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1

Safety and efficacy of a virulence gene-deleted live vaccine candidate for fowl typhoid in young chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety and efficacy of a live lon-and-cpxR-deleted Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum (SG) vaccine candidate (JOL916) was evaluated in young layer chickens. Vaccinated (n=25) and unvaccinated (n=25) groups were organized, respectively, at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of age. One-week-old and 2-week-old chickens were orally inoculated with 2×10 colony-forming units of JOL916, and orally challenged with 2 x 10

Kiku Matsuda; Atul A. Chaudhari; John Hwa Lee

2011-01-01

2

Major Histocompatibility Complex-Linked Immune Response of Young Chickens Vaccinated with an Attenuated Live Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Vaccine Followed by an Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the MHC on infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine response in chickens was investigated in three different chicken lines con- taining four different MHC haplotypes. Two MHC haplo- types were present in all three lines with one haplotype (B19) shared between the lines. Line 1 further contains the BW1 haplotype isolated from a Red Jungle Fowl. Line

H. R. Juul-Madsen; O. L. Nielsen; T. Krogh-Maibom; C. M. Røntved; T. S. Dalgaard; N. Bumstead; P. H. Jørgensen

3

AA amyloidosis in vaccinated growing chickens.  

PubMed

Systemic amyloid-A (AA) amyloidosis in birds occurs most frequently in waterfowl such as Pekin ducks. In chickens, AA amyloidosis is observed as amyloid arthropathy. Outbreaks of systemic amyloidosis in flocks of layers are known to be induced by repeated inflammatory stimulation, such as those resulting from multiple vaccinations with oil-emulsified bacterins. Outbreaks of fatal AA amyloidosis were observed in growing chickens in a large scale poultry farm within 3 weeks of vaccination with multiple co-administered vaccines. This study documents the histopathological changes in tissues from these birds. Amyloid deposits were also observed at a high rate in the tissues of apparently healthy chickens. Vaccination should therefore be considered as a potential risk factor for the development of AA amyloidosis in poultry. PMID:23570943

Murakami, T; Inoshima, Y; Sakamoto, E; Fukushi, H; Sakai, H; Yanai, T; Ishiguro, N

2013-04-06

4

Vaccination of broiler chickens with dispersed dry powder vaccines as an alternative for liquid spray and aerosol vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccination of chickens with dispersable dry powder vaccines was compared with commercial liquid vaccines. A Clone 30 Newcastle disease vaccine virus was spray dried with mannitol or with a mixture of trehalose, polyvinylpyrrolidone and bovine serum albumin. A coarse (±30?m) and fine (±7?m) powder were produced with both formulations. A commercial reconstituted Clone 30 vaccine was applied as coarse liquid

E. A. Corbanie; C. Vervaet; J. H. H. van Eck; J. P. Remon; W. J. M. Landman

2008-01-01

5

Detection of vvIBDV in vaccinated SPF chickens.  

PubMed

The purpose of our experiment was to investigate, if apparently healthy, vaccinated chickens may be involved in maintaining and spreading infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in poultry environments. We aimed at simultaneous detection and identification of very virulent field strain IBDV (vvIBDV) as well as vaccine strain IBDV in experimentally infected chickens. Two groups of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were vaccinated using the intermediate infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine D78. Group 1 was vaccinated at the age of one week and group 2 at the age of three weeks. Both groups were challenged with vvl BDV at the age of four weeks. A third, vaccinated, non-challenged group served as negative control. No clinical symptoms were observed in any of these groups. The chickens were euthanised and submitted to autopsy and sample preparation in groups of three at fixed intervals from the age of 28 to 44 days. Gross pathological lesions were not observed. Lymphoid tissues from the bursa of Fabricius, bone marrow, spleen and thymus in addition to cloacal- and bursal swaps were analysed by one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Positive results were confirmed by two-step strain specific duplex (DPX) RT-PCR. The vaccine strain was detected in bursa tissues from all groups, while the challenge strain was detected in few bursal as well as non-bursal tissue samples. The results indicate a possibility of replication of vvlBDV in vaccinated chickens. PMID:16398333

Kabell, S; Handberg, K J; Li, Y; Kusk, M; Bisgaard, M

2005-01-01

6

Detection of vvIBDV in Vaccinated SPF Chickens  

PubMed Central

The purpose of our experiment was to investigate, if apparently healthy, vaccinated chickens may be involved in maintaining and spreading infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in poultry environments. We aimed at simultaneous detection and identification of very virulent field strain IBDV (vvIBDV) as well as vaccine strain IBDV in experimentally infected chickens. Two groups of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were vaccinated using the intermediate infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine D78. Group 1 was vaccinated at the age of one week and group 2 at the age of three weeks. Both groups were challenged with vvIBDV at the age of four weeks. A third, vaccinated, non-challenged group served as negative control. No clinical symptoms were observed in any of these groups. The chickens were euthanised and submitted to autopsy and sample preparation in groups of three at fixed intervals from the age of 28 to 44 days. Gross pathological lesions were not observed. Lymphoid tissues from the bursa of Fabricius, bone marrow, spleen and thymus in addition to cloacal- and bursal swaps were analysed by one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Positive results were confirmed by two-step strain specific duplex (DPX) RT-PCR. The vaccine strain was detected in bursa tissues from all groups, while the challenge strain was detected in few bursal as well as non-bursal tissue samples. The results indicate a possibility of replication of vvIBDV in vaccinated chickens.

Kabell, S; Handberg, KJ; Li, Y; Kusk, M; Bisgaard, M

2005-01-01

7

Isolation of chicken anaemia agent and Marek's disease virus from chickens vaccinated with turkey herpesvirus and lesions induced in chicks by inoculating both agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A disease that was characterised by high mortality, necrotic lesions, severe thymic and bursal atrophy, as well as Marek's disease (MD) lesions, occurred in two young layer chicken flocks vaccinated with turkey herpesvirus (HVT) at hatching. An agent similar to the chicken anaemia agent, designated CAA82–2, and a virulent MD virus strain, designated Md82–2, were isolated from the kidneys of

Y. Otaki; T. Nunoya; M. Tajima; H. Tamada; Y. Nomura

1987-01-01

8

Anticoccidial vaccines for broiler chickens: Pathways to success  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of live vaccines, either attenuated or non-attenuated, for the control of coccidiosis due to Eimeria infections in broiler breeder or layer chickens is well established. Use in broilers, however, has been slow to gain acceptance. This has been partly for economic reasons, but also because of perceived adverse effects on early chick growth, particularly with non-attenuated vaccines, and

R. B. Williams

2002-01-01

9

Replication of Marek's disease virus in chicken feather tips containing vaccinal turkey herpesvirus DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) DNA in the feather tips of chickens vaccinated with HVT was assessed by dot blot hybridisation with a probe specific for HVT and lacking homology to MDV DNA. Only small amounts of HVT DNA were detected in the feather tips of chickens that were vaccinated or left in contact with HVT vaccinated chickens.

H. Levy; T. Maray; I. Davidson; M. Malkinson; Y. Becker

1991-01-01

10

Mycoplasma synoviae infection on Newcastle disease vaccination of chickens  

PubMed Central

Newcastle disease is characterized by respiratory manifestations in association with nervous and/or digestive symptoms. Its prevention is done by vaccination with live attenuated (lentogenic strains) and/or killed vaccines. The lentogenic strains can lead to strong post-vaccination reaction, principally due to the presence of other pathogenic agents. Among them, Mycoplasma synoviae is worldwide important, mainly in Brazil. The dissemination of this agent in poultry flocks has been achieved due to difficulties in diagnosis and disease reproduction, virulence variations among different M.synoviae strains, and attribution of typical M.synoviae disease manifestation to other disease agents. This experimental study in SPF chicks (Gallus gallus), previously infected by M.synoviae and thereafter vaccinated against Newcastle disease, was done with the objective of evaluating M.synoviae pathogenicity through assessment of post-vaccinal respiratory reactions and serologic responses to Newcastle disease virus vaccine in the absence of environmental factors. A total of 86 three days old chicks were used, being 57 infected by eye and nostril drop, with chicken activated M. synoviae strain WVU 1853. Seven days later, 21 mycoplasma infected birds plus 29 not mycoplasma infected ones were vaccinated against Newcastle disease. As results, the not infected and vaccinated birds yielded, significantly, higher and longer lasting serologic responses to Newcastle disease vaccine virus than those infected and vaccinated. Similarly, the infected and vaccinated birds yielded lower serologic reactions to M.synoviae than those only mycoplasma infected. No post-vaccinal respiratory reaction was observed in the vaccinated birds.

de Cassia Figueira Silva, Rita; do Nascimento, Elmiro Rosendo; de Almeida Pereira, Virginia Leo; Barreto, Maria Lucia; do Nascimento, Maria da Graca Fichel

2008-01-01

11

Evaluation of chicken anaemia virus mutants as potential vaccine strains in 1-day-old chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the work reported here was to study the potential of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) mutants as CAV vaccine strains. Seventy 1-day-old chickens were divided into seven groups of 10 birds, and at 1 day old birds were inoculated subcutaneously with RPMI medium, with mutants S77N, Q131P, D186G or R\\/K\\/K150\\/151\\/152G\\/A\\/A, or with wild-type CAV. At day 14 post

Amir Kaffashi; Sulochana Shrestha; Glenn F. Browning

2008-01-01

12

Responses of chickens vaccinated with a live attenuated multi-valent ionophore-tolerant Eimeria vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria species, is a serious economic disease of chickens (Gallus gallus) and the search for vaccines to control the disease is intensifying especially with the increasing threat of drug resistance. A live attenuated multi-valent ionophore-tolerant Eimeria vaccine has been developed that contains three ionophore-resistant Eimeria species, E. tenella, E. maxima and E. acervulina. The attenuated lines were

G. Q. Li; S. Kanu; S. M. Xiao; F. Y. Xiang

2005-01-01

13

Detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus antibodies by glycoprotein-specific ELISAs in chickens vaccinated with viral vector vaccines.  

PubMed

Two glycoproteins of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), gI and gB, were expressed in baculovirus and purified for the development of ILTV recombinant protein-based ELISAs. The ability of gB and gI ELISAs to detect ILTV antibodies in chickens vaccinated with viral vector vaccines carrying the ILTV gB gene, Vectormune FP-LT (the commercial fowlpox vector laryngotracheitis vaccine) and Vectormune HVT-LT (commercial turkey herpesvirus vector laryngotracheitis vaccine), was evaluated using serum samples from experimentally vaccinated and challenge chickens. The detection of gB antibodies in the absence of gI antibodies in serum from chickens vaccinated with FP-LT indicated that the gB ELISA was specific for the detection of antibodies elicited by vaccination with this viral vector vaccine. The gB ELISA was more sensitive than the commercial ILTV ELISA to detect seroconversion after vaccination with the FP-LT vaccine. Both gI and gB antibodies were detected in the serum samples collected from chickens at different times postchallenge, indicating that the combination of these ELISAs was suitable to screen serum samples from chickens vaccinated with either recombinant viral vector FP-LT or HVT-LT vaccines. The agreement between the gI ELISA and the commercial ELISA to detect antibodies in serum samples collected after challenge was robust. However, further validation of these ELISAs needs to be performed with field samples. PMID:23901757

Godoy, Alecia; Icard, Alan; Martinez, Mellisa; Mashchenko, Anna; García, Maricarmen; El-Attrachea, John

2013-06-01

14

Priming with DNA vaccine and boosting with killed vaccine conferring protection of chickens against infectious bursal disease.  

PubMed

The present study, including seven trials, was conducted to determine if priming with DNA carrying a large segment gene of the IBDV and boosting with killed IBD vaccine could adequately confer protection of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens against IBD. One-day-old chickens were intramuscularly injected with DNA plasmid coding for the large segment gene of the IBDV strain variant E (VE) (P/VP243/E) followed by an intramuscular injection of killed IBD vaccine containing both standard and variant IBDV at 1 or 2 weeks of age. Chickens were orally challenged with IBDV strain VE or standard challenge strain (STC) at 3 weeks of age. Chickens primed with 50, 100, 200, or 400mug of P/VP243/E at 1 day of age and boosted with 0.5ml of killed IBD vaccine at 1 or 2 weeks of age had 80-100% protection against challenge by IBDV strain VE or 71-100% protection against challenge by IBDV strain STC. Protected chickens had higher (P<0.05) B/B ratios and lower (P<0.05) bursal lesion scores than chickens in the challenge control (CC) groups and groups primed with saline or vector plasmid and boosted with killed IBD vaccine. No IBDV antigen was detected by immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA) in bursae of chickens protected by the DNA vaccine prime and killed vaccine boost vaccination. Prior to challenge, chickens (21 days of age) in the groups primed with P/VP243/E and boosted with killed IBD vaccine had higher (P<0.05) ELISA and VN titers to IBDV and lymphoproliferation stimulation indices. These results indicate that a prime-boost approach by priming with DNA vaccine encoding the large segment gene of the IBDV and boosting with killed IBD vaccine can adequately protect SPF chickens against challenge by homologous or heterologous IBDV. PMID:17561315

Hsieh, Ming Kun; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

2007-05-21

15

Development of recombinant VP2 vaccine for the prevention of infectious bursal disease of chickens.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of a subunit vaccine and a live bacteria vaccine to protect chickens against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection. The gene for VP2 of a new wild-type very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) strain was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression system. Following expression, the recombinant VP2 and the induced expression bacteria were used to vaccinate chickens against virulent IBDV (vIBDV). Three weeks after the vaccination, chickens were inoculated with IBDV strain BC 6/85 by intranasal route or eyedrop route, prior to challenge anti-IBDV serum antibody was detected by AGP. All chickens vaccinated with recombinant VP2 could be detected anti-IBDV antibody. The subunit vaccine of recombinant VP2 conferred protection for 90--100% chickens, live bacteria vaccine of recombinant VP2 conferred protection for 85.7% chickens. The results indicate that E. coli BL 21/pET 28 a-VP2 could be used to develop recombinant VP2 vaccine against infectious bursal disease in chickens. PMID:15979770

Rong, Jun; Cheng, Taipin; Liu, Xiaona; Jiang, Taozhen; Gu, Hong; Zou, Guolin

2005-09-23

16

Vaccination of broiler chickens with dispersed dry powder vaccines as an alternative for liquid spray and aerosol vaccination.  

PubMed

Vaccination of chickens with dispersable dry powder vaccines was compared with commercial liquid vaccines. A Clone 30 Newcastle disease vaccine virus was spray dried with mannitol or with a mixture of trehalose, polyvinylpyrrolidone and bovine serum albumin. A coarse (+/-30 microm) and fine (+/-7 microm) powder were produced with both formulations. A commercial reconstituted Clone 30 vaccine was applied as coarse liquid spray (+/-222 microm) or fine liquid aerosol (+/-24 microm). Reduction of virus concentration in the air after dispersion/nebulization was monitored by air sampling and was explained by sedimentation of coarse particles/droplets and evaporation of fine droplets. The vaccine formulations induced high haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres in the serum of 4-week-old broilers (2(7) at 4 weeks post-vaccination). The good serum antibody response with the fine liquid aerosol despite extensive inactivation of virus due to evaporation of droplets, suggested that powder formulations (without inactivation due to evaporation) might allow a significant reduction of vaccine dose, thereby offering new options for fine aerosol vaccination with low-titre vaccines. PMID:18598731

Corbanie, E A; Vervaet, C; van Eck, J H H; Remon, J P; Landman, W J M

2008-07-01

17

Efficacy of a novel trivalent inactivated vaccine against the shedding of Salmonella in a chicken challenge model.  

PubMed

The safety and efficacy of a novel trivalent inactivated Salmonella vaccine consisting of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE), Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), and Salmonella Infantis (SI) was evaluated with chickens. Chickens were injected subcutaneously with 0.5 ml per dose of the vaccine with an oil adjuvant. To assess the efficacy of the vaccine, vaccinated and unvaccinated chickens were challenged by oral inoculation of SE, ST, SI, and Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) virulent strains 4 wk after vaccination. The vaccinated chickens showed no clinical abnormalities, and the body weight gain after vaccination was comparable to that of unvaccinated chickens. The shedding of SE from the vaccinated chickens at 4, 7, 10, and 14 days postchallenge were significantly reduced in comparison with those of the unvaccinated chickens. The efficacy of the vaccine against ST and SI was comparable to that against SE. The shedding of SH at 4, 7, 10, and 14 days postchallenge was also significantly reduced in the vaccinated chickens compared with those in the unvaccinated suggesting that the vaccine could be effective against different serotype strains having O antigens homologous to those of the vaccine strains. These results suggest that the novel trivalent inactivated vaccine can be an effective tool for controlling the Salmonella infections of O4, O7, and O9 groups in chicken farms. PMID:19630237

Deguchi, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Eriko; Honda, Takashi; Mizuno, Kyosuke

2009-06-01

18

Priming with DNA vaccine and boosting with killed vaccine conferring protection of chickens against infectious bursal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study, including seven trials, was conducted to determine if priming with DNA carrying a large segment gene of the IBDV and boosting with killed IBD vaccine could adequately confer protection of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens against IBD. One-day-old chickens were intramuscularly injected with DNA plasmid coding for the large segment gene of the IBDV strain variant E

Ming Kun Hsieh; Ching Ching Wu; Tsang Long Lin

2007-01-01

19

Use of a vectored vaccine against infectious bursal disease of chickens in the face of high-titred maternally derived antibody.  

PubMed

Interference by maternally derived antibody (MDA) is a major problem for the vaccination of young chickens against infectious bursal disease (IBD). The choice of the timing of vaccination and of the type (degree of attenuation) of modified-live vaccine (MLV) to use is often difficult. An IBD vectored vaccine (vHVT13), in which turkey herpesvirus (HVT) is used as the vector, was recently developed. This vaccine is administered once at the hatchery, either in ovo or by the subcutaneous route, to 1-day-old chicks at a time when MDA is maximal. In terms of safety, the vHVT13 vaccine had negligible impact on the bursa of Fabricius when compared with classical IBD MLV. Vaccination and challenge studies demonstrated that this vaccine is able to protect chickens against various IBD virus (IBDV) challenge strains including very virulent, classical, and USA variant IBDV, despite the presence of high-titred IBD MDA at the time of vaccination. These data show that the vector vaccine combines a safety and efficacy profile that cannot be achieved with classical IBD vaccines. PMID:17560594

Bublot, M; Pritchard, N; Le Gros, F-X; Goutebroze, S

2007-06-08

20

Evidence of Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup E and Endogenous Avian Virus in Measles and Mumps Vaccines Derived from Chicken Cells: Investigation of Transmission to Vaccine Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reverse transcriptase (RT) activity has been detected recently in all chicken cell-derived measles and mumps vaccines. A study of a vaccine manufactured in Europe indicated that the RT is associated with particles containing endogenous avian retrovirus (EAV-0) RNA and originates from the chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) used as a substrate for propagation of the vaccine. We investigated the origin of

SHIRLEY X. TSANG; WILLIAM M. SWITZER; VEDAPURI SHANMUGAM; JEFFREY A. JOHNSON; CYNTHIA GOLDSMITH; ANTHONY WRIGHT; ALY FADLY; DONALD THEA; HAROLD JAFFE; THOMAS M. FOLKS; WALID HENEINE

1999-01-01

21

An in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the virulence of Newcastle disease virus and vaccines for the chicken reproductive tract.  

PubMed

The virulence of two vaccine strains and two field strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) for the female reproductive tract of chickens was assessed using oviduct organ cultures (OOC) prepared from precociously-induced oviducts in young chicks by oestrogen treatment. Ciliostasis, haemagglutination and virus isolation from infected OOC supernatants, histopathology and immunoperoxidase test results indicated the pathogenic nature of both vaccine and virulent NDVs for the precocious oviducts. The virulent viruses, mesogenic and lentogenic vaccines caused damage in that order of magnitude and the uterus had a higher susceptibility than oviducts. One virulent and the mesogenic strain of NDV were used for in vivo trials. The pathogenicity was assessed in oestrogen-treated infected chickens using histopathology and immunoperoxidase test. The vaccine virus produced transient damage up to 6 days post-infection, while the damage with the virulent isolate persisted for at least 9 days post-infection. This technique could be a pointer to possible variations in virulence of NDV vaccine and field strains, and warrants further investigation. The potential value of OOC from young chickens for testing the possibility of NDV vaccines causing damage by themselves and offering protection against damage of the reproductive tract caused by virulent isolates is emphasized. PMID:12427345

Rao, M Sreenivasa; Raj, G Dhinakar; Manohar, B Murali

2002-10-01

22

Embryo vaccination of chickens using a novel adjuvant formulation stimulates protective immunity against Eimeria maxima infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our previous study demonstrated that chickens immunized subcutaneously with an Eimeria recombinant profilin protein vaccine emulsified in a Quil A/cholesterol/DDA/Carbopol (QCDC) adjuvant developed partial protection against experimental avian coccidiosis compared with animals immunized with profili...

23

Characterization of recombinant Raccoonpox Vaccine Vectors in Chickens  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Raccoonpox virus (RCN) has been used as a recombinant vector against several mammalian pathogens but has not been tested in birds. The replication of RCN in chick embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) and chickens was studied with the use of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 hemagglutinin (HA) as a model antigen and luciferase (luc) as a reporter gene. Although RCN replicated to low levels in CEFs, it efficiently expressed recombinant proteins and, in vivo, elicited anti-HA immunoglobulin yolk (IgY) antibody responses comparable to inactivated influenza virus. Biophotonic in vivo imaging of 1-wk-old chicks with RCN-luc showed strong expression of the luc reporter gene lasting up to 3 days postinfection. These studies demonstrate the potential of RCN as a vaccine vector for avian influenza and other poultry pathogens. ?? American Association of Avian Pathologists 2010.

Hwa, S. -H.; Iams, K. P.; Hall, J. S.; Kingstad, B. A.; Osorio, J. E.

2010-01-01

24

The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox ®, a live anticoccidial vaccine in a commercial trial in broiler chickens in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox®, a live anticoccidial vaccine were examined and compared with an anticoccidial drug in a trial in broiler chickens under modern commercial conditions in China. In total, 40,660 chickens were used in the present study, half of which were vaccinated with the Supercox® vaccine comprising a precocious line of Eimeria tenella and non-attenuated lines

X. Suo; J. X. Zhang; Z. G. Li; C. T. Yang; Q. R. Min; L. T. Xu; Q. Liu; X. Q. Zhu

2006-01-01

25

Polyvalent Marek's disease vaccines: Safety, efficacy and protective synergism in chickens with maternal antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Marek's disease (MD) vaccines were evaluated for safety and protective efficacy in chickens with maternal antibodies against serotype 1, 2 and 3 MD viruses and in chickens with no maternal antibodies. The vaccines were: (1) Md11\\/75C, an attenuated serotype 1 MD virus, (2) a trivalent mixture of MD virus strains Md11\\/75C and SB?1, and turkey herpesvirus (HVT) strain FC

R. L. Witter; L. F. Lee

1984-01-01

26

Ascorbic Acid Supplementation Improved Antibody Response to Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccination in Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine if supplementation of ascorbic acid (AA) to the diet would have a beneficial effect on infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccination of chickens for protection against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection. Two hundred forty specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were divided into eight experimental groups. A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial

J. Amakye-Anim; T. L. Lin; P. Y. Hester; D. Thiagarajan; B. A. Watkins; C. C. Wu

27

Booster responses by oral vaccination with transgenic plants against chicken leucocytozoonosis.  

PubMed

We developed a transgenic potato (TrP/R7) expressing the recombinant R7 (rR7) antigen for use as an oral vaccine to protect against a chicken protozoan disease, chicken leucocytozoonosis. The TrP/R7 potato was produced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and regeneration, and the R7 gene insertion into potato chromosomes was confirmed by genomic polymerase chain reaction and Southern hybridization. rR7 antigen expression in TrP/R7 potato was also confirmed by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting using an antibody against the second-generation schizont of Leucocytozoon caulleryi. A transgenic potato clone with the highest rR7 antigen expression (3 µg rR7 antigen per gram of fresh-weight potato leaves) was selected, cultivated, and used in oral administration experiments to examine its ability to boost immunity. Chickens were immunized with chicken leucocytozoonosis vaccine "Hokken" by injection, and chickens that developed moderate levels of antibody titres were fed with TrP/R7 leaves. Chickens fed with TrP/R7 leaves showed increased antibody responses. In contrast, chickens fed with non-transgenic potato leaves showed a continuous decrease in antibody titres. Furthermore, chickens fed with TrP/R7 potato leaves showed strong resistance against experimental challenge with L. caulleryi infection. This study demonstrates the use of a plant-based oral vaccine to boost immunity against a protozoan disease. PMID:23607580

Ito, Akira; Gotanda, Tohru; Himeno, Naomi; Itchoda, Noriko; Tabayashi, Noriko; Ike, Kazunori; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Matsumura, Takeshi

2013-04-22

28

Depression of vaccinal immunity to marek's disease by infection with chicken Anaemia agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicken anaemia agent (CAA) depressed protective vaccinal immunity against Marek's disease (MD) when vaccinated chicks were inoculated with CAA at 1 to 14 days of age. In chicks inoculated with CAA alone, a typical CAA infection as manifested by early mortality, decrease in haematocrit value, severe lymphoid depletion in the lymphoid organs, and aplasia of the bone marrow occurred only

Y. Otaaki; T. Nunoya; M. Tajima; A. Kato; Y. Nomura

1988-01-01

29

9 CFR 381.67 - Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums...Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums...inspection procedure for the different young chicken and squab slaughter line...

2013-01-01

30

9 CFR 381.67 - Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums...Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums...inspection procedure for the different young chicken and squab slaughter line...

2010-01-01

31

9 CFR 381.67 - Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums...Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums...inspection procedure for the different young chicken and squab slaughter line...

2009-01-01

32

Day-of-hatch vaccination is not protective against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Necrotic enteritis, caused by netB toxin-producing Clostridium perfringens type A, is an important disease in broiler chickens worldwide. Earlier attempts to prevent necrotic enteritis by vaccination have not sufficiently taken into account the practical limitations of broiler vaccination. In most published studies on vaccination against necrotic enteritis, multiple doses at different ages are administered, which is not practical for broilers. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of subcutaneous single vaccination at day 1 or day 3 and double vaccination at day 3 and day 12, using crude supernatant containing active toxin or formaldehyde-inactivated supernatant (toxoid) of a netB-positive C. perfringens strain in a subclinical necrotic enteritis model. Double vaccination with crude supernatant resulted in a significant decrease in the number of chickens with necrotic enteritis lesions. The efficacy of vaccination using toxoid was lower compared with crude supernatant. Single vaccination with crude supernatant at day 3 resulted in significant protection, while vaccination of 1-day-old chickens with crude supernatant or toxoid, as envisaged for practical field application, did not induce protection. PMID:23581446

Mot, Dorien; Timbermont, Leen; Delezie, Evelyne; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

2013-04-01

33

Protection of chickens against infectious bronchitis virus with a multivalent DNA vaccine and boosting with an inactivated vaccine.  

PubMed

The protective efficacy of DNA plasmids encoding avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1, N, or M protein was investigated in chickens. Chickens were inoculated monovalently (with plasmid pVAX1-16S1, pVAX1-16M, or pVAX1-16N alone) or multivalently (combination of the three different plasmids, pVAX1-16S1/M/N). A prime-boost immunization protocol against IBV was developed. Chickens were immunized with the multivalent DNA vaccine twice and then boosted with an inactivated vaccine once. Antibody titers of the chickens immunized with pVAX1-16S1/M/N were much higher than those of the monovalent groups (p < 0.01). A protective rate up to 90% was observed in the pVAX1-16S1/M/N group. The serum antibody titers in the prime-boost birds were significantly higher than those of the multivalent DNA vaccine group (p < 0.01) but not significantly different compared to the inactivated vaccine group at 49 days of age. Additionally, the prime-boost group also showed the highest level of IBV-specific cellular proliferation compared to the monovalent groups (p < 0.01) but no significant difference was found compared to the multivalent DNA vaccine group, and the prime-boost group completely protected from followed viral challenge. PMID:23388447

Yan, Fang; Zhao, Yujun; Hu, Yongting; Qiu, Jianyang; Lei, Wenxin; Ji, Wenhui; Li, Xuying; Wu, Qian; Shi, Xiumin; Li, Zhong

2013-02-05

34

Effects of chicken intestinal antimicrobial peptides on humoral immunity of chickens and antibody titres after vaccination with infectious bursal disease virus vaccine in chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty chickens were randomly divided into two groups (30 chickens in each group) to determine the effect of oral administration of chicken intestinal antimicrobial peptides (CIAMP) on the humoral immune response. Chickens of both groups were fed the same diet. In the treatment group chickens received drinking water supplemented with CIAMP (1 µg\\/ml) right after hatching. Samples of blood, bursa of

Yang Yurong; Jiang Yibao; She Ruiping; Yin Qingqiang; Peng Kaisong; Bao Huihui; Wang Decheng; Liu Tianlong; Zhou Xuemei

2006-01-01

35

Immunopotentiating effects of four Chinese herbal polysaccharides administered at vaccination in chickens.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of 4 Chinese herbal polysaccharides on the production of serum antibodies and the proliferation of peripheral T lymphocytes, including subpopulations in vaccinated chickens. A total of 450 chickens were randomly assigned to 9 groups at 14 d of age and vaccinated first with live Newcastle disease (ND)-infectious bronchitis virus vaccine, and second with ND-infectious bronchitis oil adjuvant vaccine at 28 d of age. At the same time as the first vaccination, the chickens in groups 1 to 8 were intramuscularly injected with 4 polysaccharides at high and low dosages, respectively, once a day for 3 successive days starting on the day of the first vaccination. Group 9 (control group) was injected in the same manner with saline instead of a polysaccharide. On d 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 after the first vaccination, the temporal changes in serum ND hemagglutination inhibition antibody titer were determined by the micromethod. On d 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 after the first vaccination, the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to concanavalin A stimulation as well as the proportions of CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) peripheral blood mononuclear cells were determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method and flow cytometry, respectively. The results showed that astragalus polysaccharide and isatis root polysaccharide at low dosages, and achyranthes root polysaccharide and Chinese yam polysaccharide at high dosages significantly enhanced the ND antibody titers, concanavalin A-induced proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes, and ratio of CD4(+) to CD8(+) (P <0.05). Collectively, these findings indicate that the 4 polysaccharides possess significant immune-enhancing properties in chickens. This finding may have direct application in vaccine design and other strategies designed to potentiate immune system development and function in chickens. PMID:18029798

Qiu, Y; Hu, Y L; Cui, B A; Zhang, H Y; Kong, X F; Wang, D Y; Wang, Y G

2007-12-01

36

Vaccination of chickens with SPI1-lon and SPI1-lon-fliC mutant of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is gradually decreasing in poultry flocks in the EU, which may result in the demand for a vaccine that allows for the differentiation of vaccinated flocks from those infected by wild-type S. Enteritidis. In this study, we therefore constructed a (Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1) SPI1-lon mutant with or without fliC encoding for S. Enteritidis flagellin. The combination of SPI1-lon mutations resulted in attenuated but immunogenic mutant suitable for oral vaccination of poultry. In addition, the vaccination of chickens with the SPI1-lon-fliC mutant enabled the serological differentiation of vaccinated and infected chickens. The absence of fliC therefore did not affect the immunogenicity of the vaccine strain and allowed for serological differentiation of the vaccinated chickens. The SPI1-lon-fliC mutant is therefore a suitable marker vaccine strain for oral vaccination of poultry. PMID:23785484

Matulova, Marta; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan

2013-06-13

37

Effects of DDA, CpG-ODN, and plasmid-encoded chicken IFN-? on protective immunity by a DNA vaccine against IBDV in chickens  

PubMed Central

This study examined the adjuvant effects of dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDA), CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN), and chicken interferon-? (ChIFN-?) on a DNA vaccine (pcDNA-VP243) against the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). A plasmid encoding chicken IFN-ã was constructed. Twice at 2-week intervals, two-week-old chickens were injected intramuscularly and intraperitoneally with either a DNA vaccine alone or a DNA vaccine together with the respective adjuvants. On week 2 after the second immunization, the chickens were orally challenged with the highly virulent IBDV. The groups that received the DNA vaccines plus either DDA or CpG-ODN showed significantly lower survival rates than the group that received the DNA vaccine alone. However, the survival rates for the DNA vaccine alone and for the DNA vaccine plus ChIFN-? were similar. The chickens had no detectable antibodies to the IBDV before the challenge but all the surviving chickens in all groups except for the normal control group showed the induction of antibodies to the IBDV at day 10 after the challenge. As judged by the lymphocyte proliferation assays using the a WST-8 solution performed on the peripheral blood and splenic lymphocytes, the stimulation indices (SI) of the peripheral blood lymphocytes in all groups except for the normal control group were similar immediately before the challenge. At 10 days post-challenge, the SI for DNA vaccine plus either CpG-ODN or ChIFN-? was similar to that of the DNA vaccine control group. For splenic lymphocytes, the SI in the DNA vaccine plus CpG-ODN and DNA vaccine plus ChIFN-? groups were higher than for the DNA vaccine control. These results suggest that DDA actually compromises the protection against the IBDV by DNA vaccine, and CpG-ODN and IFN-? had no significant effect.

Roh, Ha Jung; Sung, Haan Woo

2006-01-01

38

INFLUENCE OF B-HAPLOTYPE ON THE EFFICACY OF RECOMBINANT FOWLPOX VACCINE PROTECTION AGAINST MAREK'S DISEASE IN CHICKENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV) containing glycoprotein gB genes from three serotypes of Marek's disease virus (MDV) was used to study the influence of B-haplotype on vaccine responses in chickens. Sequence analysis of the gB gene from three serotypes showed 80% homology. Chickens were vaccinated ...

39

Astragalus polysaccharide and oxymatrine can synergistically improve the immune efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccine in chicken.  

PubMed

Three hundred and sixty 14-day-old chickens were divided into seven groups. The chickens, except for blank control group, were vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine, repeated at 28 days old. At the same time of the first vaccination, the chickens in three astragalus polysaccharide-oxymatrine (AP-OM) groups were orally administrated respectively with the mixture of AP-OM at high, medium and low concentrations, in astragalus polysaccharide (AP) group and oxymatrine (OM) group, with corresponding medicine, in non-medicine (NM) control group, with equal volume of physiological saline, once a day for 3 successive days. On 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days after the first vaccination, the changes of peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titers of the chickens were determined by MTT method and hemagglutination inhibition test. On 14, 28 and 42 days after the first vaccination, the serum IL-2 concentration was determined by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The results showed that at most time points, the lymphocyte proliferation, antibody titers and IL-2 concentrations of 5 medicine-administrating groups were significantly higher than that of corresponding NM group. At some time points, the lymphocyte proliferation, antibody titers and IL-2 concentrations in high and medium doses of AP-OM groups were significantly or numberly higher than those in AP group and OM group. It indicated that AP-OM could significantly improve the immune efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccine, astragalus polysaccharide and oxymatrine possessed synergistical immunoenhancement. PMID:20149818

Chen, Yuku; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Guo, Zhenhuan; Wang, Junmin; Zhao, Xiaona; Fan, Yunpeng; Guo, Liwei; Yang, Shujuan; Sai, Fuding; Xing, Yujuan

2010-02-10

40

Protective efficacy in chickens, geese and ducks of an H5N1-inactivated vaccine developed by reverse genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generated a high-growth H5N1\\/PR8 virus by plasmid-based reverse genetics. The virulence associated multiple basic amino acids of the HA gene were removed, and the resulting virus is attenuated for chickens and chicken eggs. A formalin-inactivated oil-emulsion vaccine was prepared from this virus. When SPF chickens were inoculated with 0.3 ml of the vaccine, the hemagglutinin-inhibition (HI) antibody became detectable

Guobin Tian; Suhua Zhang; Yanbing Li; Zhigao Bu; Peihong Liu; Jinping Zhou; Chengjun Li; Jianzhong Shi; Kangzhen Yu; Hualan Chen

2005-01-01

41

Protective immune response of chickens to oral vaccination with thermostable live Fowlpox virus vaccine (strain TPV-1) coated on oiled rice.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to develop and evaluate a local vaccine (strain TPV-1) against Fowl pox (FP) in chickens. Two separate groups of chickens were vaccinated with FP vaccine through oral (coated on oiled rice) and wing web stab routes, respectively. The results showed that the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titres in both vaccinated groups were comparable and significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the control chickens. It was further revealed that 14 days after vaccination HI GMT of > or =2 log(2) was recorded in chickens vaccinated by oral and wing web stab routes whereas 35 days after vaccination the HI antibody titres reached 5.6 log(2) and 6.3 log(2), respectively. Moreover, in both groups the birds showed 100% protection against challenge virus at 35 days after vaccination. The findings from the present study have shown that oral route is equally effective as wing web stab route for vaccination of chickens against FP. However, the oral route can be used in mass vaccination of birds thus avoid catching individual birds for vaccination. It was noteworthy that strain TPV-1 virus could be propagated by a simple allantoic cavity inoculation and harvesting of allantoic fluid where it survived exposure at 57 degrees C for 2 hours. If the oral vaccination technique is optimized it may be used in controlling FP in scavenging and feral chickens. In conclusion, the present study has shown that FP vaccine (strain TPV-1) was safe, thermostable, immunogenic and efficacious in vaccinated chickens. PMID:19714476

Wambura, Philemon N; Godfrey, S K

2009-08-28

42

Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted…

Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

2010-01-01

43

The effect of co-administration of DNA carrying chicken interferon-? gene on protection of chickens against infectious bursal disease by DNA-mediated vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether DNA vaccination by co-administration of DNA coding for chicken interferon-gamma (IFN-?) gene and DNA encoding for the VP243 gene of IBDV could enhance immune response and protection efficacy of chickens against challenge by IBDV. Plasmids carrying VP243 gene of IBDV strain variant E (VE) (P\\/VP243\\/E) and chicken IFN-? gene (P\\/cIFN-?)

Ming Kun Hsieh; Ching Ching Wu; Tsang Long Lin

2006-01-01

44

Protection of Chickens against Avian Influenza with Non-Replicating Adenovirus-Vectored Vaccine  

PubMed Central

Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose vaccination with a replication competent adenovirus (RCA) -free human adenovirus (Ad) vector encoding an H7 AI hemagglutinin (AdChNY94.H7). Chickens vaccinated in ovo with an Ad vector encoding an AI H5 (AdTW68.H5) previously described, which were subsequently vaccinated intramuscularly with AdChNY94.H7 post-hatch, responded with robust antibody titers against both the H5 and H7 AI proteins. Antibody responses to Ad vector in ovo vaccination follow a dose-response kinetic. The use of a synthetic AI H5 gene codon optimized to match the chicken cell tRNA pool was more potent than the cognate H5 gene. The use of Ad-vectored vaccines to increase resistance of chicken populations against multiple AI strains could reduce the risk of an avian-originating influenza pandemic in humans.

Toro, Haroldo; Tang, De-chu C.; Suarez, David L.; Shi, Z.

2009-01-01

45

Efficacy of avian influenza oil-emulsion vaccines in chickens of various ages.  

PubMed

An experimental avian influenza (AI) oil-emulsion vaccine was formulated with 1 part inactivated A/turkey/Wisconsin/68 (H5N9) AI virus emulsified in 4 parts oil. Broilers were vaccinated subcutaneously (SC) either at 1 or 3 days old or at 4 or 5 wks old. Commercial white leghorn (WL) layers were vaccinated SC at 12 and 20 wks old or at only 20 wks old. Maximum geometric mean hemagglutination-inhibition titers postvaccination (PV) were 1:86-1:320 for broilers, 1:597 for twice-vaccinated layers, and 1:422 for once-vaccinated layers. Ninety to 100% of vaccinated broilers were protected against death and morbidity when challenged with highly pathogenic A/chicken/Penn/83 (H5N2) AI virus 4 weeks PV, and all were protected when challenged 8 wks PV. All controls and most vaccinates were infected by challenge virus, and 90-100% of controls died or exhibited clinical signs. Vaccinated commercial pullets were protected against morbidity, death, and egg-production decline at either peak of lay (25 wks old) or at 55 wks old. All unvaccinated controls became morbid or died, and egg production ceased 72 hours after challenge. The 0.5-ml vaccine dose was determined to contain 251 and 528 mean protective doses (PD50S) in 4-wk-old and 1-year-old SPF WL chickens, respectively, challenged 4 wks PV. PMID:2960309

Stone, H D

46

Comparative evaluation of vaccine efficacy of recombinant Marek's disease virus vaccine lacking Meq oncogene in commercial chickens.  

PubMed

Marek's disease virus (MDV) oncogene meq has been identified as the gene involved in tumorigenesis in chickens. We have recently developed a Meq-null virus, rMd5 Delta Meq, in which the oncogene meq was deleted. Vaccine efficacy experiments conducted in Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) 15I(5) x 7(1) chickens vaccinated with rMd5 Delta Meq virus or an ADOL preparation of CVI988/Rispens indicated that rMd5 Delta Meq provided superior protection than CVI988/Rispens when challenged with the very virulent plus MDV 648A strain. In the present study we set to investigate the vaccine efficacy of rMd5 Delta Meq in the field compared to several commercial preparations of CVI988/Rispens. Three large-scale field experiments, in which seeder chickens were inoculated with a very virulent plus strain of 686, vv+ MDV, were conducted in a model developed by Hy-Line International. In addition, comparisons were made with bivalent vaccine (HVT+SB-1), HVT alone and several serotype 3 HVT-vectored vaccines individually or in combination with CVI988/Rispens. Experimental results showed that addition of HVT to either of the two commercial CVI988/Rispens preparations tested (A or B) did not enhance protection conferred by CVI988/Rispens alone and that rMd5 Delta Meq was a better or equal vaccine compared to any of the CVI988/Rispens vaccines tested under the conditions of the field trials presented herein. Our results also emphasized the complexity of factors affecting vaccine efficacy and the importance of challenge dose in protection. PMID:19941987

Lee, Lucy F; Kreager, K S; Arango, J; Paraguassu, A; Beckman, B; Zhang, Huanmin; Fadly, Aly; Lupiani, B; Reddy, S M

2009-11-24

47

Influence of vaccination with CVI988\\/Rispens on load and replication of a very virulent Marek's disease virus strain in feathers of chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several highly efficacious vaccines are currently available for control of Marek's disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease in chickens. However, these vaccines are unable to prevent infection with Marek's disease virus (MDV) in vaccinated birds. This leads to shedding of virulent MDV from feather follicle epithelium and skin epithelial cells of vaccinated and infected chickens. The objective of the present study

Kamran Haq; Thomas Fear; Abdelhakeem Ibraheem; Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem; Shayan Sharif

2011-01-01

48

Influence of vaccination with CVI988\\/Rispens on load and replication of a very virulent Marek's disease virus strain in feathers of chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several highly efficacious vaccines are currently available for control of Marek's disease, a lymphoproliferative disease in chickens. However, these vaccines are unable to prevent infection with Marek's disease virus (MDV) in vaccinated birds. This leads to shedding of virulent MDV from feather follicle epithelium and skin epithelial cells of vaccinated and infected chickens. The objective of the present study was

Kamran Haq; Thomas Fear; Abdelhakeem Ibraheem; Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem; Shayan Sharif

2012-01-01

49

Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability Among Young Adults in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high prevalence setting of South Africa—where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. In 2007, we conducted six focus groups (n=42) with South Africans aged 18-24 years old. We used a deductive framework approach to identify key motivators and barriers to future HIV vaccine uptake. Participants identified HIV testing, HIV stigma, mistrust of the health care system, and concerns about sexual disinhibition as barriers to vaccine uptake. For women, family members and friends were strong motivators for vaccine uptake, while men were more likely to see vaccines as an opportunity to stop using HIV prevention strategies such as condoms and partner reductions. Implications of these findings for developing HIV vaccine dissemination strategies and policy in South Africa are discussed.

Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

2010-01-01

50

Porcine lactoferrin administration enhances peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and assists infectious bursal disease vaccination in native chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with recombinant porcine lactoferrin (rPLF) produced by yeast culture on peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titers in chickens vaccinated against the infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus. Treatment groups were fed with rPLF powder in their diet (2.0%, w\\/w), and the IBD vaccine was administrated at 1

Che-Ming Hung; Chia-Chou Yeh; Hsiao-Ling Chen; Cheng-Wei Lai; Meng-Fu Kuo; Ming-Hsien Yeh; Willie Lin; Ming-Yu Tu; Hsu-Chen Cheng; Chuan-Mu Chen

2010-01-01

51

Safety of the attenuated anticoccidial vaccine 'Paracox' in broiler chickens isolated from extraneous coccidial infection.  

PubMed

A trial was carried out in 1-day-old broiler chicks raised for 54 days in floorpens under simulated commercial conditions, but isolated from all extraneous virulent coccidial infections, to demonstrate the safety of 'Paracox' attenuated vaccine administered at the recommended dose when chicks were 7 days old. The vaccine did not adversely affect the water consumption, faecal moisture or litter condition of the broilers. Recycling of the attenuated coccidia occurred in vaccinated birds, oocysts being present in the litter between 5 and 33 days after vaccination; a single peak of oocysts was detectable 5 or 12 days after vaccination. Unvaccinated medicated control birds did not produce oocysts, indicating freedom from both between-pen contamination by the vaccine and invasion of the chicken-house by extraneous coccidial infection. A small proportion (4%) of vaccinated birds had mild coccidial lesions when sampled at 26, 33 or 40 days after vaccination. Despite this, the vaccinated birds performed better than control (unvaccinated, nicarbazin-treated) birds and there was no post-vaccinal check in their weight gain. Their mean finishing weight was 10.4% greater, their food conversion ratio 7.2% lower and their mortality 44.4% lower than the unvaccinated control birds, reflecting the safety of 'Paracox' vaccine. PMID:7985381

Williams, R B

1994-01-01

52

Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides can improve the immune efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccine in chicken.  

PubMed

Cordyceps militaris polysaccharide (CMP) was prepared by water decoction and ethanol precipitation. The fractional CMP40 and CMP50 were extracted from the CMP solution by stepwise precipitation with ethanol at 40% and 50% of working concentration, respectively. The immune-enhancing activities of two polysaccharides were researched. In vitro experiment, the effects of two polysaccharides on chicken peripheral lymphocyte proliferation were determined by MTT assay. The result displayed that two polysaccharides could significantly stimulate lymphocyte proliferation, the action of CMP40 was significantly or numerically stronger than those of CMP50. In vivo experiment, 320 14-day-old chickens were averagely divided into eight groups. The chickens, except blank control (BC) group, were vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine, repeated vaccination at 28 days old. At the same time of the first vaccination, the chickens in three CMP40 fraction groups and three CMP50 fraction groups were injected respectively with the polysaccharide at low, medium and high concentrations, in vaccination control (VC) and BC group, with equal volume of physiological saline, once a day for three successive days. On days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after the first vaccination, the lymphocyte proliferation, serum antibody titre and interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 were measured. The results showed that CMP40 and CMP50 at suitable dose could significantly promote lymphocyte proliferation, enhance serum antibody titre, and improve serum interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 concentrations. It indicated that CMP40 fraction and CMP50 fraction could significantly improve the immune efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccine, and would be as the candidate of a new-type immune adjuvant. PMID:23587997

Wang, Mi; Meng, Xinyu; Yang, Ruile; Qin, Tao; Li, Ying; Zhang, Lifang; Fei, Chengzhong; Zhen, Wenli; Zhang, Keyu; Wang, Xiaoyang; Hu, Yuanliang; Xue, Feiqun

2013-04-12

53

Protection of chicken against very virulent IBDV provided by in ovo priming with DNA vaccine and boosting with killed vaccine and the adjuvant effects of plasmid-encoded chicken interleukin-2 and interferon-?  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of in ovo prime-boost vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) using a DNA vaccine to prime in ovo followed by a killed-vaccine boost post hatching. In addition, the adjuvant effects of plasmid-encoded chicken interleukin-2 and chicken interferon-? were tested in conjunction with the vaccine. A plasmid DNA vaccine (pcDNA-VP243) encoding the VP2, VP4, and VP3 proteins of the very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) SH/92 strain was injected into the amniotic sac alone or in combination with a plasmid encoding chicken IL-2 (ChIL-2) or chicken IFN-? (ChIFN-?) at embryonation day 18, followed by an intramuscular injection of a commercial killed IBD vaccine at 1 week of age. The chickens were orally challenged with the vvIBDV SH/92 strain at 3 weeks of age and observed for 10 days. In ovo DNA immunization followed by a killed-vaccine boost provided significantly better immunity than the other options. No mortality was observed in this group after a challenge with the vvIBDV. The prime-boost strategy was moderately effective against bursal damage, which was measured by the bursa weight/body weight ratio, the presence of IBDV RNA, and the bursal lesion score. In ovo DNA vaccination with no boost did not provide sufficient immunity, and the addition of ChIL-2 or ChIFN-? did not enhance protective immunity. In the ConA-induced lymphocyte proliferation assay of peripheral blood lymphocyte collected 10 days post-challenge, there was greater proliferation responses in the DNA vaccine plus boost and DNA vaccine with ChIL-2 plus boost groups compared to the other groups. These findings suggest that priming with DNA vaccine and boosting with killed vaccine is an effective strategy for protecting chickens against vvIBDV.

