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Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to investigate the differential impact of live and killed Salmonella enteritidis (SE) vaccines on cell-mediated immunity of very young birds (2-5 weeks of age) as well as 16-week-old White Leghorn hens. The hens were vaccinated with the 2 vaccines, and two weeks later, CMI ...


AA amyloidosis in vaccinated growing chickens.  


Systemic amyloid-A (AA) amyloidosis in birds occurs most frequently in waterfowl such as Pekin ducks. In chickens, AA amyloidosis is observed as amyloid arthropathy. Outbreaks of systemic amyloidosis in flocks of layers are known to be induced by repeated inflammatory stimulation, such as those resulting from multiple vaccinations with oil-emulsified bacterins. Outbreaks of fatal AA amyloidosis were observed in growing chickens in a large scale poultry farm within 3 weeks of vaccination with multiple co-administered vaccines. This study documents the histopathological changes in tissues from these birds. Amyloid deposits were also observed at a high rate in the tissues of apparently healthy chickens. Vaccination should therefore be considered as a potential risk factor for the development of AA amyloidosis in poultry. PMID:23570943

Murakami, T; Inoshima, Y; Sakamoto, E; Fukushi, H; Sakai, H; Yanai, T; Ishiguro, N



Egg drop syndrome 1976 (EDS?76) virus infection in inadequately vaccinated chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out to study the epizootiology of the egg drop syndrome 1976 virus infection in chickens that were not adequately protected by vaccination. Virus excretion was demonstrated when chickens vaccinated at the recommended level were challenged within 10 days of vaccination and when chickens were challenged 6 weeks after administration of low doses of vaccine. In the latter

Jane K. A. Cook



Vaccine Reduces HPV Infections in Young Men

An international randomized clinical trial has shown that the vaccine Gardasil can reduce the incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young men 16 to 26 years of age at the time of vaccination.


Transmission of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) between unvaccinated, sub-optimally vaccinated, and well-vaccinated SPF chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to determine the transmissibility of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in vaccinated chickens. Chickens were vaccinated with live LaSota and challenged 21 days later with CA02. Two days after challenge, the vaccinated and infected chickens were moved into clean i...


DNA vaccination with VP2 gene fragment confers protection against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in chickens.  


Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) causes immunosuppression in young chickens by destruction of antibody producing B cells in the Bursa of Fabricius and poses a potential threat to the poultry industry. We have examined the protective efficacy of a subunit DNA vaccine against IBDV infection in chickens in this study. An immunodominant VP2 gene fragment (VP252-417) was cloned into CMV promoter based DNA vaccine vector pVAX1 and in vitro expression of the DNA encoded antigens was confirmed by transfection of CHO cells with vaccine constructs followed by RT-PCR and western blot analysis using IBDV-antiserum. Two weeks old chickens were immunized intramuscularly with pVAXVP252-417 and the in vivo transcription of the plasmid DNA was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of DNA injected muscle tissue at different intervals of post immunization. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that the plasmid DNA was extensively distributed in muscle, spleen, kidney, liver, and bursa tissues. Chickens immunized with pVAXVP252-417 developed high titer (1:12,000) of anti-VP252-417 antibodies. Further, chicken splenocytes from pVAXVP252-417 immunized group showed a significantly high proliferation to the whole viral and recombinant antigen (P<0.01) compared to control groups, which implies that pVAXVP252-417 codes for immunogenic fragment which has epitopes capable of eliciting both B and T cell responses. This is evident by the fact that, pVAXVP252-417 immunized chicken conferred 75% protection against virulent IBDV (vIBDV) challenge compared to the control group. Thus, the present study confirms that the immunodominant VP2 fragment can be used as a potential DNA vaccine against IBDV infection in chickens. PMID:24745626

Pradhan, Satya Narayan; Prince, Prabhu Rajaiah; Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Arunkumar, Chakkaravarthy; Roy, Parimal; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri; Antony, Usha



Avian influenza mucosal vaccination in chickens with replication-defective recombinant adenovirus vaccine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We evaluated protection conferred by mucosal vaccination with replication competent adenovirus (RCA)-free recombinant adenovirus expressing a codon-optimized avian influenza (AI) H5 gene (AdTW68.H5ck). Commercial layer-type chicken groups were singly vaccinated ocularly at 5 days of age, or singly v...


Mycoplasma synoviae infection on Newcastle disease vaccination of chickens  

PubMed Central

Newcastle disease is characterized by respiratory manifestations in association with nervous and/or digestive symptoms. Its prevention is done by vaccination with live attenuated (lentogenic strains) and/or killed vaccines. The lentogenic strains can lead to strong post-vaccination reaction, principally due to the presence of other pathogenic agents. Among them, Mycoplasma synoviae is worldwide important, mainly in Brazil. The dissemination of this agent in poultry flocks has been achieved due to difficulties in diagnosis and disease reproduction, virulence variations among different M.synoviae strains, and attribution of typical M.synoviae disease manifestation to other disease agents. This experimental study in SPF chicks (Gallus gallus), previously infected by M.synoviae and thereafter vaccinated against Newcastle disease, was done with the objective of evaluating M.synoviae pathogenicity through assessment of post-vaccinal respiratory reactions and serologic responses to Newcastle disease virus vaccine in the absence of environmental factors. A total of 86 three days old chicks were used, being 57 infected by eye and nostril drop, with chicken activated M. synoviae strain WVU 1853. Seven days later, 21 mycoplasma infected birds plus 29 not mycoplasma infected ones were vaccinated against Newcastle disease. As results, the not infected and vaccinated birds yielded, significantly, higher and longer lasting serologic responses to Newcastle disease vaccine virus than those infected and vaccinated. Similarly, the infected and vaccinated birds yielded lower serologic reactions to M.synoviae than those only mycoplasma infected. No post-vaccinal respiratory reaction was observed in the vaccinated birds. PMID:24031234

de Cássia Figueira Silva, Rita; do Nascimento, Elmiro Rosendo; de Almeida Pereira, Virgínia Léo; Barreto, Maria Lúcia; do Nascimento, Maria da Graça Fichel



Comparative Evaluation of Vaccine Efficacy of Recombinant Marek's Disease Virus Vaccine Lacking Meq Oncogene in Commercial Chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marek's disease virus oncogene meq has been identified as the gene involved in tumorigenesis in chickens. We have recently developed a Meq-null virus, rMd5delMeq, in which the oncogene Meq was deleted. Vaccine efficacy experiments conducted in ADOL 15I5 x 71 chickens vaccinated with rMd5delMeq virus...


Pathogenesis of Newcastle Disease in Vaccinated Chickens: Pathogenicity of Isolated Virus and Vaccine Effect on Challenge of Its Virus  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The pathogenicity of Newcastle disease (ND) virus, isolated from ND outbreak in vaccinated chickens, was evaluated through experiments. The pathogenicity indexes (mean death time (MDT); 58 hr, intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI); 1.7 and intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI); 2.51) indicated that the ND virus was velogenic. The ND virus caused lymphocytic necrosis in the spleen with fibrinous exudation and proliferation of macrophages, sinusoidal fibrin exudation in the liver, proliferation of macrophages in the lung, lymphocytic necrosis and depletion in the bursa of Fabricius, cecal tonsils and thymus, necrosis of bone marrow, tracheitis, conjunctivitis and necrosis of feather epithelial cells in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Immunohistochemically, ND virus antigens were seen in the lesions mentioned above. The ND virus could not induce the encephalitis and pancreatitis that were observed in the natural case of ND in vaccinated chickens. There was no clinical disease in vaccinated chickens after the challenge of the ND virus. In diluted ND vaccine experiments, chickens vaccinated with a high dilution of vaccine and then challenged with the ND virus showed clinical sign and mortality with pancreatic focal necrosis. Vaccine diluted with fresh tap water had no effect on protection against the challenge of the ND virus. This study suggests that improper vaccination may be involved in outbreaks of ND in vaccinated chickens. PMID:23966012

NAKAMURA, Kikuyasu; ITO, Mitsuru; NAKAMURA, Toshiki; YAMAMOTO, Yu; YAMADA, Manabu; MASE, Masaji; IMAI, Kunitoshi



Protection of chickens against avian influenza with non-replicating adenovirus-vectored vaccine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose vaccination with a replication competent adenovirus (RCA) -free human adenovirus (Ad) vector encoding a H7 hemagglutinin gene from a low pathogenic North American isolate (AdChNY94.H7). Chickens vaccinate...


Changes of cytokines and IgG antibody in chickens vaccinated with DNA vaccines encoding Eimeria acervulina lactate dehydrogenase.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of cytokines and specific serum IgG in chickens following vaccination with DNA vaccines encoding either Eimeria acervulina (E. acervulina) lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) antigen or LDH and chicken IL-2 or IFN-?. Two-week-old chickens were randomly divided into five groups. Experimental group of chickens were immunized with DNA vaccines while control group of chickens were injected with pVAX1 plasmid alone or sterile water. All immunizations were boosted 2 weeks later. The LDH-specific IgG antibody response was measured at weeks 1-6 post-second immunization. The result showed that the antibody titers in chickens vaccinated with DNA vaccines were significantly different from those of the control groups 1 week after the second immunization (P<0.05) and reached the maximum values 3 weeks post-second immunization. The systemic and local cytokine mRNA expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR 7 days post-second immunization. The specific IgG antibody levels against LDH of all chickens vaccinated with vaccines were increased compared to those of sterile water (H(2)O) and plasmid (pVAX1) control chickens 1-6 weeks post-second immunization (P<0.05). The mRNA levels of IFN-?, IL-2, TNFSF15, IL-17D as well as TGF-?4 in both spleen and cecal tonsil were also increased in experimental chickens. In contrast, the only significant change of IL-4 mRNA level was observed in spleen of chickens immunized with pVAX-LDH-IL-2 compared with pVAX-LDH and control groups (P<0.05). These results suggested that DNA vaccines could increase the IgG antibody level and induce the expressions of cytokines. PMID:20650568

Song, Hongyan; Song, Xiaokai; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Ruofeng; Shah, Muhammad Ali A; Li, Xiangrui




E-print Network


Boyer, Edmond


Vaccination and acute phase mediator production in chickens challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus; novel markers for vaccine efficacy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Methods to determine vaccine efficacy of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) isolates are limited in poultry because experimental infections with LPAI virus in specific pathogen free chickens rarely causes clinical disease. The most commonly used method to compare LPAI vaccine efficacy is to quant...


Avian influenza in ovo vaccination with replication defective recombinant adenovirus in chickens: Vaccine potency, antibody persistence, and maternal antibody transfer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) can be elicited in chickens in a single-dose regimen by in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad)-vector encoding the AI virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA). We evaluated vaccine potency, antibo...


The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox ®, a live anticoccidial vaccine in a commercial trial in broiler chickens in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox®, a live anticoccidial vaccine were examined and compared with an anticoccidial drug in a trial in broiler chickens under modern commercial conditions in China. In total, 40,660 chickens were used in the present study, half of which were vaccinated with the Supercox® vaccine comprising a precocious line of Eimeria tenella and non-attenuated lines

X. Suo; J. X. Zhang; Z. G. Li; C. T. Yang; Q. R. Min; L. T. Xu; Q. Liu; X. Q. Zhu



Evaluation of avian paramyxovirus serotypes 2 to 10 as vaccine vectors in chickens previously immunized against Newcastle disease virus.  


Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also known as avian paramyxovirus (APMV) serotype 1, is used as a vaccine vector to express the hemagglutinin protein of avian influenza (AI) virus. However, use of live NDV recombinant vaccines expressing AI virus hemagglutinin is not desirable in emergency vaccination programs to control severe AI outbreaks in chickens, because commercial chickens often possess pre-existing NDV immunity induced by routine vaccination. Therefore, a novel vaccine vector is required for emergency vaccination of chickens to control AI during outbreaks. We investigated whether candidate APMV strains could be used as vaccine vectors that could evade the pre-existing immunity acquired by chickens through NDV vaccination and that would replicate in the mucosal tissues where AI virus primarily replicates. To this end, we examined strains of APMV serotypes 2 to 10 for their immunogenicity and replication in chickens with pre-existing immunity to NDV. APMV serotypes 2, 6, and 10 were the least cross-reactive to antibodies to NDV in hemagglutination inhibition and/or virus neutralization tests. Virus replication in mucosal tissues, as well as antibody response after oculonasal inoculation, was observed when 7-week-old chickens were challenged with APMV of serotype 2, 6, or 10. The APMV also replicated in mucosal tissues and induced antibody responses in chickens that had been vaccinated twice with NDV before challenge. These results warrant further study to develop vaccine vectors based on APMV serotype 2, 6, or 10 for emergency vaccination of chickens against AI. PMID:24880702

Tsunekuni, Ryota; Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko



HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women  


... in time. Which girls/women should receive HPV vaccination? HPV vaccination is recommended with either vaccine for ... help prevent fainting and injuries. Why is HPV vaccination only recommended for women through age 26? HPV ...


Vaccination of birds other than chickens and turkeys against avian influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Most avian influenza (AI) vaccination and field studies have focused on chickens and turkeys because of their high death rates and the large amounts of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus that they excrete into the environment when infected. Data on vaccination of other species against HPAI remain limited. An increasing number of studies have been conducted to test

G. Koch; M. Steensels; T. van den Berg



Interaction between live avian pneumovirus and Newcastle disease virus vaccines in specific pathogen free chickens.  


One-day-old specific pathogen free White Leghorn chicks were vaccinated with live avian pneumovirus (APV) vaccine, live Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine or both. At intervals up to 28 days after vaccination, distribution of the virus in the tissues was studied, together with humoral and mucosal antibody responses in lachrymal fluid and tracheal washes. APV vaccine was detected for almost twice as long in the dual vaccinates as in the single vaccinates. Higher numbers of isolations of ND virus vaccine were obtained from the dual rather than the single vaccinates at 7 days post-vaccination but the reverse occurred at 14 days. APV serum antibodies were significantly lower in the dual rather than the single vaccinates. However, there were similar levels of local APV-specific IgA in the lachrymal fluids of both single and dual APV vaccinates. NDV serum antibody titres in the dual vaccinates were significantly higher than in the singly NDV-vaccinated chickens. It appears that simultaneous vaccination of chicks with live APV and NDV vaccines causes temporary suppression of APV vaccine proliferation and reduces humoral antibody responses to it, although the antibody response to NDV is enhanced. PMID:16147565

Ganapathy, K; Cargill, P; Montiel, E; Jones, R C



A self-propelled, constant-speed spray vaccinator for commercial layer chickens.  


Vaccination of commercial layer chickens is labor intensive and often results in poor rates of seroconversion, which, in turn, generally correlate with decreased flock uniformity and performance. Attempts to improve the vaccination process include numerous variations of individual shop-built vaccinators in use by the layer sector of the poultry industry. Each of these vaccinators has limitations that contribute to poor vaccinations. Major problems include the nonuniform speed of the applicator system and pressure fluctuations at the spray nozzles, which contribute to sporadic dispersion of the vaccine as the vaccinator is pushed or carried past the cages. A battery-powered, self-propelled, constant-speed vaccinator was designed and constructed that operates with constant nozzle pressure. In field use, this vaccinator has resulted in both labor savings (reduction of manpower from five to one to vaccinate 75,000 chickens) and time savings (from 45 min to 7.5 min/poultry house) as well as improved vaccination results (higher positive seroconversion rates) against the poultry pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), a bacterium associated with losses of 15.7 eggs/hen over a 45-wk laying period in MG-infected layers as compared with layers maintained free from infection with MG. PMID:15839429

Branton, S L; Roush, W B; Lott, B D; Evans, J D; Dozier, W A; Collier, S D; Bearson, S M D; Bearson, B L; Pharr, G T



Differential genetic variation of chickens and MD vaccine protective efficacy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vaccine protective efficacy is determined by multiple factors including host genetics, the type of vaccine, vaccine dosage, the virulence and dose of challenging viruses, and the interval between vaccination and viral challenge. Studies on human immune responses to vaccinations suggest host genetic...


Effects of DDA, CpG-ODN, and plasmid-encoded chicken IFN-? on protective immunity by a DNA vaccine against IBDV in chickens  

PubMed Central

This study examined the adjuvant effects of dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDA), CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN), and chicken interferon-? (ChIFN-?) on a DNA vaccine (pcDNA-VP243) against the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). A plasmid encoding chicken IFN-ã was constructed. Twice at 2-week intervals, two-week-old chickens were injected intramuscularly and intraperitoneally with either a DNA vaccine alone or a DNA vaccine together with the respective adjuvants. On week 2 after the second immunization, the chickens were orally challenged with the highly virulent IBDV. The groups that received the DNA vaccines plus either DDA or CpG-ODN showed significantly lower survival rates than the group that received the DNA vaccine alone. However, the survival rates for the DNA vaccine alone and for the DNA vaccine plus ChIFN-? were similar. The chickens had no detectable antibodies to the IBDV before the challenge but all the surviving chickens in all groups except for the normal control group showed the induction of antibodies to the IBDV at day 10 after the challenge. As judged by the lymphocyte proliferation assays using the a WST-8 solution performed on the peripheral blood and splenic lymphocytes, the stimulation indices (SI) of the peripheral blood lymphocytes in all groups except for the normal control group were similar immediately before the challenge. At 10 days post-challenge, the SI for DNA vaccine plus either CpG-ODN or ChIFN-? was similar to that of the DNA vaccine control group. For splenic lymphocytes, the SI in the DNA vaccine plus CpG-ODN and DNA vaccine plus ChIFN-? groups were higher than for the DNA vaccine control. These results suggest that DDA actually compromises the protection against the IBDV by DNA vaccine, and CpG-ODN and IFN-? had no significant effect. PMID:17106228

Roh, Ha Jung; Sung, Haan Woo



A field demonstration of rabies control using chicken-embryo vaccine in dogs*  

PubMed Central

This paper reports on a WHO-sponsored field trial of the use, in conjunction with other usual control measures, of modified living-virus vaccine prepared in chicken embryo in a mass vaccination campaign in dogs in Israel with the purpose of assessing the value of the vaccine in an area where rabies was highly enzootic. The mass immunization of dogs with this vaccine was considered to be the decisive factor in achieving the low level of incidence of the disease which has been maintained in this country during the past three years. PMID:13182595

Kaplan, M. M.; Goor, Y.; Tierkel, E. S.



Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability Among Young Adults in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high prevalence setting of South Africa—where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. In 2007, we conducted six focus groups (n=42) with South Africans aged 18-24 years old. We used a deductive framework approach to identify key motivators and barriers to future HIV vaccine uptake. Participants identified HIV testing, HIV stigma, mistrust of the health care system, and concerns about sexual disinhibition as barriers to vaccine uptake. For women, family members and friends were strong motivators for vaccine uptake, while men were more likely to see vaccines as an opportunity to stop using HIV prevention strategies such as condoms and partner reductions. Implications of these findings for developing HIV vaccine dissemination strategies and policy in South Africa are discussed. PMID:19509123

Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.



Expression of chicken parvovirus VP2 in chicken embryo fibroblasts requires codon optimization for production of naked DNA and vectored Meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 vaccines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 (MeHV-1) is an ideal vector for the expression of antigens from pathogenic avian organisms in order to generate vaccines. Chicken parvovirus (ChPV) is a widespread infectious virus that causes serious disease in chickens. It is one of the etiological agents largely suspe...


Analysis of humoral immune response and cytokines in chickens vaccinated with Eimeria brunetti apical membrane antigen-1 (EbAMA1) DNA vaccine.  


This study aimed to determine the changes of cytokines, specific serum IgG and several parameters in chickens vaccinated with DNA vaccine encoding Eimeria brunetti apical membrane antigen-1 (EbAMA1) antigen. Two-week-old chickens were divided into five groups (four groups for experiment) randomly. Experimental groups of chickens were immunized with DNA vaccine while control group of chickens were injected with pVAX1 plasmid alone or TE buffer solution. All immunizations were boosted 2 weeks later. The EbAMA1 specific IgG antibody responses were measured at weeks 1-6 post-second immunizations and several parameters were also identified. The result showed that the antibody titers in chickens vaccinated with DNA vaccines were significantly different from those of the control groups 1 week after the second immunization and reached the maximum values 3 weeks post-second immunization. IFN-? concentration was increased the highest level against EbAMA1 of all chickens vaccinated with vaccines up to 56-fold, follow by the specific IgG antibody levels were increased 10-17-fold compared with those of TE solution and plasmid (pVAX1) control chickens 1-6 weeks post-second immunization. In case of the levels of IL-10 and IL-17 was increased in experimental chickens with 4-5-fold. Even though it was statistically significant, TGF-? and IL-4 levels were higher in vaccinated than unvaccinated chickens. The results suggested that DNA vaccines encoding E. brunetti apical membrane antigen-1 (EbAMA1) could increase serum specific IgG antibody and cytokines concentration and could give protection against E. brunetti infection. PMID:24815774

Hoan, Tran Duc; Thao, Doan Thi; Gadahi, Javaid Ali; Song, Xiaokai; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Ruofeng; Li, Xiangrui



Effects of interferon-? knockdown on vaccine-induced immunity against Marek's disease in chickens.  


Interferon (IFN)-? has been shown to be associated with immunity to Marek's disease virus (MDV). The overall objective of this study was to investigate the causal relationship between IFN-? and vaccine-conferred immunity against MDV in chickens. To this end, 3 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting chicken IFN-?, which had previously been shown to reduce IFN-? expression in vitro, and a control siRNA were selected to generate recombinant avian adeno-associated virus (rAAAV) expressing short-hairpin small interfering RNAs (shRNAs). An MDV challenge trial was then conducted: chickens were vaccinated with herpesvirus of turkey (HVT), administered the rAAAV expressing shRNA, and then challenged with MDV. Tumors were observed in 4 out of 10 birds that were vaccinated with HVT and challenged but did not receive any rAAAV, 5 out of 9 birds that were administered the rAAAV containing IFN-? shRNA, and 2 out of 10 birds that were administered a control enhanced green fluorescent protein siRNA. There was no significant difference in MDV genome load in the feather follicle epithelium of the birds that were cotreated with the vaccine and the rAAAV compared with the vaccinated MDV-infected birds. These results suggest that AAAV-based vectors can be used for the delivery of shRNA into chicken cells. However, administration of the rAAAV expressing shRNA targeting chicken IFN-? did not seem to fully abrogate vaccine-induced protection. PMID:25673902

Haq, Kamran; Wootton, Sarah K; Barjesteh, Neda; Golovan, Serguei; Bendall, Andrew; Sharif, Shayan



A eukaryotic expression plasmid carrying chicken interleukin-18 enhances the response to newcastle disease virus vaccine.  


Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an important cytokine involved in innate and acquired immunity. In this study, we cloned the full-length chicken IL-18 (ChIL-18) gene from specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicken embryo spleen cells and provided evidence that the ChIL-18 gene in a recombinant plasmid was successfully expressed in chicken DT40 cells. ChIL-18 significantly enhanced gamma interferon (IFN-?) mRNA expression in chicken splenocytes, which increased IFN-?-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by macrophages. The potential genetic adjuvant activity of the ChIL-18 plasmid was examined in chickens by coinjecting ChIL-18 plasmid and inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. ChIL-18 markedly elevated serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers and anti-hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (anti-HN)-specific antibody levels, induced the secretion of both Th1- (IFN-?) and Th2- (interleukin-4) type cytokines, promoted the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes, and increased the populations of CD3(+) T cells and their subsets, CD3(+) CD4(+) and CD3(+) CD8(+) T cells. Furthermore, a virus challenge revealed that ChIL-18 contributed to protection against Newcastle disease virus challenge. Taken together, our data indicate that the coadministration of ChIL-18 plasmid and NDV vaccine induces a strong immune response at both the humoral and cellular levels and that ChIL-18 is a novel immunoadjuvant suitable for NDV vaccination. PMID:25355794

Wang, Chen; Li, Xiaokang; Zhang, Chunjie; Wu, Tingcai; Li, Yinju; Cheng, Xiangchao



Vaccination prevents virus contamination inside of eggs laid by newcastle disease virus infected chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Newcastle disease causes a severe systemic disease in chickens with viremia and high mortality. The transmission of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) through the egg has been suggested, but definitive proof of virus passing through the egg is lacking. Furthermore, the role of vaccination to mitigate any...


Cellular and Cytokine Responses in Feathers of Chickens Vaccinated Against Marek's Disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of the study was to characterize cellular and cytokine responses as indicators of cell-mediated immune response in feathers of chickens vaccinated against Marek’s disease (MD). Feathers constitute the site of virus shedding in the case of Marek’s disease virus (MDV). The feather sample...


Subclinical Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection among Vaccinated Chickens, China  

PubMed Central

Subclinical infection of vaccinated chickens with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N2) virus was identified through routine surveillance in China. Investigation suggested that the virus has evolved into multiple genotypes. To better control transmission of the virus, we recommend a strengthened program of education, biosecurity, rapid diagnostics, surveillance, and elimination of infected poultry. PMID:25418710

Ma, Qing-Xia; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Liu, Shuo; Wang, Su-Chun; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Hou, Guang-Yu; Liu, Xiang-Ming; Sui, Zheng-Hong



Subclinical highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection among vaccinated chickens, China.  


Subclinical infection of vaccinated chickens with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N2) virus was identified through routine surveillance in China. Investigation suggested that the virus has evolved into multiple genotypes. To better control transmission of the virus, we recommend a strengthened program of education, biosecurity, rapid diagnostics, surveillance, and elimination of infected poultry. PMID:25418710

Ma, Qing-Xia; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Liu, Shuo; Wang, Su-Chun; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Hou, Guang-Yu; Liu, Xiang-Ming; Sui, Zheng-Hong; Chen, Ji-Ming



The effect of dietary lysine deficiency on the immune response to Newcastle disease vaccination in chickens.  


The effect of lysine deficiency on chicken immune function was evaluated using broiler chickens fed a diet with lysine at 67% of the control diet (1.24% lysine). The evaluation of humoral immune function was conducted by measuring the antibody production to a live Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccination using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cellular immune function was evaluated through the use of cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity test. The antibody response to NDV vaccination was reduced in broiler chickens fed a lysine-deficient diet when measured by ELISA but not when measured by HI. The cell-mediated immune response was also reduced by lysine deficiency. PMID:14708981

Chen, C; Sander, J E; Dale, N M



Human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance among young men in Bangalore, India  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world. It can lead to anogenital, cervical, and head and neck cancer, with higher risk of malignant disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. In India, 73,000 of the 130,000 women diagnosed with cervical cancer die annually. Gardasil®, a vaccine available against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, is approved for use in women in India but not men. A backlash to post-licensure trials has created a negative public opinion of the vaccine for women. Vaccinating boys and men is an alternate approach to prevent cervical cancer in women. This study gauges facilitators and barriers to vaccination acceptance among men in Bangalore, India. Materials and methods Young men presenting to a dermatology clinic or an ART center in Bangalore, India, answered a seven-point survey assessing acceptance of the HPV vaccine, perceived barriers to vaccination, and acceptance of vaccination for their children. Ninety-three general dermatology patients and 85 patients with HIV/AIDS participated. Results There was a high degree of vaccine acceptance for both groups, 83 and 98%, respectively. Vaccine side effects and cost were cited as key barriers to vaccination, and doctor recommendation and government approval were the main facilitators. Conclusion There is potential for high acceptability of the HPV vaccine among men in India. These results can facilitate further study of vaccine acceptance among males and physician opinion and knowledge about HPV vaccine use. Vaccination of males is a hopeful strategy to protect men and women from HPV-related malignancies. PMID:24961359

Belani, Hrishikesh Kumar; Sekar, Poorani; Guhaniyogi, Rajarshi; Abraham, Anil; Bohjanen, Paul R.; Bohjanen, Kim



Adjuvant effect of ginsenoside-based nanoparticles (ginsomes) on the recombinant vaccine against Eimeria tenella in chickens.  


An experiment was conducted to study the adjuvant effect of ginsomes on the recombinant profilin in coccidian-infected breeding birds. Three-day-old chickens were vaccinated with Eimeria tenella recombinant profilin antigen (10, 50, and 100 ?g per chicken) with or without 50 ?g ginsomes per chicken. The boost vaccination was carried out 14 days later. Two weeks after the booster, the chickens were challenged with 1.5?×?10(4) homologous sporulated oocysts. The specific antibody response, lymphocyte proliferation, and IL-1 release from lymphocyte were measured at 1-42 days after boost vaccination. Seven days post-challenge, the rate of survival, body weight gains (BWG) were examined then all chickens were sacrificed and lesion scores and oocysts per gram were monitored to evaluate the protective effects of the vaccination after challenge. Compared with the group of vaccinating with profilin only, groups of 50 and 100 ?g antigen plus ginsomes significantly enhanced lymphocyte proliferation and IL-1 secretion. The profilin specific antibody level in the four vaccinated groups was significantly higher than in the control group and in groups vaccinated with profilin containing ginsomes than profilin only. In the groups vaccinated with profilin plus ginsomes, the BWG was significantly higher than that of group of profilin only, but there was no significant difference between profilin plus adjuvant ginsomes, diclazuril medicated and uninfected-unmedicated-unvaccinated control groups. The lesion scores in groups immunized with profilin plus ginsomes was significantly lower than that both of groups unimmunized-challenged-unmedicated control and group vaccinated with profilin only. Oocyst excretion in groups vaccinated with 50 or 100 ?g profilin plus ginsomes was lower than that of groups vaccinated with profilin only. These results demonstrate that the adjuvant ginsomes can promote subunit vaccine to induce a strong immune response and protective effects. PMID:22215190

Zhang, De-Fu; Xu, Hui; Sun, Bing-Bing; Li, Jian-Qiu; Zhou, Qian-Jin; Zhang, Hong-Li; Du, Ai-Fang



Ascaridia galli infection influences the development of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity after Newcastle Disease vaccination in chickens.  


Potent vaccine efficiency is crucial for disease control in both human and livestock vaccination programmes. Free range chickens and chickens with access to outdoor areas have a high risk of infection with parasites including Ascaridia galli, a gastrointestinal nematode with a potential influence on the immunological response to vaccination against other infectious diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether A. galli infection influences vaccine-induced immunity to Newcastle Disease (ND) in chickens from an MHC-characterized inbred line. Chickens were experimentally infected with A. galli at 4 weeks of age or left as non-parasitized controls. At 10 and 13 weeks of age half of the chickens were ND-vaccinated and at 16 weeks of age, all chickens were challenged with a lentogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). A. galli infection influenced both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses after ND vaccination. Thus, significantly lower NDV serum titres were found in the A. galli-infected group as compared to the non-parasitized group early after vaccination. In addition, the A. galli-infected chickens showed significantly lower frequencies of NDV-specific T cells in peripheral blood three weeks after the first ND vaccination as compared to non-parasitized chickens. Finally, A. galli significantly increased local mRNA expression of IL-4 and IL-13 and significantly decreased TGF-ß4 expression in the jejunum two weeks after infection with A. galli. At the time of vaccination (six and nine weeks after A. galli infection) the local expression in the jejunum of both IFN-? and IL-10 was significantly decreased in A. galli-infected chickens. Upon challenge with the NDV LaSota strain, viral genomes persisted in the oral cavity for a slightly longer period of time in A. galli-infected vaccinees as compared to non-parasitized vaccinees. However, more work is needed in order to determine if vaccine-induced protective immunity is impaired in A. galli-infected chickens. PMID:24269617

Pleidrup, Janne; Dalgaard, Tina S; Norup, Liselotte R; Permin, Anders; Schou, Torben W; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Vadekær, Dorte F; Jungersen, Gregers; Sørensen, Poul; Juul-Madsen, Helle R



Interaction between a live avian pneumovirus vaccine and two different Newcastle disease virus vaccines in broiler chickens with maternal antibodies to Newcastle disease virus.  


Broiler chicks with maternal antibodies to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) but none to avian metapneumovirus (APV) were divided into six groups. One group was kept as an unvaccinated control group. Three of the other groups were vaccinated at 1 day old with live APV vaccine or one of two live NDV vaccines (VG/GA or HB1). The remaining two groups received the APV vaccine in combination with either of the two NDV vaccines at 1 day old. At intervals after vaccination for up to 42 days, distribution of the viruses in the tissues was monitored, together with humoral antibody responses. Few NDV isolations were made from any NDV-vaccinated chicks, probably due to the presence of NDV maternal antibodies. In both dual-vaccinated groups, APV persisted longer (up to 21 days post vaccination (d.p.v.)) than in the single vaccinates (up to 14 d.p.v.). After 14 d.p.v., antibody titres against APV in both dual-vaccinated groups remained higher than the single APV vaccinates. For NDV haemagglutination inhibition antibodies, similar titres were found in the single and dual NDV VG/GA vaccinates. However, for chickens dually vaccinated with NDV HB1 and APV, the haemagglutination inhibition titres were significantly higher at 21 and 28 d.p.v. than the single HB1 vaccinates. These differences reflect the fact that NDV haemagglutination inhibition titres may depend on the NDV vaccine used. PMID:17121730

Ganapathy, K; Todd, V; Cargill, P; Montiel, E; Jones, R C



Effects of Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients on peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titer after vaccination in chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of these experiments is to study the effects of Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (CHMIs) on peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titer in chicken vaccinated with Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine. Nine CHMIs were chosen for the experiments. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), Isatis root polysaccharide (IRPS), Epimedium flavone (EF), Propolis flavone (PF), Astragalosides (AS) and Ginsenosides (GS) could promote lymphocyte

Xiangfeng Kong; Yuanliang Hu; Rong Rui; Deyun Wang; Xiangrui Li



The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox, a live anticoccidial vaccine in a commercial trial in broiler chickens in China.  


The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox, a live anticoccidial vaccine were examined and compared with an anticoccidial drug in a trial in broiler chickens under modern commercial conditions in China. In total, 40,660 chickens were used in the present study, half of which were vaccinated with the Supercox vaccine comprising a precocious line of Eimeria tenella and non-attenuated lines of Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina, and the other half were medicated with Diclazuril delivered as feed additive at the dosage of 1mg/kg of feed. The vaccine was administered orally to 7-day-old chickens. No clinical diseases were diagnosed in any of the vaccinated birds. However, clinical coccidiosis occurred in a large proportion of medicated control birds and these chickens had to be treated with anticoccidial drugs (Diclazuril and Toltrazuril). Comparison of production performance between vaccinated birds and medicated control birds revealed that the vaccine Supercox performed better than anticoccidial drugs in terms of mortalities, costs and overall economic benefits (profits). These findings demonstrated that the use of the Supercox vaccine could control clinical coccidiosis in broilers and achieve production performance superior to that using anticoccidial drugs, particularly where drug resistance might result in failure to control clinical diseases. PMID:16876953

Suo, X; Zhang, J X; Li, Z G; Yang, C T; Min, Q R; Xu, L T; Liu, Q; Zhu, X Q



Vaccination of chickens with strain CVL30, a genetically defined Salmonella enteritidis aroA live oral vaccine candidate.  

PubMed Central

Newly hatched chicks were vaccinated orally with a genetically defined Salmonella enteritidis aroA candidate, strain CVL30. In chickens immunized with 10(5) or 10(9) CFU and challenged by the intravenous route with 10(8) CFU of S. enteritidis 109 Nalr at 8 weeks old, there were similar reductions in colonization of the spleens, livers, and ceca of vaccinees compared with unvaccinated controls. Two groups of newly hatched female chicks were vaccinated orally with 10(9) CFU of strain CVL30, and one group was revaccinated intramuscularly with 10(9) CFU at 16 weeks old. When challenged intravenously with S. enteritidis 109 Nalr at 23 weeks old, there was a reduction in the colonization of spleens, livers, ovaries, and ceca compared with unvaccinated controls. Inclusion of the intramuscular booster gave increased protection to the ovary, although the vaccine strain was isolated on one occasion from a batch of eggs laid at 20 weeks old. In chickens immunized with 10(9) CFU of strain CVL30 and challenged orally with 10(9) CFU of S. enteritidis 109 Nalr, there was a reduction in intestinal shedding of the challenge strain from vaccines compared with unvaccinated controls. Circulating immunoglobulin G antibodies to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were detected in unvaccinated controls within 7 to 10 days of oral challenge. In contrast, circulating immunoglobulin G antibodies to LPS in vaccinees were not altered by the oral challenge, which suggested that vaccination reduced or prevented invasion by the challenge strain from the gut or multiplication of the challenge strain in the tissues. Newly hatched chicks were vaccinated orally with ca. 10(9) CFU of strain CVL30, and 1 day later, the vaccines and unvaccinated controls were challenged orally with 10(5) or 10(9) CFU of S. enteritidis 109 Nalr. Colonization of the ceca and invasion from the gut by the S. enteritidis challenge strain was reduced in the vaccines up to 5 days postchallenge compared with controls. In a second trial, vaccinees and controls were challenged orally with 10(7) or 10(9) CFU of S. typhimurium 2391 Nalr. In contrast to the challenge with S. enteritidis, colonization of the ceca and invasion by the S. typhimurium strain were not greatly reduced. PMID:7927750

Cooper, G L; Venables, L M; Woodward, M J; Hormaeche, C E



Protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine construct encoding the VP2 gene of infectious bursal disease and a truncated HSP70 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in chickens.  


Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, infectious, immunosuppressive disease affecting young chicken worldwide. The etiological agent IBD virus (IBDV) is a double stranded RNA virus with outer capsid protein VP2 of IBDV is the major antigenic determinant capable of inducing neutralizing antibody. DNA vaccines encoding VP2 has been extensively studied achieving only partial protection. However, the efficacy of DNA vaccines against IBDV can be augmented by choosing a potential molecular adjuvant. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the immune response and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding the C-terminal domain of the heat shock protein 70 (cHSP70) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene genetically fused with the full length VP2 gene of IBDV (pCIVP2-cHSP70) in comparison to a 'DNA prime-protein boost' approach and a DNA vaccine encoding the VP2 gene (pCIVP2) alone. The results indicate that both pCIVP2-cHSP70 and 'DNA prime-protein boost' elicited humoral as well as cellular immune responses. Chickens in the pCIVP2-cHSP70 and 'DNA prime-protein boost' groups developed significantly higher levels of ELISA titer to IBDV antigen compared to the group immunized with pCIVP2 alone (p<0.01). However, significantly higher levels of lymphocyte proliferative response, IL-12 and IFN-? production were found in the pCIVP2-cHSP70 group compared to 'DNA prime-protein boost' group. Additionally, chickens immunized with pCIVP2-cHSP70 and 'DNA prime-protein boost' vaccines were completely protected against the vvIBDV whereas pCIVP2 DNA vaccine alone was able to protect only 70%. These findings suggest that the truncated C-terminal HSP70 mediated DNA vaccine genetically fused with the VP2 gene construct stimulated both humoral and cell mediated immune responses and conferred complete protection against IBDV. This novel strategy is perhaps a seminal concept in utilizing HSP70 as an adjuvant molecule to elicit an immune response against IBD affecting chickens. PMID:25596458

Maity, Hemanta Kumar; Dey, Sohini; Mohan, C Madhan; Khulape, Sagar A; Pathak, Dinesh C; Vakharia, Vikram N



Baculovirus-derived hemagglutinin vaccine protects chickens from lethal homologous virus H5N1 challenge.  


Since outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in both human and poultry from 2003, it is critical to have effective vaccines. A cDNA fragment coding the entire hemagglutinin (HA) gene derived from an H5N1 strain (A/duck/China/E319-2/03) was cloned and expressed using the baculovirus system. Two weeks after receiving two doses of recombinant HA (rHA) vaccines, chickens develop high antibody response for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) at titer 7.2 log(2). Challenge studies revealed that vaccinated chickens with HI titers greater than 3 log(2) could have immunoprotection against the same HPAI H5N1 strain virus challenge through intranasal route. Additionally, HI titer of 5 log(2) determined whether the live viruses could not be detected from oropharyngeal, cloacal discharge or in tissues. This result suggests that the rHA expressed from baculovirus system could be a candidate for the development of a safe and efficient subunit vaccine for HPAI (H5N1). PMID:19057130

Lin, Y J; Deng, M C; Wu, S H; Chen, Y L; Cheng, H C; Chang, C Y; Lee, M S; Chien, M S; Huang, C C



Duration of immunity induced in chickens by an attenuated live Salmonella enteritidis vaccine and an inactivated Salmonella enteritidis/typhimurium vaccine.  


The aim of this study was to examine the duration of immunity of different vaccination schemes using the S. enteritidis live vaccine Gallivac Se and the S. enteritidis-S. typhimurium inactivated vaccine Gallimune Se+St. Three groups of Lohman Brown chickens were used. Group one was vaccinated three times orally with Gallivac Se at weeks one, seven and 13 of age. Group two was vaccinated twice orally with Gallivac Se in weeks one and seven and once i.m. with Gallimune Se+St in week 14 of age. A third group was not vaccinated and served as the control group. Eight randomly selected chickens from each of the three groups were challenged with a nalidixic acid resistant S. enteritidis PT4 strain in weeks 24, 51 and 71 of age and the same number of animals were challenged with a S. typhimurium DT 104 strain in weeks 26, 54 and 73 (75) of age.The chickens were euthanised seven days post challenge and the number of challenge strain organisms (log10 cfu) in the liver and on caecal mucosa was determined.The quantitative investigation of the challenge strain in the liver and caecal mucosa revealed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) lower challenge strain burden in the vaccinated groups compared with the non-vaccinated control group up to week 71 (73) of age. The protective effects were demonstrated for both challenge strains. PMID:21462861

Springer, Sven; Lindner, Thomas; Ahrens, Mathias; Woitow, Gerhard; Prandini, Francesco; Selbitz, Hans-Joachim



Inactivated vaccine with adjuvants consisting of pattern recognition receptor agonists confers protection against avian influenza viruses in chickens  

PubMed Central

Use of adjuvant containing pathogen pattern recognition receptor agonists is one of the effective strategies to enhance the efficacy of licensed vaccines. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of avian influenza vaccines containing an adjuvant (CVCVA5) which was composed of polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic, resiquimod, imiquimod, muramyl dipeptide and levomisole. Avian influenza vaccines adjuvanted with CVCVA5 were found to induce significantly higher titers of hemagglutiniton inhibition antibodies (P ? 0.01) than those of commercial vaccines at 2-, 3- and 4-week post vaccination in both specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens and field application. Furthermore, virus shedding was reduced in SPF chickens immunized with H9-CVCVA5 vaccine after H9 subtype heterologous virus challenge. The ratios of both CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ lymphocytes were slowly elevated in chickens immunized with H9-CVCVA5 vaccine. Lymphocytes adoptive transfer study indicates that CD8+ T lymphocyte subpopulation might have contributed to improved protection against heterologous virus challenge. Results of this study suggest that the adjuvant CVCVA5 was capable of enhancing the potency of existing avian influenza vaccines by increasing humoral and cellular immune response. PMID:24894132

Tang, Yinghua; Lu, Jihu; Wu, Peipei; Liu, Zhenxing; Tian, Zhen; Zha, Guofei; Chen, Hui; Wang, Qiaochu; Wang, Qiaoxiu; Hou, Fengxiang; Kang, Sang-Moo; Hou, Jibo



Adjuvant effects of mannose-binding lectin ligands on the immune response to infectious bronchitis vaccine in chickens with high or low serum mannose-binding lectin concentrations.  


Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays a major role in the immune response as a soluble pattern-recognition receptor. MBL deficiency and susceptibility to different types of infections have been subject to extensive studies over the last decades. In humans and chickens, several studies have shown that MBL participates in the protection of hosts against virus infections. Infectious bronchitis (IB) is a highly contagious disease of economic importance in the poultry industry caused by the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). MBL has earlier been described to play a potential role in the pathogenesis of IBV infection and the production of IBV-specific antibodies, which may be exploited in optimising IBV vaccine strategies. The present study shows that MBL has the capability to bind to IBV in vitro. Chickens from two inbred lines (L10H and L10L) selected for high or low MBL serum concentrations, respectively, were vaccinated against IBV with or without the addition of the MBL ligands mannan, chitosan and fructooligosaccharide (FOS). The addition of MBL ligands to the IBV vaccine, especially FOS, enhanced the production of IBV-specific IgG antibody production in L10H chickens, but not L10L chickens after the second vaccination. The addition of FOS to the vaccine also increased the number of circulating CD4+ cells in L10H chickens compared to L10L chickens. The L10H chickens as well as the L10L chickens also showed an increased number of CD4-CD8?-?? T-cells when an MBL ligand was added to the vaccine, most pronouncedly after the first vaccination. As MBL ligands co-administered with IBV vaccine induced differences between the two chicken lines, these results indirectly suggest that MBL is involved in the immune response to IBV vaccination. Furthermore, the higher antibody response in L10H chickens receiving vaccine and FOS makes FOS a potential adjuvant candidate in an IBV vaccine. PMID:24305086

Kjaerup, Rikke M; Dalgaard, Tina S; Norup, Liselotte R; Bergman, Ingrid-Maria; Sørensen, Poul; Juul-Madsen, Helle R



Protective effect of egg-propagated Eimeria tenella (local isolates) gametocytes as vaccine(s) against mixed species of coccidia in chickens.  


Egg propagated gametocytes of Eimeria tenella (local isolates) were used to prepare the adjuvanted (Amphigen) and nonadjuvanted vaccine(s) and evaluated on the basis of cellular, humoral, and challenge responses. Modified splenic cell migration inhibition test and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay were used to assess the cellular and humoral responses, respectively. Chicken in groups A, B, C, and D were given adjuvanted vaccine (orally), adjuvanted vaccine (subcutaneously, s/c), nonadjuvanted vaccine (orally), and nonadjuvanted vaccine s/c, respectively. Control groups E, F, G, and H were given adjuvant (orally), adjuvant (s/c), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) + adjuvant (orally), and PBS + adjuvant (s/c), respectively. On 5 and 15 days post vaccination after boosting, significantly higher (P<0.05) cell-mediated and humoral responses were detected in vaccinated chicken compared to control. No significant effect of adjuvant and vaccination route on the immune responses was found. Maximum percent protection (survivors after challenge) against mixed species of genus Eimeria was observed in group A (71.42%) followed by group C (63.63%), B (59.09%), and group D (54.54). Significantly higher (P<0.05) oocysts per gram (OPG) of droppings was observed in the control groups compared to the vaccinated chickens. Maximum percent reduction in OPG was also recorded in group A (86) followed by group C (84), group B (83), and group D (82). From these results, it was concluded that egg-propagated gametocytes (E. tenella) that gave protection upon challenge may be due to the control of E. tenella. Further studies on its feasibility as commercial vaccine are underway. PMID:16416294

Abdul Hafeez, M; Akhtar, Masood; Hussain, Iftikhar



Molecular immunophenotyping of lungs and spleens in naive and vaccinated chickens early after pulmonary avian influenza A (H9N2) virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a respiratory-infection-model with the avian influenza A H9N2 virus we studied lung and splenic immune reactions in chickens using a recently developed 5K chicken immuno-microarray. Groups of chickens were either mock-immunized (referred to as non-immune), vaccinated with inactivated viral antigen only (immune) or with viral antigen in a water-in-oil (W\\/O) immunopotentiator (immune potentiated). Three weeks after vaccination all animals

Winfried G. J. Degen; Jacqueline Smith; Bartjan Simmelink; Elizabeth J. Glass; Dave W. Burt; Virgil E. J. C. Schijns



Vaccination with recombinant NetB toxin partially protects broiler chickens from necrotic enteritis  

PubMed Central

NetB toxin from Clostridium perfringens is a major virulence factor in necrotic enteritis in poultry. In this study the efficacy of NetB as a vaccine antigen to protect chickens from necrotic enteritis was examined. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with purified recombinant NetB (rNetB), formalin treated bacterin and cell free toxoid with or without rNetB supplementation. Intestinal lesion scores and NetB antibody levels were measured to determine protection after mild oral gavage, moderate in-feed and heavy in-feed challenges with virulent C. perfringens isolates. Birds immunized with rNetB were significantly protected against necrotic enteritis when challenged with a mild oral dose of virulent bacteria, but were not protected when a more robust challenge was used. Bacterin and cell free toxoid without rNetB supplementation did not protect birds from moderate and severe in-feed challenge. Only birds immunized with bacterin and cell free toxoid supplemented with rNetB showed significant protection against moderate and severe in-feed challenge, with the later giving the greatest protection. Higher NetB antibody titres were observed in birds immunized with rNetB compared to those vaccinated with bacterin or toxoid, suggesting that the in vitro levels of NetB produced by virulent C. perfringens isolates are too low to induce the development of a strong immune response. These results suggest that vaccination with NetB alone may not be sufficient to protect birds from necrotic enteritis in the field, but that in combination with other cellular or cell-free antigens it can significantly protect chickens from disease. PMID:23865568



A Novel Lactococcal Vaccine Expressing a Peptide from the M2 Antigen of H5N2 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A Virus Prolongs Survival of Vaccinated Chickens  

PubMed Central

A cost-effective and efficacious influenza vaccine for use in commercial poultry farms would help protect against avian influenza outbreaks. Current influenza vaccines for poultry are expensive and subtype specific, and therefore there is an urgent need to develop a universal avian influenza vaccine. We have constructed a live bacterial vaccine against avian influenza by expressing a conserved peptide from the ectodomain of M2 antigen (M2e) on the surface of Lactococcus lactis (LL). Chickens were vaccinated intranasally with the lactococcal vaccine (LL-M2e) or subcutaneously with keyhole-limpet-hemocyanin conjugated M2e (KLH-M2e). Vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds were challenged with high pathogenic avian influenza virus A subtype H5N2. Birds vaccinated with LL-M2e or KLH-M2e had median survival times of 5.5 and 6.0 days, respectively, which were significantly longer than non-vaccinated birds (3.5 days). Birds vaccinated subcutaneously with KLH-M2e had a lower mean viral burden than either of the other two groups. However, there was a significant correlation between the time of survival and M2e-specific serum IgG. The results of these trials show that birds in both vaccinated groups had significantly (P < 0.05) higher median survival times than non-vaccinated birds and that this protection could be due to M2e-specific serum IgG. PMID:23766929

Reese, Kaleb A.; Lupfer, Christopher; Johnson, Rudd C.; Mitev, Georgi M.; Mullen, Valerie M.; Geller, Bruce L.



