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1

AA amyloidosis in vaccinated growing chickens.  

PubMed

Systemic amyloid-A (AA) amyloidosis in birds occurs most frequently in waterfowl such as Pekin ducks. In chickens, AA amyloidosis is observed as amyloid arthropathy. Outbreaks of systemic amyloidosis in flocks of layers are known to be induced by repeated inflammatory stimulation, such as those resulting from multiple vaccinations with oil-emulsified bacterins. Outbreaks of fatal AA amyloidosis were observed in growing chickens in a large scale poultry farm within 3 weeks of vaccination with multiple co-administered vaccines. This study documents the histopathological changes in tissues from these birds. Amyloid deposits were also observed at a high rate in the tissues of apparently healthy chickens. Vaccination should therefore be considered as a potential risk factor for the development of AA amyloidosis in poultry. PMID:23570943

Murakami, T; Inoshima, Y; Sakamoto, E; Fukushi, H; Sakai, H; Yanai, T; Ishiguro, N

2013-01-01

2

HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women  

MedlinePLUS

... STDs) Share Compartir HPV Vaccine Information For Young Women - Fact Sheet Two vaccines are available to prevent ... warts at any point in time. Which girls/women should receive HPV vaccination? HPV vaccination is recommended ...

3

Isolation of chicken anaemia agent and Marek's disease virus from chickens vaccinated with turkey herpesvirus and lesions induced in chicks by inoculating both agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A disease that was characterised by high mortality, necrotic lesions, severe thymic and bursal atrophy, as well as Marek's disease (MD) lesions, occurred in two young layer chicken flocks vaccinated with turkey herpesvirus (HVT) at hatching. An agent similar to the chicken anaemia agent, designated CAA82–2, and a virulent MD virus strain, designated Md82–2, were isolated from the kidneys of

Y. Otaki; T. Nunoya; M. Tajima; H. Tamada; Y. Nomura

1987-01-01

4

Anticoccidial vaccines for broiler chickens: Pathways to success  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of live vaccines, either attenuated or non-attenuated, for the control of coccidiosis due to Eimeria infections in broiler breeder or layer chickens is well established. Use in broilers, however, has been slow to gain acceptance. This has been partly for economic reasons, but also because of perceived adverse effects on early chick growth, particularly with non-attenuated vaccines, and

R. B. Williams

2002-01-01

5

Vaccine Reduces HPV Infections in Young Men  

Cancer.gov

An international randomized clinical trial has shown that the vaccine Gardasil can reduce the incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young men 16 to 26 years of age at the time of vaccination.

6

DNA vaccination with VP2 gene fragment confers protection against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in chickens.  

PubMed

Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) causes immunosuppression in young chickens by destruction of antibody producing B cells in the Bursa of Fabricius and poses a potential threat to the poultry industry. We have examined the protective efficacy of a subunit DNA vaccine against IBDV infection in chickens in this study. An immunodominant VP2 gene fragment (VP252-417) was cloned into CMV promoter based DNA vaccine vector pVAX1 and in vitro expression of the DNA encoded antigens was confirmed by transfection of CHO cells with vaccine constructs followed by RT-PCR and western blot analysis using IBDV-antiserum. Two weeks old chickens were immunized intramuscularly with pVAXVP252-417 and the in vivo transcription of the plasmid DNA was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of DNA injected muscle tissue at different intervals of post immunization. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that the plasmid DNA was extensively distributed in muscle, spleen, kidney, liver, and bursa tissues. Chickens immunized with pVAXVP252-417 developed high titer (1:12,000) of anti-VP252-417 antibodies. Further, chicken splenocytes from pVAXVP252-417 immunized group showed a significantly high proliferation to the whole viral and recombinant antigen (P<0.01) compared to control groups, which implies that pVAXVP252-417 codes for immunogenic fragment which has epitopes capable of eliciting both B and T cell responses. This is evident by the fact that, pVAXVP252-417 immunized chicken conferred 75% protection against virulent IBDV (vIBDV) challenge compared to the control group. Thus, the present study confirms that the immunodominant VP2 fragment can be used as a potential DNA vaccine against IBDV infection in chickens. PMID:24745626

Pradhan, Satya Narayan; Prince, Prabhu Rajaiah; Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Arunkumar, Chakkaravarthy; Roy, Parimal; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri; Antony, Usha

2014-06-25

7

Development and large-scale use of recombinant VP2 vaccine for the prevention of infectious bursal disease of chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of Gumboro disease, an infectious disease of global economic importance in poultry. One of the most effective types of inactivated IBDV vaccine is produced by infecting young chickens with a virulent strain, sacrificing them and extracting the virus from the bursa of Fabricius. The goal of this study was to produce

Jacob Pitcovski; Bezalel Gutter; Gilad Gallili; Martin Goldway; Beny Perelman; Gideon Gross; Simha Krispel; Marisa Barbakov; Amnon Michael

2003-01-01

8

A Comparison of the Different Vaccines Available for the Control of Newcastle Disease in Village Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly reviews the advantages and limitations of the different vaccines available for use against Newcastle disease in village chickens. Inactivated vaccines give very good immunity without vaccinal reactions and have been widely used, but are relatively expensive and require training to apply. Live vaccines are easy to apply and relatively inexpensive, and give moderately good immunity. Vaccinal reactions

J. G. Bell

9

Development of a recombinant vaccine against infectious coryza in chickens.  

PubMed

Infectious coryza is an acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum, and this infection is associated with growth retardation and reduced egg production. Previous studies have shown that HMTp210, a 210-kDa outer-membrane protein, is the major protective antigen of Av. paragallinarum both serovars A and C. Region 2 is a serovar-specific domain in the HMTp210 protein. Although the serovar C region 2 has been reported to be an effective vaccine antigen for infectious coryza, there have been no reports on the efficacy of region 2 from serovar A. In the current study, region 2 from serovars A and C was expressed as a fusion peptide. Chickens inoculated with vaccine consisting of 0.6 ?g of the fusion peptide showed no clinical signs of disease after challenge with either serovar A or C, and there were no side effects such as swelling at the injection site. These results demonstrate that the recombinant fusion peptide derived from HMTp210 could be useful for producing effective and safe vaccines against infectious coryza in chickens. PMID:23178044

Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Baba, Susumu; Ushijima, Toshihiro; Kino, Yoichiro; Honda, Takashi; Mizokami, Hiroshi; Sakaguchi, Masashi

2013-06-01

10

Detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus antibodies by glycoprotein-specific ELISAs in chickens vaccinated with viral vector vaccines.  

PubMed

Two glycoproteins of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), gI and gB, were expressed in baculovirus and purified for the development of ILTV recombinant protein-based ELISAs. The ability of gB and gI ELISAs to detect ILTV antibodies in chickens vaccinated with viral vector vaccines carrying the ILTV gB gene, Vectormune FP-LT (the commercial fowlpox vector laryngotracheitis vaccine) and Vectormune HVT-LT (commercial turkey herpesvirus vector laryngotracheitis vaccine), was evaluated using serum samples from experimentally vaccinated and challenge chickens. The detection of gB antibodies in the absence of gI antibodies in serum from chickens vaccinated with FP-LT indicated that the gB ELISA was specific for the detection of antibodies elicited by vaccination with this viral vector vaccine. The gB ELISA was more sensitive than the commercial ILTV ELISA to detect seroconversion after vaccination with the FP-LT vaccine. Both gI and gB antibodies were detected in the serum samples collected from chickens at different times postchallenge, indicating that the combination of these ELISAs was suitable to screen serum samples from chickens vaccinated with either recombinant viral vector FP-LT or HVT-LT vaccines. The agreement between the gI ELISA and the commercial ELISA to detect antibodies in serum samples collected after challenge was robust. However, further validation of these ELISAs needs to be performed with field samples. PMID:23901757

Godoy, Alecia; Icard, Alan; Martinez, Mellisa; Mashchenko, Anna; García, Maricarmen; El-Attrachea, John

2013-06-01

11

The influence of adjuvants on oral vaccination of chickens against Newcastle disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living V4 strain Newcastle disease vaccine was given to chickens orally. The inclusion of DEAE-dextran, Quil A or TiterMax® in the vaccine, or delivering the vaccine as Iscoms, did not enhance the serological response. The immediate serological response to living V4 vaccine was enhanced in the presence of Avridine. Chickens produced a low serological response to oral administration of inactivated

Shafqat F. Rehmani; P. B. Spradbrow

1995-01-01

12

Pathogenesis of Newcastle disease in vaccinated chickens: pathogenicity of isolated virus and vaccine effect on challenge of its virus.  

PubMed

The pathogenicity of Newcastle disease (ND) virus, isolated from ND outbreak in vaccinated chickens, was evaluated through experiments. The pathogenicity indexes (mean death time (MDT); 58 hr, intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI); 1.7 and intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI); 2.51) indicated that the ND virus was velogenic. The ND virus caused lymphocytic necrosis in the spleen with fibrinous exudation and proliferation of macrophages, sinusoidal fibrin exudation in the liver, proliferation of macrophages in the lung, lymphocytic necrosis and depletion in the bursa of Fabricius, cecal tonsils and thymus, necrosis of bone marrow, tracheitis, conjunctivitis and necrosis of feather epithelial cells in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Immunohistochemically, ND virus antigens were seen in the lesions mentioned above. The ND virus could not induce the encephalitis and pancreatitis that were observed in the natural case of ND in vaccinated chickens. There was no clinical disease in vaccinated chickens after the challenge of the ND virus. In diluted ND vaccine experiments, chickens vaccinated with a high dilution of vaccine and then challenged with the ND virus showed clinical sign and mortality with pancreatic focal necrosis. Vaccine diluted with fresh tap water had no effect on protection against the challenge of the ND virus. This study suggests that improper vaccination may be involved in outbreaks of ND in vaccinated chickens. PMID:23966012

Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Ito, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Yu; Yamada, Manabu; Mase, Masaji; Imai, Kunitoshi

2014-01-01

13

Safety and efficacy of a turkey herpesvirus vector laryngotracheitis vaccine for chickens.  

PubMed

Turkey herpesvirus vector laryngotracheitis vaccine (HVT/LT) expressing the glycoprotein B gene of laryngotracheitis virus (LTV) has been developed. In vitro growth kinetics of HVT/LT were similar to those of parental turkey herpesvirus (HVT), FC-126 strain. Genetic and phenotypic stabilities of HVT/LT after in vitro (in cell culture) or in vivo (in chickens) passage were confirmed by various assays, including Southern blot analysis, western blot analysis, and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Safety of HVT/LT was assessed by an overdose study as well as by a backpassage study in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. The overdose study indicated that HVT/LT did not cause any adverse effects in chickens. The backpassage study confirmed that HVT/LT does not revert to virulence after five passages in chickens. The vaccine did not transmit laterally from vaccinated chickens to commingled nonvaccinated chickens. Efficacy of HVT/LT was evaluated in SPF layer chickens after vaccination by the subcutaneous route at 1 day of age. The majority of the vaccinated chickens (92%-100%) were protected against challenge with virulent LTV at 7 wk of age. Efficacy of HVT/LT was further evaluated in broiler chickens from a commercial source after in ovo vaccination to embryos at 18 days of incubation. After challenge with virulent LTV at 21 and 35 days of age, 67% and 87% of HVT/LT-vaccinated chickens did not develop LT clinical signs, respectively, while 100% (21 days of age) and 73% (35 days of age) of the challenge control chickens showed clinical signs of LT. These results suggest that HVT/LT is a safe and efficacious vaccine for control of laryngotracheitis (LT). PMID:24689173

Esaki, Motoyuki; Noland, Lauren; Eddins, Tim; Godoy, Alecia; Saeki, Sakiko; Saitoh, Shuji; Yasuda, Atsushi; Dorsey, Kristi Moore

2013-06-01

14

Characterization of recombinant Raccoonpox Vaccine Vectors in Chickens  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Raccoonpox virus (RCN) has been used as a recombinant vector against several mammalian pathogens but has not been tested in birds. The replication of RCN in chick embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) and chickens was studied with the use of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 hemagglutinin (HA) as a model antigen and luciferase (luc) as a reporter gene. Although RCN replicated to low levels in CEFs, it efficiently expressed recombinant proteins and, in vivo, elicited anti-HA immunoglobulin yolk (IgY) antibody responses comparable to inactivated influenza virus. Biophotonic in vivo imaging of 1-wk-old chicks with RCN-luc showed strong expression of the luc reporter gene lasting up to 3 days postinfection. These studies demonstrate the potential of RCN as a vaccine vector for avian influenza and other poultry pathogens. ?? American Association of Avian Pathologists 2010.

Hwa, S. -H.; Iams, K. P.; Hall, J. S.; Kingstad, B. A.; Osorio, J. E.

2010-01-01

15

Polyvalent Marek's disease vaccines: Safety, efficacy and protective synergism in chickens with maternal antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Marek's disease (MD) vaccines were evaluated for safety and protective efficacy in chickens with maternal antibodies against serotype 1, 2 and 3 MD viruses and in chickens with no maternal antibodies. The vaccines were: (1) Md11\\/75C, an attenuated serotype 1 MD virus, (2) a trivalent mixture of MD virus strains Md11\\/75C and SB?1, and turkey herpesvirus (HVT) strain FC

R. L. Witter; L. F. Lee

1984-01-01

16

Evaluation of avian paramyxovirus serotypes 2 to 10 as vaccine vectors in chickens previously immunized against Newcastle disease virus.  