Park, Jeong Ho; Sung, Haan Woo; Yoon, Byung Il

2009-01-01

54

Evaluation of the Immunogenisity of Immune Complex Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccine Delivered In ovo to Embryonated Eggs or Subcutaneously to Day-Old Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immune complex vaccine of infectious bursal disease (IBD) were applied in ovo to embryonated eggs and subcutaneously to newly-hatched chickens in the hatchery, while the other group of chicken s received a conventional IBD vaccine at days 12, 17 and 22 of age. At day 28 of age, ten chickens from each group were challenged with the field strain of

2006-01-01

55

Delayed vaccine virus replication in chickens vaccinated subcutaneously with an immune complex infectious bursal disease vaccine: Quantification of vaccine virus by real-time polymerase chain reaction  

PubMed Central

Abstract The distribution of the immune complex vaccine virus for infectious bursal disease (IBD) in tissue was examined and the viral loads of the organs were quantitatively compared. One-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) and maternally immune broiler chickens were injected subcutaneously with the vaccine. Lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues were collected at various time intervals during the experiment to test for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-RNA by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Only the bursa of Fabricius was found to be positive with unusually long viral persistence in the broiler group. The positive bursa samples were further investigated by using real-time PCR coupled with a TaqMan probe. The highest amounts of the virus were detected at its first appearance in the bursa: on day 14 post vaccination (PV) in the SPF chickens and on day 17 and day 21 PV in the maternally immune broiler group. The virus then gradually cleared, most likely due to the parallel appearance of the active immune response indicated by seroconversion.

2005-01-01

56

Vaccination of young turkeys against fowl cholera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey poults vaccinated at one day of age with commercial inactivated Pasteurella multocida (PM) bacterin responded with low titres of antibody (ab) as measured by ELISA, but had an acceptable degree of resistance when challenged with the X?73 strain of PM until 13 weeks of age. Turkeys vaccinated at 3 and\\/or 6 weeks of age responded with higher ab titres

B. Perelman; D. Hadash; M. Meroz; M. Abramson; Y. Samberg

1990-01-01

57

Differences in the immunopathogenesis of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) following in ovo and post-hatch vaccination of chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not much is known about IBDV-pathogenesis and immune mechanisms following in ovo vaccination. In this study, we compared the immunopathogenesis of an intermediate IBDV-vaccine in post-hatch- and in ovo-inoculated chickens. In ovo-vaccinated birds recovered significantly faster from lesions of the bursa of Fabricius than post-hatch vaccinated (P<0.05). A significant accumulation of intrabursal CD8+ T cells was observed in post-hatch but

Silke Rautenschlein; Christine Haase

2005-01-01

58

Induction of protective immunity in chickens vaccinated with infectious bronchitis virus S1 glycoprotein expressed by a recombinant baculovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recombinant baculovirus containing the S1 gly- coprotein gene of the virulent nephropathogenic KM91 strain of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was constructed in order to investigate protective im- munity in vaccinated chickens. Results from the protection test were evaluated by re-isolation of virus from the kidneys and tracheas of vaccinated chickens after challenge with strain KM91. After three immunizations, the

Chang-Seon Song; Youn-Jeong Lee; Chang-Won Lee; Hwan-Woo Sung; Jae-Hong Kim; In-Pil Mo; Yoshihiro Izumiya; Hyung-Kwan Jang; Takeshi Mikami

1998-01-01

59

DNA-mediated vaccination conferring protection against infectious bursal disease in broiler chickens in the presence of maternal antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to determine if a DNA vaccine carrying large segment gene of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) could confer protection against infectious bursal disease (IBD) in broiler chickens in the presence of maternal antibody. Broiler chickens with maternal antibody titers to IBDV were intramuscularly injected with a DNA plasmid coding for VP2, VP3, and

Ming Kun Hsieh; Ching Ching Wu; Tsang Long Lin

2010-01-01

60

Immunomodulatory Effect of Recombinant Chicken Interferon-gamma (rchIFN-?) on Specific and Non-specific Immune Responses in Chicken Vaccinated Against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present study was undertaken to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of recombinant chicken interferon -gamma (rchIFN-?) on specific and non-specific immune responses in chicken vaccinated against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV). A total of 180 day old layer chicks (BV-300) were divided into three groups. Test Group I (TG-I) (64 chicks) was injected with 5 microgram\\/chick subcutaneously of rchIFN-? along with ND

Basavaraj Binjawadagi; Y. Hari Babu; E. Sreekumar

2009-01-01

61

Nerve-sheath myxoma on a chicken-pox vaccination site  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nerve-sheath myxoma beneath the dermis in the arm of a 5-year-old boy is reported. The tumor had developed on the site of chicken-pox vaccination the patient had received 2 years previously, and a foreign-body granuloma involving a nerve-fiber bundle was seen adjavent to the tumor. On the basis of previous reports, it is doubtful whether the varicella-zoster virus is

M. Nokubi; S. Makino; T. Kawai; T. Fujii; K. Saito

1994-01-01

62

Chicken HSP70 DNA vaccine inhibits tumor growth in a canine cancer model.  

PubMed

Immunization with xenogeneic DNA is a promising cancer treatment to overcome tolerance to self-antigens. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is over-expressed in various kinds of tumors and is believed to be involved in tumor progression. This study tested a xenogeneic chicken HSP70 (chHSP70) DNA vaccine in an experimental canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) model. Three vaccination strategies were compared: the first (PE) was designed to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of chHSP70 DNA vaccination by delivering the vaccine before tumor inoculation in a prime boost setting, the second (T) was designed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the same prime boost vaccine by vaccinating the dogs after tumor inoculation; the third (PT) was similar to the first strategy (PE), with the exception that the electroporation booster injection was replaced with a transdermal needle-free injection. Tumor growth was notably inhibited only in the PE dogs, in which the vaccination program triggered tumor regression significantly sooner than in control dogs (NT). The CD4(+) subpopulation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and canine HSP70 (caHSP70)-specific IFN-?-secreting lymphocytes were significantly increased during tumor regression in the PE dogs as compared to control dogs, demonstrating that specific tolerance to caHSP70 has been overcome. In contrast, no benefit of the therapeutic strategy (T) could be noticed and the (PT) strategy only led to partial control of tumor growth. In summary, antitumor prophylactic activity was demonstrated using the chHSP70 DNA vaccine including a boost via electroporation. Our data stressed the importance of DNA electroporation as a booster to get the full benefit of DNA vaccination but also of cancer immunotherapy initiation as early as possible. Xenogeneic chHSP70 DNA vaccination including an electroporation boost is a potential vaccine to HSP70-expressing tumors, although further research is still required to better understand true clinical potential. PMID:21392590

Yu, Wen-Ying; Chuang, Tien-Fu; Guichard, Cécile; El-Garch, Hanane; Tierny, Dominique; Laio, Albert Taiching; Lin, Ching-Si; Chiou, Kuo-Hao; Tsai, Cheng-Long; Liu, Chen-Hsuan; Li, Wen-Chiuan; Fischer, Laurent; Chu, Rea-Min

2011-03-08

63

Vaccine-induced host responses against very virulent Marek's disease virus infection in the lungs of chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of virus replication and cellular responses in the lungs following infection with Marek's disease virus (MDV) and\\/or vaccination with herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) via the respiratory route. Chickens vaccinated with HVT and challenged with MDV had a higher accumulation of MDV and HVT genomes in the lungs compared to the

Kamran Haq; Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem; Sangitha Shanmuganthan; Niroshan Thanthrige-Don; Leah R. Read; Shayan Sharif

2010-01-01

64

Multivalent HA DNA Vaccination Protects against Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza Infection in Chickens and Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSustained outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in avian species increase the risk of reassortment and adaptation to humans. The ability to contain its spread in chickens would reduce this threat and help maintain the capacity for egg-based vaccine production. While vaccines offer the potential to control avian disease, a major concern of current vaccines is their potency

Srinivas Rao; Wing-Pui Kong; Chih-Jen Wei; Zhi-Yong Yang; Martha Nason; Darrel Styles; Louis J. Detolla; Erin M. Sorrell; Haichen Song; Hongquan Wan; Gloria C. Ramirez-Nieto; Daniel Perez; Gary J. Nabel; David M. Ojcius

2008-01-01

65

Standardization of inactivated H5N2 influenza vaccine and efficacy against lethal A/Chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/83 infection.  

PubMed

The hemagglutinin concentration of beta-propiolactone-inactivated influenza vaccine containing A/Duck/N.Y./189/82 (H5N2) virus was measured by single-radial-immunodiffusion (SRD) test. After administration of vaccine to chickens in Freund's complete adjuvant, vaccine efficacy was assessed by challenge with lethal A/Chicken/Penn./1370/83 (H5N2) virus. SRD potency values correlated with post-vaccination antibody levels and protection against infection. PMID:4074253

Wood, J M; Kawaoka, Y; Newberry, L A; Bordwell, E; Webster, R G

66

Adjuvanticity of compound polysaccharides on chickens against Newcastle disease and avian influenza vaccine.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of compound polysaccharides (cPS) on the immune responses via chicken models. First, in screening experiment, a comprehensive analysis for immunomodulatory activity of four cPSs, including Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), Epimedium polysaccharides (EPS), sulfated APS (sAPS) and sulfated EPS (sEPS), was performed in vitro and in vivo. APS-sEPS was picked out having the best effect on lymphocyte proliferation and raising the antibody titers. Therefore, the adjuvanticities of APS-sEPS on Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) vaccine were further validated. Chickens were administrated with ND or AI vaccines containing APS-sEPS of 150, 100 and 50 mg/kg, respectively, taking oil adjuvant vaccine as control. It was observed ND or AI antibody titers and lymphocyte proliferation were enhanced at 100 mg/kg of APS-sEPS. In conclusion, appropriate dose of APS-sEPS may be a safe and efficacious immune stimulator candidate suitable for vaccines. PMID:22266329

Guo, Liwei; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Zhao, Xiaona; Wang, Yuanlei; Yang, Shujuan; Wang, Junmin; Fan, Yunpeng; Han, Guocai; Gao, Huan

2012-01-13

67

DNA-mediated vaccination conferring protection against infectious bursal disease in broiler chickens in the presence of maternal antibody.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to determine if a DNA vaccine carrying large segment gene of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) could confer protection against infectious bursal disease (IBD) in broiler chickens in the presence of maternal antibody. Broiler chickens with maternal antibody titers to IBDV were intramuscularly injected with a DNA plasmid coding for VP2, VP3, and VP4 genes of IBDV strain variant E (VE) (P/VP243/E) at 1-day, 1-week, and/or 2 weeks old. The dose of P/VP243/E used ranging from 400microg to 10mg. Broiler chickens at 3 weeks old were orally challenged with IBDV strain (VE) and observed for 10 days. Only broiler chickens vaccinated with 7.5 or 10mg of P/VP243/E 3 times had 90 or 100% protection against challenge by IBDV strain VE and protected broiler chickens had significantly higher (P<0.05) bursa weight/body weight (B/B) ratios, significantly lower (P<0.05) bursal lesion scores, and the absence of IBDV antigens in bursae determined by immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA). Antibody titers to IBDV as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or virus neutralization (VN) assay in chickens of each group in each trial were gradually decreased prior to challenge. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in ELISA or VN titers to IBDV among all groups of broiler chickens or among the groups of broiler chickens vaccinated with various dose of P/VP243/E before challenge. Broiler chickens in the groups receiving 7.5 or 10mg of P/VP243/E had significantly lower (P<0.05) ELISA or VN titers to IBDV than those in the challenge control (CC) groups or the other groups vaccinated with various dose of P/VP243/E after challenge. Broiler chickens in the groups vaccinated with 10mg of P/VP243/E 3 times had significantly higher (P<0.05) stimulation indices for IBDV-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation response than those in the vector control (VC) or CC group at 14, 21, 24, or 31 days after first DNA vaccination. The results indicated that DNA vaccination with DNA encoding large segment gene of IBDV confers protection against challenge by IBDV in broiler chickens with maternal antibody to IBDV. PMID:20394722

Hsieh, Ming Kun; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

2010-04-13

68

Comparison of the safety and efficacy of a new live Salmonella Gallinarum vaccine candidate, JOL916, with the SG9R vaccine in chickens.  

PubMed

We evaluated a recently developed live vaccine candidate for fowl typhoid (FT)-JOL916, a lon/cpxR mutant of Salmonella Gallinarum (SG)-by comparing its safety and efficacy with that of the well-known rough mutant strain SG9R vaccine in 6-wk-old Hy-Line hens. Forty-five chickens were divided into three groups of 15 chickens each. The chickens were then intramuscularly inoculated with 2 x 10(7) colony-forming units (CFUs) of JOL916 (JOL916 group), 2 x 10(7) CFUs of SG9R (SG9R group), or phosphate-buffered saline (control group). After vaccination, no clinical symptoms were observed in any of the groups. No differences in body weight increase were detected among the three groups postvaccination. A cellular immune response was observed at 2 wk postvaccination (wpv) in the JOL916 group with the peripheral lymphocyte proliferation assay, whereas no response was detected in the SG9R group. Elevation of SG antigen-specific plasma immunoglobulin was observed 2 and 3 wpv in the JOL916 and SG9R vaccine groups, respectively. After virulent challenge on day 25 postvaccination, 0, 1, and 15 chickens in the JOL916 group, SG9R group, and control group, respectively, died by 12 days postchallenge; the death rate of the SG9R vaccine group was statistically similar to that of the JOL916 group. Postmortem examination revealed that the JOL916 vaccine offered more efficient protection than the SG9R vaccine, with significantly decreased hepatic necrotic foci scores, splenic enlargement scores, necrotic foci scores, and recovery of the challenge strain from the spleen. Vaccination with JOL916 appears to be safe and offers better protection than SG9R against FT in chickens. PMID:22017038

Matsuda, Kiku; Chaudhari, Atul A; Lee, John Hwa

2011-09-01

69

Quantitation of Marek’s disease virus in vaccinated population of resistant and susceptible chicken samples using real-time PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chicken caused by cell-associated alpha-herpesvirus, known as Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MD virus load in challenged chickens has been well studied, but the difference between the virus load in vaccinated MD resistant and susceptible chicken...

70

Progress toward the development of polyvalent vaccination strategies against multiple viral infections in chickens using herpesvirus of turkeys as vector.  

PubMed

Vaccination is the most cost effective strategy for the control and prevention of the plethora of viral diseases affecting poultry production. The major challenge for poultry vaccination is the design of vaccines that will protect against multiple pathogens via a single protective dose, delivered by mass vaccination. The Marek disease virus and the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus cause severe disease outbreaks in chickens. Vaccination with live herpesvirus of turkeys protects chickens from Marek disease and inactivated influenza viruses are used as antigens to protect chickens against influenza virus infections. We developed herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) as a vaccine vector that can act as a dual vaccine against avian influenza and Marek disease. The HVT vector was developed using reverse genetics based on an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of HVT. The BAC carrying the HVT genome was genetically modified to express the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of a highly pathogenic H7N1 virus. The resultant recombinant BAC construct containing the modified HVT sequence was transfected into chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells and HVT recombinants (rHVT-H7HA) harbouring the H7N1 HA were recovered. Analysis of cultured CEF cells infected with the rHVT-H7HA showed that HA was expressed and that the rescued rHVT-H7HA stocks were stable during several in vitro passages with no difference in growth kinetics compared with the parent HVT. Immunization of one-day-old chicks with rHVT-H7HA induced H7-specific antibodies and protected chickens challenged with homologous H7N1 virus against virus shedding, clinical disease and death. The rHVT-H7HA vaccine also induced strong and long-lasting antibody titers against H7HA in chickens that were vaccinated in ovo 3 d before hatching. This vaccine supports differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA), because no influenza virus nucleoprotein-specific antibodies were detected in the rHVT-H7HA vaccinated birds. The rHVT-H7HA not only provided protection against a lethal challenge with highly pathogenic H7N1 virus but also against highly virulent Marek disease virus and can be used as a DIVA vaccine. PMID:22705840

Iqbal, Munir

2012-06-18

71

Progress toward the development of polyvalent vaccination strategies against multiple viral infections in chickens using herpesvirus of turkeys as vector  

PubMed Central

Vaccination is the most cost effective strategy for the control and prevention of the plethora of viral diseases affecting poultry production. The major challenge for poultry vaccination is the design of vaccines that will protect against multiple pathogens via a single protective dose, delivered by mass vaccination. The Marek disease virus and the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus cause severe disease outbreaks in chickens. Vaccination with live herpesvirus of turkeys protects chickens from Marek disease and inactivated influenza viruses are used as antigens to protect chickens against influenza virus infections. We developed herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) as a vaccine vector that can act as a dual vaccine against avian influenza and Marek disease. The HVT vector was developed using reverse genetics based on an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of HVT. The BAC carrying the HVT genome was genetically modified to express the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of a highly pathogenic H7N1 virus. The resultant recombinant BAC construct containing the modified HVT sequence was transfected into chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells and HVT recombinants (rHVT-H7HA) harbouring the H7N1 HA were recovered. Analysis of cultured CEF cells infected with the rHVT-H7HA showed that HA was expressed and that the rescued rHVT-H7HA stocks were stable during several in vitro passages with no difference in growth kinetics compared with the parent HVT. Immunization of one-day-old chicks with rHVT-H7HA induced H7-specific antibodies and protected chickens challenged with homologous H7N1 virus against virus shedding, clinical disease and death. The rHVT-H7HA vaccine also induced strong and long-lasting antibody titers against H7HA in chickens that were vaccinated in ovo 3 d before hatching. This vaccine supports differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA), because no influenza virus nucleoprotein-specific antibodies were detected in the rHVT-H7HA vaccinated birds. The rHVT-H7HA not only provided protection against a lethal challenge with highly pathogenic H7N1 virus but also against highly virulent Marek disease virus and can be used as a DIVA vaccine.

Iqbal, Munir

2012-01-01

72

Efficacy of two H5N9-inactivated vaccines against challenge with a recent H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza isolate from a chicken in Thailand.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of two avian influenza (AI) H5-inactivated vaccines containing either an American (A/turkey/Wisconsin/68 H5N9; H5N9-WI) or a Eurasian isolate (A/chicken/Italy/22A/98 H5N9; H5N9-It). Three-week-old specific pathogen-free chickens were vaccinated once and challenged 3 wk later with a H5N1 highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) virus isolated from a chicken in Thailand in 2004. All unvaccinated challenged birds died within 2 days, whereas 90% and 100% of chickens vaccinated with H5N9-WI and H5N9-It, respectively, were protected against morbidity and mortality. Both vaccines prevented cloacal shedding and significantly reduced oral shedding of the challenge HPAI virus. Additional chickens (vaccinated or unvaccinated) were placed in contact with the directly challenged birds 18 hr after challenge. All unvaccinated chickens in contact with unvaccinated challenged birds died within 3 days after contact, whereas unvaccinated chickens in contact with vaccinated challenged birds either showed a significantly delayed mortality or did not become infected. All vaccinated contacts were protected against clinical signs, and most chickens did not shed detectable amount of HPAI virus. Altogether, these data indicate that both vaccines protected very well against morbidity and mortality and reduced or prevented shedding induced by direct or contact exposure to Asian H5N1 HPAI virus. PMID:17494577

Bublot, Michel; Le Gros, François-Xavier; Nieddu, Daniela; Pritchard, Nikki; Mickle, Thomas R; Swayne, David E

2007-03-01

73

Replication of recombinant herpesvirus of turkey expressing genes of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in specific pathogen free and broiler chickens following in ovo and subcutaneous vaccination.  

PubMed

Replication of a recombinant herpesvirus of turkey vaccine expressing infectious laryngotracheitis virus genes (rHVT-LT) was evaluated in specific pathogen free (SPF) and commercial broiler chickens after various vaccination protocols (amniotic route at embryonation day [ED] 18; intra-embryonic route at ED 19; and subcutaneous at 1 day of age [s.c.]). Three experiments were conducted: in the first experiment, replication of rHVT-LT vaccine was chronologically evaluated and compared with the replication of herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) in SPF chickens; in the second experiment, the effect of different in ovo vaccination procedures on rHVT-LT vaccine replication was evaluated in SPF chickens; and in the third experiment, the effect of different in ovo vaccination procedures on rHVT-LT vaccine replication was evaluated in commercial broiler chickens with maternal antibodies against HVT and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (LTV). rHVT-LT vaccine replicated in chickens after in ovo (ED 18 and ED 19) or s.c. administration at a similar level. In vivo replication of rHVT-LT vaccine was slower than HVT vaccine. However, in vivo both rHVT-LT and HVT vaccines replicated at similar levels. Both vaccines were consistently detected in the spleen and feather pulp and at lower frequency in the lung. The frequency of samples with detectable levels of rHVT-LT DNA was lower in broiler chickens than in SPF chickens, probably due to interactions with maternal antibodies. Differences between SPF chickens and broiler chickens were found also in the transcription of the LTV glycoprotein I gene (gI). In SPF chickens, in ovo inoculation resulted in a higher number of spleen samples with detectable gI transcripts than s.c. inoculation. In broiler chickens, however, no differences in the level of gI transcripts in spleen samples were found between chickens vaccinated in ovo and those vaccinated by the s.c. route. Transcription of LTV gI gene in lung samples was very low in both SPF and broiler chickens. Further studies to evaluate the mucosal immune response elicited by rHVT-LT in chicken with and without maternal antibodies are warranted. PMID:21812719

Gimeno, Isabel M; Cortes, Aneg L; Guy, James S; Turpin, Elizabeth; Williams, Christopher

2011-08-01

74

Evidence of Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup E and Endogenous Avian Virus in Measles and Mumps Vaccines Derived from Chicken Cells: Investigation of Transmission to Vaccine Recipients  

PubMed Central

Reverse transcriptase (RT) activity has been detected recently in all chicken cell-derived measles and mumps vaccines. A study of a vaccine manufactured in Europe indicated that the RT is associated with particles containing endogenous avian retrovirus (EAV-0) RNA and originates from the chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) used as a substrate for propagation of the vaccine. We investigated the origin of RT in measles and mumps vaccines from a U.S. manufacturer and confirm the presence of RT and EAV RNA. Additionally, we provide new evidence for the presence of avian leukosis virus (ALV) in both CEF supernatants and vaccines. ALV pol sequences were first identified in particle-associated RNA by amplification with degenerate retroviral pol primers. ALV RNA sequences from both the gag and env regions were also detected. Analysis of hypervariable region 2 of env revealed a subgroup E sequence, an endogenous-type ALV. Both CEF- and vaccine-derived RT activity could be blocked by antibodies to ALV RT. Release of ALV-like virus particles from uninoculated CEF was also documented by electron microscopy. Nonetheless, infectivity studies on susceptible 15B1 chicken cells gave no evidence of infectious ALV, which is consistent with the phenotypes of the ev loci identified in the CEF. PCR analysis of ALV and EAV proviral sequences in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 33 children after measles and mumps vaccination yielded negative results. Our data indicate that the sources of RT activity in all RT-positive measles and mumps vaccines may not be similar and depend on the particular endogenous retroviral loci present in the chicken cell substrate used. The present data do not support transmission of either ALV or EAV to recipients of the U.S.-made vaccine and provide reassurance for current immunization policies.

Tsang, Shirley X.; Switzer, William M.; Shanmugam, Vedapuri; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Goldsmith, Cynthia; Wright, Anthony; Fadly, Aly; Thea, Donald; Jaffe, Harold; Folks, Thomas M.; Heneine, Walid

1999-01-01

75

Multivalent HA DNA Vaccination Protects against Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza Infection in Chickens and Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Sustained outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in avian species increase the risk of reassortment and adaptation to humans. The ability to contain its spread in chickens would reduce this threat and help maintain the capacity for egg-based vaccine production. While vaccines offer the potential to control avian disease, a major concern of current vaccines is their potency and inability to protect against evolving avian influenza viruses. Methodology / Principal Findings The ability of DNA vaccines encoding hemagglutinin (HA) proteins from different HPAI H5N1 serotypes was evaluated for its ability to elicit neutralizing antibodies and to protect against homologous and heterologous HPAI H5N1 strain challenge in mice and chickens after DNA immunization by needle and syringe or with a pressure injection device. These vaccines elicited antibodies that neutralized multiple strains of HPAI H5N1 when given in combinations containing up to 10 HAs. The response was dose-dependent, and breadth was determined by the choice of the influenza virus HA in the vaccine. Monovalent and trivalent HA vaccines were tested first in mice and conferred protection against lethal H5N1 A/Vietnam/1203/2004 challenge 68 weeks after vaccination. In chickens, protection was observed against heterologous strains of HPAI H5N1 after vaccination with a trivalent H5 serotype DNA vaccine with doses as low as 5 µg DNA given twice either by intramuscular needle injection or with a needle-free device. Conclusions/Significance DNA vaccines offer a generic approach to influenza virus immunization applicable to multiple animal species. In addition, the ability to substitute plasmids encoding different strains enables rapid adaptation of the vaccine to newly evolving field isolates.

Rao, Srinivas; Kong, Wing-Pui; Wei, Chih-Jen; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Nason, Martha; Styles, Darrel; DeTolla, Louis J.; Sorrell, Erin M.; Song, Haichen; Wan, Hongquan; Ramirez-Nieto, Gloria C.; Perez, Daniel; Nabel, Gary J.

2008-01-01

76

Protection induced by commercially available live-attenuated and recombinant viral vector vaccines against infectious laryngotracheitis virus in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Viral vector vaccines using fowl poxvirus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) as vectors and carrying infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genes are commercially available to the poultry industry in the USA. Different sectors of the broiler industry have used these vaccines in ovo or subcutaneously, achieving variable results. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of protection induced by viral vector vaccines as compared with live-attenuated ILTV vaccines. The HVT-LT vaccine was more effective than the FPV-LT vaccine in mitigating the disease and reducing levels of challenge virus when applied in ovo or subcutaneously, particularly when the challenge was performed at 57 days rather than 35 days of age. While the FPV-LT vaccine mitigated clinical signs more effectively when administered subcutaneously than in ovo, it did not reduce the concentration of challenge virus in the trachea by either application route. Detection of antibodies against ILTV glycoproteins expressed by the viral vectors was a useful criterion to assess the immunogenicity of the vectors. The presence of glycoprotein I antibodies detected pre-challenge and post challenge in chickens vaccinated with HVT-LT indicated that the vaccine induced a robust antibody response, which was paralleled by significant reduction of clinical signs. The chicken embryo origin vaccine provided optimal protection by significantly mitigating the disease and reducing the challenge virus in chickens vaccinated via eye drop. The viral vector vaccines, applied in ovo and subcutaneously, provided partial protection, reducing to some degree clinical signs, and challenge VIRUS replication in the trachea. PMID:22845318

Vagnozzi, Ariel; Zavala, Guillermo; Riblet, Sylva M; Mundt, Alice; García, Maricarmen

2012-01-01

77

Efficacy and safety of cell associated vaccines against Marek's disease virus grown in a continuous cell line from chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Marek's disease virus (MDV) vaccine strains CVI 988 and herpes virus of turkeys (HVT) strain FC126, usually are grown in primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF). We found that the strains could be grown also in the so-called JBJ-1 cell line to titres in the same range as when chicken embryo fibroblasts were used. The JBJ-1 cell line is a

Harm Geerligs; Sandra Quanz; Brenda Suurland; Ine E. M. Spijkers; Jeff Rodenberg; Frans G. Davelaar; Berend Jongsma; Mahesh Kumar

2008-01-01

78

Vaccination with recombinant NetB toxin partially protects broiler chickens from necrotic enteritis.  

PubMed

NetB toxin from Clostridium perfringens is a major virulence factor in necrotic enteritis in poultry. In this study the efficacy of NetB as a vaccine antigen to protect chickens from necrotic enteritis was examined. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with purified recombinant NetB (rNetB), formalin treated bacterin and cell free toxoid with or without rNetB supplementation. Intestinal lesion scores and NetB antibody levels were measured to determine protection after mild oral gavage, moderate in-feed and heavy in-feed challenges with virulent C. perfringens isolates. Birds immunized with rNetB were significantly protected against necrotic enteritis when challenged with a mild oral dose of virulent bacteria, but were not protected when a more robust challenge was used. Bacterin and cell free toxoid without rNetB supplementation did not protect birds from moderate and severe in-feed challenge. Only birds immunized with bacterin and cell free toxoid supplemented with rNetB showed significant protection against moderate and severe in-feed challenge, with the later giving the greatest protection. Higher NetB antibody titres were observed in birds immunized with rNetB compared to those vaccinated with bacterin or toxoid, suggesting that the in vitro levels of NetB produced by virulent C. perfringens isolates are too low to induce the development of a strong immune response. These results suggest that vaccination with NetB alone may not be sufficient to protect birds from necrotic enteritis in the field, but that in combination with other cellular or cell-free antigens it can significantly protect chickens from disease. PMID:23865568

Keyburn, Anthony L; Portela, Ricardo W; Sproat, Kathy; Ford, Mark E; Bannam, Trudi L; Yan, Xuxia; Rood, Julian I; Moore, Robert J

2013-07-16

79

Ability of MEQ-deleted MDV vaccine candidates to adversely affect lymphoid organs and chicken weight gain.  

PubMed

CVI988 (Rispens) is currently the most effective vaccine used to protect against Marek's disease, a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens. A MEQ-deleted Marek's disease virus strain has shown promise as a vaccine candidate; however, unpublished results from vaccine safety trials suggest that this candidate vaccine induces unwanted lymphoid atrophy. The current study evaluated lymphoid atrophy at multiple time points between 2- and 8-wk postinoculation and attempted to correlate results with virus replication in the thymus. Results confirm reports that MEQ-deleted virus strains are able to cause thymus and bursa atrophy, which is most severe at 2-wk postinoculation. The MEQ-deleted virus strains induced lower body weights and relative thymus and bursa weights compared to uninoculated and Rispens-vaccinated chickens at multiple time points between 2- and 8-wk postinoculation. Both MEQ-deleted virus strains produced high levels of in vivo virus replication in the thymus at rates significantly greater than in Rispens-vaccinated chickens and were comparable to levels of RM1 virus, a MDV previously shown to induce severe thymus and bursa atrophy. Virus replication was highly correlated with relative thymus weights at each time point. Understanding this delicate balance between inducing maximum disease protection and preventing immunodepressive effects is critical for the development of future Marek's disease vaccines. PMID:23050465

Dunn, John R; Silva, Robert F

2012-09-01

80

Avian Influenza Vaccination in Chickens and Pigs with Replication-Competent Adenovirus-Free Human Recombinant Adenovirus 5  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Protective immunity to avian influenza (AI) virus can be elicited in chickens by in ovo or intramuscular vaccination with replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) encoding AI virus H5 (AdTW68.H5) or H7 (AdCN94.H7) hemagglutinins. We evaluated bivalent in ovo vaccination with AdTW68.H5 and AdCN94.H7 and determined that vaccinated chickens developed robust hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody levels to both H5 and H7 AI strains. Additionally, we evaluated immune responses of 1-day-old chickens vaccinated via spray with AdCN94.H7. These birds showed increased immunoglobulin A responses in lachrymal fluids and increased interleukin-6 expression in Harderian gland–derived lymphocytes. However, specific HI antibodies were not detected in the sera of these birds. Because pigs might play a role as a “mixing vessel” for the generation of pandemic influenza viruses we explored the use of RCA-free adenovirus technology to immunize pigs against AI virus. Weanling piglets vaccinated intramuscularly with a single dose of RCA-free AdTW68.H5 developed strong systemic antibody responses 3 wk postvaccination. Intranasal application of AdTW68.H5 in piglets resulted in reduced vaccine coverage, i.e., 33% of pigs (2/6) developed an antibody response, but serum antibody levels in those successfully immunized animals were similar to intramuscularly vaccinated animals.

Toro, Haroldo; van Ginkel, Frederik W.; Tang, De-chu C.; Schemera, Bettina; Rodning, Soren; Newton, Joseph

2010-01-01

81

Expression of chicken parvovirus VP2 in chicken embryo fibroblasts requires codon optimization for production of naked DNA and vectored meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 vaccines.  

PubMed

Meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 (MeHV-1) is an ideal vector for the expression of antigens from pathogenic avian organisms in order to generate vaccines. Chicken parvovirus (ChPV) is a widespread infectious virus that causes serious disease in chickens. It is one of the etiological agents largely suspected in causing Runting Stunting Syndrome (RSS) in chickens. Initial attempts to express the wild-type gene encoding the capsid protein VP2 of ChPV by insertion into the thymidine kinase gene of MeHV-1 were unsuccessful. However, transient expression of a codon-optimized synthetic VP2 gene cloned into the bicistronic vector pIRES2-Ds-Red2, could be demonstrated by immunocytochemical staining of transfected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). Red fluorescence could also be detected in these transfected cells since the red fluorescent protein gene is downstream from the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Strikingly, fluorescence could not be demonstrated in cells transiently transfected with the bicistronic vector containing the wild-type or non-codon-optimized VP2 gene. Immunocytochemical staining of these cells also failed to demonstrate expression of wild-type VP2, indicating that the lack of expression was at the RNA level and the VP2 protein was not toxic to CEFs. Chickens vaccinated with a DNA vaccine consisting of the bicistronic vector containing the codon-optimized VP2 elicited a humoral immune response as measured by a VP2-specific ELISA. This VP2 codon-optimized bicistronic cassette was rescued into the MeHV-1 genome generating a vectored vaccine against ChPV disease. PMID:23861017

Spatz, Stephen J; Volkening, Jeremy D; Mullis, Robert; Li, Fenglan; Mercado, John; Zsak, Laszlo

2013-07-17

82

Chicken astrovirus capsid proteins produced by recombinant baculoviruses: potential use for diagnosis and vaccination.  

PubMed

Chicken astroviruses (CAstVs) have been characterized recently. Due to their relatively poor growth in cell culture, virus-specific antigens are not readily available for the development of diagnostic reagents and vaccines. For this purpose two capsid protein antigens, specified by the 11672 isolate of CAstV, were produced in insect cells following infection with recombinant baculoviruses. The GST-11672 capsid protein, a fusion protein comprising the capsid protein and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as an N-terminal affinity tag, and the 11672 capsid protein alone were detected by western blotting as proteins of ~100 and 70 kDa, respectively. Immunization with the affinity-purified GST-11672 capsid protein produced a polyclonal rabbit antiserum, which reacted by indirect immunofluorescence with Group B CAstVs but which showed no reactivity with the Group A CAstV isolate, 612. When used as part of an immunoperoxidase-based immunohistochemical procedure, this rabbit antiserum facilitated the detection of CAstV antigen in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded kidney tissue at the sites of histopathology characteristic of nephritis. Although further evaluation with sera from commercial chickens is required, a prototype indirect antibody-detecting enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on affinity-purified GST-11672 capsid protein as coating antigen demonstrated considerable potential with low ELISA absorbance values being generated with sera from specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens, and high absorbance values being generated with serum samples from experimentally infected chickens. Immunization experiments of SPF chickens showed that, when administered as mixtures with oil adjuvant, crude cell lysates containing the GST-11672 capsid protein or the 11672 capsid protein elicited virus-specific antibody responses that were detectable by indirect immunofluorescence and by virus neutralization assays. PMID:24066895

Lee, A; Wylie, M; Smyth, V J; Skibinska, A; Patterson, I A; Forster, F; Welsh, M D; Todd, D

2013-10-01

83

Field assessment of an H5N1 inactivated vaccine in chickens and ducks in Lao PDR  

PubMed Central

Despite the extensive use of poultry vaccines to control the spread of H5N1 influenza in poultry, H5N1 outbreaks continue to occur in domestic birds. Our objective was to determine the duration of the neutralizing antibody response under field conditions after vaccination with a laboratory-tested inactivated reverse genetics-derived H5N3 vaccine. H5N3 hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (VN) antibodies were observed 40 weeks after vaccination of chickens with two doses and vaccination of ducks with one dose. Cross-clade antibodies to an H5N1 virus (A/chicken/Laos/A0464/07) antigenically distinct from the vaccine strain were detected in ducks after a single vaccination and were sustained for 28 weeks (for 40 weeks when a boost vaccination was given). Our results indicate that this inactivated H5N3 vaccine can produce long-lasting antibodies to homologous and heterologous viruses under field conditions.

Boltz, David A.; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Sinthasak, Settha; Phommachanh, Phouvong; Midouangchanh, Phetlamphone; Walker, David; Keating, Rachael; Khalenkov, Alexey M.; Kumar, Mahesh

2011-01-01

84

Genetics and Vaccine Efficacy: Host Genetic Variation Affecting Marek's Disease Vaccine Efficacy in White Leghorn Chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marek’s disease (MD) is a T cell lymphoma disease of domestic chickens induced by Marek’s disease viruses (MDV), a naturally oncogenic and highly contagious cell-associated alpha-herpesvirus. Earlier reports have shown that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype as well as non-MHC gene...

85

Evaluation of the protective efficacy of a commercial vaccine against different antigenic groups of H9N2 influenza viruses in chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the long-term vaccination programs implemented in China, H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) continue to persist in chicken populations, even in vaccinated flocks. We previously demonstrated that H9N2 AIV isolated from chickens in China also underwent antigenic drift and evolved into distinct antigenic groups (C, D and E). To understand whether antigenic drift of viruses away from the vaccine strain

Yipeng Sun; Juan Pu; Lihong Fan; Honglei Sun; Jingjing Wang; Yi Zhang; Linqing Liu; Jinhua Liu

86

Pathology and microbiology of dermal squamous cell carcinoma in young brown chickens reared on reused litter.  

PubMed

Dermal squamous cell carcinoma (DSCC) was found in young brown chicken flocks reared on reused litter in Japan. DSCC was often detected at slaughter from April 2007 to March 2009, especially in June and July 2007. No DSCC was observed in the broiler chickens on the farms. Twelve 11-wk-old brown chickens with DSCC were investigated pathologically and microbiologically. Various degrees of crater-like skin lesions were found on the back, waist, neck, legs, abdomen, and wings of the carcasses. The feather follicles were enlarged. The feather follicular epithelial cells proliferated, and the squamous cells proliferated neoplastically in association with collagen fibers and fibroblasts in the dermis under the feather follicular epithelium. "Keratin pearl" structures were often seen in the dermis. Immunohistochemically, the keratin antigen was positive in the neoplastically proliferated squamous cells in the dermis. Avian leukosis virus antigens could not be found in the neoplastic squamous cells in the dermis. Ultrastructurally, no viral agents could be detected in the skin with DSCC. Virologically, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions of the skin with DSCC for fowlpox virus and avian leukosis virus were negative. No viruses could be isolated from the skin with DSCC. This study suggests that the chicken breed, reused litter, and season may be associated with the incidence of DSCC in brown chickens. PMID:20945801

Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Ito, Mitsuru; Fujino, Koji; Yamamoto, Yu; Mase, Masaji; Yamada, Manabu; Kobayashi, Hideki; Harada, Tadato

2010-09-01

87

Efficacy and safety of cell associated vaccines against Marek's disease virus grown in a continuous cell line from chickens.  

PubMed

The Marek's disease virus (MDV) vaccine strains CVI 988 and herpes virus of turkeys (HVT) strain FC126, usually are grown in primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF). We found that the strains could be grown also in the so-called JBJ-1 cell line to titres in the same range as when chicken embryo fibroblasts were used. The JBJ-1 cell line is a fibroblast-like continuous chicken cell line, which can be grown in flat bottom tissue culture flasks, roller bottles and on micro carriers. We investigated the efficacy of experimental CVI 988 vaccines grown in JBJ-1 cells and the efficacy of combinations of CVI 988 grown in JBJ-1 cells with HVT FC 126 also grown in JBJ-1 cells. The study was performed in accordance with European Pharmacopoeia monograph 0589 for live MDV disease vaccines. Groups of 1-day-old SPF chicks were vaccinated subcutaneously or intramuscularly, with 10(2.5) TCID50 per dose of CVI 988 alone or in combination with 500PFU per dose of HVT. As a control a group vaccinated with CVI 988 grown in CEF was included. One group was not vaccinated. Five days after vaccination all chickens were challenged with the very virulent MDV strain RB1B. After challenge the chickens were observed for a period of 70 days for signs of Marek's disease (MD). The protection induced by CVI 988 grown in JBJ-1 cells and the combination of CVI 988 and HVT-FC126 both grown in JBJ-1 cells, amply complied with the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia which prescribes that the protection index should be at least 80%. The safety of the vaccines grown in JBJ-1 cells was tested in a field study in commercial layer chickens. No signs of MD were noticed during the study and no other signs attributable to the vaccine. It is concluded that the JBJ-1 cell line is a suitable substrate for the current vaccines against MD. PMID:18706949

Geerligs, Harm; Quanz, Sandra; Suurland, Brenda; Spijkers, Ine E M; Rodenberg, Jeff; Davelaar, Frans G; Jongsma, Berend; Kumar, Mahesh

2008-08-14

88

Vaccination of chickens against H5N1 avian influenza in the face of an outbreak interrupts virus transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccination of chickens with a commercially available killed H5N2 vaccine was being evaluated as an additional tool to enhanced biosecurity measures and intensive surveillance for control of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 disease in Hong Kong in 2002. In December 2002 to January 2003, there were outbreaks of H5N1 disease in waterfowl in two recreational parks, wild water birds,

Trevor M. Ellis; Connie Y. H. C. Leung; Mary K. W. Chow; Lucy A. Bissett; William Wong; Yi Guan; J. S. Malik Peiris

2004-01-01

89

A recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus replicon vaccine protects chickens from highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H7N1).  

PubMed

Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of subtypes H5 and H7 cause fatal disease in poultry (fowl plague) but also have zoonotic potential. Currently commercially available vaccines often do not provide sufficient protection and do not allow easy discrimination between vaccinated and infected birds. Therefore, vaccination of domestic poultry against H5 and H7 HPAIV is not allowed in many countries, or is only possible after special permission has been provided. We generated a recombinant marker vaccine based on non-transmissible vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing the HA antigen of HPAIV A/FPV/Rostock/34 (H7N1) in place of the VSV G gene. This virus, VSV*DeltaG(HA), was propagated on a helper cell line providing VSV G in trans. Since no progeny virus was produced after infection of non-complementing cells, the vector was classified as biosafety level 1 organism ("safe"). Chickens were immunized via the intramuscular route. Following booster vaccination with the same replicons high titers of serum antibodies were induced, which neutralized avian influenza viruses of subtypes H7N1 and H7N7 but not H5N2. Vaccinated chickens were protected against a lethal dose of heterologous HPAIV A/chicken/Italy/445/99 (H7N1). Secretion of challenge virus was short-term and significantly reduced. Finally, it was possible to discriminate vaccinated chickens from infected ones by a simple ELISA assay. We propose that VSV replicons have the potential to be developed to high-quality vaccines for protection of poultry against different subtypes of avian influenza viruses. PMID:19135116

Kalhoro, Nazeer H; Veits, Jutta; Rautenschlein, Silke; Zimmer, Gert

2009-01-07

90

The effect of co-administration of DNA carrying chicken interferon-gamma gene on protection of chickens against infectious bursal disease by DNA-mediated vaccination.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether DNA vaccination by co-administration of DNA coding for chicken interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) gene and DNA encoding for the VP243 gene of IBDV could enhance immune response and protection efficacy of chickens against challenge by IBDV. Plasmids carrying VP243 gene of IBDV strain variant E (VE) (P/VP243/E) and chicken IFN-gamma gene (P/cIFN-gamma) were constructed, respectively. One-day-old chickens were intramuscularly injected with P/VP243/E, or P/cIFN-gamma, or both once, twice, or three times into the thigh muscle of one leg or the thigh muscles of two separate legs at weekly intervals. Chickens were orally challenged with IBDV strain VE at 3 weeks of age and observed for 10 days. Chickens receiving two plasmids in the same site two times had significantly higher (P<0.05) bursal lesion scores and significantly lower (P<0.05) bursa weight/body weight ratios than those that only received P/VP243/E two or three times. Chickens inoculated with two plasmids separately in the thigh muscles of different legs or P/VP243/E two times had 33-50% protection and those receiving two plasmids in the same sites did not have any protection against IBD. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization (VN) titers to IBDV of chickens in the groups with three doses of P/VP243/E were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those in groups receiving two doses of P/VP243/E or P/VP243/E and P/cIFN-gamma. Chickens protected by DNA vaccination did not have detectable IBDV antigen in the bursae as determined by immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA). The results indicated that co-administration of plasmid encoding chicken IFN-gamma gene with plasmid encoding a large segment gene of the IBDV did not enhance immune response and protection against challenge by IBDV. PMID:17050043

Hsieh, Ming Kun; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

2006-07-05

91

Viral kinetics, shedding profile, and transmission of serotype 1 Marek's disease vaccine Rispens/CVI988 in maternal antibody-free chickens.  

PubMed

Probably the most effective current vaccine against Marek's disease is the live Rispens (CVI988) attenuated serotype 1 Marek's disease virus (MDV). It is unknown whether the currently available Rispens vaccines transmit effectively between chickens. To investigate the kinetics and shedding of three commercially available strains of this virus and the extent of lateral transmission, we measured the shedding rate in dander and the viral load in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and feather tips over time. Four identical climate-controlled rooms were stocked with a total of 70 specific-pathogen-free chickens for 56 days. In each of three rooms, 10 chickens were vaccinated with one of the commercial vaccines at day old and left in contact with 10 unvaccinated chickens. The fourth room contained 10 unvaccinated control chickens. As determined by MDV-specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of weekly room dust and individual PBLs and feather tip samples, the vaccine virus was shed from the vaccinated chickens in dander from day 7 postvaccination and transmitted effectively from vaccinated to in-contact chickens with a lag period of 2-3 wk. Viral load in PBLs and feather tips peaked at days 7 and 14, respectively, and declined thereafter, whereas viral load in dust increased rapidly to day 21 and then increased gradually thereafter. Antibody titer at day 56 was correlated with earlier measures of MDV load in PBLs but not feather tips or dust. These results show that currently available Rispens CVI988 vaccine virus is shed in significant quantities from vaccinated chickens and transmits effectively between chickens. PMID:23901761

Islam, Tanzila; Renz, Katrin G; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W; Ralapanawe, Sithara

2013-06-01

92

Detection of antibodies specific to the non-structural proteins of fowl adenoviruses in infected chickens but not in vaccinated chickens.  

PubMed

Antibodies specific to the non-structural proteins of viruses are detected in virus-infected animals and show promise as a reliable diagnostic marker for virus infections. We examined the potential use of two non-structural proteins of fowl adenovirus (FAdV)-based, 100K and 33K, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in the diagnosis of FAdVs. We cloned and expressed the 100K and 33K non-structural protein genes of the FAdVs in the pGEX-4T-1 plasmid vector. Purified 100K and 33K proteins alone or in combination were used as antigens in ELISAs. Antibodies specific to the 100K and 33K non-structural proteins were detected in chickens experimentally infected with FAdVs, but not in chickens vaccinated with inactivated FAdVs. In contrast, the agar gel precipitation (AGP) test detected FAdV-specific antibodies in 70.3% of the vaccinated chickens, suggesting that the non-structural protein-based ELISA could be used in the differential diagnosis of infected and vaccinated chickens. To further validate the 100K and 33K-based ELISA (100K-33K-ELISA) method, we compared its sensitivity and specificity with that of a whole virus-based ELISA and an AGP test in detecting FAdV-specific antibodies in 350 field samples. The results showed that the 100K-33K-ELISA exhibited a higher sensitivity than the AGP test and a comparable sensitivity and specificity to the whole virus ELISA. Overall, the 100K-33K-ELISA method is sensitive, specific and can be used to distinguish an acute FAdV infection from an inactivated virus-based vaccination response. PMID:24024561

Xie, Zhixun; Luo, Sisi; Fan, Qing; Xie, Liji; Liu, Jiabo; Xie, Zhiqin; Pang, Yaoshan; Deng, Xianwen; Wang, Xiuqing

2013-09-12

93

Residual Pathogenic Effects of Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccines Containing Intermediate and Hot Strains of the Virus in Broiler Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detrimental outcomes of intermediate and hot infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine strains in broiler chickens were the objective of this study. Carcass weight gain, bursal enlargement and hemorrhage in the muscles were the parameters considered to monitor these effects. Two hundred, day-old broiler chicks were divided into eight groups namely A, B, C, D, E, F, G and

2004-01-01

94

Experimental iron-inactivated Pasteurella multocida A: 1 vaccine adjuvanted with bacterial DNA is safe and protects chickens from fowl cholera.  

PubMed

Fowl cholera is a serious problem in large and small scale poultry production. The present study describes the development and testing of an inactivated whole-cell, low-cost, safe, and effective vaccine for fowl cholera based on a previous work (Vaccine 23:5590-5598). Pasteurella multocida A: 1 grown in the presence of low FeCl(3) concentrations, inactivated with higher concentrations of FeCl(3), and adjuvanted with bacterial DNA from P. multocida B: 2 containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs protect chickens with a lethal P. multocida A: 1 challenge. Chickens were immunized with two whole-cell inactivated vaccine doses at 4 weeks apart and challenged 4 weeks after booster immunization. Experimental vaccines were pure, easy injectable, and caused very little distress in chickens due to their aqueous consistency. Vaccines and bacterial DNA (bDNA) posed no safety problems when chickens were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with a single, double, and overdose of these preparations. Immunized chickens produced systemic IgY antibodies (Ab) responses and vaccine adjuvanted with bDNA protected 100% chickens from lethal intrapertoneal (i.p.) P. multocida A: 1 challenge. This work suggests that use of bDNA as an adjuvant can improve the cost-effectiveness of inactivated veterinary vaccines for their use in developing countries. Our future studies will focus on safety and potency evaluation of experimental and current vaccines using bDNA as an adjuvant. PMID:20074684

Herath, Chitra; Kumar, Pankaj; Singh, Mithilesh; Kumar, Devender; Ramakrishnan, Saravanan; Goswami, Tapas Kumar; Singh, Ajit; Ram, G C

2010-01-20

95

Prior meningococcal A\\/C polysaccharide vaccine does not reduce immune responses to conjugate vaccine in young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immune responses induced in young adults by a meningococcal A\\/C polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (Mcj) and a meningococcal A\\/C plain polysaccharide vaccine (Mps) were evaluated in unvaccinated subjects and those who had received either vaccine previously. 195 subjects aged 17–30 years received either Mps or Mcj. After 12 months, they were randomised again to receive a second dose of

Raman Lakshman; Roger Burkinshaw; Sharon Choo; Adam Finn

2002-01-01

96

Effect of Chicken Anemia and Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccines and Marek's Disease Virus on the Development of Cellulitis and Myositis Lesions in Floor-Reared MHC-Defined Broiler Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wang, C., Norton, R.A., Macklin, K.S. and Krehling, J.T. 2005. Effect of chicken anemia and infectious bursal disease vaccines and Marek's disease virus on the development of cellulitis and myositis lesions in floor-reared MHC-defined broiler chickens. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 27: 1–5.In this experiment, 414 chickens were reared in a house in which the previous flock had experienced Marek's disease.

