaccine alone. Although NDV and IBV challenges were not performed, the antibody responses elicited by NDV and/or the IBV vaccinations were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) when applied in combination with the CEO vaccine. PMID:21313841

  11. DETECTION OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS IN OIL EMULSION VACCINES BY REAL-TIME RT-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of poultry vaccines with adventitious agents (i.e. reticuloendotheliosis virus, chicken anemia virus) has been previously reported. Contaminating agents may be introduced at various stages during production, whether through propagation systems or shared equipment. Contamination of ina...

  12. Efficacy of three inactivated vaccines against challenge with HPAI H5N1 Vietnam/05 viruses in ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of inactivated vaccines containing a European isolate (A/turkey/England/73, H5N2 Chinese commercial vaccine), an American isolate (A/chicken/Hidalgo/94, H5N2 Mexican commercial vaccine), or a recombinant virus (RE-1, H5N1 recombinant Chinese vac...

  13. Effects of various field coccidiosis control programs on host innate and adaptive immunity in commercial broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis control programs such as vaccines or in-feed anticoccidials are commonly practiced in poultry industry to improve growth performance and health of commercial broiler chickens. In this study, we assessed the effects of various coccidiosis control programs (e.g., in ovo vaccination, synth...

  14. Rotavirus vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Catherine; Tate, Jacqueline E; Hyde, Terri B; Cortese, Margaret M; Lopman, Benjamin A; Jiang, Baoming; Glass, Roger I; Parashar, Umesh D

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among children <5 years worldwide. Currently licensed rotavirus vaccines have been efficacious and effective, with many countries reporting substantial declines in diarrheal and rotavirus-specific morbidity and mortality. However, the full public health impact of these vaccines has not been realized. Most countries, including those with the highest disease burden, have not yet introduced rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization programs. Research activities that may help inform vaccine introduction decisions include (1) establishing effectiveness, impact, and safety for rotavirus vaccines in low-income settings; (2) identifying potential strategies to improve performance of oral rotavirus vaccines in developing countries, such as zinc supplementation; and (3) pursuing alternate approaches to oral vaccines, such as parenteral immunization. Policy- and program-level barriers, such as financial implications of new vaccine introductions, should be addressed to ensure that countries are able to make informed decisions regarding rotavirus vaccine introduction. PMID:24755452

  15. Modeling the effects of annual influenza vaccination

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.J.; Ackley, D.H.; Forrest, S.; Perelson, A.S.

    1998-12-31

    Although influenza vaccine efficacy is 70--90% in young healthy first-time vaccinees, the efficacy in repeat vaccinees has varied considerably. In some studies, vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccinees was higher than in first-time vaccinees, whereas in other studies vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccinees was significantly lower than in first-time vaccinees and sometimes no higher than in unvaccinated controls. It is known that the closeness of the antigenic match between the vaccine strain and the epidemic virus is important for vaccine effectiveness. In this study the authors show that the antigenic differences between a first vaccine strain and a second vaccine strain, and between the first vaccine strain and the epidemic strain, might account for the observed variation in attack rate among two-time vaccinees.

  16. Non-MHC genomic variation affecting Marek’s disease resistance and vaccine protective efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of the domestic chicken caused by a highly infectious, oncogenic herpesvirus commonly referred to as Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MD has been controlled by vaccination with non-oncogenic turkey herpesvirus (HVT), non-oncogenic chicken herpesvirus...

  17. DNA vaccination of poultry: The current status in 2015.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Marine; Chemaly, Marianne; Dory, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    DNA vaccination is a promising alternative strategy for developing new human and animal vaccines. The massive efforts made these past 25 years to increase the immunizing potential of this kind of vaccine are still ongoing. A relatively small number of studies concerning poultry have been published. Even though there is a need for new poultry vaccines, five parameters must nevertheless be taken into account for their development: the vaccine has to be very effective, safe, inexpensive, suitable for mass vaccination and able to induce immune responses in the presence of maternal antibodies (when appropriate). DNA vaccination should meet these requirements. This review describes studies in this field performed exclusively on birds (chickens, ducks and turkeys). No evaluations of avian DNA vaccine efficacy performed on mice as preliminary tests have been taken into consideration. The review first describes the state of the art for DNA vaccination in poultry: pathogens targeted, plasmids used and different routes of vaccine administration. Second, it presents strategies designed to improve DNA vaccine efficacy: influence of the route of administration, plasmid dose and age of birds on their first inoculation; increasing plasmid uptake by host cells; addition of immunomodulators; optimization of plasmid backbones and codon usage; association of vaccine antigens and finally, heterologous prime-boost regimens. The final part will indicate additional properties of DNA vaccines in poultry: fate of the plasmids upon inoculation, immunological considerations and the use of DNA vaccines for purposes other than preventing infectious diseases. PMID:26620840

  18. Vaccination of 1-Day-Old Turkey Poults with Fowlpox Vaccine by Subcutaneous Route.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Girish; Kersting, Barry A; Spina, Gary

    2015-09-01

    In high-challenge areas, 1-day-old chicks are often vaccinated with fowlpox vaccine to provide early protection against the disease. However, we were unable to find any information in the published literature on the safety and efficacy of live fowlpox virus vaccine in 1-day-old turkeys. In this study, we evaluated a freeze-dried chicken-embryo-origin live fowlpox virus vaccine for its safety and efficacy in 1-day-old turkey poults by administering the vaccine subcutaneously in the upper back of the neck. Following vaccination, the turkeys were observed for 3 wk for vaccine-associated mortality and adverse reactions. Efficacy was evaluated by challenging the turkeys against a standard challenge strain of fowlpox virus. The results of this study indicated that the vaccine was safe and efficacious for subcutaneous administration in 1-day-old turkeys. None of the vaccinated turkeys revealed any adverse reactions or mortality associated with the vaccine. The vaccine protected more than 98% of the turkeys against fowlpox virus challenge. PMID:26478161

  19. Rotavirus vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Jacqueline E; Patel, Manish M; Cortese, Margaret M; Lopman, Benjamin; Fleming, Jessica; Lewis, Kristen; Jiang, Baoming; Gentsch, Jon; Steele, Duncan; Parashar, Umesh D

    2011-01-01

    Early rotavirus vaccine adopter countries in the Americas, Europe, and in Australia have documented substantial declines in rotavirus disease burden following the introduction of vaccination. However, the full public health impact of rotavirus vaccines has not been realized as they have not been introduced into routine immunization programs in countries of Africa and Asia with the highest rotavirus disease morbidity and mortality burden. In this article, we review the epidemiology of rotavirus disease, the development and current status of rotavirus vaccines including newly available vaccine impact data from early-introducer countries, and future priorities for implementation and monitoring of rotavirus vaccination programs in developing countries. PMID:22108032

  20. Neuropathological Studies of Chickens Following Exposure to Chlorpyrifos

    PubMed Central

    Kammon, A. M.; Brar, R. S.; Sodhi, S.; Banga, H. S.; Sandhu, H. S.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the putative neuropathological effects in young chickens after administration of a single dose of 55 mg/kg bw chlorpyrifos. The gross lesions of the nervous system comprised of congestions in the brain. Microscopic examination of brain showed mild congestion of cerebral blood vessels and mild perivascular cuffing of lymphomononuclear cells in the cerebral cortex and necrosis of the neurons. The interesting findings were the presence of cytoplasmic vacuolations of cerebral neurons and swelling of the endothelial cell of the cerebral capillaries. Cerebellum showed congestion and hemorrhages in the granular layer and necrosis of Purkinje cell. Sciatic nerve exhibited mild edema, swelling and degeneration of axons, and swelling of Schwann cells. There was a significant inhibition of plasma cholinesterase enzyme activity in chickens administered with chlorpyrifos compared to chickens of control group. The study revealed that administration of chlorpyrifos produces neuropathological lesions in chickens shortly after exposure. PMID:21170250

  1. Evaluation of the Acceptability and Feasibility of a Computer-Tailored Intervention to Increase Human Papillomavirus Vaccination among Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paiva, Andrea L.; Lipschitz, Jessica M.; Fernandez, Anne C.; Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine acceptability and feasibility of a Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based computer-tailored intervention (CTI) for increasing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in college-aged women. Participants: Two hundred forty-three women aged 18-26 were recruited between February and May of 2011. Methods: Participants completed the

  2. Evaluation of the Acceptability and Feasibility of a Computer-Tailored Intervention to Increase Human Papillomavirus Vaccination among Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paiva, Andrea L.; Lipschitz, Jessica M.; Fernandez, Anne C.; Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine acceptability and feasibility of a Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based computer-tailored intervention (CTI) for increasing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in college-aged women. Participants: Two hundred forty-three women aged 18-26 were recruited between February and May of 2011. Methods: Participants completed the…

  3. Understanding vaccines: a public imperative.

    PubMed

    Federman, Ross S

    2014-12-01

    Though once a discovery greatly celebrated by the nation, the vaccine has come under fire in recent decades from skeptics, critics, and a movement set into motion by fraudulent scientists and fueled by frustrated parents looking for answers to the autism conundrum. There is enough denialist resistance to vaccination to bring upon renewed fear of young children and infants becoming infected with diseases, the threats of which had been functionally eradicated from the United States. In more recent years, the surge in independent online journalism and blogging has invited many to rapidly share their opinions with millions of readers and, importantly, has appeared to open the door for opinion to be portrayed as fact. As a result, many parents are inundated with horror stories of vaccine dangers, all designed to eat away at them emotionally while the medical and scientific communities have mounted their characteristic response by sharing the facts, the data, and all of the reliable peer-reviewed and well-cited research to show that vaccines are safe and effective. It has become clear to me that facts are no match for emotion, but perhaps an understanding behind vaccine methodology will help parents overcome these fears of vaccinating. By helping those who doubt vaccines better understand what vaccines really are and how they work in such an incredibly engineered fashion, we may have a stronger weapon than we realize in battling the emotional arsenal that comes from the fear and skepticism of vaccinating. PMID:25506276

  4. Understanding Vaccines: A Public Imperative

    PubMed Central

    Federman, Ross S.

    2014-01-01

    Though once a discovery greatly celebrated by the nation, the vaccine has come under fire in recent decades from skeptics, critics, and a movement set into motion by fraudulent scientists and fueled by frustrated parents looking for answers to the autism conundrum. There is enough denialist resistance to vaccination to bring upon renewed fear of young children and infants becoming infected with diseases, the threats of which had been functionally eradicated from the United States. In more recent years, the surge in independent online journalism and blogging has invited many to rapidly share their opinions with millions of readers and, importantly, has appeared to open the door for opinion to be portrayed as fact. As a result, many parents are inundated with horror stories of vaccine dangers, all designed to eat away at them emotionally while the medical and scientific communities have mounted their characteristic response by sharing the facts, the data, and all of the reliable peer-reviewed and well-cited research to show that vaccines are safe and effective. It has become clear to me that facts are no match for emotion, but perhaps an understanding behind vaccine methodology will help parents overcome these fears of vaccinating. By helping those who doubt vaccines better understand what vaccines really are and how they work in such an incredibly engineered fashion, we may have a stronger weapon than we realize in battling the emotional arsenal that comes from the fear and skepticism of vaccinating. PMID:25506276

  5. Hypersensitivity and vaccines: an update.

    PubMed

    Barbaud, Annick; Deschildre, Antoine; Waton, Julie; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Trchot, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Allergic reactions to vaccines can be classified as sensitivity to one of the vaccine components, pseudo-allergic reactions, often after hyperimmunization, and exacerbation of atopic symptoms or vasculitis. Pseudo-allergic reactions, some possibly due to hyperimmunization, are probably more common than true allergies. Atopic reactions should not be confused with the "flash" phenomenon, defined as an exacerbation of an allergic reaction due to a reduction in the allergic reactivity threshold following the vaccine injection. BCGitis occurs frequently, and for this reason, guidelines for Bacillus Calmette-Gurin (BCG) have been modified. The vaccine is now reserved for people at risk of exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This review provides an update on the vaccination modalities for people allergic to eggs, on the assessment that should be performed when a reaction occurs due to tetanus vaccination, on the urticaria after hepatitis vaccination, on an aluminum granuloma, which is more and more frequent in young children, and vasculitis after flu vaccination and BCGitis. The side effects associated with new, recently released vaccines, such as anti-influenza A H1N1 or anti-human papilloma virus (HPV) will also be presented. PMID:23238161

  6. Rabies Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    Who should get rabies vaccine and when?Preventive Vaccination (No Exposure):People at high risk of exposure to rabies, such as veterinarians, animal handlers, rabies laboratory workers, spelunkers, and rabies biologics ...