PubMed

Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also known as avian paramyxovirus (APMV) serotype 1, is used as a vaccine vector to express the hemagglutinin protein of avian influenza (AI) virus. However, use of live NDV recombinant vaccines expressing AI virus hemagglutinin is not desirable in emergency vaccination programs to control severe AI outbreaks in chickens, because commercial chickens often possess pre-existing NDV immunity induced by routine vaccination. Therefore, a novel vaccine vector is required for emergency vaccination of chickens to control AI during outbreaks. We investigated whether candidate APMV strains could be used as vaccine vectors that could evade the pre-existing immunity acquired by chickens through NDV vaccination and that would replicate in the mucosal tissues where AI virus primarily replicates. To this end, we examined strains of APMV serotypes 2 to 10 for their immunogenicity and replication in chickens with pre-existing immunity to NDV. APMV serotypes 2, 6, and 10 were the least cross-reactive to antibodies to NDV in hemagglutination inhibition and/or virus neutralization tests. Virus replication in mucosal tissues, as well as antibody response after oculonasal inoculation, was observed when 7-week-old chickens were challenged with APMV of serotype 2, 6, or 10. The APMV also replicated in mucosal tissues and induced antibody responses in chickens that had been vaccinated twice with NDV before challenge. These results warrant further study to develop vaccine vectors based on APMV serotype 2, 6, or 10 for emergency vaccination of chickens against AI. PMID:24880702

Tsunekuni, Ryota; Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko

2014-08-15

17

Vaccination of birds other than chickens and turkeys against avian influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Most avian influenza (AI) vaccination and field studies have focused on chickens and turkeys because of their high death rates and the large amounts of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus that they excrete into the environment when infected. Data on vaccination of other species against HPAI remain limited. An increasing number of studies have been conducted to test

G. Koch; M. Steensels; T. van den Berg

2009-01-01

18

Depression of vaccinal immunity to marek's disease by infection with chicken Anaemia agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicken anaemia agent (CAA) depressed protective vaccinal immunity against Marek's disease (MD) when vaccinated chicks were inoculated with CAA at 1 to 14 days of age. In chicks inoculated with CAA alone, a typical CAA infection as manifested by early mortality, decrease in haematocrit value, severe lymphoid depletion in the lymphoid organs, and aplasia of the bone marrow occurred only

Y. Otaaki; T. Nunoya; M. Tajima; A. Kato; Y. Nomura

1988-01-01

19

Effect of lipopolysaccharide on intranasal administration of liposomal Newcastle disease virus vaccine to SPF chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to potentiate the low immunogenicity of the inactivated Newcastle disease virus immunized into chickens by mucosal route, liposomes as a drug delivery system and LPS (lipopolysaccharide) as an immuno-stimulator were evaluated. Here, we report a new nasal delivery system of inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. The intranasal vaccine was based on different lipids to form MLV (multi-lamellar

Li-Ping Tseng; Chwei-Jang Chiou; Chien-Chung Chen; Ming-Chung Deng; Tze-Wen Chung; Yi-You Huang; Der-Zen Liu

2009-01-01

20

Efficacy of live B1 or Ulster 2C Newcastle disease vaccines simultaneously vaccinated with inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine for protection of Newcastle disease virus in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Two hundred, one-day-old broiler chicks were divided into groups 1, 2 and 3 containing 60, 70 and 70 chicks, respectively. The groups were divided into subgroups of 10 chicks that were vaccinated according to the following scheme: group 1 unvaccinated control, group 2 vaccinated subcutaneously at 1 day old with inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine (IOAV) in combination with live B1 vaccine. Group 3 was vaccinated in the same mode as group 2 with IOAV and live Ulster 2C vaccine. All birds were challenged when they were 28 days old. Mortality rate, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were monitored before and after challenge. All the chickens in group 1 died, indicating that there was no disease resistance of this unvaccinated control group of chickens. Conversely, the monitored disease resistance of chickens in groups 2 and 3 was 68.57% +/- 18.64 and 88.57% +/- 9.00, respectively (P < 0.05). The morbidity of chickens in groups 2 and 3 was 37.89% +/- 14.36 and 14.76% +/- 12.40, respectively (P < 0.05). The body weight gain, feed intake and FCR of group 3 were significantly better than those of group 2 (P < 0.05) during 1-42 days old. The simultaneous vaccination with B1 or Ulster 2C and IOAV of 1-day-old chicks gave some protection of 28-day-old broilers without a booster vaccination. PMID:16987398

Chansiripornchai, N; Sasipreeyajan, J

2006-01-01

21

VACCINATION OF YOUNG FOXES (VULPES VULPES, L.) AGAINST RABIES  

E-print Network

VACCINATION OF YOUNG FOXES (VULPES VULPES, L.) AGAINST RABIES: TRIALS WITH INACTIVATED VACCINE ANTIRABIQUE DE RENARDEAUX (VULPES VULPES, L.) A L'AIDE D'UN VACCIN INACTIV� ADMINISTR� PAR VOIES ORALE ET l'épreuve virulente. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes, L.) is the main vector of rabies in Belgium

Boyer, Edmond

22

Review of oral cholera vaccines: efficacy in young children  

PubMed Central

Background: Young children are one of the most vulnerable groups who may be infected with cholera. The following literature review of the efficacy of the currently available cholera vaccines provides a clear evidence base for the clinical administration of cholera vaccine, particularly in an epidemic situation. Aim: To assess the efficacy of oral cholera vaccines in preventing cases of cholera in young children. Methods: A systematic literature review was undertaken for the period 1983 to 2011 using PubMed and the search terms “oral cholera vaccines,” “children,” and “efficacy,” limited to “clinical trials” and “human studies”. Results: Oral cholera vaccine provides an acceptable level of protection in young children, with the level of protection being greater at 12 or 24 months following immunization. Conclusions: Children exposed to a potential risk of cholera are recommended to be vaccinated with an oral cholera vaccine, irrespective of whether its constituents include the B subunit. PMID:22114507

Aumatell, Cristina Masuet; Torrell, JM Ramon; Zuckerman, Jane N

2011-01-01

23

Protection of chickens against infectious bronchitis virus with a multivalent DNA vaccine and boosting with an inactivated vaccine  

PubMed Central

The protective efficacy of DNA plasmids encoding avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1, N, or M protein was investigated in chickens. Chickens were inoculated monovalently (with plasmid pVAX1-16S1, pVAX1-16M, or pVAX1-16N alone) or multivalently (combination of the three different plasmids, pVAX1-16S1/M/N). A prime-boost immunization protocol against IBV was developed. Chickens were immunized with the multivalent DNA vaccine twice and then boosted with an inactivated vaccine once. Antibody titers of the chickens immunized with pVAX1-16S1/M/N were much higher than those of the monovalent groups (p < 0.01). A protective rate up to 90% was observed in the pVAX1-16S1/M/N group. The serum antibody titers in the prime-boost birds were significantly higher than those of the multivalent DNA vaccine group (p < 0.01) but not significantly different compared to the inactivated vaccine group at 49 days of age. Additionally, the prime-boost group also showed the highest level of IBV-specific cellular proliferation compared to the monovalent groups (p < 0.01) but no significant difference was found compared to the multivalent DNA vaccine group, and the prime-boost group completely protected from followed viral challenge. PMID:23388447

Zhao, Yujun; Hu, Yongting; Qiu, Jianyang; Lei, Wenxin; Ji, Wenhui; Li, Xuying; Wu, Qian; Shi, Xiumin; Li, Zhong

2013-01-01

24

Evaluation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum K-strain as a live vaccine in chickens.  

PubMed

We evaluated the pathogenicity of three live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine candidates by infection via aerosol of 3-wk-old chickens with log phase broth cultures (trial 1). Two of the candidates (K3020 and K4649A) colonized only 10% and 20% of the chickens, respectively, unlike K2101 (K-strain), which was reisolated from all of the vaccinated chickens tested. K-strain inoculation did not result in significant air sac or tracheal lesions in chickens at 10 and 39 days postinfection (P < or = 0.05). The efficacy of K-strain as a live vaccine was evaluated in trial 2, by challenge of vaccinated chickens with virulent R-strain via aerosol at 6 wk postvaccination. K-strain vaccination resulted in significant protection from air sac and tracheal lesions (P < or = 0.05). The K-strain was further investigated to evaluate transmissibility (trial 3), colonization and persistence of infection following aerosol administration (trial 4), genetic and phenotypic stability following back passage through chickens (trial 5), and vertical transmission (trial 6). The K-strain had a low rate of horizontal transmission; it remained primarily in the respiratory system of inoculated birds and persisted in the upper respiratory tract for the duration of the trial 4 (5 mo). There was no increase in virulence of K-strain when it was back passaged five times through chickens, and no vertical transmission of K-strain was detected. K-strain showed great potential as a safe and effective live MG vaccine. PMID:22545527

Ferguson-Noel, N M; Laibinis, V A; Kleven, S H

2012-03-01

25

Vaccination of Chickens with SPI1-lon and SPI1-lon-fliC Mutant of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is gradually decreasing in poultry flocks in the EU, which may result in the demand for a vaccine that allows for the differentiation of vaccinated flocks from those infected by wild-type S. Enteritidis. In this study, we therefore constructed a (Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1) SPI1-lon mutant with or without fliC encoding for S. Enteritidis flagellin. The combination of SPI1-lon mutations resulted in attenuated but immunogenic mutant suitable for oral vaccination of poultry. In addition, the vaccination of chickens with the SPI1-lon-fliC mutant enabled the serological differentiation of vaccinated and infected chickens. The absence of fliC therefore did not affect the immunogenicity of the vaccine strain and allowed for serological differentiation of the vaccinated chickens. The SPI1-lon-fliC mutant is therefore a suitable marker vaccine strain for oral vaccination of poultry. PMID:23785484

Matulova, Marta; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan

2013-01-01

26

Assessment of attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains in controlling experimental Salmonella Typhimurium infection in chickens  

PubMed Central

Salmonella hold considerable promise as vaccine delivery vectors for heterologous antigens in chickens. Such vaccines have the potential additional benefit of also controlling Salmonella infection in immunized birds. As a way of selecting attenuated strains with optimal immunogenic potential as antigen delivery vectors, this study screened 20 novel Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, differing in mutations associated with delayed antigen synthesis and delayed attenuation, for their efficacy in controlling colonization by virulent Salmonella Typhimurium, as well as for their persistence in the intestine and the spleen. Marked differences were observed between strains in these characteristics, which provide the basis for selection for further study as vaccine vectors. PMID:24396177

Pei, Yanlong; Parreira, Valeria R.; Roland, Kenneth L.; Curtiss, Roy; Prescott, John F.

2014-01-01

27

Differences in protection between heavy and light breeds of chickens following vaccination with Newcastle disease vaccines—a survey of data, 1971 to 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data obtained over 20 years of Newcastle disease vaccine testing were statistically analyzed. The protection afforded heavy and light breeds of chickens was compared following challenge (efficacy) after vaccination with live and inactivated vaccines produced from different virus strains. Standard challenge virus was used throughout the period.The data show that the heavy breeds were significantly inferior in their protectability when

I. Samina; J. Brenner; B. A. Peleg

1992-01-01

28

Immune responses of breeding chickens to trivalent oil emulsion vaccines: responses to Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bivalent Newcastle disease (ND)\\/infectious bursal disease (IBD) and trivalent ND\\/IBD\\/infectious bronchitis (IB) inactivated oil emulsion vaccines were prepared in the laboratory and evaluated under field conditions. Broiler breeder parent chickens previously vaccinated with live vaccines were inoculated with commercial monovalent ND and experimental bivalent or trivalent oil emulsion vaccines. The commercial vaccine induced a higher initial ND haemagglutination inhibition (HI)

PJ Wyeth; RE Gough; GA Cullen

1981-01-01

29

Flagellin a toll-like receptor 5 agonist as an adjuvant in chicken vaccines.  

PubMed

Chicken raised under commercial conditions are vulnerable to environmental exposure to a number of pathogens. Therefore, regular vaccination of the flock is an absolute requirement to prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases. To combat infectious diseases, vaccines require inclusion of effective adjuvants that promote enhanced protection and do not cause any undesired adverse reaction when administered to birds along with the vaccine. With this perspective in mind, there is an increased need for effective better vaccine adjuvants. Efforts are being made to enhance vaccine efficacy by the use of suitable adjuvants, particularly Toll-like receptor (TLR)-based adjuvants. TLRs are among the types of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize conserved pathogen molecules. A number of studies have documented the effectiveness of flagellin as an adjuvant as well as its ability to promote cytokine production by a range of innate immune cells. This minireview summarizes our current understanding of flagellin action, its role in inducing cytokine response in chicken cells, and the potential use of flagellin as well as its combination with other TLR ligands as an adjuvant in chicken vaccines. PMID:24451328

Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Bajwa, Preety; Deb, Rajib; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan; Dey, Sohini

2014-03-01

30

Flagellin A Toll-Like Receptor 5 Agonist as an Adjuvant in Chicken Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Chicken raised under commercial conditions are vulnerable to environmental exposure to a number of pathogens. Therefore, regular vaccination of the flock is an absolute requirement to prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases. To combat infectious diseases, vaccines require inclusion of effective adjuvants that promote enhanced protection and do not cause any undesired adverse reaction when administered to birds along with the vaccine. With this perspective in mind, there is an increased need for effective better vaccine adjuvants. Efforts are being made to enhance vaccine efficacy by the use of suitable adjuvants, particularly Toll-like receptor (TLR)-based adjuvants. TLRs are among the types of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize conserved pathogen molecules. A number of studies have documented the effectiveness of flagellin as an adjuvant as well as its ability to promote cytokine production by a range of innate immune cells. This minireview summarizes our current understanding of flagellin action, its role in inducing cytokine response in chicken cells, and the potential use of flagellin as well as its combination with other TLR ligands as an adjuvant in chicken vaccines. PMID:24451328

Bajwa, Preety; Deb, Rajib; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan; Dey, Sohini

2014-01-01

31

Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…

Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

2010-01-01

32

Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability Among Young Adults in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high prevalence setting of South Africa—where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. In 2007, we conducted six focus groups (n=42) with South Africans aged 18-24 years old. We used a deductive framework approach to identify key motivators and barriers to future HIV vaccine uptake. Participants identified HIV testing, HIV stigma, mistrust of the health care system, and concerns about sexual disinhibition as barriers to vaccine uptake. For women, family members and friends were strong motivators for vaccine uptake, while men were more likely to see vaccines as an opportunity to stop using HIV prevention strategies such as condoms and partner reductions. Implications of these findings for developing HIV vaccine dissemination strategies and policy in South Africa are discussed. PMID:19509123

Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

2010-01-01

33

Protective immune response of chickens against Newcastle disease, induced by the intranasal vaccination with inactivated virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intranasal vaccination of chickens with inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) induced both local and systemic antibody responses, resulting in protection against intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of a virulent NDV strain. The immune response was enhanced by the use of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as an adjuvant and only small amounts of the challenge virus were recovered from

Ayato Takada; Hiroshi Kida

1996-01-01

34

Effect of lipopolysaccharide on intranasal administration of liposomal Newcastle disease virus vaccine to SPF chickens.  