Chengming Wang; Robert A. Norton; Kenneth S. Macklin; James T. Krehling

2005-01-01

97

Protective efficacy of commercial inactivated Newcastle disease virus vaccines in chickens against a recent Korean epizootic strain  

PubMed Central

Despite the intensive vaccination policy that has been put in place to control Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the recent emergence of NDV genotype VII strains in Korea has led to significant economic losses in the poultry industry. We assessed the ability of inactivated, oil-emulsion vaccines derived from La Sota or Ulster 2C NDV strains to protect chickens from challenge with Kr-005/00, which is a recently isolated Korean epizootic genotype VII strain. Six-week-old SPF chickens were vaccinated once and challenged three weeks later via the eye drop/intranasal route. All vaccinated birds were fully protected from disease, regardless of the vaccine strains used. All vaccinated and challenged groups showed significant sero-conversion 14 days after challenge. However, some vaccinated birds, despite being protected from disease, shed the challenge virus from their oro-pharynx and cloaca, albeit at significantly lower titers than the unvaccinated challenged control birds. The virological, serological, and epidemiological significance of our observations with regard to NDV disease eradication is discussed.

Jeon, Woo-Jin; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Lee, Young-Jeong; Jeong, Ok-Mi; Kim, Yong-Joo; Kwon, Jun-Hun

2008-01-01

98

Vaccine-induced host responses against very virulent Marek's disease virus infection in the lungs of chickens.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of virus replication and cellular responses in the lungs following infection with Marek's disease virus (MDV) and/or vaccination with herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) via the respiratory route. Chickens vaccinated with HVT and challenged with MDV had a higher accumulation of MDV and HVT genomes in the lungs compared to the chickens that received HVT or MDV alone. This increase in virus load was associated with augmented expression of interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-10, and increased T cell infiltration. These findings shed more light on the immunological events that occur in the lungs after vaccination or infection with MDV. PMID:20600510

Haq, Kamran; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal; Shanmuganthan, Sangitha; Thanthrige-Don, Niroshan; Read, Leah R; Sharif, Shayan

2010-06-25

99

Chemokine receptor CCR7 and CXCR5 mRNA in chickens following inflammation or vaccination.  

PubMed

The CCR7 and CXCR5 chemokine receptor mRNA contents of different immune organs were studied in normal, healthy birds and in birds treated with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a systemic inflammatory challenge or coccidial vaccine (Coccivac B; Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health Corp., Millsboro, DE) as an enteric vaccination challenge. The CCR7 mRNA content of the spleen of normal, healthy birds was approximately 150-fold higher than CCR7 mRNA content of any other organs studied. The CXCR5 mRNA content of the bursa of normal, healthy birds was approximately 80-fold higher than the CXCR5 mRNA content of any other organs studied. The LPS injection decreased the splenic CCR7 mRNA content by approximately 100 times and the bursal CXCR5 mRNA content by approximately 5-fold at 24 h post-LPS injection (P < 0.01). The LPS injection increased the CXCR5 content of cecal tonsils by approximately 3-fold at 24 h post-LPS injection (P < 0.05). At 10 d postvaccination, CCR7 mRNA content was approximately 15-fold higher and CXCR5 mRNA content was approximately 12-fold higher in cecal tonsils of the vaccinated group than in the control group (P < 0.01). In conclusion, CCR7 and CXCR5 mRNA levels were dependent on the immune organs and the inflammatory status of the organs in chickens. PMID:21753206

Annamalai, T; Selvaraj, R K

2011-08-01

100

Analysis of the relationship between economic measures and Salmonella testing results in young chicken slaughter establishments.  

PubMed

Food processing establishments incur costs to install, maintain, and operate equipment and implement specific food safety practices. During times of economic recession, establishments might reduce their food safety efforts to conserve resources and reduce costs of operation. This study was conducted to determine whether financial performance measures are systematically associated with Salmonella test results. The association between Salmonella test results from 182 federally inspected young chicken slaughter establishments from 2007 to 2009 and financial performance was examined while controlling for other establishment characteristics. Results indicated that the smallest establishments, which slaughtered fewer than 0.2 million chickens per year, had three times as many positive test results as did the largest establishments, which slaughtered more than 86.0 million chickens per year (P < 0.01). Establishments that slaughtered more than 0.2 million but fewer than 18.5 million chickens had 1.5 times as many positive test results (P = 0.02). Two statistically significant financial performance measures were identified, but the effects were limited. Establishments in bankruptcy had 1.4 times as many positive test results as did those not in bankruptcy (P = 0.02); however, only five establishments were in bankruptcy. Establishments with better payment performance generally had better Salmonella test results, but the effect was significant only in the winter season. PMID:22410217

Muth, Mary K; Creel, Darryl V; Karns, Shawn A; Wilkus, James

2012-03-01

101

Efficacy of a DNA Vaccine Carrying Eimeria maxima Gam56 Antigen Gene against Coccidiosis in Chickens  

PubMed Central

To control coccidiosis without using prophylactic medications, a DNA vaccine targeting the gametophyte antigen Gam56 from Eimeria maxima in chickens was constructed, and the immunogenicity and protective effects were evaluated. The ORF of Gam56 gene was cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(zeo)+. Expression of Gam56 protein in COS-7 cells transfected with recombinant plasmid pcDNA-Gam56 was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The DNA vaccine was injected intramuscularly to yellow feathered broilers of 1-week old at 3 dosages (25, 50, and 100 µg/chick). Injection was repeated once 1 week later. One week after the second injection, birds were challenged orally with 5×104 sporulated oocysts of E. maxima, then weighed and killed at day 8 post challenge. Blood samples were collected and examined for specific peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation activity and serum antibody levels. Compared with control groups, the administration of pcDNA-Gam56 vaccine markedly increased the lymphocyte proliferation activity (P<0.05) at day 7 and 14 after the first immunization. The level of lymphocyte proliferation started to decrease on day 21 after the first immunization. A similar trend was seen in specific antibody levels. Among the 3 pcDNA-Gam56 immunized groups, the median dosage group displayed the highest lymphocyte proliferation and antibody levels (P<0.05). The median dosage group had the greatest relative body weight gain (89.7%), and the greatest oocyst shedding reduction (53.7%). These results indicate that median dosage of DNA vaccine had good immunogenicity and immune protection effects, and may be used in field applications for coccidiosis control.

Xu, Jinjun; Zhang, Yan

2013-01-01

102

Field Application of the H9M2e Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Differentiation of H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus-Infected Chickens from Vaccinated Chickens ? †  

PubMed Central

Vaccination for control of H9N2 low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) in chickens began in 2007 in South Korea where the H9N2 virus is prevalent. Recently, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the extracellular domain of the M2 protein (M2e ELISA) was developed as another strategy to differentiate between vaccinated and infected chickens. Here, an ELISA using the extracellular domain of the M2 protein of H9N2 LPAI virus (H9M2e ELISA) was applied to differentiate infected from vaccinated chickens using the H9N2 LPAI virus M2 peptide. The specificity and sensitivity of the optimized H9M2e ELISA were 96.1% and 83.8% (the absorbance of the sample to the absorbance for the positive control [S/P ratio] ? 0.6), respectively, with the cutoff value (S/P ratio = 0.6), and the criterion of avian influenza (AI) infection in a chicken house was established as >20% reactivity of anti-M2e antibody per house with this cutoff value. After infection in naïve chickens and once-vaccinated chickens with a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay titer of 9.25 ± 0.75 log2 units, the sera from infected chickens were confirmed as AI infected when the chickens were 1 week old in both groups, and AI infection lasted for 24 weeks and 9 weeks in naïve and once-vaccinated chickens, respectively, although in twice-vaccinated chickens with a higher HI titer of 11.17 ± 0.37 log2 units, anti-M2e antibody in infected sera did not reach a level indicating AI infection. In field application, anti-M2e antibody produced in infected chickens after vaccination or in reinfected chickens could be identified as AI infection, although HI test could not distinguish infected from vaccinated sera. These results indicate the utility of H9M2e ELISA as a surveillance tool in control of H9N2 LPAI infections.

Kim, Min-Chul; Choi, Jun-Gu; Kwon, Ji-Sun; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Paek, Mi-Ra; Jeong, Ok-Mi; Kwon, Jun-Hun; Lee, Youn-Jeong

2010-01-01

103

Immunosuppressive effects of Marek's disease virus (MDV) and herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) in broiler chickens and the protective effect of HVT vaccination against MDV challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the impact of Marek's disease in broiler chickens is considered to be due to immunosuppression induced by Marek's disease virus (MDV). The present study evaluates the effects of an Australian isolate of pathogenic MDV (strain MPF 57) and a non-pathogenic vaccinal strain of herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) (strain FC 126) on the immune system of commercial broiler chickens

A. F. M. F. Islam; C. W. Wong; S. W. Walkden-Brown; I. G. Colditz; K. E. Arzey; P. J. Groves

2002-01-01

104

Immune response to a killed infectious bursal disease virus vaccine in inbred chicken lines with different major histocompatibility complex haplotypes.  

PubMed

The influence of MHC on antibody responses to killed infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine was investigated in several MHC inbred chicken lines. We found a notable MHC haplotype effect on the specific antibody response against IBDV as measured by ELISA. Some MHC haplotypes were high responders (B201, B4, and BR5), whereas other MHC haplotypes were low responders (B19, B12 and BW3). The humoral response of 1 pair of recombinants isolated from a Red Jungle Fowl (BW3 and BW4) being identical on BF and BG, but different on BL, indicated that part of the primary vaccine response was an MHC II restricted T-cell dependent response. The humoral response in another pair of recombinant haplotypes originating in 2 different White Leghorn chickens being BF21, BL21, BG15 (BR4) and BF15, BL15, BG21 (BR5) on the MHC locus indicated that the BG locus may perform an adjuvant effect on the antibody response as well. Vaccination of chickens at different ages and in lines with different origin indicated that age and background genes also influence the specific antibody response against inactivated IBDV vaccine. PMID:16776466

Juul-Madsen, H R; Dalgaard, T S; Røntved, C M; Jensen, K H; Bumstead, N

2006-06-01

105

Correlates of Immune Protection in Chickens Vaccinated with Mycoplasma gallisepticum Strain GT5 following Challenge with Pathogenic M. gallisepticum Strain Rlow  

PubMed Central

Colonization of the avian respiratory tract with Mycoplasma gallisepticum results in a profound inflammatory response in the trachea, air sacs, conjunctiva, and lungs. A live attenuated M. gallisepticum vaccine strain, GT5, was previously shown to be protective in chickens upon challenge; however, the mechanisms by which this vaccine and others confer protection remain largely unknown. The current study evaluated several potential correlates of GT5 vaccine-mediated immune protection following challenge with the pathogenic M. gallisepticum strain Rlow. GT5-vaccinated chickens developed mild tracheal lesions, consisting of few and scattered, discrete, lymphofollicular aggregates in the lamina propria. In addition, low numbers of aggregated B, CD4+, and CD8+ cells were observed to infiltrate the trachea, in stark contrast to the large numbers infiltrating the tracheas of sham-vaccinated chickens challenged with Rlow. Lymphofollicular aggregates were rarely observed prior to day 12 postchallenge in sham-vaccinated chickens. Instead, they contained an increasingly more cellular inflammatory response characterized by expansion of the lamina propria by lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic infiltrates. This was due in part to expansion of interfollicular zones by large numbers of infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ cells and a sizeable population of immunoglobulin A (IgA)- and IgG-secreting plasma cells. GT5-vaccinated chickens also had higher serum IgG concentrations, and significantly higher numbers of M. gallisepticum-specific IgG- and IgA-secreting plasma/B cells within the trachea, than did sham-vaccinated chickens. These responses were observed as early as day 4 postchallenge, indicating the importance of antibody-mediated clearance of mycoplasma in GT5-vaccinated chickens.

Javed, Mohammed A.; Frasca, Salvatore; Rood, Debra; Cecchini, Katharine; Gladd, Martha; Geary, Steven J.; Silbart, Lawrence K.

2005-01-01

106

Emmetropization and Eye Growth in Young Aphakic Chickens  

PubMed Central

Purpose To establish a chick model to investigate the trends of eye growth and emmetropization after early lensectomy for congenital cataract. Methods Four monocular treatments were applied: lens extraction (LX); sham surgery/-30 D lens; LX/+20 D lens; and LX/+30-D lens (nine per group). Lens powers were selected to slightly undercorrect or overcorrect the induced hyperopia in LX eyes and to induce comparable hyperopia in sham-surgery eyes. Refractive errors and axial ocular dimensions were measured over a 28-day period. External ocular dimensions were obtained when the eyes were enucleated on the last day. Results The growth patterns of experimental (Exp) eyes varied with the type of manipulation. All eyes experiencing hyperopia initially grew more than their fellow eyes and exhibited myopic shifts in refraction. The sham/-30 D lens group showed the greatest increase in optical axial length, followed by the LX group, and then the LX/+20 D lens group. The Exp eyes of the LX/+30 D lens group, which were initially slightly myopic, grew least, and showed a small hyperopic shift. Lensectomized eyes enlarged more equatorially than axially (i.e., oblate), irrespective of the optical treatment applied. Conclusions The refractive changes observed in young, aphakic eyes are consistent with compensation for the defocus experienced, and thus emmetropization. However, differences in the effects of lensectomy compared to those of sham surgery raise the possibility that the lens is a source of essential growth factors. Alterative optical and mechanical explanations are offered for the oblate shapes of aphakic eyes.

Ai, Likun; Li, Jing; Guan, Huan; Wildsoet, Christine F.

2009-01-01

107

New respiratory virus (chicken pox, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus) vaccines: efficacy, necessity and policy for the tropical world at present.  

PubMed

Several respiratory viruses are documented in medicine. Several infectious diseases due to these viruses are current global public health problems. Prevention of respiratory viral infections becomes the focus of the public health ministries of many tropical countries. Presently, there are many new vaccines for respiratory viruses. These vaccines include chicken pox vaccine, influenza vaccine and respiratory syncytial virus vaccine. In this article, the author will briefly discuss on these quoted vaccines focusing on efficacy, necessity and policy for tropical world at present. PMID:19363304

Wiwanitkit, Viroj

2009-09-23

108

Relationship between levels of very virulent MDV in poultry dust and in feather tips from vaccinated chickens.  

PubMed

To assess the effect of various vaccine strains on replication and shedding of virulent Marek's disease virus from experimentally infected chickens, quantitative PCR (q-PCR) methods were developed to accurately quantify viral DNA in infected chickens and in the environment in which they were housed. Four groups of 10 chickens, kept in poultry isolators, were vaccinated at 1 day old with one of four vaccines covering each of the three vaccine serotypes, then challenged with very virulent MDV strain Md5 at 8 days of age. At regular time-points, feather tips were collected from each chicken and poultry dust was collected from the air-extract prefilter of each isolator. DNA was extracted from feather and dust samples and subjected to real-time q-PCR, targeting the U(S)2 gene of MDV-1, in order to measure Md5 level per 10(4) feather tip cells or per microgram of dust. Accuracy of DNA extraction from dust and real-time q-PCR were validated by comparing either q-PCR cycle threshold values or the calculated MDV genome level; for use in q-PCR, DNA was extracted from serial dilutions of MDV-infected dust diluted with noninfected dust, or DNA from MDV-infected dust was diluted with DNA from noninfected dust. The results confirmed the accuracy and sensitivity of dust DNA extraction and subsequent q-PCR and showed that differences in virus levels between dust samples truly reflect differences in shedding. Vaccination delayed both replication of Md5 in feather tips and shedding of Md5. First detection of Md5 in feather tips always preceded or coincided with first detection in dust in each group. pCVI988 and HVT+SB-1 were the most efficient vaccines in reducing both replication and shedding of Md5. There was close correlation between mean virus level in feathers of each group and mean virus level in the dust shed by that group. This relationship was similar in each of the vaccinated groups, demonstrating that measurement of the virus in dust can be used to monitor accurately both the infection status of the chickens and environmental contamination by MDV. PMID:23901759

Baigent, Susan J; Kgosana, Lydia B; Gamawa, Ahmed A; Smith, Lorraine P; Read, Andrew F; Nair, Venugopal K

2013-06-01

109

Immunological Changes at Point-of-Lay Increase Susceptibility to Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Infection in Vaccinated Chickens  

PubMed Central

Chicken eggs are the main source of human Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection. S. Enteritidis infects the oviduct and ovary of the chicken leading to infection of developing eggs. Therefore, control in poultry production is a major public health priority. Vaccination of hens has proved successful in control strategies in United Kingdom leading to a 70% drop in human cases since introduced. However, as hens reach sexual maturity they become immunosuppressed and it has been postulated this leads to increased susceptibility to Salmonella infection. In this study we define the changes to the systemic and reproductive tract-associated immune system of hens throughout sexual development by flow cytometry and histology and determine changes in susceptibility to experimental S. Enteritidis challenge in naive and vaccinated hens. Changes to both systemic and local immune systems occur in chickens at sexual development around 140 days of age. The population of several leukocyte classes drop, with the greatest fall in CD4+ lymphocyte numbers. Within the developing reproductive tract there an organised structure of lymphocytic aggregates with ??-T lymphocytes associated with the mucosa. At point-of-lay, this organised structure disappears and only scattered lymphocytes remain. Protection against Salmonella challenge is significantly reduced in vaccinated birds at point-of-lay, coinciding with the drop in CD4+ lymphocytes. Susceptibility to reproductive tract infection by Salmonella increased in vaccinated and naïve animals at 140 and 148 days of age. We hypothesise that the drop in ??-T lymphocytes in the tract leads to decreased innate protection of the mucosa to infection. These findings indicate that systemic and local changes to the immune system increase the susceptibility of hens to S. Enteritidis infection. The loss of protective immunity in vaccinated birds demonstrates that Salmonella control should not rely on vaccination alone, but as part of an integrated control strategy including biosecurity and improved animal welfare.

Johnston, Claire E.; Hartley, Catherine; Salisbury, Anne-Marie; Wigley, Paul

2012-01-01

110

Immunological changes at point-of-lay increase susceptibility to Salmonella enterica Serovar enteritidis infection in vaccinated chickens.  

PubMed

Chicken eggs are the main source of human Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection. S. Enteritidis infects the oviduct and ovary of the chicken leading to infection of developing eggs. Therefore, control in poultry production is a major public health priority. Vaccination of hens has proved successful in control strategies in United Kingdom leading to a 70% drop in human cases since introduced. However, as hens reach sexual maturity they become immunosuppressed and it has been postulated this leads to increased susceptibility to Salmonella infection. In this study we define the changes to the systemic and reproductive tract-associated immune system of hens throughout sexual development by flow cytometry and histology and determine changes in susceptibility to experimental S. Enteritidis challenge in naive and vaccinated hens. Changes to both systemic and local immune systems occur in chickens at sexual development around 140 days of age. The population of several leukocyte classes drop, with the greatest fall in CD4+ lymphocyte numbers. Within the developing reproductive tract there an organised structure of lymphocytic aggregates with ??-T lymphocytes associated with the mucosa. At point-of-lay, this organised structure disappears and only scattered lymphocytes remain. Protection against Salmonella challenge is significantly reduced in vaccinated birds at point-of-lay, coinciding with the drop in CD4+ lymphocytes. Susceptibility to reproductive tract infection by Salmonella increased in vaccinated and naïve animals at 140 and 148 days of age. We hypothesise that the drop in ??-T lymphocytes in the tract leads to decreased innate protection of the mucosa to infection. These findings indicate that systemic and local changes to the immune system increase the susceptibility of hens to S. Enteritidis infection. The loss of protective immunity in vaccinated birds demonstrates that Salmonella control should not rely on vaccination alone, but as part of an integrated control strategy including biosecurity and improved animal welfare. PMID:23133568

Johnston, Claire E; Hartley, Catherine; Salisbury, Anne-Marie; Wigley, Paul

2012-10-25

111

HPV catch-up vaccination among a community sample of young adult women  

PubMed Central

Objectives Despite the high efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, uptake has been slow and little data on psychosocial barriers to vaccination exist. Methods A community sample of 428 women enrolled in a longitudinal study of social development in the Seattle WA metropolitan area were interviewed about HPV vaccine status, attitudes, and barriers to HPV vaccination in spring 2008 or 2009 at ~age 22. Results Nineteen percent of women had initiated vaccination, 10% had completed the series, and ~40% of unvaccinated women intended to get vaccinated. Peer approval was associated with vaccine initiation (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio (APR) 2.1; 95% Confidence Interval 1.4–3.2) and intention to vaccinate (APR 1.4;1.1–1.9). Belief the vaccine is < 75% effective was associated with less initiation (APR 0.6;0.4–0.9) or intention to vaccinate (APR 0.5;0.4–0.7). Vaccine initiation was also less likely among cigarette smokers and illegal drug users, whereas intention to vaccinate was more common among women currently attending school or with > 5 lifetime sex partners, but less common among women perceiving low susceptibility to HPV (APR 0.6;0.5–0.9). Conclusions HPV vaccination uptake was low in this community sample of young adult women. Increasing awareness of susceptibility to HPV and the high efficacy of the vaccine, along with peer interventions to increase acceptability, may be most effective.

Manhart, Lisa E.; Burgess-Hull, Albert J.; Fleming, Charles B.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

2011-01-01

112

A study in South Africa of the efficacy of a commercially obtained thermostable Newcastle disease vaccine in village chickens when administered by different routes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newcastle disease (ND) is a viral disease of poultry with a potentially devastating impact on both commercial and free-ranging poultry flocks. The disease is considered endemic in South Africa and vaccination is routinely practised in commercial poultry flocks. In village chickens, vaccination is not widely practised. There are several reasons for this, including difficulties in maintaining the cold chain and

S. P. R. Bisschop; B. L. Mogoje; M. M. O. Thekisoe

113

Short? and long?term stability studies on four lyophilised and one cell?associated turkey herpesvirus vaccines against marek's disease of chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

One cell?associated and four lyophilised turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vaccines of different manufacturers were investigated comparatively in respect of the stability of their infectivity. All titrations were performed in primary chicken embryo fibroblast cell cultures and repeated seven times. The obtained data were computerised and statistically analysed.The long term stability study employed vaccine ampoules containing only lyophilised HVT. After appropriate storage

O. Siegmann; E. F. Kaleta; P. Schindler

1980-01-01

114

Life events, perceived stress and antibody response to influenza vaccination in young, healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveChronic stress has been associated with impaired response to influenza vaccination in the elderly. This study investigated whether mild, intermittent stress experienced by young, healthy adults has a similar effect.

Victoria E Burns; Douglas Carroll; Mark Drayson; Martin Whitham; Christopher Ring

2003-01-01

115

Tdap vaccination during pregnancy to reduce pertussis infection in young infants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Question What is the basis for the new recommendations to vaccinate pregnant women against pertussis after the first trimester? Answer There have been outbreaks of epidemic proportions of pertussis, mostly among young infants who have not received sufficient passive immunity from their mothers. This strategy of vaccination during pregnancy aims at stopping these life-threatening epidemics.

Matlow, Jeremy N.; Pupco, Anna; Bozzo, Pina; Koren, Gideon

2013-01-01

116

A deletion within glycoprotein L of Marek's disease virus (MDV) field isolates correlates with a decrease in bivalent MDV vaccine efficacy in contact-exposed chickens.  

PubMed

We examined the functional role of a naturally occurring deletion within the glycoprotein L (gL) gene of Marek's disease virus (MDV) field isolates. We previously showed that this mutation incrementally increased the virulence of an MDV in contact-exposed SPF leghorn chickens, when chickens shedding this virus were co-infected with herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT). In our present study, we examined this mutation using two stocks of the very virulent plus (vv+)MDV strain TK, one of which harbored this deletion (TK1a) while the other did not (TK2a). We report that TK1a replicating in vaccinated chickens overcame bivalent (HVT/SB1) vaccine protection in contact-exposed chickens. Treatment groups exposed to vaccinated chickens inoculated with a 1:1 mix of TK1a and TK2a showed decreased bivalent vaccine efficacy, and this decrease correlated with the prevalence of the gL deletion indicative of TK1a. These results were also found using quadruplicate treatment groups and bivalently vaccinated chickens obtained from a commercial hatchery. As this deletion was found in 25 out of 25 recent field isolates from Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, we concluded that there is a strong selection for this mutation, which appears to have evolved in HVT or bivalently vaccinated chickens. This is the first report of a mutation in a vv+MDV field strain for which a putative biological phenotype has been discerned. Moreover, this mutation in gL has apparently been selected in MDV field isolates through Marek's disease vaccination. PMID:19630238

Tavlarides-Hontz, Phaedra; Kumar, Pankaj M; Amortegui, Juliana Rojas; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Parcells, Mark S

2009-06-01

117

Controversies in chicken–pox immunization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicken–pox is one more newer vaccine in our armamentarium against infectious diseases. Due to its extremely contagious nature,\\u000a varicella is experienced by almost every child or young adult in the world. Each year from 1990 to 1994, prior to availability\\u000a of varicella vaccine, about 4 million cases of varicella occurred in the United States. Of these cases approximately 10,000\\u000a required

Swati Y. Bhave

2003-01-01

118

Needle-free delivery of an inactivated avian influenza H5N3 virus vaccine elicits potent antibody responses in chickens.  

PubMed

A needle-free delivery system was assessed as a route for providing quick, safe, and effective vaccination against avian influenza (AI). Two groups of chickens were vaccinated with a commercially available inactivated H5N3 virus vaccine delivered either with a needle-free device or with the conventional syringe-and-needle method recommended by the vaccine manufacturer. The kinetic aspects of seroconversion, peak antibody levels, and antibody titers were measured by a combination of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the hemagglutination-inhibition test and were all found to be similar in the 2 groups of chickens. We conclude that the needle-free delivery system could result in effective immunization against H5N1 AI epidemics and pandemics in chickens. PMID:24124275

Ogunremi, Oladele; Pasick, John; Berhane, Yohannes

2013-10-01

119

Long Term Persistence of IgE Anti-Varicella Zoster Virus in Pediatric and Adult Serum Post Chicken Pox Infection and after Vaccination with Varicella Virus Vaccine.  

PubMed

The production of IgE specific to different viruses (HIV-1, Parvovirus B19, RSV), and the ability for IgE anti-HIV-1 to suppress HIV-1 production in vitro, strongly suggest an important role for IgE and/or anti viral specific IgE in viral pathogenesis. Previous studies in our laboratory were the first to report the presence of IgE anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) in an adolescent patient with shingles. However, the presence and long term persistence of IgE anti VZV antibodies has not been studied in adults. The presence of serum IgE in addition to IgE and IgG anti-VZV antibody in sera were studied in children (N=12) (0-16 y/o) and adults (N=9) (32-76 y/o) with either a past history of (wild type) chicken pox (N=7 children, 9 adults) or 5 years after vaccination with varicella zoster (N=2 children) (Varicella virus vaccine live, Oka/Merck), as well as in non-infected subjects (N=3 children). Of the patients who had a positive history of chicken pox 13 of 16 (81%) contained IgE anti-VZV antibodies; they were both serum IgEHi (>100 IU/ml) and IgELo (<100 IU/ml). Of the patients who were vaccinated, IgE anti-VZV antibodies were undetected. In contrast, serum from the patients without a history of chicken pox or vaccination did not make either IgE or IgG anti-VZV antibodies. This is the first demonstration of the existence of IgE anti-VZV antibodies, and its long-term persistence in serum of previously infected subjects. Future studies regarding the functional role of anti-viral IgE and its relationship to VZV are warranted. PMID:23675158

Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Josekutty, Joby; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Lev-Tov, Hadar; Norowitz, Yitzchok M; Kohlhoff, Stephan; Nowakowski, Maja; Durkin, Helen G; Bluth, Martin H

2009-12-01

120

Long Term Persistence of IgE Anti-Varicella Zoster Virus in Pediatric and Adult Serum Post Chicken Pox Infection and after Vaccination with Varicella Virus Vaccine  

PubMed Central

The production of IgE specific to different viruses (HIV-1, Parvovirus B19, RSV), and the ability for IgE anti-HIV-1 to suppress HIV-1 production in vitro, strongly suggest an important role for IgE and/or anti viral specific IgE in viral pathogenesis. Previous studies in our laboratory were the first to report the presence of IgE anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) in an adolescent patient with shingles. However, the presence and long term persistence of IgE anti VZV antibodies has not been studied in adults. The presence of serum IgE in addition to IgE and IgG anti-VZV antibody in sera were studied in children (N=12) (0–16 y/o) and adults (N=9) (32–76 y/o) with either a past history of (wild type) chicken pox (N=7 children, 9 adults) or 5 years after vaccination with varicella zoster (N=2 children) (Varicella virus vaccine live, Oka/Merck), as well as in non-infected subjects (N=3 children). Of the patients who had a positive history of chicken pox 13 of 16 (81%) contained IgE anti-VZV antibodies; they were both serum IgEHi (>100 IU/ml) and IgELo (<100 IU/ml). Of the patients who were vaccinated, IgE anti-VZV antibodies were undetected. In contrast, serum from the patients without a history of chicken pox or vaccination did not make either IgE or IgG anti-VZV antibodies. This is the first demonstration of the existence of IgE anti-VZV antibodies, and its long-term persistence in serum of previously infected subjects. Future studies regarding the functional role of anti-viral IgE and its relationship to VZV are warranted.

Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A.; Josekutty, Joby; Silverberg, Jonathan I.; Lev-Tov, Hadar; Norowitz, Yitzchok M.; Kohlhoff, Stephan; Nowakowski, Maja; Durkin, Helen G.; Bluth, Martin H.

2009-01-01

121

Molecular characterization of contaminating infectious anemia virus of chickens in live commercial vaccines produced in the 1990s.  

PubMed

The presence of infectious chicken anemia virus (CAV) was detected in a previous study by nested-PCR as a contaminant in seven commercial vaccines, produced in the 1990s by three different manufacturers, prepared against the most relevant virus etiologies. In order to phylogenetically characterize the genome and compare it to CAV isolates from Brazil and other parts of the world, sequences of approximately 675 bp of the gene encoding the hypervariable region of VP1 protein of three CAV vaccine contaminant strains were studied. The CAV genome in contaminated vaccines showed high similarity (> 98.9%) with the Brazilian BR91/99 and Argentinian ArgA001028 (> 99%) strains. However, the comparison with the Cuxhaven-1 vaccine strain showed a lower identity of between 96.8% and 97.7%, and comparing it with the CAV26P4 vaccine strain showed an identity between 97.2% and 98.2%; both are available in Brazil. Such differences might be relevant for the highly conserved CAV genome. CAV contaminants were positioned in the same genetic group (clusters) with the Brazilian strain BR91/99 and Argentinian strain ArgA001028. Results indicated that the contamination of live vaccines by CAV may have influenced CAV epidemiology in the Brazilian and Argentinian poultry industry. PMID:23678724

Marin, S Y G; Barrios, P R; Rios, R L; Resende, M; Resende, J S; Santos, B M; Martinsa, N R S

2013-03-01

122

Assessment of 2 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium-based vaccines against necrotic enteritis in reducing colonization of chickens by Salmonella serovars of different serogroups.  

PubMed

This study assessed the protective efficacy of oral vaccination with 2 experimental attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium-vectored vaccines for necrotic enteritis in protecting chickens against intestinal colonization by common serovars of Salmonella belonging to the 4 major serogroups affecting chickens. Birds were vaccinated orally with 1 × 10? colony-forming units (CFU) of 1 of the vaccine strains ?9241 and ?9352, which express a plasmid-encoded partial recombinant hypothetical protein gene (tHP) of Clostridium perfringens, at days 1 and 7 of age, and then were challenged at 14 d of age with 10? CFU of Salmonella serovars Anatum, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Kentucky, or Typhimurium (representative serovars of serogroups B, C, D, and E). Birds were necropsied at 4 wk of age, and samples were collected to determine reduction in tissue and intestinal colonization. The chickens vaccinated with ?9241-tHP showed reduced colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis (serogroup D) and by Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium (serogroup B) compared with the control birds. No reduction in colonization was observed in the chickens vaccinated with ?9352-tHP. There was an association between the efficacy of these vaccine strains in protecting against necrotic enteritis, assessed on an earlier occasion, and their efficacy in protecting against Salmonella colonization. Thus, the choice of an attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine vector for delivery of heterologous antigens to chickens should be based partly on the vaccine's value in protecting against colonization by serovars within serogroups B and D. Such vectors would have the additional benefit of reducing colonization of important Salmonella serovars. PMID:21197226

Jiang, Yanfen; Kulkarni, Raveendra R; Parreira, Valeria R; Poppe, Cornelius; Roland, Kenneth L; Prescott, John F

2010-10-01

123

Universal routine HPV vaccination for young girls in Uganda: a review of opportunities and potential obstacles  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the existing realities in Uganda to identify opportunities and potential obstacles of providing universal routine HPV vaccination to young adolescent girls. Cervical cancer is a public health priority in Uganda where it contributes to about 50–60% of all female malignancies. It is associated with a dismal 5-year relative survival of approximately 20%. With adequate financial resources, primary prevention through vaccination is feasible using existing education and health infrastructure. Cost-effectiveness studies show that at a cost of US$2 per dose, the current vaccines would be cost effective. With optimal (?70%) coverage of the target population, the lifetime risk of cervical cancer could be reduced by >50%. Uganda fulfils 4 out of the 5 criteria set by the WHO for the introduction of routine HPV vaccination to young adolescent girls. The existing political commitment, community support for immunization and the favorable laws and policy environment all provide an opportunity that should not be missed to introduce this much needed vaccine to the young adolescent girls. However, sustainable financing by the government without external assistances remains a major obstacle. Also, the existing health delivery systems would require strengthening to cope with the delivery of HPV vaccine to a population that is normally not targeted for routine vaccination. Given the high incidence of cervical cancer and in the absence of a national screening program, universal HPV vaccination of Ugandan adolescent girls is critical for cervical cancer prevention.

2012-01-01

124

Uptake of Free HPV Vaccination among Young Women: A Comparison of Rural versus Urban Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To contrast rates of initial HPV vaccine uptake, offered at no cost, between a rural clinic, a rural community college, and an urban college clinic and to identify rural versus urban differences in uptake of free booster doses. Methods: Young rural women attending rural clinics (n = 246), young women attending a rural community college…

Crosby, Richard A.; Casey, Baretta R.; Vanderpool, Robin; Collins, Tom; Moore, Gregory R.

2011-01-01

125

Are young injection drug users ready and willing to participate in preventive HCV vaccine trials?  

PubMed Central

Trials to evaluate the efficacy of preventive HCV vaccines will need participation from high risk HCV seronegative injection drug users (IDUs). To guide trial planning, we assessed willingness of young IDU in San Francisco to participate in HCV vaccine efficacy trials and evaluate knowledge of vaccine trial concepts: placebo, randomization and blinding. During 2006 and 2007, a total of 67 participants completed the survey. A substantial proportion (88%) would definitely (44%) or probably (44%) be willing to participate in a randomized trial, but knowledge of vaccine trial concepts was low. Reported willingness to participate in an HCV vaccine trial decreased with increasing trial duration, with 67% of participants surveyed willing to participate in a trial of one year duration compared to 43% of participants willing to participate in a trial of 4 years duration. Willingness to enroll in HCV vaccine trials was higher in young IDU than reported by most at-risk populations in HIV vaccine trials. Educational strategies will be needed to ensure understanding of key concepts prior to implementing HCV vaccine trials.

Levy, Vivian; Evans, Jennifer L.; Stein, Ellen S.; Davidson, Peter J.; Lum, Paula J.; Hahn, Judith A.; Page, Kimberly

2010-01-01

126

Development and Application of Reference Antisera against 15 Hemagglutinin Subtypes of Influenza Virus by DNA Vaccination of Chickens  

PubMed Central

Reference antisera were produced against 15 influenza hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes using DNA vaccination to produce a high-quality polyclonal serum to the HA protein without antibodies to other influenza viral proteins. The HA gene from each of 15 different HA subtypes of influenza virus was cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector and injected intramuscularly, together with a cationic lipid, into 3- to 4-week-old specific-pathogen-free chickens. Birds were boostered twice at 4-week intervals after the initial injection, and in general, antibody titers increased after each boost. The antisera were successfully applied in the hemagglutination inhibition test, which is the standard method for the classification of the HA subtypes of influenza virus. We also demonstrated the HA specificity of the antisera by Western blot and immunodot blot analysis. DNA vaccination also provides a safer alternative for the production of HA-specific antibodies, since it is produced without the use of live virus.

Lee, Chang-Won; Senne, Dennis A.; Suarez, David L.

2006-01-01

127

Drivers and barriers to acceptance of human-papillomavirus vaccination among young women: a qualitative and quantitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical dysplasia and cancer, and of genital warts. Few studies have examined attitudes to HPV vaccination since the introduction of HPV vaccines. We aimed to investigate the reasons for young women's acceptance or rejection of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine after its general availability in Denmark. METHOD: A literature review assessed attitudes

Gitte Lee Mortensen

2010-01-01

128

Immunomodulation of bivalent Newcastle disease DNA vaccine induced immune response by co-delivery of chicken IFN-? and IL4 genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic objective of this study was to enumerate whether co-administration of interferon-? (IFN-?) and\\/or interleukin-4 (IL-4) gene along with a bivalent Newcastle disease (ND) DNA vaccine construct could modulate the immune response to the DNA vaccine in chickens. pVIVO2 vector carrying Haemaglutinin-Neuraminidase (HN) and Fusion (F) genes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) at its two cloning sites was used

P. M. Sawant; P. C. Verma; P. K. Subudhi; U. Chaturvedi; M. Singh; Rajeev Kumar; A. K. Tiwari

129

Oral and Nasal DNA Vaccines Delivered by Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Induce a Protective Immune Response against Infectious Bronchitis in Chickens ?  

PubMed Central

Several studies have reported that intramuscular injection of DNA vaccines against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) induces protective immune responses. In the present study, we developed oral and nasal DNA vaccines that carried the S1 gene and N gene of IBV delivered by attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains SL/pV-S1 and SL/pV-N, respectively. The safety and stability of recombinant Salmonella vaccine were evaluated. Following oral and nasal administration to chickens, the serum and mucosal samples were collected and antibodies against IBV were measured. Chickens were then challenged with IBV strain M41 by the nasal-ocular route 3 weeks after boosting. The results showed that oral and nasal immunization with coadministered SL/pV-S1 and SL/pV-N elicited significant IBV-specific humoral and mucosal immune responses and conferred protective efficacy against IBV challenge higher than that in chickens immunized only with SL/pV-S1. The current study shows that novel DNA vaccines delivered by attenuated S. Typhimurium may be promising candidates for the prevention of infectious bronchitis (IB).These vaccines are efficacious, easily produced economically, and able to be delivered orally and nasally rather than injected. Coadministration of SL/pV-S1 and SL/pV-N may represent an effective mucosal vaccination regimen.

Jiao, Hongmei; Pan, Zhiming; Yin, Yuelan; Geng, Shizhong; Sun, Lin; Jiao, Xinan

2011-01-01

130

Guidelines for evaluating the efficacy and safety of live anticoccidial vaccines, and obtaining approval for their use in chickens and turkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

These guidelines are intended to aid those engaged in poultry research in the design, implementation and interpretation of laboratory, floor-pen and field studies for the assessment of the efficacy and safety of live anticoccidial vaccines for immunization of chickens and turkeys against Eimeria species. In addition to efficacy and safety requirements, manufacture, quality control and licensing considerations are discussed. The

H. D. Chapman; B. Roberts; M. W. Shirley; R. B. Williams

2005-01-01

131

l-Arginine stimulates intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte functions and immune response in chickens orally immunized with live intermediate plus strain of infectious bursal disease vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious bursal disease (IBD) continues to pose potential threat to poultry industry all over the world. The disease can spell disaster not only through its infection but also by break of immunity in chickens vaccinated for other diseases. l-Arginine, a ubiquitous, semi-essential amino acid has emerged as an imunostimulant from variety of human and animal studies. In the present study,

Chandrakant Tayade; Madhuri Koti; S. C. Mishra

2006-01-01

132

HPV Vaccination Among Young Adult Women: A Perspective From Appalachian Kentucky  

PubMed Central

Introduction Few studies have assessed barriers to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake and adherence, particularly among women of Appalachian Kentucky, a population with higher rates of cervical cancer, lower rates of HPV vaccination, and lower socioeconomic status compared with the rest of the nation. The objective of this study was to address women’s reasons for declining the HPV vaccine and, among women who initiated the vaccine series, barriers to completion of the 3-dose regimen. Methods We recruited 17 women aged 18 to 26 from a Federally Qualified Health Center who participated in in-depth, semistructured telephone interviews. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim; analysis of the interview transcripts was an iterative process conducted by all 3 authors. Results We identified 3 primary barriers: 1) a knowledge gap wherein women are both uninformed and misinformed about cervical cancer, HPV, and the HPV vaccine, all of which affect vaccination behaviors; 2) environmental and tangible barriers (transportation and prioritizing health over other responsibilities such as child care, work, and school); and 3) ambiguous information sources, which contribute to misinformation and subsequently affect vaccination decisions. Conclusion Health professionals should use clear and purposeful communication about how cervical cancer develops, the purpose and safety of the HPV vaccine, and the necessity of completing the 3-dose series. Health promotion campaigns and services tailored for young women in Appalachian Kentucky that focus on increasing knowledge and eliminating barriers are needed.

Head, Katharine J.; Vanderpool, Robin C.

2013-01-01

133

Trust versus concerns-how parents reason when they accept HPV vaccination for their young daughter.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. From spring of 2012, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine against cervical cancer is offered free of charge to all girls aged 10-12 years through a school-based vaccination programme in Sweden. The aim of this study was to explore how parents reason when they accept HPV vaccination for their young daughter and also their views on HPV-related information. Methods. Individual interviews with parents (n = 27) of 11-12-year-old girls. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using thematic content analysis. Results. Three themes emerged through the analysis: Trust versus concern, Responsibility to protect against severe disease, and Information about HPV and HPV vaccination is important. The parents expressed trust in recommendations from authorities and thought it was convenient with school-based vaccination. They believed that cervical cancer was a severe disease and felt a responsibility to protect their daughter from it. Some had certain concerns regarding side effects and vaccine safety, and wished for a dialogue with the school nurse to bridge the information gaps. Conclusions. Trust in the recommendations from authorities and a wish to protect their daughter from a severe disease outweighed concerns about side effects. A school-based vaccination programme is convenient for parents, and the school nurse has an important role in bridging information gaps. The findings from this qualitative study cannot be generalized; however, it can provide a better understanding of how parents might reason when they accept the HPV vaccination for their daughter. PMID:23777602

Gottvall, Maria; Grandahl, Maria; Höglund, Anna T; Larsson, Margareta; Stenhammar, Christina; Andrae, Bengt; Tydén, Tanja

2013-06-19

134

Assessment of Route of Administration and Dose Escalation for an Adenovirus-Based Influenza A Virus (H5N1) Vaccine in Chickens?  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus causes one of the most economically devastating poultry diseases. An HPAI vaccine to prevent the disease in commercial and backyard birds must be effective, safe, and inexpensive. Recently, we demonstrated the efficacy of an adenovirus-based H5N1 HPAI vaccine (Ad5.HA) in chickens. To further evaluate the potential of the Ad5.HA vaccine and its cost-effectiveness, studies to determine the minimal effective dose and optimal route of administration in chickens were performed. A dose as low as 107 viral particles (vp) of adenovirus-based H5N1 vaccine per chicken was sufficient to generate a robust humoral immune response, which correlated with the previously reported level of protection. Several routes of administration, including intratracheal, conjunctival, subcutaneous, and in ovo routes, were evaluated for optimal vaccine administration. However, only the subcutaneous route of immunization induced a satisfactory level of influenza virus-specific antibodies. Importantly, these studies established that the vaccine-induced immunity was cross-reactive against an H5N1 strain from a different clade, emphasizing the potential of cross-protection. Our results suggest that the Ad5.HA HPAI vaccine is safe and effective, with the potential of cross-clade protection. The ease of manufacturing and cost-effectiveness make Ad5.HA an excellent avian influenza vaccine candidate with the ability to protect poultry from HPAI virus infection. Considering the limitations of the influenza vaccine technology currently used for poultry applications, any effort aimed at overcoming those limitations is highly significant.

Steitz, Julia; Wagner, Robert A.; Bristol, Tyler; Gao, Wentao; Donis, Ruben O.; Gambotto, Andrea

2010-01-01

135

Perceptions of Sexual Risk Compensation Following Posttrial HIV Vaccine Uptake Among Young South Africans  

PubMed Central

Concerns about the impact of risk compensation on advances in biomedical Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention technologies have been documented. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study using focus group discussions with young South African men and women (aged 18–24 years) to explore perceptions of risk compensation among young South Africans with regard to a hypothetical posttrial HIV vaccine. During the discussions participants expressed their disquiet about the potential for risk compensation and the manner in which this might manifest among young people. Discussions specifically focused on reductions in condom use, an increase in multiple partners and increased frequency of sex. The discussions also indicated contradictory feelings about HIV vaccines: appreciation for their development tempered by concerns about loss of control and undermining morality. Women were particularly concerned with the possibility of increased partner concurrency and infidelity. We suggest that concerns in HIV vaccine target populations about the impact of possible risk compensation be incorporated into strategies to for vaccine introduction once vaccines move from the hypothetical to reality.

MacPhail, Catherine L.; Sayles, Jennifer N.; Cunningham, William; Newman, Peter

2013-01-01

136

MDA5 Can Be Exploited as Efficacious Genetic Adjuvant for DNA Vaccination against Lethal H5N1 Influenza Virus Infection in Chickens  

PubMed Central

Chickens lack the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and sense avian influenza virus (AIV) infections by means of the melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 product (chMDA5). Plasmid-driven expression of the N-terminal half of chMDA5 containing the caspase activation and recruitment domains [chMDA5(1-483)] triggers interferon-? responses in chicken cells. We hypothesized that mimicking virus infection by chMDA5(1-483) expression may enhance vaccine-induced adaptive immunity. In order to test this, the potential genetic adjuvant properties of chMDA5(1-483) were evaluated in vivo in combination with a suboptimal quantity of a plasmid DNA vaccine expressing haemagglutinin (HA) of H5N1 AIV. Co-administration of the HA plasmid with plasmid DNA for chMDA5(1-483) expression resulted in approximately 10-fold higher HA-specific antibody responses than injection of the HA plasmid mixed with empty vector DNA as control. Accordingly, compared with HA DNA vaccination alone, the chMDA5(1-483)-adjuvanted HA DNA vaccine mediated enhanced protection against a lethal H5N1 challenge infection in chickens, with reduced clinical signs and cloacal virus shedding. These data demonstrate that innate immune activation by expression of signaling domains of RIG-I-like receptors can be exploited to enhance vaccine efficacy.

Liniger, Matthias; Summerfield, Artur; Ruggli, Nicolas

2012-01-01

137

Determinants of influenza vaccination among young children in an inner-city community.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined potential factors that contribute to low influenza vaccination rates among minority children. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of early childhood influenza vaccination among young black and Latino children, living in inner-city neighborhoods, and examine the effects of child, caregiver and health system factors. Secondary data analysis was performed using a survey about medical home experiences conducted from May 2007-June 2008. The study sample was limited to children ?6 months in any influenza season prior to the 2006-2007 influenza season. Bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression tested associations between influenza vaccination receipt and socio-demographic and health system characteristics. One-third of children received an influenza vaccination by the end of 2006-2007 season, while only 11% received a vaccination within their first season of eligibility. Black children were more likely than Latino children to have been vaccinated (50% vs. 31%, P<0.01) during their first few eligible seasons. Children whose mothers were older, proficient in English, and frequent users of healthcare were more likely to obtain vaccination. Child attendance at healthcare settings with immunization reminder systems was also positively correlated with influenza vaccination. Our findings suggest that initial vaccination receipt among minority children from inner-city communities might be improved by expanded influenza promotion activities targeting younger mothers or those with limited English proficiency. Strategies to increase the frequency of child's actual contact with the medical home, such as reminder systems, may be useful in improving uptake of influenza vaccination among inner-city, minority children. PMID:22045471

Uwemedimo, Omolara T; Findley, Sally E; Andres, Raquel; Irigoyen, Matilde; Stockwell, Melissa S

2012-06-01

138

Passive antibody transfer in chickens to model maternal antibody after avian influenza vaccination.  