  7. Polio Vaccination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Polio Vaccination Pronounced [PO-lee-oh] On this Page What ... 2000, OPV was no longer recommended for routine immunization in the United States. However, OPV continues to ...

  8. Rotavirus Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are also common in babies with rotavirus.Before rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus disease was a common and serious health ... to be hospitalized, and 20 to 60 died. Rotavirus vaccine has been used since 2006 in the United ...

  9. Molecular Characterization of Chicken Anemia Virus Circulating in Chicken Flocks in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    AboElkhair, Mohammed; Abd El-Razak, Alaa G.; Metwally, Abd Elnaby Y.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Although many previous studies reported detection of chicken anemia virus (CAV) in Egypt since 1990, genomic characterization of this circulating CAV has not been published. In the present study, four nucleotide sequences of detected CAV were genetically characterized. Methods. These nucleotide sequences were obtained from commercial chicken flocks in two different locations of Egypt during 2010. The target region for sequencing was 675?bp nucleotide of partial coding region of VP1 protein. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the detected CAV were aligned and compared to worldwide CAV isolates including commonly used vaccine strains. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences was also carried out. Results. Our results showed that all the Egyptian CAV sequences were grouped in one group with viruses from diverse geographic regions. This group is characterized by amino acids profile 75I, 97L, 139Q, and 144Q in VP1. The phylogenetic and amino acid analyses of deduced amino acid indicated that the detected CAV sequences differ from CAV vaccine strains. Conclusion. This is the first report that describes molecular characterization of circulating CAV in Egypt. The study showed that the detected CAV, in Egypt are field viruses and unrelated to vaccine strains. PMID:25302064

  10. Skin immunization with influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Skountzou, Ioanna; Compans, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Problems with existing influenza vaccines include the strain specificity of the immune response, resulting in the need for frequent reformulation in response to viral antigenic drift. Even in years when the same influenza strains are prevalent, the duration of immunity is limited, and results in the need for annual revaccination. The immunogenicity of the present split or subunit vaccines is also lower than that observed with whole inactivated virus, and the vaccines are not very effective in high risk groups such as the young or the elderly. Vaccine coverage is incomplete, due in part to concerns about the use of hypodermic needles for delivery. Alternative approaches for vaccination are being developed which address many of these concerns. Here we review new approaches which focus on skin immunization, including the development of needle-free delivery systems which use stable dry formulations and induce stronger and longer-lasting immune responses. PMID:25038939

  11. Matrix and Backstage: Cellular Substrates for Viral Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Ingo; Sandig, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines are complex products that are manufactured in highly dynamic processes. Cellular substrates are one critical component that can have an enormous impact on reactogenicity of the final preparation, level of attenuation of a live virus, yield of infectious units or antigens, and cost per vaccine dose. Such parameters contribute to feasibility and affordability of vaccine programs both in industrialized countries and developing regions. This review summarizes the diversity of cellular substrates for propagation of viral vaccines from primary tissue explants and embryonated chicken eggs to designed continuous cell lines of human and avian origin. PMID:24732259

  12. Enhancement of the immunogenicity of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus DNA vaccine by a bicistronic plasmid encoding glycoprotein B and interleukin-18.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Ying; Zhao, Li; Wei, Zhan-Yong; Cui, Bao-An; Wang, Zhen-Ya; Li, Xin-Sheng; Xia, Ping-An; Liu, Jin-Peng

    2010-08-01

    A DNA vaccine against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) can induce specific humoral and cell-mediated immunity. However, compared to conventional vaccines, DNA vaccines usually induce poor antibody responses. To determine if co-expression of a cytokine can result in a more potent ILTV DNA vaccine, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a monocistronic vector encoding the glycoprotein B (gB) of ILTV was compared to that of a bicistronic vector separately encoding the gB and chicken interleukin-18. Humoral and cellular responses induced by the DNA vaccines administered to the quadriceps muscle of chickens were evaluated. There were significant differences in antibody levels elicited by either monocistronic or bicistronic DNA vaccines as determined by ELISA. The percentages of CD3(+), CD3(+)CD8(+) and CD3(+)CD4(+) subgroups of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes in chickens immunized with the bicistronic DNA vaccine were higher than those in chickens immunized with monocistronic DNA vaccine. When chickens were challenged with a virulent CG strain of ILTV, the protective efficacy was enhanced significantly after immunization with the bicistronic DNA vaccine. These results demonstrated that co-expression of an adjuvant cytokine from a bicistronic DNA vaccine may be an effective approach to increasing ILTV DNA vaccine immunogenicity. PMID:20553764

  13. Differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) using recombinant fowlpox-H5 Avian-Influenza vaccine and standard serological tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) vaccines protect chickens from morbidity and mortality and reduce, but do not completely prevent, respiratory and intestinal replication of an AI challenge virus. Therefore, surveillance programs must be developed to differentiate infected from non-infected flocks of vaccinated ...

  14. Attenuation, transmission, and immunogenicity of an ORF-C gene deleted strain of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in specific pathogen free chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a very serious and widespread respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Conventional attenuated ILT vaccines, obtained by continuous passages in chicken embryos and tissue culture, had been the main tools utilized by th...

  15. Meningococcal Vaccine: A Guide for Teens

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Clinicians About Us Donate General Health Sexual Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Meningococcal Vaccine ... and Young Adult Medicine and the Division of Gynecology at Boston Children’s Hospital. The Center is an ...

  16. Eggcited about Chickens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  17. The Chicken Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  18. Whooping Cough and the Pertussis Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vaccine. Check the questions below. If you answer yes to any of them, be sure to talk to your ... health care provider before I get the vaccine? Yes. It’s a good idea to ... or young child? Are there any medical reasons why I should not get the ...

  19. Edible vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Artnzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    Vaccines were the result of trial and error research until molecular biology and genetic engineering made possible the creation of of many new and improved vaccines. New vaccines need to be inexpensive, easily administered, and capable of being stored and transported without refrigeration; without these characteristics, developing countries find it difficult to adopt vaccination as the central strategy for preventing their most devastating diseases. The authors describe a promising approach to inexpensive and effective vaccines: producing them in plants we commonly consume. Images p190-a p191-a p193-a p196-a PMID:9182305

  20. DNA vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2001-12-01

    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  1. Co-administration of avian influenza virus H5 plasmid DNA with chicken IL-15 and IL-18 enhanced chickens immune responses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA vaccines offer several advantages over conventional vaccines in the development of effective vaccines against avian influenza virus (AIV). However, one of the limitations of the DNA vaccine in poultry is that it induces poor immune responses. In this study, chicken interleukin (IL) -15 and IL-18 were used as genetic adjuvants to improve the immune responses induced from the H5 DNA vaccination in chickens. The immunogenicity of the recombinant plasmid DNA was analyzed based on the antibody production, T cell responses and cytokine production, following inoculation in 1-day-old (Trial 1) and 14-day-old (Trial 2) specific-pathogen-free chickens. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to explore the role of chicken IL-15 and IL-18 as adjuvants following the vaccination of chickens with the H5 DNA vaccine. Results The overall HI antibody titer in chickens immunized with pDis/H5 + pDis/IL-15 was higher compared to chickens immunized with pDis/H5 (p < 0.05). The findings revealed that the inoculation of the 14-day-old chickens exhibited a shorter time to achieve the highest HI titer in comparison to the inoculation of the 1-day-old chickens. The cellular immunity was assessed by the flow cytometry analysis to enumerate CD4+ and CD8 + T cells in the peripheral blood. The chickens inoculated with pDis/H5 + pDis/IL-15 demonstrated the highest increase in CD4+ T cells population relative to the control chickens. However, this study revealed that pDis/H5 + pDis/IL-15 was not significant (P > 0.05) in inducing CD8+ T cells. Meanwhile, with the exception of Trial 1, the flow cytometry results for Trial 2 demonstrated that the pDis/H5 + pDis/IL-18 inoculated group was able to trigger a higher increase in CD4+ T cells than the pDis/H5 group (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the pDis/H5 + pDis/IL-18 group was not significant (P > 0.05) in modulating CD8+ T cells population in both trials. The pDis/H5 + pDis/IL-15 inoculated group showed the highest IL-15 gene expression in both trials compared to other inoculated groups (P < 0.05). Similar results were obtained for the IL-18 expression where the pDis/H5 + pDis/IL-18 groups in both trials (Table 8) were significantly higher compared to the control group (P < 0.05). However, the expressions of other cytokines remained low or undetected by GeXP assay. Conclusions This study shows the diverse immunogenicity of pDis/H5 co-administered with chicken IL-15 and IL-18,with pDis/H5 + pDis/IL-15 being a better vaccine candidate compared to other groups. PMID:22866758

  2. Rubella: Current Status, Diagnosis, Outbreak Control, and Use of Rubella Vaccine in Females of Childbearing Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preblud, Stephen R.

    1984-01-01

    Widespread rubella vaccination of young children with a secondary emphasis on vaccinating susceptible adolescents and young adults has prevented epidemics of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome. Benefits of ensuring high immunity levels in college students, quick response to disease outbreak, and safety and efficacy of rubella vaccine in this

  3. Rubella: Current Status, Diagnosis, Outbreak Control, and Use of Rubella Vaccine in Females of Childbearing Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preblud, Stephen R.

    1984-01-01

    Widespread rubella vaccination of young children with a secondary emphasis on vaccinating susceptible adolescents and young adults has prevented epidemics of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome. Benefits of ensuring high immunity levels in college students, quick response to disease outbreak, and safety and efficacy of rubella vaccine in this…

  4. Conjugate Meningococcal Vaccines Development: GSK Biologicals Experience

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jacqueline M.; Mesaros, Narcisa; Van Der Wielen, Marie; Baine, Yaela

    2011-01-01

    Meningococcal diseases are serious threats to global health, and new vaccines specifically tailored to meet the age-related needs of various geographical areas are required. This paper focuses on the meningococcal conjugate vaccines developed by GSK Biologicals. Two combined conjugate vaccines were developed to help protect infants and young children in countries where the incidence of meningococcal serogroup C or serogroup C and Y disease is important: Hib-MenC-TT vaccine, which offers protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C diseases, is approved in several countries; and Hib-MenCY-TT vaccine, which adds N. meningitidis serogroup Y antigen, is currently in the final stages of development. Additionally, a tetravalent conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) designed to help protect against four meningococcal serogroups is presently being evaluated for global use in all age groups. All of these vaccines were shown to be highly immunogenic and to have clinically acceptable safety profiles. PMID:21991444

  5. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease

    PubMed Central

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  6. Disparities in Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Literacy and Vaccine Completion among Asian American Pacific Islander Undergraduates: Implications for Cancer Health Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hee Yun; Kwon, Melissa; Vang, Suzanne; DeWolfe, Jessica; Kim, Nam Keol; Lee, Do Kyung; Yeung, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Low rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among young Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) women need to be addressed, particularly given the high incidence of cervical cancer in this population. The current study aims to investigate predictors of HPV vaccination in young AAPI and non-Latina white (NLW) women. Methods: A

  7. Disparities in Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Literacy and Vaccine Completion among Asian American Pacific Islander Undergraduates: Implications for Cancer Health Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hee Yun; Kwon, Melissa; Vang, Suzanne; DeWolfe, Jessica; Kim, Nam Keol; Lee, Do Kyung; Yeung, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Low rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among young Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) women need to be addressed, particularly given the high incidence of cervical cancer in this population. The current study aims to investigate predictors of HPV vaccination in young AAPI and non-Latina white (NLW) women. Methods: A…

  8. VACCINATION AGAINST RESPIRATORY DISEASES OF POULTRY: AVIAN INFLUENZA AND NEWCASTLE DISEASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the USA each year, 8.2 billion commercial chickens are vaccinated against common respiratory pathogens such as Newcastle disease (ND) virus, a paramyxovirus type 1, and infectious bronchitis virus, a coronavirus. Most commercial poultry are vaccinated through mass immunization programs utilizing ...