PubMed

In order to potentiate the low immunogenicity of the inactivated Newcastle disease virus immunized into chickens by mucosal route, liposomes as a drug delivery system and LPS (lipopolysaccharide) as an immuno-stimulator were evaluated. Here, we report a new nasal delivery system of inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. The intranasal vaccine was based on different lipids to form MLV (multi-lamellar vehicles) liposomes. The liposomes had combined carrier and adjuvant activities, which induced strong systemic (serum) and local (lung and nasal) humoral responses in SPF (specific-pathogen-free) chickens, and provided protective immunity. PC-Lip (phosphatidylcholine-liposome) elicited significant mucosal secretary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) levels (p<0.05) in tracheal lavage fluid and serum IgG levels (p<0.05). In response to virulent viral challenge, birds treated with PBS (phosphate buffered saline) as control group died, whereas 80% of chickens which received PC-Lip, PC-Lip-LPS, PS-Lip (phosphatidylserine-liposome), and PS-Lip-LPS survived. HAI titers were 1:2560 in the PS-Lip-LPS group and 1:1280 in the PC-Lip, PC-Lip-LPS, and PS-Lip groups after two vaccinations. The results suggest that PC-Lip or PS-Lip might thus be suitable as a potential adjuvant for mucosal vaccination against NDV in chickens. PMID:19439366

Tseng, Li-Ping; Chiou, Chwei-Jang; Chen, Chien-Chung; Deng, Ming-Chung; Chung, Tze-Wen; Huang, Yi-You; Liu, Der-Zen

2009-10-15

35

Delayed vaccine virus replication in chickens vaccinated subcutaneously with an immune complex infectious bursal disease vaccine: quantification of vaccine virus by real-time polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

The distribution of the immune complex vaccine virus for infectious bursal disease (IBD) in tissue was examined and the viral loads of the organs were quantitatively compared. One-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) and maternally immune broiler chickens were injected subcutaneously with the vaccine. Lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues were collected at various time intervals during the experiment to test for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-RNA by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Only the bursa of Fabricius was found to be positive with unusually long viral persistence in the broiler group. The positive bursa samples were further investigated by using real-time PCR coupled with a TaqMan probe. The highest amounts of the virus were detected at its first appearance in the bursa: on day 14 post vaccination (PV) in the SPF chickens and on day 17 and day 21 PV in the maternally immune broiler group. The virus then gradually cleared, most likely due to the arallel appearance of the active immune response indicated by seroconversion. PMID:15971678

Iván, Judit; Velhner, Maja; Ursu, Krisztina; German, Péter; Mató, Tamás; Drén, Csaba Nick; Mészáros, János

2005-04-01

36

Avian influenza virus vaccines containing Toll-like receptors 2 and 5 ligand adjuvants promote protective immune responses in chickens.  

PubMed

Vaccination remains a useful means for the control of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in chickens. Current vaccines can protect chickens from morbidity and mortality. However, they do not eliminate virus shedding into the environment. Therefore, novel measures must be considered in order to enhance the immunogenicity of AIV vaccines, such as through the administration of immunostimulatory compounds. One such group of compounds is Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, such as bacterial flagellin, as well as synthetic lipopeptides such as Pam3CSK4. The objective of the present study was to assess the adjuvant potential of TLR2 and TLR5 ligands flagellin and Pam3 respectively. Chickens were vaccinated twice with an inactivated H4N6 AIV vaccine, 14 days apart. Antibody-mediated responses were assessed in sera and lacrimal secretions, while cell-mediated immune response was assessed by stimulating splenocytes from vaccinated chickens in vitro with the vaccine antigen. To evaluate vaccine efficacy, chickens were challenged with the H4N6 virus, and virus shedding was assessed on day 7 post-challenge. The results suggest that both ligands significantly enhanced antigen-specific IgY antibodies, while only the Pam3 adjuvant induced greater IgM and IgA antibody levels. Chickens receiving the flagellin adjuvant had significantly higher IgY responses, as well as significantly higher hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titers compared to the no adjuvant control. With respect to cell-mediated responses, splenocytes isolated from chickens that received either TLR ligand adjuvant proliferated in response to an in vitro stimulation with vaccine antigens. Lastly, chickens receiving vaccines containing either flagellin or Pam3 adjuvants were partially protected from an experimental AIV challenge and shed significantly less virus compared to controls. Future studies may be aimed at examining the efficacy of Pam3 and flagellin adjuvants for highly pathogenic AIV strains. PMID:24797722

St Paul, Michael; Brisbin, Jennifer T; Barjesteh, Neda; Villaneueva, Alexander Ian; Parvizi, Payvand; Read, Leah R; Nagy, Eva; Sharif, Shayan

2014-05-01

37

Vaccination of chickens using raw rice coated with novel trehalose nano-organogels containing Newcastle disease (strain I-2) vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formulation and evaluation of trehalose nano-organogels for storage and oral delivery of Newcastle disease (ND) strain\\u000a I-2 vaccine to chickens were carried out in this study. Trehalose sugar was blended with vegetable oil to form nano-organogels\\u000a where trehalose also acted as a stabilizer against thermal inactivation of I-2 ND virus. Results from infectivity titration\\u000a assay indicated that the titre

P. N. Wambura

2009-01-01

38

Calcium phosphate coupled Newcastle disease vaccine elicits humoral and cell mediated immune responses in chickens.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate (CaP) particles were coupled with inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. The surface morphology of CaP particles coupled to NDV was found to be spherical, smooth and with a tendency to agglomerate. The mean (± SE) size of CaP particles was found 557.44 ± 18.62 nm. The mean percent encapsulation efficiency of CaP particles coupled to NDV assessed based on total protein content and haemagglutination (HA) activity in eluate was found to be 10.72 ± 0.89 and 12.50 ± 2.09, respectively. The humoral and cell mediated immune responses induced by CaP coupled NDV vaccine were assessed in comparison to a commercial live vaccine (RDV 'F'). CaP coupled NDV vaccine elicited prolonged haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titres in the serum even at fourth and fifth week post-vaccination (PV), unlike RDV 'F' inoculated chickens whose titres declined to insignificant levels by this time. CaP coupled NDV vaccine could stimulate HI antibodies in tracheal washings and tears from second and first week PV, respectively. IgA ELISA antibodies were also seen in tracheal washings of these birds from third week PV and in tears from second week PV. CaP coupled NDV vaccine elicited cell mediated immune responses (CMI) from two to four weeks PV. The stimulation indices obtained after stimulation with specific antigen was not significantly different between CaP coupled antigen and live NDV virus except on first week PV. However, CaP coupled antigen did not cause suppression of lympo proliferation as indicated by statistically similar responses to mitogen, concanavalin A between the two groups. Overall, CaP coupled NDV vaccine elicited stronger and prolonged immune responses in comparison to the commercial live vaccine. No increase in the serum calcium and phosphorous levels were seen in CaP coupled NDV vaccine inoculated chickens. PMID:20951398

Koppad, Sanganagouda; Raj, G Dhinakar; Gopinath, V P; Kirubaharan, J John; Thangavelu, A; Thiagarajan, V

2011-12-01

39

[Infectious laryngotracheitis in chickens, peacocks and pheasants and means and limitations for its control with attenuated live vaccines].  

PubMed

All hitherto examined gallinaceous birds (Phasianiformes) are susceptible for the virus of infectious laryngotracheits, an avian alpha-herpesvirus. Degree and duration of the disease are highly variable. Chickens of all breeds, peacocks and some of the numerous species of pheasants (diamont, blue and white ear, impeyanus, Reeve's, Elliott and argus pheasant) suffer from severe haemorrhagic or fibrinous laryngotracheitis. The ring-necked pheasant displays a distinct conjunctivitis and sinusitis following natural exposure. An attenuated live virus vaccine is sofar developed, tested and registered only for the chicken. The vaccine is usually administered in the conjunctival sac (eye drop method). All vaccinated chickens are to be kept separately from unvaccinated chickens for four weeks post vaccinationem. Separation is also necessary for peacocks and pheasants because these birds may suffer from infection of vaccinal virus. The attenuated live virus vaccine should only be administered to chickens in areas in which ILT is endemic. Chickens less than four weeks of age as well as any of the peacock and pheasant species must not be vaccinated. Turkeys do normally not contract the disease and therefore need no protection by vaccination. PMID:9451766

Kaleta, E F; Redmann, T

1997-11-01

40

Human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance among young men in Bangalore, India  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world. It can lead to anogenital, cervical, and head and neck cancer, with higher risk of malignant disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. In India, 73,000 of the 130,000 women diagnosed with cervical cancer die annually. Gardasil®, a vaccine available against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, is approved for use in women in India but not men. A backlash to post-licensure trials has created a negative public opinion of the vaccine for women. Vaccinating boys and men is an alternate approach to prevent cervical cancer in women. This study gauges facilitators and barriers to vaccination acceptance among men in Bangalore, India. Materials and methods Young men presenting to a dermatology clinic or an ART center in Bangalore, India, answered a seven-point survey assessing acceptance of the HPV vaccine, perceived barriers to vaccination, and acceptance of vaccination for their children. Ninety-three general dermatology patients and 85 patients with HIV/AIDS participated. Results There was a high degree of vaccine acceptance for both groups, 83 and 98%, respectively. Vaccine side effects and cost were cited as key barriers to vaccination, and doctor recommendation and government approval were the main facilitators. Conclusion There is potential for high acceptability of the HPV vaccine among men in India. These results can facilitate further study of vaccine acceptance among males and physician opinion and knowledge about HPV vaccine use. Vaccination of males is a hopeful strategy to protect men and women from HPV-related malignancies. PMID:24961359

Belani, Hrishikesh Kumar; Sekar, Poorani; Guhaniyogi, Rajarshi; Abraham, Anil; Bohjanen, Paul R.; Bohjanen, Kim

2014-01-01

41

Salmonella flagellin enhances mucosal immunity of avian influenza vaccine in chickens.  

PubMed

Flagellin, a bioactive Toll-like receptor (TLR) 5 ligand, may trigger the innate immunity that in turn is important for subsequent adaptive immune responses. In the present study, the adjuvant effects of the monomeric and polymeric forms of Salmonella flagellin (mFliC and pFliC, respectively) were examined in specific-pathogen free (SPF) chickens immunized intramuscularly (i.m.) or intranasally (i.n.) with formalin-inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) H5N2 vaccines. Results showed that mFliC cooperating with the 64CpG adjuvant significantly induced influenza-specific antibody titers of plasma IgA in the i.m.-vaccinated animals. The nasal IgA levels in the i.n.-mFliC-coadministrated AIV vaccinated chickens were significantly elevated compared to levels observed in the control group (H5N2 vaccine alone). The pFliC cooperating with the 64CpG adjuvant significantly enhanced cell proliferation of splenocytes in the i.m.-vaccinated animals. TLR3 and TLR5 expressions were activated by flagellin stimulation in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that flagellin can be used as an adjuvant in an AIV H5N2 vaccine, especially for mucosal immunity. PMID:22226542

Chaung, Hso-Chi; Cheng, Li-Ting; Hung, Li-Hsiang; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Skountzou, Ioanna; Wang, Baozhong; Compans, Richard W; Lien, Yi-Yang

2012-05-25

42

Effects of two infectious bursal disease vaccine virus strains on hepatic microsomal enzyme activities in chickens.  

PubMed

The influence of two infectious bursal disease vaccines on the activities of hepatic microsomal enzymes aniline hydroxylase, ethylmorphine N-demethylase, NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, aryl sulphotransferase and p-nitrophenol UDP-glucuronyltransferase was investigated in chickens. The vaccines contained attenuated Winterfield 2512 and VMG-91 strains, respectively. The activities of enzymes were determined on postvaccination days 0, 2, 5 and 7. At the same time, post-mitochondrial supernatant, cytosolic and microsomal pellet protein concentrations were determined. As expected, the antibody titres against infectious bursal disease virus in the serum were increased in both tested groups in relation to each administered vaccine. Using RT-PCR, the presence of the VP2 gene fragment of virus in the liver of chicken was demonstrated 4 and 6 h after vaccination. The results of this study suggest that the two commercial vaccines modulate the activities of five enzymes tested, and that the two attenuated vaccines applied triggered induction and/or inhibition of phases I and II of biotransformation enzyme activities. PMID:16841765

Crni?, Andreja Prevendar; Sakar, D; Pompe-Gotal, Jelena; Bidin, Z; Lojki?, Ivana; Cajavec, S

2006-06-01

43

Locally produced mucosal IgG in chickens immunized with conventional vaccines for Newcastle disease virus.  

PubMed

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the causative agent of an economically important disease, which affects all species of birds worldwide. Current vaccination programs for NDV include the use of either low-virulent live-virus vaccines or inactivated vaccines to induce protective immunity while producing minimal adverse effects in birds. In order to further characterize the immune response elicited by live virus and inactivated NDV conventional vaccines in chickens, we evaluated the presence of specific antibodies in different secretions and in tissue culture supernatants of immunized birds. To this end, we analyzed all the samples by ELISA, using an indirect assay set up in the laboratory. Specific anti-NDV IgG antibodies were detected in tracheal and cloacal swabs and tracheal and intestinal washes of immunized animals. We also found specific anti-NDV IgG antibodies in tracheal and intestinal tissue culture supernatants, indicating that the IgG found in swabs and washes was not transudated from serum or, at least, was not all transudated from serum. Knowledge about the mechanisms involved in the immune response of chickens to different NDV vaccines should increase our understanding of the mucosal response against the virus and, eventually, provide new useful information for the development and evaluation of synthetic vaccines. PMID:18392454

Chimeno Zoth, S; Gómez, E; Carrillo, E; Berinstein, A

2008-04-01

44

A Serological Study of Newcastle Disease in Pre and Post-Vaccinated Village Chickens in North of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newcastle disease is one of the major problems for village chicken production, which is a n important item in the economy of villages in Iran. In order to investigate the Newcastle disease status in village flocks of Iran, a serological study was performed on the prevalence of Newcastle disease in pre- and post-vaccinated village chickens by means a haemagglutination inhibition

2004-01-01

45

Adjuvant effect of ginsenoside-based nanoparticles (ginsomes) on the recombinant vaccine against Eimeria tenella in chickens.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to study the adjuvant effect of ginsomes on the recombinant profilin in coccidian-infected breeding birds. Three-day-old chickens were vaccinated with Eimeria tenella recombinant profilin antigen (10, 50, and 100 ?g per chicken) with or without 50 ?g ginsomes per chicken. The boost vaccination was carried out 14 days later. Two weeks after the booster, the chickens were challenged with 1.5?×?10(4) homologous sporulated oocysts. The specific antibody response, lymphocyte proliferation, and IL-1 release from lymphocyte were measured at 1-42 days after boost vaccination. Seven days post-challenge, the rate of survival, body weight gains (BWG) were examined then all chickens were sacrificed and lesion scores and oocysts per gram were monitored to evaluate the protective effects of the vaccination after challenge. Compared with the group of vaccinating with profilin only, groups of 50 and 100 ?g antigen plus ginsomes significantly enhanced lymphocyte proliferation and IL-1 secretion. The profilin specific antibody level in the four vaccinated groups was significantly higher than in the control group and in groups vaccinated with profilin containing ginsomes than profilin only. In the groups vaccinated with profilin plus ginsomes, the BWG was significantly higher than that of group of profilin only, but there was no significant difference between profilin plus adjuvant ginsomes, diclazuril medicated and uninfected-unmedicated-unvaccinated control groups. The lesion scores in groups immunized with profilin plus ginsomes was significantly lower than that both of groups unimmunized-challenged-unmedicated control and group vaccinated with profilin only. Oocyst excretion in groups vaccinated with 50 or 100 ?g profilin plus ginsomes was lower than that of groups vaccinated with profilin only. These results demonstrate that the adjuvant ginsomes can promote subunit vaccine to induce a strong immune response and protective effects. PMID:22215190

Zhang, De-Fu; Xu, Hui; Sun, Bing-Bing; Li, Jian-Qiu; Zhou, Qian-Jin; Zhang, Hong-Li; Du, Ai-Fang

2012-06-01

46

Immune responses of chickens inoculated with a recombinant fowlpox vaccine coexpressing glycoprotein B of infectious laryngotracheitis virus and chicken IL-18.  