Avian Influenza Vaccination in Chickens and Pigs with Replication-Competent Adenovirus–Free Human Recombinant Adenovirus 5  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Protective immunity to avian influenza (AI) virus can be elicited in chickens by in ovo or intramuscular vaccination with replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) encoding AI virus H5 (AdTW68.H5) or H7 (AdCN94.H7) hemagglutinins. We evaluated bivalent in ovo vaccination with AdTW68.H5 and AdCN94.H7 and determined that vaccinated chickens developed robust hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody levels to both H5 and H7 AI strains. Additionally, we evaluated immune responses of 1-day-old chickens vaccinated via spray with AdCN94.H7. These birds showed increased immunoglobulin A responses in lachrymal fluids and increased interleukin-6 expression in Harderian gland–derived lymphocytes. However, specific HI antibodies were not detected in the sera of these birds. Because pigs might play a role as a “mixing vessel” for the generation of pandemic influenza viruses we explored the use of RCA-free adenovirus technology to immunize pigs against AI virus. Weanling piglets vaccinated intramuscularly with a single dose of RCA-free AdTW68.H5 developed strong systemic antibody responses 3 wk postvaccination. Intranasal application of AdTW68.H5 in piglets resulted in reduced vaccine coverage, i.e., 33% of pigs (2/6) developed an antibody response, but serum antibody levels in those successfully immunized animals were similar to intramuscularly vaccinated animals. PMID:20521636

Toro, Haroldo; van Ginkel, Frederik W.; Tang, De-chu C.; Schemera, Bettina; Rodning, Soren; Newton, Joseph



Comparison of live Eimeria vaccination with in-feed salinomycin on growth and immune status in broiler chickens.  


Coccidiosis vaccines and anticoccidial drugs are commonly used to control Eimeria infection during commercial poultry production. The present study was conducted to compare the relative effectiveness of these two disease control strategies in broiler chickens in an experimental research facility. Birds were orally vaccinated with a live, attenuated vaccine (Inovocox), or were provided with in-feed salinomycin (Bio-Cox), and body weights, serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) and antibodies against Eimeria profilin and Clostridium perfringens PFO proteins, and intestinal levels of cytokine gene transcripts were measured. Vaccinated chickens had increased body weights, greater NO levels, and higher profilin and PFO antibody levels compared with salinomycin-fed birds. Transcripts for interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15, and interferon-? were increased, while mRNAs for IL-4 and IL-10 were decreased, in immunized chickens compared with salinomycin-treated chickens. In conclusion, vaccination against avian coccidiosis may be more effective compared with dietary salinomycin for increasing body weight and augmenting pro-inflammatory immune status during commercial poultry production. PMID:23465765

Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lillehoj, Hyun-Soon; Jang, Seung-Ik; Lee, Sung-Hyen; Bautista, Daniel A; Donald Ritter, G; Lillehoj, Erik P; Siragusa, Gregory R



Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Confers Protection against a Lethal Newcastle Disease Virus Challenge in Chickens and Allows a Strategy of Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals  

PubMed Central

In this study, we developed Newcastle disease virus (NDV) virus-like particles (VLPs) expressing NDV fusion (F) protein along with influenza virus matrix 1 (M1) protein using the insect cell expression system. Specific-pathogen-free chickens were immunized with oil emulsion NDV VLP vaccines containing increasing dosages of VLPs (0.4, 2, 10, or 50 ?g of VLPs/0.5-ml dose). Three weeks after immunization, the immunogenicity of the NDV VLP vaccines was determined using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, and a lethal challenge using a highly virulent NDV strain was performed to evaluate the protective efficacy of the NDV VLP vaccines. NDV VLP vaccines elicited anti-NDV antibodies and provided protection against a lethal challenge in a dose-dependent manner. Although the VLP vaccines containing 0.4 and 2 ?g of VLPs failed to achieve high levels of protection, a single immunization with NDV VLP vaccine containing 10 or 50 ?g could fully protect chickens from a lethal challenge and greatly reduced challenge virus shedding. Furthermore, we could easily differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. These results strongly suggest that utilization of NDV VLP vaccine in poultry species may be a promising strategy for the better control of NDV. PMID:24403523

Park, Jae-Keun; Lee, Dong-Hun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Tseren-Ochir, Erdene-Ochir; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Kim, Byoung-Yoon; Choi, Soo-Won; Kang, Sang-Moo; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo



Evaluation of the protective efficacy of a commercial vaccine against different antigenic groups of H9N2 influenza viruses in chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the long-term vaccination programs implemented in China, H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) continue to persist in chicken populations, even in vaccinated flocks. We previously demonstrated that H9N2 AIV isolated from chickens in China also underwent antigenic drift and evolved into distinct antigenic groups (C, D and E). To understand whether antigenic drift of viruses away from the vaccine strain

Yipeng Sun; Juan Pu; Lihong Fan; Honglei Sun; Jingjing Wang; Yi Zhang; Linqing Liu; Jinhua Liu


Vaccination of chickens against H5N1 avian influenza in the face of an outbreak interrupts virus transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccination of chickens with a commercially available killed H5N2 vaccine was being evaluated as an additional tool to enhanced biosecurity measures and intensive surveillance for control of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 disease in Hong Kong in 2002. In December 2002 to January 2003, there were outbreaks of H5N1 disease in waterfowl in two recreational parks, wild water birds,

Trevor M. Ellis; Connie Y. H. C. Leung; Mary K. W. Chow; Lucy A. Bissett; William Wong; Yi Guan; J. S. Malik Peiris



Pichia pastoris expressed EtMic2 protein as a potential vaccine against chicken coccidiosis.  


Chicken coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species leads to tremendous economic losses to the avian industry worldwide. Identification of parasite life cycle specific antigens is a critical step in recombinant protein vaccine development against Eimeria infections. In the present study, we amplified and cloned the microneme-2 (EtMIC2) gene from Eimeria tenella wild type strain SD-01, and expressed the EtMic2 protein using Pichia pastoris and Escherichia coli expression systems, respectively. The EtMic2 proteins expressed by P. pastoris and E. coli were used as vaccines to immunize chickens and their protective efficacies were compared and evaluated. The results indicated that both P. pastoris and E. coli expressed EtMic2 proteins exhibited good immunogenicity in stimulating host immune responses and the Pichia expressed EtMic2 provided better protection than the E. coli expressed EtMic2 did by significantly increasing growth rate, inducing high specific antibody response, reducing the oocyst output and cecal lesions. Particularly, the Pichia expressed EtMic2 protein exhibited much better ability in inducing cell mediated immune response than the E. coli expressed EtMic2. PMID:25047705

Zhang, Jie; Chen, Peipei; Sun, Hui; Liu, Qing; Wang, Longjiang; Wang, Tiantian; Shi, Wenyan; Li, Hongmei; Xiao, Yihong; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Fangkun; Zhao, Xiaomin



Evaluation of several adjuvants in avian influenza vaccine to chickens and ducks  

PubMed Central

The effects of three different adjuvants, mineral oil, Montanide™ ISA 70M VG, and Montanide™ ISA 206 VG, were evaluated on reverse genetics H5N3 avian influenza virus cell cultured vaccine. The immune results of SPF chickens after challenging with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus demonstrated that mineral oil adjuvant group and 70M adjuvant group provided 100% protection efficiency, but 206 adjuvant group provided only 40%. Statistical analysis indicated that the protection effects of mineral oil adjuvant group and the 70M adjuvant showed no significant difference to each other, but with significant difference to 206 adjuvant group. All three groups could induce high titres of antibody after immunizing SPF ducks, but there was no significant difference among them. The immunization effect of 70M adjuvant group on SPF chickens were the best and showed significant difference compared with optimized 70Mi Montanide™ eight series adjuvants groups. These results suggest that 70M adjuvant could be a novel adjuvant for preparing avian influenza vaccine. PMID:21703008



Flow cytometric assessment of chicken T cell-mediated immune responses after Newcastle disease virus vaccination and challenge.  


The objective of this study was to use flow cytometry to assess chicken T cell-mediated immune responses. In this study two inbred genetic chicken lines (L130 and L133) were subjected to two times vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND) and a subsequent challenge by ND virus (NDV) infection. Despite a delayed NDV-specific antibody response to vaccination, L133 appeared to be better protected than L130 in the subsequent infection challenge as determined by the presence of viral genomes. Peripheral blood was analyzed by flow cytometry and responses in vaccinated/challenged birds were studied by 5-color immunophenotyping as well as by measuring the proliferative capacity of NDV-specific T cells after recall stimulation. Immunophenotyping identified L133 as having a significantly lower CD4/CD8 ratio and a lower frequency of gammadelta T cells than L130 in the peripheral T cell compartment. Furthermore, peripheral lymphocytes from L133 exhibited a significantly higher expression of CD44 and CD45 throughout the experiment. Interestingly, also vaccine-induced differences were observed in L133 as immune chickens had a significantly higher CD45 expression on their lymphocytes than the naïve controls. Immune chickens from both lines had a significantly higher frequency of circulating gammadelta T cells than the naïve controls both after vaccination and challenge. Finally, the proliferative capacity of peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ cells specific for NDV was addressed 3 weeks after vaccination and 1 week after infection and found to be significantly higher in L133 than in L130 at both sampling times. In conclusion, we found the applied flow cytometric methods very useful for the study of chicken T cell biology. PMID:20434546

Dalgaard, T S; Norup, L R; Pedersen, A R; Handberg, K J; Jørgensen, P H; Juul-Madsen, H R




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Newcastle disease (ND) vaccination is widely practiced in the USA with the majority of commercial chickens receiving multiple vaccinations during their lifetime. The objectives of the present study were to extend the knowledge of onset and duration of immunity of ND vaccines in specific-pathogen-fr...


Evaluation of Factors Affecting Vaccine Efficacy of Recombinant Marek's Disease Virus Lacking the Meq Oncogene in Chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have previously reported that deletion of Meq gene from oncogenic rMd5 virus rendered it apathogenic for chickens. Here we examined multiple factors affecting Marek’s disease (MD) vaccine efficacy of this non-pathogenic recombinant Meq null rMd5 virus (rMd5deltaMeq). These factors included host g...



E-print Network

CONJUNCTIVAL VACCINATION OF YOUNG GOATS WITH BRUCELLA MELITENSIS STRAIN REV 1 FENSTERBANK R VERGER Monnaie, France received 23/12/86/accepted 13/04/87 Résumé VACCINATION CONJONCTIVALE DES CHEVRETTES AVEC moins de 4 mois alors que certains animaux étaient encore positifs 8 mois après la vaccination sous

Boyer, Edmond



E-print Network


Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Pathology and microbiology of dermal squamous cell carcinoma in young brown chickens reared on reused litter.  


Dermal squamous cell carcinoma (DSCC) was found in young brown chicken flocks reared on reused litter in Japan. DSCC was often detected at slaughter from April 2007 to March 2009, especially in June and July 2007. No DSCC was observed in the broiler chickens on the farms. Twelve 11-wk-old brown chickens with DSCC were investigated pathologically and microbiologically. Various degrees of crater-like skin lesions were found on the back, waist, neck, legs, abdomen, and wings of the carcasses. The feather follicles were enlarged. The feather follicular epithelial cells proliferated, and the squamous cells proliferated neoplastically in association with collagen fibers and fibroblasts in the dermis under the feather follicular epithelium. "Keratin pearl" structures were often seen in the dermis. Immunohistochemically, the keratin antigen was positive in the neoplastically proliferated squamous cells in the dermis. Avian leukosis virus antigens could not be found in the neoplastic squamous cells in the dermis. Ultrastructurally, no viral agents could be detected in the skin with DSCC. Virologically, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions of the skin with DSCC for fowlpox virus and avian leukosis virus were negative. No viruses could be isolated from the skin with DSCC. This study suggests that the chicken breed, reused litter, and season may be associated with the incidence of DSCC in brown chickens. PMID:20945801

Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Ito, Mitsuru; Fujino, Koji; Yamamoto, Yu; Mase, Masaji; Yamada, Manabu; Kobayashi, Hideki; Harada, Tadato



Efficacy and transmissibility of Newcastle disease I-2 vaccine strain against a field isolate of virulent ND virus (JF820294.1) in village chicken.  


This study was conducted to assess efficacy of heat-stable I-2 vaccine against Newcastle diseases in vaccinated and vaccinated in contact birds group following challenge against virulent Newcastle disease (ND) virus in village chicken. Also, to assess whether birds that have been exposed to vaccine virus-shedding, birds were protected against mortality and clinical signs after infection with a virulent strain of the ND virus (NDV). One hundred fifty one-day-old native chickens were divided into seven groups (4 experimental groups of 30 birds/group and 3 control groups (unvaccinated unchallenged, challenged, and just vaccinated). Birds in experimental groups were vaccinated either via drinking water or as food carrier with thermostable I-2 vaccine and then challenged with virulent isolate of NDV (JF820294.1), and eight birds were added as in-contact birds to vaccinated groups. Following challenge, seven extra birds were added to each group as in contact with vaccinated and challenged birds. Survival rate, clinical signs, necropsy finding, and mean antibody titer were evaluated in different experimental and control groups. Birds vaccinated via drinking water showed 100 % survival rate. However, birds vaccinated with food carrier vaccine showed less than 50 % survival rate. Based on the results obtained from this study, it can be recommended that I-2 vaccination via drinking water can effectively prevent ND in village chicken, since I-2 strain has been able to transmit to non-vaccinated-sensitive birds more effectively than velogenic NDV. PMID:25307759

Habibi, Hassan; Nili, Hassan; Asasi, Kramat; Mosleh, Najmeh; Firouzi, Sobhan; Mohammadi, Mitra



A Novel Recombinant BCG Vaccine Encoding Eimeria tenella Rhomboid and Chicken IL-2 Induces Protective Immunity Against Coccidiosis  

PubMed Central

A novel recombinant Bacille Calmette-Guerin (rBCG) vaccine co-expressed Eimeria tenella rhomboid and cytokine chicken IL-2 (chIL-2) was constructed, and its efficacy against E. tenella challenge was observed. The rhomboid gene of E. tenella and chIL-2 gene were subcloned into integrative expression vector pMV361, producing vaccines rBCG pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2. Animal experiment via intranasal and subcutaneous route in chickens was carried out to evaluate the immune efficacy of the vaccines. The results indicated that these rBCG vaccines could obviously alleviate cacal lesions and oocyst output. Intranasal immunization with pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2 elicited better protective immunity against E. tenella than subcutaneous immunization. Splenocytes from chickens immunized with either rBCG pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2 had increased CD4+ and CD8+ cell production. Our data indicate recombinant BCG is able to impart partial protection against E. tenella challenge and co-expression of cytokine with antigen was an effective strategy to improve vaccine immunity. PMID:25031464

Wang, Qiuyue; Chen, Lifeng; Zheng, Jun; Cai, Ning; Gong, Pengtao; Li, Shuhong; Li, He



Efficacy of a DNA Vaccine Carrying Eimeria maxima Gam56 Antigen Gene against Coccidiosis in Chickens  

PubMed Central

To control coccidiosis without using prophylactic medications, a DNA vaccine targeting the gametophyte antigen Gam56 from Eimeria maxima in chickens was constructed, and the immunogenicity and protective effects were evaluated. The ORF of Gam56 gene was cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(zeo)+. Expression of Gam56 protein in COS-7 cells transfected with recombinant plasmid pcDNA-Gam56 was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The DNA vaccine was injected intramuscularly to yellow feathered broilers of 1-week old at 3 dosages (25, 50, and 100 µg/chick). Injection was repeated once 1 week later. One week after the second injection, birds were challenged orally with 5×104 sporulated oocysts of E. maxima, then weighed and killed at day 8 post challenge. Blood samples were collected and examined for specific peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation activity and serum antibody levels. Compared with control groups, the administration of pcDNA-Gam56 vaccine markedly increased the lymphocyte proliferation activity (P<0.05) at day 7 and 14 after the first immunization. The level of lymphocyte proliferation started to decrease on day 21 after the first immunization. A similar trend was seen in specific antibody levels. Among the 3 pcDNA-Gam56 immunized groups, the median dosage group displayed the highest lymphocyte proliferation and antibody levels (P<0.05). The median dosage group had the greatest relative body weight gain (89.7%), and the greatest oocyst shedding reduction (53.7%). These results indicate that median dosage of DNA vaccine had good immunogenicity and immune protection effects, and may be used in field applications for coccidiosis control. PMID:23710081

Xu, Jinjun; Zhang, Yan



Efficacy of a DNA vaccine carrying Eimeria maxima Gam56 antigen gene against coccidiosis in chickens.  


To control coccidiosis without using prophylactic medications, a DNA vaccine targeting the gametophyte antigen Gam56 from Eimeria maxima in chickens was constructed, and the immunogenicity and protective effects were evaluated. The ORF of Gam56 gene was cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(zeo)+. Expression of Gam56 protein in COS-7 cells transfected with recombinant plasmid pcDNA-Gam56 was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The DNA vaccine was injected intramuscularly to yellow feathered broilers of 1-week old at 3 dosages (25, 50, and 100 µg/chick). Injection was repeated once 1 week later. One week after the second injection, birds were challenged orally with 5×10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. maxima, then weighed and killed at day 8 post challenge. Blood samples were collected and examined for specific peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation activity and serum antibody levels. Compared with control groups, the administration of pcDNA-Gam56 vaccine markedly increased the lymphocyte proliferation activity (P<0.05) at day 7 and 14 after the first immunization. The level of lymphocyte proliferation started to decrease on day 21 after the first immunization. A similar trend was seen in specific antibody levels. Among the 3 pcDNA-Gam56 immunized groups, the median dosage group displayed the highest lymphocyte proliferation and antibody levels (P<0.05). The median dosage group had the greatest relative body weight gain (89.7%), and the greatest oocyst shedding reduction (53.7%). These results indicate that median dosage of DNA vaccine had good immunogenicity and immune protection effects, and may be used in field applications for coccidiosis control. PMID:23710081

Xu, Jinjun; Zhang, Yan; Tao, Jianping



Oral vaccination of chickens with the V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus. Cooked and raw white rice as a vehicle.  


Uncooked white rice and cooked white rice were tested as vehicles for the V4 strain of oral Newcastle disease vaccine. The results of feeding experiments were evaluated by the measurement of haemagglutination inhibition antibodies against Newcastle disease virus. Little of the virus applied to uncooked white rice could be recovered, even immediately after mixing, whereas when the virus was applied to cooked white rice most of it could be recovered. In 4 separate experiments, chickens failed to respond serologically to vaccine supplied on uncooked white rice. In all of 4 experiments with cooked white rice, there were serological responses in vaccinated chickens, from 45% to 100% of the chickens developing titres sufficiently high to indicate protection against challenge with virulent virus. Development of haemagglutination inhibition antibodies in some control chickens indicated the ability of the vaccine virus for lateral spread or persistence in the environment. PMID:8465439

Samuel, J L; Bensink, Z; Spradbrow, P B



Plant expressed coccidial antigens as potential vaccine candidates in protecting chicken against coccidiosis.  


Coccidiosis is a disease caused by intracellular parasites belonging to the genus Eimeria. In the present study, we transiently expressed two coccidial antigens EtMIC1 and EtMIC2 as poly histidine-tagged fusion proteins in tobacco. We have evaluated the protective efficacy of plant expressed EtMIC1 as monovalent and as well as bi-valent formulation where EtMIC1 and EtMIC2 were used in combination. The protective efficacy of these formulations was evaluated using homologous challenge in chickens. We observed better serum antibody response, weight gain and reduced oocyst shedding in birds immunized with EtMIC1 and EtMIC2 as bivalent formulation compared to monovalent formulation. However, IFN-? response was not significant in birds immunized with EtMIC1 compared to the birds immunized with EtMIC2. Our results indicate the potential use of these antigens as vaccine candidates. PMID:22554463

Sathish, Kota; Sriraman, Rajan; Subramanian, B Mohana; Rao, N Hanumantha; Kasa, Balaji; Donikeni, Jagan; Narasu, M Lakshmi; Srinivasan, V A



LaSota vaccination may not protect against the lesions of velogenic Newcastle disease in chickens.  


Two groups of six weeks old cockerels comprising 40 immunized and 40 non-immunized birds were inoculated intramuscularly with VGF-1, which is a local Nigerian strain of velogenic Newcastle disease virus (VNDV). Immunized birds did not show any clinical signs except significant loss (p < 0.05) in body weight on days 5 and 20 post inoculation (PI). But the non-immunized birds showed clinical signs of disease characterized by anorexia and drowsiness from day 2 PI. These were followed on day 3 PI by depression, diarrhoea, opisthotonus, weight loss (p < 0.05) and high mortalities (96.9%). Both the immunized and non-immunized groups showed severe atrophy of the bursa, spleen and thymus. Histopathological section of these lymphoid organs showed necrosis and depletion of lymphocytes. Both the gross and microscopic lesions were more severe in the non-immunized birds. Marked ballooning degeneration was observed in the bursal follicles of the non-immunized birds. This lesion has not been described earlier for any other disease and could be diagnostic for VND. Our results also showed that VND can cause marked atrophy of the lymphoid organs, which may lead to immunosupression without the characteristic signs of Newcastle disease (ND) in vaccinated chickens. This no doubt emphasizes the limitation of vaccination as a biosecurity measure in poultry industry. PMID:18651236

Ezema, W S; Okoye, J O A; Nwanta, J A



Vaccination with Recombinant RNA Replicon Particles Protects Chickens from H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of subtype H5N1 not only cause a devastating disease in domestic chickens and turkeys but also pose a continuous threat to public health. In some countries, H5N1 viruses continue to circulate and evolve into new clades and subclades. The rapid evolution of these viruses represents a problem for virus diagnosis and control. In this work, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors expressing HA of subtype H5 were generated. To comply with biosafety issues the G gene was deleted from the VSV genome. The resulting vaccine vector VSV*?G(HA) was propagated on helper cells providing the VSV G protein in trans. Vaccination of chickens with a single intramuscular dose of 2×108 infectious replicon particles without adjuvant conferred complete protection from lethal H5N1 infection. Subsequent application of the same vaccine strongly boosted the humoral immune response and completely prevented shedding of challenge virus and transmission to sentinel birds. The vaccine allowed serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) by employing a commercially available ELISA. Immunized chickens produced antibodies with neutralizing activity against multiple H5 viruses representing clades 1, 2.2, 2.5, and low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (classical clade). Studies using chimeric H1/H5 hemagglutinins showed that the neutralizing activity was predominantly directed against the globular head domain. In summary, these results suggest that VSV replicon particles are safe and potent DIVA vaccines that may help to control avian influenza viruses in domestic poultry. PMID:23762463

Halbherr, Stefan J.; Brostoff, Terza; Tippenhauer, Merve; Locher, Samira; Berger Rentsch, Marianne; Zimmer, Gert



Influenza virus surveillance among young children in São Paulo, Brazil: The impact of vaccination  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the presence of influenza virus among young children and the coverage of vaccination from 2010 to 2012 in São Paulo, Brazil. Our results demonstrated a lower rate of influenza detection and a predominance of influenza B. A decrease of coverage vaccination through the surveillance periods was observed. PMID:25477951

Cabeça, Tatiane Karen; Watanabe, Aripuanã; Moreira, Luciana Peniche; Melchior, Thaís Boim; Perosa, Ana Helena; Camargo, Clarice; Parmezan, Sheila Negrini; Bellei, Nancy



Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs.  


Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P?chickens fed on diet CF120 (P?chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P?chickens. PMID:24341997

Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik



Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs  

PubMed Central

Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P?chickens fed on diet CF120 (P?chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P?chickens. PMID:24341997



Uptake of Free HPV Vaccination among Young Women: A Comparison of Rural versus Urban Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To contrast rates of initial HPV vaccine uptake, offered at no cost, between a rural clinic, a rural community college, and an urban college clinic and to identify rural versus urban differences in uptake of free booster doses. Methods: Young rural women attending rural clinics (n = 246), young women attending a rural community college (n…

Crosby, Richard A.; Casey, Baretta R.; Vanderpool, Robin; Collins, Tom; Moore, Gregory R.



Pulmonary immunization of chickens using non-adjuvanted spray-freeze dried whole inactivated virus vaccine completely protects against highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus.  


Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus is a major threat to public health as well as to the global poultry industry. Most fatal human infections are caused by contact with infected poultry. Therefore, preventing the virus from entering the poultry population is a priority. This is, however, problematic in emergency situations, e.g. during outbreaks in poultry, as there are currently no mass application methods to effectively vaccinate large numbers of birds within a short period of time. To evaluate the suitability of needle-free pulmonary immunization for mass vaccination of poultry against HPAI H5N1, we performed a proof-of-concept study in which we investigated whether non-adjuvanted spray-freeze-dried (SFD) whole inactivated virus (WIV) can be used as a dry powder aerosol vaccine to immunize chickens. Our results show that chickens that received SFD-WIV vaccine as aerosolized powder directly at the syrinx (the site of the tracheal bifurcation), mounted a protective antibody response after two vaccinations and survived a lethal challenge with HPAI H5N1. Furthermore, both the number of animals that shed challenge virus, as well as the level of virus shedding, were significantly reduced. Based on antibody levels and reduction of virus shedding, pulmonary vaccination with non-adjuvanted vaccine was at least as efficient as intratracheal vaccination using live virus. Animals that received aerosolized SFD-WIV vaccine by temporary passive inhalation showed partial protection (22% survival) and a delay in time-to-death, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of the method, but indicating that the efficiency of vaccination by passive inhalation needs further improvement. Altogether our results provide a proof-of-concept that pulmonary vaccination using an SFD-WIV powder vaccine is able to protect chickens from lethal HPAI challenge. If the efficacy of pulmonary vaccination by passive inhalation can be improved, this method might be suitable for mass application. PMID:25285885

Peeters, Ben; Tonnis, Wouter F; Murugappan, Senthil; Rottier, Peter; Koch, Guus; Frijlink, Henderik W; Huckriede, Anke; Hinrichs, Wouter L J



Hepatitis B seroprevalence and anamnestic response amongst Taiwanese young adults with full vaccination in infancy, 20 years subsequent to national hepatitis B vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term protective effect of hepatitis B virus (HB) vaccination against HB infection and the necessity for routine booster vaccination in young-adult age subsequent to full HB immunization at birth remain issues of some debate currently. This study is aimed at evaluating the seroprevalence of HB infection and the response to HB booster vaccination amongst young-adult university students who had

Fu-Hsiung Su; Shu-Hsing Cheng; Chung-Yi Li; Jong-Dar Chen; Chih-Yin Hsiao; Chih-Ching Chien; Ya-Chuan Yang; Hsiu-Hsing Hung; Fang-Yeh Chu



Bioenergetics in chicken embryo fibroblast cells: evidence of lower proton leak in spontaneously immortalized chicken embryo fibroblasts compared to young and senescent primary chicken embryo fibroblast cells.  


A spontaneously immortalized chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell line (DF-1) is known to exhibit faster growth rate and greater sensitivity to oxidative stress compared to the primary parent CEF (pCEF1°) cells. Thus, major objectives of this study were to assess cell bioenergetics in pCEF1° and DF-1 cells under control conditions and in response to 4-hydroxy 2-nonenal (4-HNE) induced oxidative challenge. Cell bioenergetics were assessed by flux analysis of oxygen consumption rate (OCR). Under control conditions, DF-1 cells had higher OCR associated with ATP synthase activity and mitochondrial oxygen reserve capacity as well as lower OCR due to proton leak and non-mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity. In response to 4-HNE (0 to 30 ?M), DF-1 cells were more sensitive to oxidant challenge than both young (passage 8) and senescent (passage 19) pCEF1° cells. Both passages 8 and 19 pCEF1° cells exhibited higher proton leak in response to 4-HNE, but this was not observed in DF-1 cells. Inducible proton leak occurs by 4-HNE stimulated activation of uncoupling protein (UCP) and adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT). From mRNA expression data indicated that ANT and avian UCP were down-regulated and up-regulated, respectively, in DF-1 compared to pCEF1° cells. Thus, we hypothesize that DF-1 cells are unable to increase proton leak due to lower expression of ANT, but not avian UCP, and this inability to increase proton leak contributes to greater susceptibility to oxidative stress of DF-1 cells compared to pCEF1° cells. PMID:24937256

Lassiter, Kentu; Dridi, Sami; Piekarski, Alissa; Greene, Elizabeth; Hargis, Billy; Kong, Byung-Whi; Bottje, Walter



Protection against diverse highly pathogenic H5 avian influenza viruses in chickens immunized with a recombinant fowlpox vaccine containing an H5 avian influenza hemagglutinin gene insert  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recombinant fowlpox vaccine with an H5 hemagglutinin gene insert protected chickens against clinical signs and death following challenge by nine different highly pathogenic H5 avian influenza viruses. The challenge viruses had 87.3 to 100% deduced hemagglutinin amino acid sequence similarity with the recombinant vaccine, and represented diversely geographic and spatial backgrounds; i.e. isolated from four different continents over a

David E. Swayne; Maricarmen Garcia; Joan R. Beck; Nikki Kinney; David L. Suarez



Pathologic and immunohistochemical studies of Newcastle disease (ND) in broiler chickens vaccinated with ND: severe nonpurulent encephalitis and necrotizing pancreatitis.  


Twenty-five 22- to 46-day-old broilers with Newcastle disease (ND) were investigated pathologically and immunohistochemically in order to evaluate the mechanism of ND outbreak in vaccinated broilers. The broilers were vaccinated with ND live vaccine via drinking water. Clinical signs were neurologic and respiratory in nature. Macroscopically, bursal atrophy, white spots on the pancreas, and discoloration and enlargement of kidneys and spleen were observed in the broilers. Histologically, perivascular cuffing, neuronal degeneration and necrosis, and glial proliferation were present in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata. There was extensive rarefaction and malacia in the parenchyma of severely affected brains. There were extensive degeneration, necrosis, and depletion of acinar cells in the pancreas. There was proliferation of macrophages in the lungs with congestion, tubulointerstitial nephritis, hepatocytic necrosis with thrombi in the sinusoids, and lymphocytic depletion in the cloacal bursa. Immunohistochemically, ND virus antigens were detected in the lesions. ND virus isolated from the present cases did not cause encephalitis or pancreatitis in specific-pathogen-free chickens, but it induced mortality with hepatocytic sinusoidal thrombi, splenic necrosis, lymphoid necrosis and depletion, and conjunctival hemorrhage. Severe nonpurulent encephalitis with extensive rarefaction and malacia, and necrotizing pancreatitis in the present case may suggest a close possibly causal relation with vaccination. PMID:18984798

Nakamura, K; Ohtsu, N; Nakamura, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yamada, M; Mase, M; Imai, K



Display of Eimeria tenella EtMic2 protein on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a potential oral vaccine against chicken coccidiosis.  


S. cerevisiae is generally regarded as safe and benign organism and its surface display system may be used as a unique eukaryotic expression system that is suitable for expressing eukaryotic antigen. In addition to the convenience of vaccine delivery, the yeast cell wall has been shown to enhance the innate immunity when immunized with the yeast live oral vaccine. In the present study, we expressed the chicken coccidian E. tenella EtMic2, a microneme protein, on the surface of the S. cerevisiae and evaluated it as a potential oral vaccine for chicken against E. tenella challenge. The protective efficacy against a homologous challenge was evaluated by body weight gains, lesion scores and fecal oocyst shedding. The results showed that the live oral vaccine can improve weight gains, reduced cecal pathology and lower oocyst fecal shedding compared with non immunized controls. In addition, the yeast oral vaccine could stimulate humoral as well as cell mediate immune responses. These results suggested that EtMic2 displayed on the cell surface of S. cerevisiae could be used as potential live vaccine against chicken coccidiosis. PMID:24530147

Sun, Hui; Wang, Longjiang; Wang, Tiantian; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Qing; Chen, Peipei; Chen, Zhengtao; Wang, Fangkun; Li, Hongmei; Xiao, Yihong; Zhao, Xiaomin



HPV Vaccination Among Young Adult Women: A Perspective From Appalachian Kentucky  

PubMed Central

Introduction Few studies have assessed barriers to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake and adherence, particularly among women of Appalachian Kentucky, a population with higher rates of cervical cancer, lower rates of HPV vaccination, and lower socioeconomic status compared with the rest of the nation. The objective of this study was to address women’s reasons for declining the HPV vaccine and, among women who initiated the vaccine series, barriers to completion of the 3-dose regimen. Methods We recruited 17 women aged 18 to 26 from a Federally Qualified Health Center who participated in in-depth, semistructured telephone interviews. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim; analysis of the interview transcripts was an iterative process conducted by all 3 authors. Results We identified 3 primary barriers: 1) a knowledge gap wherein women are both uninformed and misinformed about cervical cancer, HPV, and the HPV vaccine, all of which affect vaccination behaviors; 2) environmental and tangible barriers (transportation and prioritizing health over other responsibilities such as child care, work, and school); and 3) ambiguous information sources, which contribute to misinformation and subsequently affect vaccination decisions. Conclusion Health professionals should use clear and purposeful communication about how cervical cancer develops, the purpose and safety of the HPV vaccine, and the necessity of completing the 3-dose series. Health promotion campaigns and services tailored for young women in Appalachian Kentucky that focus on increasing knowledge and eliminating barriers are needed. PMID:23391293

Head, Katharine J.; Vanderpool, Robin C.



Delivery cost of human papillomavirus vaccination of young adolescent girls in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To estimate the incremental delivery cost of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young adolescent girls in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam. Methods Data were collected from a sample of facilities that participated in five demonstration projects for HPV vaccine delivery: school-based delivery was used in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam; health-centre-based delivery was also used in Viet Nam; and integrated delivery, which involved existing health services, was also used in Uganda. Microcosting methods were used to guide data collection on the use of resources (i.e. staff, supplies and equipment) and data were obtained from government, demonstration project and health centre administrative records. Delivery costs were expressed in 2009 United States dollars (US$). Exclusively project-related expenses and the cost of the vaccine were excluded. Findings The economic delivery cost per vaccine dose ranged from US$ 1.44 for integrated outreach in Uganda to US$ 3.88 for school-based delivery in Peru. In Viet Nam, the lowest cost per dose was US$ 1.92 for health-centre-based delivery. Cost profiles revealed that, in general, the largest contributing factors were project start-up costs and recurrent personnel costs. The delivery cost of HPV vaccine was higher than published costs for traditional vaccines recommended by the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Conclusion The cost of delivering HPV vaccine to young adolescent girls in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam was higher than that for vaccines currently in the EPI schedule. The cost per vaccine dose was lower when delivery was integrated into existing health services. PMID:23940406

Van Minh, Hoang; Odaga, John; Rout, Swampa Sarit; Ngoc, Diep Nguyen Thi; Menezes, Lysander; Araujo, Maria Ana Mendoza; LaMontagne, D Scott



Long-Term T-Cell-Mediated Immunologic Memory to Hepatitis B Vaccine in Young Adults Following Neonatal Vaccination.  

PubMed Central

Background: The long-term duration of cell-mediated immunity induced by neonatal hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination is unknown. Objectives: Study was designed to determine the cellular immunity memory status among young adults twenty years after infantile HB immunization. Patients and Methods: Study subjects were party selected from a recent seroepidemiologic study in young adults, who had been vaccinated against HBV twenty years earlier. Just before and ten to 14 days after one dose of HBV vaccine booster injection, blood samples were obtained and sera concentration of cytokines (interleukin 2 and interferon) was measured. More than twofold increase after boosting was considered positive immune response. With regard to the serum level of antibody against HBV surface antigen (HBsAb) before boosting, the subjects were divided into four groups as follow: GI, HBsAb titer < 2; GII, titer 2 to 9.9; GIII, titer 10 to 99; and GIV, titers ? 100 IU/L. Mean concentration level (MCL) of each cytokines for each group at preboosting and postboosting and the proportion of responders in each groups were determined. Paired descriptive statistical analysis method (t test) was used to compare the MCL of each cytokines in each and between groups and the frequency of responders in each group. Results: Before boosting, among 176 boosted individuals, 75 (42.6%) had HBsAb 10 IU/L and were considered seroprotected. Among 101 serosusceptible persons, more than 80% of boosted individuals showed more than twofold increase in cytokines concentration, which meant positive HBsAg-specific cell-mediated immunity. MCL of both cytokines after boosting in GIV were decreased more than twofold, possibly because of recent natural boosting. Conclusions: Findings showed that neonatal HBV immunization was efficacious in inducing long-term immunity and cell-mediated immune memory for up to two decades, and booster vaccination are not required. Further monitoring of vaccinated subjects for HBV infections are recommended. PMID:25368659

Saffar, Hiva; Saffar, Mohammed Jafar; Ajami, Abolghasem; Khalilian, Ali Reza; Shams-Esfandabad, Kian; Mirabi, Araz Mohammad



Vaccine protection of chickens against antigenically diverse H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza isolates with a live HVT vector vaccine expressing the influenza hemagglutinin gene derived from a clade 2.2 avian influenza virus.  


Vaccination is an important tool in the protection of poultry against avian influenza (AI). For field use, the overwhelming majority of AI vaccines produced are inactivated whole virus formulated into an oil emulsion. However, recombinant vectored vaccines are gaining use for their ability to induce protection against heterologous isolates and ability to overcome maternal antibody interference. In these studies, we compared protection of chickens provided by a turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vector vaccine expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 strain (A/swan/Hungary/4999/2006) against homologous H5N1 as well as heterologous H5N1 and H5N2 highly pathogenic (HP) AI challenge. The results demonstrated all vaccinated birds were protected from clinical signs of disease and mortality following homologous challenge. In addition, oral and cloacal swabs taken from challenged birds demonstrated that vaccinated birds had lower incidence and titers of viral shedding compared to sham-vaccinated birds. Following heterologous H5N1 or H5N2 HPAI challenge, 80-95% of birds receiving the HVT vector AI vaccine at day of age survived challenge with fewer birds shedding virus after challenge than sham vaccinated birds. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis demonstrated that splenic T lymphocytes from HVT-vector-AI vaccinated chickens recognized MHC-matched target cells infected with H5, as well as H6, H7, or H9 AI virus. Taken together, these studies provide support for the use of HVT vector vaccines expressing HA to protect poultry against multiple lineages of HPAI, and that both humoral and cellular immunity induced by live vaccines likely contributes to protection. PMID:25613723

Kapczynski, Darrell R; Esaki, Motoyuki; Dorsey, Kristi M; Jiang, Haijun; Jackwood, Mark; Moraes, Mauro; Gardin, Yannick



MDA5 Can Be Exploited as Efficacious Genetic Adjuvant for DNA Vaccination against Lethal H5N1 Influenza Virus Infection in Chickens  

PubMed Central

Chickens lack the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and sense avian influenza virus (AIV) infections by means of the melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 product (chMDA5). Plasmid-driven expression of the N-terminal half of chMDA5 containing the caspase activation and recruitment domains [chMDA5(1-483)] triggers interferon-? responses in chicken cells. We hypothesized that mimicking virus infection by chMDA5(1-483) expression may enhance vaccine-induced adaptive immunity. In order to test this, the potential genetic adjuvant properties of chMDA5(1-483) were evaluated in vivo in combination with a suboptimal quantity of a plasmid DNA vaccine expressing haemagglutinin (HA) of H5N1 AIV. Co-administration of the HA plasmid with plasmid DNA for chMDA5(1-483) expression resulted in approximately 10-fold higher HA-specific antibody responses than injection of the HA plasmid mixed with empty vector DNA as control. Accordingly, compared with HA DNA vaccination alone, the chMDA5(1-483)-adjuvanted HA DNA vaccine mediated enhanced protection against a lethal H5N1 challenge infection in chickens, with reduced clinical signs and cloacal virus shedding. These data demonstrate that innate immune activation by expression of signaling domains of RIG-I-like receptors can be exploited to enhance vaccine efficacy. PMID:23227156

Liniger, Matthias; Summerfield, Artur; Ruggli, Nicolas



Uniform-sized water-in-oil vaccine formulations enhance immune response against Newcastle disease and avian influenza in chickens.  


Water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion is one of the best "one-shot" delivery system for antigen to generate high and durable antibody response. Here a facile method using premixed Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG) membrane emulsification technique was employed to fabricate uniform-sized emulsion and mechanical stirring was employed to prepare non-uniform-sized emulsion as control. In release kinetics studies, uniform-sized emulsion showed low initial release, and during the followed 17 days, uniform-sized emulsions released antigen faster than emulsions of non-uniform size. In addition, vaccination studies against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian Influenza virus (AIV) demonstrated that emulsion of uniform size induced higher HI antibodies and antigen-specific IgG titers. Furthermore, chickens vaccinated with emulsion of uniform size had a significantly greater ratio of CD8+ T cells to CD4+ T cells and a higher percentage of CD8+CD4+ T cells. Taken together, these results indicated that emulsion of uniform size induced a more potent immune response than emulsion prepared by mechanical stirring, and warranted the use of SPG membrane emulsification technique in generating new avian vaccines. PMID:25466268

Liu, Yuan; Wang, Lianyan; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Weifeng; Chen, Xiaoming; Yang, Tingyuan; Wang, Zhuo; Ma, Guanghui



Protection conferred by recombinant turkey herpesvirus avian influenza (rHVT-H5) vaccine in the rearing period in two commercial layer chicken breeds in Egypt.  


The effectiveness of recombinant turkey herpesvirus avian influenza (A/swan/Hungary/4999/2006(H5N1)) clade 2.2 virus (rHVT-H5) vaccine was evaluated in two layer chicken breeds (White Bovans [WB] and Brown Shaver [BS]). One dose of rHVT-H5 vaccine was administered at day 1 and birds were monitored serologically (haemagglutination inhibition test) and virologically for 19 weeks. Maternally-derived antibody and post-vaccination H5 antibody titres were measured using the Chinese (A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96(H5N1)) HA and the Egyptian (A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012(H5N1)) HA as antigens. The challenge was conducted at 19 weeks of age and on six experimental groups: Groups I (WB) and II (BS), both vaccinated and challenged; Groups III (WB) and IV (BS), both vaccinated but not challenged; Groups V and VI, unvaccinated specific pathogen free chickens, serving respectively as positive and negative controls. The challenge virus was the clade 2.2.1 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012 at a dose of 10(6) median embryo infective dose. For both breeds, complete maternally-derived antibody waning occurred at the age of 4 weeks. The immune response to rHVT-H5 vaccination was detected from the sixth week. The seroconversion rates for both breeds reached 85.7 to 100% in the eighth week of age. Protection levels of 73.3%, 60% and 0% were respectively recorded in Groups I, II and V. No mortalities occurred in the unchallenged groups. Group I showed superior results for all measured post-challenge parameters. In conclusion, a single rHVT-H5 hatchery vaccination conferred a high level of protection for a relatively extended period. This vaccine could be an important tool for future A/H5N1 prevention/control in endemic countries. Further studies on persistence of immunity beyond 19 weeks, need for booster with inactivated vaccines, breed susceptibility and vaccinal response, and transmissibility are recommended. PMID:25245772

Kilany, Walid; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Selim, Abdullah; Tripodi, Astrid; Samy, Mohamed; Sobhy, Heba; VonDobschuetz, Sophie; Safwat, Marwa; Saad, Mona; Erfan, Ahmed; Hassan, Mohamed; Lubroth, Juan; Jobre, Yilma



Effects of Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients on peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titer after vaccination in chicken.  


The purpose of these experiments is to study the effects of Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (CHMIs) on peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titer in chicken vaccinated with Newcastle disease. Nine CHMIs were chosen for the experiments. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), Isatis root polysaccharide (IRPS), Epimedium flavone (EF), Propolis flavone (PF), Astragalosides (AS) and Ginsenosides (GS) could promote lymphocyte proliferation and antibody titer, while Epimedium polysaccharide (EPS) mainly stimulated cellular immune responses. Chinese angelica polysaccharide (CAPS) and Propolis polysaccharide (PPS) exerted weaker effects on promoting immune responses. APS, IRPS, PPS and PF in promoting lymphocyte proliferation, and IRPS, PPS, EF and PF in promoting humoral immunity in higher dose were significantly stronger than in lower dose. Our results indicated that almost all of the nine CHMIs could promote both humoral and cellular immune responses and would be expected as the component drug of a new-type immunopotentiator. PMID:15233143

Kong, Xiangfeng; Hu, Yuanliang; Rui, Rong; Wang, Deyun; Li, Xiangrui



Vaccination of chickens against avian influenza using yeast cell surface display of H5 hemagglutinin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traditional vaccination methods for avian influenza (AI) require costly and time-consuming injection of individual birds, often multiple times, in order to produce protection. These vaccines are difficult to change quickly in response to new threats as manufacturing takes time. Yeast are an ideal ...


H7 avian influenza virus vaccines protect chickens against challenge with antigenically diverse isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vaccination has been a critical tool in the control of some avian influenza viruses (AIV) and has been used routinely in Pakistan to help control sporadic outbreaks of highly pathogenic (HP) H7 AIV since 1995. During that time, several AIV isolates were utilized as inactivated vaccines with varying...


Immunomodulatory Effects of Multistrain Probiotics (Protexin™) on Broiler Chicken Vaccinated Against Avian Influenza Virus (H9)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of probiotics (Protexin) on the immune response of broiler chicks. The parameters of investigation were hemagglutination inhibition HI titer of antibodie s against avian influenza virus and post field AIV challenge. The findings were compared with the cyclophosphamide treated AIV-vaccinated; untreated and AIV-vaccinated and unvaccinated and control birds this investigation revealed that



Evaluation of protective efficacy of live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum vaccine strains against fowl typhoid in chickens.  


Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum is the etiological agent of fowl typhoid, which constitutes a considerable economic problem for poultry growers in developing countries. The vaccination of chickens seems to be the most effective strategy to control the disease in those areas. We constructed S. Gallinarum strains with a deletion of the global regulatory gene fur and evaluated their virulence and protective efficacy in Rhode Island Red chicks and Brown Leghorn layers. The fur deletion mutant was avirulent and, when delivered orally to chicks, elicited excellent protection against lethal S. Gallinarum challenge. It was not as effective when given orally to older birds, although it was highly immunogenic when delivered by intramuscular injection. We also examined the effect of a pmi mutant and a combination of fur deletions with mutations in the pmi and rfaH genes, which affect O-antigen synthesis, and ansB, whose product inhibits host T-cell responses. The S. Gallinarum ?pmi mutant was only partially attenuated, and the ?ansB mutant was fully virulent. The ?fur ?pmi and ?fur ?ansB double mutants were attenuated but not protective when delivered orally to the chicks. However, a ?pmi ?fur strain was highly immunogenic when administered intramuscularly. All together, our results show that the fur gene is essential for the virulence of S. Gallinarum, and the fur mutant is effective as a live recombinant vaccine against fowl typhoid. PMID:24990908

Laniewski, Pawe?; Mitra, Arindam; Karaca, Kemal; Khan, Ayub; Prasad, Rajeev; Curtiss, Roy; Roland, Kenneth L



Development and immunogenicity of recombinant GapA(+) Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine strain ts-11 expressing infectious bronchitis virus-S1 glycoprotein and chicken interleukin-6.  


Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a major pathogen of poultry that causes chronic respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys. A live attenuated vaccine, ts-11, has been used for the control of MG in several countries. The efficacy of this vaccine is highly dose dependent and the flock antibody response is weak. To improve the functionality of the vaccine and investigate its potential as a delivery vector for foreign antigens and immunomodulatory proteins, we developed a derivative of ts-11 expressing infectious bronchitis virus-S1 glycoprotein (IBV-S1) and releasing chicken interleukin-6 into the extracellular milieu (MG ts-11 C3 (+CS)) using a transposon-based delivery vector. Following administration of MG ts-11 C3 (+CS) to chickens by eye-drop, an antibody response to MG and IBV-S1, as determined by the rapid serum agglutination test (RSA) and Western blotting, respectively, could be detected. Birds inoculated with the recombinant vaccine had significantly enhanced weight gain and were partially protected against damage by pathogenic IBV. These results indicate that the ChIL-6 released by MG ts-11 C3 (+CS) may have had a non-specific effect on growth rate. They also suggest that ts-11 is a promising vaccine vector, capable of delivering heterologous protective antigens, and may also provide non-specific benefits when engineered to express immunomodulatory proteins. With some improvements in the expression system, it could be used to induce a targeted immune response against specific mucosal pathogens, and co-expression of several antigens would allow development of a novel multivalent vaccine. PMID:21354248

Shil, Pollob K; Kanci, Anna; Browning, Glenn F; Markham, Philip F



Recombinant M2e Protein-Based ELISA: A Novel and Inexpensive Approach for Differentiating Avian Influenza Infected Chickens from Vaccinated Ones  

PubMed Central

Available avian influenza (AIV) serological diagnostic tests cannot distinguish vaccinated from naturally infected birds. Differentiation of vaccinated from infected animals (DIVA) is currently advocated as a means of achieving the full control of H5N1. In this study, for the first time, recombinant ectodomain of M2 protein (M2e) of avian influenza virus (H5N1 strain) was used for the DIVA serology test. M2e was cloned into pMAL-P4X vector and expressed in E. coli cells. We used Western blot to recognize the expressed M2e-MBP protein by chicken antisera produced against live H5N1 virus. Also, the specificity of M2e-MBP protein was compared to the M2e synthetic peptide via ELISA. In M2e-MBP ELISA, all sera raised against the live avian influenza viruses were positive for M2e antibodies, whereas sera from killed virus vaccination were negative. Furthermore, M2e-MBP ELISA of the field sera obtained from vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens showed negative results, while challenged vaccinated chickens demonstrated strong positive reactions. H5N1-originated recombinant M2e protein induced broad-spectrum response and successfully reacted with antibodies against other AIV strains such as H5N2, H9N2, H7N7, and H11N6. The application of the recombinant protein instead of synthetic peptide has the advantages of continues access to an inexpensive reagent for performing a large scale screening. Moreover, recombinant proteins provide the possibility of testing the DIVA results with an additional technique such a Western blotting which is not possible in the case of synthetic proteins. All together, the results of the present investigation show that recombinant M2e-MBP can be used as a robust and inexpensive solution for DIVA test. PMID:23437243

Hemmatzadeh, Farhid; Sumarningsih, Sumarningsih; Tarigan, Simson; Indriani, Risa; Dharmayanti, N. L. P. Indi; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Igniatovic, Jagoda



Characterization of a Salmonella Typhimurium ghost carrying an adjuvant protein as a vaccine candidate for the protection of chickens against virulent challenge.  


In this study we describe the generation of a safe, immunogenic, genetically inactivated Salmonella Typhimurium ghost vaccine candidate carrying the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) protein as an adjuvant molecule. An asd(+) p15A ori(-) plasmid pJHL187-LTB harbouring the E lysis gene cassette and a foreign antigen delivery cassette containing the eltB gene was used to transform a ?asd Salmonella Typhimurium (JOL1311) strain to construct the ghost strain, JOL1499. Incubation of mid-logarithmic phase JOL1499 cultures at 42°C resulted in co-expression of the eltB and E lysis genes, leading to the generation of Salmonella Typhimurium ghost cells carrying the LTB protein (Salmonella Typhimurium-LTB ghost). The production of LTB in Salmonella Typhimurium-LTB ghost preparations was confirmed by western blot analysis, and functional activity of the LTB protein to bind with GM1 receptors was determined by means of GM1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Efficacy of the Salmonella Typhimurium-LTB ghost as a vaccine candidate was evaluated in a chicken model using 56 chickens at 5 weeks old, which were divided into four groups (n = 14): group A was designated the non-vaccinated control group, whereas the birds in groups B, C, and D were immunized intramuscularly with 10(9), 10(8), and 10(7) ghost cells, respectively. Compared with the non-immunized chickens (group A), immunized chickens (groups B, C and D) exhibited increased titres of plasma IgG and intestinal secretory IgA antibodies. After oral challenge with 10(9) colony-forming units of a virulent Salmonella Typhimurium strain, the vaccinated group B birds showed a decrease in internal organ colonization with the challenge strain. PMID:25245884

Jawale, Chetan V; Lee, John Hwa



75 FR 27288 - New Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Service [Docket No. FSIS-2009-0034] New Performance Standards for Salmonella and...Chicken and Turkey Slaughter Establishments; New Compliance Guides AGENCY: Food Safety and...Inspection Service (FSIS) is announcing new performance standards for the...



Influences of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine on productive and reproductive performance of commercial parent broiler chicken breeders on a multi-age farm.  


The influences of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) vaccine inoculation during the pullet period on the subsequent productive and reproductive performance of parent broiler chicken breeders on a multi-age farm were evaluated. Three thousand breeders were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups that were either vaccinated with FMG (FMG-vaccinated group) or not vaccinated with FMG (FMG-free group). Body weight and egg production were determined through approximately 50 wk of age. Egg weight and feed conversion was determined at 26, 32, 35, 38, and 43 wk of age. Egg quality parameters, including eggshell strength, egg-specific gravity, egg shape index, blood-meat spots, Haugh unit score, eggshell thickness, yolk:albumen ratio, percentage yolk, albumen and eggshell weights, and percentage fertility, hatchability, and second-quality chicks were determined at 26, 32, and 43 wk of age. Air sacs were examined and lesions were scored at 20, 32, and 50 wk of age. The number of mature ovarian follicles, histologies of ovary, and lengths, and histologies of the infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus, and vagina were determined. In the present study, an increase in egg production of broiler breeder hens in the FMG-vaccinated group during peak of lay was compared with the FMG-free group. Feed conversion of hens in the FMG-vaccinated group was significantly less at 32, 35, 38, and 43 wk of age. Eggs from hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly higher Haugh units score at 26 wk of age and had a significantly higher eggshell thickness and lower incidence of blood-meat spots at 32 wk. Hatching eggs from hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly higher hatchability. The mean lesion score of air-sac lesion of birds in the FMG-vaccinated group was significantly less than FMG-vaccinated group. Uteruses of hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly longer length compared with the FMG-free group at 32 wk of age. The results indicate that inoculation of commercial parent broiler chicken breeders with the FMG vaccine before laying may prevent infection by field M. gallisepticum, and facilitate productive and reproductive performance. PMID:23687149

Liu, J J; Ding, L; Wei, J Z; Li, Y



Supplemental dietary L-arginine attenuates intestinal mucosal disruption during a coccidial vaccine challenge in broiler chickens.  


The present study investigated the effects of dietary arginine (Arg) supplementation on intestinal structure and functionality in broiler chickens subjected to coccidial challenge. The present study was a randomised complete block design employing a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (n 8) with three dietary concentrations of Arg (11·1, 13·3 and 20·2 g/kg) with or without coccidial vaccine challenge (unchallenged and coccidial challenge). On day 14, birds were orally administered with coccidial vaccine or saline. On day 21, birds were killed to obtain jejunal tissue and mucosal samples for histological, gene expression and mucosal immunity measurements. Within 7 d of the challenge, there was a decrease in body-weight gain and feed intake, and an increase in the feed:gain ratio (P< 0·05). Jejunal inflammation was evidenced by villus damage, crypt dilation and goblet cell depletion. Coccidial challenge increased mucosal secretory IgA concentration and inflammatory gene (iNOS, IL-1?, IL-8 and MyD88) mRNA expression levels (P< 0·05), as well as reduced jejunal Mucin-2, IgA and IL-1RI mRNA expression levels (P< 0·05). Increasing Arg concentration (1) increased jejunal villus height (P< 0·05) and linearly increased jejunal crypt depth (P< 0·05); (2) quadratically increased mucosal maltase activity (P< 0·05) and linearly decreased mucosal secretory IgG concentration (P< 0·05) within the coccidiosis-challenged groups; and (3) linearly decreased jejunal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA expression level (P< 0·05) within the coccidiosis-challenged groups. The mRNA expression of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 pathway genes (mTOR and RPS6KB1) and the anti-apoptosis gene Bcl-2 quadratically responded to increasing dietary Arg supplementation (P< 0·05). These results indicate that dietary Arg supplementation attenuates intestinal mucosal disruption in coccidiosis-challenged chickens probably through suppressing TLR4 and activating mTOR complex 1 pathways. PMID:25181320

Tan, Jianzhuang; Applegate, Todd J; Liu, Shasha; Guo, Yuming; Eicher, Susan D



Passive antibody transfer in chickens to model maternal antibody after avian influenza vaccination  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Birds transfer maternal antibodies (MAb) to their offspring through the egg yolk where the antibody is absorbed and enters the circulatory system. Maternal antibodies provide early protection from disease, but may interfere with the vaccination efficacy in the chick. MAb are thought to interfere wit...


Passive antibody transfer in chickens to model maternal antibody after avian influenza vaccination  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Birds transfer maternal antibodies (MAb) to their offspring through the egg yolk where the antibody is absorbed and enters the circulatory system. These maternal antibodies, depending on the pathogen, can provide early protection from some diseases, but it may also interfere with the vaccination re...


Crosstalk between innate and adaptive immune responses to infectious bronchitis virus after vaccination and challenge of chickens varying in serum mannose-binding lectin concentrations.  


Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a C-type collectin with structural similarities to C1q, is an innate pattern-recognition molecule that is sequestered to sites of inflammation and infections. MBL selectively binds distinct chemical patterns, including carbohydrates expressed on all kinds of pathogens. The present study shows that serum MBL levels influence the ability of chickens to clear the respiratory tract of virus genomes after an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection. The primary IBV infection induced changes in circulating T-cell populations and in the specific antibody responses. Serum MBL levels also influenced IBV vaccine-induced changes in circulating T-cell populations. Moreover, addition of mannose to an IBV vaccine altered both vaccine-induced changes in circulating T-cell populations and IBV specific vaccine and infection-induced antibody responses in chickens with high serum MBL levels. These data demonstrate that MBL is involved in the regulation of the adaptive immune response to IBV. PMID:22008821

Juul-Madsen, Helle R; Norup, Liselotte R; Jørgensen, Poul H; Handberg, Kurt J; Wattrang, Eva; Dalgaard, Tina S



Efficacy of an anticoccidial live vaccine in prevention of necrotic enteritis in chickens.  


Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an important disease in poultry caused by Clostridium perfringens combined with predisposing factors, mainly eimeriosis. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of a commercial attenuated anticoccidial live vaccine against NE in a clinical infection model using 60 day-old chicks. Vaccination was performed on study day (SD) 1 with natural booster-infections for 4 weeks from Eimeria spp. oocysts present in litter. On SD 28, five groups were formed (n=12): group V+/C-E- (vaccinated, uninfected), group V+/C-E+ (vaccinated, infected with Eimeria spp.), group V+/C+E+ (vaccinated, infected with clostridia and Eimeria spp.), group V-/C+E+ (unvaccinated, infected with clostridia and Eimeria spp.), and group NC (negative control). Efficacy was measured by clinical parameters, pathogen multiplication, and pathological parameters assessed during two necropsies on SD 34 and SD 40, respectively. Additionally, cytokine expression was measured in gut and spleen tissues at necropsy. Clinical signs of NE were observed only in the coinfected groups, mainly in group V-/C+E+. Accordingly, lowest body weight gain was observed in group V-/C+E+ (301.8 g from SD 28 to SD 40; group NC: 626.2 g). Oocyst excretion varied significantly (P<0.01) between all Eimeria spp. infected groups and was highest in group V-/C+E+, followed by V+/C+E+, and lowest in group V+/C-E+. NE typical intestinal lesions showed only in groups V+/C+E+ and V-/C+E+. The intestinal mucosa featured partly severe lesions in the jejunum, C. perfringens colonization was histologically visible. Upregulation of IFN-?, was observed in the jejunal tissue of group V-/C+E+ (P<0.01 (SD 34) or P<0.05 (SD 40) compared to all other groups). IL-10 and IL-12 were upregulated in group V-/C+E+, IL-10 also in group V+/C+E+ (SD 40) while IL-2 expression remained unaltered. In conclusion, vaccination against coccidiosis was effective in preventing NE in a mixed infection comparable to field situations. PMID:25131774

Bangoura, Berit; Alnassan, Alaa Aldin; Lendner, Matthias; Shehata, Awad Ali; Krüger, Monika; Daugschies, Arwid



Outbreak-related mumps vaccine effectiveness among a cohort of children and of young adults in Germany 2011.  


Mumps outbreaks in populations with high 2-dose vaccination coverage and among young adults are increasingly reported. However, data on the duration of vaccine-induced protection conferred by mumps vaccines are scarce. As part of a supra-regional outbreak in Germany 2010/11, we conducted two retrospective cohort studies in a primary school and among adult ice hockey teams to determine mumps vaccine effectiveness (VE). Via questionnaires we collected information on demography, clinical manifestations, and reviewed vaccination cards. We estimated VE as 1-RR, RR being the rate ratio of disease among two-times or one-time mumps-vaccinated compared with unvaccinated persons. The response rate was 92.6% (100/108--children cohort) and 91.7% (44/48--adult cohort). Fourteen cases were identified in the children and 6 in the adult cohort. In the children cohort (mean age: 9 y), 2-dose VE was 91.9% (95% CI 81.0-96.5%). In the adult cohort (mean age: 26 y), no cases occurred among the 13 2-times vaccinated, while 1-dose VE was 50.0% (95% CI -9.4-87.1%). Average time since last vaccination showed no significant difference for cases and non-cases, but cases were younger at age of last mumps vaccination (children cohort: 2 vs. 3 y, P=0.04; adult cohort: 1 vs. 4 y, P=0.03). We did not observe signs of waning immunity in the children cohort. Due to the small sample size VE in the adult cohort should be interpreted with caution. Given the estimated VE, very high 2-dose vaccination coverage is required to prevent future outbreaks. Intervention efforts to increase coverage must especially target young adults who received<2 vaccinations during childhood. PMID:24091837

Takla, Anja; Böhmer, Merle M; Klinc, Christina; Kurz, Norbert; Schaffer, Alice; Stich, Heribert; Stöcker, Petra; Wichmann, Ole; Koch, Judith



Early-life and contemporaneous nutritional and environmental predictors of antibody response to vaccination in young Gambian adults  

PubMed Central

Recent research links nutritional exposures early in life with alterations in functional immunity that persist beyond childhood. Here we investigate predictors of antibody response to polysaccharide vaccines in a cohort of Gambian adults with detailed records from birth and early infancy available. 320 adults were given a single dose of a Vi polysaccharide vaccine for Salmonella typhi and a 23-valent capsular polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine. Anti-Vi antibody levels and antibodies against 4 pneumococcal serotypes (1, 5, 14 and 23F) were measured in serum samples collected at baseline and then 14 days following vaccination and compared to data available from birth and early infancy. Post-vaccination antibody titres to serotype 14 of the pneumococcal vaccine were negatively associated with rate of growth from birth to three months of age, infant weight at 12 months of age and season of birth, but no other associations were observed with early-life exposures. The strongest predictor of antibody levels was pre-vaccination antibody titres, with adult height and serum neopterin levels at time of vaccination also implicated. The current study does not support the hypothesis that nutritional exposures early in life consistently compromise antibody response to polysaccharide vaccines administered in young adulthood. PMID:22609011

Moore, Sophie E.; Richards, Anna A.; Goldblatt, David; Ashton, Lindsey; Szu, Shousun Chen; Prentice, Andrew M.



Subunit influenza vaccine candidate based on CD154 fused to HAH5 increases the antibody titers and cellular immune response in chickens.  


World Health Organization has a great concern about the spreading of avian influenza virus H5N1. To counteract its massive spread, poultry vaccination is highly recommended together with biosecurity measures. In our study, a recombinant vaccine candidate based on the fusion of extracellular segments of hemagglutinin (HA) H5 of avian influenza virus and chicken CD154 (HACD) is tested with the aim of enhancing humoral and cellular immune responses in chickens. Protein expression was carried out by transducing several mammalian cell lines with recombinant adenoviral vectors. HACD purification was assessed by three distinct purification protocols: immunoaffinity chromatography by elution at acidic pH or with a chaotropic agent and size exclusion chromatography. Humoral and cellular immune responses were measured using the hemagglutination inhibition assay and the semiquantitative real time PCR, respectively. The results showed that humoral response against HACD was significantly higher than the obtained with HA alone after booster (P<0.01, P<0.05). From HACD molecules purified by distinct protocols, only the obtained by size exclusion chromatography generated hemagglutinationin-inhibition activity. IFN-? levels indicated that cellular immune response was significantly higher with HACD, in its pure or impure form, compared to its counterpart HA (P<0.01). These data demonstrate that HACD is able to significantly enhance humoral and cellular immune responses against HA antigen, which make this fusion protein a promising subunit vaccine candidate against H5N1 virus outbreaks. PMID:21680114

Pose, Alaín González; Gómez, Julia Noda; Sánchez, Alina Venereo; Redondo, Armando Vega; Rodríguez, Elsa Rodríguez; Seguí, Raquel Montesino; Ramos, Ernesto Manuel González; Moltó, María Pilar Rodríguez; Rodríguez, Elaine Santana; Cordero, Liliam Rios; Mallón, Alina Rodríguez; Nordelo, Carlos Borroto



Impact of coccidial infection on vaccine- and vvIBDV in lymphoid tissues of SPF chickens as detected by RT-PCR  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed at investigating a potential effect caused by coccidia on the immune response to vaccine- and very virulent infectious bursal disase virus (vvIBDV) in SPF chickens. Methods Two groups of three weeks old SPF chickens were vaccinated prior to inoculation with coccidia and challenge with virulent IBDV, all within a period of eight days. Two control groups were similarly treated, except that challenge with field virus was omitted in one group while inoculation with coccidia was omitted in the other group. Clinical signs, lesions in the intestines caused by coccidia, lesions in the bursa of Fabricius caused by IBDV, IBDV-antibody titres, and virus detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were compared among the groups. Lymphoid tissues and swab samples were analysed by general RT-PCR, and positive results were identified by strain specific duplex (DPX) RT-PCR. Results In the tripple-infected groups, vaccine strain IBDV was detected in spleen and thymus tissues, and no field virus was detected in bursa samples, contrary to the double-infected groups. Conclusion The results suggest an enhancing effect on the immune response caused by subclinical coccidiosis and vvIBDV acting in concert. PMID:16987396

Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt J; Bisgaard, Magne



Immune response of broiler chickens fed different levels of arginine and vitamin E to a coccidiosis vaccine and Eimeria challenge.  


One-day-old broiler chicks (n = 300) were orally vaccinated (Coccivac-B) and divided into 6 groups to evaluate Arg at 3 levels of supplementation, 0, 0.3, or 0.6% [normal level (NARG), medium level (MARG), or high level (HARG), respectively], and 2 levels of vitamin E (VE), 40 or 80 IU/kg of feed (VE40 or VE80, respectively), in a factorial experiment. Birds were reared in floor pens with fresh pine shavings and provided a corn-soybean-based diet and water ad libitum. At d 14, all chickens were orally challenged with a mixture of Eimeria field isolates (Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella). In vitro heterophil and monocyte oxidative burst (HOB and MOB, respectively) was measured at d 21 from cells isolated from peripheral blood. Antibody levels (IgG, IgM, and IgA isotypes, ELISA) and NO were measured at d 14 and 28. The HOB was lower in birds fed the VE40 diets but was increased with the MARG and HARG treatments, whereas birds fed the VE80 diet had a higher HOB irrespective of Arg level. Birds fed the VE80 diet had high levels of MOB, which was not further improved by Arg, whereas birds fed the VE40-MARG diet had the highest MOB response. Plasma NO was not affected by diet at d 14, but at d 28, plasma NO was higher in birds fed the VE80-MARG or the VE40-NARG diet and lower in birds fed the VE80-NARG or the VE40-MARG diet. Birds fed the VE40-HARG or VE80-MARG diet had the highest IgG levels at d 14, but at d 28, birds fed the VE80-MARG diet had the highest IgG levels. The IgM concentration was lower in birds fed NARG levels irrespective of VE levels at d 14, but at d 28, IgM levels were higher in birds fed the VE40-HARG or the VE80-MARG feed. The IgA concentration was not consistently affected at d 14 or 28. These results suggest that Arg and VE fed at levels higher than those recommended by the NRC may play complementary roles on the innate and humoral immune response against an Eimeria challenge, potentially improving vaccine efficacy and response to field infections. PMID:20709971

Perez-Carbajal, C; Caldwell, D; Farnell, M; Stringfellow, K; Pohl, S; Casco, G; Pro-Martinez, A; Ruiz-Feria, C A



Factors associated with the persuasiveness of direct-to-consumer advertising on HPV vaccination among young women.  


This quantitative study explored young women's response to direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising (DTCA) for a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. In particular, the study examined (a) the association of factors stemming from consumer research with actual and intended behavioral responses to DTCA for HPV and (b) key elements drawn from commonly used health-related theories to determine the strongest associations with behavioral intentions regarding the HPV vaccine. Survey findings showed that vaccinated women indicated that DTCA played a role in their decision to get vaccinated against HPV more so than those who were not vaccinated. Trust in DTCA for an HPV vaccine brand was significantly related to intentions to seek more information about the vaccine. Also, perceived barriers had the only significant association with behavioral intentions when taking into account perceived threat and response efficacy. These results provide practical implications for key industry decision makers and health communication professionals on the design of effective theory-based health communication message content for an HPV vaccine brand with consequent social implications. PMID:24708436

Manika, Danae; Ball, Jennifer G; Stout, Patricia A



Characteristics Associated With Initiation of the HPV Vaccine Among a National Sample of Male and Female Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine rates of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation, and characteristics associated with initiation, among a national sample of male and female young adults. Methods Participants (n=3,448; 48% female) were recruited using a web-based respondent driven sampling strategy and completed a web-based survey between October and December 2010. Results Forty-five percent of females and four percent of males initiated the vaccine. Females who were younger, never married, in school, attended religious services less than once a month, sexually active, reported a greater number of lifetime sex partners, and who had been tested for HIV were more likely to report initiation. Males who were African American, attended religious services less than once a month, reported a greater number of sex partners in their lifetime and who had been tested for HIV were more likely to report initiation. Conclusions Factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation may differ for males and females. Further research, with larger samples of males, is needed to fully understand characteristics associated with male initiation. Regardless of gender, however, the majority of young adults who have not initiated sexual activity have not received the vaccine. Further research is needed to examine how to increase vaccination rates among this population, as they may benefit most from vaccination. PMID:24138764

Bernat, Debra H.; Gerend, Mary A.; Chevallier, Kenya; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.




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Vaccinations are injections of antigens into the body. Once the antigens enter the blood, they circulate along ... suppressor T cells stop the attack. After a vaccination, the body will have a memory of an ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A comparison of the serological response and protection induced by vaccines prepared from NDV strains that represent genetically diverse isolates of the avian paramyxovirus type 1 serotype was made. Four-week-old leghorns were vaccinated with one of six different BPL inactivated vaccines; B1, Ulster...


Ultrastructural changes of chondrocytes of growth plates of young broiler chickens predisposed to tibial dyschondroplasia.  


Growth plates from the proximal tibiotarsal bones of growing broiler chickens from lines exhibiting high and low incidences of tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) were compared for ultrastructural differences. Samples of growth plates were collected from five chickens of each line at 2, 7, 14, and 21 d of age. Each sample was prepared for ultrastructural evaluation after initial fixation in 2.5% glutaraldehyde and secondary fixation in 1% osmium tetroxide, each containing .7% ruthenium hexamine trichloride. No gross TD lesions were observed. The ultrastructure of growth plates of birds at 2, 7, and 14 d of age was similar between the groups. However, at 21 d of age, chondrocytes in the prehypertrophic zone of the high incidence group contained large lipid inclusions and vesiculated and disarranged stacks of rough endoplasmic reticulum with greatly dilated cisternae. Apoptotic and necrotic chondrocytes were present in the hypertrophic zone. Nuclei of apoptotic chondrocytes contained crescentic caps of condensed chromatin. The cytoplasm contained short segments of dilated granular endoplasmic reticulum, lipid droplets, and vacuoles. Necrotic chondrocytes appeared as amorphous masses with pyknotic and karyorrhectic nuclei. These changes were not observed in chondrocytes of the low TD incidence group and have not been previously reported in nonthickened growth plate cartilage. PMID:7603954

Ling, J; Kincaid, S A; McDaniel, G R; Bartels, J E



Barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccination of young women in high-income countries: a qualitative systematic review and evidence synthesis  

PubMed Central

Background Vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is recommended for adolescent young women prior to sexual debut to reduce cervical cancer related mortality and morbidity. Understanding factors affecting decision-making of HPV vaccination of young women is important so that effective interventions can be developed which address barriers to uptake in population groups less likely to receive the HPV vaccine. Methods We undertook a qualitative systematic review and evidence synthesis to examine decision-making relating to the HPV vaccination of young women in high-income countries. A comprehensive search of databases from inception to March 2012 was undertaken to identify eligible studies reporting the perspectives of key stakeholders including policy makers, professionals involved in programme, parents, and young women. Factors affecting uptake of the vaccine were examined at different levels of the socio-ecological model (policy, community, organisational, interpersonal and intrapersonal). Results Forty-one studies were included. Whether young women receive the HPV vaccine is strongly governed by the decisions of policy makers, healthcare professionals, and parents. These decisions are shaped by: financial considerations; social norms and values relating to sexual activity, and; trust in vaccination programmes and healthcare providers. Financial constraints may be overcome through universal healthcare systems offering the HPV vaccine free at the point of delivery. In the healthcare setting, judgements by healthcare professionals about whether to recommend the vaccine may restrict a young woman’s access to the vaccine irrespective of her own beliefs and preferences. Parents may decide not to allow their daughters to be vaccinated, based on cultural or religious perceptions about sexual activity. Conclusions Barriers to the uptake of the HPV vaccine have implications for young women’s future sexual, physical and reproductive health. Interventions to address barriers to uptake of the vaccine should target appropriate, and multiple, levels of the socio-ecological model. Issues of trust require clear, accessible, and sometimes culturally appropriate, information about the HPV vaccination programme. Although young women are central to the HPV vaccination programme, their views are underrepresented in the qualitative literature. Future research should consider young women’s perceptions of, and involvement in, consent and decision-making. PMID:25004868



Dietary supplementation of young broiler chickens with Capsicum and turmeric oleoresins increases resistance to necrotic enteritis.  


The Clostridium-related poultry disease, necrotic enteritis (NE), causes substantial economic losses on a global scale. In the present study, a mixture of two plant-derived phytonutrients, Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin (XT), was evaluated for its effects on local and systemic immune responses using a co-infection model of experimental NE in commercial broilers. Chickens were fed from hatch with a diet supplemented with XT, or with a non-supplemented control diet, and either uninfected or orally challenged with virulent Eimeria maxima oocysts at 14 d and Clostridium perfringens at 18 d of age. Parameters of protective immunity were as follows: (1) body weight; (2) gut lesions; (3) serum levels of C. perfringens ?-toxin and NE B-like (NetB) toxin; (4) serum levels of antibodies to ?-toxin and NetB toxin; (5) levels of gene transcripts encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the intestine and spleen. Infected chickens fed the XT-supplemented diet had increased body weight and reduced gut lesion scores compared with infected birds given the non-supplemented diet. The XT-fed group also displayed decreased serum ?-toxin levels and reduced intestinal IL-8, lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-? factor (LITAF), IL-17A and IL-17F mRNA levels, while cytokine/chemokine levels in splenocytes increased in the XT-fed group, compared with the animals fed the control diet. In conclusion, the present study documents the molecular and cellular immune changes following dietary supplementation with extracts of Capsicum and turmeric that may be relevant to protective immunity against avian NE. PMID:23566550

Lee, Sung Hyen; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lillehoj, Erik P; Min, Wongi; Bravo, David M



Evaluation of Vaccines on the Prevalence of Salmonella and/or Campylobacter in Layer and Broiler Chickens  

E-print Network

of these microorganisms (Oyarzabal, et al., 2004). Preventing leakage from the crop and/or intestinal tract can help reduce possible contamination of carcasses. Vaccines Vaccines have played an important role in controlling diseases that once plagued... EFFICACY OF COMBINING DIFFERENT SALMONELLA VACCINE FRACTIONS FOR PREVENTING SALMONELLA INTESTINAL COLONIZATION IN EXPERIENTIALLY CHALLENGED PULLETS...................... 35 viii Description of Problem...

Garcia, Javier Shalin



Induction of respiratory immune responses in the chicken; implications for development of mucosal avian influenza virus vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk and the size of an outbreak of avian influenza virus (AIV) could be restricted by vaccination of poultry. A vaccine used for rapid intervention during an AIV outbreak should be safe, highly effective after a single administration and suitable for mass application. In the case of AIV, aerosol vaccination using live virus is not desirable because of its

Eveline D. de Geus; Johanna M. J. Rebel; Lonneke Vervelde



A recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus replicon vaccine protects chickens from highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H7N1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of subtypes H5 and H7 cause fatal disease in poultry (fowl plague) but also have zoonotic potential. Currently commercially available vaccines often do not provide sufficient protection and do not allow easy discrimination between vaccinated and infected birds. Therefore, vaccination of domestic poultry against H5 and H7 HPAIV is not allowed in many countries,

Nazeer H. Kalhoro; Jutta Veits; Silke Rautenschlein; Gert Zimmer



Development of a high throughput TaqMan assay for the detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in vector vaccinated chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) causes an acute, highly contagious upper-respiratory disease of chickens. Sensitive detection of the causative alphaherpesvirus is important in clinical investigations and experimental studies. In particular, it is essential to quantify the viral genome co...


Protection in specific pathogen free chickens with live avian metapneumovirus and Newcastle disease virus vaccines applied singly or in combination.  


This paper describes two experiments. In each experiment, 1-day-old specific pathogen free chicks were divided into three groups. In Experiment 1 - [avian metapneumo virus (aMPV) challenge] - one group served as unvaccinated controls; the second group was vaccinated with live aMPV (subtype B) vaccine only, and the third group received the aMPV vaccine in combination with live Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine (VG/GA strain). Oropharyngeal swabs, tissues and blood samples were collected before and after challenge with a virulent subtype aMPV at 21 days post vaccination. Chicks were monitored for post-challenge clinical signs. Swabs and tissues were examined for the detection of challenge aMPV by virus isolation and by reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain reaction. Sera were assayed for antibodies against aMPV and NDV. The single and combined vaccinated chicks were all protected against clinical signs and no challenge virus was isolated from either of the vaccinated-challenged groups. In Experiment 2 (NDV challenge), as in Experiment 1, chicks were divided into three groups where one group remained as unvaccinated control and the other two groups were vaccinated as above, except that the second group received live NDV vaccine only, instead of aMPV. At 21 days post vaccination, 15 chicks from each of the three groups were removed to a different site and challenged with a virulent NDV (Texas GB strain). Re-isolation of the challenge virus was not attempted. All chicks in both NDV-vaccinated challenged groups were protected against clinical signs and mortality. These results show that, based on parameters monitored for the respective challenge virus, simultaneous application of live aMPV and NDV vaccines did not affect the efficacy of either vaccine. PMID:17620178

Ganapathy, K; Cox, W J; Gough, R E; Cargill, P; Montiel, E; Jones, R C



Efficacy, immune responses and side-effects of vaccines against Johne's disease in young red deer (Cervus elaphus) experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To test the efficacy of a commercially available and an experimental vaccine against Johne's disease in young red deer (Cervus elaphus), using experimental challenge with live virulent Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (M. ptb), measure injection-site reactions, and assess the effects of vaccination and challenge on results of subsequent skin tests and ancillary blood tests for bovine tuberculosis (Tb).METHODS: Ninety

CG Mackintosh; RE Labes; BR Thompson; RG Clark; GW de Lisle; PD Johnstone; JFT Griffin



A Single Electroporation Delivery of a DNA Vaccine Containing the Hemagglutinin Gene of Asian H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus Generated a Protective Antibody Response in Chickens against a North American Virus Strain  

PubMed Central

Protection against the avian influenza (AI) H5N1 virus is suspected to be mainly conferred by the presence of antibodies directed against the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the virus. A single electroporation delivery of 100 or 250 ?g of a DNA vaccine construct, pCAG-HA, carrying the HA gene of strain A/Hanoi/30408/2005 (H5N1), in chickens led to the development of anti-HA antibody response in 16 of 17 immunized birds, as measured by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), and an indirect ELISA. Birds vaccinated by electroporation (n = 11) were protected from experimental AI challenge with strain A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/1/1983 (H5N2) as judged by low viral load, absence of clinical symptoms, and absence of mortality (n = 11). In contrast, only two out of 10 birds vaccinated with the same vaccine dose (100 or 250 ?g) but without electroporation developed antibodies. These birds showed high viral loads and significant morbidity and mortality after the challenge. Seroconversion was reduced in birds electroporated with a low vaccine dose (10 ?g), but the antibody-positive birds were protected against virus challenge. Nonelectroporation delivery of a low-dose vaccine did not result in seroconversion, and the birds were as susceptible as those in the control groups that received the control pCAG vector. Electroporation delivery of the DNA vaccine led to enhanced antibody responses and to protection against the AI virus challenge. The HI test, cELISA, or indirect ELISA for anti-H5 antibodies might serve as a good predictor of the potency and efficacy of a DNA immunization strategy against AI in chickens. PMID:23365205

Pasick, John; Kobinger, Gary P.; Hannaman, Drew; Berhane, Yohannes; Clavijo, Alfonso; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia



A single electroporation delivery of a DNA vaccine containing the hemagglutinin gene of Asian H5N1 avian influenza virus generated a protective antibody response in chickens against a North American virus strain.  


Protection against the avian influenza (AI) H5N1 virus is suspected to be mainly conferred by the presence of antibodies directed against the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the virus. A single electroporation delivery of 100 or 250 ?g of a DNA vaccine construct, pCAG-HA, carrying the HA gene of strain A/Hanoi/30408/2005 (H5N1), in chickens led to the development of anti-HA antibody response in 16 of 17 immunized birds, as measured by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), and an indirect ELISA. Birds vaccinated by electroporation (n = 11) were protected from experimental AI challenge with strain A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/1/1983 (H5N2) as judged by low viral load, absence of clinical symptoms, and absence of mortality (n = 11). In contrast, only two out of 10 birds vaccinated with the same vaccine dose (100 or 250 ?g) but without electroporation developed antibodies. These birds showed high viral loads and significant morbidity and mortality after the challenge. Seroconversion was reduced in birds electroporated with a low vaccine dose (10 ?g), but the antibody-positive birds were protected against virus challenge. Nonelectroporation delivery of a low-dose vaccine did not result in seroconversion, and the birds were as susceptible as those in the control groups that received the control pCAG vector. Electroporation delivery of the DNA vaccine led to enhanced antibody responses and to protection against the AI virus challenge. The HI test, cELISA, or indirect ELISA for anti-H5 antibodies might serve as a good predictor of the potency and efficacy of a DNA immunization strategy against AI in chickens. PMID:23365205

Ogunremi, Oladele; Pasick, John; Kobinger, Gary P; Hannaman, Drew; Berhane, Yohannes; Clavijo, Alfonso; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia



Differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) using the NS1 protein of avian influenza virus in chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of avian influenza (AI) vaccination in poultry would have greater world-wide acceptance if a reliable test that clearly discriminates naturally infected from vaccinated only animals (DIVA) was available. Because the non-structural protein (NS1) is expressed in infected cells, and is not pac...


The safety and immunogenicity of an in ovo vaccine against Newcastle disease virus differ between two lines of chicken.  


Newcastle disease virus is a major threat to poultry and in ovo vaccines are needed. A live in ovo vaccine for Newcastle disease virus, which was licensed but not marketed, was unsafe. It killed 32% of line 0 chicks and 10% of vaccine Lohmann (VALO) chicks using the maximum recommended dose that infected about 40% of the embryos. VALO's made more antibody than line 0's whether infected in ovo or by contact. The vaccine interrupted the massive development of the air capillaries between injection and hatch 3 days later. Cytokines, delivered as DNA in plasmids, did not function as adjuvants. IFN-gamma prevented infection. IL-4 or IL-18 had little or no effect. Line 0 chicks that had been infected by contact were protected and so the unsafe in ovo vaccination of a minority could protect the majority. PMID:17321645

Dilaveris, Dimitrios; Chen, Changlin; Kaiser, Pete; Russell, Peter H





... be spread from animals to people. For example, rabies is a serious, often fatal, disease that can ... animals to people. By vaccinating your pets for rabies, you are protecting your family as well as ...


Antibody and Th1-type cell-mediated immune responses in elderly and young adults immunized with the standard or a high dose influenza vaccine  

PubMed Central

A comparative analysis of antibody and cell-mediated immune responses was performed in ambulatory medically stable elderly and young adults who received the standard-dose of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine, containing 15 ?g of hemagglutinin (HA) per virus strain, or a high-dose vaccine containing 60 ?g HA per virus strain. Among the elderly, the high dose vaccine induced greater HAI (hemagglutination inhibition) and virus neutralization antibody titers than the standard dose vaccine. These responses, however, did not achieve the magnitude of those induced by the standard dose vaccine in young adults. Vaccine-specific circulating T cells producing IFN-? were detected in the elderly and young adults following immunization. However, there were no significant differences in the IFN-? responses among groups. On the other hand, the standard dose vaccine in the elderly resulted in the highest proportion of complete non-responders who failed to elicit either an HAI or an IFN-? response. This study provides further evidence that a higher dose vaccine for the elderly may result in enhanced immune responses which are predicted to improve protection although still of lower magnitude than those induced in younger healthier individuals. PMID:21352939

Chen, Wilbur H.; Cross, Alan S.; Edelman, Robert; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Blackwelder, William C.; Pasetti, Marcela F.



Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among Young Adult Gay and Bisexual Men in the United States.  


Objectives. We examined human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among gay and bisexual men, a population with high rates of HPV infection and HPV-related disease. Methods. A national sample of gay and bisexual men aged 18 to 26 years (n?=?428) completed online surveys in fall 2013. We identified correlates of HPV vaccination using multivariate logistic regression. Results. Overall, 13% of participants had received any doses of the HPV vaccine. About 83% who had received a health care provider recommendation for vaccination were vaccinated, compared with only 5% without a recommendation (P?Vaccination was lower among participants who perceived greater barriers to getting vaccinated (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.27, 0.78). Vaccination was higher among participants with higher levels of worry about getting HPV-related disease (OR?=?1.54; 95% CI?=? 1.05, 2.27) or perceived positive social norms of HPV vaccination (OR?=?1.57; 95% CI?=? 1.02, 2.43). Conclusions. HPV vaccine coverage is low among gay and bisexual men in the United States. Future efforts should focus on increasing provider recommendation for vaccination and should target other modifiable factors. PMID:25393178

Reiter, Paul L; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Katz, Mira L; Paskett, Electra D



Supplemental dietary L-arginine attenuates intestinal mucosal disruption during a coccidial vaccine challenge in broiler chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The present study investigated the effects of dietary arginine (Arg) supplementation on intestinal barrier integrity in broiler chickens undergoing coccidial challenge. The design of this study was a randomized complete block employing a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (n = 8) with 3 level of Arg (1.11,...


Multimeric Recombinant M2e Protein-Based ELISA: A Significant Improvement in Differentiating Avian Influenza Infected Chickens from Vaccinated Ones  

PubMed Central

Killed avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines have been used to control H5N1 infections in countries where the virus is endemic. Distinguishing vaccinated from naturally infected birds (DIVA) in such situations however, has become a major challenge. Recently, we introduced the recombinant ectodomain of the M2 protein (M2e) of H5N1 subtype as a novel tool for an ELISA based DIVA test. Despite being antigenic in natural infection the monomer form of the M2e used in ELISA had limited antigenicity and consequently poor diagnostic capability. To address this shortcoming, we evaluated the use of four tandem copies of M2e (tM2e) for increased efficiency of M2e antibody detection. The tM2e gene of H5N1 strain from Indonesia (A/Indonesia/CDC540/2006) was cloned into a pMAL- p4x expression vector and expressed in E.coli as a recombinant tM2e-MBP or M2e-MBP proteins. Both of these, M2e and tM2e antigens reacted with sera obtained from chickens following live H5N1 infection but not with sera from vaccinated birds. A significantly stronger M2e antibody reaction was observed with the tM2e compared to M2e antigen. Western blotting also supported the superiority of tM2e over M2e in detection of specific M2e antibodies against live H5N1 infection. Results from this study demonstrate that M2e tetramer is a better antigen than single M2e and could be more suitable for an ELISA based DIVA test. PMID:25330391

Hadifar, Farshid; Ignjatovic, Jagoda; Tarigan, Simson; Indriani, Risa; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Hasan, Noor Haliza; McWhorter, Andrea; Putland, Sophie; Ownagh, Abdulghaffar; Hemmatzadeh, Farhid



Pathogenicity of a QX strain of infectious bronchitis virus in specific pathogen free and commercial broiler chickens, and evaluation of protection induced by a vaccination programme based on the Ma5 and 4\\/91 serotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were firstly to evaluate the pathogenicity of an Italian isolate of the QX strain of infectious bronchitis (IB) virus using 1-day-old female specific pathogen free chicks (layer type) and 1-day-old female commercial broiler type chickens, and secondly to assess the level of protection induced in these birds by a vaccination programme including the IB Massachusetts

Calogero Terregino; Anna Toffan; Maria Serena Beato; Roberta De Nardi; Marta Vascellari; Amelio Meini; Giovanni Ortali; Marzia Mancin; Ilaria Capua



Safety and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in HIV-infected and HIV-negative adolescents and young adults.  


Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is highly prevalent and can lead to cancer; the development of safe and efficacious vaccines for HPV is a major public health concern. The two licensed HPV vaccines contain recombinant virus-like particles of HPV 16 and 18; one of such vaccines also protects against HPV types 6 and 11 which cause genital warts. We determined safety and immunogenicity of quadrivalent HPV vaccine in HIV-infected and HIV-negative adolescents and young adults, aged 13-27 years. The seroconversion rate, assessed by antibody titers, 1 month after the administration of the third vaccine dose was 0.85 (95% CI 0.75-0.95) in the HIV-infected group and 0.91 (0.83-0.99) in the HIV-negative subjects (p=0.52). The vaccine was generally safe and well tolerated; the most common side effect was local pain and the most frequent systemic side effect was headache. This is the first report on response to HPV vaccination in both female and male HIV-infected adolescents and young adults and highlights that this population may benefit from HPV immunoprophylaxis. Further studies are needed to examine the long term efficacy of this vaccine in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:25149430

Giacomet, Vania; Penagini, Francesca; Trabattoni, Daria; Viganò, Alessandra; Rainone, Veronica; Bernazzani, Giada; Bonardi, Claudia Maria; Clerici, Mario; Bedogni, Giorgio; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo



Compound 48/80 acts as a potent mucosal adjuvant for vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in young mice.  


Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major respiratory pathogen, is a leading cause of death among children worldwide. Mucosal vaccination is a recommended method to prevent respiratory infection. However, development of mucosal vaccination is usually hindered due to the lack of safe and effective mucosal adjuvants. Mast cell activator compound 48/80 (C48/80) has been used as a mucosal adjuvant in immunization of adult mice, but its adjuvanticity is not clear in the immunization of young mice. In this study, the adjuvanticity of C48/80 was evaluated when intranasally co-administrated with a pneumococcal vaccine candidate strain SPY1 in a young mice model in comparison with a classical mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT) and a relatively safe mucosal adjuvant Pam2CSK4. All three adjuvants enhanced antibody responses, whereas serum IgG titers were maintained at a stable level during the 3 months after the last immunization only in the SPY1+C48/80 and SPY1+CT groups. Furthermore, both the SPY1+CT group and the SPY1+C48/80 group induced strong Th17 immune response. Notably, C48/80 showed the exceptional ability to promote the clearance of nasal pneumococcal colonization which CT and Pam2CSK4 did not show. We found that C48/80's ability to induce protection against nasal pneumococcal colonization depended on B cells and IL-17A. Additionally, C48/80, as a mucosal adjuvant, showed a greater ability to protect young mice against lethal pneumococcal infection than CT. In comparison with CT, C48/80 also showed a favorable safety. These results reveal a promising perspective for using C48/80 as a mucosal adjuvant to improve protection against pneumococcal diseases early in life. PMID:25595867

Zeng, Lingbin; Liu, Yusi; Wang, Hong; Liao, Pu; Song, Zhixin; Gao, Song; Wu, Yingying; Zhang, Xuemei; Yin, Yibing; Xu, Wenchun



Comparative evaluation of safety and efficacy of a live Salmonella gallinarum vaccine candidate secreting an adjuvant protein with SG9R in chickens.  


We previously reported JOL916, a live attenuated Salmonella gallinarum (SG), as a vaccine candidate for protection from fowl typhoid (FT). In the present study, we evaluated JOL1355, an SG that secretes heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit protein, for safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy against FT. In a single intramuscular inoculation, live attenuated SG (JOL916) and commercial live attenuated SG9R immunized groups showed gross lesions and bacterial persistence up to 21 days post-immunization. However, the JOL1355 immunized group showed gross lesions and bacterial persistence up to only 3 and 7 days post-immunization, respectively. In addition, several birds in the JOL916 and SG9R immunized group shown clinical signs after immunization, while JOL1355 immunized birds did not show any adverse effects. In a subsequent study, birds were primed and boosted at 4 and 8 weeks of age, respectively, and compared with control birds inoculated with sterile phosphate-buffered saline. The immunized groups B (JOL916), C (SG9R), and D (JOL1355) exhibited significantly higher humoral and cellular immune responses compared to those in the unimmunized control group A. In addition, the birds of each group were challenged with virulent SG at 11 weeks of age, and significantly increased survival rates were observed in all immunized groups compared with the control group. These results indicated that JOL1355 was able to efficiently induce an acquired immune response to protect birds after challenge, and may be safer than JOL916 and the commercial vaccine SG9R in chickens. PMID:25239101

Nandre, Rahul M; Lee, John Hwa



Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Seromarkers in Young Adults Vaccinated at Birth; Impact on the Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Infection in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: The epidemiological impact and the duration of protection provided by infant hepatitis B (HB) vaccination are unknown. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection seromarkers in young adults who have been vaccinated against HBV as the first group of Iranian neonates during 1993 and 1994. Patients and Methods: We recruited 510 young adults with a history of complete HB vaccination at birth. HBV seromarkers (HB surface antigen (HBs Ag), antibody against HBs Ag (Anti-HBs), and antibody against HB core antigen (Anti-HBc) were measured using ELISA method. Anti-HBs titers ? 10 IU/L were considered protective and titers more than 300 IU/L were indicative of a natural boosting. Positive results for Anti-HBc and HBs Ag were considered as breakthrough infection and possible vaccine failure, respectively. The history of acute symptomatic clinical hepatitis was also investigated. Results: Anti-HBs seropositivity rate was detected in 224 of 510 [95% CI: 39-47] young adults. Breakthrough infection (positive sera for Anti-HBc without chronic infection) was observed in 18 [95% CI: 2.5-3.5] subjects. There were neither HBs Ag positive results nor symptomatic hepatitis cases. Conclusions: The study results indicated that the neonatal HBV immunization induced a long-term protection against HBV and was very efficacious in reducing chronic HBV infection rate in vaccinated young adults in Iran. PMID:24829589

Saffar, Hiva; Ajami, Abolghasem; Saffar, Mohammed Jafar; Shojaei, Jalil; Sotudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Shams-Esfandabad, Kiarash; Khalilian, Ali Reza



Virus-specific antibodies interfere with avian influenza infection in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes from young or aged chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Avian influenza virus (AIV) infection was examined in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte cultures (PBMC) that were collected from 1-day-old chicks or from 52-week-old chickens. Virus-specific antibodies were incubated with AIV to model maternal antibody interference in vitro. Interferon-alpha (I...