  9. Adjuvant effects of chitosan and calcium phosphate particles in an inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adjuvant activity of chitosan and calcium phosphate-particles (CAP) was studied following intranasal coadministration of commercial chickens with inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. After three vaccinations with inactivated NDV in combination with chitosan or CAP an increase in an...

  10. Impact of Feeding Systems and Vaccination Programs on Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization and Clearance of E. Coli In Broiler Broiler Breeders Pullets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were in ovo-vaccinated with Marek's vaccines herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) + chicken herpesvirus (SB1) or a vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine+SB1. The chicks were placed in an experimental broiler breeder facility at the Univer...

  11. Consumer preferences and willingness to pay for value-added chicken product attributes.

    PubMed

    Martnez Michel, Lorelei; Anders, Sven; Wismer, Wendy V

    2011-10-01

    A growing demand for convenient and ready-to-eat products has increased poultry processors' interest in developing consumer-oriented value-added chicken products. In this study, a conjoint analysis survey of 276 chicken consumers in Edmonton was conducted during the summer of 2009 to assess the importance of the chicken part, production method, processing method, storage method, the presence of added flavor, and cooking method on consumer preferences for different value-added chicken product attributes. Estimates of consumer willingness to pay (WTP) premium prices for different combinations of value-added chicken attributes were also determined. Participants'"ideal" chicken product was a refrigerated product made with free-range chicken breast, produced with no additives or preservatives and no added flavor, which could be oven heated or pan heated. Half of all participants on average were willing to pay 30% more for a value-added chicken product over the price of a conventional product. Overall, young consumers, individuals who shop at Farmers' Markets and those who prefer free-range or organic products were more likely to pay a premium for value-added chicken products. As expected, consumers' WTP was affected negatively by product price. Combined knowledge of consumer product attribute preferences and consumer WTP for value-added chicken products can help the poultry industry design innovative value-added chicken products. Practical Application:? An optimum combination of product attributes desired by consumers for the development of a new value-added chicken product, as well as the WTP for this product, have been identified in this study. This information is relevant to the poultry industry to enhance consumer satisfaction of future value-added chicken products and provide the tools for future profit growth. PMID:22417604

  12. Marek's disease vaccines: a solution for today but a worry for tomorrow?

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Isabel M

    2008-07-18

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens that, in the absence of control measures, is capable of causing devastating losses in commercial poultry flocks. MD has been successfully controlled by vaccination since 1968. However, vaccine efficacy has decreased concomitantly with the increase in virulence of Marek's disease virus (MDV). The constant evolution of MDV has forced the development of new vaccines or vaccine strategies that control the more virulent emergent strains. However, this race between the introduction of new vaccines and the evolution of MDV represents a major threat for the poultry industry. In addition to vaccination, other factors might have contributed to the evolution of MDV (intensive methods of chicken production, early exposure of the chickens to MDV and administration of vaccines at very low doses). From all the possible factors influencing MDV evolution, the effect of vaccination has received the greatest attention. MD vaccines protect with great efficacy against the development of the disease but they do not prevent infection or transmission. Sterilizing immunity could be a solution to stop the evolution of the virus but it has been proven to be extremely difficult, if at all possible, to obtain with MDV or with other herpesviruses. Other solutions to improve vaccine-induced protection are discussed in this paper. PMID:18773529

  13. Hepatitis Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  14. Environmental and management factors influencing BVDV antibody levels and response to vaccination in weanling calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination has many benefits for disease prevention and overall health status of animals. Not all animals respond equally to vaccinations. A number of factors can be shown to influence a young animals response to vaccination. Calves with more maternal antibodies at the time of vaccination have poo...

  15. Evaluation of the Efficacy of an Attenuated Live Vaccine against Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Xue; Li, Zhenguang; Xia, Mingqi; He, Yanliang

    2012-01-01

    Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is characterized by high fever and high mortality in pigs of all ages and has severely affected the pork industry of China in the last few years. An attenuated HP-PRRSV strain, TJM, was obtained by passaging HP-PRRSV strain TJ on MARC-145 cells for 92 passages. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)- and antibody-free pigs were inoculated intramuscularly with TJM (105.0 50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50]) and challenged at 28, 60, 120, and 180 days postimmunization (dpi). The results showed that 5/5, 5/5, 5/5, and 4/5 immunized pigs were protected from the lethal challenge and did not develop fever and clinical diseases at each challenge, respectively. Compared to control pigs, vaccinated pigs showed much milder pathological lesions and gained significantly more weight (P < 0.01). Sequence analysis of different passages of strain TJ showed that the attenuation resulted in a deletion of a continuous 120 amino acids (aa), in addition to the discontinuous 30-aa deletion in the nsp2 region. The analysis also demonstrated that the 120-aa deletion was genetically stable in vivo. These results suggested that HP-PRRSV TJM was efficacious against a lethal challenge with a virulent HP-PRRSV strain, and effective protection could last at least 4 months. Therefore, strain TJM is a good candidate for an efficacious modified live virus vaccine as well as a useful molecular marker vaccine against HP-PRRSV. PMID:22695163

  16. Leukocyte transcriptome from chickens infected with avian pathogenic Escherichia coli identifies pathways associated with resistance

    PubMed Central

    Sandford, Erin E.; Orr, Megan; Shelby, Mandy; Li, Xianyao; Zhou, Huaijun; Johnson, Timothy J.; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Liu, Peng; Nolan, Lisa K.; Lamont, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes colibacillosis, which is responsible for morbidity and mortality in chickens. Gene expression patterns have previously been demonstrated to differ between chicken populations that are resistant vs. susceptible to bacterial infection, but little is currently known about gene expression response to APEC. Increased understanding of gene expression patterns associated with resistance will facilitate genetic selection to increase resistance to APEC. Male broiler chicks were vaccinated at 2 weeks of age and challenged with APEC at 4 weeks of age. Peripheral blood leukocytes were collected at 1 and 5 day post-infection. Lesions on the liver, pericardium, and air sacs were used to assign a mild or severe pathology status to non-vaccinated, challenged chicks. Ten treatment groups were therefore generated with a priori factors of vaccination, challenge, day post-infection, and the a posteriori factor of pathology status. Global transcriptomic response was evaluated using the Agilent 44K chicken microarray. APEC infection resulted in more up-regulation than down-regulation of differentially expressed genes. Immune response and metabolic processes were enriched with differentially expressed genes. Although vaccination significantly reduced lesions in challenged bird, there was no detectable effect of vaccination on gene expression. This study investigated the transcriptomic differences in host responses associated with mild vs. severe pathology, in addition to the effects of vaccination and challenge, thus revealing genes and networks associated with response to APEC and providing a foundation for future studies on, and genetic selection for, genetic resistance to APEC. PMID:24371566

  17. Development of Streptococcus pneumoniae Vaccines Using Live Vectors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shifeng; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae still causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in young children and the elderly. Much effort has been dedicated to developing protein-based universal vaccines to conquer the current shortcomings of capsular vaccines and capsular conjugate vaccines, such as serotype replacement, limited coverage and high costs. A recombinant live vector vaccine delivering protective antigens is a promising way to achieve this goal. In this review, we discuss the researches using live recombinant vaccines, mainly live attenuated Salmonella and lactic acid bacteria, to deliver pneumococcal antigens. We also discuss both the limitations and the future of these vaccines. PMID:25309747

  18. Development of Streptococcus pneumoniae Vaccines Using Live Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shifeng; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae still causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in young children and the elderly. Much effort has been dedicated to developing protein-based universal vaccines to conquer the current shortcomings of capsular vaccines and capsular conjugate vaccines, such as serotype replacement, limited coverage and high costs. A recombinant live vector vaccine delivering protective antigens is a promising way to achieve this goal. In this review, we discuss the researches using live recombinant vaccines, mainly live attenuated Salmonella and lactic acid bacteria, to deliver pneumococcal antigens. We also discuss both the limitations and the future of these vaccines. PMID:25309747

  19. Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Recombinants Expressing Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus (ILTV) Glycoproteins gB and gD Protect Chickens against ILTV and NDV Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Spatz, Stephen; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wen, Guoyuan; Garcia, Maricarmen; Zsak, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease is controlled mainly through biosecurity and vaccination with live attenuated strains of ILTV and vectored vaccines based on turkey herpesvirus (HVT) and fowlpox virus (FPV). The current live attenuated vaccines (chicken embryo origin [CEO] and tissue culture origin [TCO]), although effective, can regain virulence, whereas HVT- and FPV-vectored ILTV vaccines are less efficacious than live attenuated vaccines. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more efficacious ILTV vaccines. In the present study, we generated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants, based on the LaSota vaccine strain, expressing glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) of ILTV using reverse genetics technology. These recombinant viruses, rLS/ILTV-gB and rLS/ILTV-gD, were slightly attenuated in vivo yet retained growth dynamics, stability, and virus titers in vitro that were similar to those of the parental LaSota virus. Expression of ILTV gB and gD proteins in the recombinant virus-infected cells was detected by immunofluorescence assay. Vaccination of specific-pathogen-free chickens with these recombinant viruses conferred significant protection against virulent ILTV and velogenic NDV challenges. Immunization of commercial broilers with rLS/ILTV-gB provided a level of protection against clinical disease similar to that provided by the live attenuated commercial vaccines, with no decrease in body weight gains. The results of the study suggested that the rLS/ILTV-gB and -gD viruses are safe, stable, and effective bivalent vaccines that can be mass administered via aerosol or drinking water to large chicken populations. IMPORTANCE This paper describes the development and evaluation of novel bivalent vaccines against chicken infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) and Newcastle disease (ND), two of the most economically important infectious diseases of poultry. The current commercial ILT vaccines are either not safe or less effective. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more efficacious ILT vaccines. In the present study, we generated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants expressing glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) using reverse genetics technology. These recombinant viruses were safe, stable, and immunogenic and replicated efficiently in birds. Vaccination of chickens with these recombinant viruses conferred complete protection against ILTV and NDV challenge. These novel bivalent vaccines can be mass administered via aerosol or drinking water to large chicken populations at low cost, which will have a direct impact on poultry health, fitness, and performance. PMID:24829337

  20. Immune-Enhancing Effects of Taishan Pinus massoniana Pollen Polysaccharides on DNA Vaccine Expressing Bordetella avium ompA

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fujie; Liu, Xiao; Sun, Zhenhong; Yu, Cuilian; Liu, Liping; Yang, Shifa; Li, Bing; Wei, Kai; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2016-01-01

    Bordetella avium is the causative agent of bordetellosis, which remains to be the cause of severe losses in the turkey industry. Given the lack of vaccines that can provide good protection, developing a novel vaccine against B. avium infection is crucial. In this study, we constructed a eukaryotic expression plasmid, which expressed the outer membrane protein A (ompA) of B. avium, to prepare a B. avium recombinant ompA-DNA vaccine. Three concentrations (low, middle, and high) of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharides (TPPPS), a known immunomodulator, were used as adjuvants, and their immune conditioning effects on the developed DNA vaccine were examined. The pure ompA-DNA vaccine, Freund’s incomplete adjuvant ompA-DNA vaccine, and the empty plasmid served as the controls. The chickens in each group were separately inoculated with these vaccines three times at 1, 7, and 14 days old. Dynamic changes in antibody production, cytokine secretion, and lymphocyte count were then determined from 7 to 49 days after the first inoculation. Protective rates of the vaccines were also determined after the third inoculation. Results showed that the pure DNA vaccine obviously induced the production of antibodies, the secretion of cytokines, and the increase in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts in peripheral blood, as well as provided a protective rate of 50% to the B. avium-challenged chickens. The chickens inoculated with the TPPPS adjuvant ompA-DNA vaccine and Freund’s adjuvant ompA-DNA vaccine demonstrated higher levels of immune responses than those inoculated with pure ompA-DNA vaccine, whereas only the ompA-DNA vaccine with 200 mg/mL TPPPS completely protected the chickens against B. avium infection. These findings indicate that the B. avium ompA-DNA vaccine combined with TPPPS is a potentially effective B. avium vaccine. PMID:26870023

  1. Change in incidence of clinic visits for all-cause and rotavirus gastroenteritis in young children following the introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination in Israel.