PubMed

Birds transfer maternal antibodies (MAb) to their offspring through the egg yolk where the antibody is absorbed and enters the circulatory system. Maternal antibodies provide early protection from disease, but may interfere with the vaccination efficacy in the chick. MAb are thought to interfere with vaccine antigen processing that reduces the subsequent immune response. Once MAb titers are depleted, the chick will respond to vaccination, but they are also susceptible to viral infection. This study examines the effect of MAb on seroconversion to different viral-vectored avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines. Chicks were given passively transferred antibodies (PTA) using AIV hyperimmunized serum, and subsequently vaccinated with a fowlpox-AIV recombinant vaccine (FPr) or a Newcastle disease virus-AIV recombinant vaccine (NDVr). Our results indicate that passively transferred antibodies led to significant reduction of seroconversion and clinical protection from virulent challenge in recombinant virus vaccinated chicks thus demonstrating maternal antibody interference to vaccination. The passive antibody transfer model system provides an important tool to evaluate maternal antibody interference to vaccination. PMID:23398721

Faulkner, Olivia B; Estevez, Carlos; Yu, Qingzhong; Suarez, David L

2013-01-21

139

Risk Perceptions after Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in HIV-Infected Adolescent and Young Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine risk perceptions (perceived risk of HPV, perceived risk of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and need for safer sexual behaviors) and to determine factors associated with these risk perceptions after human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Methods Data were collected at the baseline visit of an HPV-6, -11, -16, -18 vaccine clinical trial in 16- to 23-year-old HIV-infected young women (N=99). Immediately after receiving the first vaccine dose, participants completed a confidential questionnaire that included three 5-item scales measuring perceived risk of HPV, perceived risk of other STIs, and need for safer sexual behaviors. Linear and logistic regression models were used to examine associations between baseline characteristics (demographic characteristics; CD4+ count; HIV viral load; knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccines; sexual behaviors; and STI diagnosis) and each measure of risk perceptions. Results Most participants perceived themselves to be at lower risk for HPV (mean scale score 19.5/50), most perceived that they were not at lower risk for other STIs (mean 31.2/50), and the vast majority reported that there was still a need for safer sexual behaviors after vaccination (mean 43.1/50). Multivariable analyses indicated that knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccines was associated with perceived need for safer sexual behaviors (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.0-1.1). Conclusions Although almost all young women in this study believed that safer sexual behaviors were still important after HPV vaccination, a subset believed they were at less risk for STIs other than HPV. Educational interventions are needed to prevent misperceptions and promote healthy behaviors after vaccination.

Kahn, Jessica A.; Xu, Jiahong; Zimet, Gregory D.; Liu, Nancy; Gonin, Rene; Dillard, Mary E.; Squires, Kathleen

2012-01-01

140

Experimental disease in young chickens induced by a Mycobacterium paratuberculosis isolate from a patient with Crohn's disease.  

PubMed Central

The susceptibility of young chickens to infection with an isolate of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis which had been recovered from diseased tissues of a patient with Crohn's disease was determined. Two-week-old Leghorn-Cochin chicks were inoculated with strain Linda. Six birds received 10(7) organisms orally, six intraperitoneally, and five intracardially. Six uninoculated birds served as contact controls. Birds from each group were necropsied at two-week intervals. Focal granulomatous lesions occurred in two of six chickens which were inoculated orally, in six of six inoculated intraperitoneally, in three of five inoculated intracardially, but in none of six controls. Of the 11 birds with lesions, acid-fast bacilli were demonstrated in five. Immunoperoxidase reactivity paralleled the presence of acid-fast bacilli. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.

Van Kruiningen, H J; Ruiz, B; Gumprecht, L

1991-01-01

141

A Live Oral Recombinant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Vaccine Expressing Clostridium perfringens Antigens Confers Protection against Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens?  

PubMed Central

Necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens is caused by Clostridium perfringens, and there is currently no effective vaccine for NE. We previously showed that in broiler chickens protection against NE can be achieved through intramuscular immunization with alpha toxin (AT) and hypothetical protein (HP), and we subsequently identified B-cell epitopes in HP. In the present study, we identified B-cell epitopes in AT recognized by chickens immune to NE. The gene fragments encoding immunodominant epitopes of AT as well as those of HP were codon optimized for Salmonella and cloned into pYA3493, and the resultant plasmid constructs were introduced into an attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ?9352 vaccine vehicle. The expression of these Clostridium perfringens proteins, alpha toxoid (ATd) and truncated HP (HPt), was confirmed by immunoblotting. The protection of broiler chickens against experimentally induced NE was assessed at both the moderate and the severe levels of challenge. Birds immunized orally with Salmonella expressing ATd were significantly protected against moderate NE, and there was a nonsignificant trend for protection against severe challenge, whereas HPt-immunized birds were significantly protected against both severities of challenge. Immunized birds developed serum IgY and mucosal IgA and IgY antibody responses against Clostridium and Salmonella antigens. In conclusion, this study identified, for the first time, the B-cell epitopes in AT from an NE isolate recognized by chickens and showed the partial protective ability of codon-optimized ATd and HPt against NE in broiler chickens when they were delivered orally by using a Salmonella vaccine vehicle.

Kulkarni, R. R.; Parreira, V. R.; Jiang, Y.-F.; Prescott, J. F.

2010-01-01

142

Response of young broiler chickens to chronic injection of recombinant-derived human insulin-like growth factor-I.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if exogenous insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) would improve growth rate or body composition of young broiler chickens. Broiler cockerels were given a daily intramuscular (im) injection of sodium acetate buffer (buffer control), 100 or 200 micrograms recombinant-derived human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) per kg body weight from 11 to 24 days of age. Exogenous IGF-I did not affect the average daily gain, average daily feed consumption, or the gain-to-feed ratio of broiler chickens. Although daily injection of 200 micrograms/kg of rhIGF-I reduced (P less than 0.05) body ash content, there was no significant effect of IGF-I treatment on either body fat or protein content. Plasma GH levels were depressed (P less than 0.05) by chronic treatment with rhIGF-I. In contrast, plasma levels of T3 and T4 were not affected by rhIGF-I treatment. The half-life of rhIGF-I in plasma was determined at 25 days of age in naive control or chronically-injected chickens after a single intravenous dose of 50 micrograms rhIGF-I/kg. We found a single compartment, first-order disappearance pattern of rhIGF-I from chicken plasma. The half-life (t1/2) of rhIGF-I in plasma was similar (t1/2 = 32.5 min) for naive controls (injected once) or chronically-treated chickens which had received a daily injection of rhIGF-I (100 or 200 micrograms/kg) for 14 d. These data indicate that daily injection of IGF-I cannot be used to enhance growth performance or body composition of broiler chickens when given during the early growth period. The depression of plasma GH levels in rhIGF-I-injected chickens supports a negative-feedback role of IGF-I on pituitary GH secretion. PMID:1786708

McGuinness, M C; Cogburn, L A

1991-10-01

143

Newcastle Disease Virus-Based Live Attenuated Vaccine Completely Protects Chickens and Mice from Lethal Challenge of Homologous and Heterologous H5N1 Avian Influenza Viruses?  

PubMed Central

H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) has continued to spread and poses a significant threat to both animal and human health. Current influenza vaccine strategies have limitations that prevent their effective use for widespread inoculation of animals in the field. Vaccine strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), however, have been used successfully to easily vaccinate large numbers of animals. In this study, we used reverse genetics to construct a NDV that expressed an H5 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA). Both a wild-type and a mutated HA open reading frame (ORF) from the HPAIV wild bird isolate, A/Bar-headed goose/Qinghai/3/2005 (H5N1), were inserted into the intergenic region between the P and M genes of the LaSota NDV vaccine strain. The recombinant viruses stably expressing the wild-type and mutant HA genes were found to be innocuous after intracerebral inoculation of 1-day-old chickens. A single dose of the recombinant viruses in chickens induced both NDV- and AIV H5-specific antibodies and completely protected chickens from challenge with a lethal dose of both velogenic NDV and homologous and heterologous H5N1 HPAIV. In addition, BALB/c mice immunized with the recombinant NDV-based vaccine produced H5 AIV-specific antibodies and were completely protected from homologous and heterologous lethal virus challenge. Our results indicate that recombinant NDV is suitable as a bivalent live attenuated vaccine against both NDV and AIV infection in poultry. The recombinant NDV vaccine may also have potential use in high-risk human individuals to control the pandemic spread of lethal avian influenza.

Ge, Jinying; Deng, Guohua; Wen, Zhiyuan; Tian, Guobing; Wang, Yong; Shi, Jianzhong; Wang, Xijun; Li, Yanbing; Hu, Sen; Jiang, Yongping; Yang, Chinglai; Yu, Kangzhen; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

2007-01-01

144

Newcastle disease virus-based live attenuated vaccine completely protects chickens and mice from lethal challenge of homologous and heterologous H5N1 avian influenza viruses.  

PubMed

H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) has continued to spread and poses a significant threat to both animal and human health. Current influenza vaccine strategies have limitations that prevent their effective use for widespread inoculation of animals in the field. Vaccine strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), however, have been used successfully to easily vaccinate large numbers of animals. In this study, we used reverse genetics to construct a NDV that expressed an H5 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA). Both a wild-type and a mutated HA open reading frame (ORF) from the HPAIV wild bird isolate, A/Bar-headed goose/Qinghai/3/2005 (H5N1), were inserted into the intergenic region between the P and M genes of the LaSota NDV vaccine strain. The recombinant viruses stably expressing the wild-type and mutant HA genes were found to be innocuous after intracerebral inoculation of 1-day-old chickens. A single dose of the recombinant viruses in chickens induced both NDV- and AIV H5-specific antibodies and completely protected chickens from challenge with a lethal dose of both velogenic NDV and homologous and heterologous H5N1 HPAIV. In addition, BALB/c mice immunized with the recombinant NDV-based vaccine produced H5 AIV-specific antibodies and were completely protected from homologous and heterologous lethal virus challenge. Our results indicate that recombinant NDV is suitable as a bivalent live attenuated vaccine against both NDV and AIV infection in poultry. The recombinant NDV vaccine may also have potential use in high-risk human individuals to control the pandemic spread of lethal avian influenza. PMID:17050610

Ge, Jinying; Deng, Guohua; Wen, Zhiyuan; Tian, Guobing; Wang, Yong; Shi, Jianzhong; Wang, Xijun; Li, Yanbing; Hu, Sen; Jiang, Yongping; Yang, Chinglai; Yu, Kangzhen; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

2006-10-18

145

Vaccination of chickens against avian influenza using yeast cell surface display of H5 hemagglutinin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traditional vaccination methods for avian influenza (AI) require costly and time-consuming injection of individual birds, often multiple times, in order to produce protection. These vaccines are difficult to change quickly in response to new threats as manufacturing takes time. Yeast are an ideal ...

146

Aerosol vaccination against Newcastle disease: Factors affecting the serological response in chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of vaccine diluent and virus concentration on the immune response following aerosol vaccination against Newcastle Disease (ND) were studied. Four diluents (saline, tap water, distilled water and 2% casitone in distilled water) were used with various concentrations of LaSota strain virus. At low virus concentrations 2% casitone produced a higher HI antibody response than the other diluents. However,

H. Yadin

1981-01-01

147

H7 avian influenza virus vaccines protect chickens against challenge with antigenically diverse isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vaccination has been a critical tool in the control of some avian influenza viruses (AIV) and has been used routinely in Pakistan to help control sporadic outbreaks of highly pathogenic (HP) H7 AIV since 1995. During that time, several AIV isolates were utilized as inactivated vaccines with varying...

148

Partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the venous blood of young birds as a predictor of ascites susceptibility in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the relationship between carbon dioxide tensions in the venous blood of young chickens and ascites susceptibility, one hundred day-old chickens from two pure broiler breeder lines differing in susceptibility to ascites syndrome were obtained and reared at low environmental temperature. Weekly, blood samples were taken for the determination of blood gas parameters and plasma thyroid hormone levels. Dead birds were examined for lesions of ascites daily and all survived birds were autopsied at the end of the trials. In cold conditioning, the cumulative incidence of right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and ascites was 78% (39/50) in fast-growing (line A) and 50% (25/50) in slow-growing (line B) chickens, confirming that line A chickens had higher susceptibility to ascites than line B chickens. At 12 days of age, the mean pCO(2) tension was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in the venous blood of line A than line B chickens. During the experiment, the majority of line A and line B chickens showing RVH and ascites exhibited pCO(2) tensions equal to, or exceeding 50 mmHg at 12 days of age. Additionally, fast-growing chickens showed significantly lower plasma T3 and T4 concentrations than slow-growing chickens. In conclusion, our data indicate that carbon dioxide pressure in the venous blood of early postnatal broiler chickens could be used as a valuable predictor in the selection of birds susceptible to pulmonary hypertension and ascites. The function of thyroid hormones should also be taken into consideration in further selection procedures for meat-type chickens. PMID:20460221

Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Maddadi, Mohammad Sadege; Mirzaie, Sarra; Assasie, Keramat; Moayyedian, Hamid

2010-06-01

149

75 FR 27288 - New Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service [Docket No. FSIS-2009-0034] New Performance Standards for Salmonella and...Chicken and Turkey Slaughter Establishments; New Compliance Guides AGENCY: Food Safety and...Inspection Service (FSIS) is announcing new performance standards for the...

2010-05-14

150

An epizootic of subcutaneous tumors associated with subgroup A avian leukosis/sarcoma virus in young layer chickens.  

PubMed

An outbreak of subcutaneous tumors in young layer chickens in a flock in Japan was investigated. Tumors appeared as extensive swelling or bulbous protrusions of the integument and were observed in the head or wing of chickens approximately 9 wk old, with a prevalence of 0.4% (157 of 42,000) in the affected flock. Histologically, two types of tumor were observed: myxoma containing abundant hyaluronic acid and neurofibroma with hyperplasia of the Herbst corpuscles. Ultrastructurally, type C retroviruses, such as viral particles, were found in the tumors. The tumors were specifically stained by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against the subgroup A avian leukosis/sarcoma virus (ALSV) and yielded a positive reaction to primers specific for subgroup A ALSV by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay. The virus was isolated from the tumors. Seventeen of 20 clinically normal chickens in the affected flock showed antibodies against ALSV. These results suggest that subcutaneous tumors are associated with subgroup A ALSV infection. PMID:15666879

Ono, Masaaki; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Tanimura, Nobuhiko; Haritani, Makoto; Kimura, Kumiko M; Suzuki, Goro; Okuda, Yo; Sato, Shizuo

2004-12-01

151

Research Note Isomaltooligosaccharide Increases Cecal Bifidobacterium Population in Young Broiler Chickens1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly developed compound derived by fermentation, isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO), was hy- pothesized to enrich cecal bifidobacterial populations and reduce colonization levels of Salmonella in the ceca of broiler chickens. Broiler starter diets were prepared with final IMO concentrations of 1% (wt\\/wt), 2% (wt\\/wt), and 4% (wt\\/wt) and a control diet without IMO supplementa- tion. Chickens were divided into 4 groups

S. N. Thitaram; C.-H. Chung; A. Hinton; J. S. Bailey; G. R. Siragusa

152

Recombinant M2e Protein-Based ELISA: A Novel and Inexpensive Approach for Differentiating Avian Influenza Infected Chickens from Vaccinated Ones  

PubMed Central

Available avian influenza (AIV) serological diagnostic tests cannot distinguish vaccinated from naturally infected birds. Differentiation of vaccinated from infected animals (DIVA) is currently advocated as a means of achieving the full control of H5N1. In this study, for the first time, recombinant ectodomain of M2 protein (M2e) of avian influenza virus (H5N1 strain) was used for the DIVA serology test. M2e was cloned into pMAL-P4X vector and expressed in E. coli cells. We used Western blot to recognize the expressed M2e-MBP protein by chicken antisera produced against live H5N1 virus. Also, the specificity of M2e-MBP protein was compared to the M2e synthetic peptide via ELISA. In M2e-MBP ELISA, all sera raised against the live avian influenza viruses were positive for M2e antibodies, whereas sera from killed virus vaccination were negative. Furthermore, M2e-MBP ELISA of the field sera obtained from vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens showed negative results, while challenged vaccinated chickens demonstrated strong positive reactions. H5N1-originated recombinant M2e protein induced broad-spectrum response and successfully reacted with antibodies against other AIV strains such as H5N2, H9N2, H7N7, and H11N6. The application of the recombinant protein instead of synthetic peptide has the advantages of continues access to an inexpensive reagent for performing a large scale screening. Moreover, recombinant proteins provide the possibility of testing the DIVA results with an additional technique such a Western blotting which is not possible in the case of synthetic proteins. All together, the results of the present investigation show that recombinant M2e-MBP can be used as a robust and inexpensive solution for DIVA test.

Hemmatzadeh, Farhid; Sumarningsih, Sumarningsih; Tarigan, Simson; Indriani, Risa; Dharmayanti, N. L. P. Indi; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Igniatovic, Jagoda

2013-01-01

153

Level of protection of chickens against highly pathogenic H5 avian influenza virus with Newcastle disease virus based live attenuated vector vaccine depends on homology of H5 sequence between vaccine and challenge virus.  

PubMed

Vaccination of poultry against avian influenza is of high priority, in particular after the dramatic spread of subtype H5N1 in Asia, Africa and Europe. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been developed as a vector for the expression of the main immunogen of avian influenza virus, hemagglutinin (HA). An NDV vector based vaccine has several advantages. It allows easy serological differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals by the detection of antibodies against non-HA influenza proteins. Moreover, it can be administered easily to large numbers of animals by spray or drinking water. We recently showed that chickens could be protected against infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A/chicken/Italy/8/98 (H5N2) after immunization with a recombinant Newcastle disease virus, NDVH5m, which expresses the homologous hemagglutinin. Here, we describe that immunization with NDVH5m conferred only partial protection against lethal infection with heterologous HPAIV A/duck/Vietnam/TG24-01/05 (H5N1). Comparison of amino acid sequences of both H5 proteins showed only 93.6% amino acid identity. Therefore, a new NDV recombinant (NDVH5Vm) was generated which expresses the H5 protein of HPAIV A/chicken/Vietnam/P41/05 (H5N1). This recombinant virus protected chickens against lethal infection with HPAIV H5N1 (Vietnam) already after one immunization. Our data thus show that application of a vector-based vaccine in the control of influenza may require adaptation of the vaccine to currently circulating viruses. PMID:18395947

Römer-Oberdörfer, Angela; Veits, Jutta; Helferich, Dorothee; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

2008-03-18

154

A whole genome transcriptional analysis of the early immune response induced by live attenuated and inactivated influenza vaccines in young children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective mechanisms of influenza vaccines in young children are not completely understood. A phase 2 clinical study was conducted in 85 children 12–35 months of age to describe and compare the immune responses to live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). To better understand the biology of vaccine effects, oligonucleotide microarrays were employed to measure

Wei Zhu; Brandon W. Higgs; Chris Morehouse; Katie Streicher; Christopher S. Ambrose; Jennifer Woo; George W. Kemble; Bahija Jallal; Yihong Yao

2010-01-01

155

Influence of vaccination with CVI988/Rispens on load and replication of a very virulent Marek's disease virus strain in feathers of chickens.  

PubMed

Several highly efficacious vaccines are currently available for control of Marek's disease, a lymphoproliferative disease in chickens. However, these vaccines are unable to prevent infection with Marek's disease virus (MDV) in vaccinated birds. This leads to shedding of virulent MDV from feather follicle epithelium and skin epithelial cells of vaccinated and infected chickens. The objective of the present study was to study the interactions between a vaccine strain (CVI988/Rispens) and a very virulent strain of MDV (RB1B) in feathers. We examined genome load and replication of CVI988 and MDV-RB1B strains at various time points post infection. Moreover, we evaluated cytokine expression in feathers as indicators of immunity generated in response to vaccines against MDV. Analysis of feathers collected between 4 and 21 days post infection (d.p.i.) revealed a steady level of CVI988 genome load in the presence or absence of RB1B. Infection with MDV resulted in a significant increase in RB1B genome load peaking at 14 d.p.i. Importantly, vaccination with CVI988 resulted in a significant reduction in accumulation of MDV-RB1B in feathers. RB1B genome accumulation in feather tips was associated with increased expression of interferon-? at 14 d.p.i. and interferon-S? at earlier time points, 4 and 7 d.p.i. compared with 10 and 14 d.p.i. Interleukin-10 and interleukin-6 were up-regulated at 14 d.p.i. in the infected groups. This study expands our understanding of the dynamics of replication of vaccine and virulent MDV strains in the feathers and illuminates mechanisms associated with immunity to Marek's disease. PMID:22845323

Haq, Kamran; Fear, Thomas; Ibraheem, Abdelhakeem; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal; Sharif, Shayan

2012-01-01

156

Using risk factors to predict human papillomavirus infection: implications for targeted vaccination strategies in young adult women.  

PubMed

Targeting human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines to sub-populations most likely to benefit could be necessary if sufficient financing is not available for comprehensive immunization. Using data from 3276 sexually active young adult women in Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we investigated the feasibility of using behavioral risk factors to target sub-populations for HPV vaccination. We found associations between specific risk factors and vaccine-type-specific HPV infection (OR 1.7-2.1), and the likelihood of having HPV increased with increasing numbers of risk factors. However, no threshold number of risk factors predicted HPV infection with adequate specificity and sensitivity. Furthermore, at a population level, our analyses indicated that targeted approaches to HPV vaccination using specific risk factors were a poor strategy for vaccine implementation as they would exclude up to 80% of the otherwise eligible population from vaccination. Our results support implementation of comprehensive HPV vaccination strategies. PMID:18242793

Dempsey, Amanda F; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh; Koutsky, Laura A; Manhart, Lisa

2007-12-26

157

Sequence analysis of Pasteurella multocida major outer membrane protein (OmpH) and application of synthetic peptides in vaccination of chickens against homologous strain challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pasteurella multocida major outer membrane protein (OmpH) has been previously characterized as a porin. The native OmpH from strain X-73 (serotype 1) but not recombinant protein from Escherichia coli induced homologous protection in chickens. In this study OmpH sequences from 15 P. multocida serotypes as well as the CU vaccine strain were compared by sequence alignment and revealed high homology,

Yugang Luo; Qiandon Zeng; John R Glisson; Mark W Jackwood; I-Hsing N Cheng; Chinling Wang

1999-01-01

158

Protective efficacy of a recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys as an in ovo vaccine against Newcastle and Marek's diseases in specific-pathogen-free chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the potential of a herpesvirus of turkey (HVT)-based recombinant virus (rHVT) as an in in ovo vaccine to protect specific-pathogen-free chickens against Newcastle disease (ND) and Marek's disease (MD). The rHVT, designed to express fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoproteins of the lentogenic Hitchner B1 strain of ND virus (NDV), as well as glycoproteins A and B of

S. K. Reddy; J. M. Sharma; J. Ahmad; D. N. Reddy; J. K. McMillen; S. M. Cook; M. A. Wild; R. D. Schwartz

1996-01-01

159

IMMUNOLOGY, HEALTH, AND DISEASE Immune Response to a Killed Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Vaccine in Inbred Chicken Lines with Different Major Histocompatibility Complex Haplotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of MHC on antibody re- sponses to killed infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine was investigated in several MHC inbred chicken lines. We found a notable MHC haplotype effect on the specific antibody response against IBDV as measured by ELISA. Some MHC haplotypes were high responders (B201,B4, andBR5), whereas other MHC haplotypes were low responders (B19, B12 and

H. R. Juul-Madsen; T. S. Dalgaard; C. M. Røntved; K. H. Jensen; N. Bumstead

160

High level of protection induced by two fowlpox vector vaccines against a highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 challenge in specific-pathogen-free chickens.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to compare efficacy of two fowlpox (FP) vector vaccines (FP-AI) against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI): one (vFP89) expressing the native hemagglutinin (HA) gene from H5N8 A/turkey/ Ireland/1378/83 and the other (vFP2211) expressing a modified synthetic HA gene from H5N1 A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003. Four groups of 20 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were made: Groups 1 and 2 were immunized with 3 log10 tissue-culture infectious dose 50% (TCID50) of vFP89 and vFP2211, respectively, whereas group 3 was immunized with vFP89, but received a booster immunization at 2 wk of age with an inactivated vaccine containing A/turkey/Wisconsin/68 H5N9 virus (inH5N9); group 4 was left unvaccinated. Ten birds from each group were challenged on day 21 with A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI virus. The 10 other chickens from each group were put in contact with their groupmates on day 22. FP-AI induced low hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers before challenge (GMT < 4 log2) and an HI titer boost was observed 1 wk after the inH5N9 boost. All directly challenged and 9/10 nonvaccinated contact chickens died after challenge (mean death time of 2.3 and 6.1 days, respectively) and most of them shed virus before death via cloacal and buccal routes. All vaccinated birds were clinically protected from HPAI challenge. One (vFP2211), 2 (vFP89+inact.), or 3 (vFP89) out of the 10 directly challenged vaccinated chickens shed virus via the buccal route 2-5 days postinfection. No shedding was detected in the contact-challenged vaccinated birds. Altogether, these data show excellent levels of protection in all three vaccinated groups, and therefore no detectable effect of the origin of the inserted H5 gene on protection under these tested conditions. PMID:20521642

Bublot, Michel; Manvell, Ruth J; Shell, Wendy; Brown, Ian H

2010-03-01

161

Contribution of matrix, fusion, hemagglutinin, and large protein genes of the CAM-70 measles virus vaccine strain to efficient growth in chicken embryonic fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Attenuated live vaccines of measles virus (MV) have been developed from clinical isolates by serial propagation in heterologous cells, mainly chicken embryonic cells. The safety and effectiveness of these vaccines have been well established. However, the molecular mechanism of their attenuation remains a subject of investigation. The CAM-70 MV vaccine strain was developed from the Tanabe strain by serial propagation in chicken embryonic cells. In the present study, we assessed the contribution of each gene in the CAM-70 strain to efficient growth in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF). We used a cloned MV IC323 based on the wild-type IC-B strain and generated a series of IC323s that possess one or more of the CAM-70 genes. Then, we examined the infection of CEF and CEF expressing human signaling lymphocyte activation molecule with the recombinant MVs. Our results demonstrated that MV needs to adapt to CEF at both the entry and postentry steps and that the CAM-70 matrix protein gene plays an important role in adaptation to CEF at the early stage of the virus replication cycle. The CAM-70 large protein gene was responsible for the efficient transcription and replication in CEF, and the CAM-70 hemagglutinin and fusion protein genes were responsible for efficient entry. Investigations focusing on these genes might elucidate unknown molecular mechanisms underlying the attenuation of MV. PMID:19726516

Sharma, Luna Bhatta; Ohgimoto, Shinji; Kato, Seiichi; Kurazono, Sekiko; Ayata, Minoru; Takeuchi, Kaoru; Ihara, Toshiaki; Ogura, Hisashi

2009-09-02

162

Influences of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine on productive and reproductive performance of commercial parent broiler chicken breeders on a multi-age farm.  

PubMed

The influences of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) vaccine inoculation during the pullet period on the subsequent productive and reproductive performance of parent broiler chicken breeders on a multi-age farm were evaluated. Three thousand breeders were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups that were either vaccinated with FMG (FMG-vaccinated group) or not vaccinated with FMG (FMG-free group). Body weight and egg production were determined through approximately 50 wk of age. Egg weight and feed conversion was determined at 26, 32, 35, 38, and 43 wk of age. Egg quality parameters, including eggshell strength, egg-specific gravity, egg shape index, blood-meat spots, Haugh unit score, eggshell thickness, yolk:albumen ratio, percentage yolk, albumen and eggshell weights, and percentage fertility, hatchability, and second-quality chicks were determined at 26, 32, and 43 wk of age. Air sacs were examined and lesions were scored at 20, 32, and 50 wk of age. The number of mature ovarian follicles, histologies of ovary, and lengths, and histologies of the infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus, and vagina were determined. In the present study, an increase in egg production of broiler breeder hens in the FMG-vaccinated group during peak of lay was compared with the FMG-free group. Feed conversion of hens in the FMG-vaccinated group was significantly less at 32, 35, 38, and 43 wk of age. Eggs from hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly higher Haugh units score at 26 wk of age and had a significantly higher eggshell thickness and lower incidence of blood-meat spots at 32 wk. Hatching eggs from hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly higher hatchability. The mean lesion score of air-sac lesion of birds in the FMG-vaccinated group was significantly less than FMG-vaccinated group. Uteruses of hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly longer length compared with the FMG-free group at 32 wk of age. The results indicate that inoculation of commercial parent broiler chicken breeders with the FMG vaccine before laying may prevent infection by field M. gallisepticum, and facilitate productive and reproductive performance. PMID:23687149

Liu, J J; Ding, L; Wei, J Z; Li, Y

2013-06-01

163

Residual susceptibility to measles among young adults in Victoria, Australia following a national targeted measles-mumps-rubella vaccination campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Past measles immunisation policies in Australia have resulted in a cohort of young adults who have been inadequately vaccinated, but who also have low levels of naturally acquired immunity because immunisation programs have decreased the circulation of wild virus. A measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) immunisation campaign aimed at addressing this susceptibility to measles among young adults was conducted in Australia in

Heath A Kelly; Heather F Gidding; Theo Karapanagiotidis; Jennie A Leydon; Michaela A Riddell

2007-01-01

164

Comparative efficacy of North American and antigenically matched reverse genetics derived H5N9 DIVA marker vaccines against highly pathogenic Asian H5N1 avian influenza viruses in chickens.  

PubMed

Highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza has become endemic in several countries in Asia and Africa, and vaccination is being widely used as a control tool. However, there is a need for efficacious vaccines preferably utilizing a DIVA (differentiate infected from vaccinated animals) marker strategy to allow for improved surveillance of influenza in vaccinated poultry. Using a reverse genetics approach, we generated Asian rgH5N9 vaccine strain deriving the hemagglutinin gene from A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1) with modification of the cleavage site to be low pathogenic (LP) and N9 neuraminidase gene from the North American LP A/turkey/Wisconsin/1968 (H5N9) virus. The recombinant rgH5N9, A/turkey/Wisconsin/1968 (H5N9) A/chicken/Hidalgo/232/1994 (H5N2), and wild type HP A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1) viruses were used to prepare inactivated oil-emulsified whole virus vaccines. Two weeks after vaccination, chickens were challenged with either Asian HP H5N1 viruses, A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (W.H.O. clade 2.1) or A/chicken/Supranburi Thailand/2/2004 (W.H.O. clade 1.0). The H5 HA1 of the North American vaccine strains exhibited 12% amino acid differences including amino acid changes in the major antigenic sites as compared to the Asian HP H5N1 challenge viruses, serologically exhibited substantial antigenic difference, but still provided 100% protection from mortality. However, challenge virus shedding was significantly higher in chickens immunized with antigenically distinct American lineage vaccines as compared to the antigenically matched Asian rgH5N9 and the wild type Asian H5N1 vaccine. The antibody response to the heterologous subtype neuraminidase proteins were discriminated in vaccinated and infected chickens using a rapid fluorescent 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-alpha-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid sodium salt as substrate for neuraminidase inhibition assay. This study demonstrates the value of using a vaccine containing antigenically matched H5 hemagglutinin for control of HP H5N1 avian influenza in poultry and the potential utility of a heterologous neuraminidase as a DIVA marker. PMID:19686695

Jadhao, Samadhan J; Lee, Chang-Won; Sylte, Matt; Suarez, David L

2009-08-15

165

Probiotics and Maternal Vaccination for Salmonella Control in Broiler Chickens1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We evaluated the effects of treatment with the probiotic Preempt on day of hatch, maternal vaccination with the bacterin, Layermune SE, and the combination of these on cecal colonization of broiler chicks at various ages by Salmonella. Chicks were challenged by adding Salmonella colonized chicks (seeder chicks) 3 d after hatch. Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella heidelberg were the challenge

J. R. Chambers; X. Lu

166

Efficacy of single dose of a bivalent vaccine containing inactivated Newcastle disease virus and reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus against lethal HPAI and NDV infection in chickens.  

PubMed

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are 2 devastating diseases of poultry, which cause great economic losses to the poultry industry. In the present study, we developed a bivalent vaccine containing antigens of inactivated ND and reassortant HPAI H5N1 viruses as a candidate poultry vaccine, and we evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in specific pathogen-free chickens. The 6:2 reassortant H5N1 vaccine strain containing the surface genes of the A/Chicken/Korea/ES/2003(H5N1) virus was successfully generated by reverse genetics. A polybasic cleavage site of the hemagglutinin segment was replaced by a monobasic cleavage site. We characterized the reverse genetics-derived reassortant HPAI H5N1 clade 2.5 vaccine strain by evaluating its growth kinetics in eggs, minimum effective dose in chickens, and cross-clade immunogenicity against HPAI clade 1 and 2. The bivalent vaccine was prepared by emulsifying inactivated ND (La Sota strain) and reassortant HPAI viruses with Montanide ISA 70 adjuvant. A single immunization with this vaccine induced high levels of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers and protected chickens against a lethal challenge with the wild-type HPAI and ND viruses. Our results demonstrate that the bivalent, inactivated vaccine developed in this study is a promising approach for the control of both HPAI H5N1 and ND viral infections. PMID:23469269

Lee, Dong-Hun; Park, Jae-Keun; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Jang, Yo-Han; Seong, Baik-Lin; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

2013-03-01

167

Efficacy of Single Dose of a Bivalent Vaccine Containing Inactivated Newcastle Disease Virus and Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus against Lethal HPAI and NDV Infection in Chickens  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are 2 devastating diseases of poultry, which cause great economic losses to the poultry industry. In the present study, we developed a bivalent vaccine containing antigens of inactivated ND and reassortant HPAI H5N1 viruses as a candidate poultry vaccine, and we evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in specific pathogen-free chickens. The 6?2 reassortant H5N1 vaccine strain containing the surface genes of the A/Chicken/Korea/ES/2003(H5N1) virus was successfully generated by reverse genetics. A polybasic cleavage site of the hemagglutinin segment was replaced by a monobasic cleavage site. We characterized the reverse genetics-derived reassortant HPAI H5N1 clade 2.5 vaccine strain by evaluating its growth kinetics in eggs, minimum effective dose in chickens, and cross-clade immunogenicity against HPAI clade 1 and 2. The bivalent vaccine was prepared by emulsifying inactivated ND (La Sota strain) and reassortant HPAI viruses with Montanide ISA 70 adjuvant. A single immunization with this vaccine induced high levels of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers and protected chickens against a lethal challenge with the wild-type HPAI and ND viruses. Our results demonstrate that the bivalent, inactivated vaccine developed in this study is a promising approach for the control of both HPAI H5N1 and ND viral infections.

Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Jang, Yo-Han; Seong, Baik-Lin; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

2013-01-01

168

Comparison of pneumococcal polysaccharide and CRM197-conjugated pneumococcal oligosaccharide vaccines in young and elderly adults.  

PubMed Central

Conjugation of carbohydrate antigens to protein carriers significantly improves the immune response to many carbohydrates. In order to evaluate the potential for this approach to improve the performance of pneumococcal vaccine in the elderly, we evaluated pneumococcal polysaccharide-derived oligosaccharides conjugated to cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197) (CRM-OS) in 49 older adults over 60 years of age (median age, 66 years) and compared the results to those from 50 younger adults under age 45 (median age, 27 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to receive licensed 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PS) which contain 25 micrograms of polysaccharide per serotype, or 5-valent CRM-OS, which contains 10 micrograms of oligosaccharide per serotype, in double-blind fashion. Both vaccines were associated with moderate local pain on administration. Antibody responses to type 14 were seen in the majority of both younger and older subjects following administration of both CRM-OS and PS, and there was no significant improvement of responses with CRM-OS in either age group. Antibody responses in young adults to the less immunogenic type 6B were seen in only 36% of subjects receiving PS and in 56% of subjects receiving CRM-OS (P = 0.15), and the geometric mean 6B titer 1 month after vaccination was higher in CRM-OS recipients (10.9 versus 3.7 micrograms/ml; P = 0.04). However, 6B responses were poor following the administration of either vaccine to elderly adults and there was no difference between results with CRM-OS and those with PS in this age group. Relatively few subjects developed measurable mucosal immunoglobulin A responses in nasal secretions following administration of either vaccine. Revaccination of CRM-OS recipients with PS at 2 months did not result in significant additional responses to 6B or 14. Though CRM-OS is possibly more immunogenic in young adults, the formulation of the pneumococcal glycoconjugate vaccine used in this study does not appear to offer an advantage to the elderly for types 6B or 14.

Shelly, M A; Jacoby, H; Riley, G J; Graves, B T; Pichichero, M; Treanor, J J

1997-01-01

169

A toll-like receptor 3 ligand enhances protective effects of vaccination against Marek's disease virus and hinders tumor development in chickens.  

PubMed

Marek's disease (MD) is caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV). Various vaccines including herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) have been used to control this disease. However, HVT is not able to completely protect against very virulent strains of MDV. The objective of this study was to determine whether a vaccination protocol consisting of HVT and a Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand could enhance protective efficacy of vaccination against MD. Hence, chickens were immunized with HVT and subsequently treated with synthetic double-stranded RNA polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic [poly(I:C)], a TLR3 ligand, before or after being infected with a very virulent strain of MDV. Among the groups that were HVT-vaccinated and challenged with MDV, the lowest incidence of tumors was observed in the group that received poly(I:C) before and after MDV infection. Moreover, the groups that received a single poly(I:C) treatment either before or after MDV infection were better protected against MD tumors compared to the group that only received HVT. No association was observed between viral load, as determined by MDV genome copy number, and the reduction in tumor formation. Overall, the results presented here indicate that poly(I:C) treatment, especially when it is administered prior to and after HVT vaccination, enhances the efficacy of HVT vaccine and improves protection against MDV. PMID:22857262

Parvizi, Payvand; Mallick, Amirul Islam; Haq, Kamran; Haghighi, Hamid R; Orouji, Shahriar; Thanthrige-Don, Niroshan; St Paul, Michael; Brisbin, Jennifer T; Read, Leah R; Behboudi, Shahriar; Sharif, Shayan

2012-08-02

170

Perceptions and acceptability of HPV vaccination among parents of young adolescents: a multicenter national survey in China.  

PubMed

Prophylactic HPV vaccines target young adolescents to prevent related cervical lesions and even genital warts prior to onset of sexual activity. Parental consent is often essential for success of vaccination program for this age group. We conducted a national multicenter study to explore the acceptability of HPV vaccination among parents of young adolescents and associated factors in relevant parent decision making in China. A total of 2899 parents of young adolescents (11-17 years) participated in the survey between November 28, 2011 and May 9, 2012, but four were excluded from analysis because of inconsistencies in their given information in the questionnaire. Mothers accounted for 62.8% of the parent participants. The mean age of the parents was 40.40 (standard deviation, 4.68) years. Only 36.2% of the parents accepted the vaccine for their children. Knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccine was a positive correlate with HPV vaccination acceptability (Ptrend=0.003). Grade of child (Ptrend=0.015), prior vaccination experience outside the National Expanded Program on Immunization (OR: 1.43; 95%CI: 1.19-1.72), fear of cervical cancer and/or genital warts (OR: 2.47; 95%CI: 2.00-3.05), and prior consultation regarding HPV vaccine information (OR: 2.35; 95%CI: 1.57-3.52) were also positively associated with higher HPV vaccine acceptability. The acceptability was lower in mothers (OR: 0.45; 95%CI: 0.37-0.54) and who had better education (Ptrend=0.009). 57.3% of the parents agreed that the most appropriate venue for HPV vaccination was the local center for disease prevention and control. In conclusion, our study indicates a low acceptability of HPV vaccination among parents of young adolescents in China. We understand there are many challenges in implementing HPV vaccination program. Our findings will serve as valuable references for future HPV vaccination policies and campaigns after HPV vaccines are approved in China. PMID:23707446

Zhang, Shao-Kai; Pan, Xiong-Fei; Wang, Shao-Ming; Yang, Chun-Xia; Gao, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Li, Man; Ren, Ze-Fang; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Qiao, You-Lin

2013-05-24

171

Protection from clinical disease against three highly virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus after in ovo application of an antibody-antigen complex vaccine in maternal antibody-positive chickens.  

PubMed

Worldwide, Newcastle disease (ND) remains one of the most economically important diseases of poultry. Current vaccination strategies for commercial poultry include the use of inactivated and live ND vaccines that typically induce protection against virulent field viruses. Here, we tested the efficacy of an antigen-antibody complex (AAC) ND vaccine delivered in ovo. Commercial maternal antibody-positive broiler chickens (Gallus domesticus) were vaccinated in ovo with an AAC vaccine composed of live B1-LaSota Newcastle disease virus (NDV) complexed with NDV-specific antiserum, and then they were challenged at weekly intervals after hatch. Challenge viruses included three exotic ND disease (END) viruses: the neurotropic strain Texas GB NDV-92-01 (TxGB) and two viscerotropic isolates, one isolate from the 2002-2003 outbreak in California (California 2002 isolate S212676 [CA]) and the other isolate from a 1997 END outbreak in South Korea (South Korea 94-147 [SK]). Results demonstrate that maternal antibody was able to provide approximately 50% protection in either vaccinated or control chickens at 7 days of age after TxGB challenge. However, with challenge at > or = 14 days, most control birds died, whereas all AAC-vaccinated birds were protected. Challenge with the CA or SK viruses in chickens at 28 days of age resulted in 100% protection of vaccinated birds, whereas all control birds died. In addition, AAC-vaccinated birds displayed decreased incidence of viral shedding in oral and cloacal swabs than control birds. Antibody titers were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in vaccinated chickens, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutinin-inhibition tests, than in nonvaccinated controls. Together, these results demonstrate the efficacy of AAC vaccines delivered in ovo to protect commercial poultry. PMID:23050473

Kapczynski, Darrell R; Martin, Alison; Haddad, Eid E; King, Daniel J

2012-09-01

172

Frequency of medically attended adverse events following tetanus and diphtheria toxoid vaccine in adolescents and young adults: a Vaccine Safety Datalink study  

PubMed Central

Background Local reactions are the most commonly reported adverse events following tetanus and diphtheria toxoid (Td) vaccine and the risk of local reactions may increase with number of prior Td vaccinations. Methods To estimate the risk of medically attended local reactions following Td vaccination in adolescents and young adults we conducted a six-year retrospective cohort study assessing 436,828 Td vaccinations given to persons 9 through 25 years of age in the Vaccine Safety Datalink population from 1999 through 2004. Results Overall, the estimated risk of a medically attended local reaction was 3.6 events per 10,000 Td vaccinations. The lowest risk (2.8 events per 10,000 vaccinations) was found in the 11 to 15 year old age group. In comparison with that group, the event risks were significantly higher in both the 9 to 10 and 21 to 25 year old age groups. The risk of a local reaction was significantly higher in persons who had received another tetanus and diphtheria toxoid containing vaccine (TDCV) in the previous five years (incidence rate ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 7.2). Twenty-eight percent of persons with a local reaction to Td vaccine were prescribed antibiotics. Conclusion Medically attended local reactions were uncommon following Td vaccination. The risk of those reactions varied by age and by prior receipt of TDCVs. These findings provide a point of reference for future evaluations of the safety profile of newer vaccines containing tetanus or diphtheria toxoid.

2009-01-01

173

Seroprevalence of fowl pox antibody in indigenous chickens in jos north and South council areas of plateau state, Nigeria: implication for vector vaccine.  

PubMed

Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease. PMID:23762578

Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede

2012-09-25

174

Improvement of the efficacy of influenza vaccination (H5N1) in chicken by using extract of Cochinchina momordica seed (ECMS).  

PubMed

Seeds of a Chinese traditional medicine plant, Cochinchina momordica were used in the present study for the improvement of influenza vaccine (H5N1) in chicken. Crude extraction from Cochinchina momordica seed (ECMS) was obtained by ethanol extraction method. In experiment No. 1, two weeks old chickens were immunized with influenza vaccine (H5N1) alone or combined with ECMS (5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 microg/dose). Serum IgG antibody levels (by ELISA) as well as effects on daily weight gain were measured on 0, 7, 14 and 28th day after immunization. Results revealed that all ECMS groups numerically increased the antibody levels while 10 and 20 microg/dose groups significantly (P<0.05) enhanced total IgG antibody on day 28, when compared with control. Average daily weight gain was also significantly higher in 20 microg/dose ECMS group. Adjuvant effect was also confirmed in experiment No. 2 when chickens were immunized with 20 microg/dose ECMS and antibody titer was measured through hemagglutination inhibition (HI). It is concluded that ECMS has potential to improve the immune responses and deserve further study as an adjuvant. PMID:17542061

Rajput, Zahid Iqbal; Xiao, Chen-wen; Hu, Song-hua; Arijo, Abdullah G; Soomro, Noor Mohammad

2007-05-01

175

Improvement of the efficacy of influenza vaccination (H5N1) in chicken by using extract of Cochinchina momordica seed (ECMS)*  

PubMed Central

Seeds of a Chinese traditional medicine plant, Cochinchina momordica were used in the present study for the improvement of influenza vaccine (H5N1) in chicken. Crude extraction from Cochinchina momordica seed (ECMS) was obtained by ethanol extraction method. In experiment No. 1, two weeks old chickens were immunized with influenza vaccine (H5N1) alone or combined with ECMS (5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 ?g/dose). Serum IgG antibody levels (by ELISA) as well as effects on daily weight gain were measured on 0, 7, 14 and 28th day after immunization. Results revealed that all ECMS groups numerically increased the antibody levels while 10 and 20 ?g/dose groups significantly (P<0.05) enhanced total IgG antibody on day 28, when compared with control. Average daily weight gain was also significantly higher in 20 ?g/dose ECMS group. Adjuvant effect was also confirmed in experiment No. 2 when chickens were immunized with 20 ?g/dose ECMS and antibody titer was measured through hemagglutination inhibition (HI). It is concluded that ECMS has potential to improve the immune responses and deserve further study as an adjuvant.

Rajput, Zahid Iqbal; Xiao, Chen-wen; Hu, Song-hua; Arijo, Abdullah G.; Soomro, Noor Mohammad

2007-01-01

176

Pathogenicity of infectious bursal disease virus variant AL2 in young chickens.  

PubMed

Limited information is available on the effects of the recently emerged infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) variant AL2. In this study, the effects of inoculation of 4-day-old chickens with increasing doses of IBDV AL2 were characterized. IBDV AL2 induced neither overt clinical signs nor mortality. Infected chickens showed reduced bursa indices (BI) and bursa lymphocytic depletion, as determined by histomorphometry. However, histomorphometry and BI values differed during the early stages of the infection. Because data from bursa histomorphometry were consistent with viral RNA detection, such values seem to be more appropriate for the assessment of AL2 viral infectivity in chickens. Both the histomorphometry and BI data indicated a dose-effect pattern. However, with time, even low doses of the virus ultimately resulted in significant damage to the bursa. Samples of spleen were used to assess B- (IgM+) and T- (CD4+ and CD8+) cell populations by flow cytometry. Infected chickens showed a significant increase of splenic IgM+ cells at 5 and 8 days postinoculation (PI). On day 8 PI, the number of total IgM+ cells in the spleen was inversely related to the virus concentration. Others have shown that cell-mediated immunity is essential for protection against IBDV. Our results indicate a significant increase (P < 0.05) of total spleen CD4+ cell counts on day 8 PI in birds that received higher virus concentrations, indicating a role for these cells in protective immunity, while CD8 cell counts remained unchanged. We speculate that the changes in splenic CD4+ and IgM+ cell populations are associated with protective immune responses against IBDV in the host. PMID:19432007

Toro, H; Effler, J C; Hoerr, F J; van Ginkel, F W

2009-03-01

177

A dose-response evaluation of inactivated influenza vaccine given intranasally and intramuscularly to healthy young adults.  

PubMed

Epidemic influenza occurs annually throughout the world and is accompanied by excess morbidity and mortality. Increasing the antigen content and topical administration of vaccine are two strategies being explored to improve the immune responses to trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of intramuscular (IM), intranasal (IN), or combined IM and IN administration of a contemporary US vaccine formulation at escalating dosage levels in young healthy adults. Two hundred forty three healthy adults between the ages of 18 and 45 years received 15, 30, or 60mcg of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine by either IN, IM or both routes, 120mcg of vaccine IM, or placebo IN and IM. All dosages and routes of vaccine administration were well-tolerated. A bad taste and mild nasal discomfort were more likely to be reported when influenza vaccine was administered IN, while arm tenderness was more common after IM administration. Significant increases in geometric mean serum antibody titers in both HAI and Nt assays were seen in all of the groups receiving influenza vaccine for all test antigens (Por=32 were higher following delivery of the study vaccines by an IM route than by the IN route, but significant increases in serum antibody were seen after IN vaccination. Nasal IgA antibody responses were more common when vaccine was administered IN; and, when the IN dosage was increased, the primary benefit from IN vaccine over IM vaccine appeared to be greater induction of nasal secretory antibody. PMID:17559990

Atmar, Robert L; Keitel, Wendy A; Cate, Thomas R; Munoz, Flor M; Ruben, Fred; Couch, Robert B

2007-05-22

178

Awareness and knowledge of HPV, cervical cancer, and vaccines in young women after first delivery in São Paulo, Brazil - a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The success of HPV vaccination programs will require awareness regarding HPV associated diseases and the benefits of HPV vaccination for the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness and knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, cervical cancer prevention, vaccines, and factors associated with HPV awareness among young women after birth of the

Cristina H Rama; Luisa L Villa; Sonia Pagliusi; Maria A Andreoli; Maria C Costa; Aline L Aoki; Adhemar Longatto-Filho; José Eluf-Neto

2010-01-01

179

Nutrition and immunity: the effects of the combination of arginine and tryptophan on growth performance, serum parameters and immune response in broiler chickens challenged with infectious bursal disease vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the effects of the combination of tryptophan (Trp) and arginine (Arg) on growth performance, serum parameters and immune response of broiler chickens challenged with intermediate plus strain of infectious bursal disease virus vaccine, an in vivo experiment was conducted. A corn–soybean meal-based diet containing different levels of Arg and Trp was used. Cobb500 male broiler chickens from 0

M. Emadi; F. Jahanshiri; K. Kaveh; M. Hair-Bejo; A. Ideris; A. R. Alimon

2011-01-01

180

Natural and vaccine-induced immunity and immunologic memory to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C in young adults.  