PubMed

Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes severe and economically significant respiratory disease in poultry worldwide. Herein, the immunogenicity of two recombinant fowlpox viruses (rFPV-gB and rFPV-gB/IL18) containing ILTV glycoprotein B (gB) and chicken interleukin-18 (IL-18) were investigated in a challenge model. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were vaccinated by wing-web puncture with the two rFPVs and challenged with the virulent ILTV CG strain. There were differences in antibody levels elicited by either rFPV-gB/IL18 or rFPV-gB as determined using ELISA. The ratios of CD4(+) to CD8(+) in chickens immunized with rFPV-gB/IL18 were higher (P < 0.05) than in those immunized with rFPV-gB, and the level of proliferative response of the T cells in the rFPV-gB/IL18-vaccinated group was higher (P < 0.05) than that in the rFPV-gB group. All chickens immunized with rFPV-gB/IL18 were protected (10/10), whereas only eight of 10 of the chickens immunized with the rFPV-gB were protected. The results showed that the protective efficacy of the rFPV-gB vaccine could be enhanced by simultaneous expression of chicken IL-18. PMID:22077232

Chen, Hong-Ying; Cui, Pei; Cui, Bao-An; Li, He-Ping; Jiao, Xian-Qin; Zheng, Lan-Lan; Cheng, Guo; Chao, An-Jun

2011-11-01

47

The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox, a live anticoccidial vaccine in a commercial trial in broiler chickens in China.  

PubMed

The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox, a live anticoccidial vaccine were examined and compared with an anticoccidial drug in a trial in broiler chickens under modern commercial conditions in China. In total, 40,660 chickens were used in the present study, half of which were vaccinated with the Supercox vaccine comprising a precocious line of Eimeria tenella and non-attenuated lines of Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina, and the other half were medicated with Diclazuril delivered as feed additive at the dosage of 1mg/kg of feed. The vaccine was administered orally to 7-day-old chickens. No clinical diseases were diagnosed in any of the vaccinated birds. However, clinical coccidiosis occurred in a large proportion of medicated control birds and these chickens had to be treated with anticoccidial drugs (Diclazuril and Toltrazuril). Comparison of production performance between vaccinated birds and medicated control birds revealed that the vaccine Supercox performed better than anticoccidial drugs in terms of mortalities, costs and overall economic benefits (profits). These findings demonstrated that the use of the Supercox vaccine could control clinical coccidiosis in broilers and achieve production performance superior to that using anticoccidial drugs, particularly where drug resistance might result in failure to control clinical diseases. PMID:16876953

Suo, X; Zhang, J X; Li, Z G; Yang, C T; Min, Q R; Xu, L T; Liu, Q; Zhu, X Q

2006-11-30

48

Protective efficacy of commercial inactivated Newcastle disease virus vaccines in chickens against a recent Korean epizootic strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the intensive vaccination policy that has been put in place to control Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the recent emergence of NDV genotype VII strains in Korea has led to significant economic losses in the poultry industry. We assessed the ability of inactivated, oil-emulsion vaccines derived from La Sota or Ulster 2C NDV strains to protect chickens from challenge with

Woo-Jin Jeon; Eun-Kyoung Lee; Young-Jeong Lee; Ok-Mi Jeong; Yong-Joo Kim; Jun-Hun Kwon; Kang-Seuk Choi

2008-01-01

49

Baculovirus-derived hemagglutinin vaccine protects chickens from lethal homologous virus H5N1 challenge.  

PubMed

Since outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in both human and poultry from 2003, it is critical to have effective vaccines. A cDNA fragment coding the entire hemagglutinin (HA) gene derived from an H5N1 strain (A/duck/China/E319-2/03) was cloned and expressed using the baculovirus system. Two weeks after receiving two doses of recombinant HA (rHA) vaccines, chickens develop high antibody response for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) at titer 7.2 log(2). Challenge studies revealed that vaccinated chickens with HI titers greater than 3 log(2) could have immunoprotection against the same HPAI H5N1 strain virus challenge through intranasal route. Additionally, HI titer of 5 log(2) determined whether the live viruses could not be detected from oropharyngeal, cloacal discharge or in tissues. This result suggests that the rHA expressed from baculovirus system could be a candidate for the development of a safe and efficient subunit vaccine for HPAI (H5N1). PMID:19057130

Lin, Y J; Deng, M C; Wu, S H; Chen, Y L; Cheng, H C; Chang, C Y; Lee, M S; Chien, M S; Huang, C C

2008-11-01

50

The influence of liposomal adjuvant on intranasal vaccination of chickens against Newcastle disease.  

PubMed

The adjuvant effect of liposomes formulated with three phospholipids including phosphatidylcholine-liposomes (PC-Lip), phosphatidylserine-liposomes (PS-Lip), and stearylamine-liposomes (SA-Lip) was compared with virus alone using inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) as a model antigen. The difference in adjuvanticity was evaluated using the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a challenge study following intranasal inoculation of specific pathogen-free chickens. After two inoculations, a liposomal vaccine consisting of NDV in PC-Lip resulted in a significant increase in HI titre, up to 32-fold higher than a vaccine containing virus alone and 320-fold higher than a vaccine containing NDV in SA-Lip. PC-Lip also elicited a significant mucosal secretary immunoglobulin A response (P<0.05) in tracheal lavages and a serum IgG response (P<0.05). In response to viral challenge, all control animals died, whereas 90% of animals which received PC-Lip survived. The results suggest that PC-Lip may be suitable as an adjuvant for mucosal vaccination against NDV in chickens. PMID:19570697

Tseng, Li-Ping; Liang, Hong-Jen; Deng, Ming-Chung; Lee, Kuo-Ming; Pan, Ryh-Nan; Yang, Jen-Chang; Huang, Yi-You; Liu, Der-Zen

2010-08-01

51

Maternal immunization with vaccines containing recombinant NetB toxin partially protects progeny chickens from necrotic enteritis  

PubMed Central

Avian necrotic enteritis is a major economic and welfare issue throughout the global poultry industry and is caused by isolates of Clostridium perfringens that produce NetB toxin. Previously we have shown that birds directly vaccinated with inactivated C. perfringens type A culture supernatant (toxoid) combined with recombinant NetB (rNetB) protein were significantly protected from homologous and heterologous challenge. In the present study the protective effect of maternal immunization was examined. Broiler breeder hens were injected subcutaneously with genetically toxoided rNetB(S254L) alone, C. perfringens type A toxoid and toxoid combined with rNetB(S254L). Vaccination resulted in a strong serum immunoglobulin Y response to NetB in hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) formulations. Anti-NetB antibodies were transferred to the eggs and on into the hatched progeny. Subclinical necrotic enteritis was induced experimentally in the progeny and the occurrence of specific necrotic enteritis lesions evaluated. Birds derived from hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) combined with toxoid and challenged with a homologous strain (EHE-NE18) at either 14 or 21 days post-hatch had significantly lower levels of disease compared to birds from adjuvant only vaccinated hens. In addition, birds from hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) alone were significantly protected when challenged at 14 days post-hatch. These results demonstrate that maternal immunization with a NetB-enhanced toxoid vaccine is a promising method for the control of necrotic enteritis in young broiler chickens. PMID:24219318

2013-01-01

52

Molecular characteristics of Polish field strains of Marek's disease herpesvirus isolated from vaccinated chickens  

PubMed Central

Background Twenty-nine Marek's disease virus (MDV) strains were isolated during a 3 year period (2007-2010) from vaccinated and infected chicken flocks in Poland. These strains had caused severe clinical symptoms and lesions. In spite of proper vaccination with mono- or bivalent vaccines against Marek's disease (MD), the chickens developed symptoms of MD with paralysis. Because of this we decided to investigate possible changes and mutations in the field strains that could potentially increase their virulence. We supposed that such mutations may have been caused by recombination with retroviruses of poultry - especially reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). Methods In order to detect the possible reasons of recent changes in virulence of MDV strains, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses for meq oncogene and for long-terminal repeat (LTR) region of REV were conducted. The obtained PCR products were sequenced and compared with other MDV and REV strains isolated worldwide and accessible in the GeneBank database. Results Sequencing of the meq oncogene showed a 68 basepair insertion and frame shift within 12 of 24 field strains. Interestingly, the analyses also showed 0.78, 0.8, 0.82, 1.6 kb and other random LTR-REV insertions into the MDV genome in 28 of 29 of strains. These genetic inserts were present after passage in chicken embryo kidney cells suggesting LTR integration into a non-functional region of the MDV genome. Conclusion The results indicate the presence of a recombination between MDV and REV under field conditions in Polish chicken farms. The genetic changes within the MDV genome may influence the virus replication and its features in vivo. However, there is no evidence that meq alteration and REV insertions are related to the strains' virulence. PMID:21320336

2011-01-01

53

Progress toward the development of polyvalent vaccination strategies against multiple viral infections in chickens using herpesvirus of turkeys as vector  

PubMed Central

Vaccination is the most cost effective strategy for the control and prevention of the plethora of viral diseases affecting poultry production. The major challenge for poultry vaccination is the design of vaccines that will protect against multiple pathogens via a single protective dose, delivered by mass vaccination. The Marek disease virus and the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus cause severe disease outbreaks in chickens. Vaccination with live herpesvirus of turkeys protects chickens from Marek disease and inactivated influenza viruses are used as antigens to protect chickens against influenza virus infections. We developed herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) as a vaccine vector that can act as a dual vaccine against avian influenza and Marek disease. The HVT vector was developed using reverse genetics based on an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of HVT. The BAC carrying the HVT genome was genetically modified to express the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of a highly pathogenic H7N1 virus. The resultant recombinant BAC construct containing the modified HVT sequence was transfected into chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells and HVT recombinants (rHVT-H7HA) harbouring the H7N1 HA were recovered. Analysis of cultured CEF cells infected with the rHVT-H7HA showed that HA was expressed and that the rescued rHVT-H7HA stocks were stable during several in vitro passages with no difference in growth kinetics compared with the parent HVT. Immunization of one-day-old chicks with rHVT-H7HA induced H7-specific antibodies and protected chickens challenged with homologous H7N1 virus against virus shedding, clinical disease and death. The rHVT-H7HA vaccine also induced strong and long-lasting antibody titers against H7HA in chickens that were vaccinated in ovo 3 d before hatching. This vaccine supports differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA), because no influenza virus nucleoprotein-specific antibodies were detected in the rHVT-H7HA vaccinated birds. The rHVT-H7HA not only provided protection against a lethal challenge with highly pathogenic H7N1 virus but also against highly virulent Marek disease virus and can be used as a DIVA vaccine. PMID:22705840

Iqbal, Munir

2012-01-01

54

Consequence of Cryptosporidiosis on the immune response of vaccinated broiler chickens against Newcastle disease and/or avian influenza.  

PubMed

The consequence of cryptosporidiosis on the immune response of vaccinated chickens against Newcastle disease and/or avian influenza was studied by using 240, 1 day old, male, white Hy-Line chicks and divided into 8 groups and subgroups. Each group or subgroup was consisting of 30 chicks (15?×?2 replicates). The first and second groups were kept as unvaccinated control, G1uninfected and G2 infected. G3, G4 and G5 contained 2 subgroups A&B (G3A, G3B, G4A, G4B, G5A and G5B). Chicks of subgroup A were vaccinated only while chicks of subgroup B were infected and vaccinated. These chicks were orally inoculated with 5?×?10(5) oocysts of Cryptosporidium baileyi (C. baileyi) at 2 days of age. Chickens were vaccinated intraocular with live Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine (Hitchner on day 7th and LaSota on day 17th of chicken life) (G3) or vaccinated by subcutaneous route with Volvac®- H5N2- AI vaccine on day 10 of chicken life (G4). Last group (G5) was infected similarly and vaccinated with ND and AI vaccines with the same day, dose and route of vaccination for each one. Random blood samples were collected for 3 weeks post-vaccination for investigation of humoral immune response against Newcastle and/or avian influenza vaccines by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. The results showed that H5N2 vaccine at day 10 of chicken life is effective in chickens indicated by the geometric mean of HI titer against AI virus. The findings of this study showed that the infection with Cryptosporidia in the broiler chicken has a depressive effect on the immune status of the birds vaccinated against ND and/or AI vaccination. Moreover, the obtained protection rates against challenge with virulent ND virus observed to be parallel to the results of HI- test. Also, by using 2 different antigens (one commercial and field prepared antigen) to avian influenza virus, lower Geometric mean (GM) HI titer were appeared in infected and vaccinated group than vaccinated group only. A study of the relative lymphoid organs weight such as bursa of Fabricius from the experimental chicks indicated that those organs were comparable between the groups infected-vaccinated and vaccinated only. Non significant variations in final live weight between uninfected control and infected groups were indicated. Also, H5N2-AI vaccination at 10 days old did not affect the final live weight. ND and/or AI Vaccination could not be a substitute to application of good hygienic measures and fecal examination of the birds especially for protozoal diseases such as cryptosporidiosis. It could be concluded that cryptosporidiosis could be one cause of ND and/or AI vaccination failure in poultry farms. PMID:24993748

Eladl, Abdelfattah H; Hamed, Hamed R; Khalil, Mostafa R

2014-09-01

55

Inactivated vaccine with adjuvants consisting of pattern recognition receptor agonists confers protection against avian influenza viruses in chickens.  