Helix stabilization in the C-terminal peptide of chicken riboflavin carrier protein enhances immunogenicity and prolongs contraceptive potential as an epitope-based vaccine in female rats.  


Earlier investigations have shown that (a) antibodies against a carrier-coupled 20-residue synthetic peptide (C-20), (200)HACQKKLLKFEALQQEEGEE(219), corresponding to the C-terminal partially helical sequence of chicken riboflavin carrier protein (RCP; 219 AA) curtail pregnancy in mammals and (b) helix stabilization by introducing appropriately spaced salt bridges in the flanking sequences of its B-cell epitopic structure enhances RCP antigenicity to peptide antibodies. Among such engineered C-20 analogs, HE-20 (HAEQKKLLKFEALEQEKGKE) exhibited maximum helical propensity. Since C-20 per se, i.e., without carrier conjugation, elicits RCP-reactive neutralizing antibodies in rodents, we mapped its T-cell epitope which overlaps its B-cell epitope, both of which remain unmodified in HE-20. Comparative evaluation of immunogenicity of the two epitope-based peptide vaccines showed that HE-20 was far superior to C-20 in generating RCP-reactive antibodies in terms of both affinity and titer. With regard to bioefficacy, passive immunoneutralization of RCP in pregnant rats by administering purified IgG from either of the antipeptide sera terminated pregnancy. Similarly, active immunization of fertile female rats with the individual peptide analogs curtailed pregnancy. However, HE-20 was more efficient in eliciting higher affinity, longer-lasting, RCP-crossreactive antibodies with consequently more prolonged immunocontraceptive efficacy. PMID:11549280

Subramanian, S; Karande, A A; Adiga, P R



Factors that influence the willingness of young adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to participate in phase I/II HIV vaccine trials  

PubMed Central

Background HIV/AIDS continues to destroy the lives of young people especially in low-income countries. The inclusion of youths in HIV vaccine trials is of utmost importance in obtaining an effective vaccine that is acceptable to them. Objective To characterize the willingness of young adults in Tanzania to participate in an HIV vaccine trial and the factors that influence this willingness. Design Four hundred and fifty young adults who visited a youth-friendly Infectious Diseases Clinic (IDC) from February 2012 to September 2012 completed a self-administered questionnaire concerning sociodemographic information, their knowledge about and perception of HIV vaccine studies, and the availability of social support. Results Of our participants, 50.6% expressed willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials, and this willingness was positively correlated with having some knowledge about HIV vaccine studies (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI: 1.4–3.4), a positive perception toward such studies (AOR, 2.3; 95% CI: 1.5–3.6), having a relationship with someone who could help them make a decision (AOR, 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3–4.9), and age at the time of sexual debut (AOR, 2.6; 95% CI 1.0–6.7) for 15- to 19-year-olds and (AOR, 2.7; 95% CI 1.0–7.1) for older participants. Conclusions The participants exhibited a moderate willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials, which was associated with a positive perception of and some knowledge about such trials, having a relationship with someone who might influence their decision as well as age at time of sexual debut. More efforts should be made to inform the youths about specific HIV vaccine trials and related matters, as well as to engage significant others in the decision-making process. PMID:24572007

Mbunda, Theodora; Bakari, Muhammad; Tarimo, Edith A. M.; Sandstrom, Eric; Kulane, Asli



Antiviral and antitumoral effects of recombinant chicken myelomonocytic growth factor in virally induced lymphoma.  


Chicken myelomonocytic growth factor (cMGF) is a 27-kDa glycoprotein that stimulates the growth and activation of cells from the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Recombinant cMGF was produced in a prokaryotic (Escherichia coli) expression system and purified via a C-terminal His-tag. Treatment of 2-week-old histocompatible B(13)/B(13) chickens highly susceptible to Marek's disease (MD) with rcMGF (two daily injections of 50 microg rcMGF per chicken) enhanced background and LPS-inducible systemic NO (NO3- + NO2-) responses 3 days later. NO has antiviral activity on Marek's disease virus (MDV), a herpesvirus specifically inducing T cell-lymphomas in chickens. When the very virulent strain of MDV RBI-B was inoculated 3 days after treatment with rcMGF, MDV viremia was significantly inhibited and development of visceral tumors was drastically reduced. Combination of rcMGF with partially protective vaccination using a herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) further reducedtumor burden and significantly delayed mortality, but only in very young birds. In conclusion, rcMGF might be worth considering as a stimulator of innate immune response in chickens, such as activation of macrophages and NO production, and thus be beneficial for its antiviral and antitumoral effects in vaccination against MD lymphoma. PMID:12433057

Djeraba, Aouatef; Kut, Emmanuel; Rasschaert, Denis; Quéré, Pascale



Prevalence of human papillomavirus in young Italian women with normal cytology: how should we adapt the national vaccination policy?  

PubMed Central

Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection. In Italy, HPV vaccination is now offered free of charge to 12-year-old females. However, some regional health authorities have extended free vaccination to other age-groups, especially to girls under 18 years of age. We conducted a multicentre epidemiological study to ascertain the prevalence of different genotypes of HPV in young Italian women with normal cytology, with the aim of evaluating the possibility of extending vaccination to older females. Methods The study was performed in 2010. Women aged 16–26 years with normal cytology were studied. Cervical samples were analyzed to identify the presence of HPV by PCR amplification of a segment of ORF L1 (450 bp). All positive HPV-DNA samples underwent viral genotype analysis by means of a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Results Positivity for at least one HPV genotype was found in 18.2% of the 566 women recruited: 48.1% in the 16–17 age-class, 15.4 in the 18–20 age-class, 21.9% in the 21–23 age-class, and 15.5% in the 24–26 age-class; 10.1% of women were infected by at least one high-risk HPV genotype. HPV-16 was the most prevalent genotype. Only 4 (0.7%), 4 (0.7%) and 3 (0.5%) women were infected by HPV-18, HPV-6 and HPV-11, respectively. Of the HPV-DNA-positive women, 64.1% presented only one viral genotype, while 24.3% had multiple infections. The HPV genotypes most often involved in multiple infections were high-risk. A high prevalence was noted in the first years of sexual activity (48.1% of HPV-DNA-positive women aged 16–17 years); HPV prevalence subsequently declined and stabilized. The estimate of cumulative proportions of young women free from any HPV infection at each age was evaluated; 93.3% and 97.1% of 26 year-old women proved free from HPV-16 and/or HPV-18 and from HPV-6 and/or HPV-11, respectively. Conclusions Our findings confirm the crucial importance of conducting studies on women without cytological damage, in order to optimise and up-date preventive interventions against HPV infection, and suggest that vaccinating 26-year-old females at the time of their first pap-test is to be recommend, though this issue should be further explored. PMID:24313984



IMMUNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Microsatellite Markers Linked to Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Vaccine Response in Young F1 Broiler-Cross Chicks1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction in Salmonella enteritidis (SE) con- tamination is of importance for poultry production as well as for food safety. The objectives of this study were to identify potential genetic markers of antibody response to SE vaccine in young broiler chicks and then to confirm this linkage in broiler-cross offspring, as well as to explore interactions of marker alleles with dam

M. G. Kaiser; N. Deeb; S. J. Lamont


Chinese herbal ingredients are effective immune stimulators for chickens infected with the Newcastle disease virus.  


This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of 4 Chinese herbal ingredients (CHI) as immune stimulators for an active vaccine in chickens using both in vitro and in vivo assays. The CHI used were Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), Isatis root polysaccharide (IRPS), Propolis polysaccharide, and Epimedium flavone at various concentrations. Two hundred 14-d-old male White Roman chickens were randomly divided into 10 groups. Chickens in groups 1 to 9 were inoculated with the New-castle disease virus (NDV) strain IV vaccine by intranasal and intraocular administration. Chickens in groups 1 to 8 were also administered subcutaneously on the dorsal region of the neck with 0.5 mL of the corresponding CHI at 2 doses: 29 and 58 mg/kg of BW for APS and IRPS and 7.25 and 14.5 mg/kg of BW for the others, once daily for 3 successive days. In group 9 (CHI-free control) and group 10 (both vaccine- and CHI-free control), chickens were injected with 0.5 mL of physiological saline. New-castle disease virus-specific serum hemagglutination inhibition antibody (Ab) production in immunized chickens was quantified using established methods. The results indicate that a majority of the CHI used at appropriate concentrations were effective in enhancing in vitro proliferation of chick embryo fibroblasts in response to the NDV infection. In vivo administration of CHI to vaccinated chickens (7.25 to 58 mg/kg of BW, depending on type) increased serum anti-NDV hemagglutination inhibition Ab titer concentrations, compared with the administration the NDV alone. For all CHI, a beneficial effect on the Ab production was observed on d 21 after the initiation of the vaccination. On the basis of the in vivo doses used, Propolis polysaccharide and Epimedium flavone were more potent than APS and IRPS in promoting the humoral immune response in the young birds (P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggest that appropriate doses of CHI can be used as novel, effective immune stimulators for chickens. PMID:17135673

Kong, X-F; Hu, Y-L; Yin, Y-L; Wu, G-Y; Rui, R; Wang, D-Y; Yang, C-B



Field evaluation of Eimeria tenella (local isolates) gametocytes vaccine and its comparative efficacy with imported live vaccine, LivaCox.  


The present paper describes the field evaluation of local gametocyte vaccine and its comparative efficacy with commercial anticoccidial vaccine, LivaCox, used in breeder and broiler flocks in Pakistan. Humoral immune response in vaccinated and control chickens was monitored by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results demonstrated significantly elevated antibody titres in vaccinated groups as compared to control groups conducted both in Laboratory and field experiments. Significantly (P < 0.01) higher antibody titres in local gametocyte-vaccinated group as compared to LivaCox-vaccinated chickens were recorded. Splenic cell migration inhibition assay was used to detect the cell-mediated immune (CMI) response, and results were expressed in terms of per cent migration index. Lower per cent migration index in LivaCox-vaccinated chickens indicated the higher CMI response, as compared to local gametocyte-vaccinated chickens, although the difference was statistically non-significant (P > 0.05). Results of the challenge studies in laboratory experiments revealed significantly higher (P < 0.05) oocyst count in LivaCox-vaccinated group as compared to local gametocyte-vaccinated chickens.Maximum protection (75%) against mixed species of genus Eimeria was recorded in chickens vaccinated with gametocyte vaccines as compared to LivaCox-vaccinated group. The mean body weight gains in chickens vaccinated with local gametocyte vaccine were significantly better (P < 0.05) than in chickens vaccinated with LivaCox vaccine, both in laboratory and field experiments. Majority of the chickens (70-72%) in control group demonstrated severe lesions (3.0-4.0), while 20-26% chickens showed moderate lesions (2.0). On the other hand, local gametocyte- and LivaCox-immunized chickens developed 78% and 85% mild to moderated lesions (1.0-2.0), respectively. Results of the present study provide a probable explanation for cross-protection induced by Eimeria tenella gametocyte vaccines against other species of genus Eimeria. PMID:18769942

Anwar, M Irfan; Akhtar, Masood; Hussain, Iftikhar; Haq, A U; Muhammad, Faqir; Hafeez, M Abdul; Mahmood, M Shahid; Bashir, Saira



Genetic transformation of novel isolates of chicken Lactobacillus bearing probiotic features for expression of heterologous proteins: a tool to develop live oral vaccines  

PubMed Central

Background The use of lactic acid bacteria as vehicles to delivery antigens to immunize animals is a promising issue. When genetically modified, these bacteria can induce a specific local and systemic immune response against selected pathogens. Gastric acid and bile salts tolerance, production of antagonistic substances against pathogenic microorganisms, and adhesive ability to gut epithelium are other important characteristics that make these bacteria useful for oral immunization. Results Bacteria isolated on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium (MRS) from different gastrointestinal portions of broiler chicks were evaluated for their resistance to artificial gastric acid and bile salts, production of hydrogen peroxide, and cell surface hydrophobicity. Thirty-eight isolates were first typed at species level by PCR amplification of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers using universal primers that anneal within 16S and 23S genes, followed by restriction digestion analyses of PCR amplicons (PCR-ARDRA). An expression cassette was assembled onto the pCR2.1-Topo vector by cloning the promoter, leader peptide, cell wall anchor and terminator sequences derived from the laminin binding S-layer protein gene of L. crispatus strain F5.7 (lbs gene). A sequence encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was inserted as reporter gene, and an erythromycin resistance gene was added as selective marker. All constructs were able to express GFP in the cloning host E. coli XL1-Blue and different Lactobacillus strains as verified by FACS and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Conclusion Lactobacillus isolated from gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens and selected for probiotic characteristics can be genetically modified by introducing an expression cassette into the lbs locus. The transformed bacteria expressed on its cell wall surface different fluorescent proteins used as reporters of promoter function. It is possible then that similar bacterial model expressing pathogen antigens can be used as live oral vaccines to immunize broilers against infectious diseases. PMID:16396687

Mota, Rodrigo M; Moreira, João Luiz S; Souza, Marcelo R; Fátima Horta, M; Teixeira, Santuza MR; Neumann, Elisabeth; Nicoli, Jacques R; Nunes, Álvaro C



Protective efficacy of reverse genetics based on inactivated American and Asian neuraminidase DIVA marker vaccines against highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses in chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza has become endemic in several countries, and vaccination is commonly being used. Vaccination can affect surveillance, and therefore there is considerable interest in DIVA (differentiate infected from vaccinated animals) vaccine strategies. Using reverse...


Combined schedule of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine followed by 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine in children and young adults with sickle cell disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the immunogenicity of 7-valent pneumococcal-conjugate vaccine plus 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine to immunization with 23-valent vaccine only in individuals ?2 years of age with sickle cell disease. IgG pneumococcal antibody concentrations were higher in the combined schedule group with no increase in side effects observed after immunization with 23-valent vaccine. (J Pediatr 1998;133:275-8)

Louis Vernacchio; Ellis J. Neufeld; Kristin MacDonald; Susan Kurth; Saya Murakami; Courtney Hohne; Michelle King; Deborah Molrine



Long-term persistence of systemic and mucosal immune response to HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in preteen/adolescent girls and young women.  


Vaccination against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is one key intervention for cervical cancer prevention. This follow-up study assessed the persistence of the systemic and mucosal immune responses together with the safety profile of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to young women aged 10-25 years. Serum and cervicovaginal secretion (CVS) samples were collected at prespecified time-points during the 48-month follow-up period. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody levels in serum and CVS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). At Month 48, all subjects remained seropositive for serum anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies. As previously observed, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies levels (ELISA Units/mL) were higher in subjects vaccinated at the age of 10-14 years (2862.2 and 940.8) compared to subjects vaccinated at the age of 15-25 years (1186.2 and 469.8). Moreover, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies in CVS were still detectable for subjects aged 15-25 years (84.1% and 69.7%, respectively). There was a strong correlation between serum and CVS anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies levels (correlation coefficients = 0.84 and 0.90 at Month 48, respectively) supporting the hypothesis of transudation or exudation of serum immunoglobulin G antibodies through the cervical epithelium. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile. In conclusion, this follow-up study shows that the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to preteen/adolescents girls and young women induces long-term systemic and mucosal immune response and has a clinically acceptable safety profile up to 4 years after the first vaccine dose. PMID:21190190

Petäjä, Tiina; Pedersen, Court; Poder, Airi; Strauss, Gitte; Catteau, Gregory; Thomas, Florence; Lehtinen, Matti; Descamps, Dominique



Suppression of Avian Influenza Transmission in Genetically Modified Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection of chickens with avian influenza virus poses a global threat to both poultry production and human health that is not adequately controlled by vaccination or by biosecurity measures. A novel alternative strategy is to develop chickens that are genetically resistant to infection. We generated transgenic chickens expressing a short-hairpin RNA designed to function as a decoy that inhibits and

Jon Lyall; Richard M. Irvine; Adrian Sherman; Trevelyan J. McKinley; Alejandro Núñez; Auriol Purdie; Linzy Outtrim; Ian H. Brown; Genevieve Rolleston-Smith; Helen Sang; Laurence Tiley



Effects of in ovo vaccination and anticoccidials on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters.  


The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either chemicals, ionophores, or both. In general, serum samples from these chickens showed anticoccidial antibody titers when tested at days 7 and 14 post hatch with the peak response at day 43. Serum anticoccidial titers were highest in birds fed a non-medicated diet compared with those vaccinated or fed medicated diets. Total number of Eimeria oocysts and the composition of Eimeria spp. present in the litter samples from different treatment groups varied depending on the type of anticoccidial program. Oocyst counts in general ranged from 3.7×10(3) to 7.0×10(4) per g of litter. Importantly, both morphological and molecular typing studies revealed four major predominant Eimeria spp., E. acervulina, E. maxima, E. praecox, and E. tenella in the litter samples. Collectively, these results indicate that the field anticoccidial programs influenced the type and abundance of Eimeria spp. present in the litter samples and also modulated host immune response to Eimeria. PMID:21641010

Lee, Kyung Woo; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Pagès, Marc; Bautista, Daniel A; Pope, Conrad R; Ritter, G Donald; Lillehoj, Erik P; Neumann, Anthony P; Siragusa, Gregory R



Qualitative study of the feasibility of HPV vaccine delivery to young adolescent girls in Vietnam: evidence from a government-implemented demonstration program  

PubMed Central

Background Introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in national programs has proceeded apace since 2006, mostly in high-income countries. Recently concluded pilots of HPV vaccination in low-income countries have provided important lessons learned for these settings; however, rigorous evaluations of the feasibility of these delivery strategies that effectively reach young adolescents have been few. This paper presents results from a qualitative evaluation of a demonstration program which implemented school-based and health center–based HPV vaccinations to all girls in grade 6, or 11 years of age, for two years in four districts of Vietnam. Methods Using semi-structured interviews of 131 health and education staff from local, district, province, and national levels and 26 focus-group discussions with local project implementers (n?=?153), we conducted a qualitative two-year evaluation to measure the impact of HPV vaccinations on the health and education systems. Results HPV vaccine delivery at schools or health centers was made feasible by: a. close collaboration between the health and education sectors, b. detailed planning for implementation, c. clearly defined roles and responsibilities for project implementers, d. effective management and supervision of vaccinations during delivery, and e. engagement with community organizations for support. Both the health and education systems were temporarily challenged with the extra workload, but the disruptions were short-lived (a few days for each of three doses) and perceived as worth the longer-term benefit of cervical cancer prevention. Conclusion The learning from Vietnam has identified critical elements for successful vaccine delivery that can provide a model for other countries to consider during their planning of national rollout of HPV vaccine. PMID:24898950



Characterization of the 2012 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H7N3 Virus Isolated from Poultry in an Outbreak in Mexico: Pathobiology and Vaccine Protection  

PubMed Central

In June of 2012, an H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was identified as the cause of a severe disease outbreak in commercial laying chicken farms in Mexico. The purpose of this study was to characterize the Mexican 2012 H7N3 HPAI virus (A/chicken/Jalisco/CPA1/2012) and determine the protection against the virus conferred by different H7 inactivated vaccines in chickens. Both adult and young chickens intranasally inoculated with the virus became infected and died at between 2 and 4 days postinoculation (p.i.). High virus titers and viral replication in many tissues were demonstrated at 2 days p.i. in infected birds. The virus from Jalisco, Mexico, had high sequence similarity of greater than 97% to the sequences of wild bird viruses from North America in all eight gene segments. The hemagglutinin gene of the virus contained a 24-nucleotide insert at the hemagglutinin cleavage site which had 100% sequence identity to chicken 28S rRNA, suggesting that the insert was the result of nonhomologous recombination with the host genome. For vaccine protection studies, both U.S. H7 low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses and a 2006 Mexican H7 LPAI virus were tested as antigens in experimental oil emulsion vaccines and injected into chickens 3 weeks prior to challenge. All H7 vaccines tested provided ?90% protection against clinical disease after challenge and decreased the number of birds shedding virus and the titers of virus shed. This study demonstrates the pathological consequences of the infection of chickens with the 2012 Mexican lineage H7N3 HPAI virus and provides support for effective programs of vaccination against this virus in poultry. PMID:23760232

Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Guzman, Sofia G.; Ricardez, Yadira; Spackman, Erica; Bertran, Kateri; Suarez, David L.; Swayne, David E.



Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics: News  

PubMed Central

Two studies on optimal timing for measles vaccination Chinese scientists develop bird flu vaccine Influenza vaccination reduces risk of heart attack and stroke Two-dose vaccination program shows positive impact on varicella incidence WHO prequalifies Chinese-produced Japanese encephalitis vaccine Phase 3: RTS,S almost halves malaria cases in young children Herd immunity protects babies against whooping cough New developments in nanoparticle-based vaccination



Effects of increased dosages of the Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine MYCOVAC-L® in layer chickens subsequently challenged with virulent M. gallisepticum: egg production and serologic response  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ten wk old Hy-Line Commercial W-36 pullets were spray vaccinated with MYCOVAC-L® at the manufacturer’s recommended dosage (1X) or at fifteen-times (15X) that rate. At 22 or 45 wks of age, subsets of 1X and 15X vaccinated pullets were challenged via intraocular inoculation with the virulent Mycoplas...


Field vaccinated chickens with low antibody titres show equally insufficient protection against matching and non-matching genotypes of virulent Newcastle disease virus.  


Newcastle disease (ND) is a severe threat to the poultry industry and is caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Many countries maintain a vaccination policy, but NDV is rapidly evolving as shown by the discovery of several new genotypes in the last decades. We tested the efficacy of the currently used classical commercial ND vaccine based on the genotype II strain VG/GA, applied under standard field conditions, against outbreak strains. Field vaccinated broilers were challenged with four different viruses belonging to genotype II, V or VII. A large proportion of field vaccinated broilers showed suboptimal immunity and the protection level against early and recent NDV isolates was dramatically low. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in protection afforded by a genotype II vaccine against a genotype II virus challenge compared to a challenge with viruses belonging to the other genotypes. This study suggests that the susceptibility of vaccinated poultry to NDV infection is not the result of vaccine mismatch, but rather of poor vaccination practices. PMID:24894134

Dortmans, J C F M; Venema-Kemper, S; Peeters, B P H; Koch, G



Efficacy of a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine against anal HPV16/18 infection among young women: a nested analysis within the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Anal cancer remains rare (incidence of ?1.5 per 100,000 women annually) but rates are increasing in many countries. Human papillomavirus-16 (HPV16) infection causes most cases. We evaluated vaccine efficacy (VE) of an ASO4-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine against anal HPV16/18 infection. Methods In a randomized double-blind controlled trial designed to evaluate VE against persistent cervical HPV16/18 infections and associated precancerous lesions in Costa Rica, 4210 healthy women underwent anal specimen collection (4224 of 5968= 70.8% of eligible women) at the final blinded study visit 4 years after vaccination to evaluate anal HPV16/18 VE. Cervical HPV16/18 VE among the same women at the same visit was calculated as a comparator. For this ancillary work, analyses were conducted in a restricted cohort of women both cervical HPV16/18 DNA negative and HPV 16/18 seronegative prior at enrollment (N=1989), and in the full cohort (all women with an anal specimen). Findings In the restricted cohort, VE against prevalent HPV16/18 anal infection measured one-time, four-years post-vaccination was 83.6% (95%CI 66.7% to 92.8%), which was comparable to cervical HPV16/18 VE (87.9%, 95%CI 77.4% to 94.0%). In the full cohort, HPV16/18 VE was statistically lower at the anus (62.0%, 95%CI 47.1% to 73.1%) compared to the cervix (76.4%, 95%CI 67.0% to 83.5%) (p for anatomic-site interaction =0.03). Significant and comparable VE estimates against a composite endpoint of HPV31/33/45 (i.e.: cross-protection) was observed at the anus and cervix. Interpretation The ASO4-adjuvanted vaccine affords strong protection against anal HPV, particularly among women more likely to be HPV naïve at vaccination. Funding. The Costa Rica HPV Vaccine Trial is sponsored and funded by the NCI (contract N01-CP-11005), with funding support from the National Institutes of Health Office of Research on Women's Health, and conducted with support from the Ministry of Health of Costa Rica. Vaccine was provided for our trial by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK), under a Clinical Trials Agreement with the NCI. PMID:21865087

Kreimer, Aimée R.; Gonzalèz, Paula; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Porras, Carolina; Schiffman, Mark; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Solomon, Diane; Jimenez, Silvia; Schiller, John T.; Lowy, Douglas R.; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Struijk, Linda; Quint, Wim; Chen, Sabrina; Wacholder, Sholom; Hildesheim, Allan; Herrero, Rolando



Prevalence and distribution of gastro-intestinal helminths and haemoparasites in young scavenging chickens in upper eastern region of Ghana, West Africa.  


We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and species of gastro-intestinal helminths and haemoparasites in 100 chickens kept under extensive management systems in Ghana, West Africa. All the examined chickens (100%) were infected with gastro-intestinal helminths; a total of 18 species were detected. The species and their prevalences were: Acuaria hamulosa (25%), Allodapa suctoria (20%), Ascaridia galli (24%), Capillaria spp. (60%), Choanotaenia infundibulum (13%), Gongylonema ingluvicola (62%), Heterakis gallinarum (31%), H. isolonche (16%), Hymenolepis spp. (66%), Raillietina cesticillus (12%), R. echinobothrida (81%), R. tetragona (59%), Strongyloides avium (2%), Subulura strongylina (10%), Tetrameres fissispina (58%), Trichostronygylus tenuis (2%), and finally one unidentified acanthocephalan (1%) and one unidentified trematode (1%). Thirty-five per cent of the chickens were infected with the haemoparasites Aegyptinella pullorum and Plasmodium juxtanucleare (prevalences 9% and 27%, respectively). Association between chicken sex and prevalences was not significant. An over-dispersed distribution was seen for most of the helminth species. PMID:10821963

Poulsen, J; Permin, A; Hindsbo, O; Yelifari, L; Nansen, P; Bloch, P



Inactivated North American and European H5N2 avian influenza virus vaccines protect chickens from Asian H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-pathogenicity (HP) avian influenza (AI) virus of the H5N1 subtype has caused an unprecedented epizootic in birds within nine Asian countries\\/regions since it was first reported in 1996. Vaccination has emerged as a tool for use in managing the infection in view of future eradication. This study was undertaken to determine whether two divergent H5N2 commercial vaccine strains, one based

David E. Swayne; Chang-Won Lee; Erica Spackman



Protection of the reproductive tract of young chicks by Newcastle disease virus-induced haemagglutinationinhibition antibodies.  


The present study was conducted to assess the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) titres required to protect the chicken reproductive tract against direct damage caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Precociously induced oviduct and uterus by oestrogen treatment of young chicks were used to assess the damage or protection against the damage by analysis of ciliostasis or histopathological lesions. Unvaccinated day-old female white leghorn chickens were used as the maternally derived antibody (MDA) group. Chickens were vaccinated with either a live lentogenic vaccine on day 14 of age or, along with it, an inactivated vaccine at day 36 of age, to generate birds with a range of primary or secondary response induced HI antibodies. Birds with different HI antibody levels were challenged with virulent NDV. It was found that a HI antibody titre of 128 and above was protective against direct damage of the reproductive tract, while the 32-64 titre range was protective when derived through secondary vaccination only. PMID:16362614

Raghul, J; Raj, G Dhinakar; Manohar, B Murali; Balachandran, C



Helix Stabilization in the C-Terminal Peptide of Chicken Riboflavin Carrier Protein Enhances Immunogenicity and Prolongs Contraceptive Potential as an Epitope-Based Vaccine in Female Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier investigations have shown that (a) antibodies against a carrier-coupled 20-residue synthetic peptide (C-20), 200HACQKKLLKFEALQQEEGEE219, corresponding to the C-terminal partially helical sequence of chicken riboflavin carrier protein (RCP; 219 AA) curtail pregnancy in mammals and (b) helix stabilization by introducing appropriately spaced salt bridges in the flanking sequences of its B-cell epitopic structure enhances RCP antigenicity to peptide antibodies. Among

Sarada Subramanian; Anjali A. Karande; P. Radhakantha Adiga



Pathotypic and Sequence Characterization of Newcastle Disease Viruses from Vaccinated Chickens Reveals Circulation of Genotype II, IV and XIII and in India.  


Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a highly contagious disease which continuously haunts the global poultry industry. The nature and molecular epidemiology of NDVs prevalent in recent outbreaks in India is poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize NDVs prevalent in vaccinated flocks in India using whole-genome sequencing and biological pathotyping. Twelve field isolates were collected from outbreaks which occurred in different parts of India and characterized as velogenic based on their intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) and amino acid sequence at the F protein cleavage site. All 12 of the field isolates and five commonly used vaccine strains were selected for whole-genome sequencing using Ion Torrent PGM technology, yielding complete genome sequences for ten field isolates and all vaccine strains. The genome of all isolates was found to be 15 192 nt long with a high level of conservation across multiple genomic features with APMV-I viruses. Phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary distance calculations placed the isolates in genotypes II, IV and XIII. Revisiting other recently reported strains provided preliminary evidence of genotypes VI, VII and XVIII circulating in India. Comparison between the field and vaccine virus sequences revealed unique genomic and amino acid differences in important antigenic regions of the F and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) genes which can be targeted for site directed mutagenesis to evaluate the impact of these substitutions on virus pathogenicity. This study highlights the requirement to evaluate current vaccines through systematic protection assays to determine protection efficacy against field isolates. PMID:25406096

Jakhesara, S J; Prasad, V V S P; Pal, J K; Jhala, M K; Prajapati, K S; Joshi, C G



Safety of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Modified Live Virus (MLV) vaccine strains in a young pig infection model  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to compare the safety of all modified live virus vaccines commercially available in Europe against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) under the same experimental conditions. For this purpose, one hundred and twenty three-week-old piglets, divided into five groups, were used. On day 0 of the experiment, nine pigs per group were removed and the remaining fifteen were vaccinated with the commercial vaccines Ingelvac PRRS MLV, Amervac PRRS, Pyrsvac-183 and Porcilis PRRS by the IM route or were mock vaccinated and used as controls. On day 3, the nine unvaccinated pigs were re-introduced into their respective groups and served as sentinel pigs. Clinical signs were recorded daily and lung lesions were determined on days 7, 14 and 21, when 5 vaccinated pigs per group were euthanized. Blood samples and swabs were taken every three days and different organs were collected at necropsy to determine the presence of PRRSV. None of the vaccines studied caused detectable clinical signs in vaccinated pigs although lung lesions were found. Altogether, these results indicate that all vaccines can be considered clinically safe. However, some differences were found in virological parameters. Thus, neither Pyrsvac-183 nor Porcilis PRRS could be detected in porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cultures or in lung sections used to determine PRRSV by immunohistochemistry, indicating that these viruses might have lost their ability to replicate in PAM. This inability to replicate in PAM might be related to the lower transmission rate and the delay in the onset of viremia observed in these groups PMID:24308693



Administration of a probiotic associated with nasal vaccination with inactivated Lactococcus lactis-PppA induces effective protection against pneumoccocal infection in young mice.  


Streptococcus pneumoniae is a serious public health problem, especially in developing countries, where available vaccines are not part of the vaccination calendar. We evaluated different respiratory mucosa immunization protocols that included the nasal administration of Lactococcus lactis-pneumococcal protective protein A (PppA) live, inactivated, and in association with a probiotic (Lc) to young mice. The animals that received Lc by the oral and nasal route presented the highest levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG anti-PppA antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) and IgG in serum, which no doubt contributed to the protection against infection. However, only the groups that received the live and inactivated vaccine associated with the oral administration of the probiotic were able to prevent lung colonization by S. pneumoniae serotypes 3 and 14 in a respiratory infection model. This would be related to a preferential stimulation of the T helper type 1 (Th1) cells at local and systemic levels and with a moderate Th2 and Th17 response, shown by the cytokine profile induced in BAL and by the results of the IgG1/IgG2a ratio at local and systemic levels. Nasal immunization with the inactivated recombinant strain associated with oral Lc administration was able to stimulate the specific cellular and humoral immune response and afford protection against the challenge with the two S. pneumoniae serotypes. The results obtained show the probiotic-inactivated vaccine association as a valuable alternative for application to human health, especially in at-risk populations, and are the first report of a safe and effective immunization strategy using an inactivated recombinant strain. PMID:20002449

Vintiñi, E; Villena, J; Alvarez, S; Medina, M



Characterization of the live LaSota-vaccine strain-induced protection in chickens upon early challenge with a virulent Newcastle disease virus of heterologous genotype  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Newcastle disease (ND) is a major threat to the international poultry industry, causing bird mortality, reduction in growth and egg production and trade restrictions. The primary strategy available to the poultry industry to control Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the causative agent of ND, is vaccin...


Hatching Chickens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, from Science NetLinks, is intended to help students realize that they can learn a lot about chickens -and animals in general - through close observation. Students begin the lesson by expressing what they know about chickens in general and then are encouraged to think and talk about how eggs hatch into chicks and the kinds of special things that are needed to care for eggs/chicks.

Science Netlinks;



9 CFR 113.332 - Tenosynovitis Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.332 Tenosynovitis...i) Each of at least 10 3-week-old or older lymphoid leukosis free chickens...subcutaneously to each of 25 1-day-old tenosynovitis susceptible...



Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination timing and autism among young african american boys: a reanalysis of CDC data  

PubMed Central

Background A significant number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder suffer a loss of previously-acquired skills, suggesting neurodegeneration or a type of progressive encephalopathy with an etiological basis occurring after birth. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectof the age at which children got their first Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine on autism incidence. This is a reanalysis of the data set, obtained from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Protection (CDC), used for the Destefano et al. 2004 publication on the timing of the first MMR vaccine and autism diagnoses. Methods The author embarked on the present study to evaluate whether a relationship exists between child age when the first MMR vaccine was administered among cases diagnosed with autism and controls born between 1986 through 1993 among school children in metropolitan Atlanta. The Pearson’s chi-squared method was used to assess relative risks of receiving an autism diagnosis within the total cohort as well as among different race and gender categories. Results When comparing cases and controls receiving their first MMR vaccine before and after 36 months of age, there was a statistically significant increase in autism cases specifically among African American males who received the first MMR prior to 36 months of age. Relative risks for males in general and African American males were 1.69 (p=0.0138) and 3.36 (p=0.0019), respectively. Additionally, African American males showed an odds ratio of 1.73 (p=0.0200) for autism cases in children receiving their first MMR vaccine prior to 24 months of age versus 24 months of age and thereafter. Conclusions The present study provides new epidemiologic evidence showing that African American males receiving the MMR vaccine prior to 24 months of age or 36 months of age are more likely to receive an autism diagnosis. PMID:25114790



Determining the validity of hospital laboratory reference intervals for healthy young adults participating in early clinical trials of candidate vaccines  

PubMed Central

This was a retrospective study to determine the validity of institutional reference intervals for interpreting biochemistry and hematology results in healthy adults in the context of clinical trials of preventive vaccines. An example population of 974 healthy adults participating in clinical trials at the Jenner Institute, Oxford, UK, between 1999 and 2009 was studied. Methods for calculating the central 95% ranges and determining the coefficients of within person variation were demonstrated. Recommendations have been made as to how these data can be usefully applied to the interpretation of blood results in healthy adult subjects for the purposes of clinical trial inclusion decisions and post-vaccination safety monitoring. PMID:23733037

Rowland, Rosalind; O'Hara, Geraldine A; Hamill, Matthew; Poulton, Ian D; Donaldson, Hannah; Dinsmore, Laura; James, Timothy; Barnes, Eleanor; Klenerman, Paul; Gilbert, Sarah C; Hill, Adrian VS; Shine, Brian; McShane, Helen



Avidity of Anti-Circumsporozoite Antibodies following Vaccination with RTS,S/AS01E in Young Children  

PubMed Central

Background The nature of protective immune responses elicited by immunization with the candidate malaria vaccine RTS,S is still incompletely understood. Antibody levels correlate with protection against malaria infection, but considerable variation in outcome is unexplained (e.g., children may experience malaria despite high anti-circumsporozoite [CS] titers). Methods and Findings We measured the avidity index (AI) of the anti-CS antibodies raised in subgroup of 5–17 month old children in Kenya who were vaccinated with three doses of RTS,S/AS01E between March and August 2007. We evaluated the association between the AI and the subsequent risk of clinical malaria. We selected 19 cases (i.e., with clinical malaria) and 42 controls (i.e., without clinical malaria), matching for anti-CS antibody levels and malaria exposure. We assessed their sera collected 1 month after the third dose of the vaccine, in March 2008 (range 4–10 months after the third vaccine), and at 12 months after the third vaccine dose. The mean AI was 45.2 (95% CI: 42.4 to 48.1), 45.3 (95% CI: 41.4 to 49.1) and 46.2 (95% CI; 43.2 to 49.3) at 1 month, in March 2008 (4–10 months), and at 12 months after the third vaccination, respectively (p?=?0.9 by ANOVA test for variation over time). The AI was not associated with protection from clinical malaria (OR?=?0.90; 95% CI: 0.49 to 1.66; p?=?0.74). The AI was higher in children with high malaria exposure, as measured using the weighted local prevalence of malaria, compared to those with low malaria exposure at 1 month post dose 3 (p?=?0.035). Conclusion Our data suggest that in RTS,S/AS01E-vaccinated children residing in malaria endemic countries, the avidity of anti-circumsporozoite antibodies, as measured using an elution ELISA method, was not associated with protection from clinical malaria. Prior natural malaria exposure might have primed the response to RTS,S/AS01E vaccination. PMID:25506706

Olotu, Ally; Clement, Frederic; Jongert, Erik; Vekemans, Johan; Njuguna, Patricia; Ndungu, Francis M.; Marsh, Kevin; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Bejon, Philip



Blood Stage Malaria Vaccine Eliciting High Antigen-Specific Antibody Concentrations Confers No Protection to Young Children in Western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Objective The antigen, falciparum malaria protein 1 (FMP1), represents the 42-kDa C-terminal fragment of merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) of the 3D7 clone of P. falciparum. Formulated with AS02 (a proprietary Adjuvant System), it constitutes the FMP1/AS02 candidate malaria vaccine. We evaluated this vaccine's safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy in African children. Methods A randomised, double-blind, Phase IIb, comparator-controlled trial.The trial was conducted in 13 field stations of one mile radii within Kombewa Division, Nyanza Province, Western Kenya, an area of holoendemic transmission of P. falciparum. We enrolled 400 children aged 12–47 months in general good health.Children were randomised in a 1?1 fashion to receive either FMP1/AS02 (50 µg) or Rabipur® rabies vaccine. Vaccinations were administered on a 0, 1, and 2 month schedule. The primary study endpoint was time to first clinical episode of P. falciparum malaria (temperature ?37.5°C with asexual parasitaemia of ?50,000 parasites/µL of blood) occurring between 14 days and six months after a third dose. Case detection was both active and passive. Safety and immunogenicity were evaluated for eight months after first immunisations; vaccine efficacy (VE) was measured over a six-month period following third vaccinations. Results 374 of 400 children received all three doses and completed six months of follow-up. FMP1/AS02 had a good safety profile and was well-tolerated but more reactogenic than the comparator. Geometric mean anti-MSP-142 antibody concentrations increased from1.3 µg/mL to 27.3 µg/mL in the FMP1/AS02 recipients, but were unchanged in controls. 97 children in the FMP1/AS02 group and 98 controls had a primary endpoint episode. Overall VE was 5.1% (95% CI: ?26% to +28%; p-value?=?0.7). Conclusions FMP1/AS02 is not a promising candidate for further development as a monovalent malaria vaccine. Future MSP-142 vaccine development should focus on other formulations and antigen constructs. Trial Registration NCT00223990 PMID:19262754

Ogutu, Bernhards R.; Apollo, Odika J.; McKinney, Denise; Okoth, Willis; Siangla, Joram; Dubovsky, Filip; Tucker, Kathryn; Waitumbi, John N.; Diggs, Carter; Wittes, Janet; Malkin, Elissa; Leach, Amanda; Soisson, Lorraine A.; Milman, Jessica B.; Otieno, Lucas; Holland, Carolyn A.; Polhemus, Mark; Remich, Shon A.; Ockenhouse, Christian F.; Cohen, Joe; Ballou, W. Ripley; Martin, Samuel K.; Angov, Evelina; Stewart, V. Ann; Lyon, Jeffrey A.; Heppner, D. Gray; Withers, Mark R.



Effect of Corn or Sorghum in Combination with Soybean Meal or Mungbean as Feed Ingredients on the Serum Antibody Titres to NDV Vaccine in Broiler Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research was carried out to study the effect of feed types in the diet based on corn or sorghum in combination with soybean meal or broken green beans on titre antibody to NDV vaccine of broilers. Three hundreds day old chicks broilers with initial body weight of 46.35±4.66 grams were randomly assigned into four treatment groups i.e. T1 (diet

Retno Murwani



Live vaccination with an H5-hemagglutinin-expressing infectious laryngotracheitis virus recombinant protects chickens against different highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5 subtype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, we described an infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV, gallid herpesvirus 1) recombinant, which had been attenuated by deletion of the viral dUTPase gene UL50, and abundantly expressed the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of a H5N1 type highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of Vietnamese origin. In the present study, efficacy of this vectored vaccine (ILTV-?UL50IH5V) against different H5 HPAIV was evaluated

Sophia P. Pavlova; Jutta Veits; Thomas C. Mettenleiter; Walter Fuchs



How to Inform: Comparing Written and Video Education Interventions to Increase Human Papillomavirus Knowledge and Vaccination Intentions in Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare the efficacy of 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) educational interventions on increasing HPV knowledge and vaccination intentions in college students. Participants: Male (n = 60) and female (n = 140) undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 20.4, SD = 2.3) recruited from a university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from October 2009 to…

Krawczyk, Andrea; Lau, Elsa; Perez, Samara; Delisle, Vanessa; Amsel, Rhonda; Rosberger, Zeev



Predicting human papillomavirus vaccine uptake in young adult women: Comparing the Health Belief Model and Theory of Planned Behavior  

PubMed Central

Background Although theories of health behavior have guided thousands of studies, relatively few studies have compared these theories against one another. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to compare two classic theories of health behavior—the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)—in their prediction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Methods After watching a gain-framed, loss-framed, or control video, women (N=739) ages 18–26 completed a survey assessing HBM and TPB constructs. HPV vaccine uptake was assessed ten months later. Results Although the message framing intervention had no effect on vaccine uptake, support was observed for both the TPB and HBM. Nevertheless, the TPB consistently outperformed the HBM. Key predictors of uptake included subjective norms, self-efficacy, and vaccine cost. Conclusions Despite the observed advantage of the TPB, findings revealed considerable overlap between the two theories and highlighted the importance of proximal versus distal predictors of health behavior. PMID:22547155

Gerend, Mary A.; Shepherd, Janet E.



Ultrastructural changes of the tracheal epithelium after vaccination of day-old chickens with the La Sota strain of Newcastle disease virus.  


The progression of tracheal lesions induced by vaccination of day-old specific pathogen-free chicks with the La Sota strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was examined by relating surface changes as observed by scanning electron microscopy with subcellular changes seen by transmission electron microscopy. NDV infection resulted in hypertrophy of goblet cells, their rupture, and the formation of excess mucus. Activation of goblet cells peaked within 4 days postvaccination. Afterward, the activation levels gradually decreased. At the level of the ciliated cells, a marked increase in the proportion of nonciliated to ciliated cells and later an almost complete deciliation of the tracheal surface were observed because a simple squamous to cuboidal epithelium replaced the original pseudostratified epithelium. Fifteen days postvaccination, all epithelial damage was restored. Because the observed vaccination-induced lesions are detrimental to epithelial integrity and function as a barrier against invading microorganisms, they might explain at the ultrastructural level the secondary complications of vaccination with the La Sota strain against NDV. PMID:16145202

Mast, J; Nanbru, C; van den Berg, T; Meulemans, G



Cattle Vaccines  

E-print Network

Vaccines deliver antigens that stimulate the body's production of antibodies in response to disease. Cattle can be vaccinated with noninfectious or infectious vaccines. The types of vaccine products, proper handling of vaccines, and vaccination...

Faries Jr., Floron C.