    PubMed

    Muhsen, Khitam; Chodick, Gabriel; Goren, Sophy; Anis, Emilia; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Shalev, Varda; Cohen, Dani

    2015-10-22

    Both rotavirus vaccines RotaTeq and Rotarix were efficacious against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in clinical trials; yet real-world data on the effect of rotavirus vaccines on mild to moderate disease are limited. We used a large computerised database of Maccabi Health Services Health Maintenance Organisation (HMO), the second largest HMO in Israel covering 25% of the Israeli population, to compare the incidence of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) clinic visits in community settings (n=302,445) before (2005-10) and after (2011-13) the introduction of universal rotavirus immunisation in Israel. We retrieved laboratory results of rotavirus antigen tests (n=18,133) and using a weighted analysis, we estimated the impact of rotavirus immunisation on the disease burden of rotavirus AGE clinic visits. Following the introduction of universal rotavirus immunisation, the typical winter peaks of rotavirus AGE were substantially lower and significant reductions of 14.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 13.5-16.1) in all-cause AGE clinic visits and of 59.7% (95% CI: 59.8-62.6) in rotavirus AGE clinic visits were observed. The decrease was observed in all age groups, but it was greater in children aged 0 to 23 months than those aged 24 to 59 months. Continued rotavirus laboratory surveillance is warranted to monitor the sustainability of these changes. PMID:26538450

  2. Progress and pitfalls in Shigella vaccine research

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Eileen M.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Fasano, Alessio; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.

    2013-01-01

    Renewed awareness of the significant morbidity and mortality that Shigella causes among young children in developing countries combined with technological innovations in vaccinology has led to the development of novel vaccine strategies in the past five years. Along with advancement of classical vaccines in clinical trials and new sophisticated measurements of immunological responses, much new data has been produced lending promise to the potential for production of safe and effective Shigella vaccines. Herein we review the recent progress in Shigella vaccine development within the framework of persistent obstacles. PMID:23419287

  3. [Vaccine safety].

    PubMed

    Weisser, K; Barth, I; Keller-Stanislawski, B

    2009-11-01

    Vaccinations rank among the most effective preventive measures for protection against infectious diseases. Advances in development, production, and control of vaccines facilitate the increasing standards of vaccine safety and tolerance. Comprehensive pre-clinical and clinical tests as well as modern manufacturing and testing methods ensure that vaccines marketed nowadays are safe. As a rule, clinical trials performed before granting the marketing authorisation identify the most frequent adverse events and these results are used to evaluate the safety of the product. Such trials can identify relatively rare adverse events, which occur with a frequency of 1:1,000 to 1:10,000 of all vaccinated individuals. These adverse events will then be included in the summary of product characteristics (SPC) for the vaccine. Even after comprehensive clinical trials of vaccines, it is possible that very rare adverse events may be observed for the first time during general use of a vaccine. In recent years concern over real and alleged risks of vaccines relative to their benefit has grown in many countries including Germany. One reason for this is the fact that most infections that were previously feared have now faded from memory. This situation can be ascribed in part to the success of vaccination. In recent years an increased awareness of substantiated and assumed risks following immunization has been reported in Germany as well as many other countries. In part this may be due to the absence of infectious disease-related mortality and morbidity and to the fact that the severity of vaccine-preventable diseases is no longer observable. Consequently, rare and hypothetical adverse events attain undue public attention. As vaccination willingness diminishes, a resulting lower vaccination rate renders the population susceptible to the natural wild type infection with concomitant increases in mortality and morbidity of vaccine-preventable diseases. Thus, very rare or even unproven adverse events have attracted public attention. Declining vaccination rates resulting from these fears may result in a renewed increase of vaccine-preventable diseases. Adverse events following immunization (AEFI) need to be recognized and adequately assessed. This review presents the scientific knowledge concerning causality and frequency of several AEFI and hypothetical risks. PMID:19771402

  4. Antifertility vaccines.

    PubMed

    Delves, Peter J; Lund, Torben; Roitt, Ivan M

    2002-04-01

    The possibility of using immunization as a method of birth control has been explored actively since the 1930s, with several different sperm, egg or hormonal antigens having been studied as suitable targets for intervention. However, it is only in the past decade that the efficacy of vaccination against fertility has become established firmly in both humans and free-roaming animal populations. We will review recent progress in the continuing development of antifertility vaccines, with an emphasis on vaccines intended ultimately for use in humans, whilst highlighting also some of the notable successes achieved with vaccines produced for use in other species. PMID:11923117

  5. Filovirus vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Bradfute, Steven B; Dye, John M

    2011-01-01

    Filoviruses can cause severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Although there are currently no clinically proven treatments for filovirus disease, much progress has been made in recent years in the discovery of therapeutics and vaccines against these viruses. A variety of vaccine platforms have been shown to be effective against filovirus infection. This review summarizes the literature in this field, focusing on vaccines that have been shown to protect NHPs from infection. Furthermore, the uses of rodent models in vaccine development, as well as correlates of immunity, are discussed. PMID:21519188

  6. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: A Case Study in Translational Science

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Allyson K.; Harris, Antoneicka L.; Jacobson, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Each year 610,000 cases of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) occur worldwide. HPV vaccination represents a promising opportunity to prevent cancer on a global scale. The vaccines story dates back to discoveries in chickens at the beginning of the 20th century with evidence that a cell-free filtrate could transmit the propensity to grow cancers. Later, studies with similarly derived filtrates from mammalian tumors showed that hosts could develop immunity to subsequent exposures. Epidemiologic studies linked cervical cancer to members of a family of viruses that cause papillomatosis and common warts. This led to work with DNA hybridization demonstrating a causal relationship. The formation of virus-like particles (VLPs) from viral capsid proteins led to the development of models for safe and effective vaccines. While much work remains with the acceptance of universal vaccination, the HPV vaccines Gardasil and Cervarix thus represent a century of successful translational research. PMID:24841923

  7. Influenza vaccination in children primed with MF59-adjuvanted or non-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Vesikari, Timo; Forstn, Aino; Arora, Ashwani; Tsai, Theodore; Clemens, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Routine annual influenza immunization is increasingly recommended in young children. We compared the safety and immunogenicity of vaccination with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) versus MF59-adjuvanted TIV (aTIV) in children who received 2 half or full doses of aTIV or TIV, or non-influenza control vaccine, in an efficacy trial conducted 2years earlier. 197 healthy children aged 30-96months were randomized to receive vaccination with aTIV or TIV in 2010. To evaluate responses to the first follow-up seasonal vaccination after priming we excluded children who received influenza vaccine(s) in the 2009 pandemic year leaving 40 children vaccinated with aTIV, 26 children with TIV and 10 children with aTIV after a control vaccine in the parent study. Hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies were assayed on Days 1, 22 and 181. aTIV vaccination produced 6.9 to 8.0-fold higher antibody responses than the reference TIV-TIV regimen against A/H3N2 and B strains, which remained higher 6months following vaccination. The response to the B/Victoria lineage antigen in the second year's vaccine (the first vaccine contained a B/Yamagata lineage antigen) demonstrated that aTIV primed for an adequate response after a single dose on Day 22 (GMTs 160, 95 to antigens in the 2 lineages, respectively), whereas TIV did not (GMTs 38, 20). Vaccination with aTIV produced slightly higher but acceptable local and systemic reactogenicity compared to TIV-TIV and TIV-aTIV mixed regimens. Within the limitations of a small study, the strong immune responses support the use of aTIV for vaccination in young children. PMID:26091244

  8. Further observations on serotype 2 Marek's disease virus-induced enhancement of spontaneous avian leukosis virus-like bursal lymphomas in ALVA6 transgenic chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeders of the 2009 generation of Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory transgenic chicken line ALVA6, known to be resistant to infection with subgroups A and E avian leukosis virus (ALV), were vaccinated at hatch with a trivalent Marek's disease (MD) vaccine containing serotypes 1, 2, and 3 Marek'...

  9. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants expressing infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) glycoproteins gB and gD protect chickens against ILTV and NDV challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease is mainly controlled through biosecurity and vaccination with live-attenuated strains of the virus and vectored vaccines based on turkey he...

  10. Characterization of infectious laryngotracheitis virus isolates: demonstration of viral subpopulations within vaccine preparations.

    PubMed

    Garca, M; Riblet, S M

    2001-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a severe acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by ILT virus. To better understand the epidemiology of the disease, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay of the glycoprotein E gene has been developed and utilized to characterize vaccine strains and outbreak-related isolates. Enzymes EaeI and DdeI were used to differentiate the tissue culture origin (TCO) vaccine from chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines. Two RFLP patterns were observed with enzyme EaeI, one characteristic of the TCO vaccine and a second characteristic of all CEO vaccines. Three RFLP patterns were observed with enzyme DdeI. Patterns A and B were characterized as single patterns, whereas the type C pattern was a combination of patterns A and B. Analysis of vaccine strains showed the presence of patterns A and C. Pattern A was observed for the TCO vaccine and one CEO vaccine, whereas pattern C was observed for five of the six CEO vaccines analyzed. PCR-RFLP analysis of plaque-purified virus from pattern C CEO vaccine preparations demonstrated the presence of two populations (patterns A and B). Identification of molecularly different populations of viruses within currently used ILT vaccine is the first step to develop better molecular epidemiologic tools to track vaccine isolates in the field. PMID:11569727

  11. Current vaccination status regarding measles among university students in Dresden, Germany.

    PubMed

    Riemenschneider, Henna; Schübel, Jeannine; Bergmann, Antje; Kugler, Joachim; Voigt, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Germany aimed to eliminate measles by 2015, but vaccination coverage is still insufficient, especially in respect to adolescents and young adults. A cross-sectional survey with 711 students studying a range of subjects showed a high acceptance regarding vaccination. Actual self-reported vaccination rates were lower; only 65.5% of medical students and 25.3%-39.4% of other student groups reported complete vaccination against measles. Of the students, 12.6%-45% did not know their vaccination status. Vaccination acceptance did not correlate with vaccination behavior: accessible vaccination opportunities at universities should be offered. PMID:26654238

  12. RESEARCH UPDATE ON H7N2 AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS IN TURKEYS AND CHICKENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The outbreak of H7N2 low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) in Virginia during 2002 raised questions about the susceptibility of turkeys verses chickens to the virus and the potential of vaccines to provide protection. The virus A/turkey/Virginia/158512/02 (H7N2) replicated from day 2 through 7 po...