PubMed

Use of adjuvant containing pathogen pattern recognition receptor agonists is one of the effective strategies to enhance the efficacy of licensed vaccines. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of avian influenza vaccines containing an adjuvant (CVCVA5) which was composed of polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic, resiquimod, imiquimod, muramyl dipeptide and levomisole. Avian influenza vaccines adjuvanted with CVCVA5 were found to induce significantly higher titers of hemagglutiniton inhibition antibodies (P?0.01) than those of commercial vaccines at 2-, 3- and 4-week post vaccination in both specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens and field application. Furthermore, virus shedding was reduced in SPF chickens immunized with H9-CVCVA5 vaccine after H9 subtype heterologous virus challenge. The ratios of both CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) lymphocytes were slowly elevated in chickens immunized with H9-CVCVA5 vaccine. Lymphocytes adoptive transfer study indicates that CD8(+) T lymphocyte subpopulation might have contributed to improved protection against heterologous virus challenge. Results of this study suggest that the adjuvant CVCVA5 was capable of enhancing the potency of existing avian influenza vaccines by increasing humoral and cellular immune response. PMID:24894132

Tang, Yinghua; Lu, Jihu; Wu, Peipei; Liu, Zhenxing; Tian, Zhen; Zha, Guofei; Chen, Hui; Wang, Qiaochu; Wang, Qiaoxiu; Hou, Fengxiang; Kang, Sang-Moo; Hou, Jibo

2014-08-01

56

Inactivated vaccine with adjuvants consisting of pattern recognition receptor agonists confers protection against avian influenza viruses in chickens  

PubMed Central

Use of adjuvant containing pathogen pattern recognition receptor agonists is one of the effective strategies to enhance the efficacy of licensed vaccines. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of avian influenza vaccines containing an adjuvant (CVCVA5) which was composed of polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic, resiquimod, imiquimod, muramyl dipeptide and levomisole. Avian influenza vaccines adjuvanted with CVCVA5 were found to induce significantly higher titers of hemagglutiniton inhibition antibodies (P ? 0.01) than those of commercial vaccines at 2-, 3- and 4-week post vaccination in both specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens and field application. Furthermore, virus shedding was reduced in SPF chickens immunized with H9-CVCVA5 vaccine after H9 subtype heterologous virus challenge. The ratios of both CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ lymphocytes were slowly elevated in chickens immunized with H9-CVCVA5 vaccine. Lymphocytes adoptive transfer study indicates that CD8+ T lymphocyte subpopulation might have contributed to improved protection against heterologous virus challenge. Results of this study suggest that the adjuvant CVCVA5 was capable of enhancing the potency of existing avian influenza vaccines by increasing humoral and cellular immune response. PMID:24894132

Tang, Yinghua; Lu, Jihu; Wu, Peipei; Liu, Zhenxing; Tian, Zhen; Zha, Guofei; Chen, Hui; Wang, Qiaochu; Wang, Qiaoxiu; Hou, Fengxiang; Kang, Sang-Moo; Hou, Jibo

2014-01-01

57

Passive protection afforded by maternally-derived antibodies in chickens and the antibodies' interference with the protection elicited by avian influenza-inactivated vaccines in progeny.  

PubMed

Systematic vaccination can be applied when a disease has become enzootic in a country or region. The final goal of the approach is to control or eradicate the disease within the country. This is a long-term vaccination plan that could be applied nationwide to all commercial and backyard poultry. However, after several months of vaccination in enzootic areas, maternally derived antibody (MDA) is present in young chicks, providing some protection and/or interference with vaccination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of protection afforded by MDA against challenge with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), and its suspected interference with current inactivated vaccines in broilers under controlled laboratory conditions. In the first set of experiments, broilers were vaccinated with inactivated vaccines containing H5N2 subtype antigens in the presence or absence of homologue MDAs and challenged with a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAIV. In the second set of experiments, day-old broilers, either with or without avian influenza MDA, received a regular-type monovalent H5N2 AI vaccine (0.5 ml) or a concentrated (0.2 ml) AL-Newcastle disease virus combined inactivated vaccine subcutaneously. They were then challenged at 11 or 35 days of age. In conclusion, our results indicate that protection induced by day-old administration of inactivated vaccine (regular or concentrated) in the presence or absence of MDA to H5N2 AIV induces poor protection against challenge with H5N1 HPAIV and should not be recommended. Based on our results, vaccination of MDA-positive chickens at a later age (10 days) seems to be a valuable recommendation, although MDAs may still interfere with vaccination to a lesser extent because they are present up to 3 wk posthatch. Therefore, in areas with high infection pressure, when possible, two vaccinations are recommended for optimal protection. Also, it might be advisable to take into account day-old AI MDA titers when one is determining the optimal age of vaccination. PMID:20521640

De Vriese, J; Steensels, M; Palya, V; Gardin, Y; Dorsey, K Moore; Lambrecht, B; Van Borm, S; van den Berg, T

2010-03-01

58

Protection induced by commercially available live-attenuated and recombinant viral vector vaccines against infectious laryngotracheitis virus in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Viral vector vaccines using fowl poxvirus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) as vectors and carrying infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genes are commercially available to the poultry industry in the USA. Different sectors of the broiler industry have used these vaccines in ovo or subcutaneously, achieving variable results. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of protection induced by viral vector vaccines as compared with live-attenuated ILTV vaccines. The HVT-LT vaccine was more effective than the FPV-LT vaccine in mitigating the disease and reducing levels of challenge virus when applied in ovo or subcutaneously, particularly when the challenge was performed at 57 days rather than 35 days of age. While the FPV-LT vaccine mitigated clinical signs more effectively when administered subcutaneously than in ovo, it did not reduce the concentration of challenge virus in the trachea by either application route. Detection of antibodies against ILTV glycoproteins expressed by the viral vectors was a useful criterion to assess the immunogenicity of the vectors. The presence of glycoprotein I antibodies detected pre-challenge and post challenge in chickens vaccinated with HVT-LT indicated that the vaccine induced a robust antibody response, which was paralleled by significant reduction of clinical signs. The chicken embryo origin vaccine provided optimal protection by significantly mitigating the disease and reducing the challenge virus in chickens vaccinated via eye drop. The viral vector vaccines, applied in ovo and subcutaneously, provided partial protection, reducing to some degree clinical signs, and challenge VIRUS replication in the trachea. PMID:22845318

Vagnozzi, Ariel; Zavala, Guillermo; Riblet, Sylva M; Mundt, Alice; García, Maricarmen

2012-01-01

59

Replication of recombinant herpesvirus of turkey expressing genes of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in specific pathogen free and broiler chickens following in ovo and subcutaneous vaccination.  

PubMed

Replication of a recombinant herpesvirus of turkey vaccine expressing infectious laryngotracheitis virus genes (rHVT-LT) was evaluated in specific pathogen free (SPF) and commercial broiler chickens after various vaccination protocols (amniotic route at embryonation day [ED] 18; intra-embryonic route at ED 19; and subcutaneous at 1 day of age [s.c.]). Three experiments were conducted: in the first experiment, replication of rHVT-LT vaccine was chronologically evaluated and compared with the replication of herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) in SPF chickens; in the second experiment, the effect of different in ovo vaccination procedures on rHVT-LT vaccine replication was evaluated in SPF chickens; and in the third experiment, the effect of different in ovo vaccination procedures on rHVT-LT vaccine replication was evaluated in commercial broiler chickens with maternal antibodies against HVT and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (LTV). rHVT-LT vaccine replicated in chickens after in ovo (ED 18 and ED 19) or s.c. administration at a similar level. In vivo replication of rHVT-LT vaccine was slower than HVT vaccine. However, in vivo both rHVT-LT and HVT vaccines replicated at similar levels. Both vaccines were consistently detected in the spleen and feather pulp and at lower frequency in the lung. The frequency of samples with detectable levels of rHVT-LT DNA was lower in broiler chickens than in SPF chickens, probably due to interactions with maternal antibodies. Differences between SPF chickens and broiler chickens were found also in the transcription of the LTV glycoprotein I gene (gI). In SPF chickens, in ovo inoculation resulted in a higher number of spleen samples with detectable gI transcripts than s.c. inoculation. In broiler chickens, however, no differences in the level of gI transcripts in spleen samples were found between chickens vaccinated in ovo and those vaccinated by the s.c. route. Transcription of LTV gI gene in lung samples was very low in both SPF and broiler chickens. Further studies to evaluate the mucosal immune response elicited by rHVT-LT in chicken with and without maternal antibodies are warranted. PMID:21812719

Gimeno, Isabel M; Cortes, Aneg L; Guy, James S; Turpin, Elizabeth; Williams, Christopher

2011-08-01

60

Sequencing analysis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum wild strains in vaccinated chicken breeder flocks.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection is still of continuing economic concern in commercial broiler breeder chicken flocks in Egypt. MG infection continues to emerge despite the application of vaccination programs in breeder flocks. This prompted flock surveillance including MG isolation and molecular characterization of the circulating MG strains. The present study was concerned with 15 broiler breeder flocks of different ages (5-51 weeks). Three flocks were apparently healthy and 12 flocks were diseased. The aim of the study was to characterize the MG strains recovered from tracheal swabs. Four positive MG DNA extracts identified by rt-PCR and confirmed by isolation were subjected to sequencing of the mgc2 gene and intergenic spacer region (IGSR). The current molecular study demonstrated the presence of 3 different wild-type MG strains (RabE1-08, RabE2-09 and RabE3-09) in vaccinated diseased flocks, while the fourth strain (RabE4-08), which was isolated from a nonvaccinated apparently healthy breeder flock, scored 100% of homology and similarity to the F-strain vaccine by the sequence analysis of mgc2 and IGSR. It can be assumed that the vaccine F strain, which is supposed to replace field strains not only failed to do that, but also infected nonvaccinated flocks. Accordingly, there is a need to revise the control program including vaccine strategy in parallel with biosecurity measures. PMID:24525899

Khalifa, Rabab; Eissa, Sabry; El-Hariri, Mahmoud; Refai, Mohamed

2014-01-01

61

A Novel Lactococcal Vaccine Expressing a Peptide from the M2 Antigen of H5N2 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A Virus Prolongs Survival of Vaccinated Chickens  

PubMed Central

A cost-effective and efficacious influenza vaccine for use in commercial poultry farms would help protect against avian influenza outbreaks. Current influenza vaccines for poultry are expensive and subtype specific, and therefore there is an urgent need to develop a universal avian influenza vaccine. We have constructed a live bacterial vaccine against avian influenza by expressing a conserved peptide from the ectodomain of M2 antigen (M2e) on the surface of Lactococcus lactis (LL). Chickens were vaccinated intranasally with the lactococcal vaccine (LL-M2e) or subcutaneously with keyhole-limpet-hemocyanin conjugated M2e (KLH-M2e). Vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds were challenged with high pathogenic avian influenza virus A subtype H5N2. Birds vaccinated with LL-M2e or KLH-M2e had median survival times of 5.5 and 6.0 days, respectively, which were significantly longer than non-vaccinated birds (3.5 days). Birds vaccinated subcutaneously with KLH-M2e had a lower mean viral burden than either of the other two groups. However, there was a significant correlation between the time of survival and M2e-specific serum IgG. The results of these trials show that birds in both vaccinated groups had significantly (P < 0.05) higher median survival times than non-vaccinated birds and that this protection could be due to M2e-specific serum IgG. PMID:23766929

Reese, Kaleb A.; Lupfer, Christopher; Johnson, Rudd C.; Mitev, Georgi M.; Mullen, Valerie M.; Geller, Bruce L.

2013-01-01

62

A Novel Lactococcal Vaccine Expressing a Peptide from the M2 Antigen of H5N2 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A Virus Prolongs Survival of Vaccinated Chickens.  

PubMed

A cost-effective and efficacious influenza vaccine for use in commercial poultry farms would help protect against avian influenza outbreaks. Current influenza vaccines for poultry are expensive and subtype specific, and therefore there is an urgent need to develop a universal avian influenza vaccine. We have constructed a live bacterial vaccine against avian influenza by expressing a conserved peptide from the ectodomain of M2 antigen (M2e) on the surface of Lactococcus lactis (LL). Chickens were vaccinated intranasally with the lactococcal vaccine (LL-M2e) or subcutaneously with keyhole-limpet-hemocyanin conjugated M2e (KLH-M2e). Vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds were challenged with high pathogenic avian influenza virus A subtype H5N2. Birds vaccinated with LL-M2e or KLH-M2e had median survival times of 5.5 and 6.0 days, respectively, which were significantly longer than non-vaccinated birds (3.5 days). Birds vaccinated subcutaneously with KLH-M2e had a lower mean viral burden than either of the other two groups. However, there was a significant correlation between the time of survival and M2e-specific serum IgG. The results of these trials show that birds in both vaccinated groups had significantly (P < 0.05) higher median survival times than non-vaccinated birds and that this protection could be due to M2e-specific serum IgG. PMID:23766929

Reese, Kaleb A; Lupfer, Christopher; Johnson, Rudd C; Mitev, Georgi M; Mullen, Valerie M; Geller, Bruce L; Pastey, Manoj

2013-01-01

63

Comparison of the replication and transmissibility of two infectious laryngotracheitis virus chicken embryo origin vaccines delivered via drinking water.  

PubMed

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute infectious viral disease that affects chickens, causing respiratory disease, loss of production and mortality in severe cases. Biosecurity measures and administration of attenuated viral vaccine strains are commonly used to prevent ILT. It is notable that most recent ILT outbreaks affecting the intensive poultry industry have been caused by vaccine-related virus strains. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare viral replication and transmission patterns of two attenuated chicken embryo origin ILT vaccines delivered via the drinking water. Two groups of specific pathogen free chickens were each inoculated with SA-2 ILT or Serva ILT vaccine strains. Unvaccinated birds were then placed in contact with vaccinated birds at regular intervals. Tracheal swabs were collected every 4 days over a period of 60 days and examined for the presence and amount of virus using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A rapid increase in viral genome copy numbers was observed shortly after inoculation with SA-2 ILT virus. In contrast, a comparatively delayed virus replication was observed after vaccination with Serva ILT virus. Transmission to in-contact birds occurred soon after exposure to Serva ILT virus but only several days after exposure to SA-2 ILT virus. Results from this study demonstrate in vivo differences between ILT vaccine strains in virus replication and transmission patterns. PMID:22515537

Coppo, Mauricio J C; Devlin, Joanne M; Noormohammadi, Amir H

2012-01-01

64

Efficacy and safety of cell associated vaccines against Marek's disease virus grown in a continuous cell line from chickens.  