PubMed

The immune response to polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines in adults is poorly understood. This study assessed meningococcal serogroup C responses after AC polysaccharide (MACP) and C conjugate (MCC) vaccine administration in young adults and explored immune memory by measuring antibody avidity. The geometric mean avidity indices (GMAIs) measured 1 month after MACP vaccination were relatively high and failed to increase significantly in the 6 months before and after a second dose of MACP/MCC. Although the GMAI of naive adults increased immediately following MCC vaccination to 215.7 (95% confidence interval, 181.0-257.1), a level similar to that seen after MACP vaccination, no further maturation in the subsequent 6 months was seen. Antibody induced by polysaccharide antigens in adults is already of relatively high avidity (compared with that in infants and toddlers) and fails to mature further, probably because both MACP and MCC predominantly stimulate memory B cells. PMID:11807724

Goldblatt, David; Borrow, Ray; Miller, Elizabeth

2002-01-10

181

High yield expression in a recombinant E. coli of a codon optimized chicken anemia virus capsid protein VP1 useful for vaccine development  

PubMed Central

Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV), the causative agent chicken anemia, is the only member of the genus Gyrovirus of the Circoviridae family. CAV is an immune suppressive virus and causes anemia, lymph organ atrophy and immunodeficiency. The production and biochemical characterization of VP1 protein and its use in a subunit vaccine or as part of a diagnostic kit would be useful to CAV infection prevention. Results Significantly increased expression of the recombinant full-length VP1 capsid protein from chicken anemia virus was demonstrated using an E. coli expression system. The VP1 gene was cloned into various different expression vectors and then these were expressed in a number of different E. coli strains. The expression of CAV VP1 in E. coli was significantly increased when VP1 was fused with GST protein rather than a His-tag. By optimizing the various rare amino acid codons within the N-terminus of the VP1 protein, the expression level of the VP1 protein in E. coli BL21(DE3)-pLysS was further increased significantly. The highest protein expression level obtained was 17.5 g/L per liter of bacterial culture after induction with 0.1 mM IPTG for 2 h. After purification by GST affinity chromatography, the purified full-length VP1 protein produced in this way was demonstrated to have good antigenicity and was able to be recognized by CAV-positive chicken serum in an ELISA assay. Conclusions Purified recombinant VP1 protein with the gene's codons optimized in the N-terminal region has potential as chimeric protein that, when expressed in E. coli, may be useful in the future for the development of subunit vaccines and diagnostic tests.

2011-01-01

182

Improving the potency of DNA vaccine against Chicken Anemia Virus (CAV) by fusing VP1 protein of CAV to Marek's Disease Virus (MDV) Type1 VP22 protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Studies have shown that the VP22 gene of Marek's Disease Virus type-1 (MDV-1) has the property of movement between cells from\\u000a the original cell of expression into the neighboring cells. The ability to facilitate the spreading of the linked proteins\\u000a was used to improve the potency of the constructed DNA vaccines against chicken anemia virus (CAV).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The VP1 and VP2

Hassan Moeini; Abdul Rahman Omar; Raha Abdul Rahim; Khatijah Yusoff

2011-01-01

183

A genetically engineered derivative of Salmonella Enteritidis as a novel live vaccine candidate for salmonellosis in chickens.  

PubMed

To construct a novel live Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccine candidate, SE was genetically engineered using the allelic exchange method to delete two virulence genes, lon and cpxR. The lon gene deletion is essential to impair Salmonella replication and avoid overwhelming systemic disease in the host. The cpxR gene deletion is needed to enhance the ability of bacteria to adhere and invade the host cell. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the derivatives JOL917 (?lon), JOL918 (?cpxR), and JOL919 (?lon/?cpxR) had increased surface fimbrial filamentous structures. Significant elevations of extracellular polysaccharide and FimA expression were observed for the derivatives compared to the parental wild type JOL860, while biochemical properties of the derivatives were not altered. In the safety examination by inoculation of the derivatives in chickens, gross lesion scores of the liver, spleen, kidney, small intestine and caecal tonsils were moderate in the JOL917 and JOL918 groups, and significantly lower in the JOL919 group than those of the JOL860. Bacterial counts from the spleen and caeca of the JOL917 and JOL918 groups were moderate, and significantly reduced in the JOL919 group compared to the JOL860 group. In addition, only the JOL919 group showed significantly lower bacterial counts in the faecal samples than those of the JOL860 group. Significant elevations of IgG and secretory IgA levels observed in the derivative groups, while the JOL919 and JOL860 groups showed a potent lymphocyte proliferation response as compared to those of the control group. In the protection efficacy examination, JOL919 immunized group showed significantly lower depression, lower gross lesion in the liver and spleen, and lower number of the SE positive internal organs than those of the control group against a virulent wild type SE challenge. PMID:22192447

Nandre, Rahul M; Matsuda, Kiku; Chaudhari, Atul A; Kim, Bumseok; Lee, John Hwa

2011-12-20

184

Conventional H5N9 vaccine suppresses shedding in specific-pathogen-free birds challenged with HPAI H5N1 A/chicken/Yamaguchi/7/2004.  

PubMed

Avian influenza represents one of the greatest concerns for public health that has emerged in recent times. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses belonging to the H5N1 subtype are endemic in Asia and are spreading in Europe and Africa. Vaccination is now considered a tool to support eradication efforts, provided it is appropriately managed. This study was carried out to establish the degree of clinical protection and reduction of viral shedding induced by a high-specification, commercially available avian influenza vaccine of a different lineage and containing a strain with a heterologous neuraminidase (H5N9 subtype) to the challenge virus isolate A/chicken/Yamaguchi/7/2004 (H5N1 subtype). PMID:17494617

Terregino, C; Toffan, A; Beato, M S; De Nardi, R; Drago, A; Capua, I

2007-03-01

185

Assessment of humoral and cellular-mediated immune response in chickens treated with tilmicosin, florfenicol, or enrofloxacin at the time of Newcastle disease vaccination.  

PubMed

The effect of tilmicosin, florfenicol, or enrofloxacin on humoral and cell-mediated immune response induced by Newcastle disease (ND) vaccination was evaluated in 20-wk-old specific-pathogen-free layer chickens. Humoral immunity was measured by detection of ND virus (NDV) antibody titer and anti-NDV IgG response using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and ELISA, respectively, whereas cell-mediated immunity was evaluated by measurement of chicken interferon gamma (ChIFN-gamma) produced in splenocytes cell culture stimulated with concanavalin A, inactivated NDV antigen, or live attenuated La Sota strain using ELISA. Florfenicol hampered the ND antibody production measured by both HI and ELISA. Tilmicosin and enrofloxacin reduced the production of ND antibody in the first 3 wk after the last ND vaccination measured by HI test, which suggests that these antibiotics exert their effect mainly on the IgM isotype. The ND-vaccinated, but not treated group, showed an increase in ChIFN-gamma production after NDV antigen-specific stimulation above the nonstimulated cell culture, whereas this effect was masked in all the antibiotic-treated groups due to the stronger ChIFN-gamma production background value reported in the nonstimulated cell culture. In conclusion, our results showed, for the first time, that tilmicosin, florfenicol, or enrofloxacin reduced the humoral immune response and had beneficial effects on the cell-mediated immune response. In addition, we demonstrated that the combination of both inactivated and attenuated ND vaccine gave a strong immune response at both the humoral and cellular level. PMID:19762865

Khalifeh, M S; Amawi, M M; Abu-Basha, E A; Yonis, I Bani

2009-10-01

186

Nitrogen retention of young men who consumed between sixteen and eight grams of nitrogen from a combination of rice, wheat, chicken and milk\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

When young men consumed diets containing 16, 14, 12, 10, and 8 g of nitrogen per day of which rice, wheat, chicken, and milk provided 25, 15, 30, and 30%, respectively, the corresponding mean nitrogen balances were 2.92, 2.01, 1,46, 0.90, and 0.48 g. The regression of nitrogen retention (Y) on intake (X) was linear and highly significant (P <

Wan Hee Moon; Jean L. Malzer; Regina L. Pang

187

Attenuated Revertant Serotype 1 Marek's Disease Vaccine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Marek's disease (MD), a highly prevalent and important lymphoproliferative disease of chickens, is controlled in commercial chickens by live virus vaccines consisting of attenuated or naturally avirulent MD-related herpesviruses. Although vaccination prog...

R. L. Witter

1991-01-01

188

Decline in in-patient treatments of genital warts among young Australians following the national HPV vaccination program  

PubMed Central

Background There has been a rapid decline in the number of young heterosexuals diagnosed with genital warts at outpatient sexual health services since the national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program started in Australia in 2007. We assessed the impact of the vaccination program on the number of in-patient treatments for genital warts. Methods Data on in-patient treatments of genital warts in all private hospitals were extracted from the Medicare website. Medicare is the universal health insurance scheme of Australia. In the vaccine period (2007–2011) and pre-vaccine period (2000–2007) we calculated the percentage change in treatment numbers and trends in annual treatment rates in private hospitals. Australian population data were used to calculate rates. Summary rate ratios of average annual trends were determined. Results Between 2000 and 2011, 6,014 women and 936 men aged 15–44?years underwent in-patient treatment for genital warts in private hospitals. In 15–24?year old women, there was a significant decreasing trend in annual treatment rates of vulval/vaginal warts in the vaccine period (overall decrease of 85.3% in treatment numbers from 2007 to 2011) compared to no significant trend in the pre-vaccine period (summary rate ratio (SRR)?=?0.33, p?vaccine and pre-vaccine periods (overall decrease of 33% vs. 24.3%), but the rate of change was greater in the vaccine period (SRR?=?0.60, p?vaccine period (decrease of 70.6%) compared to an increasing trend in the pre-vaccine period (SRR?=?0.76, p?=?0.02). In 25–34?year old men there was a significant decreasing trend in the vaccine period compared to no change in the pre-vaccine period (SRR?=?0.81, p?=?0.04) and in 35–44?year old men there was no significant change in rates of penile warts both periods, but the rate of change was greater in the vaccine period (SRR?=?0.70, p?=?0.02). Conclusions The marked decline in in-patient treatment of vulval/vaginal warts in the youngest women is probably attributable to the HPV vaccine program. The moderate decline in in-patient treatments for penile warts in men probably reflects herd immunity.

2013-01-01

189

A multinational, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to assess the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of live attenuated influenza vaccine coadministered with oral poliovirus vaccine in healthy young children.  

PubMed

Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) provides a useful tool to rapidly immunize populations in the developing world to prevent influenza outbreaks. In this noninferiority trial conducted in Asia and South America, where oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is still used, 2503 children aged 6 to <36 months with three polio immunizations were randomized to receive LAIV+OPV, placebo+OPV, or LAIV only. Immune responses in children receiving concomitant LAIV+OPV were noninferior to those observed in recipients of either vaccine alone. Response rates for different poliovirus types were similar in recipients of LAIV+OPV and placebo+OPV. Response rates to all influenza strains were similar in LAIV+OPV and LAIV-only recipients. Concomitant OPV and LAIV were safely administered to young children. PMID:19616493

Breiman, Robert F; Brooks, W Abdullah; Goswami, Doli; Lagos, Rosanna; Borja-Tabora, Charissa; Lanata, Claudio F; Londoño, Jaime A Cèspedes; Lum, Lucy Chai See; Rappaport, Ruth; Razmpour, Ahmad; Walker, Robert E; Gruber, William C; Forrest, Bruce D

2009-07-17

190

Immunogenicity of a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine in HIV-infected children, adolescents, and young adults.  

PubMed

Children and adolescents infected with HIV typically have a lower response to immunization than do those in the general population. In most developed countries, meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine is one of the recommended vaccines for such individuals. However, there have been no studies evaluating the antibody response to this vaccine in HIV-infected children, adolescents or young adults. In this study, we evaluated that response using serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, comparing HIV-infected with non-HIV-infected patients, as well as analysing the occurrence of side effects. In non-responders, we assessed the antibody response to revaccination. This clinical trial involved 92 patients between 10 and 20 years of age: 43 HIV-infected patients (HIV+ group) and 49 non-HIV-infected patients (HIV- group). After one dose of the vaccine, 72.1% of the HIV+ group patients and 100% of the HIV- group patients were considered protected. Of the HIV+ group patients who received a second dose of the vaccine, only 40% acquired protection. Overall, 81.4% of the HIV+ group patients acquired protection (after one or two doses of the vaccine). Side effects occurred in 16.3% and 44% of the HIV+ group and HIV- group patients, respectively. Therefore, the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine proved to be safe and effective for use in HIV-infected children, adolescents, and young adults, although their antibody response was weaker than that shown by non-HIV-infected patients. This indicates the need to discuss changes to the immunization schedule for children, adolescents, and young adults infected with HIV, in order to ensure more effective protection against meningococcal disease. PMID:22771509

Bertolini, Daniela Vinhas; Costa, Luciana Scarlazzari; van der Heijden, Inneke Marie; Sato, Helena Keiko; Marques, Heloísa Helena de Sousa

2012-07-06

191

A recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus replicon vaccine protects chickens from highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H7N1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of subtypes H5 and H7 cause fatal disease in poultry (fowl plague) but also have zoonotic potential. Currently commercially available vaccines often do not provide sufficient protection and do not allow easy discrimination between vaccinated and infected birds. Therefore, vaccination of domestic poultry against H5 and H7 HPAIV is not allowed in many countries,

Nazeer H. Kalhoro; Jutta Veits; Silke Rautenschlein; Gert Zimmer

2009-01-01

192

Induction of respiratory immune responses in the chicken; implications for development of mucosal avian influenza virus vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk and the size of an outbreak of avian influenza virus (AIV) could be restricted by vaccination of poultry. A vaccine used for rapid intervention during an AIV outbreak should be safe, highly effective after a single administration and suitable for mass application. In the case of AIV, aerosol vaccination using live virus is not desirable because of its

Eveline D. de Geus; Johanna M. J. Rebel; Lonneke Vervelde

2012-01-01

193

Reduction of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in eggs from chickens once or twice vaccinated with an oil-emulsified inactivated H5 avian influenza vaccine.  

PubMed

The negative impact of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection on egg production and deposition of virus in eggs, as well as any protective effect of vaccination, is unknown. Individually housed non-vaccinated, sham-vaccinated and inactivated H5N9 vaccinated Once or Twice adult White leghorn hens were challenged intranasally/intratracheally 3-weeks post-vaccination with H5N2 HPAIV. The non-/sham-vaccinated layers experienced 100% mortality (0% survivability) within 3-4 days post-challenge (DPC), and major changes to reproductive parameters including precipitous drops in egg production (79-0% in <5 days), production of soft and thin-shelled eggs, and deposition of virus in albumin and yolk, and on the egg shell surface of 53% of eggs. By comparison, the three H5-vaccinated groups had 83%, 100% and 100% survivability after challenge; the two H5-vaccinated Once hens that died had low pre-challenge HI titers (GMT=16). H5-vaccinated Once or Twice groups maintained egg production after challenge (63%), but there was a mild and significant reduction in egg production as compared to pre-challenge egg production (79%). H5-vaccinated groups had reduced number of virus contaminated eggs (28%), and in most groups, reduced quantity of virus in contaminated eggs compared to non-/sham-vaccinated groups. No HPAIV-positive eggs were laid on or after 5 DPC. In conclusion, HPAIV infection had major negative impact on egg production and other reproductive parameters. H5-vaccination Once or Twice prevented declines in egg production after HPAIV challenge, reduced number of virus-infected eggs, and typically reduced the titer of virus in internal contents and on eggshell surface. PMID:22652397

Swayne, David E; Eggert, Dawn; Beck, Joan R

2012-05-29

194

Proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis of chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with cell culture-attenuated and vaccine strains of Marek's disease virus.  

PubMed

Vaccination is an effective strategy to reduce the loss of chickens in the poultry industry caused by Marek's Disease (MD), an avian lymphoproliferative disease. The vaccines currently used are from attenuated serotype 1 Marek's disease virus (MDV) or naturally nononcogenic MDV strains. To prepare for future immunity breaks, functional genomic and proteomic studies have been used to better understand the underlying mechanisms of MDV pathogenicity and the effects induced by the vaccine viruses. In this study, a combined approach of quantitative GeLC-MSE and qualitative ERLIC/IMAC/LC-MS/MS analysis were used to identify abundance changes of proteins and the variations of phosphorylation status resulting from the perturbations due to infection with an attenuated oncogenic virus strain (Md11/75C) and several nononcogenic virus strains (CVI988, FC126 and 301B) in vitro. Using this combined approach, several signal transduction pathways mapped by the identified proteins were found to be altered at both the level of protein abundance and phosphorylation. On the basis of this study, a kinase-dependent pathway to regulate phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 to modulate assembly of the protein translation initiation complex was revealed. The differences of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation patterns as well as the measured abundance changes among several other proteins that regulate host transcriptional and translational activities across the virus strains used in this study provide new insight for future functional and biochemical characterization of specific proteins involved in MDV pathogenesis. PMID:23106611

Chien, Ko-yi; Blackburn, Kevin; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Goshe, Michael B

2012-11-15

195

Analysis and effect of water sources used as diluents on Newcastle disease vaccine efficacy in chickens in the Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of artesian well, shallow well, surface water, tap water, and bottled water were collected from different areas in\\u000a Khartoum; these were chemically analyzed and used as diluents to vaccinate chicks against Newcastle disease. Immune response\\u000a in vaccinated chicks, as measured by the hemagglutination inhibition test, was significantly better in birds which received\\u000a the vaccine diluted in bottled water followed

Amira A. Khalil; Abdelmalik Ibrahim Khalafalla

2011-01-01

196

Absence of relationship between tuberculin reactivity and atopy in BCG vaccinated young adults  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—An inverse association between tuberculin responses and atopy has been observed in Japanese children, indicating that BCG immunisation, subclinical exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis without clinical disease, or host characteristics may influence the T helper (Th) lymphocyte balance with decreased atopy as a result. This study was undertaken to determine whether tuberculin reactivity is inversely related to atopy in young adults vaccinated with BCG at the age of 14.?METHODS—Men and women aged 20-44 years were tested using the adrenaline-Pirquet test with Norwegian produced synthetic medium tuberculin (n = 891). In addition, their serum total and specific IgE antibodies against mite, cat, timothy grass, mould and birch were measured.?RESULTS—Of the 574 subjects with complete examinations, 64% had a positive adrenaline-Pirquet tuberculin test (?4 mm) and 27% exhibited IgE antibodies (?0.35 kU/l) to one or more of the five specific allergens. The geometric mean of total serum IgE in the population was 30.2 kU/l. Tuberculin reactivity and log IgE were not correlated (r = 0.043, p = 0.30). The mean tuberculin reactivity was 4.6 mm, 4.9 mm, and 5.0 mm in the lower, middle and upper tertile of IgE distribution (<14 kU/l, 14-61 kU/l, >61 kU/l). The prevalence of atopy, as assessed by either the presence of any of the five specific IgE antibodies or by each specific IgE antibody separately, did not differ between subjects with a positive and those with a negative tuberculin test. These results persisted after adjustment for age, sex, and smoking status in multivariate logistic regression analyses.?CONCLUSIONS—In this young adult population, BCG vaccinated at the age of 14, no significant relationship between a positive tuberculin reaction and atopy was observed. If a true relationship had been found, our study suggests that it may be limited to populations immunised in early childhood when a substantial modulation of the immune system can occur.??

Omenaas, E; Jentoft, H; Vollmer, W; Buist, A; Gulsvik, A

2000-01-01

197

Correlates of HPV Knowledge in the Era of HPV Vaccination: A Study of Unvaccinated Young Adult Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, awareness of the sexually transmitted infection human papillomavirus—the virus that causes cervical cancer—was relatively low. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with human papillomavirus knowledge now that human papillomavirus vaccines have become widely available. Young adult women (n = 739; aged 18–26 years) attending Florida State University who had not yet initiated human papillomavirus

Mary A. Gerend; Janet E. Shepherd

2011-01-01

198

Health care use and opportunities for human papillomavirus vaccination among young men who have sex with men.  

PubMed

We studied 2941 young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men using National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System data. Within the past 12 months, 88.9% used health care, suggesting many opportunities for recommended care including human papillomavirus vaccination. However, only 61.3% disclosed male-male sexual attraction/behavior to a provider, which may result in some opportunities being missed. PMID:23321994

Meites, Elissa; Krishna, Nevin K; Markowitz, Lauri E; Oster, Alexandra M

2013-02-01

199

A Single Electroporation Delivery of a DNA Vaccine Containing the Hemagglutinin Gene of Asian H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus Generated a Protective Antibody Response in Chickens against a North American Virus Strain  

PubMed Central

Protection against the avian influenza (AI) H5N1 virus is suspected to be mainly conferred by the presence of antibodies directed against the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the virus. A single electroporation delivery of 100 or 250 ?g of a DNA vaccine construct, pCAG-HA, carrying the HA gene of strain A/Hanoi/30408/2005 (H5N1), in chickens led to the development of anti-HA antibody response in 16 of 17 immunized birds, as measured by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), and an indirect ELISA. Birds vaccinated by electroporation (n = 11) were protected from experimental AI challenge with strain A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/1/1983 (H5N2) as judged by low viral load, absence of clinical symptoms, and absence of mortality (n = 11). In contrast, only two out of 10 birds vaccinated with the same vaccine dose (100 or 250 ?g) but without electroporation developed antibodies. These birds showed high viral loads and significant morbidity and mortality after the challenge. Seroconversion was reduced in birds electroporated with a low vaccine dose (10 ?g), but the antibody-positive birds were protected against virus challenge. Nonelectroporation delivery of a low-dose vaccine did not result in seroconversion, and the birds were as susceptible as those in the control groups that received the control pCAG vector. Electroporation delivery of the DNA vaccine led to enhanced antibody responses and to protection against the AI virus challenge. The HI test, cELISA, or indirect ELISA for anti-H5 antibodies might serve as a good predictor of the potency and efficacy of a DNA immunization strategy against AI in chickens.

Pasick, John; Kobinger, Gary P.; Hannaman, Drew; Berhane, Yohannes; Clavijo, Alfonso; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia

2013-01-01

200

Young and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes have optimal B cell responses to the seasonal influenza vaccine.  

PubMed

We evaluated immune response to the seasonal influenza vaccine in young and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Immune measures included the in vivo serum response to the vaccine by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and ELISA in 22 patients (14 young, 8 elderly) and 65 healthy age-matched controls (37 young, 28 elderly). B cell-specific biomarkers of optimal vaccine response were measured ex vivo by switched memory B cells and plasmablasts and in vitro by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) in stimulated cells. Markers of systemic and B cell-intrinsic inflammation were also measured. Results show that in vivo responses, as well as B cell-specific markers identified above, decrease by age in healthy individuals but not in T2D patients. This occurred despite high levels of B cell-intrinsic inflammation (TNF-?) in T2D patients, which was surprising as we had previously demonstrated this negatively impacts B cell function. These results altogether suggest that valid protection against influenza can be achieved in T2D patients and proposed mechanisms are discussed. PMID:23711934

Frasca, Daniela; Diaz, Alain; Romero, Maria; Mendez, Nicholas V; Landin, Ana Marie; Ryan, John G; Blomberg, Bonnie B

2013-05-25

201

The protective effect of MD-resistant breeding and HVT vaccination against immunosuppression caused by MDV infection in chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the titrations of the antibody response to the vaccinations of avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND), the present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Marek's disease (MD)-resistant breeding and vaccination against the immunosuppression induced by virulent Marek's disease virus (MDV). The results showed that haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titres to AI and ND in MDV-unchallenged groups were

Yuan-Chang Jin; Ping Wei; Wei-Fen Liang; Ya Li; Bo-Xue Niu; Xian-Rong Yang

2010-01-01

202

A rotavirus vaccine for prevention of severe diarrhoea of infants and young children: development, utilization and withdrawal.  

PubMed

The importance of rotaviruses (RVs) as the single most important cause of severe diarrhoea of infants and young children is well recognized. At NIH, we developed a quadrivalent (tetravalent [TV]) vaccine to protect against the four epidemiologically important RV serotypes. It is comprised of live attenuated rhesus RV (RRV), a VP7 serotype G3 strain (the 'Jennerian' approach), and three reassortant RVs, each containing 10 RRV genes and one human RV gene that codes for the major outer protein, VP7, that determines serotype G1, G2 or G4 specificity (the 'modified Jennerian' approach). The vaccine was safe and effective against severe diarrhoea in a major prelicensure collaborative effort of phase III trials. In February 1998 and again in June 1998, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine immunization with three oral doses at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. The tetravalent vaccine (RotaShield) was licensed in the USA by the FDA in August 1998. In July 1999, after about 1.5 million doses had been given, the CDC recommended suspending administration of the vaccine because post-licensure surveillance of adverse events had suggested an association with intussusception. After further investigation by CDC, in October 1999, the ACIP withdrew its recommendation concluding that '...intussusception occurs with significantly increased frequency in the first 1-2 weeks after vaccination with RRV-TV, particularly following the first dose'. The implications of these developments from a practical, epidemiological, analytical and ethical perspective are discussed. PMID:11444025

Kapikian, A Z

2001-01-01

203

Delay of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Infection by In Ovo Vaccination of Antibody-Positive Chicken Eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a highly immunosuppressive disease of chickens. Long-term immunosuppression is most severe in broiler chicks infected immediately after hatch, whereas chicks infected in the second or third week of age demonstrate progressively milder impairment of the immune system. After 3 wk of age, IBD virus (IBDV) infection does not permanently damage a broiler's ability to

J. E. McCarty; T. P. Brown; J. J. Giambrone

204

9 CFR 113.326 - Avian Pox Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.326 Avian Pox Vaccine. Fowl Pox Vaccine and Pigeon Pox Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which...

2010-01-01

205

9 CFR 113.326 - Avian Pox Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.326 Avian Pox Vaccine. Fowl Pox Vaccine and Pigeon Pox Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which...

2009-01-01

206

Detection of wild- and vaccine-type avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus in clinical samples and feather shafts of commercial chickens.  

PubMed

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a respiratory disease of poultry caused by an alphaherpesvirus (ILTV). To evaluate differential detection of ILTVs belonging to the two types, wild-type or vaccine-type, both causing clinical signs, five PCRs were evaluated to detect wild-type and vaccine-type ILTV in clinical samples. By directly sampling the organs, we aimed to avoid changes in the virus genome and to facilitate a fast diagnosis. The samples were tracheal and spleen homogenates and feather shafts. The latter are easy to collect, nonlethal for the bird, and advantageous for monitoring purposes. We investigated the time interval for vaccine virus detection following commercial vaccination by the vent application, which is successfully practiced in Israel. The study indicated that ILTV amplification from feather shafts was possible in clinical cases for about a one-month period after vaccination. Vaccine strains were identified by nested PCR for the ILTV-gE gene and differed from wild-type ILTV strains by two criteria: (1) While avirulent vaccines could be detected for about a month after the vent application, wild-type virus could be detected, in conjunction with clinical signs, for an unlimited time period; and (2) The ILTV vaccine was present in the bird in minute quantities compared to the wild-type virus. We assessed the virus type that appeared in conjunction with the clinical signs and determined that the clinical signs appeared in conjunction with both molecular forms of ILTV. The vaccine virus-type and the wild-type ILTV differed by their distinct restriction pattern when using the HaeIII restriction enzyme digestion of the nested amplification product. PMID:20095166

Davidson, Irit; Nagar, Sagit; Ribshtein, Israel; Shkoda, Irena; Perk, Shimon; Garcia, Maricarmen

2009-12-01

207

Antibody and Th1-type cell-mediated immune responses in elderly and young adults immunized with the standard or a high dose influenza vaccine  

PubMed Central

A comparative analysis of antibody and cell-mediated immune responses was performed in ambulatory medically stable elderly and young adults who received the standard-dose of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine, containing 15 ?g of hemagglutinin (HA) per virus strain, or a high-dose vaccine containing 60 ?g HA per virus strain. Among the elderly, the high dose vaccine induced greater HAI (hemagglutination inhibition) and virus neutralization antibody titers than the standard dose vaccine. These responses, however, did not achieve the magnitude of those induced by the standard dose vaccine in young adults. Vaccine-specific circulating T cells producing IFN-? were detected in the elderly and young adults following immunization. However, there were no significant differences in the IFN-? responses among groups. On the other hand, the standard dose vaccine in the elderly resulted in the highest proportion of complete non-responders who failed to elicit either an HAI or an IFN-? response. This study provides further evidence that a higher dose vaccine for the elderly may result in enhanced immune responses which are predicted to improve protection although still of lower magnitude than those induced in younger healthier individuals.

Chen, Wilbur H.; Cross, Alan S.; Edelman, Robert; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Blackwelder, William C.; Pasetti, Marcela F.

2011-01-01

208

[Current events in vaccination].  

PubMed

The annual meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) ; which brought together nearly 5000 participants from over 80 countries in Vancouver, Canada, October 21 to 24, 2010 ; provided a review of the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, evaluated vaccination programmes and presented new vaccines under development. With 12,500 deaths in the United States in 2009-2010, the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic was actually less deadly than the seasonal flu. But it essentially hit the young, and the toll calculated in years of life lost is high. The monovalent vaccines, whether live attenuated or inactivated with or without adjuvants, were well tolerated in toddlers, children, adults and pregnant women. In order to protect infants against pertussis, family members are urged to get their booster shots. The introduction of the 13-valent Pneumococcal conjugated vaccine in the beginning of 2010 may solve - but for how long ? - the problem of serotype replacement, responsible for the re-increasing incidence of invasive Pneumococcal infections observed in countries that had introduced the 7-valent vaccine. The efficacy of a rotavirus vaccine has been confirmed, with a reduction in hospitalization in the United States and a reduction in gastroenteritis-related deaths in Mexico. In the United States, vaccination of pre-adolescents against human papillomavirus (HPV) has not resulted in any specific undesirable effects. Routine vaccination against chicken pox, recommended since 1995, has not had an impact on the evolution of the incidence of shingles. Vaccination against shingles, recommended in the United States for subjects 60 years and over, shows an effectiveness of 55 %, according to a cohort study (Kaiser Permanente, Southern California). Although some propose the development of personalized vaccines according to individual genetic characteristics, the priority remains with increasing vaccine coverage, not only in infants but also in adults and the elderly. Vaccine calendars that cover a whole lifetime should be promoted, since the vaccination of adults and seniors is a determining factor of good health at all ages. PMID:22019286

Aubert, M; Aumaître, H; Beytout, J; Bloch, K; Bouhour, D; Callamand, P; Chave, C; Cheymol, J; Combadière, B; Dahlab, A; Denis, F; De Pontual, L; Dodet, B; Dommergues, M-A; Dufour, V; Gagneur, A; Gaillat, J; Gaudelus, J; Gavazzi, G; Gillet, Y; Gras-le-Guen, C; Haas, H; Hanslik, T; Hau-Rainsard, I; Larnaudie, S; Launay, O; Lorrot, M; Loulergue, P; Malvy, D; Marchand, S; Picherot, G; Pinquier, D; Pulcini, C; Rabaud, C; Regnier, F; Reinert, P; Sana, C; Savagner, C; Soubeyrand, B; Stephan, J-L; Strady, C

2011-10-20

209

[Current events in vaccination].  

PubMed

The annual meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA); which brought together nearly 5000 participants from over 80 countries in Vancouver, Canada, October 21 to 24, 2010; provided a review of the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, evaluated vaccination programmes and presented new vaccines under development. With 12,500 deaths in the United States in 2009-2010, the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic was actually less deadly than the seasonal flu. But it essentially hit the young, and the toll calculated in years of life lost is high. The monovalent vaccines, whether live attenuated or inactivated with or without adjuvants, were well tolerated in toddlers, children, adults and pregnant women. In order to protect infants against pertussis, family members are urged to get their booster shots. The introduction of the 13-valent Pneumococcal conjugated vaccine in the beginning of 2010 may solve--but for how long?--the problem of serotype replacement, responsible for the re-increasing incidence of invasive Pneumococcal infections observed in countries that had introduced the 7-valent vaccine. The efficacy of a rotavirus vaccine has been confirmed, with a reduction in hospitalization in the United States and a reduction in gastroenteritis-related deaths in Mexico. In the United States, vaccination of pre-adolescents against human papillomavirus (HPV) has not resulted in any specific undesirable effects. Routine vaccination against chicken pox, recommended since 1995, has not had an impact on the evolution of the incidence of shingles. Vaccination against shingles, recommended in the United States for subjects 60 years and over, shows an effectiveness of 55%, according to a cohort study (Kaiser Permanente, Southern California). Although some propose the development of personalized vaccines according to individual genetic characteristics, the priority remains with increasing vaccine coverage, not only in infants but also in adults and the elderly. Vaccine calendars that cover a whole lifetime should be promoted, since the vaccination of adults and seniors is a determining factor of good health at all ages. PMID:21489733

Aubert, M; Aumaître, H; Beytout, J; Bloch, K; Bouhour, D; Callamand, P; Chave, C; Cheymol, J; Combadière, B; Dahlab, A; Denis, F; De Pontual, L; Dodet, B; Dommergues, M A; Dufour, V; Gagneur, A; Gaillat, J; Gaudelus, J; Gavazzi, G; Gillet, Y; Gras-le-Guen, C; Haas, H; Hanslik, T; Hau-Rainsard, I; Larnaudie, S; Launay, O; Lorrot, M; Loulergue, P; Malvy, D; Marchand, S; Picherot, G; Pinquier, D; Pulcini, C; Rabaud, C; Regnier, F; Reinert, P; Sana, C; Savagner, C; Soubeyrand, B; Stephan, J L; Strady, C

2011-04-13

210

YELLOW FEVER VACCINE YF-VAX® DESCRIPTION ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... this vaccine is propagated in chicken embryos, YF-VAX vaccine should not be ... or localized manifestations of allergy to eggs or to feathers are not ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines

211

Vaccines  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Pandemic Influenza Information; FDA/NIH/WHO Public Workshop: Immune Correlates of Protection Against Influenza A Viruses in Support of ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines

212

Febrile seizures after 2010-2011 influenza vaccine in young children, United States: a vaccine safety signal from the vaccine adverse event reporting system.  

PubMed

During the 2010-2011 influenza season, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Food and Drug Administration conducted enhanced vaccine safety monitoring for possible febrile seizures in all trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) products in the United States using the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). We used Empirical Bayesian data mining techniques to assess disproportionate reporting after TIV and reviewed febrile seizure reports in children aged <5 years. On November 23, 2010, the combination of the coding term "febrile convulsion" and the Fluzone(®) TIV product exceeded a predetermined threshold in the VAERS database. By December 10, we confirmed 43 reports of febrile seizure following TIV in children aged 6-23 months. Clinical features of most reports were consistent with typical uncomplicated febrile seizures, and all children recovered. Further epidemiologic assessment of a possible association between TIV and febrile seizures was undertaken in a separate, population-based vaccine safety monitoring system. PMID:22361303

Leroy, Z; Broder, K; Menschik, D; Shimabukuro, T; Martin, D

2012-03-01

213

Protective Effect of In ovo Vaccination with IBV-Spike-Recombinant DNA and Chicken Interferon as an Adjuvant  

Microsoft Academic Search

5 Abstract: Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) can cause high mortality, poor weight gain and low feed efficiency of infected chickens, which leading to considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. In this study, a plasmid DNA pTracer-CVM2-IBVS (abbr: pCMV-S) that expresses the immunogenic S glycoprotein genes of IBV serotype Massachusetts 41 was inoculated in ovo into 18-days-old embryonating Specific-Pathogen- Free

Sankhiros Babapoor; Davi de Oliveira Almeida; Jaroslaw J. Fabis; Zeinab H. Helal; Xiuqing Wang; Theodore Girshick; Mazhar I. Khan

2009-01-01

214

Comparison of two infectious bursal disease vaccine strains: efficacy and potential hazards in susceptible and maternally immune birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two infectious bursal disease vaccines were administered to separate groups of maternally immune and susceptible chickens at various ages. Vaccine B caused no damage to the bursae of chickens examined histologically at nine and 20 days after vaccination. The bursae of chickens given vaccine A were shown to be severely damaged when similarly examined. Both vaccines protected all the susceptible

JC Muskett; IG Hopkins; KR Edwards; DH Thornton

1979-01-01

215

The peptide motif of the single dominantly expressed class I molecule of the chicken MHC can explain the response to a molecular defined vaccine of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV).  

PubMed

In contrast to typical mammals, the chicken MHC (the BF-BL region of the B locus) has strong genetic associations with resistance and susceptibility to infectious pathogens as well as responses to vaccines. We have shown that the chicken MHC encodes a single dominantly expressed class I molecule whose peptide-binding motifs can determine resistance to viral pathogens, such as Rous sarcoma virus and Marek's disease virus. In this report, we examine the response to a molecular defined vaccine, fp-IBD1, which consists of a fowlpox virus vector carrying the VP2 gene of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) fused with ?-galactosidase. We vaccinated parental lines and two backcross families with fp-IBD1, challenged with the virulent IBDV strain F52/70, and measured damage to the bursa. We found that the MHC haplotype B15 from line 15I confers no protection, whereas B2 from line 61 and B12 from line C determine protection, although another locus from line 61 was also important. Using our peptide motifs, we found that many more peptides from VP2 were predicted to bind to the dominantly expressed class I molecule BF2*1201 than BF2*1501. Moreover, most of the peptides predicted to bind BF2*1201 did in fact bind, while none bound BF2*1501. Using peptide vaccination, we identified one B12 peptide that conferred protection to challenge, as assessed by bursal damage and viremia. Thus, we show the strong genetic association of the chicken MHC to a T cell vaccine can be explained by peptide presentation by the single dominantly expressed class I molecule. PMID:23644721

Butter, Colin; Staines, Karen; van Hateren, Andrew; Davison, T Fred; Kaufman, Jim

2013-05-05

216

Immunogenicity of Salmonella typhi Ty21a Vaccine for Young Children. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An attenuated Salmonella typhi Ty21a vaccine was administered to 18 infants and toddlers greater but less than 24 months old to determine its safety and immunogenicity. The vaccination (10' CFU per dose, three doses) was well tolerated. However, after the...

J. R. Murphy L. Grez L. Schlesinger C. Ferreccio S. Baqar

1991-01-01

217

Compliance with herpes zoster vaccination in young and adult individuals in two regions of Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this work was to explore the knowledge and acceptance of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)-Herpes Zoster (HZ) vaccination in the general Italian population, where the HZ vaccine has not yet been distributed, using a prevalence study of subjects from two regions in Italy. METHODS: A group of 3,173 individuals were interviewed using a questionnaire. The youngest age

Antonino Parlato; Vincenzo Romano Spica; Massimo Ciccozzi; Francesca Farchi; Francesca Gallè; Valeria Di Onofrio; Elisabetta Franco; Giorgio Liguori

2010-01-01

218

Safety and efficacy of a thymidine kinase negative equine herpesvirus-1 vaccine in young horses.  

PubMed Central

A drug induced equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) mutant lacking thymidine kinase inducing activity was developed and evaluated as a vaccine. The safety and effectiveness of the vaccine to protect against experimentally induced EHV-1 respiratory disease were evaluated in weanling horses free of EHV-1 neutralizing antibody. The vaccine was safe when administered either intramuscularly or intravenously, and EHV-1 was not shed intranasally during the 12 days following administration. Intranasal challenge with virulent EHV-1 was used to evaluate vaccine efficacy. Following challenge, there was a significantly (p less than 0.05) greater increase in peak body temperatures and duration of nasal virus shedding in the nonvaccinates, and a significant (p less than 0.05) increase in serum neutralizing antibody titers in the vaccinates. Images Fig. 1.

Cornick, J; Martens, J; Martens, R; Crandell, R; McConnell, S; Kit, S

1990-01-01

219

Smallpox Vaccination is Not Associated with Infertility in a Healthy Young Adult Population.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concerns exist regarding reproductive health, including potential infertility, among young adults with military-related occupational exposures. This study evaluated infertility diagnoses in a large population of healthy young adults in relation to prior s...

C. J. Sevick G. R. Gumbs I. G. Jacobson M. A. Ryan T. C. Smith

2008-01-01

220

CD4+ T-cell responses among adults and young children in response to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae vaccine candidate protein antigens.  

PubMed

We characterized cytokine profiles of CD4(+) T-helper (h) cells in adults and young children to ascertain if responses occur to next-generation candidate vaccine antigens PspA, PcpA, PhtD, PhtE, Ply, LytB of Streptococcus pneumonia (Spn) and protein D and OMP26 of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Adults had vaccine antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 cells responsive to all antigens evaluated whereas young children had significant numbers of vaccine antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells producing IL-2, (p=0.004). Vaccine antigen-specific CD4(+) T-cell populations in adults were largely of effector (TEM) and/or central memory (TCM) phenotypes as defined by CD45RA(-)CCR7(+) or CD45RA(-)CCR7(-) respectively; however among young children antigen-specific IL-2 producing CD4(+) T cells demonstrated CD45RA(+) expression (non-memory cells). We conclude that adults have circulating memory CD4(+) T cells (CD45RA(-)) that can be stimulated by all the tested Spn and NTHi protein vaccine candidate antigens, whereas young children have a more limited response. PMID:23632305

Sharma, Sharad K; Roumanes, David; Almudevar, Anthony; Mosmann, Tim R; Pichichero, Michael E

2013-04-28

221

Correlates of HPV knowledge in the era of HPV vaccination: a study of unvaccinated young adult women.  

PubMed

Until recently, awareness of the sexually transmitted infection human papillomavirus-the virus that causes cervical cancer-was relatively low. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with human papillomavirus knowledge now that human papillomavirus vaccines have become widely available. Young adult women (n = 739; aged 18-26 years) attending Florida State University who had not yet initiated human papillomavirus vaccination completed a survey between March-August 2009. The survey assessed human papillomavirus awareness, human papillomavirus knowledge, demographics, socio-political variables, sexual history, and health history variables. Over 97% of participants were aware of human papillomavirus prior to study enrollment; however, knowledge of human papillomavirus was only moderate. A multivariate regression analysis examining factors related to human papillomavirus knowledge revealed five independent correlates: Latina ethnicity, premarital sex values, number of lifetime sexual partners, history of cervical dysplasia, and HIV testing. These variables accounted for 14% of the variance in human papillomavirus knowledge. Less knowledge was observed for Latinas and women opposed to premarital sex. Greater knowledge was observed for women who had been tested for HIV and women with more sexual partners or a history of cervical dysplasia. These findings can inform future human papillomavirus vaccination campaigns and may be particularly useful in developing interventions for individuals with the largest deficits in human papillomavirus knowledge. PMID:21391159

Gerend, Mary A; Shepherd, Janet E

2011-01-01

222

Correlates of HPV Knowledge in the Era of HPV Vaccination: A Study of Unvaccinated Young Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Until recently, awareness of the sexually transmitted infection human papillomavirus (HPV)—the virus that causes cervical cancer—was relatively low. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with HPV knowledge now that HPV vaccines have become widely available. Young adult women (n = 739; aged 18-26 years) attending Florida State University who had not yet initiated HPV vaccination completed a survey between March-August 2009. The survey assessed HPV awareness, HPV knowledge, demographics, socio-political variables, sexual history, and health history variables. Over 97% of participants were aware of HPV prior to study enrollment; however, knowledge of HPV was only moderate. A multivariate regression analysis examining factors related to HPV knowledge revealed five independent correlates: Latina ethnicity, premarital sex values, number of lifetime sexual partners, history of cervical dysplasia, and HIV testing. These variables accounted for 14% of the variance in HPV knowledge. Less knowledge was observed for Latinas and women opposed to premarital sex. Greater knowledge was observed for women who had been tested for HIV and women with more sexual partners or a history of cervical dysplasia. These findings can inform future HPV vaccination campaigns and may be particularly useful in developing interventions for individuals with the largest deficits in HPV knowledge.

Gerend, Mary A.; Shepherd, Janet E.

2011-01-01

223

Safety and Immunogenicity of 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Vaccination in Perinatally HIV-1-Infected Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background.?The safety and immunogenicity of high-dose pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) vaccination in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–infected children, adolescents, and young adults are unknown. Methods.?Two 30-?g doses of 2009 Novartis pH1N1 monovalent vaccine (Fluvirin) were administered 21–28 days apart to perinatally HIV-1–infected children, adolescents, and young adults. Antibodies were measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay at baseline, 21–28 days after first vaccination, 7–13 days after the second vaccination, and 7 months after the first vaccination. Results.?Among the 155 participants, 54 were aged 4–8 years, 51 were aged 9–17 years, and 50 were aged 18–24 years. After 2 doses of Fluvirin, seroresponse (?4-fold rise in HAI titers) was demonstrated in 79.6%, 84.8%, and 83% of participants in the aforementioned age groups, respectively, and seroprotection (HAI titers ?40) was shown in 79.6%, 82.6%, and 85.1%, respectively. Of those lacking seroresponse (n = 43) or seroprotection (n = 37) after the first vaccination, 46.5% and 40.5% achieved seroresponse or seroprotection, respectively, after the second vaccination. Among participants who lacked seroprotection at entry, a “complete response” (both seroresponse and seroprotection) after first vaccination was associated with higher baseline log10 HAI titer and non-Hispanic ethnicity. No serious vaccine-related events occurred. Conclusion.?Two doses of double-strength pH1N1 vaccine are safe and immunogenic and may provide improved protection against influenza in perinatally HIV-1–infected children and youth. Clinical Trials Registration.?NCT00992836.

Flynn, Patricia M.; Nachman, Sharon; Muresan, Petronella; Fenton, Terence; Spector, Stephen A.; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Pass, Robert; Yogev, Ram; Burchett, Sandra; Heckman, Barbara; Bloom, Anthony; Utech, L. Jill; Anthony, Patricia; Petzold, Elizabeth; Levy, Wende; Siberry, George K.; Ebiasah, Ruth; Miller, Judi; Handelsman, Edward; Weinberg, Adriana

2012-01-01

224

Trivalent and quadrivalent MF59(®)-adjuvanted influenza vaccine in young children: a dose- and schedule-finding study.  

PubMed

Young children are at increased risk for influenza infections and related complications. The protection offered to children by conventional trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (TIV) is suboptimal, due to poor immunogenicity and a higher exposure to infection and complications in this age group, particularly from influenza B strains. In this dose-ranging, factorial design trial, we report the safety and immunogenicity of different combinations of adjuvanted (ATIV) and non-adjuvanted trivalent (TIV) and quadrivalent (QIV) influenza vaccines in 480 healthy children 6 to <36 months of age. The results show that the second B strain added to TIV was immunogenic and did not affect immunogenicity of the other strains. The addition of the MF59(®) adjuvant promoted robust immune responses with notable elevations in antibodies observed even after one dose. A dose-response relationship was observed between the antibody response and MF59 adjuvant. No patterns in safety and tolerability emerged with different adjuvant and antigen doses nor with the addition of a second B strain. MF59-adjuvanted QIV offers potential advantages to young children. PMID:21906647

Della Cioppa, Giovanni; Vesikari, Timo; Sokal, Etienne; Lindert, Kelly; Nicolay, Uwe

2011-09-09

225

Strontium Administration in Young Chickens Improves Bone Volume and Architecture but Does not Enhance Bone Structural and Material Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic selection for rapid body growth in broiler chickens has resulted in adverse effects on the skeletal system exemplified\\u000a by a higher rate of cortical fractures in leg bones. Strontium (Sr) has been reported to have beneficial effects on bone formation\\u000a and strength. We supplemented the diet of 300-day-old chicks with increasing dosages of Sr (0%, 0.12%, or 0.24%) to

M. Shahnazari; D. H. Lang; G. J. Fosmire; N. A. Sharkey; A. D. Mitchell; R. M. Leach

2007-01-01

226

Chicken anaemia agent: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicken anaemia agent (CAA) is a small, unclassified, icosahedral DNA virus with a single?stranded, circular genome. It seems to have a worldwide distribution. Only one serotype of CAA has been found, and all isolates investigated so far are pathogenic for young chicks.CAA causes a syndrome in chickens characterised by increased mortality, anaemia associated with atrophy of the haematopoietic tissues in

M. S. McNulty

1991-01-01

227

9 CFR 113.36 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test. 113.36 Section...113.36 Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test. The test for...At least 25 healthy susceptible young chickens, properly identified and...

2010-01-01

228

9 CFR 113.36 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test. 113.36 Section...113.36 Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test. The test for...At least 25 healthy susceptible young chickens, properly identified and...

2013-01-01

229

[Preventive vaccination strategy during the perinatal period].  