  13. Marek’s disease virus infection induces widespread differential chromatin marks in inbred chicken lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek's disease (MD) is a neoplastic disease in chickens caused by MD virus (MDV). Continuous vaccination against MD may have contributed to a progressive increase in the virulence of MDV, and therefore, the understanding of genetic resistance to MD is considered crucial to the long-term control of ...

  14. Protective Oral Vaccination against Infectious bursal disease virus Using the Major Viral Antigenic Protein VP2 Produced in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Taghavian, Omid; Spiegel, Holger; Hauck, Rdiger; Hafez, Hafez M.; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes economically important immunosuppressive disease in young chickens. The self-assembling capsid protein (VP2) from IBDV strain IR01 was expressed in Pichia pastoris resulting in the formation of homomeric, 23-nm infectious bursal disease subviral particles (IBD-SVPs) with a yield of 76 mg/l before and 38 mg/l after purification. Anti-IBDV antibodies were detected in chickens injected with purified IBD-SVPs or fed with either purified IBD-SVPs or inactivated P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 (cell-encapsulated). Challenge studies using the heterologous classical IBDV strain (MB3) showed that intramuscular vaccination with 20 g purified IBD-SVPs conferred full protection, achieved complete virus clearance and prevented bursal damage and atrophy, compared with only 40% protection, 010% virus clearance accompanied by severe atrophy and substantial bursal damage in mock-vaccinated and challenge controls. The commercial IBDV vaccine also conferred full protection and achieved complete virus clearance, albeit with partial bursal atrophy. Oral administration of 500 g purified IBD-SVPs with and without adjuvant conferred 100% protection but achieved only 60% virus clearance with adjuvant and none without it. Moderate bursal damage was observed in both cases but the inclusion of adjuvant resulted in bursal atrophy similar to that observed with live-attenuated vaccine and parenteral administration of 20 g purified IBD-SVPs. The oral administration of 250 mg P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 resulted in 100% protection with adjuvant and 60% without, accompanied by moderate bursal damage and atrophy in both groups, whereas 25 mg P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 resulted in 90100% protection with moderate bursal lesions and severe atrophy. Finally, the oral delivery of 50 g purified IBD-SVPs achieved 4060% protection with severe bursal lesions and atrophy. Both oral and parenteral administration of yeast-derived IBD-VP2 can therefore induce a specific and protective immune response against IBDV without affecting the growth rate of chickens. PMID:24376665

  15. Epidemiology of vaccine hesitancy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Mariam; Salmon, Daniel A; Omer, Saad B

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are among the most effective public health interventions against infectious diseases. However, there is evidence in the United States for parents either delaying or refusing recommended childhood vaccination. Exemptions to school immunization laws and use of alternative schedule from those recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and the American Academy of Pediatrics cannot only increase the risk of children contracting vaccine-preventable diseases but also increases the risk of infecting others who are either too young to be vaccinated, cannot be vaccinated for medical reasons or did not develop a sufficient immunological response to the vaccine. Healthcare providers are cited as the most influential source by parents on vaccine decision-making. Vaccine hesitancy needs to be addressed by healthcare providers and the scientific community by listening to the parental concerns and discussing risks associated with either delaying or refusing vaccines. PMID:24247148

  16. Vaccine hesitancy: Causes, consequences, and a call to action.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Daniel A; Dudley, Matthew Z; Glanz, Jason M; Omer, Saad B

    2015-11-27

    Vaccine hesitancy reflects concerns about the decision to vaccinate oneself or one's children. There is a broad range of factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy, including the compulsory nature of vaccines, their coincidental temporal relationships to adverse health outcomes, unfamiliarity with vaccine-preventable diseases, and lack of trust in corporations and public health agencies. Although vaccination is a norm in the U.S. and the majority of parents vaccinate their children, many do so amid concerns. The proportion of parents claiming non-medical exemptions to school immunization requirements has been increasing over the past decade. Vaccine refusal has been associated with outbreaks of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, varicella, pneumococcal disease, measles, and pertussis, resulting in the unnecessary suffering of young children and waste of limited public health resources. Vaccine hesitancy is an extremely important issue that needs to be addressed because effective control of vaccine-preventable diseases generally requires indefinite maintenance of extremely high rates of timely vaccination. The multifactorial and complex causes of vaccine hesitancy require a broad range of approaches on the individual, provider, health system, and national levels. These include standardized measurement tools to quantify and locate clustering of vaccine hesitancy and better understand issues of trust; rapid, independent, and transparent review of an enhanced and appropriately funded vaccine safety system; adequate reimbursement for vaccine risk communication in doctors' offices; and individually tailored messages for parents who have vaccine concerns, especially first-time pregnant women. The potential of vaccines to prevent illness and save lives has never been greater. Yet, that potential is directly dependent on parental acceptance of vaccines, which requires confidence in vaccines, healthcare providers who recommend and administer vaccines, and the systems to make sure vaccines are safe. PMID:26615171

  17. Vaccine Hesitancy: Causes, Consequences, and a Call to Action.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Daniel A; Dudley, Matthew Z; Glanz, Jason M; Omer, Saad B

    2015-12-01

    Vaccine hesitancy reflects concerns about the decision to vaccinate oneself or one's children. There is a broad range of factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy, including the compulsory nature of vaccines, their coincidental temporal relationships to adverse health outcomes, unfamiliarity with vaccine-preventable diseases, and lack of trust in corporations and public health agencies. Although vaccination is a norm in the U.S. and the majority of parents vaccinate their children, many do so amid concerns. The proportion of parents claiming non-medical exemptions to school immunization requirements has been increasing over the past decade. Vaccine refusal has been associated with outbreaks of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, varicella, pneumococcal disease, measles, and pertussis, resulting in the unnecessary suffering of young children and waste of limited public health resources. Vaccine hesitancy is an extremely important issue that needs to be addressed because effective control of vaccine-preventable diseases generally requires indefinite maintenance of extremely high rates of timely vaccination. The multifactorial and complex causes of vaccine hesitancy require a broad range of approaches on the individual, provider, health system, and national levels. These include standardized measurement tools to quantify and locate clustering of vaccine hesitancy and better understand issues of trust; rapid, independent, and transparent review of an enhanced and appropriately funded vaccine safety system; adequate reimbursement for vaccine risk communication in doctors' offices; and individually tailored messages for parents who have vaccine concerns, especially first-time pregnant women. The potential of vaccines to prevent illness and save lives has never been greater. Yet, that potential is directly dependent on parental acceptance of vaccines, which requires confidence in vaccines, healthcare providers who recommend and administer vaccines, and the systems to make sure vaccines are safe. PMID:26337116

  18. Mucosal and systemic antibody responses to potential Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccine protein antigens in young children with cystic fibrosis following colonization and infection

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Ryka; Kyd, Jennelle M.; Carzino, Rosemary; Armstrong, David; Grimwood, Keith; Otczyk, Diana C.; Cripps, Allan W.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important prognostic determinant in cystic fibrosis (CF). Little is known however, about P. aeruginosa induced local mucosal and systemic immune responses. Twenty CF children were categorized according to their P. aeruginosa status: (1) chronic lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), (2) prior successfully treated initial LRTI, (3) isolated upper respiratory tract (URT) colonization, and (4) no known URT colonization or previous LRTI. Their antibody responses, and those of six non-CF disease controls, in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid to potential P. aeruginosa vaccine antigens outer membrane protein F (OprF), outer membrane protein H (OprH), catalase A (KatA) and a whole killed cell (WKC) extract were evaluated. Outer membrane protein G (OprG) responses were also measured in blood. Natural exposure, colonization and infection resulted in detectable antibody levels in BAL and serum in all CF groups. Both chronically infected and URT colonized CF children had substantially elevated immunoglobulin A antibody levels in the BAL fluid and sera toward the WKC extract and OprF antigen compared with the other groups of CF children and non-CF controls. The serum levels of specific P. aeruginosa antibodies involving immunoglobulin G and M isotypes increased with chronic LRTI, especially antibody levels to KatA, OprH and WKC extract, which were substantially greater in chronically infected children compared with all other groups. In conclusion, natural exposure, URT colonization and LRTI with P. aeruginosa all induce substantial mucosal and systemic antibody responses to potential vaccine antigens with chronically infected CF children having the highest levels. PMID:23249482

  19. 9 CFR 113.325 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... predetermined quantity of vaccine virus. Five replicate virus titrations shall be conducted on an aliquot of the... ataxic chickens as positive evidence of viral infection. (iv) A satisfactory titration shall have at... samples of completed product shall be tested for virus titer using the titration method used in...

  20. 9 CFR 113.325 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... predetermined quantity of vaccine virus. Five replicate virus titrations shall be conducted on an aliquot of the... ataxic chickens as positive evidence of viral infection. (iv) A satisfactory titration shall have at... samples of completed product shall be tested for virus titer using the titration method used in...

  1. 9 CFR 113.325 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... predetermined quantity of vaccine virus. Five replicate virus titrations shall be conducted on an aliquot of the... ataxic chickens as positive evidence of viral infection. (iv) A satisfactory titration shall have at... samples of completed product shall be tested for virus titer using the titration method used in...

  2. 9 CFR 113.325 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... predetermined quantity of vaccine virus. Five replicate virus titrations shall be conducted on an aliquot of the... ataxic chickens as positive evidence of viral infection. (iv) A satisfactory titration shall have at... samples of completed product shall be tested for virus titer using the titration method used in...

  3. 9 CFR 113.325 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... predetermined quantity of vaccine virus. Five replicate virus titrations shall be conducted on an aliquot of the... ataxic chickens as positive evidence of viral infection. (iv) A satisfactory titration shall have at... samples of completed product shall be tested for virus titer using the titration method used in...

  4. Recombinant bivalent vaccines against infectious laryngotracheitis and Newcastle disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The current commercial ILT vaccines are either not safe or less effective. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more...