Pneumococcal Carriage in Young Children One Year after Introduction of the 13-Valent Conjugate Vaccine in Italy  

PubMed Central

Background In mid 2010, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was replaced by the 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) for childhood immunization in Italy. Our objective in this study was to obtain a snapshot of pneumococcal carriage frequency, colonizing serotypes, and antibiotic resistance in healthy children in two Italian cities one year after PCV13 was introduced. Methods Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 571 children aged 0-5 years from November 2011-April 2012. Pneumococcal isolates were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Penicillin and/or erythromycin non-susceptible isolates were analyzed by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Results Among the children examined, 81.2% had received at least one dose of PCV7 or PCV13 and 74.9% had completed the recommended vaccination schedule for their age. Among the latter, 57.3% of children had received PCV7, 27.1% PCV13, and 15.6% a combination of the two vaccines. The overall carriage rate was 32.9%, with children aged 6-35 months the most prone to pneumococcal colonization (6-23 months OR: 3.75; 95% CI: 2.19-6.43 and 24-35 months OR: 3.15, 95%CI: 2.36-4.22). A total of 184 pneumococcal isolates were serotyped and divided into PCV7 (5.4%), PCV13 (18.0%), and non-PCV13 (82.0%) serotypes. Serotypes 6C, 24F, and 19A were the most prevalent (10.3%, 8.6%, and 8.1%, respectively). The proportion of penicillin non-susceptible (MIC >0.6 mg/L) isolates was 30.9%, while 42.3% were erythromycin resistant. Non-PCV13 serotypes accounted for 75.4% and 70.8% of the penicillin and erythromycin non-susceptible isolates, respectively. Conclusions Our results revealed low rates of PCV7 and PCV13 serotypes in Italian children, potentially due to the effects of vaccination. As the use of PCV13 continues, its potential impact on vaccine serotypes such as 19A and cross-reactive serotypes such as 6C will be assessed, with this study providing a baseline for further analysis of surveillance isolates. PMID:24124543

Camilli, Romina; Daprai, Laura; Cavrini, Francesca; Lombardo, Donatella; D’Ambrosio, Fabio; Del Grosso, Maria; Vescio, Maria Fenicia; Landini, Maria Paola; Pascucci, Maria Grazia; Torresani, Erminio; Garlaschi, Maria Laura; Sambri, Vittorio; Pantosti, Annalisa



Efficacy of Pneumococcal Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Young Latin American Children: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between pneumococcal conjugate vaccine–induced antibody responses and protection against community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute otitis media (AOM) is unclear. This study assessed the impact of the ten-valent pneumococcal nontypable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on these end points. The primary objective was to demonstrate vaccine efficacy (VE) in a per-protocol analysis against likely bacterial CAP (B-CAP: radiologically confirmed CAP with alveolar consolidation/pleural effusion on chest X-ray, or non-alveolar infiltrates and C-reactive protein ? 40 µg/ml); other protocol-specified outcomes were also assessed. Methods and Findings This phase III double-blind randomized controlled study was conducted between 28 June 2007 and 28 July 2011 in Argentine, Panamanian, and Colombian populations with good access to health care. Approximately 24,000 infants received PHiD-CV or hepatitis control vaccine (hepatitis B for primary vaccination, hepatitis A at booster) at 2, 4, 6, and 15–18 mo of age. Interim analysis of the primary end point was planned when 535 first B-CAP episodes, occurring ?2 wk after dose 3, were identified in the per-protocol cohort. After a mean follow-up of 23 mo (PHiD-CV, n?=?10,295; control, n?=?10,201), per-protocol VE was 22.0% (95% CI: 7.7, 34.2; one-sided p?=?0.002) against B-CAP (conclusive for primary objective) and 25.7% (95% CI: 8.4%, 39.6%) against World Health Organization–defined consolidated CAP. Intent-to-treat VE was 18.2% (95% CI: 5.5%, 29.1%) against B-CAP and 23.4% (95% CI: 8.8%, 35.7%) against consolidated CAP. End-of-study per-protocol analyses were performed after a mean follow-up of 28–30 mo for CAP and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) (PHiD-CV, n?=?10,211; control, n?=?10,140) and AOM (n?=?3,010 and 2,979, respectively). Per-protocol VE was 16.1% (95% CI: ?1.1%, 30.4%; one-sided p?=?0.032) against clinically confirmed AOM, 67.1% (95% CI: 17.0%, 86.9%) against vaccine serotype clinically confirmed AOM, 100% (95% CI: 74.3%, 100%) against vaccine serotype IPD, and 65.0% (95% CI: 11.1%, 86.2%) against any IPD. Results were consistent between intent-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. Serious adverse events were reported for 21.5% (95% CI: 20.7%, 22.2%) and 22.6% (95% CI: 21.9%, 23.4%) of PHiD-CV and control recipients, respectively. There were 19 deaths (n?=?11,798; 0.16%) in the PHiD-CV group and 26 deaths (n?=?11,799; 0.22%) in the control group. A significant study limitation was the lower than expected number of captured AOM cases. Conclusions Efficacy was demonstrated against a broad range of pneumococcal diseases commonly encountered in young children in clinical practice. Trial registration NCT00466947 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24892763

Tregnaghi, Miguel W.; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; López, Pio; Abate, Hector; Smith, Enrique; Pósleman, Adriana; Calvo, Arlene; Wong, Digna; Cortes-Barbosa, Carlos; Ceballos, Ana; Tregnaghi, Marcelo; Sierra, Alexandra; Rodriguez, Mirna; Troitiño, Marisol; Carabajal, Carlos; Falaschi, Andrea; Leandro, Ana; Castrejón, Maria Mercedes; Lepetic, Alejandro; Lommel, Patricia; Hausdorff, William P.; Borys, Dorota; Guiñazú, Javier Ruiz; Ortega-Barría, Eduardo; Yarzábal, Juan P.; Schuerman, Lode



Recent Advances in Mycoplasma gallisepticum Vaccine Administration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Application of live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines to layer chickens generally occurs at 9 to 10 weeks of age. Mycoplasma organisms are extremely fastidious in the laboratory and difficult to grow. Very little attention has been accorded to optimizing parameters for vaccine administration in th...


Avian influenza: genetic evolution under vaccination pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antigenic drift of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been observed in chickens after extended vaccination program, similar to those observed with human influenza viruses. To evaluate the evolutionary properties of endemic AIV under high vaccination pressure (around 2 billion doses used in the last 12 years), we performed a pilot phylogenic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of AIVs isolated

Magdalena Escorcia; Lourdes Vázquez; Sara T Méndez; Andrea Rodríguez-Ropón; Eduardo Lucio; Gerardo M Nava



Vaccine Safety  


... in history. CDC's Immunization Safety Office identifies possible vaccine side effects and conducts studies to determine whether a health problem is caused by a specific vaccine. About Vaccine Safety Vaccines Safety Basics Vaccines: Hib, ...


Rotavirus vaccines: an overview.  

PubMed Central

Rotavirus vaccine development has focused on the delivery of live attenuated rotavirus strains by the oral route. The initial "Jennerian" approach involving bovine (RIT4237, WC3) or rhesus (RRV) rotavirus vaccine candidates showed that these vaccines were safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic but induced highly variable rates of protection against rotavirus diarrhea. The goal of a rotavirus vaccine is to prevent severe illness that can lead to dehydration in infants and young children in both developed and developing countries. These studies led to the concept that a multivalent vaccine that represented each of the four epidemiologically important VP7 serotypes might be necessary to induce protection in young infants, the target population for vaccination. Human-animal rotavirus reassortants whose gene encoding VP7 was derived from their human rotavirus parent but whose remaining genes were derived from the animal rotavirus parent were developed as vaccine candidates. The greatest experience with a multivalent vaccine to date has been gained with the quadrivalent preparation containing RRV (VP7 serotype 3) and human-RRV reassortants of VP7 serotype 1, 2, and 4 specificity. Preliminary efficacy trial results in the United States have been promising, whereas a study in Peru has shown only limited protection. Human-bovine reassortant vaccines, including a candidate that contains the VP4 gene of a human rotavirus (VP4 serotype 1A), are also being studied. PMID:8809469

Midthun, K; Kapikian, A Z



Vaccination in the elderly  

PubMed Central

Summary There is a general consensus that the elderly do not respond as well to vaccination as the young, but robust studies are few and far between. Most refer to influenza vaccination, but even here, adequate immunological and clinical data are surprisingly thin on the ground. The meta?analysis by Goodwin et?al. from 2006 is still the most comprehensive that we have. They reviewed 31 antibody response studies comparing influenza vaccination efficacy in groups of elderly and younger adults. They reported that the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of responses in elderly versus young adults ranged from 0.24 to 0.59 for the three influenza antigens used in the vaccines. They concluded that rather than the estimated 70–90% clinical vaccine efficacy in younger adults, this figure was only 17–53% in the elderly, depending on which viruses were prevalent that year. They stated that ‘this highlights the need for more immunogenic vaccine formulations for the elderly’. How to achieve this? There are three areas where we may consider alterations to increase vaccine efficacy: (i) make the vaccine more potent; (ii) use adjuvants to enhance immunity; and (iii) apply immune modulators or other interventions to alter host immunity generally. We will consider these three options, focusing on influenza vaccination, in this mini?review. PMID:21880118

Derhovanessian, Evelyna; Pawelec, Graham



Control of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 5 epidemic of severe pneumonia among young army recruits by mass antibiotic treatment and vaccination.  


During an outbreak of severe pneumonia among new army recruits, an epidemiological investigation combined with repeated nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal cultures from sick and healthy contacts subjects was conducted. Fifteen pneumonia cases and 19 influenza-like illness cases occurred among 596 recruits over a 4-week period in December 2005. Pneumonia attack rates reached up to 5.5%. A single pneumococcus serotype 5 clone was isolated from blood or sputum cultures in 4 patients and 30/124 (24.1%) contacts. Immunization with 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine supplemented with a 2-dose azithromycin mass treatment rapidly terminated the outbreak. Carriage rates dropped to <1%, 24 and 45 days after intervention. PMID:20599301

Balicer, Ran D; Zarka, Salman; Levine, Hagai; Klement, Eyal; Sela, Tamar; Porat, Nurith; Ash, Nachman; Dagan, Ron



Comparative evaluation of Salmonella Enteritidis ghost vaccines with a commercial vaccine for protection against internal egg contamination with Salmonella.  


The study was conducted for the comparative evaluation of the vaccine potential of Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis, SE) ghost, SE ghost carrying Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) protein, and a commercial vaccine. Group A chickens were used as a non-vaccinated control, group B chickens were immunized with the ghost carrying LTB protein, group C chickens were immunized with the ghost and, group D chickens were immunized with a commercial vaccine. Group D chickens showed the swelling at the injection site, while no adverse reactions were observed at injection sites of the group B and C chickens. Chickens from the immunized groups B, C, and D demonstrated significant increases in plasma IgG, intestinal secretory IgA levels, and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative responses. After challenge with a virulent SE strain via intravenous route, groups B, C, and D showed significantly higher egg production and lower internal egg contamination and lower recovery of the challenge strain from internal organs compared to non-immunized-challenged control group A. In conclusion, these data indicate that immunization of chickens with the ghost and ghost carrying LTB is safe, without causing any adverse reaction, and is effective as the commercial vaccine in terms of reduction in internal egg contamination and internal organ colonization of Salmonella. PMID:25218296

Jawale, Chetan V; Lee, John Hwa



Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis attenuated live vaccines undergo selection of subpopulations and mutations following vaccination.  


In this study, we were interested in determining if high titered egg adapted modified live infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines contain spike gene related quasispecies that undergo selection in chickens, following vaccination. We sequenced the spike glycoprotein of 12 IBV vaccines (5 different serotypes from 3 different manufacturers) directly from the vaccine vial, then compared that sequence with reisolated viruses from vaccinated and contact-exposed birds over time. We found differences in the S1 sequence within the same vaccine serotype from different manufacturers, differences in S1 sequence between different vaccine serials from the same manufacturer, and intra-vaccine differences or quasispecies. Comparing the sequence data of the reisolated viruses with the original vaccine virus, we were able to identify in vivo selection of viral subpopulations as well as mutations. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing selection of a more fit virus subpopulation as well as mutations associated with replication of modified live IBV vaccine viruses in chickens. This information is important for our understanding of how attenuated virus vaccines, including potential vaccines against the SARS-CoV, can ensure long-term survival of the virus and can lead to changes in pathogenesis and emergence of new viral pathogens. This information is also valuable for the development of safer modified live coronavirus vaccines. PMID:18262691

McKinley, Enid T; Hilt, Deborah A; Jackwood, Mark W



Severe acute respiratory syndrome vaccine development: experiences of vaccination against avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccines against infectious bronchitis of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) have arguably been the most successful, and certainly the most widely used, of vaccines for diseases caused by coronaviruses, the others being against bovine, canine, feline and porcine coronaviruses. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), together with the genetically related coronaviruses of turkey (Meleagris gallopovo) and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), is a group

Dave Cavanagh



Safety and Infectivity of Two Doses of Live -Attenuated Recombinant Cold-Passaged Human Parainfluenza Type 3 Virus Vaccine rHPIV3cp45 in HPIV3-Seronegative Young Children  

PubMed Central

Background Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract illness in infants and young children. Live-attenuated cold-adapted HPIV3 vaccines have been evaluated in infants but a suitable interval for administration of a second dose of vaccine has not been defined. Methods HPIV3-seronegative children between the ages of 6 and 36 months were randomized 2:1 in a blinded study to receive two doses of 105 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infectious dose) of live-attenuated, recombinant cold-passaged human PIV3 vaccine (rHPIV3cp45) or placebo 6 months apart. Serum antibody levels were assessed prior to and approximately 4-6 weeks after each dose. Vaccine virus infectivity, defined as detection of vaccine-HPIV3 in nasal wash and/or a ? 4-fold rise in serum antibody titer, and reactogenicity were assessed on days 3, 7, and 14 following immunization. Results Forty HPIV3-seronegative children (median age 13 months; range 6-35 months) were enrolled; 27 (68%) received vaccine and 13 (32%) received placebo. Infectivity was detected in 25 (96%) of 26 evaluable vaccinees following dose 1 and 9 of 26 subject (35%) following dose 2. Among those who shed virus, the median duration of viral shedding was 12 days (range, 6-15 days) after dose 1 and 6 days (range 3-8 days) after dose 2, with a mean peak log10 viral titer of 3.4 PFU/mL (SD: 1.0) after dose 1 compared to1.5 PFU/mL (SD: 0.92) after dose 2. Overall, reactogenicity was mild, with no difference in rates of fever and upper respiratory infection symptoms between vaccine and placebo groups. Conclusion rHPIV3cp45 was immunogenic and well-tolerated in seronegative young children. A second dose administered 6 months after the initial dose was restricted in those previously infected with vaccine virus; however, the second dose boosted antibody responses and induced antibody responses in two previously uninfected children. PMID:24103895

Englund, Janet A.; Karron, Ruth A.; Cunningham, Coleen K; LaRussa, Philip; Melvin, Ann; Yogev, Ram; Handelsman, Ed; Siberry, George K; Thumar, Bhavanji; Schappell, Elizabeth; Bull, Catherine V.; Chu, Helen Y.; Schaap-Nutt, Anne; Buchholz, Ursula; Collins, Peter L.; Schmidt, Alexander C.



Comparative efficacy of North American and antigenically matched reverse genetics derived H5N9 DIVA marker vaccines against highly pathogenic Asian H5N1 avian influenza in chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza has become endemic in several countries in Asia and Africa, and vaccination is being widely used as a control tool. However, there is a need for efficacious vaccines preferably utilizing a DIVA (differentiate infected from vaccinated animals) marker strat...


The Influence of Vitamin A on the Utilization and Amelioration of Toxicity of Cholecalciferol, 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol, and 1,25 Dihydroxycholecalciferol in Young Broiler Chickens1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments were conducted to determine the influence of vitamin A on the utilization and amelioration of toxicity of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-(OH)D3), and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2D3) in young broiler chicks. Two levels of vitamin A (1,500 and 45,000 IU\\/kg or 450 and 13,500 mg) were fed in all experiments. In Experiment 1, chicks were fed six levels of vitamin



Transcriptome and proteome profiling of host responses to Marek's disease virus in chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marek’s disease (MD) is an immunosuppressive and proliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly oncogenic cell-associated alpha-herpesvirus, named Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Despite the availability of highly efficacious vaccines for control of MD and existence of lines of chickens ...


Prevalence and cross-immunity of Eimeria species on Korean chicken farms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The epidemiology of Eimeria species in poultry flocks is important to increase the effectiveness of vaccinations and prophylactic strategies on chicken farms. In this study, fecal samples from 356 chicken farms were collected randomly and examined for the prevalence of Eimeria species. Through micro...


Chinese Herbal Ingredients Are Effective Immune Stimulators for Chickens Infected with the Newcastle Disease Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of 4 Chinese herbal ingredients (CHI) as immune stimulators for an active vaccine in chickens using both in vitro and in vivo assays. The CHI used were Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), Isatis root polysaccharide (IRPS), Propolis polysaccharide, and Epimedium flavone at vari- ous concentrations. Two hundred 14-d-old male White Roman chickens were randomly

X.-F. Kong; Y.-L. Hu; Y.-L. Yin; G.-Y. Wu; R. Rui; D.-Y. Wang; C.-B. Yang


Genetic Variation in the Response to Vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccines are the most powerful means to prevent and diminish the burden of infectious disease. However, there are limitations to their use: vaccines are not yet available for all infectious diseases (including human immunodeficiency virus and respiratory syncytial virus), they sometimes lack efficacy, the response to vaccination is limited by maternal antibodies in very young infants, and the response to

T. G. Kimman; R. J. Vandebriel; B. Hoebee



Vaccine hesitancy  

PubMed Central

Despite being recognized as one of the most successful public health measures, vaccination is perceived as unsafe and unnecessary by a growing number of individuals. Lack of confidence in vaccines is now considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. Vaccine hesitancy is believed to be responsible for decreasing vaccine coverage and an increasing risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. First, we will characterize vaccine hesitancy and suggest the possible causes of the apparent increase in vaccine hesitancy in the developed world. Then we will look at determinants of individual decision-making about vaccination. PMID:23584253

Dubé, Eve; Laberge, Caroline; Guay, Maryse; Bramadat, Paul; Roy, Réal; Bettinger, Julie A.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) reduces the number of eggs produced by layer chickens. Three live MG vaccine strains are available for use in layer chickens and include F, ts-11 and 6/85. The MG vaccine strains ts-11 and 6/85 are safer than F and they have little or no potential of spreading from bi...


Update: Vaccines for women, adolescence through adulthood.  


Abstract Recommendations for routine vaccination of adolescents and adults are continually evolving; new vaccines are licensed, and ongoing studies lead to updated recommendations for existing vaccines. Although vaccination is important for both sexes, some recent developments are particularly relevant for women and girls. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, licensed in 2006, is the first vaccine administered exclusively to women. Another recently licensed vaccine, adult and adolescent tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap), is especially important for women who plan to become pregnant and for new mothers to help prevent pertussis disease in infants who are too young to be vaccinated themselves. Other vaccines, such as influenza and rubella, are also important for pregnant women. Several vaccine safety issues are of particular relevance to women, namely, the theoretical risk of administering live vaccines during pregnancy and data suggesting that adolescent females might be at higher risk for syncope following vaccination. Obstetrician-gynecologists are the primary, and sometimes only, contact with the healthcare system for many adolescent and adult women and, as such, are uniquely positioned to provide vaccination services to the country's female population. Vaccine costs, storage and handling requirements, lack of access to immunization information systems (also known as vaccine registries), and unfamiliarity with current recommendations are potential obstacles to ensuring that all adolescent females and women are appropriately vaccinated. Obstetrician-gynecologists can help reduce some of these obstacles by availing themselves of existing vaccination resources. PMID:19627241

Akinsanya-Beysolow, Iyabode; Wolfe, Charles Skip



Chicken soup and sickness  


Chicken soup, a popular home remedy for the common cold since at least the 12th century, may really ... chicken soup reduce the inflammation associated with the common cold, thus providing some relief of symptoms. Although researchers ...


Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines  

PubMed Central

The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

Pichichero, Michael E



Immunogenicity of an inactivated Chinese bovine viral diarrhea virus 1a (BVDV 1a) vaccine cross protects from BVDV 1b infection in young calves.  


Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1a and 1b strains are the predominant subgenotypes in China. Because of the genetic and antigenic variability among different BVDV strains, a vaccine effective in one region may fail to protect against infections caused by different virus strains in another region. No BVDV vaccine developed with the predominant strains in China are available. In this study, the immunogenicity of an inactivated Chinese BVDV 1a NM01 vaccine strain was evaluated by challenging with a Chinese BVDV 1b JL strain. Ten 2-4-month-old calves were intramuscularly vaccinated with a single dose of the vaccine strain and boosted with same dose three weeks after the first vaccination, with five mock immunized calves serving as a control group. The average titer of neutralization antibody to BVDV 1a and BVDV 1b of immunized calves reached 1:410 and 1:96, respectively, at 21 days post the second vaccination. Twenty-one days post the second vaccination, all calves were challenged with strain JL. The clinical signs, such as the temperature and leukopenia of the immunized calves and viral shedding, were significantly less than the mock immunized calves after challenging with the virulent BVDV 1b strain, indicating that the BVDV 1a vaccine strain elicited efficacious protection against the endemic BVDV 1b strain in China. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an inactivated BVDV vaccine which demonstrated effective cross-protection against BVDV type 1b infection in China. PMID:24880701

Wang, Wei; Shi, Xinchuan; Wu, Yongwang; Li, Xiaoxin; Ji, Ye; Meng, Qingsen; Zhang, Shucheng; Wu, Hua



Chicken Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

Chicken Salad Ingredients: 2 1/2 cups boneless skinless chicken breasts, cooked and diced 1/2 onion cooked chicken breasts and add to bowl. 2. Cut the ends off of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Run under water to remove any dirt. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side

Liskiewicz, Maciej


Honey Lemon Chicken Ingredients  

E-print Network

Honey Lemon Chicken Ingredients: 4 boneless, skinless chicken breasts 1/3 cup flour 1/3 cup honey 1/4 cup lemon juice Directions 1. Preheat oven to 375ºF. Spray a cooking sheet with non stick cooking. 5. Meanwhile, mix together honey and lemon juice in a small bowl. 6. Remove chicken from oven

Liskiewicz, Maciej


Protection from clinical disease against three highly virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus following in ovo application of an antibody-antigen complexed vaccine in maternally-antibody positive chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Worldwide, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) remains one of the most economically important diseases of poultry. Current vaccination strategies for commercial poultry include the use of inactivated and live NDV vaccines that typically induce protection against less virulent field viruses. The value of...


Antibody persistence and immune memory 15 months after priming with an investigational tetravalent meningococcal tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) in toddlers and young children  

PubMed Central

The present extension study, conducted in children originally vaccinated at 12–14 mo or 3–5 y of age, assessed antibody persistence and immune memory induced by an investigational tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT). In the original study, participants were randomized to receive one dose of MenACWY-TT or licensed age-appropriate meningococcal control vaccines. Fifteen months post-vaccination, all participants underwent serum sampling to evaluate antibody persistence and participants previously vaccinated as toddlers received a polysaccharide challenge to assess immune memory development.   Exploratory comparisons showed that (1) All children and ? 92.3% of the toddlers maintained serum bactericidal (rSBA) titers ? 1:8 at 15 mo post MenACWY-TT vaccination; statistically significantly higher rSBA geometric mean titers (GMTs) were observed compared with control vaccines. (2) At one month after polysaccharide challenge, all toddlers primed with MenACWY-TT or with the monovalent serogroup C conjugate vaccine had rSBA titers ? 1:8 and ? 1:128 for serogroup C and similar rSBA-GMTs; rSBA-GMTs for serogroups A, W-135 and Y were statistically significantly higher in toddlers primed with MenACWY-TT compared with the control vaccine. Thus, a single dose of MenACWY-TT induced persisting antibodies in toddlers and children and immune memory in toddlers. This study has been registered at NCT00126984. PMID:22485049

Knuf, Markus; Baine, Yaela; Bianco, Véronique; Boutriau, Dominique; Miller, Jacqueline M.



What About Vaccinating Newborns?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this review, results from studies evaluating immune competency of the pre-ruminant calf are discussed. It has been believed that vaccination of the young calf is not effective. Recent studies, however, have revealed that certain aspects of the neonatal calf’s immune system are fully intact or e...


Prevalence and molecular characterization of meq in feather follicular epithelial cells of Korean broiler chickens.  


Marek's disease (MD) is a highly contagious lymphoproliferative disease of chickens. Meq is the relevant oncogene and four isoforms, long (L)-meq, meq, short (S)-meq and very short (VS)-meq, have been identified. Although MD is important in the poultry industry, the prevalence and molecular properties of Korean MD virus (MDV) among broiler chickens remain unclear. Therefore, we characterized meq in pooled feather tips sampled at 3- and 5-week-old chickens from 21 unvaccinated and 22 vaccinated broiler farms via nested-PCR and nucleotide sequence analysis. Multiple bands consisting of L-meq, meq, and S-meq amplicons were observed in a commercial vaccine (CVI988 + HVT), 1 (4.8%) and 5 samples (22.7%) from unvaccinated and vaccinated farms, respectively. A strong meq amplicon was observed in a MD-related tumor tissue, 6 (28.6%) and 1 (4.5%) samples from unvaccinated and vaccinated farms, respectively. Six and one amplicons from unvaccinated (28.6%) and vaccinated farms (4.5%), respectively, were differentiated from CVI988 by nucleotide sequence analysis. Therefore, the relatively high rate of meq in the unvaccinated broiler farms constitutes support for vaccination. However, the existence of CVI988-related meq in unvaccinated chickens necessitates further study regarding the origins and pathoimmunological effects of the viruses on chickens. PMID:17516161

Kang, Jung-Won; Cho, Sun-Hee; Mo, In-Pil; Lee, Dong-Woo; Kwon, Hyuk-Joon




E-print Network

VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine What You Need to Know (Flu Vaccine, Live, Intranasal) 2013-2014 Many Vaccine Information Statements are available in Spanish and other languages. See idiomas. Visite 1 Why get vaccinated? Influenza ("flu") is a contagious disease

Oklahoma, University of


Chicken Barbecue.  

E-print Network

favorite meat for barbecues. The young tender meat is easy to cook and to eat. Although broilers are the most popular poultry for barbecuing, turkeys and ducks are also available for a different taste treat. Broiler barbecue is tasty and nutritious..., porous and will cut. Leaving the breast bone in place rather than removing it will help protect the breast meat from excessive drying while cooking. Turn the broiler halves every 5 to 10 minutes and baste them at each turning. Watch the skin side...

Miller, Marshall M.; Mellor, David B.



Leptospirosis vaccines  

PubMed Central

Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the recent advancements of recombinant outer membrane protein (OMP) vaccines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) vaccines, inactivated vaccines, attenuated vaccines and DNA vaccines against leptospirosis are reviewed. A comparison of these vaccines may lead to development of new potential methods to combat leptospirosis and facilitate the leptospirosis vaccine research. Moreover, a vaccine ontology database was built for the scientists working on the leptospirosis vaccines as a starting tool. PMID:18072968

Wang, Zhijun; Jin, Li; W?grzyn, Alicja



HPV vaccine  


Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... and Gynecologists. Committee Opinion No. 588: Human Papillomavirus Vaccination. Obstet Gynecol . 2014;123:712-8. American Academy ...


Age-Dependent Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Class-Specific Antibody Concentrations and Bactericidal Titers in Sera from Young Children from Montana Immunized with a Licensed Polysaccharide Vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C bactericidal titers and class-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibody concentrations were measured in sera from 173 children (1 to 5 years old) before and 6 weeks and 7 months following vaccination with a quadrivalent (A\\/C\\/Y\\/W-135) polysaccharide vaccine. The immune responses of the children were compared with those of 40 adults 6 weeks postvaccination. Both bactericidal titers



Vaccine acceptance  

PubMed Central

The United Kingdom has had a long history with vaccine acceptability dating back to Edward Jenner’s theory of small pox vaccination. More recently, the discredited, Wakefield study published in 1998 continues to cause MMR skepticism. In pregnant women pertussis vaccination has been considerably more successful than influenza vaccination. Influenza vaccine uptake in healthcare workers remains poor. The media, politicians, and health reforms have contributed to the mixed coverage for these vaccines. In this article we examine vaccine acceptability from a UK perspective, and consider the future impact this is likely to have on the introduction of rotavirus and shingles vaccine in the UK in 2013. PMID:24025731

Ford, John A; Mahgoub, Hamid; Shankar, Ananda Giri



Captive propagation and brood behavior of greater prairie chickens  

E-print Network

young; (2) introducing 3, day-old greater prairie chickens to 2, week-old domestic bantam chicks that were used as trainers; and, (3) letting a greater prairie chicken hen incubate and rear her own clutch of 3. The behavior of the 3 chicks reared... by the greater prairie chicken hen difFered statistically (P & 0. 05) &om the other groups only during the evening observation period of week l. A statistical difference (P & 0. 05) was noted in the brooding behavior for the 2 groups of chicks reared without a...

Drake, David



Using an integrated approach to understand vaccination behavior among young men who have sex with men: stages of change, the health belief model, and self-efficacy.  


Studies continue to show that the majority of men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States remain unvaccinated against hepatitis A (HAV); such limited vaccination coverage is a missed opportunity for preventing disease. This study sought to identify beliefs and attitudes associated with motivational readiness for vaccination against HAV among MSM, using a theoretically-integrated framework. Questionnaire data were collected from 358 MSM through bar outreach. MSM with increased readiness to complete the two-dose series perceived lower practical barriers and reported greater healthcare provider communication about their sexual orientation and risk behavior. They also perceived higher benefits to vaccination and higher severity of infection, and had higher self-efficacy to complete the vaccine series. Relationships between stages of change and theory-based constructs from the health belief model and the social learning theory follow predicted patterns suggesting that these theories may provide useful frameworks for understanding vaccination readiness and intervention strategy development among MSM. PMID:14535600

Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C



[Influenza vaccination present and future].  


In healthy adults younger than 65 years the effectiveness of influenza vaccination is up to 90% for laboratory confirmed influenza, but is far less in elderly individuals over 65 years and those with comorbidities. However the vaccination in elderly people is effective in preventing complications of influenza infection: pneumonia, hospital admission and death from influenza or pneumonia. This effect is larger for elderly individuals living in nursing homes than in those living in the community. Recommendations at present include vaccination of all people over the age of 65, of high-risk groups, and of those who can transmit influenza to high-risk individuals (healthcare workers). Since 2005 it is recommended that people with occupational contact with wild or domestic birds should be vaccinated to reduce the risk of simultaneous infection with a human and an avian influenza virus. Influenza vaccination is considered to be safe: side effects are reversible within 1-2 days, severe complications are exceedingly rare. Most frequently inactivated vaccines are used, but in the USA there is also an attenuated live vaccine available. They all contain surface antigens of two influenza A strains and one influenza B strain. The world health organization (WHO) selects every year the strains to be included in the vaccine and the viruses are then grown on embryonated chicken eggs. This process requires detailed planning up to 6 months. Because a pandemic event cannot be predicted, this period is too long and there is an urgent need to develop techniques to reduce the vaccine production time and enhance its efficacy. Additionally, several researchers are exploring the possibility of generating a universal vaccine against influenza A virus that does not require reformulation on an annual basis. PMID:18581910

Eich, G



The human papillomavirus vaccines.  


Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) among sexually active couples. Its annual incidence is approximately 5.5 million. Overall, an estimated 75% of sexually active men and women have been exposed to HPV at some point in their lives. HPV-16 and -18 account for about 70% of cancers of the cervix, vagina and anus, and for about 30%-40% of cancers of the vulva, penis and orophaynx. Cancer of the cervix uteri is the second most cancer among women worldwide. Cancer of the penis is a rare cancer, accounting for less than 0.5% of cancers in men. Spontaneous clearance of HPV infection is accompanied by humoral and cellular immune response against virus-specific antigens. Two vaccines, prophylactic and therapeutic ones, are considered. Prophylactic vaccines use L1 and L2 capsid proteins to induce production of conformationally-specific antibodies. They block HPV infection. Lone L1 and L2 proteins self-assemble into a capsid that is identical to the complete virion. In this way, an antibody-mediated response is induced before the body actually comes into contact with the live virion. Therapeutic vaccines are being developed to protect HPV-positive persons against tumor development. For these vaccines, researchers are targeting the activity of the E6 and E7 oncoproteines.On June 8, 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved an HPV vaccine for clinical use. The HPV vaccine that has been approved is the quadrivalent vaccine that consists of recombinant viral-like particles (VLPs) of HPV 6, 11, 16, 18 mixed with an aluminum-containing adjuvant. It is manufactured by Merck & Co., Inc. and sold under the name of Gardasil?. The new vaccine is approved for use in females 9-26 years of age. The primary target population for vaccination should be females aged 11-12 years. However, vaccination can be given to girls as young as 9 years of age. Vaccination can receive women aged 13-26 years who have been sexually active. There are still no data on the vaccine efficacy in women older than 26, and currently no data to demonstrate the efficacy of vaccination in males; male subjects should not be vaccinated until such data become available. The vaccine is to be administered intramuscularly either into the deltoid muscle of the arm or the high anteriolateral area of the leg. Each patient receives three 0.5 mL doses given according to the following schedule: first dose is given at the elected date, second dose two months after the first dose, and third dose six months after the first dose. According to statements from Merck, the list price of the vaccine is 120 USD per dose. GlaxoSmithKline is now conducting a phase III trial of a bivalent (HPV 16, 18) vaccine, and it is going to be presented under the name of Cervarix. Similar results to those obtained with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine have been reported with the bivalent vaccine. It is expected to be released in June next year. Evaluation of the HPV vaccine efficiency in preventing dysplasia and cancer has been recommended as a globally accepted endpoint for population based studies. PMID:17010274

Ljubojevi?, Suzana




E-print Network

, like any medicine, there is a chance of side effects. These are usually mild and go away on their ownVACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine What You Need to Know (Flu Vaccine, Inactivated or Recombinant) 2014-2015 Many Vaccine Information Statements are available in Spanish and other languages. See

Lien, Jyh-Ming



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Contamination of poultry vaccines with adventitious agents (i.e. reticuloendotheliosis virus, chicken anemia virus) has been previously reported. Contaminating agents may be introduced at various stages during production, whether through propagation systems or shared equipment. Contamination of ina...


Modeling the effects of annual influenza vaccination  

SciTech Connect

Although influenza vaccine efficacy is 70--90% in young healthy first-time vaccinees, the efficacy in repeat vaccinees has varied considerably. In some studies, vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccinees was higher than in first-time vaccinees, whereas in other studies vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccinees was significantly lower than in first-time vaccinees and sometimes no higher than in unvaccinated controls. It is known that the closeness of the antigenic match between the vaccine strain and the epidemic virus is important for vaccine effectiveness. In this study the authors show that the antigenic differences between a first vaccine strain and a second vaccine strain, and between the first vaccine strain and the epidemic strain, might account for the observed variation in attack rate among two-time vaccinees.

Smith, D.J.; Ackley, D.H.; Forrest, S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Div.



Evaluation of the Acceptability and Feasibility of a Computer-Tailored Intervention to Increase Human Papillomavirus Vaccination among Young Adult Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine acceptability and feasibility of a Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based computer-tailored intervention (CTI) for increasing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in college-aged women. Participants: Two hundred forty-three women aged 18-26 were recruited between February and May of 2011. Methods: Participants completed the…

Paiva, Andrea L.; Lipschitz, Jessica M.; Fernandez, Anne C.; Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.



Effect of the Pre-erythrocytic Candidate Malaria Vaccine RTS,S/AS01E on Blood Stage Immunity in Young Children  

PubMed Central

(See the article by Greenhouse et al, on pages 19-26.) Background.?RTS,S/AS01E is the lead candidate malaria vaccine and confers pre-erythrocytic immunity. Vaccination may therefore impact acquired immunity to blood-stage malaria parasites after natural infection. Methods.?We measured, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, antibodies to 4 Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens (AMA-1, MSP-142, EBA-175, and MSP-3) and by growth inhibitory activity (GIA) using 2 parasite clones (FV0 and 3D7) at 4 times on 860 children who were randomized to receive with RTS,S/AS01E or a control vaccine. Results.?Antibody concentrations to AMA-1, EBA-175, and MSP-142 decreased with age during the first year of life, then increased to 32 months of age. Anti–MSP-3 antibody concentrations gradually increased, and GIA gradually decreased up to 32 months. Vaccination with RTS,S/AS01E resulted in modest reductions in AMA-1, EBA-175, MSP-142, and MSP-3 antibody concentrations and no significant change in GIA. Increasing anti-merozoite antibody concentrations and GIA were prospectively associated with increased risk of clinical malaria. Conclusions.?Vaccination with RTS,S/AS01E reduces exposure to blood-stage parasites and, thus, reduces anti-merozoite antigen antibody concentrations. However, in this study, these antibodies were not correlates of clinical immunity to malaria. Instead, heterogeneous exposure led to confounded, positive associations between increasing antibody concentration and increasing risk of clinical malaria. PMID:21628653

Cook, Jackie; Bergmann-Leitner, Elke; Olotu, Ally; Lusingu, John; Mwacharo, Jedidah; Vekemans, Johan; Njuguna, Patricia; Leach, Amanda; Lievens, Marc; Dutta, Sheetij; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Savarese, Barbara; Villafana, Tonya; Lemnge, Martha M.; Cohen, Joe; Marsh, Kevin; Corran, Patrick H.; Angov, Evelina; Riley, Eleanor M.; Drakeley, Chris J.



Production of a falcon herpesvirus vaccine.  


Ten common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) were used for this falcon herpes vaccine experiment. Four kestrels were subcutaneously given 1 ml of an attenuated falcon herpesvirus that had originally been isolated from the liver of an American prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus). This virus was then passaged 100 times on chicken embryo fibroblast cells (CEF-cells). Another 4 kestrels were given subcutaneously an inactivated falcon herpesvirus vaccine derived from the same American field strain. This vaccine was concentrated, inactivated by heat and betapropiolactone and emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvans. Two further kestrels served as controls and were not vaccinated. Twenty-one days after vaccination, all 10 kestrels were challenged with passage 3 of the American falcon herpesvirus. The 2 control kestrels died 6 days after challenge and 3 of those given the inactivated herpes vaccine died 9 days after challenge, with typical lesions of herpesvirus inclusion body hepatitis. Before the vaccination experiment, all 10 kestrels were free of serum neutralising antibodies to the falcon herpesvirus. Twenty-one days after vaccination, all 4 kestrels vaccinated with the attenuated vaccine, and one vaccinated with the killed vaccine, had seroconverted, having shown no symptoms to the challenge with a low passage virulent American herpesvirus strain. Following the challenge their antibody titres to falcon herpesvirus increased. No herpesvirus was isolated from any of the cloacal swabs taken during this experiment, indicating that there is no danger for any other birds from the attenuated herpesvirus vaccine. This experiment clearly shows that an attenuated falcon herpesvirus vaccine can protect kestrels from fatal inclusion body hepatitis. PMID:10507183

Wernery, U; Wernery, R; Kinne, J



Chicken Wing Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore cooked chicken wings and identify the various parts including: bones (radius, ulna, humerus, shoulder joint, elbow joint), tendons, and cartilage. Learners observe the relationships between bones, tendons, and cartilage and identify how a chicken wing is similar to a human arm.

Arizona Science Center



Viruses, Cancer Warts and All: The HPV Vaccine for Cervical Cancer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FASEB Breakthroughs in Bioscience article. Scientist Peyton Rous used Plymouth Rock chickens to make his Nobel Prize winning discovery that viruses can cause cancer. Chickens, rabbits, and mice were among the animal models that made invaluable contributions to the development of the HPV vaccine to protect against cervical cancer.



Skin immunization with influenza vaccines.  


Problems with existing influenza vaccines include the strain specificity of the immune response, resulting in the need for frequent reformulation in response to viral antigenic drift. Even in years when the same influenza strains are prevalent, the duration of immunity is limited, and results in the need for annual revaccination. The immunogenicity of the present split or subunit vaccines is also lower than that observed with whole inactivated virus, and the vaccines are not very effective in high risk groups such as the young or the elderly. Vaccine coverage is incomplete, due in part to concerns about the use of hypodermic needles for delivery. Alternative approaches for vaccination are being developed which address many of these concerns. Here we review new approaches which focus on skin immunization, including the development of needle-free delivery systems which use stable dry formulations and induce stronger and longer-lasting immune responses. PMID:25038939

Skountzou, Ioanna; Compans, Richard W



Vaccines (immunizations) - overview  


... diphtheria, mumps, measles, pertussis (whooping cough), meningitis, and polio. Many of these infections can cause serious or ... MMR - vaccine Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine Pneumococcal polysaccharide ... (vaccine) Rotavirus vaccine Tdap vaccine Tetanus - vaccine


Adjuvant effects of chitosan and calcium phosphate particles in an inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine.  


The adjuvant activity of chitosan (CS) and calcium phosphate (CAP) particles was studied following intranasal (mucosal) administration to commercial chickens with inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. After three vaccinations with inactivated NDV in combination with CS or CAP an increase in antibody titers in blood and mucosal samples in chickens was observed when compared with the administration of NDV antigen only. A lower level of humoral immunity was observed in broiler chickens compared to layer-type birds. The CS-based vaccine demonstrated higher antigenic and protective activity following lethal challenge than the vaccine containing CAP. Because CS particles efficiently changed mucosal and humoral immunity and protective activity, CS may in the future be considered for use as a potential adjuvant for production of vaccines for poultry. PMID:24758112

Volkova, Marina A; Irza, Anna V; Chvala, Irina A; Frolov, Sergy F; Drygin, Vladimir V; Kapczynski, Darrell R



Antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine.  


West Nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the United States since 1999. Five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for West Nile virus: black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus), little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor), American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis), and Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). All birds were vaccinated intramuscularly at least twice with a commercially available inactivated whole virus vaccine (Innovator). Significant differences in antibody titer over time were detected for black-footed penguins and both flamingo species. PMID:17679507

Okeson, Danelle M; Llizo, Shirley Yeo; Miller, Christine L; Glaser, Amy L



17DD yellow fever vaccine  

PubMed Central

Objective: To verify if the Bio-Manguinhos 17DD yellow fever vaccine (17DD-YFV) used in lower doses is as immunogenic and safe as the current formulation. Results: Doses from 27,476 IU to 587 IU induced similar seroconversion rates and neutralizing antibodies geometric mean titers (GMTs). Immunity of those who seroconverted to YF was maintained for 10 mo. Reactogenicity was low for all groups. Methods: Young and healthy adult males (n = 900) were recruited and randomized into 6 groups, to receive de-escalating doses of 17DD-YFV, from 27,476 IU to 31 IU. Blood samples were collected before vaccination (for neutralization tests to yellow fever, serology for dengue and clinical chemistry), 3 to 7 d after vaccination (for viremia and clinical chemistry) and 30 d after vaccination (for new yellow fever serology and clinical chemistry). Adverse events diaries were filled out by volunteers during 10 d after vaccination. Volunteers were retested for yellow fever and dengue antibodies 10 mo later. Seropositivity for dengue was found in 87.6% of volunteers before vaccination, but this had no significant influence on conclusions. Conclusion: In young healthy adults Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz yellow fever vaccine can be used in much lower doses than usual. International Register ISRCTN 38082350. PMID:23364472

Martins, Reinaldo M.; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S.; Farias, Roberto Henrique G.; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Almeida, Luiz Fernando C.; Lima, Sheila Maria B.; Nogueira, Rita Maria R.; Sá, Gloria Regina S.; Hokama, Darcy A.; de Carvalho, Ricardo; Freire, Ricardo Aguiar V.; Filho, Edson Pereira; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira



Polio Vaccination  


... . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Polio Vaccination Pronounced [PO-lee-oh] On this Page What ... 2000, OPV was no longer recommended for routine immunization in the United States. However, OPV continues to ...


An Age-Structured Model for Pneumococcal Infection with Vaccination  

E-print Network

An Age-Structured Model for Pneumococcal Infection with Vaccination Karyn L. Sutton1,2,3 , H. T the young and the old. The development of an effective vaccine against these infections, especially the younger ages, has not been successful despite the licensing of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7


Whooping Cough and the Pertussis Vaccine  


... vaccine. Check the questions below. If you answer yes to any of them, be sure to talk to your ... health care provider before I get the vaccine? Yes. It’s a good idea to ... or young child? Are there any medical reasons why I should not get the ...


Rubella: Current Status, Diagnosis, Outbreak Control, and Use of Rubella Vaccine in Females of Childbearing Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Widespread rubella vaccination of young children with a secondary emphasis on vaccinating susceptible adolescents and young adults has prevented epidemics of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome. Benefits of ensuring high immunity levels in college students, quick response to disease outbreak, and safety and efficacy of rubella vaccine in this…

Preblud, Stephen R.



Vaccination Mathematics  

E-print Network

Vaccination Strategies for Epidemic Models Douglas B. Meade Department of Mathematics University:// 27 May 1999 #12; May 1999 IMA Mathematical Biology Seminar 0 Vaccination Strategies for Epidemic and natural death -- no death from infection -- no vaccination Ref: Shulgin, Stone, and Agur, Bull Math Bio

Meade, Douglas B.


[Study on immune efficacy of Newcastle disease chitosan microsphere vaccine].  


Newcastle disease is an acute and highly contagious disease caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), one of which does great harms to the poultry industry. The most basic measure of controlling New Castle disease is to alid vaccine, now we usually use La Sota live vaccine and inactivated NDV vaccine, but these two vaccines both have more or less limitation. It can produce higher mucosal immunity titers by taking vaccine orally, meanwhile it can induce humoral and cell-mediated immune response and mucosal immunity strongly. Therefore, it becomes the focus of the research, which prepare new pattern vaccines taking orally. NDV chitosan microsphere vaccine was prepared using chitosan as capsule wall material, NDV as core material, glutaraldehyde as cross-linking material, and its even particle diameter was 5.83um, and its surface was smooth and glossy, no obviously pore space, yellow brown pykno-ball, and its safety and potency were evaluated. The SPF chickens were immunized with NDV chitosan microsphere vaccine, La Sota live vaccine and inactivated NDV vaccine respectively. To evaluate vaccine's immune efficacy, using MTT to measure lymphocytes proliferation in vitro, using HI to measure serum special IgG and using ELISA tests to detect mucosal sIgA titers. The results show that NDV chitosan microsphere vaccine was safe, could induce humoral and cell-mediated immune response and mucosal immunity strongly. The results of the potency tests conformed that the vaccine could produce good protective effect. PMID:17944374

Zhai, Rong-ling; Xu, Huai-ying; Wang, You-ling; Qin, Zhuo-ming; Jiang, Shi-jin



Molecular Characterization of Chicken Anemia Virus Circulating in Chicken Flocks in Egypt  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Although many previous studies reported detection of chicken anemia virus (CAV) in Egypt since 1990, genomic characterization of this circulating CAV has not been published. In the present study, four nucleotide sequences of detected CAV were genetically characterized. Methods. These nucleotide sequences were obtained from commercial chicken flocks in two different locations of Egypt during 2010. The target region for sequencing was 675?bp nucleotide of partial coding region of VP1 protein. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the detected CAV were aligned and compared to worldwide CAV isolates including commonly used vaccine strains. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences was also carried out. Results. Our results showed that all the Egyptian CAV sequences were grouped in one group with viruses from diverse geographic regions. This group is characterized by amino acids profile 75I, 97L, 139Q, and 144Q in VP1. The phylogenetic and amino acid analyses of deduced amino acid indicated that the detected CAV sequences differ from CAV vaccine strains. Conclusion. This is the first report that describes molecular characterization of circulating CAV in Egypt. The study showed that the detected CAV, in Egypt are field viruses and unrelated to vaccine strains. PMID:25302064

AboElkhair, Mohammed; Abd El-Razak, Alaa G.; Metwally, Abd Elnaby Y.



Attenuation, transmission, and immunogenicity of an ORF-C gene deleted strain of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in specific pathogen free chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a very serious and widespread respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Conventional attenuated ILT vaccines, obtained by continuous passages in chicken embryos and tissue culture, had been the main tools utilized by th...


Conjugate Meningococcal Vaccines Development: GSK Biologicals Experience  

PubMed Central

Meningococcal diseases are serious threats to global health, and new vaccines specifically tailored to meet the age-related needs of various geographical areas are required. This paper focuses on the meningococcal conjugate vaccines developed by GSK Biologicals. Two combined conjugate vaccines were developed to help protect infants and young children in countries where the incidence of meningococcal serogroup C or serogroup C and Y disease is important: Hib-MenC-TT vaccine, which offers protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C diseases, is approved in several countries; and Hib-MenCY-TT vaccine, which adds N. meningitidis serogroup Y antigen, is currently in the final stages of development. Additionally, a tetravalent conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) designed to help protect against four meningococcal serogroups is presently being evaluated for global use in all age groups. All of these vaccines were shown to be highly immunogenic and to have clinically acceptable safety profiles. PMID:21991444

Miller, Jacqueline M.; Mesaros, Narcisa; Van Der Wielen, Marie; Baine, Yaela



Environmental and management factors influencing BVDV antibody levels and response to vaccination in weanling calves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vaccination has many benefits for disease prevention and overall health status of animals. Not all animals respond equally to vaccinations. A number of factors can be shown to influence a young animal’s response to vaccination. Calves with more maternal antibodies at the time of vaccination have poo...


DNA vaccines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

Gregersen, Jens-Peter



Evaluation of the Efficacy of an Attenuated Live Vaccine against Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Young Pigs  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is characterized by high fever and high mortality in pigs of all ages and has severely affected the pork industry of China in the last few years. An attenuated HP-PRRSV strain, TJM, was obtained by passaging HP-PRRSV strain TJ on MARC-145 cells for 92 passages. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)- and antibody-free pigs were inoculated intramuscularly with TJM (105.0 50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50]) and challenged at 28, 60, 120, and 180 days postimmunization (dpi). The results showed that 5/5, 5/5, 5/5, and 4/5 immunized pigs were protected from the lethal challenge and did not develop fever and clinical diseases at each challenge, respectively. Compared to control pigs, vaccinated pigs showed much milder pathological lesions and gained significantly more weight (P < 0.01). Sequence analysis of different passages of strain TJ showed that the attenuation resulted in a deletion of a continuous 120 amino acids (aa), in addition to the discontinuous 30-aa deletion in the nsp2 region. The analysis also demonstrated that the 120-aa deletion was genetically stable in vivo. These results suggested that HP-PRRSV TJM was efficacious against a lethal challenge with a virulent HP-PRRSV strain, and effective protection could last at least 4 months. Therefore, strain TJM is a good candidate for an efficacious modified live virus vaccine as well as a useful molecular marker vaccine against HP-PRRSV. PMID:22695163

Leng, Xue; Li, Zhenguang; Xia, Mingqi; He, Yanliang



Overview of measles and mumps vaccine: origin, present, and future of vaccine production.  