PubMed

The Marek's disease virus (MDV) vaccine strains CVI 988 and herpes virus of turkeys (HVT) strain FC126, usually are grown in primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF). We found that the strains could be grown also in the so-called JBJ-1 cell line to titres in the same range as when chicken embryo fibroblasts were used. The JBJ-1 cell line is a fibroblast-like continuous chicken cell line, which can be grown in flat bottom tissue culture flasks, roller bottles and on micro carriers. We investigated the efficacy of experimental CVI 988 vaccines grown in JBJ-1 cells and the efficacy of combinations of CVI 988 grown in JBJ-1 cells with HVT FC 126 also grown in JBJ-1 cells. The study was performed in accordance with European Pharmacopoeia monograph 0589 for live MDV disease vaccines. Groups of 1-day-old SPF chicks were vaccinated subcutaneously or intramuscularly, with 10(2.5) TCID50 per dose of CVI 988 alone or in combination with 500PFU per dose of HVT. As a control a group vaccinated with CVI 988 grown in CEF was included. One group was not vaccinated. Five days after vaccination all chickens were challenged with the very virulent MDV strain RB1B. After challenge the chickens were observed for a period of 70 days for signs of Marek's disease (MD). The protection induced by CVI 988 grown in JBJ-1 cells and the combination of CVI 988 and HVT-FC126 both grown in JBJ-1 cells, amply complied with the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia which prescribes that the protection index should be at least 80%. The safety of the vaccines grown in JBJ-1 cells was tested in a field study in commercial layer chickens. No signs of MD were noticed during the study and no other signs attributable to the vaccine. It is concluded that the JBJ-1 cell line is a suitable substrate for the current vaccines against MD. PMID:18706949

Geerligs, Harm; Quanz, Sandra; Suurland, Brenda; Spijkers, Ine E M; Rodenberg, Jeff; Davelaar, Frans G; Jongsma, Berend; Kumar, Mahesh

2008-10-16

65

Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SV4089 as a Potential Carrier of Oral DNA Vaccine in Chickens  

PubMed Central

Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2%) and MCF-10A (0.5%) human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 109 colony-forming unit (CFU) of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens. PMID:22701301

Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Ideris, Aini; Zakaria, Zunita; Omar, Abdul Rahman

2012-01-01

66

Pichia pastoris expressed EtMic2 protein as a potential vaccine against chicken coccidiosis.  

PubMed

Chicken coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species leads to tremendous economic losses to the avian industry worldwide. Identification of parasite life cycle specific antigens is a critical step in recombinant protein vaccine development against Eimeria infections. In the present study, we amplified and cloned the microneme-2 (EtMIC2) gene from Eimeria tenella wild type strain SD-01, and expressed the EtMic2 protein using Pichia pastoris and Escherichia coli expression systems, respectively. The EtMic2 proteins expressed by P. pastoris and E. coli were used as vaccines to immunize chickens and their protective efficacies were compared and evaluated. The results indicated that both P. pastoris and E. coli expressed EtMic2 proteins exhibited good immunogenicity in stimulating host immune responses and the Pichia expressed EtMic2 provided better protection than the E. coli expressed EtMic2 did by significantly increasing growth rate, inducing high specific antibody response, reducing the oocyst output and cecal lesions. Particularly, the Pichia expressed EtMic2 protein exhibited much better ability in inducing cell mediated immune response than the E. coli expressed EtMic2. PMID:25047705

Zhang, Jie; Chen, Peipei; Sun, Hui; Liu, Qing; Wang, Longjiang; Wang, Tiantian; Shi, Wenyan; Li, Hongmei; Xiao, Yihong; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Fangkun; Zhao, Xiaomin

2014-09-15

67

Experimental iron-inactivated Pasteurella multocida A: 1 vaccine adjuvanted with bacterial DNA is safe and protects chickens from fowl cholera.  

PubMed

Fowl cholera is a serious problem in large and small scale poultry production. The present study describes the development and testing of an inactivated whole-cell, low-cost, safe, and effective vaccine for fowl cholera based on a previous work (Vaccine 23:5590-5598). Pasteurella multocida A: 1 grown in the presence of low FeCl(3) concentrations, inactivated with higher concentrations of FeCl(3), and adjuvanted with bacterial DNA from P. multocida B: 2 containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs protect chickens with a lethal P. multocida A: 1 challenge. Chickens were immunized with two whole-cell inactivated vaccine doses at 4 weeks apart and challenged 4 weeks after booster immunization. Experimental vaccines were pure, easy injectable, and caused very little distress in chickens due to their aqueous consistency. Vaccines and bacterial DNA (bDNA) posed no safety problems when chickens were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with a single, double, and overdose of these preparations. Immunized chickens produced systemic IgY antibodies (Ab) responses and vaccine adjuvanted with bDNA protected 100% chickens from lethal intrapertoneal (i.p.) P. multocida A: 1 challenge. This work suggests that use of bDNA as an adjuvant can improve the cost-effectiveness of inactivated veterinary vaccines for their use in developing countries. Our future studies will focus on safety and potency evaluation of experimental and current vaccines using bDNA as an adjuvant. PMID:20074684

Herath, Chitra; Kumar, Pankaj; Singh, Mithilesh; Kumar, Devender; Ramakrishnan, Saravanan; Goswami, Tapas Kumar; Singh, Ajit; Ram, G C

2010-03-01

68

Protective efficacy of commercial inactivated Newcastle disease virus vaccines in chickens against a recent Korean epizootic strain.  

PubMed

Despite the intensive vaccination policy that has been put in place to control Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the recent emergence of NDV genotype VII strains in Korea has led to significant economic losses in the poultry industry. We assessed the ability of inactivated, oil-emulsion vaccines derived from La Sota or Ulster 2C NDV strains to protect chickens from challenge with Kr-005/00, which is a recently isolated Korean epizootic genotype VII strain. Six-week-old SPF chickens were vaccinated once and challenged three weeks later via the eye drop/intranasal route. All vaccinated birds were fully protected from disease, regardless of the vaccine strains used. All vaccinated and challenged groups showed significant sero-conversion 14 days after challenge. However, some vaccinated birds, despite being protected from disease, shed the challenge virus from their oro-pharynx and cloaca, albeit at significantly lower titers than the unvaccinated challenged control birds. The virological, serological, and epidemiological significance of our observations with regard to NDV disease eradication is discussed. PMID:18716450

Jeon, Woo-Jin; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Lee, Young-Jeong; Jeong, Ok-Mi; Kim, Yong-Joo; Kwon, Jun-Hun; Choi, Kang-Seuk

2008-09-01

69

Chemokine receptor CCR7 and CXCR5 mRNA in chickens following inflammation or vaccination.  

PubMed

The CCR7 and CXCR5 chemokine receptor mRNA contents of different immune organs were studied in normal, healthy birds and in birds treated with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a systemic inflammatory challenge or coccidial vaccine (Coccivac B; Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health Corp., Millsboro, DE) as an enteric vaccination challenge. The CCR7 mRNA content of the spleen of normal, healthy birds was approximately 150-fold higher than CCR7 mRNA content of any other organs studied. The CXCR5 mRNA content of the bursa of normal, healthy birds was approximately 80-fold higher than the CXCR5 mRNA content of any other organs studied. The LPS injection decreased the splenic CCR7 mRNA content by approximately 100 times and the bursal CXCR5 mRNA content by approximately 5-fold at 24 h post-LPS injection (P < 0.01). The LPS injection increased the CXCR5 content of cecal tonsils by approximately 3-fold at 24 h post-LPS injection (P < 0.05). At 10 d postvaccination, CCR7 mRNA content was approximately 15-fold higher and CXCR5 mRNA content was approximately 12-fold higher in cecal tonsils of the vaccinated group than in the control group (P < 0.01). In conclusion, CCR7 and CXCR5 mRNA levels were dependent on the immune organs and the inflammatory status of the organs in chickens. PMID:21753206

Annamalai, T; Selvaraj, R K

2011-08-01

70

Modulation of Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity Against Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease Vaccines by Oral Administration of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Expressing Chicken Interleukin-18.  

PubMed

Interleukin-18 (IL-18) has been known to induce interferon-? (IFN-?) production and promote Th1 immunity. Although mammalian IL-18 has been characterized in great detail, the properties and application of chicken IL-18 remain largely uninvestigated as of yet. In this study, we evaluated the immunomodulatory properties of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chicken interleukin-18 (chIL-18) on immune responses induced by avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines. After oral administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIL-18, chickens were vaccinated intramuscularly with the recommended dose of either inactivated AI H9N2 vaccine or ND (B1 strain) vaccine. Chickens receiving a primary vaccination were boosted using the same protocol 7 days later. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were evaluated in terms of HI antibody titers and proliferation and mRNA expression of IFN-? and IL-4 of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in response to specific antigen stimulation. According to our results, oral administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIL-18 induced enhanced humoral and Th1-biased cell-mediated immunity against AI and ND vaccines, compared to that of chickens received S. enterica serovar Typhimurium harboring empty vector. Therefore, we conclude that our proposed vaccination regimen using inactivated AI and ND viruses along with oral administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIL-18 may provide a novel approach in protecting chicken from currently circulating AI and ND virus strains. PMID:23559899

Rahman, Md Masudur; Uyangaa, Erdenebileg; Eo, Seong Kug

2013-02-01

71

Efficacy of a DNA Vaccine Carrying Eimeria maxima Gam56 Antigen Gene against Coccidiosis in Chickens  

PubMed Central

To control coccidiosis without using prophylactic medications, a DNA vaccine targeting the gametophyte antigen Gam56 from Eimeria maxima in chickens was constructed, and the immunogenicity and protective effects were evaluated. The ORF of Gam56 gene was cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(zeo)+. Expression of Gam56 protein in COS-7 cells transfected with recombinant plasmid pcDNA-Gam56 was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The DNA vaccine was injected intramuscularly to yellow feathered broilers of 1-week old at 3 dosages (25, 50, and 100 µg/chick). Injection was repeated once 1 week later. One week after the second injection, birds were challenged orally with 5×104 sporulated oocysts of E. maxima, then weighed and killed at day 8 post challenge. Blood samples were collected and examined for specific peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation activity and serum antibody levels. Compared with control groups, the administration of pcDNA-Gam56 vaccine markedly increased the lymphocyte proliferation activity (P<0.05) at day 7 and 14 after the first immunization. The level of lymphocyte proliferation started to decrease on day 21 after the first immunization. A similar trend was seen in specific antibody levels. Among the 3 pcDNA-Gam56 immunized groups, the median dosage group displayed the highest lymphocyte proliferation and antibody levels (P<0.05). The median dosage group had the greatest relative body weight gain (89.7%), and the greatest oocyst shedding reduction (53.7%). These results indicate that median dosage of DNA vaccine had good immunogenicity and immune protection effects, and may be used in field applications for coccidiosis control. PMID:23710081

Xu, Jinjun; Zhang, Yan

2013-01-01

72

Defective bursa regeneration after irradiation of young thymectomized chickens  

SciTech Connect

The ability of the bursa of Fabricius to regenerate after gamma-irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution was examined in chickens thymectomized (TX) immediately after hatching. Irradiation (2 X 500 R) 3 weeks after hatching was followed by impaired bursa regeneration, as judged both by bursa/body weight ratios and by bursa follicle development 3-6 weeks later in TX as compared to control birds. Germinal center formation in the spleen was deficient, and immune responses to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) and B. abortus (BA) were moderately reduced in the TX as compared to control birds irradiated at 3 weeks but not in TX birds irradiated at 5 weeks of age.

Bhogal, B.S.; Chi, D.S.; Galton, J.E.; Bell, M.K.; Thorbecke, G.J.

1984-08-01

73

Enhancement of humoral immune responses to inactivated Newcastle disease and avian influenza vaccines by oral administration of ginseng stem-and-leaf saponins in chickens.  

PubMed

Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) are common in the poultry industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of ginseng stem-and-leaf saponins (GSLS) on the humoral immune responses of chickens to inactivated ND and AI vaccines. In experiment 1, oral administration of GSLS at a dose of 5 mg/kg of BW for 7 d on the immune response in chickens intramuscularly injected with inactivated ND vaccine was evaluated. Results showed that GSLS significantly increased the antibody level against ND in the serum of chickens. In experiment 2, the same regimen of GSLS was administered to chickens inoculated with inactivated AI vaccines, and an enhanced serum antibody response to AI vaccination was also observed. Considering the safety of GSLS, because no adverse effect was found throughout the experiments, GSLS may be a promising oral adjuvant to improve immunization in poultry. PMID:21844260

Zhai, L; Li, Y; Wang, W; Hu, S

2011-09-01

74

L-arginine stimulates immune response in chickens immunized with intermediate plus strain of infectious bursal disease vaccine.  

PubMed

Infectious bursal disease continues to pose an important threat to the commercial poultry industry, especially after the emergence of virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). L-arginine, a ubiquitous, basic amino acid is used as an immunostimulant in variety of human and animal studies with great success in immunosuppressed hosts. In the present study, we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of L-arginine on humoral and cellular immune response in chickens immunized with live intermediate plus (IP) strain of IBDV vaccine. Chickens vaccinated with IP strain and supplemented with 2% L-arginine showed 100% protection after challenge with virulent IBDV compared to 80% protection induced by IP strain alone. IP strain vaccine elicited good antibody titres in both the groups, IP + L-arginine and IP alone, however, the antibody titres in IP + L-arginine group were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than IP vaccinated chickens. Mitogenic response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to specific IBDV antigen stimulation was significantly higher in IP + L-arginine group (P < 0.05). Peripheral blood lymphocytes were able to rapidly clear the suppressive effects of IP strain and virulent challenge virus in IP + L-arginine group. These results strongly suggest that l-arginine plays a vital role in modulation of protective immune response against IBDV. PMID:16168528

Tayade, Chandrakant; Jaiswal, T N; Mishra, S C; Koti, Madhuri

2006-01-30

75

Immunosuppressive effects of Marek's disease virus (MDV) and herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) in broiler chickens and the protective effect of HVT vaccination against MDV challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the impact of Marek's disease in broiler chickens is considered to be due to immunosuppression induced by Marek's disease virus (MDV). The present study evaluates the effects of an Australian isolate of pathogenic MDV (strain MPF 57) and a non-pathogenic vaccinal strain of herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) (strain FC 126) on the immune system of commercial broiler chickens

A. F. M. F. Islam; C. W. Wong; S. W. Walkden-Brown; I. G. Colditz; K. E. Arzey; P. J. Groves

2002-01-01

76

Immunological Changes at Point-of-Lay Increase Susceptibility to Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Infection in Vaccinated Chickens  