PubMed

Preventive vaccination strategy around the birth is a global approach requiring the coordination of several actors. To be efficacious, general practitioners are in the front line to provide preventive care and health education. The perinatal period represents a privileged situation from listening to this approach of vaccine prevention. The raising awareness around the birth contains several additional steps to bring to the future mother and child the best protection against infectious diseases with vaccine prevention. By being vaccinated, parents and other family members indirectly provide protection to very young infants until they are old enough to be vaccinated and so directly protected themselves. Numerous opportunities exist to make sensitive the parents in this preventive way, for them and their child, whether it is from the adolescence in the adulthood above all parental project, on the occasion of a pregnancy, at birth, during the stay in maternity hospital, or along the first weeks of the postpartum. The general practitioner is the key actor to coordinate this global approach in perinatal health around the mother, his child and his family. The arrival of the newborn will be the opportunity to update vaccinations of the whole family particularly according chicken pox, measles, rubella, whooping cough and flu vaccines. PMID:21425528

Pinquier, Didier; Gagneur, Amaud; Gaudelus, Joël; Marret, Stéphane

2010-12-20

230

Strategies and ethical considerations for the recruitment of young men who have sex with men: challenges of a vaccination trial in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The importance of recruiting and retaining study participants from minority groups is well recognized; however, there are no established rules for recruitment as its success depends on the setting and population.Purpose To describe and analyze recruitment strategies, ethical considerations, and recruitment outcomes from a study to evaluate the efficacy the Human Papilloma Virus vaccine in young men who have

Arturo Gutiérrez-Luna; Angelica Angeles-Llerenas; Veronika J Wirtz; Asunción Álvarez Del Río; Laura Zamilpa-Mejía; Carlos Aranda-Flores; Jose Luis Viramontes; Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce

2009-01-01

231

Randomized Trial on the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM, an Investigational Quadrivalent Meningococcal Glycoconjugate Vaccine, Administered Concomitantly with a Combined Tetanus, Reduced Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine in Adolescents and Young Adults? †  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, when administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, in subjects aged 11 to 25 years. Subjects received either MenACWY-CRM and Tdap, MenACWY-CRM and saline placebo, or Tdap and saline placebo. No significant increase in reactogenicity and no clinically significant vaccine-related adverse events (AEs) occurred when MenACWY-CRM and Tdap were administered concomitantly. Similar immunogenic responses to diphtheria, tetanus, and meningococcal (serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y) antigens were observed, regardless of concomitant vaccine administration. Antipertussis antibody responses were comparable between vaccine groups for filamentous hemagglutinin and were slightly lower, although not clinically significantly, for pertussis toxoid and pertactin when the two vaccines were administered concomitantly. These results indicate that the investigational MenACWY-CRM vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic and that it can be coadministered with Tdap to adolescents and young adults.

Gasparini, Roberto; Conversano, Michele; Bona, Gianni; Gabutti, Giovanni; Anemona, Alessandra; Dull, Peter M.; Ceddia, Francesca

2010-01-01

232

Strontium administration in young chickens improves bone volume and architecture but does not enhance bone structural and material strength.  

PubMed

Genetic selection for rapid body growth in broiler chickens has resulted in adverse effects on the skeletal system exemplified by a higher rate of cortical fractures in leg bones. Strontium (Sr) has been reported to have beneficial effects on bone formation and strength. We supplemented the diet of 300-day-old chicks with increasing dosages of Sr (0%, 0.12%, or 0.24%) to study the capacity of the element to improve bone quality and mechanical integrity. Treatment with Sr increased cortical bone volume and reduced bone porosity as measured by micro-computed tomography. The higher level of Sr significantly reduced bone Ca content (34.7%) relative to controls (37.2%), suggesting that Sr replaced some of the Ca in bone. Material properties determined by the three-point bending test showed that bone in the Sr-treated groups withstood greater deformation prior to fracture. Load to failure and ultimate stress were similar across groups. Our results indicate that Sr treatment in rapidly growing chickens induced positive effects on bone volume but did not improve the breaking strength of long bones. PMID:17340224

Shahnazari, M; Lang, D H; Fosmire, G J; Sharkey, N A; Mitchell, A D; Leach, R M

2007-03-05

233

Vaccination Coverage by Special Health Care Needs Status in Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to compare vaccination coverage among children 19 to 35 months of age with and without special health care needs overall and among demographic subgroups. METHODS. Data are from the National Survey of Children With Special Health Care Needs, a module of the State and Local Area Integrated Telephone Survey, which was sponsored by

Kathleen S. O'Connor; Matthew D. Bramlett

234

Declining Genital Warts in Young Women in England Associated With HPV 16/18 Vaccination: An Ecological Study.  

PubMed

Background.?Diagnoses of genital warts (GW) in genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics have been increasing in England for many years. In 2008, an HPV immunization program began with a bivalent vaccine (Cervarix). This was expected to markedly reduce infections and disease due to human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 but not HPV 6/11 infections or disease. However, from 2009 to 2011 there were decreases in reported diagnoses of GW in young females at GUM clinics. Methods.?Using data from GUM clinics and a sample of general practices (GPs) throughout England, we analyzed rates of GW diagnoses by age, year of diagnosis, and estimated immunization coverage. Results.?The overall reduction in GW diagnoses at GUM clinics between 2008 and 2011 was 13.3% among 16- to 19-year-old females, with the greatest decline of 20.8% in 17-year-olds. Declines were positively associated with estimated immunization coverage. A similar pattern was seen in GP diagnoses, but not among older women, and for other GUM consultations. Conclusions.?Several factors might contribute to declines in GW. However, the size and pattern of the declines strongly suggest that we are observing an unexpected, moderately protective effect of HPV 16/18 vaccination against GW. PMID:24092908

Howell-Jones, Rebecca; Soldan, Kate; Wetten, Sally; Mesher, David; Williams, Tim; Gill, O Noel; Hughes, Gwenda

2013-11-01

235

Declining Genital Warts in Young Women in England Associated With HPV 16/18 Vaccination: An Ecological Study  

PubMed Central

Background.?Diagnoses of genital warts (GW) in genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics have been increasing in England for many years. In 2008, an HPV immunization program began with a bivalent vaccine (Cervarix). This was expected to markedly reduce infections and disease due to human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 but not HPV 6/11 infections or disease. However, from 2009 to 2011 there were decreases in reported diagnoses of GW in young females at GUM clinics. Methods.?Using data from GUM clinics and a sample of general practices (GPs) throughout England, we analyzed rates of GW diagnoses by age, year of diagnosis, and estimated immunization coverage. Results.?The overall reduction in GW diagnoses at GUM clinics between 2008 and 2011 was 13.3% among 16- to 19-year-old females, with the greatest decline of 20.8% in 17-year-olds. Declines were positively associated with estimated immunization coverage. A similar pattern was seen in GP diagnoses, but not among older women, and for other GUM consultations. Conclusions.?Several factors might contribute to declines in GW. However, the size and pattern of the declines strongly suggest that we are observing an unexpected, moderately protective effect of HPV 16/18 vaccination against GW.

Howell-Jones, Rebecca; Soldan, Kate; Wetten, Sally; Mesher, David; Williams, Tim; Gill, O. Noel; Hughes, Gwenda

2013-01-01

236

Suppression of Avian Influenza Transmission in Genetically Modified Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection of chickens with avian influenza virus poses a global threat to both poultry production and human health that is not adequately controlled by vaccination or by biosecurity measures. A novel alternative strategy is to develop chickens that are genetically resistant to infection. We generated transgenic chickens expressing a short-hairpin RNA designed to function as a decoy that inhibits and

Jon Lyall; Richard M. Irvine; Adrian Sherman; Trevelyan J. McKinley; Alejandro Núñez; Auriol Purdie; Linzy Outtrim; Ian H. Brown; Genevieve Rolleston-Smith; Helen Sang; Laurence Tiley

2011-01-01

237

Revertant Serotype 1 Marek's Disease Vaccine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objects of the invention are: to provide a novel, highly protective, serotype 1 vaccine against Marek's Disease (MD) in chickens; to provide both monovalent and polyvalent vaccines against MD which are more efficacious than those presently in commerci...

R. L. Witter

1990-01-01

238

Combined schedule of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine followed by 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine in children and young adults with sickle cell disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the immunogenicity of 7-valent pneumococcal-conjugate vaccine plus 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine to immunization with 23-valent vaccine only in individuals ?2 years of age with sickle cell disease. IgG pneumococcal antibody concentrations were higher in the combined schedule group with no increase in side effects observed after immunization with 23-valent vaccine. (J Pediatr 1998;133:275-8)

Louis Vernacchio; Ellis J. Neufeld; Kristin MacDonald; Susan Kurth; Saya Murakami; Courtney Hohne; Michelle King; Deborah Molrine

1998-01-01

239

Population-Based Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective. To determine the population impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) on pneumococcal-related diseases, including pneumonia and otitis media. Methods. Using administrative data from Tennessee Medicaid and 3 commercial insurance plans in upstate New York, we measured annual rates of medical visits for pneumococcal-related diseases (pneumococcal and nonspecific pneumonia and invasive disease; otitis me- dia) and pneumococcal-unrelated diseases (other

Katherine A. Poehling; Mph Bonnie J. Lafleur; Mph Peter G. Szilagyi; Kathryn M. Edwards; Ed Mitchel; Richard Barth; Benjamin Schwartz; Marie R. Griffin

240

HPV-Related Risk Perceptions and HPV Vaccine Uptake Among a Sample of Young Rural Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appalachia Kentucky is recognized for increased cervical cancer incidence, morbidity and mortality and lower rates of Pap\\u000a testing. Understanding the predictors of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake is warranted among this population. The\\u000a purpose of this exploratory research is to determine associations between HPV-related risk perceptions and uptake of free\\u000a Gardasil offered to rural Appalachian women ages 18–26 attending regional

Robin C. VanderpoolBaretta; Baretta R. Casey; Richard A. Crosby

241

Influenza Vaccinations of Young Children Increased With Media Coverage in 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.We sought to evaluate the impact of intense influenza media coverage during the 2003-2004 influenza season on the influenza vaccination status of children 6 to 59 months of age. METHODS.Children 6 to 59 months of age who presented to a large, academic pediatric continuity clinic or affiliated acute care clinic in the summer of 2004 were enrolled. A parental survey

K. K. Ma; W. Schaffner; C. Colmenares; J. Howser; J. Jones; K. A. Poehling

2006-01-01

242

The effects of vaccine timing on the efficacy of an acute eccentric exercise intervention on the immune response to an influenza vaccine in young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acute bout of exercise prior to vaccination can improve the antibody and cell-mediated responses to influenza vaccination. The mechanisms underpinning this adjuvant effect remain unclear, and further investigation to determine the optimal exercise protocol is warranted. The aim of the current study was to determine whether exercise augmented the immune response to vaccination, and whether the timing of exercise

John P. Campbell; Kate M. Edwards; Christopher Ring; Mark T. Drayson; Jos A. Bosch; Andrew Inskip; Joanna E. Long; Daniel Pulsford; Victoria E. Burns

2010-01-01

243

Protection against H7N3 high pathogenicity avian influenza in chickens immunized with a recombinant fowlpox and an inactivated avian influenza vaccines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Beginning on June 2012, an H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epizootic was reported in the State of Jalisco (Mexico), with some 22.4 million chickens that died, were slaughtered on affected farms or were preemptively culled on neighboring farms. In the current study, layer chickens were ...

244

Long-term persistence of systemic and mucosal immune response to HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in preteen/adolescent girls and young women.  

PubMed

Vaccination against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is one key intervention for cervical cancer prevention. This follow-up study assessed the persistence of the systemic and mucosal immune responses together with the safety profile of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to young women aged 10-25 years. Serum and cervicovaginal secretion (CVS) samples were collected at prespecified time-points during the 48-month follow-up period. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody levels in serum and CVS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). At Month 48, all subjects remained seropositive for serum anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies. As previously observed, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies levels (ELISA Units/mL) were higher in subjects vaccinated at the age of 10-14 years (2862.2 and 940.8) compared to subjects vaccinated at the age of 15-25 years (1186.2 and 469.8). Moreover, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies in CVS were still detectable for subjects aged 15-25 years (84.1% and 69.7%, respectively). There was a strong correlation between serum and CVS anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies levels (correlation coefficients = 0.84 and 0.90 at Month 48, respectively) supporting the hypothesis of transudation or exudation of serum immunoglobulin G antibodies through the cervical epithelium. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile. In conclusion, this follow-up study shows that the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to preteen/adolescents girls and young women induces long-term systemic and mucosal immune response and has a clinically acceptable safety profile up to 4 years after the first vaccine dose. PMID:21190190

Petäjä, Tiina; Pedersen, Court; Poder, Airi; Strauss, Gitte; Catteau, Gregory; Thomas, Florence; Lehtinen, Matti; Descamps, Dominique

2011-03-11

245

Pneumonia Hospitalizations Among Young Children Before and After Introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine - United State, 1997-2006. Morbidity and Morality Weekly Report, Vol. 58, No. 1, january 16, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading bacterial cause of community-acquired pneumonia hospitalizations and an important cause of bacteremia and meningitis, especially among young children and older adults. A 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7...

2009-01-01

246

Unusual patterns of IgG avidity in some young children following two doses of the adjuvanted pandemic H1N1 (2009) influenza virus vaccine.  

PubMed

During the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic, an adjuvanted monovalent vaccine containing ?25% of the normal antigen dose and AS03 adjuvant was widely used in Canada. This vaccine was found to be well-tolerated and immunogenic in young children (D. W. Scheifele et al., Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 30:402-407, 2011). We report here additional analyses to further characterize the humoral response to this vaccine. We measured standard hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN) titers, as well as influenza virus-specific IgG avidity and subclass distribution by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 73 subjects. Sera were collected before (day 0) and 3 weeks after each dose of vaccine (days 21 and 42). Most children (55/73) had undetectable HAI and MN titers at day 0 (presumed to be antigen naive) and mounted good responses at days 21 and 42. The majority of these children (43/55) had the expected pattern of an increasing IgG avidity index (AI) after each dose of vaccine (not detected [ND], 0.30, and 2.97 at days 0, 21, and 42, respectively). The avidity responses in the remaining children (12/55) were quite different, with AIs increasing abruptly after the first dose and then declining after the second dose of vaccine (ND, 8.83, and 7.15, respectively). These children also had higher concentrations of influenza virus-specific IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies at day 21. Although the antibody titers were similar, some antigen-naive children demonstrated an unusual pattern of avidity maturation after two immunizations with AS03-adjuvanted, low-dose influenza virus vaccine. These data suggest the presence of subtle differences in the quality of the antibodies produced by some subjects in response to this vaccine. PMID:23345582

Yam, Karen K; Gupta, Jyotsana; Brewer, Angela; Scheifele, David W; Halperin, Scott; Ward, Brian J

2013-01-23

247

Unusual Patterns of IgG Avidity in Some Young Children following Two Doses of the Adjuvanted Pandemic H1N1 (2009) Influenza Virus Vaccine  

PubMed Central

During the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic, an adjuvanted monovalent vaccine containing ?25% of the normal antigen dose and AS03 adjuvant was widely used in Canada. This vaccine was found to be well-tolerated and immunogenic in young children (D. W. Scheifele et al., Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 30:402–407, 2011). We report here additional analyses to further characterize the humoral response to this vaccine. We measured standard hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN) titers, as well as influenza virus-specific IgG avidity and subclass distribution by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 73 subjects. Sera were collected before (day 0) and 3 weeks after each dose of vaccine (days 21 and 42). Most children (55/73) had undetectable HAI and MN titers at day 0 (presumed to be antigen naive) and mounted good responses at days 21 and 42. The majority of these children (43/55) had the expected pattern of an increasing IgG avidity index (AI) after each dose of vaccine (not detected [ND], 0.30, and 2.97 at days 0, 21, and 42, respectively). The avidity responses in the remaining children (12/55) were quite different, with AIs increasing abruptly after the first dose and then declining after the second dose of vaccine (ND, 8.83, and 7.15, respectively). These children also had higher concentrations of influenza virus-specific IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies at day 21. Although the antibody titers were similar, some antigen-naive children demonstrated an unusual pattern of avidity maturation after two immunizations with AS03-adjuvanted, low-dose influenza virus vaccine. These data suggest the presence of subtle differences in the quality of the antibodies produced by some subjects in response to this vaccine.

Yam, Karen K.; Gupta, Jyotsana; Brewer, Angela; Scheifele, David W.; Halperin, Scott

2013-01-01

248

A bivalent Neisseria meningitidis recombinant lipidated factor H binding protein vaccine in young adults: results of a randomised, controlled, dose-escalation phase 1 trial.  

PubMed

Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of meningitis and septicaemia, but a broadly-protective vaccine against endemic serogroup B disease is not licensed and available. The conserved, outer-membrane lipoprotein factor H binding protein (fHBP, also known as LP2086) is expressed as one of two subfamily variants in virtually all meningococci. This study investigated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant-expressed bivalent fHBP (r-fHBP) vaccine in healthy adults. Participants (N=103) aged 18-25 years were recruited into three ascending dose level cohorts of 20, 60, and 200?g of a bivalent r-fHBP vaccine formulation and randomised to receive vaccine or placebo at 0, 1, and 6 months. The vaccine was well tolerated. Geometric mean titres (GMTs) for r-fHBP subfamily-specific IgG antibodies increased 19-168-fold from pre-vaccination to post-dose 2 in a dose level-dependent manner. In addition, robust serum bactericidal assay using human complement (hSBA) responses for strains expressing both homologous and heterologous fHBP variants were observed. After three vaccinations, 16-52% of the placebo group and 47-90%, 75-100%, and 88-100%, of the 20, 60, and 200?g dose levels, respectively, had seroprotective (? 1:4) hSBA titres against six serogroup B strains. The bivalent r-fHBP vaccine was well tolerated and induced robust bactericidal activity against six diverse serogroup B strains in young adults at the 60 and 200?g dose levels. PMID:22871351

Richmond, P C; Nissen, M D; Marshall, H S; Lambert, S B; Roberton, D; Gruber, W C; Jones, T R; Arora, A

2012-08-05

249

Influence of Thymectomy in the Chicken on Antibody Production Against Newcastle Disease and Chicken Pox Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After inoculation and infection with the virus of ND and FP no significant differences were detected between thymectomized and non-thymectomized chickens with respect to the reaction to vaccination, formation of humoral antibodies, degree of immunity, dis...

U. Bendhein

1968-01-01

250

Impact of the Change to Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine on the Immunization Status of Young Children in the United States: A Study From Pediatric Research in Office Settings and the National Medical Association  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine whether the change from an all oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) sched- ule to an inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV)-containing schedule has adversely affected the immunization status of young children in the United States. Methods. Immunization data were abstracted from the medical records of children 8 to 35 months old seen consecutively for any reason in the offices of

James A. Taylor; Paul M. Darden; Dennis A. Brooks; J. W. Hendricks; Alison E. Baker; Alison B. Bocian; Karyn Rohder; Richard C. Wasserman

251

Vaccination of SPF chickens with recombinant HVT expressing the HA from H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza protects against lethal challenge  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vaccination is an important tool in the protection of poultry against avian influenza (AI). For field use, the overwhelming majority of AI vaccines produced are inactivated whole virus formulated into an oil emulsion and to a lesser degree recombinant vectored vaccines (e.g. virus expressing AI gen...

252

EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE CONTROL AND IMPROVED FEEDING REGIME ON PRODUCTIVITY OF VILLAGE CHICKENS IN KENYA  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the impact of Newcastle disease vaccination and commercial chicken feed supplementation on productivity of Village chicken, sampling started in October 1999 and a total of 24 farms were studied across six villages in ECZ II and III. Another 47 commercial broiler chicken were included in the study. All the farmers vaccinated their birds against Newcastle disease and only

S. W. Njue; J. L. Kasiiti; J. M. Macharia; S. G. Gacheru; H. C. W. Mbugua

253

Viral load in 1-day-old and 6-week-old chickens infected with chicken anaemia virus by the intraocular route  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the effects of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) infection have frequently been investigated in young chickens, there have been few studies of the pathogenesis of CAV infection in older birds. The aim of the work reported here was to study viral loads in 6-week-old chickens and to compare these with those seen in younger birds. Specific pathogen free chickens were

Amir Kaffashi; Amir H. Noormohammadi; Melinda L. Allott; Glenn F. Browning

2006-01-01

254

Evaluation of the Efficacy of Baby Chick Ranikhet Disease Vaccine and Bangla Baby Chick Ranikhet Disease Vaccine in Fayoumi Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken for testing the comparative efficacy of two live vaccines produced in Bangladesh to control Newcastle disease (ND) in chickens. One of these vaccines named 'baby chicks Ranikhet disease vaccine (BCRDV), a government vaccine produced by the Livestock Research Institute, Mohakhali, Dhaka, and the other named 'Bangla-BCRDV ® ', a commercial vaccine produced recently by a pharmaceutical

Zafar Ahmed Bhuiyan; Paritosh Kumar Biswas; M Nural Anwar; Abdul Ahad; Nitish Chandra Debnath

2006-01-01

255

Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens  

PubMed Central

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control.

Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

2012-01-01

256

Chicken eggs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eggs are the means through which chickens reproduce. Hens lay the eggs and incubate them so they will grow. The egg has all of the nutrients the chicken embryo needs to develop into a baby chick and helps protect it as it matures.

Peter N/A (None;)

2005-09-11

257

A dose–response evaluation of inactivated influenza vaccine given intranasally and intramuscularly to healthy young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemic influenza occurs annually throughout the world and is accompanied by excess morbidity and mortality. Increasing the antigen content and topical administration of vaccine are two strategies being explored to improve the immune responses to trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of intramuscular (IM), intranasal (IN), or combined

Robert L. Atmar; Wendy A. Keitel; Thomas R. Cate; Flor M. Munoz; Fred Ruben; Robert B. Couch

2007-01-01

258

Factors Associated With Initiation and Completion of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Series Among Young Women Enrolled in Medicaid  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo determine age- and race-specific uptake rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among females aged 9–20 years who participated in the Florida Medicaid during the first 2 years after approval by the Food and Drug Administration, and to identify factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation and series completion.

Robert L. Cook; Jianyi Zhang; Jocelyn Mullins; Teresa Kauf; Babette Brumback; Heather Steingraber; Chris Mallison

2010-01-01

259

Immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated trivalent split influenza virus vaccine in young children with recurrent wheezing.  

PubMed

Influenza virus vaccination is recommended for children, but so far, active vaccination has not been achieved because most parents lack knowledge of vaccine safety and many doctors are reluctant to administer vaccine due to concerns that steroids might alter immunogenicity. The aim of this study was to compare the immunogenicity and safety of inactivated trivalent split influenza virus vaccine between children with recurrent wheezing and healthy children of the same age group. Sixty-eight healthy children and 62 children with recurrent wheezing took part in this study. Seroconversion rates, seroprotection rates, geometric mean titers (GMTs), and geometric mean titer ratios (GMTRs) were measured by a hemagglutination inhibition assay for the assessment of immunogenicity. Solicited and unsolicited local and systemic adverse events were measured for the assessment of safety. Regarding immunogenicity, the seroconversion and seroprotection rates showed no difference overall between healthy children and children with recurrent wheezing. Also, no difference was observed between steroid-treated and nontreated groups with recurrent wheezing. Generally, the GMTs after vaccination were higher in the one-dose vaccination groups for healthy children and children with recurrent wheezing, but the GMTRs revealed different results according to strain in the two groups. Regarding safety, solicited local and systemic adverse events showed no differences between healthy children and children with recurrent wheezing. This study demonstrates that inactivated split influenza virus vaccine is able to induce protective immune responses in healthy children, as observed in previous studies, as well as in children with recurrent wheezing who require frequent steroid treatment. PMID:23536692

Bae, E Young; Choi, Ui Yoon; Kwon, Hyo Jin; Jeong, Dae Chul; Rhim, Jung Woo; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Kyung Il; Kang, Jin Han

2013-03-27

260

Prevention of haemorrhagic septicaemia in buffaloes and cattle with a live vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young cattle and buffaloes were vaccinated subcutaneously and intradermally with a live vaccine containing Pasteurella multocida serotype B:3,4. Twelve months after vaccination three of five young cattle in the subcutaneously vaccinated group and three of four in the intradermally vaccinated group were protected against serotype B:2 challenge. Eleven buffaloes vaccinated subcutaneously and two vaccinated intradermally survived the same challenge 13

A Myint; GR Carter

1989-01-01

261

Efficacy of a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine against anal HPV16/18 infection among young women: a nested analysis within the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Anal cancer remains rare (incidence of ?1.5 per 100,000 women annually) but rates are increasing in many countries. Human papillomavirus-16 (HPV16) infection causes most cases. We evaluated vaccine efficacy (VE) of an ASO4-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine against anal HPV16/18 infection. Methods In a randomized double-blind controlled trial designed to evaluate VE against persistent cervical HPV16/18 infections and associated precancerous lesions in Costa Rica, 4210 healthy women underwent anal specimen collection (4224 of 5968= 70.8% of eligible women) at the final blinded study visit 4 years after vaccination to evaluate anal HPV16/18 VE. Cervical HPV16/18 VE among the same women at the same visit was calculated as a comparator. For this ancillary work, analyses were conducted in a restricted cohort of women both cervical HPV16/18 DNA negative and HPV 16/18 seronegative prior at enrollment (N=1989), and in the full cohort (all women with an anal specimen). Findings In the restricted cohort, VE against prevalent HPV16/18 anal infection measured one-time, four-years post-vaccination was 83.6% (95%CI 66.7% to 92.8%), which was comparable to cervical HPV16/18 VE (87.9%, 95%CI 77.4% to 94.0%). In the full cohort, HPV16/18 VE was statistically lower at the anus (62.0%, 95%CI 47.1% to 73.1%) compared to the cervix (76.4%, 95%CI 67.0% to 83.5%) (p for anatomic-site interaction =0.03). Significant and comparable VE estimates against a composite endpoint of HPV31/33/45 (i.e.: cross-protection) was observed at the anus and cervix. Interpretation The ASO4-adjuvanted vaccine affords strong protection against anal HPV, particularly among women more likely to be HPV naïve at vaccination. Funding. The Costa Rica HPV Vaccine Trial is sponsored and funded by the NCI (contract N01-CP-11005), with funding support from the National Institutes of Health Office of Research on Women's Health, and conducted with support from the Ministry of Health of Costa Rica. Vaccine was provided for our trial by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK), under a Clinical Trials Agreement with the NCI.

Kreimer, Aimee R.; Gonzalez, Paula; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Porras, Carolina; Schiffman, Mark; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Solomon, Diane; Jimenez, Silvia; Schiller, John T.; Lowy, Douglas R.; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Struijk, Linda; Quint, Wim; Chen, Sabrina; Wacholder, Sholom; Hildesheim, Allan; Herrero, Rolando

2011-01-01

262

Anticoccidial Vaccination of Broiler Chickens in Various Management Programmes: Relationship between Oocyst Accumulation in Litter and the Development of Protective Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paracox anticoccidial vaccine was administered to a 7-day-old flock of commercial broiler breeder stock subsequently reared to point-of-lay in the same house. For comparison, three subgroups of another flock of broiler breeders were also vaccinated with Paracox at 7 days of age, reared to 42 days and then transferred to new litter on another farm until point-of-lay. The first subgroup

R. B. Williams; J. D. Johnson; S. J. Andrews

2000-01-01

263

Inactivated North American and European H5N2 avian influenza virus vaccines protect chickens from Asian H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-pathogenicity (HP) avian influenza (AI) virus of the H5N1 subtype has caused an unprecedented epizootic in birds within nine Asian countries\\/regions since it was first reported in 1996. Vaccination has emerged as a tool for use in managing the infection in view of future eradication. This study was undertaken to determine whether two divergent H5N2 commercial vaccine strains, one based

David E. Swayne; Chang-Won Lee; Erica Spackman

2006-01-01

264

Experimental iron-inactivated Pasteurella multocida A: 1 vaccine adjuvanted with bacterial DNA is safe and protects chickens from fowl cholera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fowl cholera is a serious problem in large and small scale poultry production. The present study describes the development and testing of an inactivated whole-cell, low-cost, safe, and effective vaccine for fowl cholera based on a previous work (Vaccine 23:5590–5598). Pasteurella multocida A: 1 grown in the presence of low FeCl3 concentrations, inactivated with higher concentrations of FeCl3, and adjuvanted

Chitra Herath; Pankaj Kumar; Mithilesh Singh; Devender Kumar; Saravanan Ramakrishnan; Tapas Kumar Goswami; Ajit Singh; G. C. Ram

2010-01-01

265

Protection of the reproductive tract of young chicks by Newcastle disease virus-induced haemagglutinationinhibition antibodies.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to assess the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) titres required to protect the chicken reproductive tract against direct damage caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Precociously induced oviduct and uterus by oestrogen treatment of young chicks were used to assess the damage or protection against the damage by analysis of ciliostasis or histopathological lesions. Unvaccinated day-old female white leghorn chickens were used as the maternally derived antibody (MDA) group. Chickens were vaccinated with either a live lentogenic vaccine on day 14 of age or, along with it, an inactivated vaccine at day 36 of age, to generate birds with a range of primary or secondary response induced HI antibodies. Birds with different HI antibody levels were challenged with virulent NDV. It was found that a HI antibody titre of 128 and above was protective against direct damage of the reproductive tract, while the 32-64 titre range was protective when derived through secondary vaccination only. PMID:16362614

Raghul, J; Raj, G Dhinakar; Manohar, B Murali; Balachandran, C

2006-01-01

266

Antibody Response Patterns to Bordetella pertussis Antigens in Vaccinated (Primed) and Unvaccinated (Unprimed) Young Children with Pertussis?  

PubMed Central

In a previous study, it was found that the antibody response to a nonvaccine pertussis antigen in children who were vaccine failures was reduced compared with the response in nonvaccinated children who had pertussis. In two acellular pertussis vaccine efficacy trials in Sweden, we studied the convalescent-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) geometric mean values (GMVs) in response to pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae (FIM 2/3) in vaccine failures and controls with pertussis. In Germany, the antibody responses to Bordetella pertussis antigens PT, FHA, PRN, and FIM-2 were analyzed by ELISA according to time of serum collection after onset of illness in children with pertussis who were vaccine failures or who were previously unvaccinated. Antibody values were also compared by severity of clinical illness. In Sweden, infants who had received a PT toxoid vaccine and who were vaccine failures had a blunted response to the nonvaccine antigen FHA compared with the response in children who had received a PT/FHA vaccine. Similarly, infants who had pertussis and who had received a PT/FHA vaccine had a blunted response to the nonvaccine antigens PRN and FIM 2/3 compared with the response in children who were vaccine failures and who had received a PT, FHA, PRN, and FIM 2/3 vaccine. In Germany, in sera collected from 0 to 15 days after pertussis illness onset, the GMVs for all 4 antigens (PT, FHA, PRN, and FIM-2) were significantly lower in an unvaccinated group than in children who were diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine failures. In the unvaccinated group, the GMV of the PT antibody rose rapidly over time so that it was similar to that of the DTaP vaccine recipients at the 16- to 30-day period. In contrast, the antibody responses to FHA, PRN, and FIM-2 at all time periods were lower in the diphtheria-tetanus vaccine (DT) recipients than in the DTaP vaccine failures. In both Sweden and Germany, children with less severe illness had lower antibody responses than children with typical pertussis. Our findings indicate that upon exposure and infection, previous vaccinees have more-robust antibody responses to the antigens contained in the vaccine they had received than to Bordetella antigens that were not in the vaccine they had received. In addition, over time the antibody responses to FHA, PRN, and FIM-2 were greater in children with vaccine failure (primed subjects) than in unvaccinated children (unprimed subjects) whereas the responses to PT were similar in the primed and unprimed children, as determined from sera collected after 15 days of illness. Our findings lend support to the idea that DTaP vaccines should contain multiple antigens.

Cherry, James D.; Heininger, Ulrich; Richards, David M.; Storsaeter, Jann; Gustafsson, Lennart; Ljungman, Margaretha; Hallander, Hans O.

2010-01-01

267

Aluminum and acid effects on calcium and phosphorus metabolism in young growing chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).  

PubMed

Acidification is associated with increased mortality, reduced growth, and bone abnormalities in birds. Associated with acid deposition is an increase in aluminum availability due to solubilization from soil and other sources. (Conversely, experimental diets containing aluminum sulfate have much reduced pHs.) The present studies compare the effects of two levels of dietary acid (sulfuric acid) (0.122 and 0.56 mol H+ per kg feed; 0.056 and 0.277 mol sulfate per kg feed) and dietary aluminum (aluminum sulfate at 0.1 and 0.5%; sulfate at 0. 056 and 0.277 mol sulfate per kg feed) on bone growth, mineralization, and phosphorous/calcium homeostasis in growing birds (chickens and mallard ducks). Growth was reduced by the high acid (chicken) and aluminum (ducks and chickens) diets. A reduction in bone mineralization was observed in birds receiving aluminum-containing diets [low aluminum diet: decreased tibia ash, calcium, and phosphorus (chickens); high aluminum diet: decreased tibia dry weight, % of ash and mg; ash, calcium (chickens, ducks as % of ash), and phosphorus (chickens mg/duck, % of ash)]. Moreover, plasma concentrations of inorganic phosphate were reduced in chicks on the high aluminum diet. There were also marked decreases in bone growth and mineralization [tibia weight, ash (mg), calcium (mg), phosphorus (mg)] and plasma concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 in chicks on the high acid diet compared to those on a control diet. These changes were probably due to reduced feed intake; changes in bone indices being of a greater or similar magnitude in pairfed control. There was little change in bone indices, growth rate or feed consumption in ducklings receiving either the low or high acid diets. It is concluded that aluminum directly adversely affected bone mineralization whereas acid effects are mediated in part by changes in feed consumption. PMID:9601924

Capdevielle, M C; Hart, L E; Goff, J; Scanes, C G

1998-07-01

268

Hatching Chickens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, from Science NetLinks, is intended to help students realize that they can learn a lot about chickens -and animals in general - through close observation. Students begin the lesson by expressing what they know about chickens in general and then are encouraged to think and talk about how eggs hatch into chicks and the kinds of special things that are needed to care for eggs/chicks.

Science Netlinks;

2003-11-20

269

Addition of the immunostimulatory oligonucleotide IMT504 to a seasonal flu vaccine increases hemagglutinin antibody titers in young adult and elder rats, and expands the anti-hemagglutinin antibody repertoire.  

PubMed

Flu vaccines are partially protective in infants and elder people. New adjuvants such as immunostimulatory oligonucleotides (ODNs) are strong candidates to solve this problem, because a combination with several antigens has demonstrated effectiveness. Here, we report that IMT504, the prototype of a major class of immunostimulatory ODNs, is a potent adjuvant of the influenza vaccine in young adult and elderly rats. Flu vaccines that use virosomes or whole viral particles as antigens were combined with IMT504 and injected in rats. Young adult and elderly animals vaccinated with IMT504-adjuvated preparations reached antibody titers 20-fold and 15-fold higher than controls, respectively. Antibody titers remained high throughout a 120 day-period. Animals injected with the IMT504-adjuvated vaccine showed expansion of the anti-hemagglutinin antibody repertoire and a significant increase in the antibody titer with hemagglutination inhibition capacity when confronted to viral strains included or not in the vaccine. This indicates that the addition of IMT504 in flu vaccines may contribute to the development of significant cross-protective immune response against shifted or drifted flu strains. PMID:21793787

Montaner, Alejandro Daniel; Denichilo, Analía; Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Fló, Juan; López, Ricardo Agustin; Pontoriero, Andrea; Savy, Vilma; Baumeister, Elsa; Frank, Ronald; Zorzopulos, Jorge; Elías, Fernanda

2011-07-05

270

Measles vaccines.  

PubMed

Measles is caused by infection with measles virus (MV), a negative strand RNA virus in the Morbillivirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae family. Measles is a highly infectious disease of humans spread by the respiratory route and characterized by fever and rash. Important complications include secondary infections associated with MV-induced immune suppression and the neurological disease post-infectious encephalomyelitis. The virus was first isolated in 1954 paving the way for development of the vaccines that have played an essential role in decreasing the worldwide morbidity and mortality due to measles. One of the first vaccines was a formalin-inactivated vaccine that provided only short-lived protection from infection and primed for a more severe disease, atypical measles. This vaccine was withdrawn. The other early vaccine was a live attenuated vaccine (LAV) developed by passage of the original isolate of Edmonston virus through cells in culture, primarily chicken cells. LAV was reactogenic and often given along with immune globulin. Further passage of the Edmonston virus resulted in further attenuation and the well-tolerated vaccines in common use today. LAV is generally given between 9 and 15 months of age. Seroconversion at 9 months is about 85% and at 12 months is about 95%. At younger ages seroconversion is hampered by the presence of maternal antibody and the immaturity of the immune system. The R0 (numbers of people in a susceptible population that will be infected by one person with the disease) for MV is 15-20 and interruption of endemic transmission of MV in a population requires that >95% of the population is immune. A second dose is necessary to achieve this level and can be given either as a part of a routine immunization program or through periodic mass vaccination campaigns. Research toward improved measles vaccines has focused on development of a vaccine that could be given before 6 months of age, needle-less delivery and heat stability. Several new recombinant vaccines expressing MV proteins have demonstrated induction of protective immunity in macaques and are in various stages of development. PMID:17981635

Griffin, Diane E; Pan, Chien-Hsiung; Moss, William J

2008-01-01

271

Mean total arsenic concentrations in chicken 1989-2000 and estimated exposures for consumers of chicken.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to estimate mean concentrations of total arsenic in chicken liver tissue and then estimate total and inorganic arsenic ingested by humans through chicken consumption. We used national monitoring data from the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program to estimate mean arsenic concentrations for 1994-2000. Incorporating assumptions about the concentrations of arsenic in liver and muscle tissues as well as the proportions of inorganic and organic arsenic, we then applied the estimates to national chicken consumption data to calculate inorganic, organic, and total arsenic ingested by eating chicken. The mean concentration of total arsenic in young chickens was 0.39 ppm, 3- to 4-fold higher than in other poultry and meat. At mean levels of chicken consumption (60 g/person/day), people may ingest 1.38-5.24 microg/day of inorganic arsenic from chicken alone. At the 99th percentile of chicken consumption (350 g chicken/day), people may ingest 21.13-30.59 microg inorganic arsenic/day and 32.50-47.07 microg total arsenic/day from chicken. These concentrations are higher than previously recognized in chicken, which may necessitate adjustments to estimates of arsenic ingested through diet and may need to be considered when estimating overall exposure to arsenic.

Lasky, Tamar; Sun, Wenyu; Kadry, Abdel; Hoffman, Michael K

2004-01-01

272

Long-lasting immunogenicity of a virosomal vaccine in older children and young adults with type I diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the long-lasting immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a virosomal influenza vaccine in subjects with type I diabetes, a trial was conducted during the 2007–2008 influenza season in Milan, Northern Italy. One hundred five subjects aged 9–30 years were randomized to receive by intramuscular injection vaccination by a single dose (0.5ml) of either a virosomal (Inflexal V®) (n=52) or a

Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti; Andrea Scaramuzza; Sara Riboni; Chiara Mameli; Elena Pariani; Elisabetta Tanzi; Alessandro Zanetti; Giovanni Radaelli

2009-01-01

273

Parental acceptance of the human papillomavirus vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted focus groups and individual interviews to explore parental views on the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Parents were generally positive about the HPV vaccine. Some participants perceived their children were not at risk for acquiring HPV and questioned vaccinating young adolescents against HPV. Vaccine education should target parental beliefs about HPV and the optimal age for HPV vaccine administration.

Elyse Olshen; Elizabeth R. Woods; S. Bryn Austin; Marlise Luskin; Howard Bauchner

2005-01-01

274

Characterization of H9N2 influenza viruses isolated from vaccinated flocks in an integrated broiler chicken operation in eastern China during a 5 year period (1998-2002).  

PubMed

In the current study, we characterized H9N2 influenza viruses isolated from vaccinated flocks in an integrated broiler chicken operation during a 5 year period (1998-2002). Phylogenetic analysis of the 8 genes of 11 representative viruses showed that they all shared high similarity to that of the first isolate, A/Chicken/Shanghai/F/1998 (Ck/SH/F/98), and clustered to the same lineages. Furthermore, all 11 viruses had a 9 nt deletion between positions 206 and 214 of the neuraminidase gene. These genetic characteristics strongly suggest that these viruses are descendants of the first isolate. In addition, our study also showed that the H9N2 viruses circulating in the operation during this 5 year period were evolving, as shown by antigenic variations between viruses manifested by reactivity with polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies, by haemagglutination with erythrocytes from different animals, by amino acid differences in haemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins, and by variation in their ability to replicate in the respiratory and intestinal tract and to be transmitted by aerosol. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the internal genes from some H5N1 viruses of duck origin clustered together with those from H9N2 virus and that the RNP genes of these H5N1 viruses isolated after 2001 are more closely related to the genes of the Ck/SH/F/98-like H9N2 viruses, indicating more recent reassortment events between these two subtypes of viruses. Continuous surveillance of influenza virus in poultry and waterfowl is critical for monitoring the genesis and emergence of potentially pandemic strains in this region. PMID:19008399

Zhang, Pinghu; Tang, Yinghua; Liu, Xiaowen; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Wenbo; Liu, Hongqi; Lu, Shan; Liu, Xiufan

2008-12-01

275

Two doses of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccine: tolerability in healthy young children in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

During the 2009 influenza pandemic, children aged 6 months up to and including 4 years, without chronic illness, were vaccinated with two doses of Pandemrix(®) through mass vaccination in the Netherlands. During the vaccination campaign a warning was issued about fever after the second dose of Pandemrix(®). Therefore, we investigated the tolerability of both doses Pandemrix(®) in these children. Among parents of children eligible for vaccination, 1500 questionnaires were distributed during both, the first and second mass vaccination session. We asked for the occurrence, time interval, and duration of local reactions and systemic adverse events (AEs). The responses were 36.7% and 29.5% after each dose, respectively. Local reactions were reported in 40.4% and 39.3%, most frequently, pain at the injection site. After the first and second dose, 29.6% and 30.7% of all children experienced fever (mean temperature 38.8{degree sign}C). Other systemic AEs were reported in 41.6% and 42.9% of the children. No differences were seen between the first and second dose for all reported AEs except for pallor. One child was hospitalized after the first dose, but a causal relation to the vaccination was considered improbable. In conclusion, fever was frequently reported in children 6 months up to and including 4 years of age after the first and second dose of Pandemrix(®). However, for almost all AEs, including fever, no dose effect was observed. Reported AEs were mostly mild and all were transient. PMID:21957494

van't Klooster, Tessa M; Kemmeren, Jeanet M; de Melker, Hester E; Vermeer-de Bondt, Patricia E; van der Maas, Nicoline A T

2011-10-01

276

Enterococcus hirae, a New Species That Includes Amino Acid Assay Strain NCDO 1258 and Strains Causing Growth Depression in Young Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deoxyribonucleic acid base composition, deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization, lipid, and biochemical studies were performed with Enterococcus faecium NCDO 1258 (= Snell strain R) and other atypical Enferococcus faecium strains from pigs and chickens in an attempt to clarify their taxonomy. Our results indicate that these strains constitute a new species, for which the name Enferococcus hirae sp. nov. is proposed.

JOHN A. E. FARROW; MATTHEW D. COLLINS

1985-01-01

277

9 CFR 113.331 - Bursal Disease Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which...Virus shall be tested for pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test prescribed in...because of a vaccine virus override, the chicken inoculation test prescribed in §...

2013-01-01

278

9 CFR 113.330 - Marek's Disease Vaccines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...shall also be tested for pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test prescribed in...because of a vaccine virus override, the chicken inoculation test prescribed in § 113...Seed Virus shall be nonpathogenic for chickens as determined by the following...

2013-01-01

279

9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed which has...Seed shall be tested for pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test prescribed in...because of a vaccine virus override, the chicken inoculation test prescribed in §...

2013-01-01

280

Protection by attenuated and polyvalent vaccines against highly virulent strains of Marek's disease virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests confirmed that turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vaccine protected chickens poorly against challenge with the highly virulent Md5 strain of Marek's disease (MD) virus, especially in chickens with homologous HVT antibodies. The naturally avirulent SB?1 vaccine virus was likewise poorly protective against challenge with the Md5 strain. Homologous antibodies reduced the protective efficacy of both vaccines, but SB?1 was not affected

R. L. Witter

1982-01-01

281

Administration of a probiotic associated with nasal vaccination with inactivated Lactococcus lactis-PppA induces effective protection against pneumoccocal infection in young mice  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a serious public health problem, especially in developing countries, where available vaccines are not part of the vaccination calendar. We evaluated different respiratory mucosa immunization protocols that included the nasal administration of Lactococcus lactis-pneumococcal protective protein A (PppA) live, inactivated, and in association with a probiotic (Lc) to young mice. The animals that received Lc by the oral and nasal route presented the highest levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG anti-PppA antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) and IgG in serum, which no doubt contributed to the protection against infection. However, only the groups that received the live and inactivated vaccine associated with the oral administration of the probiotic were able to prevent lung colonization by S. pneumoniae serotypes 3 and 14 in a respiratory infection model. This would be related to a preferential stimulation of the T helper type 1 (Th1) cells at local and systemic levels and with a moderate Th2 and Th17 response, shown by the cytokine profile induced in BAL and by the results of the IgG1/IgG2a ratio at local and systemic levels. Nasal immunization with the inactivated recombinant strain associated with oral Lc administration was able to stimulate the specific cellular and humoral immune response and afford protection against the challenge with the two S. pneumoniae serotypes. The results obtained show the probiotic-inactivated vaccine association as a valuable alternative for application to human health, especially in at-risk populations, and are the first report of a safe and effective immunization strategy using an inactivated recombinant strain.

Vintini, E; Villena, J; Alvarez, S; Medina, M

2010-01-01

282

Passive protection of shrimp against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using specific antibody from egg yolk of chickens immunized with inactivated virus or a WSSV-DNA vaccine.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causes high mortality and large economic losses in cultured shrimp. The VP28, VP19 and VP15 genes encode viral structural proteins of WSSV. In this study, hens were immunized with recombinant plasmid (pCI-VP28/VP19/VP15) with linkers or with inactivated WSSV, which used CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) and Freund's adjuvant as adjuvant, respectively. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) from hens immunized with inactivated vaccine and DNA vaccine was obtained, purified and used for protection of Metapenaeus ensis shrimp against WSSV. The data showed that the antibody response of the hens immunized with the DNA vaccine was improved by CpG ODNs as adjuvant, but was still inferior to inactivated WSSV in both sera and egg yolks. Using specific IgY from hens immunized with inactivated WSSV and DNA vaccine to neutralize WSSV, the challenged shrimp showed 73.3% and 33.3% survival, respectively. Thus, the results suggest that passive immunization strategy with IgY will be a valuable method against WSSV infection in shrimp. PMID:18805492

Lu, Yanan; Liu, Junjun; Jin, Liji; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhen, Yuhong; Xue, Hongyu; You, Jiansong; Xu, Yongping

2008-09-04

283

EFFICACY OF AVIAN INFLUENZA-FOWL POX VACCINES, LIVE FOWL POX VECTOR, H7 SUBTYPE, ADMINISTERED TO ONE-DAY-OLD SPF CHICKENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of the study was to determine whether recombinant avian influenza-fowl pox (FP) experimental vaccines, expressing genes (HA, M1 and/or NA) from the three different H7 avian influenza lineages (Eurasian, American and Australian), were able to protect against a highly pathogenic (HP) Avian...

284

Vaccination of fowl with inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine by the respiratory route  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chickens were vaccinated with inactivated Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine by the oculonasal, intratracheal (it) or the aerosol route and immunity was measured by determination of haemagglutinating inhibiting (HI) antibodies and survival following challenge. Dose?response to various vaccination schedules was studied in birds of various ages with or without maternal antibodies.IT application induced a stronger response than oculonasal application. A single

J. H. H. van Eck

1990-01-01

285

Urinary tract diseases revealed after DTP vaccination in infants and young children: cytokine irregularities and down-regulation of cytochrome P-450 enzymes induced by the vaccine may uncover latent diseases in genetically predisposed subjects.  

PubMed

Prophylactic vaccinations may sometimes shorten the incubation period of some illnesses and/or convert a latent infection/inflammation into a clinically apparent disease. Cytokines play a major role in mediating the inflammatory process in various clinical entities and represent a potential source of tissue damage if their production is not sufficiently well controlled. It seems that irregularities in production of proinflammatory cytokines may be responsible for the abnormalities associated with full-blown clinical symptoms of various urinary tract diseases observed after DTP vaccination in 13 infants and young children hospitalized over the past 24 years. On admission, upper respiratory tract diseases, atopic dermatitis, and/or latent urinary tract infection/inflammation were found in these children. It is suggested that the whole-cell pertussis present in DTP vaccine, acting as an excessive stimulus in these patients, produced symptoms reminiscent of biologic responses to circulating proinflammatory monokines such as IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 because earlier it was reported that in vitro the whole-cell vaccine induced significantly more such cytokine production than did the acellular pertussis or diphtheria-tetanus-only vaccine. Analysis of the cellular immune disturbances previously reported in urinary tract infection/inflammation (increased serum and/or urinary IL-1alpha, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6 and IL-8), steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (increased IL-2, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and decreased or increased IL-4, depending on the cells studied), and atopic dermatitis (decreased IFN-gamma and increased IL-4 production), may suggest that similar subclinical chronic cytokine-mediated abnormalities produced in the course of latent diseases revealed in our patients, combined with those caused by DTP vaccination stimulus, were responsible for the pathomechanism of these clinical entities. This speculation is in agreement with the reports on the long-lasting induction of cytokine release and down-regulation of hepatic cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme activities after administration of DTP vaccine to mice and may be supported by the fact that TH1 phenotype is associated with the up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and RANTES, whereas TH2 phenotype is associated with the up-regulation of the vascular cell adhesion molecule and P-selectin, which are key players in the migration into inflamed tissues and localization of lymphocytes and other allergic effector and inflammatory cells. Because several inflammatory cytokines down-regulate gene expression of major cytochrome P-450 and/or other enzymes with the specific effects on mRNA levels, protein expression, and enzyme activity, thus affecting the metabolism of several endogenous lipophilic substances such as steroids, lipid-soluble vitamins, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, and exogenous substances, their irregularities in the body may eventually lead to the flare of latent diseases in some predisposed subjects. Also, interleukin genetic polymorphisms, especially the constellation of TNF-alpha and IL-6 genetic variants, might predispose some infants with infection to a more than usually intense inflammatory response in the kidneys after vaccination. It seems that the aforementioned pathomechanism may also be responsible for some cases of sudden infant death syndrome, which is often preceded by infection/inflammation. PMID:15356430

Prandota, Joseph

286

Revertant Serotype 1 Marek's Disease Vaccine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Marek's disease vaccine comprising either a revertant virus derived by backpassaging an attenuated serotype 1 Md11 virus or an antigenic component of the virus is characterized by increased levels of replicative ability and protectivity in chickens as c...