Measles and mumps are common viral childhood diseases that can cause serious complications. Vaccination remains the most efficient way to control the spread of these viruses. The manufacturing capability for viral vaccines produced in embryonated hen eggs and conventional/classical cell substrates, such as chicken embryo fibroblast or primary dog kidney cell substrates, is no longer sufficient. This limitation can be overcome by utilizing other recognized cell substrates such as Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK), Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO), Vero (monkey origin) cells, MRC-5 (human diploid) or as an alternative, introducing new cell substrates of human or avian origin. A very important factor in vaccine production is the safety and immunogenicity of the final vaccine, where the proper choice of cell substrate used for virus propagation is made. All substrates used in vaccine production must be fully characterized to avoid the contamination of hidden unknown pathogens which is difficult to achieve in primary cell substrates. PMID:23600866

Betáková, T; Svetlíková, D; Gocník, M



[Determination of beta-adrenergic binding sites in the myocardium of young female chickens of various strains--a study for the clarification of frequent occurrence of sudden death and ascites in male broilers].  


The present investigations should contribute to clarify the importance of beta-adrenergic system in myocard for the triggering of sudden death syndrome and ascites in male broiler chickens. Therefore it should be verified if differences in density of beta-adrenergic receptors in myocard exist in several strains and sexes of chickens. We showed in both male and female broilers that the receptor density was significantly higher as in chickens of the laying strain. There were no significant differences in receptor density between sexes in both investigated strains as well as in KD-values between all groups. The latter finding is referred to the absence of differences in receptor affinity for 3H-dihydroalprenolol between the groups. Clarification of the question if chronic heart failure is in contrast to myocard hypertrophy accompanied with reduction of beta-adrenergic receptor density or receptor affinity in broilers too, as could be shown in other species, has to carried out in further investigations. PMID:10399405

Neubert, E; Huppke, S; Gründel, G



Comparison of the safety and protective efficacy of vaccination with glycoprotein-G-deficient infectious laryngotracheitis virus delivered via eye-drop, drinking water or aerosol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), an alphaherpesvirus, causes respiratory disease in chickens and is commonly controlled by vaccination with conventionally attenuated virus strains. These vaccines have limitations due to residual pathogenicity and reversion to virulence. To avoid these problems and to better control disease, attention has recently turned towards developing a novel vaccine strain that lacks virulence gene(s). Glycoprotein G (gG)

J. M. Devlin; G. F. Browning; J. R. Gilkerson; S. P. Fenton; C. A. Hartley




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the USA each year, 8.2 billion commercial chickens are vaccinated against common respiratory pathogens such as Newcastle disease (ND) virus, a paramyxovirus type 1, and infectious bronchitis virus, a coronavirus. Most commercial poultry are vaccinated through mass immunization programs utilizing ...


Adjuvant effects of chitosan and calcium phosphate particles in an inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The adjuvant activity of chitosan and calcium phosphate-particles (CAP) was studied following intranasal coadministration of commercial chickens with inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. After three vaccinations with inactivated NDV in combination with chitosan or CAP an increase in an...


Development of Streptococcus pneumoniae Vaccines Using Live Vectors  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae still causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in young children and the elderly. Much effort has been dedicated to developing protein-based universal vaccines to conquer the current shortcomings of capsular vaccines and capsular conjugate vaccines, such as serotype replacement, limited coverage and high costs. A recombinant live vector vaccine delivering protective antigens is a promising way to achieve this goal. In this review, we discuss the researches using live recombinant vaccines, mainly live attenuated Salmonella and lactic acid bacteria, to deliver pneumococcal antigens. We also discuss both the limitations and the future of these vaccines. PMID:25309747

Wang, Shifeng; Curtiss, Roy



Vaccine allergies  

PubMed Central

Currently, the increasing numbers of vaccine administrations are associated with increased reports of adverse vaccine reactions. Whilst the general adverse reactions including allergic reactions caused by the vaccine itself or the vaccine components, are rare, they can in some circumstances be serious and even fatal. In accordance with many IgE-mediated reactions and immediate-type allergic reactions, the primary allergens are proteins. The proteins most often implicated in vaccine allergies are egg and gelatin, with perhaps rare reactions to yeast or latex. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the injectable influenza vaccine can be safely administered, although with appropriate precautions, to patients with severe egg allergy, as the current influenza vaccines contain small trace amounts of egg protein. If an allergy is suspected, an accurate examination followed by algorithms is vital for correct diagnosis, treatment and decision regarding re-vaccination in patients with immediate-type reactions to vaccines. Facilities and health care professionals should be available to treat immediate hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylaxis) in all settings where vaccines are administered. PMID:24427763



Cytokine gene expression patterns associated with immunization against Marek's disease in chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explored the immunological correlates of protection mediated by a live bivalent vaccine consisting of herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) and SB-1 against infection with the RB1B strain of Marek's disease virus (MDV). Compared to unvaccinated infected chickens, vaccinated protected birds had lower expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and IL-18 genes in spleen. However, there was no difference between

Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem; Bruce D. Hunter; Payvand Parvizi; Hamid R. Haghighi; Niroshan Thanthrige-Don; Shayan Sharif



Progress and pitfalls in Shigella vaccine research  

PubMed Central

Renewed awareness of the significant morbidity and mortality that Shigella causes among young children in developing countries combined with technological innovations in vaccinology has led to the development of novel vaccine strategies in the past five years. Along with advancement of classical vaccines in clinical trials and new sophisticated measurements of immunological responses, much new data has been produced lending promise to the potential for production of safe and effective Shigella vaccines. Herein we review the recent progress in Shigella vaccine development within the framework of persistent obstacles. PMID:23419287

Barry, Eileen M.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Fasano, Alessio; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.



Synergetic effects of subgroup J avian leukosis virus and reticuloendotheliosis virus co-infection on growth retardation and immunosuppression in SPF chickens.  


To further understand the effect of co-infection of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens, the experiment was made to study the pathogenicity, the weight of body and immune organs, response to newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus subtype H9 (AIV-H9) vaccination. Chickens were randomly divided into four groups, which includes injection groups (REV, ALV-J, REV plus ALV-J), and negative control group. The pathogenesis experiments indicated that chickens co-infected with REV and ALV-J had significantly higher mortality rate than those of the chickens infected with REV or ALV-J alone (P<0.05). Chickens inoculated with REV and ALV-J had significantly lower weights than chickens in all other groups (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the two single infection groups and co-infection group (P>0.05) on bursa and thymus over body wt ratios, however, chickens co-infected with REV and ALV-J had significantly lower titers than REV-infected chickens and ALV-J-infected chickens on HI antibody titers to ND and AIV-H9 after vaccination (P<0.05). These findings suggested that the co-infection of REV and ALV-J caused more serious growth retardation and immunosuppression in SPF chickens. PMID:25042879

Dong, Xuan; Ju, Sidi; Zhao, Peng; Li, Yang; Meng, Fanfeng; Sun, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong



Control of avian mycoplasmoses by vaccination.  


Vaccination is an option for controlling Mycoplasma gallisepticum or M. synoviae when biosecurity measures fail to prevent the infection of poultry flocks with these mycoplasmas. Both killed vaccines (bacterins) and living vaccines are currently in commercial use. Bacterins usually contain an oil emulsion adjuvant and are administered by subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. They can reduce the decline in egg production associated with M. gallisepticum, although they do not prevent infection. Newer adjuvants, such as immune stimulating complexes, may provide effective immunity without the tissue lesions caused by oil emulsion adjuvants. Living M. gallisepticum vaccines include the F strain and attenuated strains ts-11 and 6/85. F strain is administered in drinking water or by aerosol. This strain reduces the decline in egg production and has been used to displace endemic strains in multiple-age flocks. The major disadvantage is the inherent virulence of F strain. Strain ts-11 is less virulent and less infectious than F strain and provides a somewhat weaker, but usually effective, long-term protective immunity, which is vaccine-dose dependent. This strain is administered by eye drop, persists in the chicken for long periods and stimulates a detectable although variable systemic antibody response. Strain ts-11 can be used safely in combination with respiratory virus vaccines. Strain 6/85 also stimulates a weaker protective immune response than F strain and is of low virulence and infectivity. This strain is administered by aerosol, appears not to persist in vaccinated birds and may fail to stimulate a detectable systemic antibody response. Strain MS-H is currently being evaluated as a live vaccine against M. synoviae in meat chicken breeder flocks and is often used in conjunction with strain ts-11. PMID:9190024

Whithear, K G



Cross-Protection among Lethal H5N2 Influenza Viruses Induced by DNA Vaccine to the Hemagglutinin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inoculation of mice with hemagglutinin (HA)-expressing DNA affords reliable protection against lethal influenza virus infection, while in chickens the same strategy has yielded variable results. Here we show that gene gun delivery of DNA encoding an H5 HA protein confers complete immune protection to chickens challenged with lethal H5 viruses. In tests of the influence of promoter selection on vaccine




Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Recombinants Expressing Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus (ILTV) Glycoproteins gB and gD Protect Chickens against ILTV and NDV Challenges  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease is controlled mainly through biosecurity and vaccination with live attenuated strains of ILTV and vectored vaccines based on turkey herpesvirus (HVT) and fowlpox virus (FPV). The current live attenuated vaccines (chicken embryo origin [CEO] and tissue culture origin [TCO]), although effective, can regain virulence, whereas HVT- and FPV-vectored ILTV vaccines are less efficacious than live attenuated vaccines. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more efficacious ILTV vaccines. In the present study, we generated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants, based on the LaSota vaccine strain, expressing glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) of ILTV using reverse genetics technology. These recombinant viruses, rLS/ILTV-gB and rLS/ILTV-gD, were slightly attenuated in vivo yet retained growth dynamics, stability, and virus titers in vitro that were similar to those of the parental LaSota virus. Expression of ILTV gB and gD proteins in the recombinant virus-infected cells was detected by immunofluorescence assay. Vaccination of specific-pathogen-free chickens with these recombinant viruses conferred significant protection against virulent ILTV and velogenic NDV challenges. Immunization of commercial broilers with rLS/ILTV-gB provided a level of protection against clinical disease similar to that provided by the live attenuated commercial vaccines, with no decrease in body weight gains. The results of the study suggested that the rLS/ILTV-gB and -gD viruses are safe, stable, and effective bivalent vaccines that can be mass administered via aerosol or drinking water to large chicken populations. IMPORTANCE This paper describes the development and evaluation of novel bivalent vaccines against chicken infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) and Newcastle disease (ND), two of the most economically important infectious diseases of poultry. The current commercial ILT vaccines are either not safe or less effective. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more efficacious ILT vaccines. In the present study, we generated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants expressing glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) using reverse genetics technology. These recombinant viruses were safe, stable, and immunogenic and replicated efficiently in birds. Vaccination of chickens with these recombinant viruses conferred complete protection against ILTV and NDV challenge. These novel bivalent vaccines can be mass administered via aerosol or drinking water to large chicken populations at low cost, which will have a direct impact on poultry health, fitness, and performance. PMID:24829337

Zhao, Wei; Spatz, Stephen; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wen, Guoyuan; Garcia, Maricarmen; Zsak, Laszlo



Filovirus vaccines  

PubMed Central

Filoviruses can cause severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Although there are currently no clinically proven treatments for filovirus disease, much progress has been made in recent years in the discovery of therapeutics and vaccines against these viruses. A variety of vaccine platforms have been shown to be effective against filovirus infection. This review summarizes the literature in this field, focusing on vaccines that have been shown to protect NHPs from infection. Furthermore, the uses of rodent models in vaccine development, as well as correlates of immunity, are discussed. PMID:21519188

Bradfute, Steven B; Dye, John M



Epidemiology of vaccine hesitancy in the United States  

PubMed Central

Vaccines are among the most effective public health interventions against infectious diseases. However, there is evidence in the United States for parents either delaying or refusing recommended childhood vaccination. Exemptions to school immunization laws and use of alternative schedule from those recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and the American Academy of Pediatrics cannot only increase the risk of children contracting vaccine-preventable diseases but also increases the risk of infecting others who are either too young to be vaccinated, cannot be vaccinated for medical reasons or did not develop a sufficient immunological response to the vaccine. Healthcare providers are cited as the most influential source by parents on vaccine decision-making. Vaccine hesitancy needs to be addressed by healthcare providers and the scientific community by listening to the parental concerns and discussing risks associated with either delaying or refusing vaccines. PMID:24247148

Siddiqui, Mariam; Salmon, Daniel A; Omer, Saad B



Inactivated and adjuvanted influenza vaccines.  


Inactivated influenza vaccines are produced every year to fight against the seasonal epidemics of influenza. Despite the nonoptimal coverage, even in subjects at risk like the elderly, pregnant women, etc., these vaccines significantly reduce the burden of mortality and morbidity linked to the influenza infection. Importantly, these vaccines have also contributed to reduce the impact of the last pandemics. Nevertheless, the performance of these vaccines can be improved mainly in those age groups, like children and the elderly, in which their efficacy is suboptimal. The use of adjuvants has proven effective to this scope. Oil-in-water adjuvants like MF59 and AS03 have been licensed and widely used, and shown efficacious in preventing influenza infection in the last pandemic. MF59-adjuvanted inactivated vaccine was more efficacious than non-adjuvanted vaccine in preventing influenza infection in young children and in reducing hospitalization due to the influenza infection in the elderly. Other adjuvants are now at different stages of development and some are being tested in clinical trials. The perspective remains to improve the way inactivated vaccines are prepared and to accelerate their availability, mainly in the case of influenza pandemics, and to enhance their efficacy/effectiveness for a more successful impact at the public health level. PMID:25038938

Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rappuoli, Rino



Review of Enterovirus 71 Vaccines.  


Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses are the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks worldwide and have a significant socioeconomic impact, particularly in Asia. Formalin-inactivated (FI) EV71 vaccines evaluated in human clinical trials in China, Taiwan, and Singapore were found to be safe and to elicit strong neutralizing antibody responses against EV71 currently circulating in Asia. The results from 3 different phase 3 clinical trials performed in young children (6-60 months) indicate that the efficacy of FI-EV71 vaccines is >90% against EV71-related HFMDs and >80% against EV71-associated serious diseases, but the vaccines did not protect against coxsackievirus A16 infections. Here we discuss the critical factors affecting EV71 vaccine product registration, including clinical epidemiology, antigenic shift issues in cross-protection and vaccine strain selection, standardized animal models for potency testing, and cost-effective manufacturing processes for potential incorporation of FI-EV71 vaccine into Expanded Programme on Immunization vaccines. PMID:25352588

Chong, Pele; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Klein, Michel



Protective Oral Vaccination against Infectious bursal disease virus Using the Major Viral Antigenic Protein VP2 Produced in Pichia pastoris  

PubMed Central

Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes economically important immunosuppressive disease in young chickens. The self-assembling capsid protein (VP2) from IBDV strain IR01 was expressed in Pichia pastoris resulting in the formation of homomeric, 23-nm infectious bursal disease subviral particles (IBD-SVPs) with a yield of 76 mg/l before and 38 mg/l after purification. Anti-IBDV antibodies were detected in chickens injected with purified IBD-SVPs or fed with either purified IBD-SVPs or inactivated P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 (cell-encapsulated). Challenge studies using the heterologous classical IBDV strain (MB3) showed that intramuscular vaccination with 20 µg purified IBD-SVPs conferred full protection, achieved complete virus clearance and prevented bursal damage and atrophy, compared with only 40% protection, 0–10% virus clearance accompanied by severe atrophy and substantial bursal damage in mock-vaccinated and challenge controls. The commercial IBDV vaccine also conferred full protection and achieved complete virus clearance, albeit with partial bursal atrophy. Oral administration of 500 µg purified IBD-SVPs with and without adjuvant conferred 100% protection but achieved only 60% virus clearance with adjuvant and none without it. Moderate bursal damage was observed in both cases but the inclusion of adjuvant resulted in bursal atrophy similar to that observed with live-attenuated vaccine and parenteral administration of 20 µg purified IBD-SVPs. The oral administration of 250 mg P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 resulted in 100% protection with adjuvant and 60% without, accompanied by moderate bursal damage and atrophy in both groups, whereas 25 mg P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 resulted in 90–100% protection with moderate bursal lesions and severe atrophy. Finally, the oral delivery of 50 µg purified IBD-SVPs achieved 40–60% protection with severe bursal lesions and atrophy. Both oral and parenteral administration of yeast-derived IBD-VP2 can therefore induce a specific and protective immune response against IBDV without affecting the growth rate of chickens. PMID:24376665

Taghavian, Omid; Spiegel, Holger; Hauck, Rüdiger; Hafez, Hafez M.; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan



Cytokine and Chemokine Responses Associated with Clearance of a Primary Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection in the Chicken and in Protective Immunity to Rechallenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection of poultry with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium poses a significant risk to public health through contamination of meat from infected animals. Vaccination has been proposed to control infections in chickens. However, the vaccines are currently largely empirical, and our understanding of the mechanisms that underpin immune clearance and protection in avian salmonellosis is not complete. In this study we

G. S. K. Withanage; Paul Wigley; Pete Kaiser; Pietro Mastroeni; Heather Brooks; Claire Powers; Richard Beal; Paul Barrow; Duncan Maskell; Ian McConnell



Effects of Information Framing on Human Papillomavirus Vaccination  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background In June 2006, the first vaccine to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission was approved for use in females in the United States. Because the vaccine was approved for females as young as 9, its success depends on parents' and individuals' willingness to accept vaccination. Little is known about how attitudes toward this vaccine will be influenced by the way the vaccine is portrayed in the media or in public debate. Methods To assess the effects of information framing on intentions to vaccinate self or female children, if appropriate, 635 adults read one of three short descriptive paragraphs about the vaccine, each of which emphasized a different aspect of the vaccine. Participants were then asked about their intentions to vaccinate under cost or no-cost conditions. Results Women who read that the vaccine protects only against cervical cancer had significantly higher intentions to vaccinate themselves when the vaccine was available at little or no cost compared with women who read alternate versions of the descriptive paragraph, F(2,325)?=?5.74, p?=?0.004. Conclusions How the HPV vaccine is framed may affect vaccination intentions under certain conditions. Women may be more receptive to the vaccine if it is framed as a cervical cancer prevention tool rather than a sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention tool. PMID:19183094

Weiner, Judith L.; Kelly, Bridget J.; Hornik, Robert C.; Cappella, Joseph N.



Antibody expressing pea seeds as fodder for prevention of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Coccidiosis caused by protozoans of genus Eimeria is a chicken parasitic disease of great economical importance. Conventional disease control strategies depend on vaccination and prophylactic use of anticoccidial drugs. Alternative solution to prevent and treat coccidiosis could be provided by passive immunization using orally delivered neutralizing antibodies. We investigated the possibility to mitigate the parasitic infection by feeding poultry

Jana Zimmermann; Isolde Saalbach; Doreen Jahn; Martin Giersberg; Sigrun Haehnel; Julia Wedel; Jeanette Macek; Karen Zoufal; Gerhard Glünder; Dieter Falkenburg; Sergey M Kipriyanov



DNA Vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In just a few years, injection of plasmid DNA to elicit immune responses in vivo has developed from an interesting observation to a viable vaccine strategy. DNA vaccines have been shown to elicit both cellular and humoral immune responses and to be effective in a variety of preclinical bacterial, viral, and parasitic animal models. This review will discuss the current

Donna L. Montgomery; Jeffrey B. Ulmer; John J. Donnelly; Margaret A. Liu



HPV Vaccine  


... Why Is It a Problem? How Does the Vaccine Work? Side Effects Protecting Yourself Against HPV What Is HPV and ... when having sex. Side Effects Most of the side effects that people get from the HPV vaccine are minor. They may include swelling or pain ...


Biologic Vaccines  

PubMed Central

The threat of new disease pandemics has spurred the development of biologic vaccines, which promise tremendous improvements in global and local health. Several lend themselves to the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. But the uncertainties of whom to vaccinate raise the question of whether the health care system can make these promising products viable. PMID:22478749




Broiler Chicken Deboning.  

E-print Network

Tooe :;:L Z TA24S.7 ~ 8873 I NO.160S 8-1605 Texas Agricultural Extension Service l\\BRARY FEB 0 1 1989 Texas A&M Univers? BROILER CHICKEN DEBONING J. H. Denton and D. B. Mellor Extension Poultry Marketing Specialists The Texas A...&M University System Texas Agricultural Extension Service. Zerle L. Carpenter, Director. The Texas A&M University System. College Station, Texas The demand for boneless chicken meat is increasing because of the development of food service convenience...

Denton, J.H.; Mellor, D.B.



Combination Vaccines  

PubMed Central

The combination of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines into a single product has been central to the protection of the pediatric population over the past 50 years. The addition of inactivated polio, Haemophilus influenzae, and hepatitis B vaccines into the combination has facilitated the introduction of these vaccines into recommended immunization schedules by reducing the number of injections required and has therefore increased immunization compliance. However, the development of these combinations encountered numerous challenges, including the reduced response to Haemophilus influenzae vaccine when given in combination; the need to consolidate the differences in the immunization schedule (hepatitis B); and the need to improve the safety profile of the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis combination. Here, we review these challenges and also discuss future prospects for combination vaccines. PMID:21572611

Skibinski, David AG; Baudner, Barbara C; Singh, Manmohan; O’Hagan, Derek T



Avian influenza adenovirus-vectored in ovo vaccination: target embryo tissues and combination with Marek's disease vaccine.  


We investigated embryo tissues targeted by replication competent adenovirus (Ad)-free recombinant Ad expressing a codon-optimized avian influenza (AI) H5 gene from A/turkey/WI/68 (AdH5) when injected into 18-day embryonated eggs. We also evaluated the effects of concurrent in ovo vaccination with the experimental AdH5 vaccine and commercially available Marek's disease virus (MDV) vaccine combinations Rispens/turkey herpesvirus (HVT) or HVT/SB-1. Computed tomography indicates that in ovo injection on day 18 of incubation places the solution in the amnion cavity, allantoic cavity, or both. Ad DNA was consistently detected in the chorioallantoic membranes as well as in the embryonic bursa of Fabricius, esophagus, and thymus 3 days postinoculation. H5 expression in these tissues also was detected by immunofluorescence assay. These results indicate possible swallowing of vaccine virus contained in the amnion. In contrast, vaccine localization in the allantoic fluid would have allowed bursal exposure through the cloaca. When the AdH5 vaccine was used in combination with MDV, chickens responding to the AdH5 vaccine had similar AI antibody levels compared with AdH5-only-vaccinated birds. However, combined vaccinated groups showed reduced vaccine coverage to AI, suggesting some level of interference. The combination of AdH5 with MDV Rispens/HVT affected the vaccine coverage to AI more severely. This result suggests that the replication rate of the more aggressive Rispens strain of serotype 1 may have interfered with the Ad-vectored vaccine. Increasing the Ad concentration produced similar AI antibody titers and AI vaccine coverage when applied alone or in combination with the HVT/SB-1 vaccine. Ad DNA was detected in hatched chickens 2 days after hatch but was undetectable on day 9 after hatch. MDV DNA was detected in feather follicles of all vaccinated birds at 12 days of age. Thus, Ad-vector vaccination does not interfere with the efficacy of MDV vaccination by using any of the commonly used vaccine strains. PMID:22312988

Breedlove, C; Minc, J K; Tang, D C; van Santen, V L; van Ginkel, F W; Toro, H



Vaccination against histomonosis prevents a drop in egg production in layers following challenge.  


The effect of attenuated Histomonas meleagridis on pullets was investigated and the protection of vaccinated adult laying hens against a severe challenge was studied in the same experimental setting. Four groups of 25 pullets were set up at 18 weeks of life and birds in two groups were vaccinated with in vitro-attenuated H. meleagridis. Chickens in two groups (vaccinated and non-vaccinated) were challenged 5 weeks later with virulent histomonads, while the remaining groups were retained until termination of the study 11 weeks post vaccination. Vaccination of pullets did not have any impact on their subsequent performance. Egg production of non-vaccinated but challenged birds dropped significantly (P ? 0.05) between 2 and 4 weeks post challenge (p.c.) to 58.7%, compared with 90% in control chickens. At 4 weeks p.c., the drop in egg production in vaccinated and challenged birds was significantly lower (P=0.02) than in non-protected layers. Pathological changes were found only in challenged birds 2 and 6 weeks p.c. Several non-vaccinated birds showed severe lesions in the caeca with sporadic involvement of the liver and atrophy of the reproductive tract. Vaccination prior to challenge reduced the incidence of pathological findings. For the first time, vaccination of pullets with in vitro-attenuated histomonads could be shown to be an effective and safe prophylactic tool to prevent a severe drop in egg production of commercial layers following experimental infection. PMID:23391185

Liebhart, D; Sulejmanovic, T; Grafl, B; Tichy, A; Hess, M



Immunologic synergism with IL2 and effects of cCHMIs on mRNA expression of IL2 and IFN-? in chicken peripheral T lymphocyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (cCHMIs) were prepared, respectively, with epimedium polysaccharide plus propolis flavone (cCHMIs 1) and astragalus polysaccharide plus ginsenoside (cCHMIs 2). In animal immune experiment, Newcastle disease vaccine was mixed, respectively, with two cCHMIs and IL-2 to vaccinate 15-day-old chicken in experimental groups. On days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after vaccination, the dynamic changes of

Deyun Wang; Xiangrui Li; Lixin Xu; Yuanliang Hu; Baokang Zhang; Jiaguo Liu



Stabilisation of BCG vaccines.  


Aquired resistance against tuberculosis depends on the survival, multiplication and persistence of BCG in the host organs. Therefore, the viability and stabilisation during storage of BCG vaccine constitute a major attribute for good immunogenicity. Different factors which influence BCG viability have been studied. Among the more important ones it was found that a very large number of viable bacilli are killed when vaccine is manufactured in the conventional way by ball milling the surface-grown bacillary mass. The dispersed deep-grow BCG offers the advantage that all bacilli are live in the fresh suspension before stabilisation procedures are applied. Two procedures of stabilisation have been used, freezing and freeze-drying. Preservation by resuspending BCG in different cryoprotective solutions has been followed by storage at low temperatures. Complete survival is obtained when this vaccine was frozen in glycerol solutions and stored for many years at -70 degrees C. Freeze-drying killed more than 50% of the live bacilli in the fresh suspension; the remaining freeze-dried live bacilli were preserved at -30 degrees C for 20 years or at 4 degrees C for at least one year. They also resist exposure to 37 degrees C for one month. Nevertheless, most of the BCG bacilli in freeze-dried vaccines are dead. In conclusion the best BCG viability is obtained with young dispersed-grown bacilli by both freezing and freeze-drying. Freezing is a good method of stabilisation for research purposes or cancer immunotherapy, and freeze-drying for BCG vaccination campaings in tuberculosis prevention. However, BCG stabilisation still needs improvement. PMID:8854025

Gheorghiu, M; Lagranderie, M; Balazuc, A M



Flow cytometric assessment of antigen-specific proliferation in peripheral chicken T cells by CFSE dilution.  


Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dilution is a well established method for analysis of dividing cells by flow cytometry. In other species the method has been extensively used in the study of antigen-specific T cells. The purpose of this study was to apply the method to chicken peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMC) and to evaluate and optimize its performance in relation to detection of vaccine-induced chicken T cells specific for Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The method was based on analysis of CFSE dilution upon ex vivo recall stimulation with whole vaccine antigen. Analysis of proliferation was combined with the use of monoclonal antibodies directed against the lymphocyte surface markers CD4 and CD8 in order to phenotype the responding cells. Problems with nonspecific background proliferation especially in the CD8 compartment were significantly reduced by replacing medium containing fetal calf serum with serum-free medium. It was rendered probable that antigen-specific cellular immunity can be assessed by this method as NDV-vaccinated chickens showed a significantly higher proliferative capacity than age-matched naïve controls. Furthermore it was shown that the recall stimulation lead to a proliferative response in T cells expressing ??-type TCRs but also those expressing the ??-type. In summary, the method was found challenging but nevertheless useful to quantify the proliferative response of chicken antigen-specific T cells. Further investigations though, are needed in order to prove what cell subsets are true antigen-specific responders and what cells are bystander activated. Nevertheless, the method is expected to be a valuable tool to evaluate and quantify vaccine responses to current and new chicken vaccines in the future. PMID:20739071

Dalgaard, T S; Norup, L R; Rubbenstroth, D; Wattrang, E; Juul-Madsen, H R



Chicken Quesadillas Ingredients  

E-print Network

-cooked and shredded 2 tablespoons chunky salsa 1/4 onion, chopped 1/4 cup green bell pepper, chopped 1/2 cup Monterey with cooking spray and heat to medium. 2. Mix chicken, salsa, onion, and green pepper (optional). 3. Place 1

Liskiewicz, Maciej


Practical aspects of vaccination of poultry against avian influenza virus.  


Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination for low pathogenicity AIV is also becoming routine in regions where there is a high level of field challenge. In contrast, some countries will not use vaccination at all and some will only use it on an emergency basis during eradication efforts (i.e. stamping-out). There are pros and cons to each approach and, since every outbreak situation is different, no one method will work equally well in all situations. Numerous practical aspects must be considered when developing an AIV control program with vaccination as a component, such as: (1) the goals of vaccination must be defined; (2) the population to be vaccinated must be clearly identified; (3) there must be a plan to obtain and administer good quality vaccine in a timely manner and to achieve adequate coverage with the available resources; (4) risk factors for vaccine failure should be mitigated as much as possible; and, most importantly, (5) biosecurity must be maintained as much as possible, if not enhanced, during the vaccination period. PMID:25296849

Spackman, Erica; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J



Influence of chicken serum mannose-binding lectin levels on the immune response towards Escherichia coli.  


This study aimed to investigate the effect of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) on infections with Escherichia coli in chickens. Initially, the basic levels of MBL in 4 different lines of layer chickens, namely ISA Brown, Lohmann Selected Leghorn, Lohmann Braun, and Hellevad, were investigated. This investigation revealed a 2-to 3-fold difference in the basic levels of MBL in serum between some of these commercial lines. Furthermore, the ontogeny of the basic level of MBL in serum of an experimental chicken line was investigated. The level of MBL was very stabile for long periods, with an elevation at 5 to 7 wk of age. Another elevation in MBL level started around 18 to 19 wk of age and stayed elevated at least until 38 wk of age. In this study, it was hypothesized that chickens with high levels of MBL (H-type) may be less prone to disease caused by E. coli infection than chickens with low levels of MBL (L-type) after attempts were made to immunosuppress the chickens by immunization with a live attenuated infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine strain. The H-type and L-type chickens were divided into 4 groups receiving either no treatment (I-E-), E. coli alone (I-E+), IBDV alone (I+E-), or IBDV and E. coli (I+E+). Body weight gain was depressed by IBDV immunization as well as E. coli inoculation. The depression of BW gain was significantly larger in L-type chickens compared with H-type chickens. The antibody response to E. coli was significantly depressed by IBDV vaccination and antibody titers to E. coli were elevated by experimental E. coli inoculation, but only in the group not given IBDV (I-E- vs. I-E+). On d 28, T-cell responses in L-type chickens showed a lower percentage of proliferating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells compared with the H-type, regardless of treatment. In conclusion, immune reactions toward infections with E. coli differed between chickens having different basal serum MBL levels, and as such, MBL may be of importance for future selection of more robust chickens for outdoor or organic farming. PMID:19211523

Norup, L R; Dalgaard, T S; Friggens, N C; Sørensen, P; Juul-Madsen, H R



Oral vaccines  

PubMed Central

Oral vaccines are safe and easy to administer and convenient for all ages. They have been successfully developed to protect from many infectious diseases acquired through oral transmission. We recently found in animal models that formulation of oral vaccines in a nanoparticle-releasing microparticle delivery system is a viable approach for selectively inducing large intestinal protective immunity against infections at rectal and genital mucosae. These large-intestine targeted oral vaccines are a potential substitute for the intracolorectal immunization, which has been found to be effective against rectogenital infections but is not feasible for mass vaccination. Moreover, the newly developed delivery system can be modified to selectively target either the small or large intestine for immunization and accordingly revealed a regionalized immune system in the gut. Future applications and research endeavors suggested by the findings are discussed. PMID:23493163

Zhu, Qing; Berzofsky, Jay A.



Pertussis Vaccine

The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further co-develop vaccines against pertussis.


Typhoid Vaccine  


... serious disease. It is caused by bacteria called Salmonella Typhi. Typhoid causes a high fever, fatigue, weakness, ... a typhoid carrier. • Laboratory workers who work with Salmonella Typhi bacteria. Inactivated typhoid vaccine (shot) • One dose ...


Human papillomavirus vaccination: a case study in translational science.  


Each year 610,000 cases of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) occur worldwide. HPV vaccination represents a promising opportunity to prevent cancer on a global scale. The vaccine's story dates back to discoveries in chickens at the beginning of the 20th century with evidence that a cell-free filtrate could transmit the propensity to grow cancers. Later, studies with similarly derived filtrates from mammalian tumors showed that hosts could develop immunity to subsequent exposures. Epidemiologic studies linked cervical cancer to members of a family of viruses that cause papillomatosis and common warts. This led to work with DNA hybridization demonstrating a causal relationship. The formation of virus-like particles from viral capsid proteins led to the development of models for safe and effective vaccines. While much work remains with the acceptance of universal vaccination, the HPV vaccines Gardasil and Cervarix thus represent a century of successful translational research. PMID:24841923

Palmer, Allyson K; Harris, Antoneicka L; Jacobson, Robert M



DNA vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA vaccines use eukaryotic expression vectors to produce immunizing proteins in the vaccinated host. Popular methods of delivery are intramuscular and intradermal saline injections of DNA and gene gun bombardment of skin with DNA-coated gold beads. The method of DNA inoculation (gene gun versus intramuscular injection) and the form of the DNA-expressed antigen (cell-associated versus secreted) determine whether T-cell help

Harriet L. Robinson; Celia Aurora Tiglao Torres



[Postvaccination viremia in breeding flocks of layers and broilers after vaccination against Marek's disease of fowl].  


The immunity state after vaccination against Marek's disease (MD) was studied in three multiplier flocks of laying fowl (MFL), five multiplier flocks of broiler fowl (MFB), and one commercial layer flock (CLF). The occurrence and average titres of post-vaccination viraemia in the selected sets of chickens from these flocks, examined at the age of three or twenty weeks, were used as the immunity criterion. The development of post-vaccination viraemia, following the administration of the MARVAK vaccine at the doses of 100 and 1000 PFU per bird in the HX-SL and Shaver layer hybrids, was examined under laboratory conditions at the same time. In the group of birds examined in the third week of age and coming from the MFL vaccinated with the recommended MARVAK vaccine (dose (100 PFU per bird), 64.3% of the chicks were viraemic, the average viraemia titre being 12 PFU/10(7) leucocytes. After the administration of a four-fold vaccine dose, 57.1% of the chicks were viraemic, the average titre being 3.2 PFU/10(7) leucocytes. After the administration of a ten-fold dose of MARVAK vaccine, 80% of the chicks were viraemic and the average titre of viraemia was 8 PFU/10(7) leucocytes. In the MFB vaccinated with the recommended dose of the MARVAK vaccine, the percentage of viraemic chickens was 48.3% and the average titre of viraemia was 6.5 PFU/10(7) leucocytes. In the pullets examined at the age of 20 weeks the number of viraemic birds ranged from 20 to 50% and the average viraemia titres were from 3.8 to 13.1 PFU/10(7) leucocytes. In the flock affected by acute MD, no post-vaccination viraemia was found in the clinically diseases pullets. In the chickens of the HX-SL line vaccinated with the recommended MARVAK vaccine dose, viraemia culminated in the third week after vaccination (31.5 PFU/10(7) leucocytes), and after the use of the dose ten times as high as the recommended one the culmination came a week later (47 PFU/10(7) leucocytes). In the Shaver chicks vaccinated with the recommended dose or with the ten-fold dose of the MARVAK vaccine, the post-vaccination viraemia culminated in the fourth week after vaccination (94.9 and 116.8 PFU/10(7) leucocytes). The post-vaccination precipitation antibodies were first detected in the eighth week after vaccination. PMID:6098065

Jurajda, V; Salaj, J; Pospísil, Z



Colonization factors of Campylobacter jejuni in the chicken gut.  


Campylobacter contaminated broiler chicken meat is an important source of foodborne gastroenteritis and poses a serious health burden in industrialized countries. Broiler chickens are commonly regarded as a natural host for this zoonotic pathogen and infected birds carry a very high C. jejuni load in their gastrointestinal tract, especially the ceca. This eventually results in contaminated carcasses during processing. Current intervention methods fail to reduce the colonization of broiler chicks by C. jejuni due to an incomplete understanding on the interaction between C. jejuni and its avian host. Clearly, C. jejuni developed several survival and colonization mechanisms which are responsible for its highly adapted nature to the chicken host. But how these mechanisms interact with one another, leading to persistent, high-level cecal colonization remains largely obscure. A plethora of mutagenesis studies in the past few years resulted in the identification of several of the genes and proteins of C. jejuni involved in different aspects of the cellular response of this bacterium in the chicken gut. In this review, a thorough, up-to-date overview will be given of the survival mechanisms and colonization factors of C. jejuni identified to date. These factors may contribute to our understanding on how C. jejuni survival and colonization in chicks is mediated, as well as provide potential targets for effective subunit vaccine development. PMID:21714866

Hermans, David; Van Deun, Kim; Martel, An; Van Immerseel, Filip; Messens, Winy; Heyndrickx, Marc; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank



Erythema multiforme following vaccination in an infant.  


Erythema multiforme is a cutaneous reaction pattern precipitated by varied agents, notably herpes simplex and drugs. It predominantly occurs in adolescents and young adults but may be seen at other ages also. While vaccination is rarely a precipitating factor for erythema multiforme, it may occasionally be seen in infants and children. We report here a case of a two month-old infant with lesions of erythema multiforme minor appearing after two weeks following vaccination for DPT, Hepatitis B and influenza. PMID:18583795

Kaur, Sarvjit; Handa, Sanjeev



Consumer Attitudes and Preferences Regarding Chicken.  

E-print Network

in protein value. Apparently few consumers know it. Promotion of chicken among medium and high-income families to increase its preference rating over other meat. Greater advertising emphasis on baked chicken and chicken and dumplings as menu items... to stimulate a broader consumer use for chicken. This would need to be supported by proved recipes for these dishes. Programs to stimulate greater use of chicken as a noonday meal or lunch box item. More, advertising or promotional material featuring chicken...

Branson, Robert E.; Mountney, George J.



A Dual Chicken IgY Against Rotavirus and Norovirus  

PubMed Central

Rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) are the two most important causes of viral gastroenteritis. While vaccine remains an effective prophylactic strategy, development of other approaches, such as passive immunization to control and treat clinical infection and illness of the two pathogens, is necessary. Previously we demonstrated that high titers of NoV-specific IgY were readily developed by immunization of chickens with the NoV P particles. In this study, we developed a dual IgY against both RV and NoV through immunization of chickens with a divalent vaccine comprising neutralizing antigens of both RV and NoV. This divalent vaccine, named P-VP8* particle, is made of the NoV P particle as a carrier with the RV spike protein VP8* as a surface insertion. Approximately 45 mg of IgY were readily obtained from each yolk with high titers of anti-P particle and anti-VP8* antibodies detected by ELISA, Western blot, HBGA blocking (NoV and RV) and neutralization (RV) assays. Reductions of RV replication were observed with viruses treated with the IgY before and after inoculation into cells, suggesting an application of the IgY as both prophylactic and a therapeutic treatment. Collectively, our data suggested that the P-VP8* based IgY could serve as a practical approach against both NoV and RV. PMID:23267830

Dai, Ying-Chun; Zhang, Xu-Fu; Tan, Ming; Huang, Pengwei; Lei, Wen; Fang, Hao; Zhong, Weiming; Jiang, Xi



Immunization with Plant-Expressed Hemagglutinin Protects Chickens from Lethal Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 Challenge Infection?  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a striking disease in susceptible poultry, which leads to severe economic losses. Inactivated vaccines are the most widely used vaccines in avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccination programs. However, these vaccines interfere with the serological detection of wild-type AIV infections in immunized populations. The use of vaccines that allow differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA strategy) would stop current stamping-out policies. Therefore, novel vaccination strategies are needed to allow improved protection of animals and humans against HPAI virus (HPAIV) infection. The presented study analyzed for the first time the immunogenic capacity of plant-expressed full-length hemagglutinin (rHA0) of HPAIV H5N1 in several vaccine formulations within the highly relevant host species chicken. We were able to express plant-expressed rHA0 at high levels and could show that, when administered with potent adjuvants, it is highly immunogenic and can fully protect chicken against lethal challenge infection. Real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and serological tests demonstrated only marginally increased virus replication in animals vaccinated with plant-derived rHA0 compared to animals immunized with an inactivated reference vaccine. In addition, the use of plant-expressed rHA0 also allowed an easy serological differentiation of vaccinated from AIV-infected animals based on antibodies against the influenza virus NP protein. PMID:20810729

Kalthoff, Donata; Giritch, Anatoli; Geisler, Katharina; Bettmann, Ulrike; Klimyuk, Victor; Hehnen, Hans-Robert; Gleba, Yuri; Beer, Martin



H9N2 avian influenza virus-induced conjunctivitis model for vaccine efficacy testing.  


Clinical signs such as respiratory signs, egg drop, and mortality have been reported in field cases of low pathogenic avian influenza by H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) but have rarely been reproduced by the virus alone. Thus, virus reisolation rates and titers in tissues were measured for vaccine efficacy testing. In the present study, we established a clinical sign-based vaccine efficacy test by reproduction of highly frequent conjunctivitis (77.8%-90%) via binocular instillation of an H9N2 virus (01310) strain, 1 x 10(6) EID50/10 microl for each eye). Specific-pathogen-free chickens were assigned to vaccine and control groups, and the vaccine group was inoculated intramuscularly with a commercial H9N2 inactivated oil emulsion vaccine. The chickens were challenged by 01310 via binocular instillation at 2 and 4 wk postvaccination (WPV). The positive rates of conjunctivitis and virus reisolation were significantly different between the vaccine and control groups (conjunctivitis at 2 WPV, 0% vs. 77.8%, and at 4 WPV, 0% vs. 80%). Vaccine antibody was detected in tears as well as in serum samples of the vaccine group before challenge. The conjunctivitis model may be useful for efficacy testing of AI vaccine due to a clinical symptom-based read of results, but further efficacy testings with different types, doses of AI vaccines, and challenge viruses will be required to complete the evaluation of our model. PMID:23678734

Kim, Il-Hwan; Kwon, Hyuk-Joon; Kimabce, Jae-Hong



Vibrio cholerae: lessons for mucosal vaccine design  

PubMed Central

The ability of Vibrio cholerae to persist in bodies of water will continue to confound our ability to eradicate cholera through improvements to infrastructure, and thus cholera vaccines are needed. We aim for an inexpensive vaccine that can provide long-lasting protection from all epidemic cholera infections, currently caused by O1 or O139 serogroups. Recent insights into correlates of protection, epidemiology and pathogenesis may help us design improved vaccines. This notwithstanding, we have come to appreciate that even marginally protective vaccines, such as oral whole-cell killed vaccines, if widely distributed, can provide significant protection, owing to herd immunity. Further efforts are still required to provide more effective protection of young children. PMID:21162623

Bishop, Anne L; Camilli, Andrew



The Study of Relation Between Normal and Higher than Standard Concentration of Sodium of Drinking Water in Ascites Syndrome Declaration in Broiler Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Eight drinking water trials were conducted to study the tolerance of young chickens to variou s concentrations of sodium of drinking water. Chickens tolerated 40 ppm of sodium of drinking water from hatch to seven weeks of age without harmful effects as judged from the data on mortality rate, feed intake, body weight, ascite fluid presence, heart injuries

Rezvan Kiani; Adel Feizi



A review of the use of B. melitensis Rev 1 vaccine in adult sheep and goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The live Brucella melitensis Rev 1 strain is considered the best vaccine available for the prophylaxis of brucellosis in small ruminants. The classically recommended exclusive vaccination of young replacement animals has failed to control brucellosis in some developed countries and is frequently inapplicable in the developing world. Accordingly, whole-flock vaccination is the only feasible alternative to control B. melitensis infection

J. M. Blasco



Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Increases High-Risk Sexual Behaviors: A Myth or Valid Concern  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2006, the first human pappilomavirus (HPV) vaccine was approved for females aged 9 to 26. However, the national HPV vaccination rate among young women has been low. Public concerns were raised in regard to the fact that HPV vaccination might encourage unsafe sex. This cross-sectional study examined the differences in sexual practices between…

Ratanasiripong, Nop T.



Cost-effectiveness of Rotavirus vaccination in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea leading to hospitalization or disease-specific death among young children. New rotavirus vaccines have recently been approved. Some previous studies have provided broad qualitative insights into the health and economic consequences of introducing the vaccines into low-income countries, representing several features of rotavirus infection, such as varying degrees of severity and

Sun-Young Kim; Sue J Goldie; Joshua A Salomon



[Immunomodulating action of levamisole in its combined use with influenza vaccines].  


The immunomodulatory effect of levamisole used in combination with influenza vaccines was studied in young and senile subjects. Levamisole activated antibody production in young subjects in response to administration of a live influenza A (H3N2) vaccine and enhanced the protective effect of vaccinations. The senile subjects vaccinated with inactivated influenza A vaccine (H3N2 and H1N1) had a good immune response and the use of levamisole was not reflected in antibody rises. At the same time, levamisole alone stimulated antibody production to influenza A and B viruses which might be due to irritation of immunocompetent cells carrying "immunological memory". PMID:6208690

Obrosova-Serova, N P; Schastny?, E I; Kupriashina, L M; Slepushkin, A N; Shenderovich, S F



The history of vaccination and current vaccination policies in Korea  

PubMed Central

There may be many reasons for the significant decrease in the incidence of the pediatric infectious diseases in modern Korea; this could be due to the improvement of sanitary facilities, significant growth of Korean economy, improvement of nutrition, development and dissemination of antibiotics and implantation of vaccination, and overall improvement of medical technology. The development of vaccination has been highlighted as a striking achievement of the modern medical sciences with new technologies in many fields of medicine. Since 1876, the method for vaccination has opened its new era by Suk-Young Jee, known as the Jenner in Korea who wrote a book about smallpox vaccination, and it led an opportunity to propagate the needs for the vaccination in Korea. There was a time when pediatric wards were full of patients with parasitic diseases and many vaccine-preventable diseases such as diphtheria, pertussis, Japanese B encephalitis, and poliomyelitis in 1950s-1960s. We do not see those infectious diseases that often any more in recent years. However, we still have patients with water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases related to increasing international travels. We just experienced the first pandemic influenza of the 21st century in 2009 and avian influenza is still a threat to humans in other parts of the world with an unpredictable potential of pandemicity. In addition, we have tough battles with emerging antibiotic resistance in many strains of bacteria and increased opportunistic infections due to improvement of medical technology involving more aggressive treatment modality and use of medical devices. Researches in many areas are under way and we hope that some of them may be preventable and decreased with a development of new vaccines in the future. PMID:23596573



Vaccine knowledge in students in Paris, France, and surrounding regions  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: In France, young adults are legally freed from parental authority at the age of 18 years and are, thus, responsible for their own vaccine record. This young adult population is more frequently exposed to vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors associated with students’ knowledge of the interval between two antitetanus boosters and their report of having up-to-date vaccinations. METHODS: In April 2009, a survey was conducted involving a random sample of students between 18 and 25 years of age eating lunch at university dining facilities in Paris and its suburbs (Ile de France). RESULTS: Among the 677 students approached, 583 agreed to participate. Only 207 (36%) of respondents knew the recommended dosing interval between two doses of tetanus vaccine booster (10 years). The majority of students (69%) reported having up-to-date vaccinations. Declaring having up-to-date vaccinations was significantly associated with having a general practitioner (OR 3.03 [95% CI 1.69 to 5.55]). Health care students were significantly more likely to know the decennial interval between two antitetanus boosters (OR 2 [95% CI 1.28 to 3.25]). Most of responding students (n=519 [89%]) believed that vaccines were very useful. CONCLUSIONS: An overall lack of knowledge of vaccines was observed among this student population. Health care providers, such as GPs and university medical practice staff, who interact with these young individuals have an essential role to promote better vaccination coverage in this population. PMID:25285109

Mellon, Guillaume; Rigal, Laurent; Partouche, Henri; Aoun, Olivier; Jaury, Philippe; Joannard, Nathalie; Guthmann, Jean Paul; Cochereau, Delphine; Caumes, Eric; Bricaire, Francois; Salmon-Céron, Dominique



Protective immunity induced by a DNA vaccine encoding Eimeria tenella rhomboid against homologous challenge.  