  5. Adult vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Kena A; Schmitt, H Josef; Jansen, Kathrin U; Anderson, Annaliesa S

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination of children has had a major impact on the morbidity and mortality of many infectious diseases globally. However, with age, immune responses to vaccines can be less robust, which can be further enhanced by underlying diseases that are common in the older adult. In many countries around the globe booster vaccinations against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis are recommended for adults. For the older adult, vaccination against pneumococcal diseases, influenza and herpes zoster are also recommended. Despite these recommendations, the widespread use of these vaccines in the adult population clearly lags behind the vaccine uptake and successes documented for pediatric vaccination programs. Furthermore, extensive and sometimes inappropriate use of antibiotics have fostered the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (e.g., methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) as well as increased susceptibility in the elderly to bacterial species such as Clostridium difficile. Infectious diseases remain an important unmet medical need and new concepts to successfully implement vaccination of adults are urgently needed. PMID:25483533

  6. Biologic Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    ADAMS, KATHERINE T.

    2009-01-01

    The threat of new disease pandemics has spurred the development of biologic vaccines, which promise tremendous improvements in global and local health. Several lend themselves to the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. But the uncertainties of whom to vaccinate raise the question of whether the health care system can make these promising products viable. PMID:22478749

  7. BVDV vaccination in North America: risks versus benefits.

    PubMed

    Griebel, Philip J

    2015-06-01

    The control and prevention of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections has provided substantial challenges. Viral genetic variation, persistent infections, and viral tropism for immune cells have complicated disease control strategies. Vaccination has, however, provided an effective tool to prevent acute systemic infections and increase reproductive efficiency through fetal protection. There has been substantial controversy about the safety and efficacy of BVDV vaccines, especially when comparing killed versus modified-live viral (MLV) vaccines. Furthermore, numerous vaccination protocols have been proposed to protect the fetus and ensure maternal antibody transfer to the calf. These issues have been further complicated by reports of immune suppression during natural infections and following vaccination. While killed BVDV vaccines provide the greatest safety, their limited immunogenicity makes multiple vaccinations necessary. In contrast, MLV BVDV vaccines induce a broader range of immune responses with a longer duration of immunity, but require strategic vaccination to minimize potential risks. Vaccination strategies for breeding females and young calves, in the face of maternal antibody, are discussed. With intranasal vaccination of young calves it is possible to avoid maternal antibody interference and induce immune memory that persists for 6-8 months. Thus, with an integrated vaccination protocol for both breeding cows and calves it is possible to maximize disease protection while minimizing vaccine risks. PMID:26050569

  8. Ethical considerations of universal vaccination against human papilloma virus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background From an epidemiological perspective, the practice of universal vaccination of girls and young women in order to prevent human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and potential development of cervical cancer is widely accepted even though it may lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer. Discussion It is argued that removing the deterrent effect – the fear of developing cancer – could encourage teenage sex. This paper reflects on the ethical legitimacy of the universal vaccination of girls and young women against HPV infection, especially regarding safety issues, the need to vaccinate people who have opted to abstain from sex, the presumption of early onset of sexual relations, the commercial interests of the companies that manufacture the vaccine, and the recommendation of universal vaccination in males. Summary Based on the aforementioned information, we believe that the universal vaccination against HPV in young women is acceptable from an ethical point of view, given the medical advantages it presents. PMID:24708813

  9. Combination Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Skibinski, David AG; Baudner, Barbara C; Singh, Manmohan; OHagan, Derek T

    2011-01-01

    The combination of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines into a single product has been central to the protection of the pediatric population over the past 50 years. The addition of inactivated polio, Haemophilus influenzae, and hepatitis B vaccines into the combination has facilitated the introduction of these vaccines into recommended immunization schedules by reducing the number of injections required and has therefore increased immunization compliance. However, the development of these combinations encountered numerous challenges, including the reduced response to Haemophilus influenzae vaccine when given in combination; the need to consolidate the differences in the immunization schedule (hepatitis B); and the need to improve the safety profile of the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis combination. Here, we review these challenges and also discuss future prospects for combination vaccines. PMID:21572611

  10. Tailored Vaccines Targeting the Elderly Using Whole Inactivated Influenza Vaccines Bearing Cytokine Immunomodulators

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Tila; Heffron, Connie L.; High, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza and its complications disproportionately affect the elderly, leading to high morbidity and mortality in this ever-increasing population. Despite widespread vaccination efforts, the current influenza vaccines are less effective in the elderly; hence newer vaccine strategies are needed to improve their efficacy in this age group. We have previously shown that co-presentation of cytokines on the surface of inactivated influenza virus particles affords better protection from lethal homotypic viral challenge in young adult mice than conventional non-adjuvanted whole inactivated vaccine. Here, we determined the efficacy of these vaccine formulations in Balb/c mice aged to 17 months (aged mice) along with the addition of a membrane-bound interleukin-12 (IL-12) vaccine formulation. Our investigations found that a single low-dose intramuscular vaccination with inactivated whole influenza vaccine co-presenting IL-12 was sufficient to provide enhanced protection from subsequent influenza challenge as compared with non-adjuvanted whole inactivated vaccine. Our results indicate that incorporation of cytokines such as IL-12 in a membrane-bound formulation in whole inactivated vaccine may provide a means to lower the vaccine dose while eliciting enhanced protective responses in the elderly, an age group that responds poorly to current vaccination regimens. PMID:24102577

  11. Correlates of human papillomavirus vaccination among female university students.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, Eva S; Kelly, Kate M; Vasilenko, Sara A; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most frequently occurring sexually transmitted infection in the United States, but only one third of adolescent girls have received the HPV vaccine (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2012; Committee on Infectious Diseases, 2012). Understanding correlates of vaccination behavior among young women has important implications for health care delivery and public service messages targeting HPV vaccination. Female college students (N = 313) completed web-based surveys during their sophomore (second) year of college, fall 2008. Surveys included questions about HPV vaccination, demographic factors (ethnicity/race, socioeconomic status [SES]), individual characteristics (romantic relationship status, grade point average, religiosity), and sexual behavior. Lifetime HPV vaccination was reported by 46.5% of participants. Being African American/Black was associated with a lower likelihood of vaccination. Having a mother with more education, adhering to religious teachings about sex-related principles, and having engaged in recent penetrative sex were associated with a higher likelihood of vaccination. Health care providers should consider young women to be an important group for HPV vaccine education and catch-up, particularly for African American/Black young women and young women from lower SES backgrounds. Providing vaccine education and access to young women before they become sexually active is critical. PMID:24964295

  12. Pertussis vaccination during pregnancy in Vietnam: Results of a randomized controlled trial Pertussis vaccination during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Ha Thi Thu; Leuridan, Elke; Maertens, Kirsten; Nguyen, Trung Dac; Hens, Niel; Vu, Ngoc Ha; Caboré, Raissa Nadège; Duong, Hong Thi; Huygen, Kris; Van Damme, Pierre; Dang, Anh Duc

    2016-01-01

    A pertussis vaccination during pregnancy has recently been adopted in several countries to indirectly protect young infants. This study assessed the effect of adding a pertussis component to the tetanus vaccination, in the pregnancy immunization program in Vietnam. A randomized controlled trial was performed. Pregnant women received either a Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria acellular pertussis) vaccine or a tetanus only vaccine between 19 and 35 weeks' gestational age. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) against tetanus (TT), diphtheria (DT), pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemaglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (Prn) were measured using commercial ELISA tests, at baseline, 1 month after maternal vaccination, at delivery, and in infants from cord blood and before and after the primary series (EPI: month 2-3-4) of a pertussis containing vaccine. Significantly higher geometric mean concentrations (GMC) were observed for all 3 measured pertussis antigens in the offspring of the Tdap group, up to 2 months of age. One month after completion of the primary infant vaccination schedule, anti-Prn GMC, but not anti-PT and anti-FHA GMCs, was significantly (p=0.006) higher in the control group. Maternal antibodies induced by vaccination during pregnancy close the susceptibility gap for pertussis in young infants. Limited interference with the infant vaccine responses was observed. Whether this interference effect disappears with the administration of a fourth vaccine dose is further studied. PMID:26529073

  13. Preparation, characterization, and in ovo vaccination of dextran-spermine nanoparticle DNA vaccine coexpressing the fusion and hemagglutinin genes against Newcastle disease

    PubMed Central

    Firouzamandi, Masoumeh; Moeini, Hassan; Hosseini, Seyed Davood; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; El Zowalaty, Mohamed E; Webster, Thomas J; Ideris, Aini

    2016-01-01

    Plasmid DNA (pDNA)-based vaccines have emerged as effective subunit vaccines against viral and bacterial pathogens. In this study, a DNA vaccine, namely plasmid internal ribosome entry site-HN/F, was applied in ovo against Newcastle disease (ND). Vaccination was carried out using the DNA vaccine alone or as a mixture of the pDNA and dextran-spermine (D-SPM), a nanoparticle used for pDNA delivery. The results showed that in ovo vaccination with 40 μg pDNA/egg alone induced high levels of antibody titer (P<0.05) in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens at 3 and 4 weeks postvaccination compared to 2 weeks postvaccination. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer was not significantly different between groups injected with 40 μg pDNA + 64 μg D-SPM and 40 μg pDNA at 4 weeks postvaccination (P>0.05). Higher antibody titer was observed in the group immunized with 40 μg pDNA/egg at 4 weeks postvaccination. The findings also showed that vaccination with 40 μg pDNA/egg alone was able to confer protection against Newcastle disease virus strain NDIBS002 in two out of seven SPF chickens. Although the chickens produced antibody titers 3 weeks after in ovo vaccination, it was not sufficient to provide complete protection to the chickens from lethal viral challenge. In addition, vaccination with pDNA/D-SPM complex did not induce high antibody titer when compared with naked pDNA. Therefore, it was concluded that DNA vaccination with plasmid internal ribosome entry site-HN/F can be suitable for in ovo application against ND, whereas D-SPM is not recommended for in ovo gene delivery. PMID:26834470

  14. Preparation, characterization, and in ovo vaccination of dextran-spermine nanoparticle DNA vaccine coexpressing the fusion and hemagglutinin genes against Newcastle disease.

    PubMed

    Firouzamandi, Masoumeh; Moeini, Hassan; Hosseini, Seyed Davood; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; El Zowalaty, Mohamed E; Webster, Thomas J; Ideris, Aini

    2016-01-01

    Plasmid DNA (pDNA)-based vaccines have emerged as effective subunit vaccines against viral and bacterial pathogens. In this study, a DNA vaccine, namely plasmid internal ribosome entry site-HN/F, was applied in ovo against Newcastle disease (ND). Vaccination was carried out using the DNA vaccine alone or as a mixture of the pDNA and dextran-spermine (D-SPM), a nanoparticle used for pDNA delivery. The results showed that in ovo vaccination with 40 ?g pDNA/egg alone induced high levels of antibody titer (P<0.05) in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens at 3 and 4 weeks postvaccination compared to 2 weeks postvaccination. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer was not significantly different between groups injected with 40 ?g pDNA + 64 ?g D-SPM and 40 ?g pDNA at 4 weeks postvaccination (P>0.05). Higher antibody titer was observed in the group immunized with 40 ?g pDNA/egg at 4 weeks postvaccination. The findings also showed that vaccination with 40 ?g pDNA/egg alone was able to confer protection against Newcastle disease virus strain NDIBS002 in two out of seven SPF chickens. Although the chickens produced antibody titers 3 weeks after in ovo vaccination, it was not sufficient to provide complete protection to the chickens from lethal viral challenge. In addition, vaccination with pDNA/D-SPM complex did not induce high antibody titer when compared with naked pDNA. Therefore, it was concluded that DNA vaccination with plasmid internal ribosome entry site-HN/F can be suitable for in ovo application against ND, whereas D-SPM is not recommended for in ovo gene delivery. PMID:26834470

  15. Live oral avirulent Salmonella vaccines.

    PubMed

    Curtiss, R; Kelly, S M; Hassan, J O

    1993-11-01

    Infection of animals and humans with Salmonella is a consequence of oral consumption of food or fluids contaminated with Salmonella. Once in the intestine, Salmonella usually attach to, invade, and proliferate in enterocytes or the cells of the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). The latter route of infection can lead to disease or to an asymptomatic carrier state or stimulate the induction of mucosal, systemic and cellular immune responses. Infection of animals with virulent invasive Salmonella can result in suppression of the immune responses which in turn can facilitate the establishment of a carrier state. It is possible to attenuate Salmonella by introducing mutations that (i) confer auxotrophy, (ii) interfere with sugar metabolism and LPS biosynthesis or (iii) affect some global means of regulating genes needed for the full display of virulence. Oral immunization of animals such as mice and chickens with avirulent Salmonella strains usually is not associated with suppression but rather with stimulation of mucosal, systemic and cellular immune responses. Vaccination by injection of killed vaccines or bacterins does not lead to the induction of either mucosal or cellular immune responses, and humoral immunity may be relatively short lived. Thus, killed vaccines are inferior to orally administered live avirulent Salmonella vaccines which induce a long-lasting protective immunity. In this manuscript we discuss desirable attributes of a safe, efficacious live attenuated Salmonella vaccine, describe attenuated Salmonella mutants so far isolated and their properties and present information on the evaluation of a live attenuated Salmonella oral vaccine for poultry.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8116195