PubMed Central

Chicken eggs are the main source of human Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection. S. Enteritidis infects the oviduct and ovary of the chicken leading to infection of developing eggs. Therefore, control in poultry production is a major public health priority. Vaccination of hens has proved successful in control strategies in United Kingdom leading to a 70% drop in human cases since introduced. However, as hens reach sexual maturity they become immunosuppressed and it has been postulated this leads to increased susceptibility to Salmonella infection. In this study we define the changes to the systemic and reproductive tract-associated immune system of hens throughout sexual development by flow cytometry and histology and determine changes in susceptibility to experimental S. Enteritidis challenge in naive and vaccinated hens. Changes to both systemic and local immune systems occur in chickens at sexual development around 140 days of age. The population of several leukocyte classes drop, with the greatest fall in CD4+ lymphocyte numbers. Within the developing reproductive tract there an organised structure of lymphocytic aggregates with ??-T lymphocytes associated with the mucosa. At point-of-lay, this organised structure disappears and only scattered lymphocytes remain. Protection against Salmonella challenge is significantly reduced in vaccinated birds at point-of-lay, coinciding with the drop in CD4+ lymphocytes. Susceptibility to reproductive tract infection by Salmonella increased in vaccinated and naïve animals at 140 and 148 days of age. We hypothesise that the drop in ??-T lymphocytes in the tract leads to decreased innate protection of the mucosa to infection. These findings indicate that systemic and local changes to the immune system increase the susceptibility of hens to S. Enteritidis infection. The loss of protective immunity in vaccinated birds demonstrates that Salmonella control should not rely on vaccination alone, but as part of an integrated control strategy including biosecurity and improved animal welfare. PMID:23133568

Johnston, Claire E.; Hartley, Catherine; Salisbury, Anne-Marie; Wigley, Paul

2012-01-01

77

Vaccination with Recombinant RNA Replicon Particles Protects Chickens from H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of subtype H5N1 not only cause a devastating disease in domestic chickens and turkeys but also pose a continuous threat to public health. In some countries, H5N1 viruses continue to circulate and evolve into new clades and subclades. The rapid evolution of these viruses represents a problem for virus diagnosis and control. In this work, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors expressing HA of subtype H5 were generated. To comply with biosafety issues the G gene was deleted from the VSV genome. The resulting vaccine vector VSV*?G(HA) was propagated on helper cells providing the VSV G protein in trans. Vaccination of chickens with a single intramuscular dose of 2×108 infectious replicon particles without adjuvant conferred complete protection from lethal H5N1 infection. Subsequent application of the same vaccine strongly boosted the humoral immune response and completely prevented shedding of challenge virus and transmission to sentinel birds. The vaccine allowed serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) by employing a commercially available ELISA. Immunized chickens produced antibodies with neutralizing activity against multiple H5 viruses representing clades 1, 2.2, 2.5, and low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (classical clade). Studies using chimeric H1/H5 hemagglutinins showed that the neutralizing activity was predominantly directed against the globular head domain. In summary, these results suggest that VSV replicon particles are safe and potent DIVA vaccines that may help to control avian influenza viruses in domestic poultry. PMID:23762463

Halbherr, Stefan J.; Brostoff, Terza; Tippenhauer, Merve; Locher, Samira; Berger Rentsch, Marianne; Zimmer, Gert

2013-01-01

78

Production of yellow fever 17DD vaccine virus in primary culture of chicken embryo fibroblasts: yields, thermo and genetic stability, attenuation and immunogenicity.  

PubMed

While a good vaccine against yellow fever (YF) virus has been available for decades, the basic technology for the production of YF vaccine in chicken embryos has remained substantially unchanged since the 1940s. Here we describe the highly efficient and economic production of the 17DD strain of YF virus in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell cultures with viral titers ranging from 6.3 to 6.7 log10PFU/mL. Thermostability of two different formulations (5 and 50-dose vials) of the CEF vaccine virus was found to be as high as the current vaccines retaining the minimal titer required for YF 17D vaccines. The production passage in CEF did not lead to the selection of genetic variants as shown by nucleotide sequence analyses of the CEF-derived vaccine lots or the sequence of viruses recovered from monkeys experimentally inoculated with the CEF virus. YF 17DD virus produced in CEF was also indistinguishable from its seed lot virus parent in terms of plaque size and immunogenicity in mice and monkeys. Comparison of the CEF virus and the seed lot virus made in chicken embryo in the internationally accepted monkey neurovirulence test (MNVT) revealed a higher clinical score for the former. The differences in central nervous system (CNS) histological scores for monkeys inoculated with the chicken embryo and experimental CEF vaccines were at the borderline level of statistical significance. These data warrant further studies on the monkey attenuation of other batches of CEF-derived vaccines. PMID:15752837

Freire, Marcos S; Mann, George F; Marchevsky, Renato S; Yamamura, Anna M Y; Almeida, Luiz F C; Jabor, Alfredo V; Malachias, José M N; Coutinho, Evandro S F; Galler, Ricardo

2005-03-31

79

Needle-free delivery of an inactivated avian influenza H5N3 virus vaccine elicits potent antibody responses in chickens  

PubMed Central

A needle-free delivery system was assessed as a route for providing quick, safe, and effective vaccination against avian influenza (AI). Two groups of chickens were vaccinated with a commercially available inactivated H5N3 virus vaccine delivered either with a needle-free device or with the conventional syringe-and-needle method recommended by the vaccine manufacturer. The kinetic aspects of seroconversion, peak antibody levels, and antibody titers were measured by a combination of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the hemagglutination-inhibition test and were all found to be similar in the 2 groups of chickens. We conclude that the needle-free delivery system could result in effective immunization against H5N1 AI epidemics and pandemics in chickens. PMID:24124275

Ogunremi, Oladele; Pasick, John; Berhane, Yohannes

2013-01-01

80

Adolescent and young adult HPV vaccination in Australia: achievements and challenges.  

PubMed

Australia commenced an ongoing school based government funded human papillomaviruses (HPV) (cervical cancer prevention) vaccination program in April 2007 for adolescent females aged 12-13 years. In addition, up to December 31, 2009, a catch-up program for young females 13-26 years of age was offered: a school-based vaccination program was used to offer HPV vaccine to girls enrolled in school (14-17 years), and general practitioners or other community health provider offered vaccine to young women aged 18-26 years. To date, only the quadrivalent vaccine (HPV 6/11/16/18) has been utilized in the funded program. Acceptance of the vaccine is high with coverage of 3 doses of the HPV vaccine in the school age cohort around 70%, and just over 30% in the older age cohort. Since the vaccination program was initiated, a reduction in new cases of genital warts of 73% among vaccine eligible age females has been evidenced in STI clinics across Australia. A reduction of 44% of new cases in young males (not a part of the free program) was also documented during this same time period, suggesting significant herd immunity. Similarly, in the state of Victoria, a small but significant decrease in high grade abnormalities in Pap screening findings has been reported in young women<18 years for the period 2007-9, as compared to pre-vaccination. Challenges for the future include how we can sustain and improve HPV vaccination coverage in young Australian women, while maintaining cervical cancer screening participation and reviewing cervical cancer screening methods. PMID:21962468

Garland, Suzanne M; Skinner, S Rachel; Brotherton, Julia M L

2011-10-01

81

Communicating to Young Adults About HPV Vaccination: Consideration of Message Framing, Motivation, and Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the influence of message framing (gain vs. loss), motivational orientation (approach vs. avoidance), and gender on intentions to receive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and HPV-\\/HPV vaccine-related risk perceptions among young adults ages 18–26 years. Results of an experiment show an interaction between message framing and motivational orientation in predicting intentions to receive HPV vaccination. Loss-framed messages are

Xiaoli Nan

2011-01-01

82

Communicating to Young Adults About HPV Vaccination: Consideration of Message Framing, Motivation, and Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the influence of message framing (gain vs. loss), motivational orientation (approach vs. avoidance), and gender on intentions to receive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and HPV-\\/HPV vaccine-related risk perceptions among young adults ages 18–26 years. Results of an experiment show an interaction between message framing and motivational orientation in predicting intentions to receive HPV vaccination. Loss-framed messages are

Xiaoli Nan

2012-01-01

83

Protecting chickens against coccidiosis in floor pens by administering Eimeria oocysts using gel beads or spray vaccination.  

PubMed

Control of avian coccidiosis is increasingly being achieved by the administration of low doses of Eimeria oocysts to newly hatched chicks. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of gel beads containing a mixture of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts as a vaccine to protect broilers raised in contact with litter. Newly hatched chicks were either sprayed with an aqueous suspension of Eimeria oocysts or were allowed to ingest feed containing Eimeria oocysts-incorporated gel beads. Control, 1-day-old chicks were given an equivalent number of Eimeria oocysts (10(3) total) by oral gavage or received no vaccine (nonimmunized controls). All chicks were raised in floor-pen cages in direct contact with litter. At 4 wk of age, all chickens and a control nonimmunized group received a high-dose E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella challenge infection. Chickens immunized with Eimeria oocysts in gel beads or by spray vaccination displayed significantly (P < 0.05) greater weight gain (WG) compared to nonimmunized controls. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) also showed a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in both groups relative to nonimmunized controls. Moreover, WG and FCR in both groups was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from chickens immunized by oral gavage or from nonimmunized, noninfected controls. Oocyst excretion after Eimeria challenge by all immunized groups was about 10-fold less than in nonimmunized controls. These findings indicate that immunization efficacy of gel beads and spray vaccination is improved by raising immunized chicks in contact with litter. PMID:24283127

Jenkins, Mark C; Parker, Carolyn; O'Brien, Celia; Persyn, Joseph; Barlow, Darren; Miska, Katarzyna; Fetterer, Raymond

2013-09-01

84

Interaction between live avian pneumovirus and Newcastle disease virus vaccines in specific pathogen free chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-day-old specific pathogen free White Leghorn chicks were vaccinated with live avian pneumovirus (APV) vaccine, live Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine or both. At intervals up to 28 days after vaccination, distribution of the virus in the tissues was studied, together with humoral and mucosal antibody responses in lachrymal fluid and tracheal washes. APV vaccine was detected for almost twice

K. Ganapathy; P. Cargill; E. Montiel; R. C. Jones

2005-01-01

85

Emmetropization and Eye Growth in Young Aphakic Chickens  

PubMed Central

Purpose To establish a chick model to investigate the trends of eye growth and emmetropization after early lensectomy for congenital cataract. Methods Four monocular treatments were applied: lens extraction (LX); sham surgery/-30 D lens; LX/+20 D lens; and LX/+30-D lens (nine per group). Lens powers were selected to slightly undercorrect or overcorrect the induced hyperopia in LX eyes and to induce comparable hyperopia in sham-surgery eyes. Refractive errors and axial ocular dimensions were measured over a 28-day period. External ocular dimensions were obtained when the eyes were enucleated on the last day. Results The growth patterns of experimental (Exp) eyes varied with the type of manipulation. All eyes experiencing hyperopia initially grew more than their fellow eyes and exhibited myopic shifts in refraction. The sham/-30 D lens group showed the greatest increase in optical axial length, followed by the LX group, and then the LX/+20 D lens group. The Exp eyes of the LX/+30 D lens group, which were initially slightly myopic, grew least, and showed a small hyperopic shift. Lensectomized eyes enlarged more equatorially than axially (i.e., oblate), irrespective of the optical treatment applied. Conclusions The refractive changes observed in young, aphakic eyes are consistent with compensation for the defocus experienced, and thus emmetropization. However, differences in the effects of lensectomy compared to those of sham surgery raise the possibility that the lens is a source of essential growth factors. Alterative optical and mechanical explanations are offered for the oblate shapes of aphakic eyes. PMID:18719085

Ai, Likun; Li, Jing; Guan, Huan; Wildsoet, Christine F.

2009-01-01

86

Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs.  

PubMed

Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P?chickens fed on diet CF120 (P?chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P?chickens. PMID:24341997

Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik

2013-01-01

87

Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs  

PubMed Central

Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P?chickens fed on diet CF120 (P?chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P?chickens. PMID:24341997

2013-01-01

88

Interleukin-18-mediated enhancement of the protective effect of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus glycoprotein B plasmid DNA vaccine in chickens.  

PubMed

The immunogenicity of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) glycoprotein B (gB) plasmid DNA vaccine and the immunoregulatory activity of chicken interleukin-18 (IL-18) were investigated in a challenge model. Two recombinant plasmids, pcDNA3.1/gB (pgB) and pcDNA3.1/IL-18 (pIL-18), containing gB and IL-18 were constructed. Chickens were intramuscularly administered two immunizations 2 weeks apart, and challenged with the virulent CG strain of ILTV 2 weeks later. All animals vaccinated with pgB alone or with a combination of pgB plus pIL-18 developed a specific anti-ILTV ELISA antibody and splenocyte proliferation response. The ratios of CD4(+) to CD8(+) T lymphocytes in chickens immunized with pgB plus pIL-18 were significantly higher than in those immunized with pgB alone. Co-injection of pIL-18 significantly increased the production of gamma interferon and IL-2, indicating that IL-18 enhances the T helper 1-dominant immune response. Challenge experiments showed that the morbidity rate in the pgB group (25 ?%) was significantly higher than that in the pgB plus pIL-18 group (10? %). The mortality rates in the pgB and pgB plus pIL-18 groups were 10 and 0?%, respectively, and the corresponding protection rates were 60 and 80? %. These results indicate that IL-18 may be an effective adjuvant for an ILTV vaccine. PMID:20829398

Chen, Hong-Ying; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Li, Xin-Sheng; Cui, Bao-An; Wang, Shu-Juan; Geng, Jing-Wei; Li, Kun

2011-01-01

89

Uptake of Free HPV Vaccination among Young Women: A Comparison of Rural versus Urban Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To contrast rates of initial HPV vaccine uptake, offered at no cost, between a rural clinic, a rural community college, and an urban college clinic and to identify rural versus urban differences in uptake of free booster doses. Methods: Young rural women attending rural clinics (n = 246), young women attending a rural community college (n…

Crosby, Richard A.; Casey, Baretta R.; Vanderpool, Robin; Collins, Tom; Moore, Gregory R.

2011-01-01

90

Effect of compound mucosal immune adjuvant on mucosal and systemic immune responses in chicken orally vaccinated with attenuated Newcastle-disease vaccine.  