Rhomboid protein in Apicomplexa was associated with the process of host cell invasion. To evaluate the potential of the protein in eliciting protective immunity against challenge, a DNA vaccine pVAX1-Rho encoding Eimeria tenella rhomboid was constructed. Recombinant protein was expressed in Hela cells and verified by indirect immunofluorescence and western blotting analysis. In vivo experiments, 1-week-old chickens were randomly divided into three groups. Experimental group of chickens were immunized with DNA vaccines while control group of chickens were injected with pVAX1 plasmid alone or sterile water. Two weeks following the booster dose, all chickens were inoculated orally with 5?×?10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. tenella. The host immunity and protective efficacy of this vaccine against E. tenella challenge in broilers were evaluated. Results showed that specific antibody, the levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-? (IFN-?), and the percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocyte cells were significantly increased in the pVAX1-Rho group. Challenge experiments demonstrated that pVAX1-Rho vaccination could reduce oocyst excretion, decrease cecal lesion, increase bodyweight gains and provide chickens with oocysts decrease ratio around 75.8 %. These results suggest that the pVAX1-Rho was able to induce humoral and cellular responses and generate protective immunity against E. tenella infection. PMID:23052765

Liu, Yingli; Zheng, Jun; Li, Jianhua; Gong, Pengtao; Zhang, Xichen



Replication and transmission of live attenuated infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the replication of live attenuated infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccines in selected tissues and their ability to transmit to contact-exposed birds. Four-week-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were eye drop-inoculated with tissue culture origin (TCO) and chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines. Contact-exposed chickens were housed in direct contact with eye drop-inoculated chickens from the first day postinoculation. Virus isolation and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to detect the presence of live virus and viral DNA, respectively, in the trachea, trigeminal ganglia, eye conjunctiva, cecal tonsils, and cloaca from eye drop-inoculated and contact-exposed birds at days 2, 4, 5 to 10, 14, 18, 21, 24, and 28 postinoculation. No differences were observed in the ability of the TCO and CEO vaccines to replicate in the examined tissues. Both vaccines presented a localized replication in the eye conjunctiva and the trachea. Both vaccines were capable of transmitting to contact-exposed birds, attaining peaks of viral DNA as elevated as those observed in inoculated birds. The CEO vaccine replicated faster and reached higher viral genome copy number than the TCO vaccine in the conjunctiva and trachea of eye drop-inoculated and contact-exposed birds. The viral DNA from both vaccines migrated to the trigeminal ganglia during early stages of infection. Although the CEO and TCO vaccines were not recovered from the cecal tonsils and the cloaca, low levels of viral DNA were detected at these sites during the peak of viral replication in the upper respiratory tract. PMID:18251401

Rodríguez-Avila, Andrés; Oldoni, Ivomar; Riblet, Sylva; García, Maricarmen



Assessment of Newcastle disease-specific T cell proliferation in different inbred MHC chicken lines.  


In this study, we have described the establishment of an antigen-specific T cell proliferation assay based on recall stimulation with Newcastle disease (ND) antigen; further, we have described the results obtained after recall stimulation of animals containing different major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes, vaccinated against ND. First optimization of the assay was performed to lower unspecific proliferation and to enhance antigen-specific T cell proliferation. These two issues were achieved using ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid as stabilizing agent in blood samples and autologous immune serum in culture medium. The optimized assay was used to screen chickens with different MHC haplotypes for their ability to perform T cell proliferation. Results showed that the antigen-specific response of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from B12 chickens was generally low, whereas B13, B130 and B201 chickens were medium in CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cell responses. High responses were seen only in few animals of each haplotype and not in general. A polymorphism in the chicken CD8? gene was found in our experimental chicken lines, resulting in incapability to detect CD8?(+) T cells using antibodies from the CT8 clone. Screening chickens with alternative antibodies showed that antibodies from the 2-398 clone were able to discriminate all CD8?(+) cells from CD8?(-) cells, and consequently this antibody was used in a second vaccination experiment performed with chickens of the haplotypes B13 and B130. This experiment showed a significant difference in antigen-specific proliferation of CD4(+) T cells between the two lines, but not in CD8?(+) T cell proliferation. PMID:21332569

Norup, L R; Dalgaard, T S; Pedersen, A R; Juul-Madsen, H R



Balsamic Tomato Chicken Pasta Ingredients  

E-print Network

Balsamic Tomato Chicken Pasta Ingredients: 1 1/2 pounds chicken breast, skinless, boneless 1 onion of the onion and peel off the brown layers. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side tops and stems, set aside. 4. Spray a large skillet with nonstick cooking spray. Add onion

Liskiewicz, Maciej


Chicken Cabbage Stir Fry Ingredients  

E-print Network

Chicken Cabbage Stir Fry Ingredients: 3 boneless, skinless chicken breasts 1 teaspoon vegetable oil water. Place on a cutting board and cut in half through the core. Save half for other uses. Lay the half the white core center. Slice thin layers of cabbage off the quarter until there are three cups. Save

Liskiewicz, Maciej


Strategies for design and application of enteric viral vaccines.  


Enteric viral infections in domestic animals cause significant economic losses. The recent emergence of virulent enteric coronaviruses [porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)] in North America and Asia, for which no vaccines are available, remains a challenge for the global swine industry. Vaccination strategies against rotavirus and coronavirus (transmissible gastroenteritis virus) infections are reviewed. These vaccination principles are applicable against emerging enteric infections such as PEDV. Maternal vaccines to induce lactogenic immunity, and their transmission to suckling neonates via colostrum and milk, are critical for early passive protection. Subsequently, in weaned animals, oral vaccines incorporating novel mucosal adjuvants (e.g., vitamin A, probiotics) may provide active protection when maternal immunity wanes. Understanding intestinal and systemic immune responses to experimental rotavirus and transmissible gastroenteritis virus vaccines and infection in pigs provides a basis and model for the development of safe and effective vaccines for young animals and children against established and emerging enteric infections. PMID:25387111

Chattha, Kuldeep S; Roth, James A; Saif, Linda J



Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News  

PubMed Central

Vaccinating boys against HPV to reduce cancer rates across the sexes New melanoma vaccine contains natural product from marine sponges Impact of Hib conjugate vaccines in developing countries Electronic Health Records to keep track of immunization status Pregnant women urged to get whooping cough vaccination New nano-coating developed to preserve vaccines Alternative approach to creating a universal flu vaccine New modular vaccine design: MAPS technology PMID:24051387

Riedmann, Eva M



Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News  

PubMed Central

Oncolytic vaccinia virus vaccine: Promising in liver cancer patients FDA panel endorses quadrivalent influenza vaccines Approval for the first meningitis B vaccine Stallergenes seeks FDA approval for sublingual grass-pollen allergy tablet Live-attenuated dengue vaccine promising in Phase 1 GAVI funds HPV vaccines for girls in developing countries First human trials for new superantigen bioterrorism vaccine Hexyon hexavalent pediatric vaccine recommended for approval

Riedmann, Eva M.



killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine  

E-print Network

killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine FluMist Thomas Francis, Jr. National Institutes of Health live-virus influenza vaccine Hunein Maassab Jonas Salk Type-A virus trivalent cold that Maassab's innovative, trivalent, cold- adapted influenza vaccine, FluMist, which uses live but weakened

Shyy, Wei


Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines: characteristics, development, and clinical trials.  


The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

Pichichero, Michael E



Pneumococcal vaccine and opsonic pneumococcal antibody.  


Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen responsible for the majority of bacterial pneumonia cases as well as invasive pneumococcal diseases with high mortality and morbidity. Use of conjugate vaccines targeting the pneumococcal capsule has dramatically reduced the incidence of invasive diseases, and there are active efforts to further improve the conjugate vaccines. However, in children new pneumococcal vaccines can no longer be tested with placebo-based clinical trials because effective vaccines are currently available. Thus, vaccine studies must depend on surrogate markers of vaccine efficacy. Although traditional antibody levels (e.g., ELISA) are useful as a surrogate marker of protection, they have limitations, and a bioassay measuring the capacity of antibodies to opsonize pneumococci has been developed. This opsonophagocytosis assay (OPA) replicates the in vivo mechanism of antibody protection and should therefore better reflect protection by vaccine-induced antibodies. Technical improvements of OPA have made this bioassay rapid, multiplexed, and practical for analyzing small samples including those from children. Strong correlations between ELISA and OPA have been observed in many studies of young children. However, poor correlations have been found in some important clinical situations (such as determination of protection by cross-reactive antibodies) and populations (such as elderly adults and immunodeficient patients). In these settings, OPA has become a useful supplementary measure of pneumococcal vaccine immunogenicity. Current efforts to standardize OPA will further expand its uses. PMID:23657429

Song, Joon Young; Moseley, M Allen; Burton, Robert L; Nahm, Moon H



Effects of novel vaccine/adjuvant complexes on the protective immunity against Eimeria acervulina and transcriptome profiles.  


SUMMARY. This study investigated the ability of two novel adjuvant formulations, QCDC (Quil A/cholesterol/DDA/ Carbopol) and QCDCR (QCDC/Bay R1005), in combination with a recombinant profilin vaccine, to modulate host protective immunity and to alter gene expression during experimental avian coccidiosis. Vaccination with profilin plus QCDCR significantly reduced the severity of intestinal lesions and increased mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation in infected chickens compared with immunization with profilin alone or profilin plus QCDC. Immunization with profilin plus QCDC or profilin plus QCDCR increased body weight gain but had no effect on fecal oocyst shedding of chickens infected with Eimeria acervulina compared with birds vaccinated with profilin alone. The results of global gene expression analysis revealed that, compared with PBS controls, (a) chickens vaccinated with profilin alone had 71 up-regulated and 56 down-regulated mRNA transcripts, (b) chickens immunized with profilin plus QCDC had 198 up-regulated and 247 down-regulated mRNAs, and (c) birds immunized with profilin plus QCDCR had 210 up-regulated and 267 down-regulated mRNAs. Compared with birds vaccinated with profilin alone, (a) chickens given profilin plus QCDC had 60 up-regulated and 104 down-regulated transcripts and (b) chickens immunized with profilin plus QCDCR had 103 up-regulated and 130 down-regulated mRNAs. Finally, chickens vaccinated with profilin plus QCDCR had 193 up-regulated and 204 down-regulated transcripts compared with birds given profilin plus QCDC. Biological function and network analysis revealed that the majority of altered transcripts were encoded by immune-related genes. PMID:22545534

Kim, Duk Kyung; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Sung Hyen; Dominowski, Paul; Yancey, Robert J; Lillehoj, Erik P



Replicating vaccines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Early work on fish immunology and disease resistance demonstrated fish (like animals and humans) that survived infection were typically resistant to re-infection with the same pathogen. The concepts of resistance upon reinfection lead to the research and development of replicating (live) vaccines in...


DNA vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preclinical DNA vaccine development has continued apace during the past year, with the investigation of several new infectious and non-infectious disease targets as well as advances in our understanding of some of the basic immunologic mechanisms, such as effector cells, responsible for conferring protection. The coming year promises to be at least as exciting, as initial human clinical studies have

Jeffrey B Ulmer; Jerald C Sadoff; Margaret A Liu



Vexing Vaccines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…

Bowman, Darcia Harris



Valuing vaccination  

PubMed Central

Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll



Growth and Replication of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in the DF-1 Cell Line and Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes a highly contagious disease in young chicks and leads to significant economic losses in the poultry industry. To determine a suitable cell line for IBDV infection, replication, and growth kinetics of the virus, DF-1 cells and chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) were used. The population doubling per day (Pd/D) was found to be higher in DF-1 as compared to CEF cells. A suitable time of infection (TOI) was established for increased production of virus and greater infectivity titers. The DF-1 and CEF cells were found to be susceptible to infection by producing marked cytopathic effects (CPEs), and the growth curves of IBDV in DF-1 and CEF cells were evaluated by infectivity assay using tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50). The cytopathic effects of the virus in DF-1 and CEF cells were found to be similar, but higher viral titers were detected in the DF-1 cells as compared to CEF. Thus the DF-1 cell line had a higher growth potential and infectivity, which will be of advantage in vaccine production. PMID:24949455

Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Sivasubramanian, Chandran; Chung, Ill-Min; Thiruvengadam, Muthu



The Avian EB66(R) Cell Line, Application to Vaccines, and Therapeutic Protein Production.  


Embryonated chicken eggs and primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) have been used for decades as a means of manufacturing human and veterinary vaccines. However, these egg and CEF-based production systems are associated with many serious limitations in terms of their regulatory acceptability, production capacity, and supply chain risks. The development of a safer, cheaper, and more efficient cell substrate for vaccine production would represent a significant business advantage for vaccine manufacturers. Building on the exceptional properties of avian embryonic stem cells, Vivalis has created a new cell substrate, the Duck EB66® cell line. This article describes how this cell substrate was derived, the manufacture and qualification of a master cell bank, and the evaluation of the cell substrate for the manufacture of vaccines and human therapeutic proteins. PMID:21502045

Brown, Stephen W; Mehtali, Majid



Determination of efficacious vaccine seed strains for use against Egyptian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses through antigenic cartography and in vivo challenge studies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since 2006, there have been reported outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in vaccinated chickens in Africa and Asia. This study provides experimental data for selection of efficacious H5N1 vaccine seed strains against recently circulating strains of H5N1 HPAI viruses in Egypt....


Immunology of Vaccine Adjuvants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent times vaccine adjuvants, or immunopotentiators, received abundant attention in the media as critical ingredients of current and future vaccines. Indeed, vaccine adjuvants are recognized to make the difference between competing vaccines based on identical antigens. Moreover, it is recognized that vaccines designed for certain indications require a matching combination of selected antigen(s) together with a critical immunopotentiator that

C. M. S. Ribeiro; V. E. J. C. Schijns



Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine  


ProQuad® (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine, Varicella Vaccine) ... up to about 1 person in 5) and measles-like rash (about 1 person in 20) than MMR and varicella vaccines given separately. Moderate Problems:Seizure (jerking or staring) ...


Immune Responses to pneumococcal vaccines in children and adults: Rationale for age-specific vaccination  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a significant human pathogen and currently available pneumococcal vaccines are designed to elicit anti-capsule antibodies. The 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine has been used in older adults for many years whereas 7-, 10-, and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have only been used commonly for young children in the last decade. In addition to their high protective efficacy among children, the use of conjugate vaccines in young children has had a number of additional effects, including production of a serotype shift and providing new herd immunity to adults. The immunogenicity of both of these types of vaccines can be determined by using an ELISA assay to measure antibody levels or an opsonophagocytosis assay to assess opsonic function. As these assays have improved over time, awareness of the analytical limitations of older studies has grown. While the 23-valent vaccine is effective among young adults, it is less effective among elderly adults. Aging-associated ineffectiveness may be due to aging-dependent changes in the antibody repertoire and/or a reduction in IgM antibody production associated with aging-dependent changes in B cell subpopulations. The immunologic basis of aging-associated immune defects thus remains an active area of research. PMID:22500271

Westerink, M.A. Julie; Schroeder, Harry W.; Nahm, Moon H.



Testing for viral contaminants of veterinary vaccines in Hungary.  


The safety of veterinary vaccines is of paramount importance and it is significantly jeopardised by extraneous agents such as bacteria, mycoplasma, Chlamydia and viruses. Several critical steps of vaccine manufacture involve a potential risk of viral contamination. Viruses, as extraneous, agents can be divided into two main groups. Group 1 agents, such as Pestivirus, chicken anaemia virus (CAV), and egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) are well-known to manufacturers and authorities. Compendial detection methods, clear guidelines and legislation have been established to minimise the risk of contamination with these agents. Contrary to group 1, group 2 agents like Torque Teno virus (TTV) or RD114, a replication-competent feline gamma-retrovirus, have only recently been recognised and their role as contaminants needs further investigation. Randomly selected veterinary vaccines used between 1992 and 2009 were tested by nucleic acid amplification for CAV, EDSV, and TTV. Pestivirus contamination was examined in 33 vaccines used between 1996 and 2006 and a further 27 vaccines used between 2007 and 2009 based on random selection of these vaccines. In addition to random tests done on vaccines used from 2007 on, 12 batches of live Aujeszky's disease vaccines submitted to our laboratory for Official Control Authority Batch Release (OCABR) were also tested for Pestivirus. PMID:20338783

Kulcsar, Gabor; Farsang, Attila; Soos, T



The chicken gastrointestinal microbiome.  


The domestic chicken is a common model organism for human biological research and of course also forms the basis of a global protein industry. Recent methodological advances have spurred the recognition of microbiomes as complex communities with important influences on the health and disease status of the host. In this minireview, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome focusing on spatial and temporal variability, the presence and importance of human pathogens, the influence of the microbiota on the immune system, and the importance of the microbiome for poultry nutrition. Review and meta-analysis of public data showed cecal communities dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroides at the phylum level, while at finer levels of taxonomic resolution, a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of microorganisms appears to have similar metabolic functions that provide important benefits to the host as inferred from metagenomic data. This observation of functional redundancy may have important implications for management of the microbiome. We foresee advances in strategies to improve gut health in commercial operations through management of the intestinal microbiota as an alternative to in-feed subtherapeutic antibiotics, improvements in pre- and probiotics, improved management of polymicrobial poultry diseases, and better control of human pathogens via colonization reduction or competitive exclusion strategies. PMID:25263745

Oakley, Brian B; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Kogut, Michael H; Kim, Woo K; Maurer, John J; Pedroso, Adriana; Lee, Margie D; Collett, Stephen R; Johnson, Timothy J; Cox, Nelson A



Efficacy of a bivalent L1 virus-like particle vaccine in prevention of infection with human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in young women: a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Vaccination against the most common oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV-16 and HPV-18, could prevent development of up to 70% of cervical cancers worldwide. We did a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial to assess the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of a bivalent HPV-16\\/18 L1 virus-like particle vaccine for the prevention of incident and persistent infection with these two virus

Diane M Harper; Eduardo L Franco; Cosette Wheeler; David Jenkins; Anne Schuind; Toufik Zahaf; Bruce Innis; Paulo Naud; Cecilia M Roteli-Martins; Julio Teixeira; Mark M Blatter; Abner P Korn; Wim Quint; Gary Dubin


Increasing HPV vaccination series completion rates via text message reminders.  


Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most frequently diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. It is associated with the development of cervical, anal-genital, and oral-pharyngeal cancers. The rate of HPV infection among adolescents and young adults in the United States remains high, and completion rates of an HPV vaccine series remain low. At an urban pediatric clinic, adolescent and young adult participants aged 11 to 22 years (n = 37) received text message reminders for their second and third dose of HPV vaccine over an 8-month study period. Of the participants receiving text message reminders, 14% completed the vaccine series at the optimal time, whereas 0% of an interested group (n = 43) and only 3% of a standard care group (n = 232) completed the vaccine series at the optimal time. Findings support the use of text message reminders to improve HPV vaccine series completion rates in a pediatric practice. PMID:24200295

Matheson, Elaine C; Derouin, Anne; Gagliano, Martha; Thompson, Julie A; Blood-Siegfried, Jane



DNA Methylation Fluctuation Induced by Virus Infection Differs between MD-resistant and -susceptible Chickens  

PubMed Central

Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease induced by Marek’s disease virus (MDV) infection. To augment vaccination measures in MD control, host genetic resistant to MD becomes obviously more and more important. To elucidate the mechanism of MD-resistance, most of researches were focused on the genetic differences between resistant and susceptible chickens. However, epigenetic features between MD resistant and susceptible chickens are poorly characterized. Using bisulfite pyrosequencing method, we found some candidate genes have higher promoter methylation in the MD-susceptible (L72) chickens than in the MD-resistant (L63) chickens. The hypermethylated genes, involved in cellular component organization, responding to stimulus, cell adhesion, and immune system process, may play important role in susceptibility to disease by deregulation of these genes. MDV infection induced the expression changes of all three methyltransferases genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b) in both lines of chickens. The DNMT1 was up-regulated in L72, whereas the DNMT3b was down-regulated in L63 at 21?dpi. Interestingly, a dynamic change of promoter methylation was observed during MDV life cycle. Some genes, including HDAC9, GH, STAT1, CIITA, FABP3, LATS2, and H2Ac, showed differential methylation behaviors between the two lines of chickens. In summary, the findings from this study suggested that DNA methylation heterogeneity and MDV infection induced methylation alterations differences existed between the two lines of chickens. Therefore, it is suggested that epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in modulating the resistance and/or susceptibility to MD in chickens. PMID:22363343

Luo, Juan; Yu, Ying; Chang, Shuang; Tian, Fei; Zhang, Huanmin; Song, Jiuzhou



Using game theory to examine incentives in influenza vaccination behavior.  


The social good often depends on the altruistic behavior of specific individuals. For example, epidemiological studies of influenza indicate that elderly individuals, who face the highest mortality risk, are best protected by vaccination of young individuals, who contribute most to disease transmission. To examine the conditions under which young people would get vaccinated to protect elderly people, we conducted a game-theory experiment that mirrored real-world influenza transmission, with "young" players contributing more than "elderly" players to herd immunity. Participants could spend points to get vaccinated and reduce the risk of influenza. When players were paid according to individual point totals, more elderly than young players got vaccinated, a finding consistent with the Nash equilibrium predicting self-interested behavior. When players were paid according to group point totals, however, more young than elderly players got vaccinated-a finding consistent with the utilitarian equilibrium predicting group-optimal behavior-which resulted in higher point totals than when players were paid for their individual totals. Thus, payout structure affected whether individuals got vaccinated for self-interest or group benefit. PMID:22810166

Chapman, Gretchen B; Li, Meng; Vietri, Jeffrey; Ibuka, Yoko; Thomas, David; Yoon, Haewon; Galvani, Alison P



Formulation of Newcastle disease virus coupled calcium phosphate nanoparticles: an effective strategy for oculonasal delivery to chicken.  


In this report, calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles were synthesized by continuous flow method using ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) as a medium and functionalized with amino propyl triethoxy silane (APTES). The blood biocompatibility of the nanoparticles was assessed using the whole blood haemolysis, erythrocytes haemolysis and erythrocyte aggregation tests. Based on the results, we found that the synthesized ?-CD-CaP nanoparticles did not cause any remarkable toxic effect. The 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay of chicken peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs) incubated with these nanoparticles indicated that these particles did not exert any significant cytotoxicity. The aminosilane functional group modified ?-CD-CaP was used as tool for coupling of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The NDV conjugated nanoparticles were confirmed by using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, Raman spectroscopy differential scanning calorimetry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Immunogenicity trials in chickens proved that ?-CD-CaP-NDV used as a vaccine was better than the commercial vaccine when given oculonasally during the first 2 weeks post vaccination. The birds vaccinated with the above nano-NDV vaccine were completely protected against virulent NDV challenge. This study confirms that the oculonasal ?-CD-CaP-NDV delivery of vaccines is a potential method for enhancing the immune responses of existing commercial vaccines. PMID:24441177

Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal; Gopinath, Vadivel Ponnuswamy; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar



A purified recombinant baculovirus expressed capsid protein of a new astrovirus provides partial protection to runting-stunting syndrome in chickens.  


A new viral sequence likely belonging to a virus of the family Astroviridae was determined using the gut content of chickens affected with the runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in chickens. Since the appropriate virus could not be isolated in cell culture the open reading frame of the viral capsid protein was cloned to generate a recombinant baculovirus. The protein was purified and used as an experimental vaccine in broiler breeders to provide maternal derived antibodies for the protection of the offspring. The presence of specific antibodies was monitored by an ELISA. The offspring of vaccinated breeder hens were partially protected in a RSS challenge model. PMID:19941993

Sellers, Holly; Linneman, Erich; Icard, Alan H; Mundt, Egbert



Differential diagnosis of fowlpox and infectious laryngotracheitis viruses in chicken diphtheritic manifestations by mono and duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction.  


Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) and fowlpox virus (FPV) cause diphtheritic lesions in chicken tracheas and can simultaneously infect the same bird. A differential molecular diagnostic test, the duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction, is now reported using ILTV and FPV vaccine viruses and clinical samples from chickens, either uninfected or naturally infected with ILTV or FPV, or with both viruses. The dual virus amplification by real-time polymerase chain reaction was demonstrated to behave similarly to monoplex amplification, in spite of the fact that the real-time exponential amplification plots of the vaccine viruses were more illustrative than those of the clinical samples. PMID:25317604

Davidson, Irit; Raibstein, Israel; Altory, Amira



Oral and parenteral immunization of chickens (Gallus gallus) against West Nile virus with recombinant envelope protein  

USGS Publications Warehouse

West Nile virus (WNV) causes morbidity and mortality in humans, horses, and in more than 315 bird species in North America. Currently approved WNV vaccines are designed for parenteral administration and, as yet, no effective oral WNV vaccines have been developed. WNV envelope (E) protein is a highly antigenic protein that elicits the majority of virus-neutralizing antibodies during a WNV immune response. Leghorn chickens were given three vaccinations (each 2 wk apart) of E protein orally (20 ??g or 100 ??g/dose), of E protein intramuscularly (IM, 20 ??g/dose), or of adjuvant only (control group) followed by a WNV challenge. Viremias were measured post-WNV infection, and three new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were developed for quantifying IgM, IgY, and IgA-mediated immune response of birds following WNV infection. WNV viremia levels were significantly lower in the IM group than in both oral groups and the control group. Total WNV E protein-specific IgY production was significantly greater, and WNV nonstructural 1-specific IgY was significantly less, in the IM group compared to all other treatment groups. The results of this study indicate that IM vaccination of chickens with E protein is protective against WNV infection and results in a significantly different antibody production profile as compared to both orally vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds. ?? 2009 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

Fassbinder-Orth, C. A.; Hofmeister, E.K.; Weeks-Levy, C.; Karasov, W.H.



Studies on the persistence and excretion of egg drop syndrome 1976 virus in chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

EDS virus strain 127 did not induce clinical signs or gross lesions in susceptible chicks of various age groups and in adult cocks. Virus persistence in various internal organs and the rate of excretion of virus by experimentally?infected chicken declined rapidly with increasing age. Virus 127 was detectable in organs of young chicks up to 5 weeks post?infection and in

Ursula Heffels; S. E. D. Khalaf; E. F. Kaleta



Immunization Issues: Vaccine Misinformation  


... were not. 2 Vaccine safety concerns and risk perception No vaccine is 100% effective; no vaccine is ... These infections are just a plane ride away. Perception of risk depends on people’s experiences and knowledge. ...


Vaccination Records for Kids  


... Vaccines Home For Parents: Vaccines for Your Children Vaccination Records for Kids On this Page Recording Immunizations ... teams, and summer camps or to travel. Recording Immunizations Good record- keeping begins with good record- taking. ...


HPV Vaccine and Pregnancy  


... or visit us online at: . HPV Vaccine and Pregnancy This sheet talks about the risks ... onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JORRP). What is the HPV vaccine? The HPV vaccine provides protection against some types ...


Preteen and Teen Vaccines  


... or Teen Vaccinated? Which Vaccines Do Preteens and Teens Need, and When? All preteens (age 11 or ... Quiz . How Can I Get My Preteen or Teen Vaccinated? Preteens and teens typically see their doctors ...


Vaccinations and HIV  


... Do not measure your viral load within 4 weeks of any vaccination. Flu shots have been studied ... live” vaccination in the past 2 or 3 weeks. Still, the “MMR” vaccine against measles, mumps and ...



... a highly contagious respiratory disease. Read more . Find Measles Vaccines Near You Measles cases are at a 20 year high. Protect yourself and your family, get vaccinated . Get help paying for vaccines Learn about coverage under the Affordable Care Act ( ...


Effects of Taishan Robinia pseudoacacia Polysaccharides on immune function in chickens.  


To determine the immune function of Taishan Robinia pseudoacacia Polysaccharide (TRPPS) on chickens, 240 chickens were selected as experimental animals and treated with various doses of TRPPS by hypodermic injection before immunized NDV inactivated vaccine. The results indicated that any dose of TRPPS could significantly promote the development of the immune organs, increase the quantity of leukocyte and the ratio of lymphocyte, and improve the antibody titers against Newcastle disease. Meanwhile, it also increased the magnitude of SIgA in duodenum. However, the dose of 200 mg/ml showed to be the most effective. Therefore, in terms of improving immunologic function and production performance, TRPPS could be used as a vaccine immunopotentiator for immune responses. PMID:23507193

Liang, Man-fei; Liu, Guan-hua; Zhao, Qing-you; Yang, Shi-fa; Zhong, Shi-xun; Cui, Guo-lin; He, Xiao-hua; Zhao, Xue; Guo, Fan-xia; Wu, Cun; Zhu, Rui-liang



Further observations on serotype 2 Marek's disease virus-induced enhancement of spontaneous avian leukosis virus-like bursal lymphomas in ALVA6 transgenic chickens.  


Breeders of the 2009 generation of Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory transgenic chicken line ALVA6, known to be resistant to infection with subgroups A and E avian leukosis virus (ALV), were vaccinated at hatch with a trivalent Marek's disease (MD) vaccine containing serotypes 1, 2, and 3 Marek's disease virus (MDV) and were maintained under pathogen-free conditions from the day of hatch until 75 weeks of age. Spontaneous ALV-like bursal lymphomas, also termed lymphoid leukosis (LL)-like lymphomas, were detected in 7% of the ALVA6 breeders. There was no evidence of infection with exogenous and endogenous ALV as determined by virus isolation tests of plasma and tumour tissue homogenates. For the next three generations, serotype 2 MDV was eliminated from the trivalent MD vaccine used. Results show, for the first time, that removal of serotype 2 MDV from MD vaccines eliminated spontaneous LL-like lymphomas within 50 to 72 weeks of age for at least three consecutive generations. Two experiments were also conducted to determine the influence of in ovo vaccination with serotype 2 MD vaccines on enhancement of spontaneous LL-like lymphomas in ALVA6 chickens. Chickens from the 2012 generation were each inoculated in ovo or at hatch with 5000 plaque-forming units of serotype 2 MDV. Results indicate that by 50 weeks of age the incidence of spontaneous LL-like lymphomas in chickens inoculated in ovo with serotype 2 MDV was comparable with that in chickens inoculated with virus at hatch, suggesting that the augmentation effect of serotype 2 MDV is independent of age of vaccination. PMID:25407937

Cao, Weisheng; Mays, Jody; Kulkarni, Gururaj; Dunn, John; Fulton, Richard M; Fadly, Aly



Why should older adults receive the shingles vaccine?  


This article seeks to educate health care providers in understanding the need for immunization of older adults with the new herpes zoster vaccine, Zostavax(®). Herpes zoster (shingles) is a painful and disabling condition that can result in significant morbidity, loss of productivity, and decrease in quality of life. Herpes zoster is a reactivation of the varicella zoster virus, the same virus that causes chicken pox. Anyone who has had chickenpox can get shingles. Evidence found in the literature demonstrates that the vaccine prevents shingles in approximately half of adults 60 and older. PMID:20506935

Harkness, Turna Laneigh



Characteristics of Nasal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT) and Nasal Absorption Capacity in Chicken  

PubMed Central

As the main mucosal immune inductive site of nasal cavity, nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) plays an important role in both antigen recognition and immune activation after intranasal immunization. However, the efficiency of intranasal vaccines is commonly restricted by the insufficient intake of antigen by the nasal mucosa, resulting from the nasal mucosal barrier and the nasal mucociliary clearance. The distribution of NALT and the characteristic of nasal cavity have already been described in humans and many laboratory rodents, while data about poultry are scarce. For this purpose, histological sections of the chicken nasal cavities were used to examine the anatomical structure and histological characteristics of nasal cavity. Besides, the absorptive capacity of chicken nasal mucosa was also studied using the materials with different particle size. Results showed that the NALT of chicken was located on the bottom of nasal septum and both sides of choanal cleft, which mainly consisted of second lymphoid follicle. A large number of lymphocytes were distributed under the mucosal epithelium of inferior nasal meatus. In addition, there were also diffuse lymphoid tissues located under the epithelium of the concha nasalis media and the walls of nasal cavity. The results of absorption experiment showed that the chicken nasal mucosa was capable to absorb trypan blue, OVA, and fluorescent latex particles. Inactivated avian influenza virus (IAIV) could be taken up by chicken nasal mucosa except for the stratified squamous epithelium sites located on the forepart of nasal cavity. The intake of IAIV by NALT was greater than that of the nasal mucosa covering on non-lymphoid tissue, which could be further enhanced after intranasal inoculation combined with sodium cholate or CpG DNA. The study on NALT and nasal absorptive capacity will be benefit for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and development of nasal vaccines for poultry. PMID:24391892

Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian



[Childhood vaccines and autism--much ado about nothing?].  


The increased diagnoses of autism and developmental disorders in recent decades, together with the childhood vaccination program, has led to the hypothesis that vaccination in general, and the measles, mumps, and rubella virus live vaccine, and vaccines that contain mercury, in particular, cause autism. It has been hypothesized that intestinal infection caused by live virus vaccines change the permeability of the intestinal wall, and subsequently, the passage of peptides through the intestinal wall to the blood, and from there to the brain. It has been suggested that the accumulation of these peptides in the central nervous system causes autism. Studies that investigated this theory did not find an association between vaccine administration and between digestive system symptoms and autism. According to a second hypothesis, an organomercury compound (Thimerosal), used as a preservative in vaccines that do not include live viruses, is a cause of autism. Like the former, this hypothesis has been well researched, and refuted. Some studies have in fact found an increase in autism diagnosis among children who were vaccinated after Thimerosal was removed from the vaccine preparation. Recent studies have refuted the theory that the consecutive administration of vaccines weakens the young immune system in children, and leads to an autoimmune process that causes autism. The etiology of autism is still unknown, with research continuing from different directions. The extensive research conducted so far indicates that childhood vaccination is not a cause of the sharp increase in autism diagnoses in recent decades. PMID:20812501

Solt, Ido; Bornstein, Jacob



Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics  

PubMed Central

Two therapeutic HPV vaccine candidates successful in phase 1 Flu shot may prevent heart attacks and stroke CDX-1401 combined with TLR agonist: Positive phase 1 results Three MRSA vaccines in early clincial trials Ovarian cancer vaccine candidate DPX-Survivac: Positive interim results from phase 1 Chinese biotech partnership brings first hepatitis E vaccine to the market Therapeutic vaccine for treatment of genital herpes enters phase 2 Visionary concept: Printable vaccines PMID:23817319

Riedmann, Eva M.



Progress and hurdles in the development of influenza virus-like particle vaccines for veterinary use  

PubMed Central

Virus-like particles (VLPs), which resemble infectious virus particles in structure and morphology, have been proposed to provide a new generation of vaccine candidates against various viral infections. As effective immunogens, characterized by high immunogenicity and safety, VLPs have been employed in the development of human influenza vaccines. Recently, several influenza VLP vaccines have been developed for veterinary use and successfully evaluated in swine, canine, duck, and chicken models. These VLP vaccine candidates induced protective immune responses and enabled serological differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals in conjunction with a diagnostic test. Here, we review the current progress of influenza VLP development as a next-generation vaccine technology in the veterinary field and discuss the challenges and future direction of this technology. PMID:25003086



Host genetic resistance to Marek's disease sustains protective efficacy of herpesvirus of turkey in both experimental and commercial lines of chickens.  


Marek's disease (MD) remains a continual threat to the poultry industry worldwide as the MD virus continues evolving in virulence. MD has been controlled primarily by intensive use of vaccines since 1969. Based on the antigenic and pathogenic differences of the viruses that the vaccines were derived from, commercially available MD vaccines are classified into three categories, MDV-1, -2, and -3 vaccines. This study was designed to compare the protective efficacy of MDV-1 (CVI988/Rispens) and MDV-3 (HVT) vaccines against challenge of a very virulent plus strain of Marek's disease virus (vv+MDV) in experimental and commercial egg-layer lines of chickens under controlled experimental conditions. The two experimental lines (63 and 72) of chickens carry a uniform MHC B*2 haplotype and are known to differ in resistance to MD. One of the two commercial egg-layer lines (WL and BL) segregates for three MHC haplotypes (B*2, B*15, and B*21); the other is unclear. MD incidences of the unvaccinated groups of both experimental lines and both commercial lines were 100% or close to 100% induced by the vv+MDV, 648A. Survived day patterns of the unvaccinated groups significantly differed between the two experimental lines, but did not between the two commercial lines, which suggested the two experimental lines do differ in resistance to MD but not between the two commercial lines. At manufacturers' recommended vaccine dosage, two HVTs conveyed comparable protection for the MD resistant line 63 chickens as did both CVI988/Rispens used in this study. The two HVTs also conveyed comparable protection for both commercial lines of chickens as did one of two CVI988/Rispens (CVI988/Rispens-A). At a 2000PFU uniform dose, HVT and CVI988/Rispens again conveyed comparable protection for the MD resistant experimental line of chickens. The findings suggest vaccine protective efficacy is modulated by factors including the types and the sources of vaccines and the genetic backgrounds of chickens. The findings also suggest HVT delivers equal protection in MD resistant lines of chickens as does the industry-recognized golden standard of MD vaccine, CVI988/Rispens. PMID:24530405

Chang, Shuang; Xie, Qingmei; Dunn, John R; Ernst, Catherine W; Song, Jiuzhou; Zhang, Huanmin



Development and use of modified live Edwardsiella ictaluri vaccine against enteric septicemia of catfish.  


The present study showed that E. ictaluri RE-33 vaccine does not cause ESC but does stimulate protective immunity. The RE-33 vaccinates were protected against ESC for at least 4 months following a single bath immersion in a low number of E. ictaluri RE-33 without booster vaccination. Antibody responses are weak after RE-33 vaccination. Edwardsiella ictaluri RE-33 vaccine presents no risk or hazard to catfish. RE-33 vaccine will prevent ESC caused by most isolates of E. ictaluri in catfish. We recently obtained from USDA, Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), and the state veterinarians of Alabama and Mississippi, approval to field test the RE-33 vaccine in young catfish. About 2-3 million 10- to 30-day-old channel catfish in Alabama and Mississippi have been vaccinated since June 1997 with no adverse effects of vaccination. PMID:9890040

Klesius, P H; Shoemaker, C A



Influenza neuraminidase antibodies provide partial protection for chickens against high pathogenic avian influenza infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protection of chickens against avian influenza (AI) is mostly attributed to production of antibodies against the viral glycoprotein hemagglutinin, whereas less is known about the protective role of antibodies to the other surface glycoprotein neuraminidase (NA). Therefore, vaccines encoding NA antigen (e.g., DNA and alphavirus-based virus like replicon particles (VRP)) or baculovirus-expressed recombinant NA (rN2) were tested for their ability

Matthew J. Sylte; Bolyn Hubby; David L. Suarez



Who Needs Chickenpox Vaccine  


... Children (VFC) Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) Vaccine Management Business Improvement Project (VMBIP) Global Immunizations & Vaccinations Immunization Program Evaluation (IPE) Assessment, Feedback, ...


Evaluation of Toxoplasma gondii as a live vaccine vector in susceptible and resistant hosts  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasma gondii has been shown to trigger strong cellular immune responses to heterologous antigens expressed by the parasite in the inbred mouse model [1]. We studied the immune response induced by T. gondii as an effective vaccine vector in chickens and rabbits. Results T. gondii RH strain was engineered to express the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in the cytoplasm. A subcutaneous injection of the transgenic T. gondii YFP in chickens afforded partial protection against the infection of transgenic E. tenella YFP. T. gondii YFP induced low levels of antibodies to YFP in chickens, suggesting that YFP specific cellular immune response was probably responsible for the protective immunity against E. tenella YFP infection. The measurement of T-cell response and IFN-? production further confirmed that YFP specific Th1 mediated immune response was induced by T. gondii YFP in immunized chickens. The transgenic T. gondii stimulated significantly higher YFP specific IgG titers in rabbits than in chickens, suggesting greater immunogenicity in a T. gondii susceptible species than in a resistant species. Priming with T. gondii YFP and boosting with the recombinant YFP can induce a strong anti-YFP antibody response in both animal species. Conclusions Our findings suggest that T. gondii can be used as an effective vaccine vector and future research should focus on exploring avirulent no cyst-forming strains of T. gondii as a live vaccine vector in animals. PMID:21871123



Proof of principle for epitope-focused vaccine design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vaccines prevent infectious disease largely by inducing protective neutralizing antibodies against vulnerable epitopes. Several major pathogens have resisted traditional vaccine development, although vulnerable epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies have been identified for several such cases. Hence, new vaccine design methods to induce epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies are needed. Here we show, with a neutralization epitope from respiratory syncytial virus, that computational protein design can generate small, thermally and conformationally stable protein scaffolds that accurately mimic the viral epitope structure and induce potent neutralizing antibodies. These scaffolds represent promising leads for the research and development of a human respiratory syncytial virus vaccine needed to protect infants, young children and the elderly. More generally, the results provide proof of principle for epitope-focused and scaffold-based vaccine design, and encourage the evaluation and further development of these strategies for a variety of other vaccine targets, including antigenically highly variable pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and influenza.

Correia, Bruno E.; Bates, John T.; Loomis, Rebecca J.; Baneyx, Gretchen; Carrico, Chris; Jardine, Joseph G.; Rupert, Peter; Correnti, Colin; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Vittal, Vinayak; Connell, Mary J.; Stevens, Eric; Schroeter, Alexandria; Chen, Man; MacPherson, Skye; Serra, Andreia M.; Adachi, Yumiko; Holmes, Margaret A.; Li, Yuxing; Klevit, Rachel E.; Graham, Barney S.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Baker, David; Strong, Roland K.; Crowe, James E.; Johnson, Philip R.; Schief, William R.



Epidemiological consequences of an ineffective Bordetella pertussis vaccine  

E-print Network

The recent increase in Bordetella pertussis incidence (whooping cough) presents a challenge to global health. Recent studies have called into question the effectiveness of acellular B. pertussis vaccination in reducing transmission. Here we examine the epidemiological consequences of an ineffective B. pertussis vaccine. Using a dynamic transmission model, we find that: 1) an ineffective vaccine can account for the observed increase in B. pertussis incidence; 2) asymptomatic infections can bias surveillance and upset situational awareness of B. pertussis; and 3) vaccinating individuals in close contact with infants too young to receive vaccine (so called "cocooning" unvaccinated children) may be ineffective. Our results have important implications for B. pertussis vaccination policy and paint a complicated picture for achieving herd immunity and possible B. pertussis eradication.

Althouse, Benjamin M



A single vaccination with an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine primes the cellular immune response in calves with maternal antibody  

PubMed Central

Background The efficacy of a single dose of an inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) - Parainfluenaza type 3 (PI3) - Mannheimia haemolytica (Mh) combination vaccine, in calves positive for maternal antibodies, was established in a BRSV infection study. Results As expected the single vaccination did not have any effect on the decline of BRSV-specific neutralising or ELISA antibody. The cellular immune system was however primed by the vaccination. In the vaccinated group virus excretion with nasal discharge was reduced, less virus could be re-isolated from lung tissues and the lungs were less affected. Conclusions These results indicate that a single vaccination with an inactivated BRSV vaccine was able to break through the maternal immunity and induce partial protection in very young calves. It can be speculated that the level and duration of protection will improve after the second dose of vaccine is administered. A two-dose basic vaccination schedule is recommended under field conditions. PMID:20064236



Comparative genomic sequence analysis of the Marek’s disease vaccine strain SB-1  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is one of the most oncogenic herpesviruses known and induces a rapid onset T-cell lymphoma and demyelinating disease in chickens. Since the 1970s the disease has been controlled through mass vaccination with meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 (MeHV-1). Over time the efficacy of...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vaccines are the cornerstone of programs to control infectious diseases in chickens. Marek's disease (MD) is caused by a cell-associated alpha herpesvirus and is characterized by lymphomas, neurological disease and immunosuppression. The disease has a rapid onset and can result in up to 100% mortal...


Comparative genomic sequence analysis of the Marek’s disease vaccine strain SB-1  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is one of the most oncogenic herpesviruses known and induces a rapid onset T-cell lymphoma and demyelinating disease in chickens. Since the 1970s, the disease has been controlled through mass vaccination with meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 (MeHV-1). Over time the efficacy o...


Evaluation of Sindbis-M2e Virus Vector as a Universal Influenza A Vaccine  

E-print Network

, reducing production and shedding of AIV during infection. In this study, chickens were vaccinated at one-month-of-age with parental (E2S1) or recombinant Sindbis viruses expressing the PR8 M2e peptide (E2S1-M2e) by subcutaneous or intranasal routes at high...

Vuong, Christine



Avian influenza vaccine development: Application technology platforms, field use and predictors of protection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vaccines against avian influenza (AI) began over 100 years ago as experimentally produced products, but commercial application did not occur until: 1) a reliable method was developed to grow and titer the virus (i.e. embryonating chicken eggs), 2) an efficient and predictable method was developed to...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of age on cell-mediated immune responses to different antigens from Salmonella serovar Enteritidis (SE) following vaccination with the commercially available heat-the killed bacterin. Eight-month- and 4-week-old chickens were given two subcu...



E-print Network

VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Hepatitis B Vaccine What You Need to Know Many Vaccine Information:// What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a serious infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus. · In 2009, about 38,000 people became infected with hepatitis B. · Each year about 2

Leistikow, Bruce N.


Hypothesis: conjugate vaccines may predispose children to autism spectrum disorders.  


The first conjugate vaccine was approved for use in the US in 1988 to protect infants and young children against the capsular bacteria Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Since its introduction in the US, this vaccine has been approved in most developed countries, including Denmark and Israel where the vaccine was added to their national vaccine programs in 1993 and 1994, respectively. There have been marked increases in the reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) among children in the US beginning with birth cohorts in the late 1980s and in Denmark and Israel starting approximately 4-5 years later. Although these increases may partly reflect ascertainment biases, an exogenous trigger could explain a significant portion of the reported increases in ASDs. It is hypothesized here that the introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine in the US in 1988 and its subsequent introduction in Denmark and Israel could explain a substantial portion of the initial increases in ASDs in those countries. The continuation of the trend toward increased rates of ASDs could be further explained by increased usage of the vaccine, a change in 1990 in the recommended age of vaccination in the US from 15 to 2 months, increased immunogenicity of the vaccine through changes in its carrier protein, and the subsequent introduction of the conjugate vaccine for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although conjugate vaccines have been highly effective in protecting infants and young children from the significant morbidity and mortality caused by Hib and S. pneumoniae, the potential effects of conjugate vaccines on neural development merit close examination. Conjugate vaccines fundamentally change the manner in which the immune systems of infants and young children function by deviating their immune responses to the targeted carbohydrate antigens from a state of hypo-responsiveness to a robust B2 B cell mediated response. This period of hypo-responsiveness to carbohydrate antigens coincides with the intense myelination process in infants and young children, and conjugate vaccines may have disrupted evolutionary forces that favored early brain development over the need to protect infants and young children from capsular bacteria. PMID:21993250

Richmand, Brian J



Safety of immunization during pregnancy: a review of the evidence of selected inactivated and live attenuated vaccines.  


Vaccine-preventable infectious diseases are responsible for significant maternal, neonatal, and young infant morbidity and mortality. While there is emerging scientific evidence, as well as theoretical considerations, indicating that certain vaccines are safe for pregnant women and fetuses, policy formulation is challenging because of perceived potential risks to the fetus. This report presents an overview of available evidence on pregnant women vaccination safety monitoring in pregnant women, from both published literature and ongoing surveillance programs. Safety data were reviewed for vaccines against diseases which increase morbidity in pregnant women, their fetus or infant as well as vaccines which are used in mass vaccination campaigns against diseases. They include inactivated seasonal and pandemic influenza, mono- and combined meningococcal polysaccharide and conjugated vaccines, tetanus toxoid and acellular pertussis combination vaccines, as well as monovalent or combined rubella, oral poliomyelitis virus and yellow fever vaccines. No evidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has been identified from immunization of pregnant women with these vaccines. PMID:25285883

Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte; Englund, Janet A; Kang, Gagandeep; Mangtani, Punam; Neuzil, Kathleen; Nohynek, Hanna; Pless, Robert; Lambach, Philipp; Zuber, Patrick



Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...