  16. Vaccination against histomonosis prevents a drop in egg production in layers following challenge.

    PubMed

    Liebhart, D; Sulejmanovic, T; Grafl, B; Tichy, A; Hess, M

    2013-02-01

    The effect of attenuated Histomonas meleagridis on pullets was investigated and the protection of vaccinated adult laying hens against a severe challenge was studied in the same experimental setting. Four groups of 25 pullets were set up at 18 weeks of life and birds in two groups were vaccinated with in vitro-attenuated H. meleagridis. Chickens in two groups (vaccinated and non-vaccinated) were challenged 5 weeks later with virulent histomonads, while the remaining groups were retained until termination of the study 11 weeks post vaccination. Vaccination of pullets did not have any impact on their subsequent performance. Egg production of non-vaccinated but challenged birds dropped significantly (P ? 0.05) between 2 and 4 weeks post challenge (p.c.) to 58.7%, compared with 90% in control chickens. At 4 weeks p.c., the drop in egg production in vaccinated and challenged birds was significantly lower (P=0.02) than in non-protected layers. Pathological changes were found only in challenged birds 2 and 6 weeks p.c. Several non-vaccinated birds showed severe lesions in the caeca with sporadic involvement of the liver and atrophy of the reproductive tract. Vaccination prior to challenge reduced the incidence of pathological findings. For the first time, vaccination of pullets with in vitro-attenuated histomonads could be shown to be an effective and safe prophylactic tool to prevent a severe drop in egg production of commercial layers following experimental infection. PMID:23391185

  17. Human papillomavirus vaccination in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Russell, Michelle; Raheja, Vinita; Jaiyesimi, Rotimi

    2013-11-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common female cancer worldwide. It remains the highest ranking preventable cancer affecting women in developing countries. Cervical cancer is caused by sexual transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV). It is estimated that more than 80% of sexually active women will be infected with HPV in their lifetime, usually in their mid to late teens, 20s and early 30s. Persistence of high-risk oncogenic subtypes can lead to the development of precancerous change (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)), which can ultimately lead to cervical cancer. Progression from CIN to cancer is slow in most cases, and it is believed that progression from CIN 3 to cancer at 10, 20 and 30 years is 16%, 25% and 31.3%, respectively. The cervical screening programme has been successful in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer by recognising early precancerous changes and treating them. A promising advance in women's health has been the development of a vaccine targeting high-risk oncogenic subtypes 16 and 18, which are responsible for 70% of all cervical cancers. Two HPV vaccines are available: Merck & Co.'s Gardasil() and GlaxoSmithKline's Cervarix(). The aim of this programme is to provide three doses prior to sexual debut with the hope that it will reduce the rates of cervical cancer in the future. Women who are already sexually active can still be vaccinated, but, the vaccine has been shown to be less effective in them. Uptake remains a challenge for public health, and efforts should focus on educating parents about the association between HPV and cervical cancer. Routine vaccination of young men is a debatable issue and has been found to be less cost-effective, as the burden of disease such as anal and penile cancers in males is less than cervical cancers in women. Current evidence suggests that the HPV vaccination programme should focus on increasing and maintaining high coverage of vaccination in girls. There may, however, be some benefit in vaccinating young men in areas where the uptake of vaccination in women in less than 70%. A school-based vaccination programme has been shown to be effective, with an uptake rate in England of 76% for 2009/2010, but this has implications for the role of school nurses in the delivery of other services. This article explores the health benefits of the HPV vaccine, the impact of attitudes, cost-effectiveness and the involvement of school nurses in programme delivery. PMID:24006173

  18. Chicken skin virome analyzed by high-throughput sequencing shows a composition highly different from human skin.

    PubMed

    Denesvre, Caroline; Dumarest, Marine; Rémy, Sylvie; Gourichon, David; Eloit, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies show that human skin at homeostasis is a complex ecosystem whose virome include circular DNA viruses, especially papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. To determine the chicken skin virome in comparison with human skin virome, a chicken swabs pool sample from fifteen indoor healthy chickens of five genetic backgrounds was examined for the presence of DNA viruses by high-throughput sequencing (HTS). The results indicate a predominance of herpesviruses from the Mardivirus genus, coming from either vaccinal origin or presumably asymptomatic infection. Despite the high sensitivity of the HTS method used herein to detect small circular DNA viruses, we did not detect any papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, or circoviruses, indicating that these viruses may not be resident of the chicken skin. The results suggest that the turkey herpesvirus is a resident of chicken skin in vaccinated chickens. This study indicates major differences between the skin viromes of chickens and humans. The origin of this difference remains to be further studied in relation with skin physiology, environment, or virus population dynamics. PMID:26223320

  19. [Human papillomavirus vaccine. Efficacy and safety].

    PubMed

    Bruni, Laia; Serrano, Beatriz; Bosch, Xavier; Castellsagu, Xavier

    2015-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) related disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prophylactic vaccines have been recognized as the most effective intervention to control for HPV-related diseases. This article reviews the major phaseii/iii trials of the bivalent (HPVs16/18), quadrivalent (HPVs6/11/16/18), and the recently approved 9-valent vaccine (HPVs6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58). Large trials have been conducted showing the safety, immunogenicity and high efficacy of the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines in the prevention of pre-invasive lesions and infection, especially when administered at young ages before exposure to HPV. Trials of the 9-valent vaccine have also demonstrated the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the vaccine in the prevention of infection and disease associated with the vaccine types, and its potential to substantially increase the overall prevention of HPV-related diseases. Post-licensure country reports have shown the recent and early impact of these vaccines at population level after the implementation of established HPV vaccination programs, including decreases in the prevalence of vaccine HPV types, the incidence of genital warts, and the incidence of high-grade cervical abnormalities. If widely implemented, current HPV vaccines may drastically reduce the incidence of cervical cancer and other HPV-related cancers and diseases. PMID:25937455

  20. Comparison of a live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine candidate secreting Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit with a commercial vaccine for efficacy of protection against internal egg contamination by Salmonella in hens

    PubMed Central

    Nandre, Rahul M.; Eo, Seong Kug; Park, Sang Youel; Lee, John Hwa

    2015-01-01

    This study compared a new live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine candidate secreting Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (SE-LTB) with a commercial Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccine for efficacy of protection against SE infection in laying hens. Chickens were divided into 3 groups of 20 each. Group A chickens were inoculated orally with phosphate-buffered saline and served as controls, group B chickens were inoculated orally with the vaccine candidate, and group C chickens were inoculated intramuscularly with a commercial vaccine, the primary inoculation in groups B and C being at 10 wk of age and the booster at 16 wk. Groups B and C showed significantly higher titers of plasma immunoglobulin G, intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A, and egg yolk immunoglobulin Y antibodies compared with the control group, and both vaccinated groups showed a significantly elevated cellular immune response. After virulent challenge, group B had significantly lower production of thin-shelled and/or malformed eggs and a significantly lower rate of SE contamination of eggs compared with the control group. Furthermore, the challenge strain was detected significantly less in all of the examined organs of group B compared with the control group. Group C had lower gross lesion scores only in the spleen and had lower bacterial counts only in the spleen, ceca, and ovary. These findings indicate that vaccination with the SE-LTB vaccine candidate can efficiently reduce internal egg and internal organ contamination by Salmonella and has advantages over the commercial vaccine. PMID:26130857

  1. Comparison of a live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine candidate secreting Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit with a commercial vaccine for efficacy of protection against internal egg contamination by Salmonella in hens.

    PubMed

    Nandre, Rahul M; Eo, Seong Kug; Park, Sang Youel; Lee, John Hwa

    2015-07-01

    This study compared a new live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine candidate secreting Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (SE-LTB) with a commercial Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccine for efficacy of protection against SE infection in laying hens. Chickens were divided into 3 groups of 20 each. Group A chickens were inoculated orally with phosphate-buffered saline and served as controls, group B chickens were inoculated orally with the vaccine candidate, and group C chickens were inoculated intramuscularly with a commercial vaccine, the primary inoculation in groups B and C being at 10 wk of age and the booster at 16 wk. Groups B and C showed significantly higher titers of plasma immunoglobulin G, intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A, and egg yolk immunoglobulin Y antibodies compared with the control group, and both vaccinated groups showed a significantly elevated cellular immune response. After virulent challenge, group B had significantly lower production of thin-shelled and/or malformed eggs and a significantly lower rate of SE contamination of eggs compared with the control group. Furthermore, the challenge strain was detected significantly less in all of the examined organs of group B compared with the control group. Group C had lower gross lesion scores only in the spleen and had lower bacterial counts only in the spleen, ceca, and ovary. These findings indicate that vaccination with the SE-LTB vaccine candidate can efficiently reduce internal egg and internal organ contamination by Salmonella and has advantages over the commercial vaccine. PMID:26130857

  2. Vaccine preventable diseases and vaccination policy for indigenous populations.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Robert; McIntyre, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Compared with nonindigenous people, indigenous people in first-world countries have experienced much higher rates of many vaccine preventable diseases. This systematic review of published scientific literature, government reports, and immunization guidelines from Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States compares pre- and postvaccination disease rates and vaccination policy for indigenous people in these four countries. Nationally funded universal vaccination programs are clearly the most effective way of reducing disease in indigenous populations. Most successful have been programs for viral diseases in which strain variations are not important and herd immunity is high, such as measles and hepatitis B. For bacterial infections, strain variations (pneumococcal disease), heavy nasopharyngeal colonization of young infants (pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae type b disease), low vaccine effectiveness in adults with a high prevalence of risk factors (polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine), and waning immunity (pertussis) have been associated with continuing or widening disparities between indigenous and nonindigenous populations. However, universal vaccination programs are not always possible. Geographic targeting of all persons in certain regions with high disease rates has been successful, as has targeting of indigenous populations in regions where they constitute larger proportions of the population. In national programs targeting only indigenous people, it has been difficult to achieve high coverage, particularly in urban areas. Innovative program approaches are particularly needed in these situations. PMID:16763071

  3. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A CHALLENGE MODEL FOR MEASURING EFFICACY OF VACCINES AGAINST MILDLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of vaccine efficacy for mildly pathogenic (MP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) is difficult since such viruses usually do not cause illness or death in experimentally infected poultry. In a series of experimental trials, vaccinated chickens were evaluated for morbidity rates, mortality rat...