R. L. Witter

1987-01-01

287

Blood Stage Malaria Vaccine Eliciting High Antigen-Specific Antibody Concentrations Confers No Protection to Young Children in Western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Objective The antigen, falciparum malaria protein 1 (FMP1), represents the 42-kDa C-terminal fragment of merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) of the 3D7 clone of P. falciparum. Formulated with AS02 (a proprietary Adjuvant System), it constitutes the FMP1/AS02 candidate malaria vaccine. We evaluated this vaccine's safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy in African children. Methods A randomised, double-blind, Phase IIb, comparator-controlled trial.The trial was conducted in 13 field stations of one mile radii within Kombewa Division, Nyanza Province, Western Kenya, an area of holoendemic transmission of P. falciparum. We enrolled 400 children aged 12–47 months in general good health.Children were randomised in a 1?1 fashion to receive either FMP1/AS02 (50 µg) or Rabipur® rabies vaccine. Vaccinations were administered on a 0, 1, and 2 month schedule. The primary study endpoint was time to first clinical episode of P. falciparum malaria (temperature ?37.5°C with asexual parasitaemia of ?50,000 parasites/µL of blood) occurring between 14 days and six months after a third dose. Case detection was both active and passive. Safety and immunogenicity were evaluated for eight months after first immunisations; vaccine efficacy (VE) was measured over a six-month period following third vaccinations. Results 374 of 400 children received all three doses and completed six months of follow-up. FMP1/AS02 had a good safety profile and was well-tolerated but more reactogenic than the comparator. Geometric mean anti-MSP-142 antibody concentrations increased from1.3 µg/mL to 27.3 µg/mL in the FMP1/AS02 recipients, but were unchanged in controls. 97 children in the FMP1/AS02 group and 98 controls had a primary endpoint episode. Overall VE was 5.1% (95% CI: ?26% to +28%; p-value?=?0.7). Conclusions FMP1/AS02 is not a promising candidate for further development as a monovalent malaria vaccine. Future MSP-142 vaccine development should focus on other formulations and antigen constructs. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00223990

Ogutu, Bernhards R.; Apollo, Odika J.; McKinney, Denise; Okoth, Willis; Siangla, Joram; Dubovsky, Filip; Tucker, Kathryn; Waitumbi, John N.; Diggs, Carter; Wittes, Janet; Malkin, Elissa; Leach, Amanda; Soisson, Lorraine A.; Milman, Jessica B.; Otieno, Lucas; Holland, Carolyn A.; Polhemus, Mark; Remich, Shon A.; Ockenhouse, Christian F.; Cohen, Joe; Ballou, W. Ripley; Martin, Samuel K.; Angov, Evelina; Stewart, V. Ann; Lyon, Jeffrey A.; Heppner, D. Gray; Withers, Mark R.

2009-01-01

288

Effect of Dietary Mannan Oligosaccharide (Bio-Mos) on Live Performance of Broiler Chickens Given an Anticoccidial Vaccine (Paracox) Followed by a Mild Coccidial Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A pen trial with 720 Ross 308 male chicks evaluated effects of Paracox-5 vaccination at d 1, dietary mannan oligosaccharide (MOS; Bio-Mos at 2, 1, and 0.5 kg\\/tonne in starter, grower, and finisher, respectively), and d-15 Eimeria challenge on d-22 lesions and 1 to 42-d live performance. Available floor area in each of 24 floor pens was 2.1 m2,

L. Nollet; G. Huyghebaert; P. Spring

289

WSSV ie1 promoter is more efficient than CMV promoter to express H5 hemagglutinin from influenza virus in baculovirus as a chicken vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The worldwide outbreak of influenza A (H5N1) viruses among poultry species and humans highlighted the need to develop efficacious and safe vaccines based on efficient and scaleable production. RESULTS: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) immediate-early promoter one (ie1) was shown to be a stronger promoter for gene expression in insect cells compared with Cytomegalovirus immediate-early (CMV) promoter in luciferase

Fang He; YuenFern Ho; Li Yu; Jimmy Kwang

2008-01-01

290

Serological examination of sera from hyperimmunized chickens and turkeys  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Detection of avian influenza (AI) H5 and H7 antibody in commercial poultry is a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) notifiable event and impacts trade. Chickens and turkeys which had been vaccinated with an oil-emulsion H1N1/H3N2 influenza autogenous vaccine were inoculated with inactivated ...

291

How to Inform: Comparing Written and Video Education Interventions to Increase Human Papillomavirus Knowledge and Vaccination Intentions in Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To compare the efficacy of 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) educational interventions on increasing HPV knowledge and vaccination intentions in college students. Participants: Male (n = 60) and female (n = 140) undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 20.4, SD = 2.3) recruited from a university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from October 2009 to…

Krawczyk, Andrea; Lau, Elsa; Perez, Samara; Delisle, Vanessa; Amsel, Rhonda; Rosberger, Zeev

2012-01-01

292

Predicting human papillomavirus vaccine uptake in young adult women: Comparing the Health Belief Model and Theory of Planned Behavior  

PubMed Central

Background Although theories of health behavior have guided thousands of studies, relatively few studies have compared these theories against one another. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to compare two classic theories of health behavior—the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)—in their prediction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Methods After watching a gain-framed, loss-framed, or control video, women (N=739) ages 18–26 completed a survey assessing HBM and TPB constructs. HPV vaccine uptake was assessed ten months later. Results Although the message framing intervention had no effect on vaccine uptake, support was observed for both the TPB and HBM. Nevertheless, the TPB consistently outperformed the HBM. Key predictors of uptake included subjective norms, self-efficacy, and vaccine cost. Conclusions Despite the observed advantage of the TPB, findings revealed considerable overlap between the two theories and highlighted the importance of proximal versus distal predictors of health behavior.

Gerend, Mary A.; Shepherd, Janet E.

2012-01-01

293

How to Inform: Comparing Written and Video Education Interventions to Increase Human Papillomavirus Knowledge and Vaccination Intentions in Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the efficacy of two Human Papillomavirus (HPV) educational interventions on increasing HPV knowledge and vaccination intentions in college students. Participants: Male (n = 60) and female (n = 140) undergraduates (Mage = 20.4, SD = 2.3) recruited from a university in Montreal Canada, from October 2009-March 2010. Methods: Using theory based interventions, participants were randomly assigned to

Andrea Krawczyk; Elsa Lau; Samara Perez; Vanessa Delisle; Rhonda Amsel; Zeev Rosberger

2012-01-01

294

Adjuvanted influenza vaccines.  

PubMed

Influenza is one of the most common causes of human morbidity and mortality that is preventable by vaccination. Immunization with available vaccines provides incomplete protection against illness caused by influenza virus, especially in high-risk groups such as the elderly and young children. Thus, more efficacious vaccines are needed for the entire population, and all the more so for high-risk groups. One way to improve immune responses and protection is to formulate the vaccine with antigen carriers and/or adjuvants, which can play an important role in improving immune responses and delivery to antigen-presenting cells, especially for a vaccine like influenza that is based on protein antigens usually administered without a carrier or adjuvant. In this review, the authors present an overview of available vaccines, focusing on research and development of new adjuvants used in influenza vaccines, as well as adjuvanted influenza vaccines aimed to improve immune responses, protection and breadth of coverage for influenza. PMID:24053401

Even-Or, Orli; Samira, Sarit; Ellis, Ronald; Kedar, Eli; Barenholz, Yechezkel

2013-09-01

295

Transgenic chickens.  

PubMed

The development of transgenic chicken technology has lagged far behind that of mammalian species. Two reasons for this are that only a one-cell-stage oocyte can be obtained from a sacrificed hen and that the yolk prevents high-magnification microscopic observation of oocytes. Recently, several new methods have been developed that will enable the successful establishment of transgenic chickens. Retroviral vectors are used in many cases because of their ability to incorporate transgenes into host cell chromosomes in a highly efficient manner. These viral vectors are injected directly into the embryos, usually at the blastodermal stage. In some cases, primordial germ cells (PGCs) are infected in vitro and then implanted into recipient embryos. Methods that do not rely on retroviral vectors are also available for creating transgenic chickens. Long-term culture of PGCs permits the selection of stably transfected cells and implantation of the manipulated PGCs. In addition, embryonic stem (ES) cell systems are available; however, the induction of functional gametes from ES cells has not, to our knowledge, been successful. It is clear that recent developments suggest that chickens may be used as a valuable experimental genetic system. PMID:23278121

Nishijima, Ken-ichi; Iijima, Shinji

2012-12-26

296

Sexual behaviour and risk factors for the acquisition of human papillomavirus infections in young people in Italy: suggestions for future vaccination policies  

PubMed Central

Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection. The main risk factors correlated with HPV infection are: early sexual debut, the number of partners, frequency and type of sexual contact and partner’s sexual histories. We surveyed sexual habits among young people in order to provide information that might orient decision-makers in adopting HPV multi-cohort vaccination policies. Methods We administered a questionnaire to students (14–24?years old) in five Italian cities. Results 7298 questionnaires were analyzed (4962 females and 2336 males); 55.3% of females (95% CI 53.9–56.7) and 52.5% of males (95% CI 50.5–54.5) reported regular sexual activity. The mean age at sexual debut was 15.7?±?1.6 and 15.6?±?1.6 for females and males, respectively, and the median age was 16 for both sexes. With regard to contraceptive use during the last year, 63.6% of males and 62.8% of females responded affirmatively; 42.6% of males and 42.8% of females used condoms. Conclusion The results reveal precocious sexual activity among respondents, with the mean age at first intercourse declining as age decreases. Condom use proved to be scant. Considering lifestyle-related risk factors, males appear to have a higher probability of acquiring HPV infection than females. These data support the importance of promoting multi-cohort HPV vaccination strategies for females up to 25?years of age. It is essential to improve vaccination coverage through different broad-spectrum strategies, including campaigns to increase awareness of sexually transmitted diseases and their prevention.

2012-01-01

297

Effects of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D-Conjugate Vaccine on Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Colonization in Young Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background.?This study evaluated the effects of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D–conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization compared with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) in young children. Methods.?A randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands, initiated 2 years after 7vCRM introduction, was conducted between 1 April 2008 and 1 December 2010. Infants (N = 780) received either PHiD-CV or 7vCRM (2:1) at 2, 3, 4, and 11–13 months of age. Nasopharyngeal samples taken at 5, 11, 14, 18, and 24 months of age were cultured to detect Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Polymerase chain reaction assays quantified H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae and confirmed H. influenzae as nontypeable (NTHi). Primary outcome measure was vaccine efficacy (VE) against NTHi colonization. Results.?In both groups, NTHi colonization increased with age from 33% in 5-month-olds to 65% in 24-month-olds. Three months postbooster, VE against colonization was 0.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], ?21.8% to 18.4%) and VE against acquisition 10.9% (95% CI, ?31.3% to 38.9%). At each sampling moment, no differences between groups in either NTHi prevalence or H. influenzae density were detected. Streptococcus pneumoniae (range, 39%–57%), M. catarrhalis (range, 63%­–69%), and S. aureus (range, 9%–30%) colonization patterns were similar between groups. Conclusions.?PHiD-CV had no differential effect on nasopharyngeal NTHi colonization or H. influenzae density in healthy Dutch children up to 2 years of age, implying that herd effects for NTHi are not to be expected. Other bacterial colonization patterns were also similar. Clinical Trials Registration?NCT00652951.

van den Bergh, Menno R.; Spijkerman, Judith; Swinnen, Kristien M.; Francois, Nancy A.; Pascal, Thierry G.; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode; IJzerman, Ed P. F.; Bruin, Jacob P.; van der Ende, Arie; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.

2013-01-01

298

Pneumococcal Carriage in Young Children One Year after Introduction of the 13-Valent Conjugate Vaccine in Italy  

PubMed Central

Background In mid 2010, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was replaced by the 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) for childhood immunization in Italy. Our objective in this study was to obtain a snapshot of pneumococcal carriage frequency, colonizing serotypes, and antibiotic resistance in healthy children in two Italian cities one year after PCV13 was introduced. Methods Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 571 children aged 0-5 years from November 2011-April 2012. Pneumococcal isolates were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Penicillin and/or erythromycin non-susceptible isolates were analyzed by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Results Among the children examined, 81.2% had received at least one dose of PCV7 or PCV13 and 74.9% had completed the recommended vaccination schedule for their age. Among the latter, 57.3% of children had received PCV7, 27.1% PCV13, and 15.6% a combination of the two vaccines. The overall carriage rate was 32.9%, with children aged 6-35 months the most prone to pneumococcal colonization (6-23 months OR: 3.75; 95% CI: 2.19-6.43 and 24-35 months OR: 3.15, 95%CI: 2.36-4.22). A total of 184 pneumococcal isolates were serotyped and divided into PCV7 (5.4%), PCV13 (18.0%), and non-PCV13 (82.0%) serotypes. Serotypes 6C, 24F, and 19A were the most prevalent (10.3%, 8.6%, and 8.1%, respectively). The proportion of penicillin non-susceptible (MIC >0.6 mg/L) isolates was 30.9%, while 42.3% were erythromycin resistant. Non-PCV13 serotypes accounted for 75.4% and 70.8% of the penicillin and erythromycin non-susceptible isolates, respectively. Conclusions Our results revealed low rates of PCV7 and PCV13 serotypes in Italian children, potentially due to the effects of vaccination. As the use of PCV13 continues, its potential impact on vaccine serotypes such as 19A and cross-reactive serotypes such as 6C will be assessed, with this study providing a baseline for further analysis of surveillance isolates.

Camilli, Romina; Daprai, Laura; Cavrini, Francesca; Lombardo, Donatella; D'Ambrosio, Fabio; Del Grosso, Maria; Vescio, Maria Fenicia; Landini, Maria Paola; Pascucci, Maria Grazia; Torresani, Erminio; Garlaschi, Maria Laura; Sambri, Vittorio; Pantosti, Annalisa

2013-01-01

299

A subunit vaccine candidate derived from a classic H5N1 avian influenza virus in China protects fowls and BALB/c mice from lethal challenge.  

PubMed

In recent years, numerous human infections with avian influenza viruses in Asia have raised the concern that the next influenza pandemic is imminent. The most effective way to combat human avian influenza is through vaccination of the public. In this study, we developed an influenza A recombinant protein (rH5HA) directed against the hemagglutinin (HA) of a classic H5N1 high pathogenic avian influenza virus isolated in South China in 1996. Following purification of the recombinant protein expressed from a baculovirus expression system, we evaluated the efficiency of rH5HA on specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken, commercial chicken, and in BALB/c mice in an infection-protection model. The results demonstrated that rH5HA induced antibody responses and provided full protection in both SPF chickens and commercial chickens. Protective immunity was generated within 2 weeks in chickens as young as 7-day post-hatch using a minimum amount of rH5HA protein (2?g/bird/vaccination). The serum antibody generated from rH5HA immunization was protective and lasted more than 6 months. Our data also demonstrated that rH5HA immunization protected BALB/c mice from a lethal challenge with pathogenic avian influenza virus. These results suggested that vaccination with rH5HA could be a vaccine candidate for the control of H5N1 avian influenza in poultry, in mice, and potentially in other mammals including human. PMID:24055355

Liu, Guangliang; Zhang, Fangfang; Shi, Jianzhong; Tian, Guobing; Chen, Hualan; Yu, Kangzheng; Meng, Qingwen

2013-09-19

300

Lack of effect of vaccination with an attenuated infectious bursal disease virus on the immune response to newcastle disease vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccination at either 1, 7 or 15 days of age with an attenuated strain (vaccinal strain 1–65 PV) of infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus did not suppress the immune response to Newcastle disease vaccination.These results suggest that vaccination of chickens against IBD with vaccinal strain 1–65 PV does not damage the bird's lymphoid tissues and consequently its immunological capabilities against

A. Zanella; A. Peli; G. Castelli; N. Mambelli

1977-01-01

301

Assessment of cross?immunity dm chickens to strains of avian infectious bronchitis virus using tracheal organ cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described of assessing cross?immunity in chickens afforded by strains of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), by observing the presence or absence of ciliary activity in tracheal explants prepared from chickens following challenge.Chickens inoculated with the H120 vaccine strain were challenged intra?tracheally 3 weeks later with the homologous strain or one of seven hetero?logous strains of IBV. Vaccinated

J. H. Darbyshire

1980-01-01

302

Effects of chicken anemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus in commercial chickens.  

PubMed

The effects of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) coinfection in commercial layer-type and meat-type (broiler) chickens with specific maternal immunity were evaluated. In addition, the broiler progeny used had been vaccinated in ovo against IBDV. Layer chickens were inoculated intramuscularly on day 3 of age with CAV and orally on day 7 of age with an IBDV standard strain (APHIS). Broiler chickens were exposed to CAV and/or an IBDV variant strain (AL2) via the drinking water on days 3 and 14 of age. Following CAV and IBDV inoculation neither mortality nor overt clinical disease was observed in any layer or broiler group. In spite of maternal immunity against both IBDV and CAV, mean hematocrits of all layer groups inoculated with CAV (CAV, CAV + APHIS) were lower than uninfected chickens. IBDV APHIS alone or in combination with CAV did not affect the layer weight gain. However, on day 30 of age and concomitantly with maternal antibody decay, bursa lymphocyte depletion became evident in CAV + APHIS-infected layer chickens. These birds (CAV + APHIS) also seroconverted to IBDV on day 35 of age. CAV persisted at low levels in the layer chickens throughout the experimental period in CAV- and CAV+APHIS-infected chickens. Similarly, infected broiler chickens did not show changes in weight gain. Compared to CAV-infected or uninfected controls, CAV+AL2- and AL2-infected broiler chickens showed significant lymphocyte depletion in the bursa as assessed both by bursal indices and histomorphometry. Broilers also seroconverted to IBDV after day 30 of age confirming that bursal lymphocyte depletion was due to IBDV resuming replication. Thymus histomorphometry revealed significant lymphocyte depletion in all infected broiler groups at 30 days of age, but only in CAV+AL2-infected broiler chickens at 41 days of age, suggesting that IBDV infection delayed repopulation of the thymus. PMID:19432010

Toro, H; van Santen, V L; Hoerr, F J; Breedlove, C

2009-03-01

303

Qualitative map of Salmonella contamination on the chicken carcass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salmonella contamination of poultry is a global public health problem. The objective of this study was to map the distribution of Salmonella on the chicken carcass for the purpose of improving poultry inspection and food safety. Young chickens (n = 70) in the Cornish game hen class were obtained a...

304

Prevention of haemorrhagic septicaemia in buffaloes and cattle with a live vaccine.  

PubMed

Young cattle and buffaloes were vaccinated subcutaneously and intradermally with a live vaccine containing Pasteurella multocida serotype B:3,4. Twelve months after vaccination three of five young cattle in the subcutaneously vaccinated group and three of four in the intradermally vaccinated group were protected against serotype B:2 challenge. Eleven buffaloes vaccinated subcutaneously and two vaccinated intradermally survived the same challenge 13 months after vaccination. PMID:2502878

Myint, A; Carter, G R

1989-05-13

305

Rotavirus Vaccines  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Rotavirus Vaccines. -. RotaTeq (Rotavirus Vaccine) Questions and Answers; RotaTeq (Rotavirus Vaccine) and Intussusception Information. -. -. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines/questionsaboutvaccines

306

Brachial plexus neuritis following HPV vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a 19-year-old girl who developed a left brachial plexus neuritis following vaccination with a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Post-vaccination brachial plexus neuritis is a rare event. Nevertheless, this first case warrants careful attention in view of the large vaccination campaigns in young adolescents being launched all over the world.

Ph. Debeer; P. De Munter; F. Bruyninckx; R. Devlieger

2008-01-01

307

Immunity to Varicella Zoster Virus Among Young Adults: A Decline Prior to Widespread Uptake of Varicella Vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:  The epidemiology of chickenpox in Israel is changing, mainly due to the increasing – but not universal – uptake of varicella\\u000a vaccine.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods:  We conducted a seroprevalence study of varicella zoster virus (VZV) antibodies among 536 Israeli military recruits 18 years\\u000a of age, on the basis of a representative sample of sera collected in 2003.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results:  The overall seroprevalence rate

I. Grotto; R. D. Balicer; Z. Smetana; N. Davidovitch; Y. Bar-Zeev; E. Mendelson; S. Zarka; M. Huerta

2008-01-01

308

DNA vaccination against infectious bursal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this thesis was to explore the feasibility of using DNA vaccination technology against infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus (IBDV) infection in chickens. The objectives were to (1) construct plasmids as DNA vaccines against homologous challenge with classical standard challenge (STC) strain of IBDV; (2) construct plasmids containing different fragments of IBDV large segment genome to identify the

Hua-Chen Chang

2000-01-01

309

Vaccination against Marek's disease: Immunizing effect of purified turkey herpes virus and cellular membranes from infected cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-day-old chickens susceptible to Marek's disease were vaccinated with experimental vaccines prepared from purified turkey herpes virus (HVT), inactivated HVT preparations or a membrane fraction isolated from HTV-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts, respectively. Purified HVT was found to be as effective in immunization against Marek's disease as cell-associated virus. The specific mortality of chickens twice vaccinated with cellular membranes from HVT-infected

O.-R. Kaaden; B. Dietzschold; S. UeberschÄr

1974-01-01

310

Rotavirus vaccines: an overview.  

PubMed Central

Rotavirus vaccine development has focused on the delivery of live attenuated rotavirus strains by the oral route. The initial "Jennerian" approach involving bovine (RIT4237, WC3) or rhesus (RRV) rotavirus vaccine candidates showed that these vaccines were safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic but induced highly variable rates of protection against rotavirus diarrhea. The goal of a rotavirus vaccine is to prevent severe illness that can lead to dehydration in infants and young children in both developed and developing countries. These studies led to the concept that a multivalent vaccine that represented each of the four epidemiologically important VP7 serotypes might be necessary to induce protection in young infants, the target population for vaccination. Human-animal rotavirus reassortants whose gene encoding VP7 was derived from their human rotavirus parent but whose remaining genes were derived from the animal rotavirus parent were developed as vaccine candidates. The greatest experience with a multivalent vaccine to date has been gained with the quadrivalent preparation containing RRV (VP7 serotype 3) and human-RRV reassortants of VP7 serotype 1, 2, and 4 specificity. Preliminary efficacy trial results in the United States have been promising, whereas a study in Peru has shown only limited protection. Human-bovine reassortant vaccines, including a candidate that contains the VP4 gene of a human rotavirus (VP4 serotype 1A), are also being studied.

Midthun, K; Kapikian, A Z

1996-01-01

311

Serotype 2 Marek's Disease Vaccine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A serotype 2 Marek's disease vaccine comprising a cloned strain designated as 301B/1 has been derived from a field isolate. This strain is characterized by superior levels of replicative ability and protectivity in chickens as compared to existing commerc...

R. L. Witter

1987-01-01

312

The association between life events, social support, and antibody status following thymus-dependent and thymus-independent vaccinations in healthy young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined whether stressful life events and social support were related to antibody status following both thymus-dependent and thymus-independent vaccinations. Life events in the previous year and customary social support were measured in 57 healthy students at baseline. Antibody status was also assessed at baseline and at five weeks and five months following vaccination with the trivalent influenza vaccine

Anna C. Phillips; Victoria E. Burns; Douglas Carroll; Christopher Ring; Mark Drayson

2005-01-01

313

A serological survey of domestic poultry in the united kingdom for antibody to chicken anaemia agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serological survey for antibody to chicken anaemia agent (CAA) was carried out by indirect immunofluorescence. Antibody to CAA was widespread in broiler breeders and in parent and commercial layers in the UK. Antibody to CAA was also detected in five of 11 specific pathogen?free (SPF) chicken flocks tested; positive flocks included those being used for vaccine production or as

M. S. McNulty; T. J. Connor; F. McNeilly; K. S. Kirkpatrick; J. B. McFerran

1988-01-01

314

Long-Term Immunogenicity after One and Two Doses of a Monovalent MF59-Adjuvanted A/H1N1 Influenza Virus Vaccine Coadministered with the Seasonal 2009-2010 Nonadjuvanted Influenza Virus Vaccine in HIV-Infected Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial?  

PubMed Central

Few data are available on the safety and long-term immunogenicity of A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccines for HIV-infected pediatric patients. We performed a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the safety and long-term immunogenicity of 1 versus 2 doses of the 2009 monovalent pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine (PV) coadministered with the seasonal 2009-2010 trivalent nonadjuvanted influenza vaccine (SV) to HIV-infected children, adolescents, and young adults. A total of 66 HIV-infected patients aged 9 to 26 years were randomized to receive one (group 1) or two (group 2) doses of PV coadministered with 1 dose of SV. The main outcome was the seroconversion rate for PV at 1 month. Secondary outcomes were the geometric mean titer ratios and the seroprotection rates at 1 month for all vaccines, seroconversion rates at 1 month for SV, and longitudinal changes of antibody titers (ABTs) at 1, 2, 6, and 12 months for all vaccines. Groups 1 and 2 had similar CD4 counts and HIV RNA levels during the study. The seroconversion rate for PV was 100% at 1 month in both groups. ABTs for PV were high during the first 6 months and declined below seroprotection levels thereafter. Longitudinal changes in ABTs were similar in groups 1 and 2 for both PV and SV. The side effects of vaccination were mild and mostly local. In HIV-infected children, adolescents, and young adults, the immune response triggered by a single dose of PV was similar to that obtained with a double dose and was associated with long-term antibody response.

Vigano, Alessandra; Giacomet, Vania; Pariani, Elena; Giani, Elisa; Manfredini, Valeria; Bedogni, Giorgio; Erba, Paola; Amendola, Antonella; Zanetti, Alessandro; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo

2011-01-01

315

Safety and Immunogenicity of Human Papillomavirus-16/18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine: A Randomized Trial in 10-25-Year-Old HIV-Seronegative African Girls and Young Women  

PubMed Central

Background.?Cervical cancer is a major public health problem for women in sub-Saharan Africa. Availability of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine could have an important public health impact. Methods.?In this phase IIIb, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial (NCT00481767), healthy African girls and young women seronegative for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were stratified by age (10–14 or 15–25 years) and randomized (2:1) to receive either HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (n = 450) or placebo (n = 226) at 0, 1, and 6 months. The primary objective was to evaluate HPV-16/18 antibody responses at month 7. Seropositivity rates and corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results.?In the according-to-protocol analysis at month 7, 100% of initially seronegative participants in the vaccine group were seropositive for both anti–HPV-16 and anti–HPV-18 antibodies (n = 130 and n = 128 for 10–14-year-olds, respectively; n = 190 and n = 212 for 15–25-year-olds). GMTs for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were higher in 10–14-year-olds (18 423 [95% confidence interval, 16 185–20 970] and 6487 [5590–7529] enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units (EU)/mL, respectively) than in 15–25-year-olds (10 683 [9567–11 930] and 3743 [3400–4120] EU/mL, respectively). Seropositivity was maintained at month 12. No participant withdrew owing to adverse events. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions.?The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine was highly immunogenic and had a clinically acceptable safety profile when administered to healthy HIV-seronegative African girls and young women.

Sow, Papa Salif; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Kiviat, Nancy; Changalucha, John; Mbaye, Khardiata Diallo; Brown, Joelle; Bousso, Kouro; Kavishe, Bazil; Andreasen, Aura; Toure, Macoumba; Kapiga, Saidi; Mayaud, Philippe; Hayes, Richard; Lebacq, Marie; Herazeh, Marjan; Thomas, Florence; Descamps, Dominique

2013-01-01

316

Application of a new bivalent Marek's disease vaccine does not interfere with infectious bronchitis or Newcastle disease vaccinations and proves efficacious.  

PubMed

A possible interference after Marek's disease (MD) vaccination using an experimental bivalent vaccine, consisting of a redesigned CVI-988/Rispens-type MDV-1 strain and herpesvirus of turkeys, with vaccination against infectious bronchitis (IB) virus (IBV) or Newcastle disease (ND) virus (NDV) was examined. Day-old specific-pathogen-free chicks were concomitantly vaccinated with the bivalent MD vaccine (either intramuscularly or subcutaneously) and with commercially available vaccines against ND or IB. Afterward chickens were challenged with either lethal MD virus (MDV) or NDV strains or with a pathogenic IBV strain. After challenge, neither mortality nor notable clinical signs of MD, ND, or IB were observed in the vaccinated birds. The experimental bivalent MDV vaccine proved efficacious against lethal MDV challenge and did not affect the efficacy of the NDV or IBV vaccines. In conclusion, no signs of interference or adverse effects were detected. Thus, the vaccines can be administered concomitantly on chickens' first day of life. PMID:23901767

Rahaus, Markus; Augustinski, Karsten; Castells, Marc; Desloges, Nathalie

2013-06-01

317

Protease activation mutants elicit protective immunity against highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype H7 in chickens and mice  

PubMed Central

Protease activation mutants of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/FPV/Rostock/34 (H7N1) have been generated that are fully dependent on the presence of trypsin for growth in cell culture. Unlike wild-type virus, the mutants do not induce systemic infection in chicken embryos and show low pathogenicity in both chicken embryos and adult chickens. Inactivated vaccines prepared from the mutants protected chickens and mice very efficiently against infection with highly pathogenic wild-type virus in a cross-reactive manner. The potential of these mutants to be used as veterinary and prepandemic vaccines will be discussed.

Wagner, Ralf; Gabriel, Gulsah; Schlesner, Matthias; Alex, Nina; Herwig, Astrid; Werner, Ortrud; Klenk, Hans-Dieter

2013-01-01

318

Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of infectious bursal disease viruses isolated from chicken in South China in 2011.  

PubMed

Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a double-stranded RNA virus that causes immunosuppressive disease in young chickens. Thousands of cases of IBDV infection are reported each year in South China, and these infections can result in considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. To monitor variations of the virus during the outbreaks, 30 IBDVs were identified from vaccinated chicken flocks from nine provinces in South China in 2011. VP2 fragments from different virus strains were sequenced and analyzed by comparison with the published sequences of IBDV strains from China and around the world. Phylogenetic analysis of hypervariable regions of the VP2 (vVP2) gene showed that 29 of the isolates were very virulent (vv) IBDVs, and were closely related to vvIBDV strains from Europe and Asia. Alignment analysis of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of vVP2 showed the 29 vv isolates had high uniformity, indicated low variability and slow evolution of the virus. The non-vvIBDV isolate JX2-11 was associated with higher than expected mortality, and had high deduced aa sequence similarity (99.2 %) with the attenuated vaccine strain B87 (BJ). The present study has demonstrated the continued circulation of IBDV strains in South China, and emphasizes the importance of reinforcing IBDV surveillance. PMID:23212841

Liu, Di; Zhang, Xiang-Bin; Yan, Zhuan-Qiang; Chen, Feng; Ji, Jun; Qin, Jian-Ping; Li, Hai-Yan; Lu, Jun-Peng; Xue, Yu; Liu, Jia-Jia; Xie, Qing-Mei; Ma, Jing-Yun; Xue, Chun-Yi; Bee, Ying-Zuo

2012-12-02

319

Enhancement of natural killer cell activity by Marek's disease vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccination against Marek's disease with herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) has been reported to cause increased natural killer (NK) cell activity as detected in vitro against LSCC?RP9 target cells. The effect of vaccination with SB?1 (a nononcogenic chicken herpesvirus), HVT and the HVT\\/SB?1 combination on NK cell activation was compared in Marek's disease susceptible (P?2) and resistant (N?2) chickens. Birds were

E. D. Heller; K. A. Schat

1987-01-01

320

Chicken soup and sickness  

MedlinePLUS

Chicken soup, a popular home remedy for the common cold since at least the 12th century, may really ... chicken soup reduce the inflammation associated with the common cold, thus providing some relief of symptoms. Although researchers ...

321

The recent progress in RSV vaccine technology.  

PubMed

The most effective way to control RSV infection would be the development of an expedient and safe vaccine. Subunit vaccines, live attenuated RSV vaccines, plasmid DNA vaccines have been tested either in human or in mouse models without reaching the ultimate goal of efficacy and safety, at least in humans. Viruses such as adenovirus, sendai virus, measles virus were also used as vectors for the generation of RSV vaccines with promising results in animal models. Recent patents describe new techniques for the generation of candidate vaccines. These patents include virus like particles as vaccine platforms, recombinant RSVs or modified RSV F protein as component of the vaccine. Despite the number of the candidate vaccines, the new RSV vaccines should overcome many obstacles before being established as effective vaccines for the control of RSV infections especially for the young infants who are more susceptible to the virus. PMID:23072645

Fretzayas, Andrew; Papadopoulou, Anna; Kotzia, Doxa; Moustaki, Maria

2012-12-01

322

Development and Evaluation of an in ovo Plasmid DNA Vaccine Against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) is a highly contagious disease of chickens, which is controlled by live and inactivated vaccines. In this study, we evaluated a novel approach to vaccinate chickens against IBDV using DNA vaccinology. Plasmid DNA was administered in ovo to 18-day-old embryos. The DNA vaccine expresses the polyprotein VP2-VP4-VP3 of IBDV. The VP2 gene expresses epitopes of

L. Moura; M. Liu; V. N. Vakharia

2007-01-01

323

Assessment of methodological quality and sources of variation in the magnitude of vaccine efficacy: A systematic review of studies from 1960 to 2005 reporting immunization with Moraxella bovis vaccines in young cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review was conducted of all identified literature evaluating Moraxella bovis vaccines efficacy in preventing pinkeye in beef calves. From 292 publications identified by the search, data on 123 unique vaccine-to-control comparisons were extracted from 38 studies published in English from 1960 to 2005. Descriptive analysis was performed and an analysis of sources of variation evaluated. Use of methods to

M. J. Burns; A. M. O’Connor

2008-01-01

324

Typhoid Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

... around the world and kills about 200,000. Typhoid vaccine can prevent typhoid. ... Who should get typhoid vaccine and when?Routine typhoid vaccination is not recommended in the United States, but typhoid vaccine is recommended for: Travelers ...

325

Detection of infectious bursal disease virus in various lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected specific pathogen free chickens by different reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays.  

PubMed

Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a worldwide distributed immunosuppressive viral disease in young chickens, controlled by vaccination. Emergence of several strains of IBD virus (IBDV) has created a demand for strain-specific diagnostic tools. In the present experiment, five different reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, including two recently developed strain-specific assays, were employed for detection of ribonucleic acid (RNA) from three different IBDV strains in bursa tissue samples from experimentally infected specific pathogen free chickens. The virus strains included vaccine strain D78, classical strain Faragher 52/70, and the very virulent Danish strain DK01. The presence of the virus infection was confirmed by histopathologic evaluation of bursa lesions. The largest number of positive samples was obtained with a strain-specific two-step multiplex (MPX) RT-PCR assay based on iScript enzyme, and the commercially available Qiagen one-step RT-PCR. Between these methods, agreement was obtained for 57 of 59 samples. Because the Qiagen one-step RT-PCR assay was suggested as the more sensitive of these two assays, it was used for detection of IBDV in bone marrow, spleen, thymus, and cecal tonsils from experimentally infected chickens. The identity of the virus strains involved was confirmed by MPX RT-PCR. In conclusion, the MPX RT-PCR represented a reliable assay for detection and differentiation of IBDV strains in selected lymphoid tissues of chickens. All three of the IBDV strains used were detected in bursa tissues, whereas only the two virulent strains were detected in bone marrow, spleen, and thymus. PMID:16404995

Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt J; Kusk, Mette; Bisgaard, Magne

2005-12-01

326

Antibody responses in ostriches (Struthio camelus) vaccinated with commercial live and killed Newcastle disease vaccines.  

PubMed

Three ostriches (Struthio camelus) were immunized with commercially available live and killed Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines for chickens and the antibody responses to the ND vaccines were evaluated by a virus-neutralization (VN) test. Primary vaccination with the live vaccine, B1, by eye drop was followed with two shots of alum-precipitated killed vaccine via subcutaneous injection in the neck. As a final booster, another live vaccine, Clone 30, was used by eye drop. A VN antibody titer, more than 1:10 was observed for 6 months. This is the first report on the use of a live vaccine by eye drop as a booster in ostriches as well as evaluating responses to ND vaccines using the VN test in this avian species. PMID:16820723

Sakai, Kouji; Sakabe, Genki; Tani, Orie; Nakamura, Masayuki; Takehara, Kazuaki

2006-06-01

327

Clinical Evaluation of Influenza Virus Vaccines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty young adult volunteers were given live temperature-sensitive mutant recombinant influenza virus vaccine (Flu A/Udorn/307/72 X TS-1 E) by coarse drops in the nose. The vaccine was safe and well tolerated. Vaccine virus was shed by seven volunteers. ...

J. M. Gwaltney J. O. Hendley

1974-01-01

328

The clinical effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Randomized controlled trials have shown that pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is efficacious in preventing pneumococcal bacteraemia and pneumococcal pneumonia in young adults. Clinical trials in older adults, however, have been inconclusive, usually because the studies have been too small. Retrospective studies have shown that pneumococcal vaccination is approximately 50–80% effective in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease among older persons. Vaccination in this

David S Fedson

1999-01-01

329

Immunization of Aged Mice with a Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Combined with an Unmethylated CpG-Containing Oligodeoxynucleotide Restores Defective Immunoglobulin G Antipolysaccharide Responses and Specific CD4+-T-Cell Priming to Young Adult Levels  

PubMed Central

Polysaccharide (PS)-protein conjugate vaccines, in contrast to purified PS vaccines, recruit CD4+-T-cell help and restore defective PS-specific humoral immunity in the immature host. Surprisingly, in the immunocompromised, aged host, anti-PS responses to conjugate vaccines are typically no better than those elicited by purified PS vaccines. Although aging leads to defects in multiple immune cell types, diminished CD4+-T-cell helper function has recently been shown to play a dominant role. We show that in response to immunization with purified pneumococcal capsular PS serotype 14 (PPS14) in saline, the T-cell-independent immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-PPS14 response in aged mice was comparable to that in young mice. In contrast, the T-cell-dependent IgG anti-PPS14 response to a soluble conjugate of PPS14 and pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) (PPS14-PspA) in saline was markedly defective. This was associated with defective priming of PspA-specific CD4+ T cells. In contrast, immunization of aged mice with PPS14-PspA combined with an unmethylated CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) restored IgG anti-PPS14 responses to young adult levels, which were substantially higher than those observed using purified PPS14. This was associated with enhanced PspA-specific CD4+-T-cell priming. Similarly, intact Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular type 14, which contains Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, also induced substantial, though modestly reduced, T-cell-dependent (TD) IgG ant-PPS14 responses in aged mice. Spleen and peritoneal cells from aged and young adult mice made comparable levels of proinflammatory cytokines in response to CpG-ODN, although cells from aged mice secreted higher levels of interleukin-10. Collectively, these data suggest that inclusion of a TLR ligand, as an adjuvant, with a conjugate vaccine can correct defective TD IgG anti-PS responses in elderly patients by augmenting CD4+-T-cell help.

Sen, Goutam; Chen, Quanyi; Snapper, Clifford M.

2006-01-01

330

Salmonella DNA Adenine Methylase Mutants Elicit Protective Immune Responses to Homologous and Heterologous Serovars in Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonella DNA adenine methylase (Dam) mutants that lack or overproduce Dam are highly attenuated for virulence in mice and confer protection against murine typhoid fever. To determine whether vaccines based on Dam are efficacious in poultry, a Salmonella Dam vaccine was evaluated in the protection of chicken broilers against oral challenge with homologous and heterologous Salmonella serovars. A Salmonella enterica

E. L. Dueger; J. K. House; D. M. Heithoff; M. J. Mahan

2001-01-01

331

Haemophilus influenzae Type b Carriage among Young Children in Metropolitan Atlanta in the Context of Vaccine Shortage and Booster Dose Deferral ?  

PubMed Central

Short-term deferral of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine booster dose during a recent U.S. Hib vaccine shortage did not result in widespread Hib carriage in Atlanta, as the Hib carriage rate was found to be 0.3% (1/342). Hib colonization was significantly more common among males and day care attendees.

Thomas, Jennifer Dolan; Jackson, Michael L.; Sharma, Dolly; Mair, Raydel; Bach, Michelle C.; Castillo, Dana; Ejigiri, O. Grace; Satola, Sarah; Cohn, Amanda C.; Jerris, Robert; Jain, Shabnam; Farley, Monica M.; Mayer, Leonard W.; Messonnier, Nancy E.

2011-01-01

332

Field trial in commercial broilers with a multivalent in ovo vaccine comprising a mixture of live viral vaccines against Marek's disease, infectious bursal disease, Newcastle disease, and fowl pox.  

PubMed

A multivalent in ovo vaccine (MIV) was tested for safety and efficacy in a commercial broiler complex. The MIV comprised five replicating live viruses including serotypes 1, 2, and 3 of Marek's disease virus (MDV), an intermediate infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and a recombinant fowl poxvirus (FPV) vector vaccine containing HN and F genes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The performance of MIV-vaccinated broilers was compared with that of hatchmates that received turkey herpesvirus (HVT) alone (routinely used in ovo vaccine in the broiler complex). The chickens that hatched from the MIV-injected and HVT-injected eggs were raised under commercial conditions in six barns. Barn 1 housed 17,853 MIV-vaccinated chickens and each of the barns 2-6 housed 18,472-22,798 HVT-vaccinated chickens. The HVT-vaccinated chickens were given infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and NDV vaccines at hatch and at 2 wk of age. The MIV-vaccinated chickens received IBV vaccine at hatch and IBV + NDV at 2 wk of age. The relative values of hatchability of eggs, livability and weight gain of chickens, and condemnation rates at processing were comparable between the MIV and the HVT groups (P > 0.05). Chickens from the MIV- and the HVT-vaccinated groups were challenged with virulent viruses under laboratory conditions. The resistance of vaccinated chickens against Marek's disease could not be assessed because of high natural resistance of unvaccinated commercial broilers to virulent MDV. The relative resistances of the MIV- and the HVT-vaccinated groups, respectively, against other virulent viruses were as follows: IBDV, 100% for both groups; NDV, 81% vs. 19%; FPV, 86% vs. 0%. The successful use of MIV under field conditions expands the usefulness of the in ovo technology for poultry. PMID:12243525

Sharma, J M; Zhang, Y; Jensen, D; Rautenschlein, Silke; Yeh, H Y

333

Eccentric exercise as an adjuvant to influenza vaccination in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immune response to vaccination in animals can be enhanced by exposure to acute stress at the time of vaccination. The efficacy of this adjuvant strategy for vaccination in humans requires investigation. The current study employed a randomised controlled trial design to examine the effects of eccentric exercise prior to influenza vaccination on the antibody and cell-mediated responses. Sixty young

Kate M. Edwards; Victoria E. Burns; Louise M. Allen; Jamie S. McPhee; Jos A. Bosch; Douglas Carroll; Mark Drayson; Christopher Ring

2007-01-01

334

Protection from clinical disease against three highly virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus following in ovo application of an antibody-antigen complexed vaccine in maternally-antibody positive chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Worldwide, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) remains one of the most economically important diseases of poultry. Current vaccination strategies for commercial poultry include the use of inactivated and live NDV vaccines that typically induce protection against less virulent field viruses. The value of...

335

Bench-to-bedside review: Vaccine protection strategies during pandemic flu outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Vaccination is the most effective means for the prevention of influenza, including pandemic strains. An ideal pandemic influenza vaccine should provide effective protection with the fewest number of doses in the shortest amount of time, and among the greatest proportion of the population. The current manufacturing processes required for embryonated chicken-egg-based influenza vaccines are limited in their ability to

Joel V Chua; Wilbur H Chen

2010-01-01

336

Marek's disease control: Comparative efficacy of cell?associated and cell?free lyophilized HVT vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of extensive trials to compare the protective efficacy of lyophilized with cell?associated turkey herpes virus vaccine against Marek's disease are reported. No significant differences in the degree of protection provided by these vaccines have been found. Marek's disease mortality in vaccinated chickens was always less than 1% up to the 30th week of age.

A. Zanella; G. Granelli

1974-01-01

337

Aerosol vaccination against Newcastle disease using the Ulster strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ulster strain of Newcastle disease when administered as an aerosol vaccine has been shown to give a level of protection which is slightly lower than that produced by a commercial Hitchner B1 strain but which is not associated with any respiratory reaction. Both strains proved to be poor vaccines when used in chickens with high levels of maternal antibody.

R. E. Gough; W. H. Allan

1976-01-01

338

Beliefs and attitudes regarding human papillomavirus vaccination among college-age women.  

PubMed

Research on the human papillomavirus vaccine has largely focused on parents' attitudes toward vaccinating their young daughters. Yet, little is known about the factors that influence human papillomavirus vaccination in college-age women who are still eligible for the vaccine. This study examined attitudes toward the human papillomavirus vaccine in 150 college-age women who had received the vaccine and 58 who had not. The Health Belief Model was used to predict vaccine intentions and to compare vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Women's self-efficacy, social environment, and perceptions of the vaccine predicted vaccine intentions and behaviors. Interventions might include these factors to promote vaccination. PMID:23188917

Schaefer Ziemer, Kathryn; Hoffman, Mary Ann

2012-11-26

339

Antibody persistence and immune memory 15 months after priming with an investigational tetravalent meningococcal tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) in toddlers and young children.  

PubMed

The present extension study, conducted in children originally vaccinated at 12-14 mo or 3-5 y of age, assessed antibody persistence and immune memory induced by an investigational tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT). In the original study, participants were randomized to receive one dose of MenACWY-TT or licensed age-appropriate meningococcal control vaccines. Fifteen months post-vaccination, all participants underwent serum sampling to evaluate antibody persistence and participants previously vaccinated as toddlers received a polysaccharide challenge to assess immune memory development. Exploratory comparisons showed that (1) All children and ? 92.3% of the toddlers maintained serum bactericidal (rSBA) titers ? 1:8 at 15 mo post MenACWY-TT vaccination; statistically significantly higher rSBA geometric mean titers (GMTs) were observed compared with control vaccines. (2) At one month after polysaccharide challenge, all toddlers primed with MenACWY-TT or with the monovalent serogroup C conjugate vaccine had rSBA titers ? 1:8 and ? 1:128 for serogroup C and similar rSBA-GMTs; rSBA-GMTs for serogroups A, W-135 and Y were statistically significantly higher in toddlers primed with MenACWY-TT compared with the control vaccine. Thus, a single dose of MenACWY-TT induced persisting antibodies in toddlers and children and immune memory in toddlers. This study has been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00126984. PMID:22485049

Knuf, Markus; Baine, Yaela; Bianco, Veronique; Boutriau, Dominique; Miller, Jacqueline M

2012-04-09

340

Pathogenesis and protective efficacy of attenuated Meq null rMd5 virus in maternal antibody negative and commercial chickens.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A serotype 1 Marek’s disease Meq null virus (rMd5'Meq) has been shown to be an excellent vaccine in maternal antibody positive (MAb+) chickens. The only drawback of this non-oncogenic virus is that, like parental rMd5, it retains the ability to induce bursa and thymus atrophy (BTA) in MAb- chickens....

341

Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by turkey herpesvirus increases the immune response against Marek's disease virus but fails to increase protection against virulent challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Marek's disease virus continues to evolve towards greater virulence, more efficacious vaccines will be required in the future. We expressed chicken interleukin-2 (IL-2) from a turkey herpesvirus (HVT) in an attempt to increase the efficacy of HVT as a vaccine against Marek's disease. The recombinant IL-2\\/HVT was safe for in ovo vaccination, although it replicated less in the birds

I. Tarpey; P. J. Davis; P. Sondermeijer; C. van Geffen; I. Verstegen; V. E. J. C. Schijns; Jill Kolodsick; R. Sundick

2007-01-01

342

[Travelers' vaccines].  

PubMed

The number of Japanese oversea travelers has gradually increased year by year, however they usually pay less attention to the poor physical condition at the voyage place. Many oversea travelers caught vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. The Vaccine Guideline for Oversea Travelers 2010 published by Japanese Society of Travel Health will be helpful for spreading the knowledge of travelers' vaccine and vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. Many travelers' vaccines have not licensed in Japan. I hope these travelers' vaccines, such as typhoid vaccine, meningococcal vaccine, cholera vaccine and so on will be licensed in the near future. PMID:21922760

Ouchi, Kazunobu

2011-09-01

343

Hepatitis B Vaccine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A double-blind, randomized trial was initiated in Houston, Texas in 229 low-risk young adult health-care associates in order to assess short-term reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a highly purified, subvirion HBsAg vaccine, subtype adw, prepared by the...