A recombinant field strain of Marek's disease (MD) virus with reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat insert lacking the meq gene as a vaccine against MD.  


Marek's disease virus (MDV) GX0101, which is a field strain with a naturally occurring insertion of the reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) long terminal repeat (LTR) fragment, shows distinct biological activities. Deletion of the meq gene in GX0101 contributes to its complete loss of pathogenicity and oncogenicity in SPF chickens, but this virus has a kanamycin resistance gene (kan(r)) residual at the site of meq gene. In the present study, the kan(r) was knocked out and a meq-null virus with a good replicative ability termed SC9-1 was selected. In vivo studies showed that SC9-1 had no pathogenicity or tumorigenicity to chickens. There were no obvious impacts on chicken weight, immune organ index or antibody levels induced by avian influenza virus (AIV)/newcastle disease virus (NDV) inactivated vaccines compared with the control group. The SC9-1 virus provided superior protection than CVI988/Rispens vaccine in both SPF chickens and Hy-line brown chickens when challenged with a very virulent MDV (rMd5 strain). There was no obvious change in SC9-1 protection against MDV rMd5 in SPF chickens after 20 passages in chicken embryonic fibroblast cells (CEFs). In conclusion, SC9-1 is a safe and effective vaccine candidate for the prevention of Marek's disease. PMID:25562789

Su, Shuai; Cui, Ning; Zhou, Yu; Chen, Zimeng; Li, Yanpeng; Ding, Jiabo; Wang, Yixin; Duan, Luntao; Cui, Zhizhong



Progress in vaccine development.  


Vaccination has a proven record as one of the most effective medical approaches to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. Traditional vaccine approaches involve the administration of whole killed or weakened microorganisms to stimulate protective immune responses. Such approaches deliver many microbial components, some of which contribute to protective immunity, and assist in guiding the type of immune response that is elicited. Despite their impeccable record, these approaches have failed to yield vaccines for many important infectious organisms. This has prompted a move towards more defined vaccines ('subunit vaccines'), where individual protective components are administered. This unit provides an overview of the components that are used for the development of modern vaccines including: an introduction to different vaccine types (whole organism, protein/peptide, polysaccharide, conjugate, and DNA vaccines); techniques for identifying subunit antigens; vaccine delivery systems; and immunostimulatory agents ('adjuvants'), which are fundamental for the development of effective subunit vaccines. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:25641099

Moyle, Peter Michael



Existing antiviral vaccines.  


The innovation of vaccines has allowed for one of the greatest advancements in the history of public health. The first of the vaccines have been the antiviral vaccines, in particular the smallpox vaccine that was first developed by Edward Jenner in 1796. This article will review vaccination for the following viral diseases: measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, rotavirus, rabies, monkeypox, smallpox, Japanese encephalitis, and yellow fever. PMID:19335723

Ravanfar, Parisa; Satyaprakash, Anita; Creed, Rosella; Mendoza, Natalia



Seroprevalence of infectious bursal disease virus in local chickens in Udu Local Government Area of Delta State, South East Nigeria.  


Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) poses a great global threat to the poultry industry. Knowledge of the occurrence of the disease is important in the design and implementation of a control program, therefore this study determines the seroprevalence of IBDV in local chickens in Udu Local Government Area of Delta State. 250 chickens were bled by exsanguination and sera obtained were screened using Agar Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The seropositivity was 51.6%, which is indicates endemicity of the disease. Biosecurity and good sanitary measures are recommended. Molecular characterization of the strains should be carried out for inclusion in generic vaccines. PMID:25331185

Abraham-Oyiguh, J; Adewumi, M O; Onoja, A B; Suleiman, I; Sulaiman, L K; Ahmed, S J; Jagboro, S T



Pharmacological properties of amino-oxyacetic acid in the chicken  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of amino-oxyacetic acid (AOAA) on the central nervous system and on skeletal muscle have been examined in the chicken. 2. AOAA had both anticonvulsant and convulsant effects, depending on the dose, as in other species. 3. The convulsant effect, accompanied by EEG spiking, decreased rapidly with increase in age of young chicks. 4. The convulsant effect was exerted primarily through supraspinal centres. 5. Of control depressants tested, only troxidone and small doses of AOAA afforded significant protection against AOAA seizures. PMID:5015039

Osuide, G.



Echocardiographic characteristics of chickens with ascites syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. B- and M-mode echocardiography was used to compare cardiac function in broilers with spontaneous ascites syndrome with that of normal chickens.2. Thirty ascitic chickens and 15 normal chickens aged three, 4, 5 and 6 weeks from the same flock (180 birds in total) were examined. They were restrained gently in a natural standing position, and echocardiographs were obtained with

G. Deng; Y. Zhang; X. Peng; D. Guo; C. Li



The Echocardiographic Characteristics of Ascites Syndrome Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

B-mode and M-mode echocardiography was used to compare the cardiac functioning of broilers with spontaneous ascites syndrome with that of normal chickens. 2. Thirty ascitic chickens and fifteen normal chickens at the ages of three, four, five and six weeks from the same flock were used. They were restrained gently in a natural standing position, and echocardiographs were obtained with

Ganzhen Deng; Yi Zhang; Dingzong Guo; Xiuli Peng; Chengye Li


Emergence and Evolution of Avian H5N2 Influenza Viruses in Chickens in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Sporadic activity by H5N2 influenza viruses has been observed in chickens in Taiwan from 2003 to 2012. The available information suggests that these viruses were generated by reassortment between a Mexican-like H5N2 virus and a local enzootic H6N1 virus. Yet the origin, prevalence, and pathogenicity of these H5N2 viruses have not been fully defined. Following the 2012 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks, surveillance was conducted from December 2012 to July 2013 at a live-poultry wholesale market in Taipei. Our findings showed that H5N2 and H6N1 viruses cocirculated at low levels in chickens in Taiwan. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all H5N2 viruses had hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes derived from a 1994 Mexican-like virus, while their internal gene complexes were incorporated from the enzootic H6N1 virus lineage by multiple reassortment events. Pathogenicity studies demonstrated heterogeneous results even though all tested viruses had motifs (R-X-K/R-R) supportive of high pathogenicity. Serological surveys for common subtypes of avian viruses confirmed the prevalence of the H5N2 and H6N1 viruses in chickens and revealed an extraordinarily high seroconversion rate to an H9N2 virus, a subtype that is not found in Taiwan but is prevalent in mainland China. These findings suggest that reassortant H5N2 viruses, together with H6N1 viruses, have become established and enzootic in chickens throughout Taiwan and that a large-scale vaccination program might have been conducted locally that likely led to the introduction of the 1994 Mexican-like virus to Taiwan in 2003. IMPORTANCE H5N2 avian influenza viruses first appeared in chickens in Taiwan in 2003 and caused a series of outbreaks afterwards. Phylogenetic analyses show that the chicken H5N2 viruses have H5 and N2 genes that are closely related to those of a vaccine strain originating from Mexico in 1994, while the contemporary duck H5N2 viruses in Taiwan belong to the Eurasian gene pool. The unusually high similarity of the chicken H5N2 viruses to the Mexican vaccine strain suggests that these viruses might have been introduced to Taiwan by using inadequately inactivated or attenuated vaccines. These chicken H5N2 viruses are developing varying levels of pathogenicity that could lead to significant consequences for the local poultry industry. These findings emphasize the need for strict quality control and competent oversight in the manufacture and usage of avian influenza virus vaccines and indicate that alternatives to widespread vaccination may be desirable. PMID:24623422

Lee, Chang-Chun David; Zhu, Huachen; Huang, Pei-Yu; Peng, Liuxia; Chang, Yun-Cheng; Yip, Chun-Hung; Li, Yao-Tsun; Cheung, Chung-Lam; Compans, Richard; Yang, Chinglai; Smith, David K.; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk



Mumps outbreak in Israel's highly vaccinated society: are two doses enough?  


Mumps outbreaks in recent years have given rise to questions about the effectiveness of the mumps vaccine. This study examined the epidemiological data from a recent mumps outbreak in Israel and from outbreaks in other countries with high vaccination coverage, and considered whether long-established vaccination policies designed to protect against mumps are in need of revision. Of over 5000 case patients in the Israeli outbreak, half of whom were in the Jerusalem health district, nearly 40% were aged ?15 years and, of those whose vaccination status was known, 78% had been fully vaccinated for their age - features similar to those in recent mumps outbreaks in Europe and North America. The epidemiological and laboratory evidence suggests that many previously vaccinated adolescents and young adults are now susceptible to mumps because their vaccine-based immunity has waned. Booster vaccination programmes for those at high risk of infection during mumps outbreaks - particularly those in congregate living environments - merit priority consideration. PMID:21554780

Anis, E; Grotto, I; Moerman, L; Warshavsky, B; Slater, P E; Lev, B



HPV Vaccination and Sexual Behavior in a Community College Sample  

PubMed Central

Many US parents are concerned that vaccinating daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV) will communicate implicit approval for sexual activity and be associated with early or risky sexual behavior (Scarinci et al. in J Womens Health 16(8):1224–1233, 2007; Schuler et al. in Sex Transm Infect 87:349–353, 2011) [7, 8]. The aims of this study were to understand (a) whether the HPV vaccine was associated with risky sexual behavior among a diverse sample of female adolescents and young adults, and (b) to better understand the chronology of HPV vaccination and sexual behavior. An anonymous web-based survey was used to collect data from 114 female community college students. T test and Chi square analyses were used to compare vaccinated and unvaccinated groups on age at first intercourse and proportion who had ever had sexual intercourse. Linear multiple regression was used to predict frequency of condom use and number of sexual partners in the past year, using vaccination status and demographic factors as predictors. About 38 % reported receiving at least one dose of the HPV vaccine. Many of those vaccinated (45 %) received the vaccine after having initiated sexual activity. The proportion of women who were sexually experienced did not differ by HPV vaccine status, nor did age at first intercourse, number of partners in the past year, or frequency of condom use. Current findings suggest that HPV vaccination is not associated with riskier sexual activity for the young women in this sample. Adolescents and their parents may benefit from education about the need to receive the HPV vaccine before onset of sexual activity. PMID:23728823

Marchand, Erica; Glenn, Beth A.; Bastani, Roshan



The protective efficacy of rMd5deltaMeq against challenge with a very virulent plus strain of MDV in relatively resistant lines of chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marek’s disease (MD) is a T-cell lymphoma of domestic chickens induced by MD virus (MDV), a naturally oncogenic and highly contagious cell-associated alpha-herpesvirus. A recombinant MDV lacking both copies of Meq oncogene, rMd5deltaMeq, was tested as a candidate vaccine against MD in a series of 19...


Allele-specific expression analysis reveals CD79B has a cis-acting regulatory element that responds to Marek's disease virus infection in chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marek’s disease (MD) is a T cell lymphoma disease of domestic chickens induced by the Marek’s disease virus (MDV), a highly infectious and oncogenic, cell-associated alphaherpesvirus. Enhancing genetic resistance to MD in poultry is an attractive method to augment MD vaccines, which protect against ...


Characterization of Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Isolates Obtained From Broiler Breeders, Turkeys, and Prairie Chickens Located in Various Geographical Regions in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nine reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) isolates obtained from broiler breeders, turkeys, and prairie chickens located in three different geographical regions in the USA, and three isolates obtained from known contaminated live-virus vaccines were characterized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) a...


Factors associated with poor adherence to MMR vaccination in parents who follow vaccination schedule.  


Due to median vaccination coverage far from elimination level, Italy is still an European country with high number of measles cases per million of people. In this study we explored potential socioeconomic, medical and demographic factors which could influence the propensity of family members for measles vaccination schedule. A cross-sectional study was performed through a questionnaire administered to the parents of children who received the first dose of MMR vaccine in two different vaccination centers in the Palermo area from November 2012 to May 2013. Overall, the role played by internet (OR 19.8 P = 0.001) and the large number of children in a family (OR 7.3 P ? 0.001) were the factors more associated to be unvaccinated, whereas the birth order of the child (OR 0.3 P = < 0.05 for the oldest children vs. the closer young one) and reporting a lack of MMR vaccination as a "personal decision" (OR 0.19 P ? 0.01) inversely correlated with the risk of quitting vaccination. These findings can be useful for a better knowledge of disaffection to vaccination practice in local settings and could contribute to improve and maintain timely uptake, suggesting approaches to optimize the uptake of MMR tailored to the needs of local populations. PMID:25483527

Restivo, Vincenzo; Napoli, Giuseppe; Marsala, Maria Grazia Laura; Bonanno, Valentina; Sciuto, Valentina; Amodio, Emanuele; Calamusa, Giuseppe; Vitale, Francesco; Firenze, Alberto



A single vaccination of commercial broilers does not reduce transmission of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza.  


Vaccination of chickens has become routine practice in Asian countries in which H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is endemically present. This mainly applies to layer and breeder flocks, but broilers are usually left unvaccinated. Here we investigate whether vaccination is able to reduce HPAI H5N1 virus transmission among broiler chickens. Four sets of experiments were carried out, each consisting of 22 replicate trials containing a pair of birds. Experiments 1-3 were carried out with four-week-old birds that were unvaccinated, and vaccinated at day 1 or at day 10 of age. Experiment 4 was carried out with unvaccinated day-old broiler chicks. One chicken in each trial was inoculated with H5N1 HPAI virus. One chicken in each trial was inoculated with virus. The course of the infection chain was monitored by serological analysis, and by virus isolation performed on tracheal and cloacal swabs. The analyses were based on a stochastic SEIR model using a Bayesian inferential framework. When inoculation was carried out at the 28th day of life, transmission was efficient in unvaccinated birds, and in birds vaccinated at first or tenth day of life. In these experiments estimates of the latent period (~1.0 day), infectious period (~3.3 days), and transmission rate parameter (~1.4 per day) were similar, as were estimates of the reproduction number (~4) and generation interval (~1.4 day). Transmission was significantly less efficient in unvaccinated chickens when inoculation was carried out on the first day of life. These results show that vaccination of broiler chickens does not reduce transmission, and suggest that this may be due to the interference of maternal immunity. PMID:21635732

Poetri, Okti; Bouma, Annemarie; Claassen, Ivo; Koch, Guus; Soejoedono, Retno; Stegeman, Arjan; van Boven, Michiel



[Developments in HPV vaccination].  


Vaccination against the human papilloma virus (HPV) has been included in the national Vaccination Programme of the Netherlands for 12-year-old girls since 2010. Vaccination coverage for the birth cohort of 1997 was 56.; there is a gradual increase in uptake. Continuous safety monitoring brought no new unknown serious side effects to light; many girls suffered from transient symptoms such as painful arm, fatigue and headache. After the current vaccines that protect against HPV types 2 and 4 types, respectively and induce some cross protection, vaccines are being developed that can induce broader protection. HPV vaccination of 12-year-old girls is cost-effective, even for relatively low vaccination coverage. The potential protection of HPV vaccination extends beyond prevention of cervical cancer by preventing other oncological manifestations of HPV infection in women as well as men and genital warts. The preventive HPV vaccines do not appear to be effective in treating existing abnormalities. PMID:23171565

de Melker, Hester; Kenter, Gemma; van Rossum, Tekla; Conyn-van Spaendonck, Marina



Measles Vaccination: Who Needs It?  


... . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Measles Vaccination: Who Needs It? On this Page Vaccine Who ... the MMR Vaccine Information Statement and the Childhood Immunization Schedule . As an adult, do I need this ...


Diphtheria Vaccination: Who Needs It?  


... . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Diphtheria Vaccination: Who Needs It? On this Page Vaccine Who ... need this vaccine? Yes, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends 5 doses of diphtheria and ...


Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination  


... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination The smallpox vaccine prevents smallpox. For most people, ... go away without treatment: The arm receiving the vaccination may be sore and red where the vaccine ...


Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes  


Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...


Mumps - Vaccine Q and A  


... with an impaired immune system should not receive live attenuated vaccines (MMR vaccine). NOTE: The combination MMRV vaccine is not licensed for those over 12 years old. UPDATED July 2010 Is the vaccine effective/does ...


Live Attenuated Influenza Virus Expressing Human Interleukin2 Reveals Increased Immunogenic Potential in Young and Aged Hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the reported efficacy of commercially available influenza virus vaccines, a considerable proportion of the human population does not respond well to vaccination. In an attempt to improve the immunogenicity of live influenza vaccines, an attenuated, cold-adapted (ca) influenza A virus expressing human interleukin-2 (IL-2) from the NS gene was generated. Intranasal immunization of young adult and aged mice with

Boris Ferko; Christian Kittel; Julia Romanova; Sabine Sereinig; Hermann Katinger; Andrej Egorov



Vaccines against poverty  

PubMed Central

With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089

MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan



Vaccines against poverty.  


With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089

MacLennan, Calman A; Saul, Allan



Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.  


This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary. PMID:19294991

Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D



Are happy chickens safer chickens? Poultry welfare and disease susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Contaminated chicken meat remains an internationally important vehicle for human infection with Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. In addition, the last 20 years has seen an international pandemic of human salmonellosis caused by the contamination of eggs with Salmonella Enteritidis.2. It has been a long held scientific view that Campylobacter spp. and most, if not all of the common zoonotic

Tom Humphrey



Controlling Dengue with Vaccines in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that constitutes a growing global threat with the habitat expansion of its vectors Aedes aegyti and A. albopictus and increasing urbanization. With no effective treatment and limited success of vector control, dengue vaccines constitute the best control measure for the foreseeable future. With four interacting dengue serotypes, the development of an effective vaccine has been a challenge. Several dengue vaccine candidates are currently being tested in clinical trials. Before the widespread introduction of a new dengue vaccine, one needs to consider how best to use limited supplies of vaccine given the complex dengue transmission dynamics and the immunological interaction among the four dengue serotypes. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed an individual-level (including both humans and mosquitoes), stochastic simulation model for dengue transmission and control in a semi-rural area in Thailand. We calibrated the model to dengue serotype-specific infection, illness and hospitalization data from Thailand. Our simulations show that a realistic roll-out plan, starting with young children then covering progressively older individuals in following seasons, could reduce local transmission of dengue to low levels. Simulations indicate that this strategy could avert about 7,700 uncomplicated dengue fever cases and 220 dengue hospitalizations per 100,000 people at risk over a ten-year period. Conclusions/Significance Vaccination will have an important role in controlling dengue. According to our modeling results, children should be prioritized to receive vaccine, but adults will also need to be vaccinated if one wants to reduce community-wide dengue transmission to low levels. PMID:23145197

Chao, Dennis L.; Halstead, Scott B.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M.



Protective immunity induced by the vaccination of recombinant Proteus mirabilis OmpA expressed in Pichia pastoris.  


Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) is a zoonotic pathogen that has recently presented a rising infection rate in the poultry industry. To develop an effective vaccine to protect chickens against P. mirabilis infection, OmpA, one of the major outer membrane proteins of P. mirabilis, was expressed in Pichia pastoris. The concentration of the expressed recombinant OmpA protein reached 8.0?g/mL after induction for 96h with 1.0% methanol in the culture. In addition, OmpA protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis using the antibody against Escherichia coli-expressed OmpA protein. Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide, a known plant-derived adjuvant, was mixed into the recombinant OmpA protein to prepare the OmpA subunit vaccine. We then subcutaneously inoculated this vaccine into chickens to examine the immunoprotective effects. ELISA analysis indicated that an excellent antibody response against OmpA was elicited in the vaccinated chickens. Moreover, a high protection rate of 80.0% was observed in the vaccinated group, which was subsequently challenged with P. mirabilis. The results suggest that the eukaryotic P. mirabilis OmpA was an ideal candidate protein for developing an effective subunit vaccine against P. mirabilis infection. PMID:25317910

Zhang, Yongbing; Yang, Shifa; Dai, Xiumei; Liu, Liping; Jiang, Xiaodong; Shao, Mingxu; Chi, Shanshan; Wang, Chuanwen; Yu, Cuilian; Wei, Kai; Zhu, Ruiliang



Liver fluke vaccines in ruminants: strategies, progress and future opportunities.  


The development of a vaccine for Fasciola spp. in livestock is a challenge and would be advanced by harnessing our knowledge of acquired immune mechanisms expressed by resistant livestock against fluke infection. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed to the surface tegument of juvenile/immature flukes is a host immune effector mechanism, suggesting that antigens on the surface of young flukes may represent prime candidates for a fluke vaccine. A Type 1 immune response shortly after fluke infection is associated with resistance to infection in resistant sheep, indicating that vaccine formulations should attempt to induce Type 1 responses to enhance vaccine efficacy. In cattle or sheep, an optimal fluke vaccine would need to reduce mean fluke burdens in a herd below the threshold of 30-54 flukes to ensure sustainable production benefits. Fluke infection intensity data suggest that vaccine efficacy of approximately 80% is required to reduce fluke burdens below this threshold in most countries. With the increased global prevalence of triclabendazole-resistant Fasciolahepatica, it may be commercially feasible in the short term to introduce a fluke vaccine of reasonable efficacy that will provide economic benefits for producers in regions where chemical control of new drug-resistant fluke infections is not viable. Commercial partnerships will be needed to fast-track new candidate vaccines using acceptable adjuvants in relevant production animals, obviating the need to evaluate vaccine antigens in rodent models. PMID:25200351

Toet, Hayley; Piedrafita, David M; Spithill, Terry W



Universal fungal vaccines  

PubMed Central

The complex nature of fungal pathogens, the intricate host-pathogen relationship and the health status of subjects in need of antifungal vaccination continue to hamper efforts to develop fungal vaccines for clinical use. That said, the rise of the universal vaccine concept is hoped to revive fungal vaccine research by expanding the pool of vaccine candidates worthy of clinical evaluation. It can do so through antigenic commonality-based screening for vaccine candidates from a wide range of pathogens and by reassessing the sizable collection of already available experimental and approved vaccines. Development of experimental vaccines protective against multiple fungal pathogens is evidence of the utility of this concept in fungal vaccine research. However, universal fungal vaccines are not without difficulties; for instance, development of vaccines with differential effectiveness is an issue that should be addressed. Additionally, rationalizing the development of universal fungal vaccines on health or economic basis could be contentious. Herein, universal fungal vaccines are discussed in terms of their potential usefulness and possible drawbacks. PMID:22922769

Hamad, Mawieh



Immunobiology of Influenza Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Vaccination is the primary strategy for prevention and control of influenza. The surface hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the influenza virus contains two structural elements (head and stalk) that differ in their potential utility as vaccine targets. The head of the HA protein is the primary target of antibodies that confer protective immunity to influenza viruses. The underlying health status, age, and gene polymorphisms of vaccine recipients and, just as importantly, the extent of the antigenic match between the viruses in the vaccine and those that are circulating modulate influenza vaccine protection. Vaccine adjuvants and live attenuated influenza vaccine improve the breadth of immunity to seasonal and pandemic virus strains. Eliciting antibodies against the conserved HA stem region that cross-react with HAs within influenza virus types or subtypes would allow for the development of a universal influenza vaccine. The highly complex network of interactions generated after influenza infection and vaccination can be studied with the use of systems biology tools, such as DNA microarray chips. The use of systems vaccinology has allowed for the generation of gene expression signatures that represent key transcriptional differences between asymptomatic and symptomatic host responses to influenza infection. Additionally, the use of systems vaccinology tools have resulted in the identification of novel surrogate gene markers that are predictors of the magnitude of host responses to vaccines, which is critical to both vaccine development and public health. Identifying associations between variations in vaccine immune responses and gene polymorphisms is critical in the development of universal influenza vaccines. PMID:23381315

Fenton, Matthew J.



The Children's Vaccine Initiative.  


The Children's Vaccine Initiative (CVI), which was founded after the World Summit for Children held in New York in September 1990, had three goals: 1) immunization of all children; 2) research to determine the feasibility of a single-dose multivalent vaccine; and 3) introduction of new vaccines for infectious diseases. UNICEF, UNDP, WHO, the World Bank, and the Rockefeller Foundation co-sponsored the CVI. The following has been achieved since 1990: 1) coverage with 6 EPI vaccines has risen above 80% in many countries; 2) the number of vaccines in the research pipeline has increased; 3) there is better planning of the global vaccine supply; and 4) governments of developing countries are assuming more responsibility for national immunization. The new strategic plan for CVI, which is the work of experts from government, industry, and international organization, establishes the following goals: 1) development of greater consensus on priorities regarding vaccine development and application; 2) definition of needs and strategies for action; 3) communication of the health and economic value of vaccines; and 4) mobilization of resources. Executive Secretary Dr. Lee and CVI coordinator Roy Widdus are responsible for the new role for CVI. 4 million children die annually from diseases preventable by existing vaccines; another 8 million die annually from diseases that could be prevented by new vaccines. Measles, hepatitis B, and Hib vaccines are underused. Vaccines against rotavirus diarrhea and pneumococcal pneumonia should be available soon, while research continues on vaccines against malaria and HIV. PMID:12348372

Caddell, A



Influenza vaccine: an effective preventive vaccine for developing countries.  


The Influenza virus A, B and C causes disease in humans, birds and animals. The Influenza type A causes moderate to severe illness in all age groups in humans while the illness caused by type B is of milder and it is primarily affects children. Among many subtypes of influenza A viruses, currently influenza A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) subtypes are circulating among humans. Influenza is a serious public health problem that causes severe illnesses and deaths for higher risk populations. Influenza virus is characterized by frequent mutations - antigenic drifts (minor antigenic change, both A and B) and antigenic shifts (major antigenic change, only A). The current human pandemic A/H1N1 is an example of antigenic shift. It slowly established circulation globally; subsequently endemic/seasonal viruses in both hemi-spheres are H3N2 and H1N1. The novel Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus was first identified by United State Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US CDC) on 17th April, 2009 in samples from two Californian children. As of August 2010, 18,000 people had died globally due to the pandemic flu. The illness rates were highest in children and young adults (20-40% of the population), the hospitalization rates highest in children below the age of one. The case fatality rates varied tremendously and were estimated to be between 0.0004- 1.5% (0.05% in US, 0.025% in UK, lowest in children). The most effective way to prevent the disease or severe outcomes from the illness is vaccination. The Trivalent Inactivated vaccines (TIV) are of three types: whole virus, split-product, subunit surface-antigen formulations and they are grown in embryonated hen's eggs. Whole-virus vaccines, because of adverse reactions, especially in children, are not currently used. Most influenza vaccines are split-product vaccines, produced from detergent treated, highly purified influenza virus, or surface-antigen vaccines containing purified hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. PMID:22634439

Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj



Sub acute sclerosing pan encephalitis despite adequate vaccination  

PubMed Central

Sub acute sclerosing pan encephalitis (SSPE) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder related to a persistent and aberrant measles virus infection. It is associated with poor prognosis and high mortality. We report a case of a seven- year-old boy who manifested the disease despite proper vaccination and with no documented past history of measles. The case is being reported for its atypical presentation, rarity and its possibility of occurrence in young vaccinated subjects, possibly due to undocumented pre-vaccination measles infection. PMID:22905063

Malik, Bhawna; Sharma, Franky J; Bhardwaj, Anand Kumar; Sharma, Akshay



Visuospatial selective attention in chickens  

PubMed Central

Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d?) increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an “indecision” model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens—a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies—as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention. PMID:24753566

Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L.; Schwarz, Jason S.; Knudsen, Eric I.



Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...


Experimental ochratoxicosis in broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the toxicity signs that developed when the diet of male broiler chickens was artificially contaminated with different levels of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA). Chicks were assigned randomly to three groups of 80 chicks that were fed a diet containing 0 oarts per billion (ppb) (control, group 1), 400 ppb (group 2) or 800 ppb (group 3)

M. A. Elaroussi; F. R. Mohamed; E. M. El Barkouky; A. M. Atta; A. M. Abdou; M. H. Hatab



MMR Vaccine (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella)  


Attenuvax® Measles Vaccine ... R-Vax® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine) ... M-R® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine)


Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs About Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Among Puerto Rican Mothers and Daughters, 2010: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer can be reduced by increasing vaccination for HPV. Yet vaccination uptake and completion of the 3-dose series remain low among Puerto Rican females. This study explored psychosocial factors associated with HPV vaccination uptake decisions among Puerto Rican mothers and daughters. Methods We conducted 7 focus groups with young women aged 16 to 24 (n = 21) and their mothers (n = 9) to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs related to cervical cancer, HPV, and HPV vaccination. We analyzed the focus group transcripts and identified themes by using a constant comparison method of qualitative data analysis and interpretation, guided by a grounded theory approach. Results The analysis identified several emergent themes related to vaccine uptake: 1) low knowledge about cervical cancer, HPV, and the HPV vaccine; 2) inconsistent beliefs about susceptibility to HPV infection and cervical cancer; 3) vaccine effectiveness; 4) vaccine safety and side effects; 5) concerns that the vaccine promotes sexual disinhibition; and 6) availability of insurance coverage and overall cost of the vaccine. Conclusion Our study found that adolescent girls and young women in Puerto Rico have low levels of knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer, low perceived susceptibility to HPV, and concerns about the safety and efficacy of the vaccine, and these factors may influence uptake and completion of HPV vaccination. Interventions are needed for both mothers and daughters that address these psychosocial factors and increase access to vaccination. PMID:25474384

Le, Yen-Chi L.; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Calo, William A.; Savas, Lara S.; Vélez, Camille; Aragon, Angela Pattatucci; Colón-López, Vivian



Mucosal immunity against Eimeria acervulina infection in broiler chickens following oral immunization with profilin in Montanide™ adjuvants.  


The present study was conducted to compare aqueous nanoparticle-based Montanide™ IMS 1313 N VG PR (IMS 1313) and oil-based ISA 71 VG (ISA71) adjuvants in combination with an Eimeria subunit protein vaccine on protection against avian coccidiosis. Male broiler chicks were vaccinated twice with an Eimeria recombinant profilin protein alone or in conjunction with IMS 1313 or ISA 71 prior to infection with live, sporulated Eimeria acervulina oocysts. For comparison, chickens were immunized with a commercial live coccidiosis vaccine (Coccivac-B). The following parameters were assessed as measures of protective immunity: body weight gain, fecal oocyst output, profilin-specific intestinal secretary IgA (sIgA) or IgY antibody levels, and percentages of CD4(+), CD8(+), TCR1(+), or TCR2(+) intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). Birds vaccinated with profilin plus ISA 71 had increased body weight gains, equivalent to Coccivac-B vaccination, compared with the profilin-only group. Immunization with profilin plus IMS 1313, or with profilin plus ISA 71, reduced fecal oocysts shedding compared with the profilin-only group. Intestinal sIgA levels were greater in the profilin plus IMS 1313 or ISA 71 groups, and IgY levels were greater in the profilin plus ISA 71 group, compared with profilin alone. Birds vaccinated with profilin plus IMS 1313 or ISA 71 had higher percentages of CD4(+), CD8(+), and TCR1(+), but not TCR2(+), intestinal IELs compared with the profilin-only vaccinated group. Taken together, these results indicate that immunization of chickens with the recombinant profilin subunit vaccine in conjunction with IMS 1313 or ISA 71 adjuvants increases protective immunity against experimental E. acervulina infection. PMID:21627964

Jang, Seung I; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Sung Hyen; Lee, Kyung Woo; Lillehoj, Erik P; Bertrand, François; Dupuis, Laurent; Deville, Sébastien



Vaccinating adolescents in high-risk settings: lessons learned from experiences with hepatitis B vaccine.  


Meeting the health needs of adolescents who live in high-risk settings such as homeless shelters, migrant camps, juvenile detention centers, prisons, and other types of residential facilities presents many challenges. Although there is no doubt that adolescents in many high-risk settings are at increased risk for hepatitis B and human papillomavirus, acute medical and psychological problems may consume all of the provider's time and resources. Potential health threats such as vaccine-preventable diseases must necessarily be given lower priority. Lack of vaccination expertise, supplies, and access to records further complicate delivery of vaccines. Since the 1990s, a number of approaches have been used to deliver hepatitis B vaccine to adolescents in many high-risk settings. Close collaboration among state and federal programs, local health departments, and community-based organizations has been necessary to introduce and sustain the delivery of vaccines to these young people. Medicaid, Statute 317 of the Public Health Service Act, the Vaccines for Children program, and State Children's Health Insurance Program have been used to finance vaccinations for adolescents 18 years or younger, and the expanded Medicaid option in the Foster Care Independence Act of 1999 has been used for adolescents older than 18 years of age. A number of states allow adolescents under age 18 to consent to their own hepatitis B vaccination under laws passed to allow treatment of sexually transmitted infections without parental consent. In this article, we present the experiences of several model programs that developed successful hepatitis B vaccination programs in venues that serve adolescents at risk, the important role of state laws and state agencies in funding immunization and other preventive health services for adolescents in high-risk situations, and discuss barriers and means to resolve them. PMID:18174322

Sneller, Vishnu-Priya; Fishbein, Daniel B; Weinbaum, Cindy M; Lombard, Andrea; Murray, Paula; McLaurin, Jennie A; Friedman, Lawrence



Clinical and Immunological Parameters of Newcastle Disease Vaccination in Juvenile Ring - Necked Pheasants (Phasianus colchicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

5 Abstract: Clinical and immunological parameters of vaccinated ring-necked pheasants against Newcastle disease were evaluated. Sixty young birds were distributed into four different experimental groups, vaccinated or not against Newcastle disease (ND): G1 (Ulster 2C strain), G2 (B1 strain), G3 (LaSota strain) and G4 (nonvaccinated -control). The immune response was evaluated by the HI test. The vaccinations of pheasants with

Elizabeth Moreira Dos Santos Schmidt; Antonio Carlos Paulillo; Luiz Felipe Caron; Tobias Fernandes Filho; Marcelo Agustini; Henrique Larsen Brunow Ventura; Luciano Doretto Junior



Establishment of Eimeria tenella (local isolate) in chicken embryos  

PubMed Central

Development of an in vitro Eimeria (E.) tenella model could be valuable as a tool for vaccine, coccidiostats or molecular biology research. 1.0 × 104 sporozoites per 0.1 mL were inoculated into the allantoic cavity of ten-day-old chicken embryos. The complete lifecycle of E. tenella was accomplished in eight-nine days at 37 °C and 70% humidity. The addition of 100 U insulin to the embryos could remarkably improve the output of oocysts. The development of the parasite within the embryos was systematically observed, allowing guidelines to be set regarding the appropriate times at which different developmental stages of the parasite may be sampled. PMID:22910673

Jiang, L.; Zhao, Q.; Zhu, S.; Han, H.; Dong, H.; Huang, B.



Genetic and antigenic analysis of H5N1 viruses for selection of HA-donor virus for vaccine strains.  


Genetic and antigenic analysis of H5N1 viruses, isolated in India during a period from year 2006 to 2010, was carried out for selection of the potential H5-HA (haemagglutinin) gene donor virus for developing a reverse genetics based DIVA marker H5 vaccine for poultry in India. Out of the 47 H5N1 viruses (clade 2.2), 14 representative viruses were selected on the basis of amino acid sequence analysis of HA1 gene for further antigenic characterization. Using antigenic cartography, an antigenic map was constructed based on the data of cross-HI (haemagglutinin inhibition) titration of 14 sera versus 14 viruses to visualize the relatedness among the antigens and antigenic coverage of the sera. Sera against five H5N1 viruses (A/crow/Assam/142119/2008, A/chicken/West Bengal/100879/2008, A/chicken/West Bengal/155505/2009, A/chicken/West Bengal/80995/2008 and A/chicken/West Bengal/81760/2008) exhibited maximum (100 %) antigenic coverage, hence, were selected as the potential HA donor viruses. However, the virus strain A/chicken/West Bengal/80995/2008 matched completely with the consensus amino acid sequence of the 47 viruses, therefore, was considered the best HA donor candidate out of the five showing 100 % antigenic coverage. The present study demonstrates a stepwise methodology for logical selection of vaccine strain or HA gene donor strain for developing H5 vaccines using genetic and antigenic data. PMID:24426298

Bhatia, S; Kunal, A; Khandia, R; Siddiqui, A; Pateriya, A K; Sood, R



An in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the virulence of egg drop syndrome virus for the chicken reproductive tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virulence of strains of egg drop syndrome (EDS) 1976 virus for the female reproductive tract of chickens was assessed in vitro using oviduct organ cultures (OOC) prepared from precociously induced oviducts in young chicks by oestrogen treatment. Ciliostasis, haemagglutination and virus titres in infected OOC supernatants, histology and immunoperoxidase test results indicated the pathogenic ability of the four viruses

G. Dhinakar Raj; S. Sivakumar; B. Murali Manohar; K. Nachimuthu; A. Mahalinga Nainar



Induction of passive immunity in broiler chickens against Eimeria acervulina by hyperimmune egg yolk IgY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk (SC) prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts, on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing SC or a non-suppleme...


Clinical vaccine development  

PubMed Central

Vaccination is regarded as one of the biggest triumphs in the history of medicine. We are living in the most successful period of vaccine development. The accumulation of multidisciplinary knowledge and the investment of massive funding have enabled the development of vaccines against many infectious diseases as well as other diseases including malignant tumors. The paradigm of clinical vaccine evaluation and licensure has also been modernized based on scientific improvements and historical experience. However, there remain a number of hurdles to overcome. Continuous efforts are focused on increasing the efficacy and reducing the risks related to vaccine use. Cutting-edge knowledge about immunology and microbiology is being rapidly translated to vaccine development. Thus, physicians and others involved in the clinical development of vaccines should have sufficient understanding of the recent developmental trends in vaccination and the diseases of interest. PMID:25648742



Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine  


... shot is given. Less than 1% develop a fever, muscle aches, or more severe local reactions. A vaccine, like any medicine, could cause a serious reaction. But the risk of a vaccine causing serious harm, or death, is extremely small.


China's emerging vaccine industry.  


The Chinese vaccine industry is developing rapidly due to an emerging and large market for current and new vaccines, a large potential for local vaccine manufacturing both in the public and private domain, and a governmental orientation towards national vaccine self-sufficiency. There are currently over 40 companies and institutions manufacturing a large variety of traditional (EPI) and some new vaccines. The innovative development capacity of state vaccine institutions is stimulated by significant government investments. Various Chinese influenza manufacturers were in 2009 among the first worldwide to obtain national license for their pandemic H1N1 flu vaccines. It is of interest to note that private but also governmental entities are committed to raise manufacturing quality standards to reach WHO prequalification. It is expected that WHO prequalification for at least one product from a Chinese manufacturer will have been obtained by 2011. This will open the door to the global market for Chinese vaccines. PMID:20523120

Hendriks, Jan; Liang, Yan; Zeng, Bing



Ethics of vaccination programs.  


Ethical issues are present at each stage in the vaccine product life cycle, the period extending from the earliest stages of research through the eventual design and implementation of global vaccination programs. Recent developments highlight fundamental principles of vaccine ethics and raise unique issues for ongoing vaccination activities worldwide. These include the 2009-10 H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccination campaign, renewed attention to the potential global eradication of polio, and the ongoing evaluation of vaccine risk controversies, most notably the alleged link between childhood vaccines and autism. These cases present ethical challenges for public health policy-makers, scientists, physicians, and other stakeholders in their efforts to improve the health of individuals, communities, and nations through vaccination. PMID:22440783

Schwartz, Jason L; Caplan, Arthur L



The Economics of Vaccination  

E-print Network

The market for vaccinations is widely believed to be characterized by market failures, because individuals do not internalize the positive externalities that their vaccination decisions may confer on other individuals. Francis (1997) provided a set...

Chen, Frederick; Toxvaerd, Flavio



Cochlear-Meningitis Vaccination  


Cochlear-Meningitis Vaccination Cochlear-Meningitis Vaccination Patient Health Information News media interested in covering the latest from AAO-HNS/F can find information on embargoes, Annual Meeting ...


Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)  


... to Expect Ebola: What to Know Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccine KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Your Kid's ... bacterial infection that can lead to bacterial meningitis . Immunization Schedule Vaccination is recommended: when kids are 11 ...


Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection  


... for individuals to complete the entire course of vaccination contained in the USPHS recommendations. The great majority ... their blood tested for antibodies to see if vaccination is needed, employers cannot make such screening a ...


Ingredients of Vaccines  


... produced in the United States contains penicillin. Egg protein is found in influenza and yellow fever vaccines, ... aluminum, formaldehyde, human serum albumin, antibiotics, and yeast proteins in vaccines have not been found to be ...


Your baby's first vaccines  


... 4 to 6 years An additional dose of polio vaccine may be recommended for travel to certain countries. ... or collapse A fever of over 105°F Polio vaccine , if your child has a severe allergy to ...


Generating memory with vaccination.  


The goal of vaccination is to induce long-lasting protective immune memory. Although most vaccines induce good memory responses, the type of memory induced by different vaccines may be considerably different. In addition, memory responses to the same vaccine may be influenced by age, environmental and genetic factors. Results emerging from detailed and integrated profiling of immune-responses to natural infection or vaccination suggest that the type and duration of immune memory are largely determined by the magnitude and complexity of innate immune signals that imprint the acquired immune primary responses. Here we summarize results obtained from analyzing human immune memory responses to different types of vaccines. We will also discuss how extending clinical investigation to events occurring early after vaccination can help identify early predictive markers of protective memory and thus contribute to faster development of better and safer vaccines. PMID:19637203

Castellino, Flora; Galli, Grazia; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rappuoli, Rino



Influenza Vaccine, Live Intranasal  


... in the United States die from flu, and many more are hospitalized. Flu vaccine is the best protection against flu and its complications. Flu vaccine also helps prevent spreading flu from person to person.


Childhood Vaccine Schedule  


... Months Hib, PCV Measles, mumps and rubella (German measles) vaccine— MMR A "3 in 1" vaccine against three potentially life-threatening diseases: Measles, a virus that causes a rash, cough, runny ...


Prevalence of newcastle disease virus in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus) in Brazil  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out during 2002/2003, aiming to determine the prevalence of virulent Newcastle disease virus strains (NDV) in Brazilian commercial poultry farms. Clinical samples were obtained from the Southeastern, Southern and Central-Western regions, which comprise the main area of the Brazilian poultry production. Serum samples and tracheal and cloacal swabs of 23,745 broiler chickens from 1,583 flocks, including both vaccinated chickens and those with no vaccination information, were tested for NDV using a diagnostic ELISA kit. The seropositivity was 39.1%, and the isolation percentage by flock varied from 1.0 to 7.6%, and by region from 6.5 to 58.4%. Higher isolation rates (74.3-83.3%) were obtained after three passages in embryonated chicken eggs. All isolates preliminarily identified as NDV were characterized as nonpathogenic strains, as their Intracerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI) was below 0.7. Based on results of this study, Brazil can claim a virulent NDV-free status for commercial flocks. PMID:24031503

Orsi, M.A.; Doretto Jr, L.; Camillo, S.C.A.; Reischak, D.; Ribeiro, S.A.M.; Ramazzoti, A.; Mendonça, A.O.; Spilki, F.R.; Buzinaro, M.G.; Ferreira, H.L.; Arns, C.W.



Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: The potential to alter antibiotic use and nasopharyngeal carriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades, the incidence of drug-resistant pneumococcal strains has increased dramatically due to the overuse or inappropriate use of antibiotics. In addition, attendance at day care centers and previous treatment with certain classes of antibiotics are predisposing factors for infections with these drug-resistant strains. Implementation of widespread vaccination of infants and young children with the pneumococcal saccharide conjugated vaccine,

Ron Dagan



The Evidence for Efficacy of HPV Vaccines: Investigations in Categorical Data Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent approval of HPV vaccines and their widespread provision to young women provide an interesting context to gain experience with the application of statistical methods in current research. We demonstrate how we have used data extracted from a meta-analysis examining the efficacy of HPV vaccines in clinical trials with students in applied…

Gibbs, Alison L.; Goossens, Emery T.



The Evolutionary Consequences of Blood-Stage Vaccination on the Rodent Malaria Plasmodium  

E-print Network

partial protection to young children in a large phase 3 trial in Africa [10]. There are two ways parasites the impact of vaccination with a single highly purified antigen on the malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi parasites were then serially passaged through control or AMA-1 vaccinated mice and evaluated after 10 and 21

Read, Andrew


Avian influenza: genetic evolution under vaccination pressure  

PubMed Central

Antigenic drift of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been observed in chickens after extended vaccination program, similar to those observed with human influenza viruses. To evaluate the evolutionary properties of endemic AIV under high vaccination pressure (around 2 billion doses used in the last 12 years), we performed a pilot phylogenic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of AIVs isolated from 1994 to 2006. This study demonstrates that Mexican low pathogenicity (LP) H5N2-AIVs are constantly undergoing genetic drifts. Recent AIV isolates (2002–2006) show significant molecular drifts when compared with the H5N2 vaccine-strain or other field isolates (1994–2000). This study also demonstrates that molecular drifts in the HA gene lineages follow a yearly trend, suggesting gradually cumulative sequence mutations. These findings might explain the increasing incidence of LP H5N2 AIV isolated from commercial avian farms. These findings support recent concerns about the challenge of AIV antigenic drift and influenza epidemics. PMID:18218105

Escorcia, Magdalena; Vázquez, Lourdes; Méndez, Sara T; Rodríguez-Ropón, Andrea; Lucio, Eduardo; Nava, Gerardo M



Human Vaccines: News  

PubMed Central

High safety marks for Merck’s Gardasil Cuba tests prostate cancer vaccine HIV’s weak spot: V2 Unique anti-cancer agent ColoAd1 enters the clinic Broadly neutralizing antibodies against influenza A and B discovered Clinical trials initiated: Nexvax2 therapeutic vaccine for celiac disease The 20 top-selling vaccines in the first half of 2012 Influenza vaccine safe for pregnant women PMID:23151443

Riedmann, Eva M.



Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The development of the live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), based on the cold-adapted (ca), attenuated ca A\\/Ann Arbor\\/6\\/60 and ca B\\/Ann Arbor\\/1\\/66 backbones, has spanned several decades. The vaccine contains three vaccine strains, two attenuated influenza\\u000a A strains and one attenuated influenza B strain; these vaccine strains are genetic reassortants, each harboring two gene segments\\u000a from the currently circulating wild

Harry Greenberg; George Kemble


Evaluation of Montanide™ ISA 71 VG Adjuvant during Profilin Vaccination against Experimental Coccidiosis  

PubMed Central

Chickens were immunized subcutaneously with an Eimeria recombinant profilin protein plus Montanide™ ISA 70 VG (ISA 70) or Montanide™ ISA 71 VG (ISA 71) water-in-oil adjuvants, or with profilin alone, and comparative RNA microarray hybridizations were performed to ascertain global transcriptome changes induced by profilin/ISA 70 vs. profilin alone and by profilin/ISA 71 vs. profilin alone. While immunization with profilin/ISA 70 vs. profilin alone altered the levels of more total transcripts compared with profilin/ISA 71 vs. profilin alone (509 vs. 296), the latter was associated with a greater number of unique biological functions, and a larger number of genes within these functions, compared with the former. Further, canonical pathway analysis identified 10 pathways that were associated with genes encoding the altered transcripts in animals immunized with profilin/ISA 71 vs. profilin alone, compared with only 2 pathways in profilin/ISA 70 vs. profilin alone. Therefore, ISA 71 was selected as a candidate adjuvant in conjunction with profilin vaccination for in vivo disease protection studies. Vaccination with profilin/ISA 71 was associated with greater body weight gain following E. acervulina infection, and decreased parasite fecal shedding after E. maxima infection, compared with profilin alone. Anti-profilin antibody levels were higher in sera of E. maxima- and E. tenella-infected chickens vaccinated with profilin/ISA 71 compared with profilin alone. Finally, the levels of transcripts encoding interferon-?, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, and IL-17A were increased in intestinal lymphocytes from E. acervulina-, E. maxima-, and/or E. tenella-infected chickens vaccinated with profilin/ISA 71 compared with profilin alone. None of these effects were seen in chickens injected with ISA 71 alone indicating that the adj