  4. Construction of Recombinant Baculoviruses Expressing Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Main Protective Antigen and Their Immune Effects on Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shanshan; Gao, Dongni; Ping, Wenxiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the limitations of conventional vaccines for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), we constructed recombinant dual expression system baculoviruses with VP2 and VP2/4/3, the main protective antigens of IBDV. We compared the immune effects of the baculoviruses in avian cells and detected their control effects on chickens with infectious bursal disease. We used Western blot analysis to measure VP2 protein and VP2/4/3 polyprotein expression in avian cells infected using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. The recombinant baculoviruses were used to vaccinate specific pathogen-free chickens, which produced specific protective antibodies and strong cellular immune responses. The results of the virus challenge experiment revealed that the protective efficiency of VP2 and VP2/4/3 virus vaccines were 95.8% and 100%, respectively, both of which were higher than the vaccine group (87.5%), and significantly higher than the control group (50%). The results demonstrated that the immune effect of BV-S-ITRs-VP2/4/3 was superior to that of BV-S-ITRs-VP2. Compared with traditional attenuated vaccine and genetically engineered live vector vaccine, the dual expression viral vector vaccine has good bio-safety. The results of this study provide a foundation for the further development of poultry vaccines, in addition to providing a useful reference for developing non-replicating live vaccines against other viral diseases. PMID:26167907

  5. Colonization factors of Campylobacter jejuni in the chicken gut

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter contaminated broiler chicken meat is an important source of foodborne gastroenteritis and poses a serious health burden in industrialized countries. Broiler chickens are commonly regarded as a natural host for this zoonotic pathogen and infected birds carry a very high C. jejuni load in their gastrointestinal tract, especially the ceca. This eventually results in contaminated carcasses during processing. Current intervention methods fail to reduce the colonization of broiler chicks by C. jejuni due to an incomplete understanding on the interaction between C. jejuni and its avian host. Clearly, C. jejuni developed several survival and colonization mechanisms which are responsible for its highly adapted nature to the chicken host. But how these mechanisms interact with one another, leading to persistent, high-level cecal colonization remains largely obscure. A plethora of mutagenesis studies in the past few years resulted in the identification of several of the genes and proteins of C. jejuni involved in different aspects of the cellular response of this bacterium in the chicken gut. In this review, a thorough, up-to-date overview will be given of the survival mechanisms and colonization factors of C. jejuni identified to date. These factors may contribute to our understanding on how C. jejuni survival and colonization in chicks is mediated, as well as provide potential targets for effective subunit vaccine development. PMID:21714866

  6. Colonization factors of Campylobacter jejuni in the chicken gut.

    PubMed

    Hermans, David; Van Deun, Kim; Martel, An; Van Immerseel, Filip; Messens, Winy; Heyndrickx, Marc; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter contaminated broiler chicken meat is an important source of foodborne gastroenteritis and poses a serious health burden in industrialized countries. Broiler chickens are commonly regarded as a natural host for this zoonotic pathogen and infected birds carry a very high C. jejuni load in their gastrointestinal tract, especially the ceca. This eventually results in contaminated carcasses during processing. Current intervention methods fail to reduce the colonization of broiler chicks by C. jejuni due to an incomplete understanding on the interaction between C. jejuni and its avian host. Clearly, C. jejuni developed several survival and colonization mechanisms which are responsible for its highly adapted nature to the chicken host. But how these mechanisms interact with one another, leading to persistent, high-level cecal colonization remains largely obscure. A plethora of mutagenesis studies in the past few years resulted in the identification of several of the genes and proteins of C. jejuni involved in different aspects of the cellular response of this bacterium in the chicken gut. In this review, a thorough, up-to-date overview will be given of the survival mechanisms and colonization factors of C. jejuni identified to date. These factors may contribute to our understanding on how C. jejuni survival and colonization in chicks is mediated, as well as provide potential targets for effective subunit vaccine development. PMID:21714866

  7. Practical aspects of vaccination of poultry against avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Spackman, Erica; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J

    2014-12-01

    Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination for low pathogenicity AIV is also becoming routine in regions where there is a high level of field challenge. In contrast, some countries will not use vaccination at all and some will only use it on an emergency basis during eradication efforts (i.e. stamping-out). There are pros and cons to each approach and, since every outbreak situation is different, no one method will work equally well in all situations. Numerous practical aspects must be considered when developing an AIV control program with vaccination as a component, such as: (1) the goals of vaccination must be defined; (2) the population to be vaccinated must be clearly identified; (3) there must be a plan to obtain and administer good quality vaccine in a timely manner and to achieve adequate coverage with the available resources; (4) risk factors for vaccine failure should be mitigated as much as possible; and, most importantly, (5) biosecurity must be maintained as much as possible, if not enhanced, during the vaccination period. PMID:25296849

  8. Typhoid Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... serious disease. It is caused by bacteria called Salmonella Typhi. Typhoid causes a high fever, fatigue, weakness, stomach ... a typhoid carrier. • Laboratory workers who work with Salmonella Typhi bacteria. Inactivated typhoid vaccine (shot) • One dose provides ...

  9. Typhoid Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... serious disease. It is caused by bacteria called Salmonella Typhi. Typhoid causes a high fever, fatigue, weakness, stomach ... a typhoid carrier. Laboratory workers who work with Salmonella Typhi bacteria. Inactivated typhoid vaccine (shot)One dose provides ...

  10. Pertussis Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further co-develop vaccines against pertussis.

  11. Oral vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qing; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    Oral vaccines are safe and easy to administer and convenient for all ages. They have been successfully developed to protect from many infectious diseases acquired through oral transmission. We recently found in animal models that formulation of oral vaccines in a nanoparticle-releasing microparticle delivery system is a viable approach for selectively inducing large intestinal protective immunity against infections at rectal and genital mucosae. These large-intestine targeted oral vaccines are a potential substitute for the intracolorectal immunization, which has been found to be effective against rectogenital infections but is not feasible for mass vaccination. Moreover, the newly developed delivery system can be modified to selectively target either the small or large intestine for immunization and accordingly revealed a regionalized immune system in the gut. Future applications and research endeavors suggested by the findings are discussed. PMID:23493163

  12. Cancer Vaccines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... will be very important for developing cancer vaccines. New technologies are being created as part of this effort. For example, a new type of imaging technology allows researchers to observe killer T cells and ...

  13. Imperfect Vaccination Can Enhance the Transmission of Highly Virulent Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Read, Andrew F; Baigent, Susan J; Powers, Claire; Kgosana, Lydia B; Blackwell, Luke; Smith, Lorraine P; Kennedy, David A; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W; Nair, Venugopal K

    2015-07-01

    Could some vaccines drive the evolution of more virulent pathogens? Conventional wisdom is that natural selection will remove highly lethal pathogens if host death greatly reduces transmission. Vaccines that keep hosts alive but still allow transmission could thus allow very virulent strains to circulate in a population. Here we show experimentally that immunization of chickens against Marek's disease virus enhances the fitness of more virulent strains, making it possible for hyperpathogenic strains to transmit. Immunity elicited by direct vaccination or by maternal vaccination prolongs host survival but does not prevent infection, viral replication or transmission, thus extending the infectious periods of strains otherwise too lethal to persist. Our data show that anti-disease vaccines that do not prevent transmission can create conditions that promote the emergence of pathogen strains that cause more severe disease in unvaccinated hosts. PMID:26214839

  14. Imperfect Vaccination Can Enhance the Transmission of Highly Virulent Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Read, Andrew F.; Baigent, Susan J.; Powers, Claire; Kgosana, Lydia B.; Blackwell, Luke; Smith, Lorraine P.; Kennedy, David A.; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W.; Nair, Venugopal K.

    2015-01-01

    Could some vaccines drive the evolution of more virulent pathogens? Conventional wisdom is that natural selection will remove highly lethal pathogens if host death greatly reduces transmission. Vaccines that keep hosts alive but still allow transmission could thus allow very virulent strains to circulate in a population. Here we show experimentally that immunization of chickens against Marek's disease virus enhances the fitness of more virulent strains, making it possible for hyperpathogenic strains to transmit. Immunity elicited by direct vaccination or by maternal vaccination prolongs host survival but does not prevent infection, viral replication or transmission, thus extending the infectious periods of strains otherwise too lethal to persist. Our data show that anti-disease vaccines that do not prevent transmission can create conditions that promote the emergence of pathogen strains that cause more severe disease in unvaccinated hosts. PMID:26214839

  15. Human papillomavirus vaccination: a case study in translational science.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Allyson K; Harris, Antoneicka L; Jacobson, Robert M

    2014-10-01

    Each year 610,000 cases of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) occur worldwide. HPV vaccination represents a promising opportunity to prevent cancer on a global scale. The vaccine's story dates back to discoveries in chickens at the beginning of the 20th century with evidence that a cell-free filtrate could transmit the propensity to grow cancers. Later, studies with similarly derived filtrates from mammalian tumors showed that hosts could develop immunity to subsequent exposures. Epidemiologic studies linked cervical cancer to members of a family of viruses that cause papillomatosis and common warts. This led to work with DNA hybridization demonstrating a causal relationship. The formation of virus-like particles from viral capsid proteins led to the development of models for safe and effective vaccines. While much work remains with the acceptance of universal vaccination, the HPV vaccines Gardasil and Cervarix thus represent a century of successful translational research. PMID:24841923

  16. [Varicella vaccination].

    PubMed

    Senterre, J

    2004-09-01

    Varicella is a highly contagious disease due to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) belonging to the herpesvirus family. Following infection, the virus remains latent in neural ganglia, and upon subsequent reactivation VZV may cause zoster. While mostly a mild disorder in childhood, varicella tends to be more severe in adults. Healthy individuals may develop complications such as bacterial superinfections, pneumonia or encephalitis. Varicella may be fatal, especially in neonates and in immunocompromised persons. Control of varicella can be achieved only by widespread vaccination. The purpose of this review is to summarize the impact and the concerns of an universal varicella vaccination. The vaccines are based on the attenuated Oka-strain. The positive results of extensive safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness analyses have warranted the introduction of these vaccines in the USA in 1995 and, more recently, in Australia and in Canada. However, European countries have some concerns. At low levels of coverage, there is a possible shift of the disease in older children and adults. At high levels of coverage, without natural exposure to the wild virus, the duration of the protection against varicella in vaccinated children could wane and zoster in elderly could increase. Recent reports suggest that a booster dose or a two doses regimen would be better for adequate immunisation in childhood. Vaccines combining measles, mumps, rubella and varicella are currently under studies and would warrant a high coverage. PMID:15516045

  17. PROPAGATION AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF A SLOW-GROWING SUBGROUP A AVIAN LEUKOSIS VIRUS THAT WAS ORIGINALLY ISOLATED FROM COMMERCIAL MAREK'S DISEASE VACCINES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attempts were made to propagate and obtain high titer of a slow-growing subgroup A avian leukosis virus (ALV-A) originally isolated from commercial Mareks disease vaccines. Chicken-embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) from various chicken lines maintained at USDA-ARS-ADOL were used; also, various concentratio...

  18. A Live Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Vaccine Allows Serological Differentiation between Vaccinated and Infected Animals▿

    PubMed Central

    Adriaensen, Connie; De Greve, Henri; Tian, Jean Q.; De Craeye, Stéphane; Gubbels, Eline; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Van Immerseel, Filip; Ducatelle, Richard; Kumar, Mahesh; Hernalsteens, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Three precisely defined deletion mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis were constructed, a guanine auxotrophic ΔguaB mutant, a nonflagellated ΔfliC mutant, and an auxotrophic and nonflagellated ΔguaB ΔfliC double mutant. All three mutants were less invasive than the wild-type strain in primary chicken cecal epithelial cells and the human epithelial cell line T84 and less efficiently internalized in the chicken macrophage cell line HD11. The ΔfliC mutant was pathogenic in orally infected BALB/c mice, while the ΔguaB mutant was attenuated and conferred protection against a challenge with the pathogenic parent strain. The ΔguaB ΔfliC double mutant was totally asymptomatic and conferred better protection than the ΔguaB mutant. This indicates that the major flagellar protein flagellin is not required for efficient vaccination of BALB/c mice against Salmonella infection. The ΔguaB ΔfliC mutant was also safe for vaccination of 1-day-old chickens. After two immunizations, it induced statistically significant protection against infection of the internal organs of the birds by a virulent S. enterica serovar Enteritidis challenge strain but not against intestinal colonization. These data demonstrate that nonflagellated attenuated Salmonella mutants can be used as marker vaccines. PMID:17261603

  19. Preteen and Teen Vaccines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or Teen Vaccinated? Which Vaccines Do Preteens and Teens Need, and When? All preteens (age 11 or ... Tdap vaccine, 2 doses of meningococcal vaccine, and Teen Health App for Parents THRIVE is a comprehensive ...

  20. Tetanus (Lockjaw) Vaccination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Tetanus (Lockjaw) Vaccination On this Page What You Should Know About ... Experts CDC experts answer your clinical vaccine questions (Immunization Action Coalition) Pediarix vaccine: questions and answers Tdap ...