F. B. Hollinger E. Adam J. Zahradnik D. Heiberg C. Troisi

1983-01-01

344

Rapid decline in presentations of genital warts after the implementation of a national quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination programme for young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:This study aimed to determine if the Australian human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme has had a population impact on presentations of genital warts.Methods:Retrospective study comparing the proportion of new clients with genital warts attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) from January 2004 to December 2008. Australia provided free quadrivalent HPV vaccine to 12–18-year-old girls in a school-based programme from April

C K Fairley; J S Hocking; L C Gurrin; M Y Chen; B Donovan; C S Bradshaw

2009-01-01

345

Age-Dependent Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Class-Specific Antibody Concentrations and Bactericidal Titers in Sera from Young Children from Montana Immunized with a Licensed Polysaccharide Vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C bactericidal titers and class-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibody concentrations were measured in sera from 173 children (1 to 5 years old) before and 6 weeks and 7 months following vaccination with a quadrivalent (A\\/C\\/Y\\/W-135) polysaccharide vaccine. The immune responses of the children were compared with those of 40 adults 6 weeks postvaccination. Both bactericidal titers

SUSAN E. MASLANKA; JORDAN W. TAPPERO; BRIAN D. PLIKAYTIS; ROBERT S. BRUMBERG; JANET K. DYKES; LINDA L. GHEESLING; KIMBERLEY B. J. DONALDSON; ANNE SCHUCHAT; JOHN PULLMAN; MARYANN JONES; JULIE BUSHMAKER; GEORGE M. CARLONE

346

Isolation of an agent inducing chicken Anaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A condition showing anaemia with asplasia of the bone manrow and atrophy of the lymphoid organs occurred in young layer chickens on a poultry farm. An agent (tentatively designated TK?5803 strain) was isolated in specific?pathogen?free (SPF) chicks from livers of the field cases. The agent was severely pathogenic when inoculated into 1?day?old SPF chicks, but the chicks developed age resistance

M. Goryo; H. Sugimura; S. Matsumoto; T. Umemura; C. Itakura

1985-01-01

347

Passive immunization using purified IgYs against infectious bursal disease of chickens in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute and highly contagious disease of young chickens caused by Birnavirus. Mortality of infected birds can be best prevented if injected with antibodies. The present study was an attempt to raise specific hyper-immune polyclonal antibodies against IBD virus in Pakistan. Commercial layers divided into four groups were injected with IBD vaccine subcutaneously according to four different treatment regimens. Eggs were collected daily and antibodies were purified from yolk with dextran sulphate. Titers of antibodies in serum and yolk were evaluated with enzyme linked immunosorbant assay and agar gel precipitation test. Antibody titers were significantly higher in yolk than serum. Eggs collected at 28 days post-vaccination had maximum antibody titers. Of treatment regimens, T3 was found to be most effective for hyperimmunization. Lyophilized antibodies stored at 4? did not lose their activity till the end of experiment. IBD virus infected birds were injected with purified antibodies which induced 92% recovery as compared to control birds. The study implicates that the purified antibodies may be useful as a therapeutic agent to cure IBD infected birds.

Malik, Muhammad Wasif; Ayub, Najma

2006-01-01

348

Determine Feasibility of Producing a Killed Rubella Virus Vaccine, and to Produce, Test, and Supply One Liter or More of Live, Attenuated Rubella Vaccine, Strain M-33.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies of killed rubella virus vaccines included various attempts to propagate low passage monkey kidney and rabbit kidney adapted Gilchrist strain in embryonated duck and chicken eggs and in cell cultures derived from duck and chick embryo tissues. Expe...

R. N. Hull C. B. Reimer F. T. Counter

1966-01-01

349

Polio Vaccination  

MedlinePLUS

... Settings Overview Prevention & Control Resources on Proper Vaccine Storage and Handling Vaccine Recommendations ACIP recommendations Updated August 2009 Contraindications Consult package inserts for vaccine storage and handling guidance: ( IPOL , Kinrix , Pediarix , Pentacel , and ...

350

Leptospirosis vaccines  

PubMed Central

Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the recent advancements of recombinant outer membrane protein (OMP) vaccines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) vaccines, inactivated vaccines, attenuated vaccines and DNA vaccines against leptospirosis are reviewed. A comparison of these vaccines may lead to development of new potential methods to combat leptospirosis and facilitate the leptospirosis vaccine research. Moreover, a vaccine ontology database was built for the scientists working on the leptospirosis vaccines as a starting tool.

Wang, Zhijun; Jin, Li; Wegrzyn, Alicja

2007-01-01

351

Vaccine Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Immunizations are among the most cost-effective and widely used public health interventions. However, no vaccine is perfectly safe or effective. As the incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases is reduced by increasing coverage with vaccines public concer...

1998-01-01

352

Immunization of chickens with VP2 protein of infectious bursal disease virus expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Transgenic plants represent a safe, effective, and inexpensive way to produce vaccines. The immunogenicity of VP2 protein of an infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus variant E isolate expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana was compared with a commercial vaccine in specific-pathogen-free broiler chickens. The VP2 coding sequence was isolated and integrated into A. thaliana genome by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Soluble VP2 expressed in transgenic plants was used to immunize chickens. Chickens receiving oral immunization with plant-derived VP2 at 1 and 3 wk of age had an antibody response using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and 80% protection against challenge infection at 4 wk. Chickens primed with a commercial vaccine at 1 wk followed by an oral booster with VP2 expressed in plants at 3 wk of age showed 90% protection. Chickens immunized with a commercial vaccine at 1 and 3 wk showed 78% protection. Results supported the efficacy of plant-produced VP2 as a vaccine against IBD. PMID:15529992

Wu, H; Singh, Narendra K; Locy, Robert D; Scissum-Gunn, K; Giambrone, Joseph J

2004-09-01

353

The Immune Enhancement of Sodium Lauryl Sulfoacetate in Chickens  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to investigate feasibility of sodium lauryl sulfoacetate (SLS) as an immunoadjuvant in chickens. After treating with 62.5, 125, 250, or 500??g/mL SLS in vitro, lymphocyte proliferation assay of chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that the OD570 values of all experimental groups, as well as Con A-stimulated group, were significantly higher than that of the untreated control group. After injection with 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0?mg/kg of SLS for 3 consecutive days, chickens were vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine against Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and the immunoadjuvant effects of SLS were evaluated on the basis of immune organ index, antibody response, and CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio. The results confirmed that SLS could enhance NDV-specific antibody response and increase CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio in vivo. Furthermore, SLS could improve NDV-specific antibody response in thiamphenicol-treated chickens. These data indicate that SLS not only can improve humoral immune response but also reverse the immunosuppressive effect of thiamphenicol in chickens.

Cheng, DaRong; Zhu, ShanYuan; Sun, HuaiChang

2010-01-01

354

The immune enhancement of sodium lauryl sulfoacetate in chickens.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to investigate feasibility of sodium lauryl sulfoacetate (SLS) as an immunoadjuvant in chickens. After treating with 62.5, 125, 250, or 500 mug/mL SLS in vitro, lymphocyte proliferation assay of chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that the OD(570) values of all experimental groups, as well as Con A-stimulated group, were significantly higher than that of the untreated control group. After injection with 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 mg/kg of SLS for 3 consecutive days, chickens were vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine against Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and the immunoadjuvant effects of SLS were evaluated on the basis of immune organ index, antibody response, and CD(4) (+)/CD(8) (+) T-cell ratio. The results confirmed that SLS could enhance NDV-specific antibody response and increase CD(4) (+)/CD(8) (+) T-cell ratio in vivo. Furthermore, SLS could improve NDV-specific antibody response in thiamphenicol-treated chickens. These data indicate that SLS not only can improve humoral immune response but also reverse the immunosuppressive effect of thiamphenicol in chickens. PMID:20454644

Cheng, Darong; Zhu, Shanyuan; Sun, Huaichang

2010-05-04

355

Protective efficacy of several vaccines against highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus under experimental conditions.  

PubMed

Although several vaccines have been developed to protect against highly pathogenic avian influenza of subtype H5N1 'Asia' their efficiency has primarily been assessed individually. Thus, a direct comparison of their performance is still lacking. The following study was conducted to compare the protective efficacy of three commercially available inactivated vaccines based on influenza virus strains of subtypes H5N2 (vaccine A), H5N9 (vaccine B), and H5N3 (vaccine C), as well as two hemagglutinin expressing experimental vector vaccines (modified vaccinia virus Ankara-H5 and Newcastle disease virus-H5) against a lethal dose of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus in chickens. To assess their potential as emergency vaccines, a single immunisation was performed for all vaccines, despite the recommendation of a double-vaccination schedule for commercial vaccines B and C. Overall, all vaccines induced clinical protection against challenge infection 3 weeks after immunisation. No mortality was observed in chickens immunised with vaccine A and viral shedding could not be detected. Immunisation with NDV-H5, vaccine C and MVA-H5 conferred also protection against lethal challenge. However, viral RNA was detected by real-time RT-PCR in swabs of 10%, 20% and 50% of animals, and 0%, 10% and 30% of animals, respectively, shed infectious virus. Immunisation with vaccine B was less protective since 50% of the vaccinated animals shed infectious virus after challenge and 20% of the chickens succumbed to disease. These results indicate that the NDV-H5 vectored vaccine is similarly effective as the best inactivated vaccine. Considering the advantage of live NDV which can be administered via spray or drinking water as well as the potential use of this H5 expressing vector vaccine for an easy DIVA (differentiating infected from vaccinated animals) strategy, NDV-H5 could represent an alternative for extensive vaccination against avian influenza in chickens. PMID:18291561

Veits, Jutta; Römer-Oberdörfer, Angela; Helferich, Dorothee; Durban, Markus; Suezer, Yasemin; Sutter, Gerd; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

2008-02-04

356

Vaccine Information  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... 2002); Anthrax Vaccine (from FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research); Smallpox Vaccine (from FDA's Center ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/emergencypreparedness/bioterrorismanddrugpreparedness

357

CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken coops on the farm were used by both chickens and turkeys. The yards around the buildings were once fenced in to give the poultry brooding space. - Kineth Farm, Chicken Coop, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

358

Deletion of the meq gene significantly decreases immunosuppression in chickens caused by pathogenic marek's disease virus  

PubMed Central

Background Marek's disease virus (MDV) causes an acute lymphoproliferative disease in chickens, resulting in immunosuppression, which is considered to be an integral aspect of the pathogenesis of Marek's disease (MD). A recent study showed that deletion of the Meq gene resulted in loss of transformation of T-cells in chickens and a Meq-null virus, rMd5?Meq, could provide protection superior to CVI988/Rispens. Results In the present study, to investigate whether the Meq-null virus could be a safe vaccine candidate, we constructed a Meq deletion strain, GX0101?Meq, by deleting both copies of the Meq gene from a pathogenic MDV, GX0101 strain, which was isolated in China. Pathogenesis experiments showed that the GX0101?Meq virus was fully attenuated in specific pathogen-free chickens because none of the infected chickens developed Marek's disease-associated lymphomas. The study also evaluated the effects of GX0101?Meq on the immune system in chickens after infection with GX0101?Meq virus. Immune system variables, including relative lymphoid organ weight, blood lymphocytes and antibody production following vaccination against AIV and NDV were used to assess the immune status of chickens. Experimental infection with GX0101?Meq showed that deletion of the Meq gene significantly decreased immunosuppression in chickens caused by pathogenic MDV. Conclusion These findings suggested that the Meq gene played an important role not only in tumor formation but also in inducing immunosuppressive effects in MDV-infected chickens.

2011-01-01

359

Hematology of mercury toxicity in young chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Day-old broiler cockerels which were obtained from a commercial hatchery were randomly assigned to 24 groups of five chicks each. Three replicate trials were conducted. Hg in the form of mercuric chloride was added to the drinking water at the concentration of O, 150 or 300 ppm of Hg. In each trial eight groups of five chicks received each concentration

P. Thaxton; P. S. Young; L. A. Cogburn; C. R. Parkhurst

1974-01-01

360

Chicken life cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A female chicken is called a hen and a male chicken is called a rooster. Hens lay eggs as a way to reproduce. The egg then hatches into a baby chick and the chick matures into an adult hen or rooster.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-05-23

361

April 6-7, 2011: Vaccines and Related Biological Products ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Presentation: Epidemiology of Meningococcal Disease in Infants and Young Children and Vaccine Effectiveness of the Adolescent Program (PPTX ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/bloodvaccinesandotherbiologics

362

Immunogenicity of infectious bursal disease viruses in chickens.  

PubMed

Cross-protective properties of infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDVs) were studied. Viruses represented different subtypes of serotype 1, including recently isolated viruses (variants), and a serotype 2 virus. Chickens were vaccinated at 3 weeks of age with inactivated vaccines containing 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), or 10(8) mean tissue-culture infectious dose of a given virus and challenged 2 weeks later using either 10(2) or 10(3.5) mean embryo infectious dose (EID50) of either a standard virus or a variant serotype 1 virus. Protection was evaluated at 5 and 10 days post-challenge, based on gross and microscopic lesions, body weight, and bursa/body-weight ratios. The serotype 2 virus did not confer protection on birds challenged with the serotype 1 viruses. Vaccines made of variant viruses at the low doses protected chickens challenged with the high or low doses of either the standard or the variant viruses. Vaccines made of the standard or variant strains at low doses protected against high or low challenge doses of the standard strain. Vaccines made of the high dose of any of the standard strains protected chickens against the variant virus when the low challenge dose (10(2) EID50) was used, but not when the high challenge dose (10(3.5) EID50) was used. The lowest dose of the standard viruses vaccines required to confer protection against the variant virus varied depending on the strain. Results indicated that protection depended on the strain and dose of both the vaccine and challenge viruses and that the variant strains and standard strains share a common protective antigen(s). PMID:1659364

Ismail, N M; Saif, Y M

363

The chicken SLAM family.  

PubMed

The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors is critically involved in the immune regulation of lymphocytes but has only been detected in mammals, with one member being present in Xenopus. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and analysis of the chicken homologues to the mammalian SLAMF1 (CD150), SLAMF2 (CD48), and SLAMF4 (CD244, 2B4). Two additional chicken SLAM genes were identified and designated SLAMF3like and SLAM5like in order to stress that those two receptors have no clear mammalian counterpart but share some features with mammalian SLAMF3 and SLAMF5, respectively. Three of the chicken SLAM genes are located on chromosome 25, whereas two are currently not yet assigned. The mammalian and chicken receptors share a common structure with a V-like domain that lacks conserved cysteine residues and a C2-type Ig domain with four cysteines forming two disulfide bonds. Chicken SLAMF2, like its mammalian counterpart, lacks a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain and thus represents a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored protein. The cytoplasmic tails of SLAMF1 and SLAMF4 display two and four conserved immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs (ITSMs), respectively, whereas both chicken SLAMF3like and SLAMF5like have only a single ITSM. We have also identified the chicken homologues of the SLAM-associated protein family of adaptors (SAP), SAP and EAT-2. Chicken SAP shares about 70 % identity with mammalian SAP, and chicken EAT-2 is homologous to mouse EAT-2, whereas human EAT-2 is much shorter. The characterization of the chicken SLAM family of receptors and the SAP adaptors demonstrates the phylogenetic conservation of this family, in particular, its signaling capacities. PMID:23064403

Straub, Christian; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

2012-10-13

364

Carbon Microtubes from Chicken Feathers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicken feathers, an agricultural waste problem, are a promising bio-based alternative to composite reinforcement. Approximately 5 billion pounds of chicken feathers are produced per year in the United States poultry industry alone. Containing 47.83% carbon, chicken feathers are hollow and strong in nature due to the 91% keratin content. Carbonized chicken feather (CCF) fibers are produced by heating to 220

Melissa M. Miller; Richard P. Wool

2007-01-01

365

Protection against infectious laryngotracheitis by in ovo vaccination with commercially available viral vector recombinant vaccines.  

PubMed

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease is mainly controlled through biosecurity and by vaccination with live-attenuated vaccines. The chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines, although proven to be effective in experimental settings, have limited efficacy in controlling the disease in dense broiler production sites due to unrestricted use and poor mass vaccination coverage. These factors allowed CEO vaccines to regain virulence, causing long lasting and, consequently, severe outbreaks of the disease. A new generation of viral vector fowl poxvirus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) vaccines carrying ILTV genes has been developed and such vaccines are commercially available. These vaccines are characterized by their lack of transmission, lack of ILTV-associated latent infections, and no reversion to virulence. HVT-vectored ILTV recombinant vaccines were originally approved for subcutaneous HVT or transcutaneous (pox) delivery. The increased incidence of ILTV outbreaks in broiler production sites encouraged the broiler industry to deliver the FPV-LT and HVT-LT recombinant vaccines in ovo. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protection induced by ILTV viral vector recombinant vaccines after in ovo application in 18-day-old commercial broiler embryos. The protection induced by recombinant ILTV vaccines was assessed by their ability to prevent clinical signs and mortality; to reduce challenge virus replication in the trachea; to prevent an increase in body temperature; and to prevent a decrease in body weight gain after challenge. In this study, both recombinant-vectored ILTV vaccines provided partial protection, thereby mitigating the disease, but did not reduce challenge virus loads in the trachea. PMID:21313847

Johnson, Deirdre I; Vagnozzi, Ariel; Dorea, Fernanda; Riblet, Sylva M; Mundt, Alice; Zavala, Guillermo; García, Maricarmen

2010-12-01

366

Advancement in vaccination against Newcastle disease: recombinant HVT NDV provides high clinical protection and reduces challenge virus shedding with the absence of vaccine reactions.  

PubMed

Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease of chickens causing significant economic losses worldwide. Due to the limitation in their efficacy, current vaccination strategies against ND need improvements. This study aimed to evaluate a new-generation ND vaccine for its efficacy in providing clinical protection and reducing virus shedding after challenge. Broiler chickens were vaccinated in ovo or subcutaneously at hatch with a turkey herpesvirus-based recombinant vaccine (rHVT) expressing a key protective antigen (F glycoprotein) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Groups of birds were challenged at 20, 27, and 40 days of age with a genotype V viscerotropic velogenic NDV strain. Protection was 57% and 81%, 100% and 95%, and 100% and 100% after the subsequent challenges in the in ovo and subcutaneously vaccinated chickens, respectively. Humoral immune response to vaccination could be detected from 3-4 wk of age. Challenge virus shedding was lower and gradually decreased over time in the vaccinated birds compared to the unvaccinated control chickens. In spite of the phylogenetic distance between the NDV F gene inserted into the vector vaccine and the challenge virus (genotype I and V, respectively), the rHVT NDV vaccine provided good clinical protection and significantly reduced challenge virus shedding. PMID:22856183

Palya, V; Kiss, I; Tatár-Kis, T; Mató, T; Felföldi, B; Gardin, Y

2012-06-01

367

Field efficacy trial of a novel HVT-IBD vector vaccine for 1-day-old broilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two vaccination programmes for infectious bursal disease (IBD) were compared in broiler chickens with maternal immunity, placed on two farms. A turkey herpes virus (HVT)-IBD vector vaccine was administered by the subcutaneous route, at the hatchery, into the chicks of farm A at the age of 1 day. On farm B, an attenuated intermediate live IBD vaccine was given orally

F. X. Le Gros; A. Dancer; C. Giacomini; L. Pizzoni; M. Bublot; M. Graziani; F. Prandini

2009-01-01

368

Efficacy of three inactivated vaccines against challenge with HPAI H5N1 Vietnam/05 viruses in ducks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of inactivated vaccines containing a European isolate (A/turkey/England/73, H5N2 Chinese commercial vaccine), an American isolate (A/chicken/Hidalgo/94, H5N2 Mexican commercial vaccine), or a recombinant virus (RE-1, H5N1 recombinant Chinese vac...

369

Augmentation of retrovirus-induced lymphoid leukosis by Marek's disease herpesviruses in White Leghorn chickens.  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to determine whether the cell-associated herpesvirus vaccines used in chickens to control Marek's disease tumors can augment development of lymphoid leukosis (LL) induced by exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV). Various single or mixed Marek's disease vaccines were inoculated at day 1, and ALV was injected at 1 to 10 days, with chickens of several experimental or commercial strains. Development of LL was monitored at 16 to 48 weeks in various experiments. In several strains of chickens we repeatedly found that the widely used serotype 3 turkey herpesvirus vaccine did not augment LL in comparison with unvaccinated controls. However, LL development and incidence were prominently augmented in several chicken strains vaccinated with serotype 2 vaccines, used alone or as mixtures with other serotypes. In one chicken strain, augmentation was demonstrated after natural exposure to ALV or serotype 2 Marek's disease virus viremic shedder chickens. Augmentation of LL by virulent or attenuated Marek's disease viruses of serotype 1 was intermediate in effect. Serotype 2 Marek's disease virus augmentation of LL was prominent in three laboratory lines and one commercial strain of White Leghorns, but it was not observed in an LL-resistant laboratory line or four commercial strains susceptible to ALV infection. Chickens developed similar levels of viremia and neutralizing antibodies to ALV regardless of the presence of augmentation of LL, suggesting that the mechanism of enhanced LL did not result from differences in susceptibility or immune response to ALV. We postulate that the serotype 2 herpesviruses may augment LL through one of several possible influences on bursal cells that are subsequently transformed by exogenous ALV.

Bacon, L D; Witter, R L; Fadly, A M

1989-01-01

370

Systemic and mucosal antibody responses to selected cell surface antigens of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in experimentally infected chickens.  

PubMed

The immune response to four cell surface antigens of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) was investigated as the first step in identifying vaccine candidates. F1 pilus adhesin, P pilus adhesin, aerobactin receptor protein, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from an O78 E. coli (strain EC99) were used as antigens. The proteins were purified as 6xhistidine-tagged recombinant proteins and LPS was purified from a phenol/water extract. Groups of 12 broiler chickens were vaccinated intranasally with the EC99 strain and challenged with the same strain 10 days later via the intra-air sac route. The chickens that survived were euthanatized 10 days postchallenge. Scores were assigned to infected chickens on the basis of lesions and recovery of the challenge E. coli. The immunoglobulin (Ig) IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies to the four antigens were measured in serum and air sac washings in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Among the chickens that were not vaccinated prior to challenge, two died and three of the survivors were ill, whereas, of the chickens that were vaccinated prior to challenge, one died and one of the survivors became ill. After the intranasal vaccination, high antibody activity against all four antigens was associated with each Ig isotype in serum and air sac washings. IgG was the predominant isotype of Ig in air sac washings as detected by radial immunodiffusion. Chickens that were not ill after challenge had greater IgG, IgA, and IgM antibody activity against all four antigens in serum and air sac washings than did sick chickens. Thus, all of the antigens tested appear to be suitable candidates for a vaccine to protect chickens from respiratory tract infections caused by APEC. PMID:12243531

Kariyawasam, S; Wilkie, B N; Hunter, D B; Gyles, C L

371

First field trial of fox vaccination against rabies using a vaccinia-rabies recombinant virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field trial of fox vaccination against rabies using a vaccinia-rabies recombinant virus was carried out in Belgium on October 24, 1987. Each vaccine capsule contained a suspension of 10(8) TCID50 of the recombinant virus and was introduced into a chicken head. Each chicken head contained 150 mg of tetracycline as a marker of uptake. Two hundred and fifty heads

PP Pastoret; B Brochier; B Languet; I Thomas; A Paquot; B Bauduin; MP Kieny; JP Lecocq; J De Bruyn; F Costy

1988-01-01

372

EFFICACY OF TWO INACTIVATED VACCINES AGAINST AN ASIAN HPAI H5N1 CHALLENGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of inactivated vaccines containing either an American isolate (A/turkey/Wisconsin/68 H5N9; GALLIMUNE FLU H5N9 or H5N9-WI) or an Eurasian isolate (A/chicken/Italy/22A/98 H5N9 or H5N9-It). Three weeks-old SPF chickens were vaccinated and challeng...

373

Immunotherapy of EGFR-positive tumor based on recombinant EGFR phage vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To construct the recombined phage which was inserted with the gene of extracellular domain of chicken EGFR as a new type\\u000a vaccine and to evaluate the efficiency of the phage vaccine against the EGFR positive tumor. Methods: The T7 phage display system was used to display 5 fragments of the extracellular domain of chicken EGFR. The EGFR was expressed

Dong Liu; Liang Tang; Caicun Zhou; Lisong Tan

2006-01-01

374

Non-MHC genomic variation affecting Marek’s disease resistance and vaccine protective efficiency  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of the domestic chicken caused by a highly infectious, oncogenic herpesvirus commonly referred to as Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MD has been controlled by vaccination with non-oncogenic turkey herpesvirus (HVT), non-oncogenic chicken herpesvirus...

375

Modeling the effects of annual influenza vaccination  

SciTech Connect

Although influenza vaccine efficacy is 70--90% in young healthy first-time vaccinees, the efficacy in repeat vaccinees has varied considerably. In some studies, vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccinees was higher than in first-time vaccinees, whereas in other studies vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccinees was significantly lower than in first-time vaccinees and sometimes no higher than in unvaccinated controls. It is known that the closeness of the antigenic match between the vaccine strain and the epidemic virus is important for vaccine effectiveness. In this study the authors show that the antigenic differences between a first vaccine strain and a second vaccine strain, and between the first vaccine strain and the epidemic strain, might account for the observed variation in attack rate among two-time vaccinees.

Smith, D.J.; Ackley, D.H.; Forrest, S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Div.

1998-12-31

376

Development of Heart Rate Circadian Rhythm in Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In chick embryos, various instantaneous heart rate (IHR) fluctuations (e.g. HR variability, HR irregularities) have been found and developmental patterns of mean heart rate (MHR) have been elucidated. IHR changes have also measured in newly hatched and young chickens in order to investigate the developmental patterns of MHR and any potential diurnal HR rhythmicity such as a circadian rhythm. The

K. Moriya; R. Akiyama; E. M. Dzialowski; W. W. Burggren; H. Tazawa

2004-01-01

377

Postpartum Mothers' Attitudes, Knowledge, and Trust Regarding Vaccination  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine attitudes and knowledge about vaccinations in postpartum mothers. Methods This cross-sectional study collected data via written survey to postpartum mothers in a large teaching hospital in Connecticut. We used multivariable analysis to identify mothers who were less trusting with regard to vaccines. Results Of 228 mothers who participated in the study, 29% of mothers worried about vaccinating their infants: 23% were worried the vaccines would not work, 11% were worried the doctor would give the wrong vaccine, and 8% worried that “they” are experimenting when they give vaccines. Mothers reported that the most important reasons to vaccinate were to prevent disease in the baby (74%) and in society (11%). Knowledge about vaccination was poor; e.g., 33% correctly matched chicken pox with varicella vaccine. Mothers who were planning to breastfeed (P = .01), were primiparous (P = .01), or had an income <$40,000 but did not receive support from the women, infants, and children (WIC) program were less trusting with regard to vaccines (P = .03). Although 70% wanted information about vaccines during pregnancy, only 18% reported receiving such information during prenatal care. Conclusion Although the majority of infants receive vaccines, their mothers have concerns and would like to receive immunization information earlier. Mothers who are primiparous, have low family incomes but do not qualify for the WIC program, or are breastfeeding may need special attention to develop a trusting relationship around vaccination. Mothers would benefit from additional knowledge regarding the risks and benefits of vaccines particularly during prenatal care.

Wisler-Sher, Daryl J.; Griswold, Katherine; Colson, Eve; Shapiro, Eugene D.; Holmboe, Eric S.; Benin, Andrea L.

2012-01-01

378

Production of a falcon herpesvirus vaccine.  

PubMed

Ten common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) were used for this falcon herpes vaccine experiment. Four kestrels were subcutaneously given 1 ml of an attenuated falcon herpesvirus that had originally been isolated from the liver of an American prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus). This virus was then passaged 100 times on chicken embryo fibroblast cells (CEF-cells). Another 4 kestrels were given subcutaneously an inactivated falcon herpesvirus vaccine derived from the same American field strain. This vaccine was concentrated, inactivated by heat and betapropiolactone and emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvans. Two further kestrels served as controls and were not vaccinated. Twenty-one days after vaccination, all 10 kestrels were challenged with passage 3 of the American falcon herpesvirus. The 2 control kestrels died 6 days after challenge and 3 of those given the inactivated herpes vaccine died 9 days after challenge, with typical lesions of herpesvirus inclusion body hepatitis. Before the vaccination experiment, all 10 kestrels were free of serum neutralising antibodies to the falcon herpesvirus. Twenty-one days after vaccination, all 4 kestrels vaccinated with the attenuated vaccine, and one vaccinated with the killed vaccine, had seroconverted, having shown no symptoms to the challenge with a low passage virulent American herpesvirus strain. Following the challenge their antibody titres to falcon herpesvirus increased. No herpesvirus was isolated from any of the cloacal swabs taken during this experiment, indicating that there is no danger for any other birds from the attenuated herpesvirus vaccine. This experiment clearly shows that an attenuated falcon herpesvirus vaccine can protect kestrels from fatal inclusion body hepatitis. PMID:10507183

Wernery, U; Wernery, R; Kinne, J

1999-09-01

379

Influenza neuraminidase antibodies provide partial protection for chickens against high pathogenic avian influenza infection.  

PubMed

Protection of chickens against avian influenza (AI) is mostly attributed to production of antibodies against the viral glycoprotein hemagglutinin, whereas less is known about the protective role of antibodies to the other surface glycoprotein neuraminidase (NA). Therefore, vaccines encoding NA antigen (e.g., DNA and alphavirus-based virus like replicon particles (VRP)) or baculovirus-expressed recombinant NA (rN2) were tested for their ability to protect against highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) in chickens. Vaccination with A/Pheasant/Maryland/4457/93 (Ph/MD) rN2 protein produced significantly higher levels of NA-inhibition (NI) activity and 88% protection from HPAI H5N2 challenge than vaccination with Ph/MD N2 DNA (25% protection). Vaccination with Ph/MD N2 VRP a minimum of two times also produced high levels of NI activity and protection against HPAI challenge (63% protection). Vaccination with VRP encoding an N2 gene that was genetically distant from the challenge virus N2 failed to protect chickens. Vaccines producing higher levels of NI activity conferred partial protection, but failed to affect viral shedding. Consideration of the homology between vaccine and challenge virus isolate NA genes may provide improved immunity if high levels of NI activity are obtained. PMID:17350145

Sylte, Matthew J; Hubby, Bolyn; Suarez, David L

2007-02-23

380

A field trial of the heat resistant V4 vaccine against Newcastle disease by eye-drop inoculation in village poultry in Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 100 chickens in each of three Cameroonian villages were vaccinated against Newcastle disease by eye-drop with the V4 heat-resistant strain and marked. In each of a further two villages another 100 chickens were marked and mock-vaccinated as controls. Each village was visited weekly for 18 weeks after vaccination, and all mortality and losses, sales and consumptions of the marked

J. G. Bell; T. M. Fotzo; A. Amara; G. Agbede

1995-01-01

381

Attenuation, transmission, and immunogenicity of an ORF-C gene deleted strain of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in specific pathogen free chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a very serious and widespread respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Conventional attenuated ILT vaccines, obtained by continuous passages in chicken embryos and tissue culture, had been the main tools utilized by th...

382

Eggcited about Chickens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)|

Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

2012-01-01

383

Recombinant rabies virus vaccine strain SAD-L16 inoculated intracerebrally in young mice produces a severe encephalitis with extensive neuronal apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A b s t r a c t Seven-day-old ICR mice were infected by intracerebral inoculation with recombinant rabies virus vaccine strain SAD-L16. Infected mice developed severe and fatal encephalitis with rabies virus-infected neurons in widespread regions of the brain. There was extensive neuronal death with predominant features of apoptosis, as assessed by light and electron microscopy, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated

Pamini Rasalingam; John P. Rossiter; Alan C. Jackson

384

Hypersensitivity and vaccines: an update.  

PubMed

Allergic reactions to vaccines can be classified as sensitivity to one of the vaccine components, pseudo-allergic reactions, often after hyperimmunization, and exacerbation of atopic symptoms or vasculitis. Pseudo-allergic reactions, some possibly due to hyperimmunization, are probably more common than true allergies. Atopic reactions should not be confused with the "flash" phenomenon, defined as an exacerbation of an allergic reaction due to a reduction in the allergic reactivity threshold following the vaccine injection. BCGitis occurs frequently, and for this reason, guidelines for Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) have been modified. The vaccine is now reserved for people at risk of exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This review provides an update on the vaccination modalities for people allergic to eggs, on the assessment that should be performed when a reaction occurs due to tetanus vaccination, on the urticaria after hepatitis vaccination, on an aluminum granuloma, which is more and more frequent in young children, and vasculitis after flu vaccination and BCGitis. The side effects associated with new, recently released vaccines, such as anti-influenza A H1N1 or anti-human papilloma virus (HPV) will also be presented. PMID:23238161

Barbaud, Annick; Deschildre, Antoine; Waton, Julie; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Tréchot, Philippe

2013-04-01

385

Vaccines for sexually transmitted infections.  

PubMed

STIs are responsible for significant human suffering and carry significant economic costs. Strategies to control STIs, such as screening programs and condoms, have had limited success. Vaccines offer an additional method that is not coitally related and does not depend on consistent use. The HPV vaccine confers protection against the most common types causing cervical dysplasia. Mathematical modeling suggests that the HSV vaccine, given universally to all young women, should reduce genital and neonatal herpes in the population at large. Much work remains on vaccines for chlamydia and gonorrhea, but they offer the hope of preventing pelvic inflammatory disease and its sequelae. As these vaccines become licensed, their successful implementation will require the support of professional organizations, families, and providers. PMID:16285635

Rupp, Richard E; Stanberry, Lawrence R; Rosenthal, Susan L

2005-10-01

386

[Acellular anti-pertussis vaccine].  

PubMed

Since several years, pertussis has increased especially in non-immunized young infants under 6 months of age, in countries where pertussis-immunization is in widespread use. The whole-cellular pertussis vaccine so far used in these countries is not well tolerated, has been indicted in adverse neurological complications, and offers significant but temporary protection partially because of the absence of late booster-shots. The necessity to improve vaccine protection has justified the development of much better tolerated acellular pertussis vaccines thus allowing repeated booster-shots. Its safety and duration of protection are still under evaluation, but preliminary results are promising. PMID:1819434

Bégué, P; Grimpel, E; Baron, S

1991-01-01

387

Severe acute respiratory syndrome vaccine development: experiences of vaccination against avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus.  

PubMed

Vaccines against infectious bronchitis of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) have arguably been the most successful, and certainly the most widely used, of vaccines for diseases caused by coronaviruses, the others being against bovine, canine, feline and porcine coronaviruses. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), together with the genetically related coronaviruses of turkey (Meleagris gallopovo) and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), is a group 3 coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus being tentatively in group 4, the other known mammalian coronaviruses being in groups 1 and 2. IBV replicates not only in respiratory tissues (including the nose, trachea, lungs and airsacs, causing respiratory disease), but also in the kidney (associated with minor or major nephritis), oviduct, and in many parts of the alimentary tract--the oesophagus, proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, bursa of Fabricius, caecal tonsils (near the distal end of the tract), rectum and cloaca (the common opening for release of eggs and faeces), usually without clinical effects. The virus can persist, being re-excreted at the onset of egg laying (4 to 5 months of age), believed to be a consequence of the stress of coming into lay. Genetic lines of chickens differ in the extent to which IBV causes mortality in chicks, and in respect of clearance of the virus after the acute phase. Live attenuated (by passage in chicken embryonated eggs) IBV strains were introduced as vaccines in the 1950s, followed a couple of decades later by inactivated vaccines for boosting protection in egg-laying birds. Live vaccines are usually applied to meat-type chickens at 1 day of age. In experimental situations this can result in sterile immunity when challenged by virulent homologous virus. Although 100% of chickens may be protected (against clinical signs and loss of ciliary activity in trachea), sometimes 10% of vaccinated chicks do not respond with a protective immune response. Protection is short lived, the start of the decline being apparent 9 weeks after vaccination with vaccines based on highly attenuated strains. IBV exists as scores of serotypes (defined by the neutralization test), cross-protection often being poor. Consequently, chickens may be re-vaccinated, with the same or another serotype, two or three weeks later. Single applications of inactivated virus has generally led to protection of <50% of chickens. Two applications have led to 90 to 100% protection in some reports, but remaining below 50% in others. In practice in the field, inactivated vaccines are used in laying birds that have previously been primed with two or three live attenuated virus vaccinations. This increases protection of the laying birds against egg production losses and induces a sustained level of serum antibody, which is passed to progeny. The large spike glycoprotein (S) comprises a carboxy-terminal S2 subunit (approximately 625 amino acid residues), which anchors S in the virus envelope, and an amino-terminal S1 subunit (approximately 520 residues), believed to largely form the distal bulbous part of S. The S1 subunit (purified from IBV virus, expressed using baculovirus or expressed in birds from a fowlpoxvirus vector) induced virus neutralizing antibody. Although protective immune responses were induced, multiple inoculations were required and the percentage of protected chickens was too low (<50%) for commercial application. Remarkably, expression of S1 in birds using a non-pathogenic fowl adenovirus vector induced protection in 90% and 100% of chickens in two experiments. Differences of as little as 5% between the S1 sequences can result in poor cross-protection. Differences in S1 of 2 to 3% (10 to 15 amino acids) can change serotype, suggesting that a small number of epitopes are immunodominant with respect to neutralizing antibody. Initial studies of the role of the IBV nucleocapsid protein (N) in immunity suggested that immunization with bacterially expressed N, while not inducing protection directly, improved the induction of protection by a

Cavanagh, Dave

2003-12-01

388

Parental perspectives on vaccinating children against sexually transmitted infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several vaccines for sexually transmitted infections (STI) are presently in development and the eventual availability of such vaccines is expected to result in the prevention of a significant number of burdensome conditions. Young adolescents are presumed to be likely targets for these vaccines since adolescents’ risk for STI increases as they age and become sexually active. It is unclear, however,

Rose M. Mays; Lynne A. Sturm; Gregory D. Zimet

2004-01-01

389

Initial lessons learned in HPV vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent period following the approval of the first vaccine targeted against human papillomavirus, it is imperative that we re-evaluate the past, present, and future of cervical cancer prevention. It is clear that the subject of vaccinating young women against a sexually transmitted infection has incited a candid debate among all groups involved. Therefore, we must make the most

Thomas J. Herzog; Warner K. Huh; Levi S. Downs; Jennifer S. Smith; Bradley J. Monk

2008-01-01

390

Abundance of IFN-? and IFN-? mRNA in blood of resistant and susceptible chickens infected with Marek’s disease virus (MDV) or vaccinated with turkey herpesvirus; and MDV inhibition of subsequent induction of IFN gene transcription  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The effects of the very virulent RB-1B strain of Marek’s disease virus (MDV) and turkey herpesvirus (HVT), a vaccinal strain, on abundance of IFN mRNA in the blood were investigated. MDV and HVT infection did not change the circulating level of IFN-? mRNA 1 and 7 days p.i., but they increased IFN-a mRNA levels slightly in genetically susceptible (to

P. Quéré; C. Rivas; K. Ester; R. Novak; W. L. Ragland

2005-01-01

391

[Comparison of seasonal influenza vaccines: composition and properties].  

PubMed

The influenza virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs was possible early in 1930er years and allowed the influenza vaccine production. Most influenza vaccines were derived from this, but actually new virus cell culture methods are established. For better tolerability, influenza vaccines include only antigen proportions (split- and subunit vaccines) but with the disadvantage of minor vaccine efficacy. This was compared with the addition of adjuvants. Aluminium salts are used for many decades and still in use to enhance the effect of vaccines. New formulations are MF59, AS03, AS04 or toll- like receptor-agonists. Also virosomal formulations and "ISCOMs"(Immune Stimulating Complexes) are newly designed and compromises enhanced immune reactions. Actually a broad range of various influenza vaccines exist and are available for a very different group of patients (which depends on physical conditions, age, immune status or allergies). PMID:22048938

Allwinn, R; Doerr, H W

2011-11-02

392

Rubella: Current Status, Diagnosis, Outbreak Control, and Use of Rubella Vaccine in Females of Childbearing Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Widespread rubella vaccination of young children with a secondary emphasis on vaccinating susceptible adolescents and young adults has prevented epidemics of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome. Benefits of ensuring high immunity levels in college students, quick response to disease outbreak, and safety and efficacy of rubella vaccine in this…

Preblud, Stephen R.

1984-01-01

393

Rubella: Current Status, Diagnosis, Outbreak Control, and Use of Rubella Vaccine in Females of Childbearing Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Widespread rubella vaccination of young children with a secondary emphasis on vaccinating susceptible adolescents and young adults has prevented epidemics of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome. Benefits of ensuring high immunity levels in college students, quick response to disease outbreak, and safety and efficacy of rubella vaccine in this…

Preblud, Stephen R.

1984-01-01

394

Gamma Interferon Responses Induced by a Panel of Recombinant and Purified Mycobacterial Antigens in Healthy, Non-Mycobacterium bovis BCG-Vaccinated Malawian Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously shown that young adults living in a rural area of northern Malawi showed greater gamma interferon (IFN-) responses to purified protein derivatives (PPD) prepared from environmental mycobacteria than to PPD from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In order to define the mycobacterial species to which individuals living in a rural African population have been exposed and sensitized, we tested T-cell

Gillian F. Black; Rosemary E. Weir; Steven D. Chaguluka; David Warndorff; Amelia C. Crampin; Lorren Mwaungulu; Lifted Sichali; Sian Floyd; Lyn Bliss; Elizabeth Jarman; Linda Donovan; Peter Andersen; Warwick Britton; Glyn Hewinson; Kris Huygen; Jens Paulsen; Mahavir Singh; Ross Prestidge; Paul E. M. Fine; Hazel M. Dockrell

2003-01-01

395

Vaccine safety.  

PubMed

Brief reports are presented on Swissmedic's experiences with PaniFlow, a tool to monitor Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) of pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 vaccines and UMC's updates on AEFI of these vaccines; on WHO's Global Network for Post-marketing Surveillance of Prequalified Vaccines and India joining the network; the June 2010 meeting of the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety. PMID:21673419

Labadie, Jerry

2011-01-01

396

Vaccine trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews some of the issues involved in evaluating vaccines in humans. Vaccine trials are required for licensure\\u000a and are essential for demonsrating a vaccine’s safety and protective efficacy. The formal framework of phase I, II, and III\\u000a trials is described, with particular emphasis on the choice of hypotheses, trial design, and biases that arise in the context\\u000a of

C. P. Farrington; E. Miller

2001-01-01

397

Rabies vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabies vaccines produced by means of molecular biology are described. Recombinant vaccines employing either viruses as vectors\\u000a (vaccinia, adenovirus, poxvirus, baculovirus, plant viruses) or a plasmid vector carrying the rabies virus glycoprotein gene\\u000a are discussed. Synthetic peptide technology directed to rabies vaccine production is also presented.

Claudio Carlos Paolazzi; Oscar Pérez; Javier De Filippo

1999-01-01

398

A Critique of Criteria for Evaluating Vaccines for Inclusion in Mandatory School Immunization Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several new vaccines for children and young adults have been introduced recently and now appear on the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices' recom- mended childhood and adolescent immunization schedule (meningococcal, rotavi- rus, human papillomavirus). As new vaccines are introduced, states face complex decisions regarding which vaccines to fund and which vaccines to require for school or child care entry. This

Douglas J. Opel; Douglas S. Diekema; Edgar K. Marcuse

2010-01-01

399

Improved vaccination against Newcastle disease by an in ovo recombinant HVT-ND combined with an adjuvanted live vaccine at day-old  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous outbreaks of fatal Newcastle disease (ND) in commercial poultry flocks demonstrate that current vaccination strategies are not fully efficacious and should be improved by new generation of vaccines. In this context, maternally immune conventional layer chickens were vaccinated in ovo with a turkey herpesvirus recombinant expressing the fusion (F) gene of NDV (rHVT-ND) and\\/or at day-old with an

Fabienne Rauw; Yannick Gardin; Vilmos Palya; Sofia Anbari; Sophie Lemaire; Marc Boschmans; Thierry van den Berg; Bénédicte Lambrecht

2010-01-01

400

Immunoenhancing effects of MontanideTM ISA oil-based adjuvants on recombinant coccidia antigen vaccination against Eimeria acervulina infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The current study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of Montanide' adjuvants on protein subunit vaccination against avian coccidiosis. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mixed with one ...

401

Late Marek's disease in adult chickens inoculated with virulent Marek's disease virus.  

PubMed

Recently, excessive losses from Marek's disease (MD) have been noted in adult laying flocks over the age of 40 weeks. We defined these late outbreaks in adult chickens as "late MD", and experimentally reproduced the disease in adult SPF P2 line (50-week-old) or commercial line (74-week-old) chickens inoculated with a virulent strain of Marek's disease virus (MDV). Commercial line chickens were given MDV vaccines (HVT and CVI 988) at hatch. The occurrence of MD was evaluated periodically by the evidence of neurologic signs such as paralysis, torticollis, ataxia, and/or nervous tics, as well as histopathological examination. In P2 line chickens, neurologic signs and MD lymphoma were observed from day 21 onward, and they tended to increase in a time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, in commercial line chickens, only one chicken exhibited MD lymphoma on day 70 post inoculation, but its pathogenesis was questionable. No regression of MD lymphoma was noted in either case. The lesions in the visceral organs, thymus, peripheral nerves, and feather pulps of P2 line chickens were characterized by proliferation of variably sized lymphoid cells. In the feather follicle epithelium, numerous inclusion bodies were noted on day 21 post-inoculation, which tended to decrease afterwards. The morphological findings obtained resembled late MD in field cases. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that adult SPF P2 line chickens are susceptible to virulent MDV, and would be useful for investigation of late MD. PMID:20651465

Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Goryo, Masanobu; Sasaki, Jun; Haridy, Mohie; Okada, Kosuke

2010-07-21

402

Molecular evaluation of responses to vaccination and challenge by Marek's disease viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was utilized to study the in vivo replication of Marek's disease vaccine viruses and of virulent oncogenic strains. In the first of four experiments, the growth of the herpes virus of turkeys (HVT) vaccine was detectable in various organs of infected chicken embryos, with the highest viral loads being present in the spleen. No

Jianming Tan; Julie Cooke; Nadeene Clarke; Gregory A. Tannock

2007-01-01

403

A direct hippocampo-cerebellar projection in chicken.  

PubMed

Our previous studies suggested that a direct hippocampo-cerebellar projection might exist in the chicken. To confirm such a presumption of hippocampo-cerebellar interactions, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as a retrograde tracer to be injected into the white matter of the folia VI-VIII of the cerebellum in young and adult chickens. In another set of experiments, young chickens were subjected to electrolytic lesions of the hippocampal formation (HF), especially the ventromedial portion, and the cerebellum was observed with the electron microscope to find neuronal degeneration in the HF. Following injections of HRP into the cerebellum, a large number of labeled neurons were found in the area APHm-APHim of the HF in the young and adult chickens. As a result of the electrolytic lesions of the APHm-APHim in the HF, many large degenerated nerve fibers were found in the white matter in the vicinity of the lateral nucleus of the cerebellum, and some small degenerated fibers were found in the white matter of the folia VI-VIII. In the cerebellar cortex of folia VI-VIII, degenerated axonal terminals occurred in both the molecular and Purkinje layers, but not in the granular layer. In the lateral nucleus, some dark degenerating axonal terminals were recognized to connect with the perikarya of neurons of this nucleus. The present experiments demonstrate that the APHm-APHim of the HF directly projected to the cortex of folia VI-VIII and the lateral nucleus of the cerebellum in young chickens. PMID:22692931

Liu, Weimin; Zhang, Yanxiao; Yuan, Wenju; Wang, Juan; Li, Shaohuan

2012-06-13

404

Vaccination against herpesvirus, fiction or reality?  

PubMed

Against Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) there are commercially available vaccines which may induce protection against symptoms of primary infections, but not against establishment of latency. Effective animal vaccines have been developed against herpes simplex-like viruses, for example pseudorabies vaccine for pigs, and an experimental vaccine can protect cattle against infection with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus. There are also commercially available effective live vaccines against Marek's disease virus which belongs to the lymphoproliferative group of herpesviruses and causes lymphoma in chicken. An experimental immunostimulating complex (iscom) vaccine against Equine herpesvirus 2, an equine cytomegalovirus, has been tested in horse and protective immunity was induced. In man vaccines against Cytomegalovirus are used in immunosuppressed patients. Several laboratory animal models have been created for HSV-1 and HSV-2 mostly using mice but also guinea pigs. In these models many different HSV-1 or HSV-2 vaccines have been tested and induced protective immunity. The antigens in the vaccines have been envelope proteins extracted from native virus or envelope glycoproteins gB or gD in single or combined use. Glycoprotein C seems to be a less interesting as antigen for a HSV-1 vaccine. The cottontop tamarin monkey has been studied as a model for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) induced lymphoma. An iscom vaccine containing the envelop protein gp340 of EBV induced full protection in the cottontop tamarins against a challenge infection. The iscom vaccine concept is discussed and the formation of an iscom particle with "tailor made" antigens and immunomodulators is presented. PMID:1666442

Morein, B; Merza, M

1991-01-01

405

DNA vaccines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

Gregersen, Jens-Peter

2001-10-01

406

A lack of antibody formation against inactivated influenza virus after aerosol vaccination in presence or absence of adjuvantia.  

PubMed

In the poultry industry, infections with avian influenza virus (AIV) can result in significant economic losses. The risk and the size of an outbreak might be restricted by vaccination of poultry. A vaccine that would be used for rapid intervention during an outbreak should be safe to use, highly effective after a single administration and be suitable for mass application. A vaccine that could be applied by spray or aerosol would be suitable for mass application, but respiratory applied inactivated influenza is poorly immunogenic and needs to be adjuvanted. We chose aluminum OH, chitosan, cholera toxin B subunit (CT-B), and Stimune as adjuvant for an aerosolized vaccine with inactivated H9N2. Each adjuvant was tested in two doses. None of the adjuvanted vaccines induced AIV-specific antibodies after single vaccination, measured 1 and 3 weeks after vaccination by aerosol, in contrast to the intramuscularly applied vaccine. The aerosolized vaccine did enter the chickens' respiratory tract as CT-B-specific serum antibodies were detected after 1 week in chickens vaccinated with the CT-B-adjuvanted vaccine. Chickens showed no adverse effects after the aerosol vaccination based on weight gain and clinical signs. The failure to detect AIV-specific antibodies might be due to the concentration of the inactivated virus. PMID:21683456

de Geus, Eveline D; van Haarlem, Daphne A; Poetri, Okti N; de Wit, J J Sjaak; Vervelde, L