PubMed

In order to compare the adjuvant activity of compound mucosal immune adjuvant (cMIA), two novel compound adjuvants (cMIA I and cMIA II) were prepared and mixed with Newcastle-disease (ND) vaccine, respectively, to vaccinate 7-day-old chickens, taking the non-adjuvant vaccines and PBS as controls. Serum were sampled on weeks 1-7 and tissues on weeks 3, 5 and 7 after vaccination, respectively. The humoral and cellular immune responses were determined by means of hemagglutination inhibition test, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemical examination and histological examination. The results showed that two compound adjuvants could promote CD3+ T lymphocytes, IgA secreting cells, intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIEL) and Mast cells formation and enhance serum and content antibody titer. The best adjuvant activity of cMIA II in promoting cellular immunity and cMIA I in enhancing humoral immunity occurred in whole immune period. Based on good synergistic effects of their components, two cMIAs would be expected as new-type mucosal immune adjuvants for mucosal immune. PMID:17303292

Zhang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Xiaowen; Yang, Qian

2007-04-30

91

Effects of Cytosine-phosphate-Guanosine Oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) on vaccination and immunization of neonatal chickens  

E-print Network

was to evaluate the effects of administering CpG-ODN to commercial strain chickens as a potential adjuvant to vaccination against Salmonella, Eimeria spp., and Newcastle disease virus, or immunization to bovine serum albumin (BSA). During Experiment 1, which....05) anti-NDV IgG in serum. These levels were elevated above levels in animals from all other experimental groups. This suggestion for an adjuvant effect associated with CpG-ODN administration was not supported in the remaining two trials of experiment 1...

Barri, Adriana

2005-02-17

92

Development of a DNA vaccine against chicken anemia virus by using a bicistronic vector expressing VP1 and VP2 proteins of CAV.  

PubMed

In the present study, we describe the development of a DNA vaccine against chicken anemia virus. The VP1 and VP2 genes of CAV were amplified and cloned into pBudCE4.1 to construct two DNA vaccines, namely, pBudVP1 and pBudVP2-VP1. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that co-expression of VP1 with VP2 are required to induce significant levels of antibody against CAV. Subsequently, the vaccines were tested in 2-week-old SPF chickens. Chickens immunized with the DNA-plasmid pBudVP2-VP1 showed positive neutralizing antibody titer against CAV. Furthermore, VP1-specific proliferation induction of splenocytes and also high serum levels of Th1 cytokines, IL-2 and IFN-? were detected in the pBudVP2-VP1-vaccinated chickens. These results suggest that the recombinant DNA plasmid co-expressing VP1 and VP2 can be used as a potential DNA vaccine against CAV. PMID:21146874

Moeini, Hassan; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Yusoff, Khatijah

2011-05-01

93

Prime-Boost Immunization Using a DNA Vaccine Delivered by Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and a Killed Vaccine Completely Protects Chickens from H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus?  

PubMed Central

H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) has posed a great threat not only for the poultry industry but also for human health. However, an effective vaccine to provide a full spectrum of protection is lacking in the poultry field. In the current study, a novel prime-boost vaccination strategy against H5N1 HPAIV was developed: chickens were first orally immunized with a hemagglutinin (HA) DNA vaccine delivered by attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and boosting with a killed vaccine followed. Chickens in the combined vaccination group but not in single vaccination and control groups were completely protected against disease following H5N1 HPAIV intranasal challenge, with no clinical signs and virus shedding. Chickens in the prime-boost group also generated significantly higher serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers and intestinal mucosal IgA titers against avian influenza virus (AIV) and higher host immune cellular responses than those from other groups before challenge. These results demonstrated that the prime-boost vaccination strategy provides an effective way to prevent and control H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. PMID:20107004

Pan, Zhiming; Zhang, Xiaoming; Geng, Shizhong; Fang, Qiang; You, Meng; Zhang, Lei; Jiao, Xinan; Liu, Xiufan

2010-01-01

94

Improving the potency of DNA vaccine against Chicken Anemia Virus (CAV) by fusing VP1 protein of CAV to Marek's Disease Virus (MDV) Type-1 VP22 protein  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have shown that the VP22 gene of Marek's Disease Virus type-1 (MDV-1) has the property of movement between cells from the original cell of expression into the neighboring cells. The ability to facilitate the spreading of the linked proteins was used to improve the potency of the constructed DNA vaccines against chicken anemia virus (CAV). Methods The VP1 and VP2 genes of CAV isolate SMSC-1 were amplified and inserted into eukaryotic co-expression vector, pBudCE4.1 to construct pBudVP2-VP1. We also constructed pBudVP2-VP1/VP22 encoding CAV VP2 and the VP22 of MDV-1 linked to the CAV VP1. In vitro expression of the genes was confirmed by using RT-PCR, Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence. The vaccines were then tested in 2-week-old SPF chickens which were inoculated with the DNA plasmid constructs by the intramuscular route. After in vivo expression studies, immune responses of the immunized chickens were evaluated pre- and post-immunization. Results Chickens vaccinated with pBudVP2-VP1/VP22 exhibited a significant increase in antibody titers to CAV and also proliferation induction of splenocytes in comparison to the chickens vaccinated with pBudVP2-VP1. Furthermore, the pBudVP2-VP1/VP22-vaccinated group showed higher level of the Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-?. Conclusions This study showed that MDV-1 VP22 gene is capable of enhancing the potency of DNA vaccine against CAV when fused with the CAV VP1 gene. PMID:21401953

2011-01-01

95

Abundance of IFN-? and IFN-? gene transcripts and absence of IL-2 transcripts in the blood of chickens vaccinated with live or inactivated NDV.  

PubMed

As immune responses to live and inactivated vaccines might differ, temporal responses of broiler chickens to vaccination were examined on the basis of the abundance in the circulating blood of gene transcripts of IFN-?, IFN-? and IL-2, critical cytokines for immune responses. Blood samples were collected 6, 12 and 24 hours, and 7 and 14 days following vaccination with either live or inactivated Newcastle disease virus, La Sota strain, at 14 days of age, and the abundance of transcripts for each cytokine was assayed by real-time RT-PCR. Physiological saline and vaccine emulsion without viral antigen were administered to control groups for live and inactivated vaccine groups, respectively. The abundance of IFN-? transcripts was elevated during the early times following vaccination and had reached baseline by the seventh day but the abundance of IFN-? transcripts remained elevated. Transcripts for neither IFN gene were detected in the control birds. The abundance of transcripts for each IFN was not different between the two vaccinated groups at any time. Transcripts for IL-2 were detected only in spleens from chicken embryos that had been inoculated with the live virus. The results show that cells stimulated to produce IFN-? and IFN-? enter the circulating blood but those stimulated to produce IL-2 do not, or in very low number, and the IFN responses to both vaccines are the same. PMID:21354949

Balenovi?, Mirta; Savi?, Vladimir; Ekert Kabalin, Anamaria; Jurinovi?, Luka; Ragland, William L

2011-03-01

96

Working to Close the Gap: Identifying Predictors of HPV Vaccine Uptake among Young African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Factors associated with greater likelihood of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among women who experience excess cervical cancer incidence and mortality requires further study. The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake among young African American women. Three hundred sixty-three African American women aged 18–26 were recruited from Historically Black Colleges\\/Universities to complete a questionnaire

Shalanda A. Bynum; Jelani C. Kerr; Michelle S. Williams; Patricia A. Sharpe; Heather M. Brandt

2011-01-01

97

Working to Close the Gap: Identifying Predictors of HPV Vaccine Uptake among Young African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors associated with greater likelihood of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among women who experience excess cervical cancer incidence and mortality requires further study. The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake among young African American women. Three hundred sixty-three African American women aged 18–26 were recruited from Historically Black Colleges\\/Universities to complete a questionnaire

Shalanda A. Bynum; Jelani C. Kerr; Michelle S. Williams; Patricia A. Sharpe; Heather M. Brandt

2011-01-01

98

Drivers and barriers to acceptance of human-papillomavirus vaccination among young women: a qualitative and quantitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical dysplasia and cancer, and of genital warts. Few studies have examined attitudes to HPV vaccination since the introduction of HPV vaccines. We aimed to investigate the reasons for young women's acceptance or rejection of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine after its general availability in Denmark. METHOD: A literature review assessed attitudes

Gitte Lee Mortensen

2010-01-01

99

Efficacy of live B1 or Ulster 2C Newcastle disease vaccines simultaneously vaccinated with inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine for protection of Newcastle disease virus in broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred, one-day-old broiler chicks were divided into groups 1, 2 and 3 containing 60, 70 and 70 chicks, respectively. The groups were divided into subgroups of 10 chicks that were vaccinated according to the following scheme: group 1 unvaccinated control, group 2 vaccinated subcutaneously at 1 day old with inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine (IOAV) in combination with live B1

N Chansiripornchai; J Sasipreeyajan

2006-01-01

100

Transcriptome analysis reveals an activation of major histocompatibility complex 1 and 2 pathways in chicken trachea immunized with infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine.  

PubMed

Infectious laryngotracheitis is an acute, contagious, upper respiratory disease of chickens caused by gallid herpes virus 1. Due to mortality rates that can reach up to 70% depending on the virulence of the virus, the disease is of great economic importance to the poultry industry. In this study, 15-d-old specific pathogen-free White Leghorn chickens were used to perform transcriptome analysis of chicken trachea immunized with infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine. Myosin and several collagen-related genes were downregulated in the immunized group, suggesting that normal function and structure may be compromised. In addition, we identified some cytokine receptors and several immune genes, such as Granzyme A (GZMA), CD4 molecule (CD4), CD8a molecule (CD8A), and CD8b molecule (CD8B), that were upregulated upon vaccination. The gene ontology analysis shows that genes included in the biological process cluster were related to antigen processing and presentation, positive regulation of immune system processes, T cell selection, and positive regulation of T cell activation. In conclusion, chicken embryo origin vaccine activation of the major histocompatibility complex 1 and 2 pathways provides insight for evaluation and design of infectious laryngotracheitis vaccines. PMID:24706961

Luo, Juan; Carrillo, José A; Menendez, Kimberly R; Tablante, Nathaniel L; Song, Jiuzhou

2014-04-01

101

Different immune responses to three different vaccines following H6N1 low pathogenic avian influenza virus challenge in Taiwanese local chicken breeds  

E-print Network

investigates immune responses to three different vaccines following a H6N1 challenge in different local breeds. Methods Experimental animals were sampled from six local chicken breeds maintained at the National Chung-Hsing University, namely Hsin-Yi, Ju...

2011-06-03

102

Efficacy of virosome hepatitis A vaccine in young children in Nicaragua: randomized placebo-controlled trial.  

PubMed

Immunization of young children could control hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, but the efficacy of hepatitis A vaccines in early childhood is unknown. In a randomized, double-blind trial of a single dose of a virosome-formulated, aluminum-free inactivated HAV vaccine in Nicaragua, 274 children (age range, 1.5-6 years) received vaccine or placebo injections; 239 children seronegative for hepatitis A were included in the primary efficacy analysis. HAV infection documented by immunoglobulin M antibodies was the primary end point. Among children seronegative for hepatitis A, infection was diagnosed in 4 children in the vaccine group and 22 children in the placebo group (protective efficacy, 84.6%; 95% confidence interval, 54.7%-96.1%). All infections in children in the vaccine group occurred within 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, protective efficacy was 100% (79.8%-100%). In children in the placebo group, the incidence of HAV infection was 17.6 and that of icteric illness was 1.6 cases/100 person-years. Adverse effects were rare in both children in the vaccine group and children in the placebo group. A single dose of a hepatitis A virosome vaccine is safe and protects young children against HAV infection. PMID:12934183

Mayorga Pérez, Orlando; Herzog, Christian; Zellmeyer, Martina; Loáisiga, Arnoldo; Frösner, Gert; Egger, Matthias

2003-09-01

103

MDA5 Can Be Exploited as Efficacious Genetic Adjuvant for DNA Vaccination against Lethal H5N1 Influenza Virus Infection in Chickens  

PubMed Central

Chickens lack the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and sense avian influenza virus (AIV) infections by means of the melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 product (chMDA5). Plasmid-driven expression of the N-terminal half of chMDA5 containing the caspase activation and recruitment domains [chMDA5(1-483)] triggers interferon-? responses in chicken cells. We hypothesized that mimicking virus infection by chMDA5(1-483) expression may enhance vaccine-induced adaptive immunity. In order to test this, the potential genetic adjuvant properties of chMDA5(1-483) were evaluated in vivo in combination with a suboptimal quantity of a plasmid DNA vaccine expressing haemagglutinin (HA) of H5N1 AIV. Co-administration of the HA plasmid with plasmid DNA for chMDA5(1-483) expression resulted in approximately 10-fold higher HA-specific antibody responses than injection of the HA plasmid mixed with empty vector DNA as control. Accordingly, compared with HA DNA vaccination alone, the chMDA5(1-483)-adjuvanted HA DNA vaccine mediated enhanced protection against a lethal H5N1 challenge infection in chickens, with reduced clinical signs and cloacal virus shedding. These data demonstrate that innate immune activation by expression of signaling domains of RIG-I-like receptors can be exploited to enhance vaccine efficacy. PMID:23227156

Liniger, Matthias; Summerfield, Artur; Ruggli, Nicolas

2012-01-01

104

Working to close the gap: identifying predictors of HPV vaccine uptake among young African American women.  

PubMed

Factors associated with greater likelihood of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among women who experience excess cervical cancer incidence and mortality requires further study. The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake among young African American women. Three hundred sixty-three African American women aged 18-26 were recruited from Historically Black Colleges/Universities to complete a questionnaire to assess health beliefs associated with HPV vaccination. One quarter of participants reported uptake of the HPV vaccine. Women who reported uptake had significantly higher HPV knowledge, lower perceived barriers to vaccination, and were younger (all p<.05). Factors significantly associated with HPV vaccine uptake included HPV knowledge (OR=1.22), perceived severity of health outcomes (OR=0.48), perceived barriers to vaccination (OR=0.49), cues to action (OR=1.94), and age (OR=0.68). Findings can be used to inform the development of targeted HPV vaccine promotion programs for African American women to prevent continued cervical cancer disparities. PMID:21551933

Bynum, Shalanda A; Brandt, Heather M; Sharpe, Patricia A; Williams, Michelle S; Kerr, Jelani C

2011-05-01

105

HPV Vaccination Among Young Adult Women: A Perspective From Appalachian Kentucky  

PubMed Central

Introduction Few studies have assessed barriers to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake and adherence, particularly among women of Appalachian Kentucky, a population with higher rates of cervical cancer, lower rates of HPV vaccination, and lower socioeconomic status compared with the rest of the nation. The objective of this study was to address women’s reasons for declining the HPV vaccine and, among women who initiated the vaccine series, barriers to completion of the 3-dose regimen. Methods We recruited 17 women aged 18 to 26 from a Federally Qualified Health Center who participated in in-depth, semistructured telephone interviews. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim; analysis of the interview transcripts was an iterative process conducted by all 3 authors. Results We identified 3 primary barriers: 1) a knowledge gap wherein women are both uninformed and misinformed about cervical cancer, HPV, and the HPV vaccine, all of which affect vaccination behaviors; 2) environmental and tangible barriers (transportation and prioritizing health over other responsibilities such as child care, work, and school); and 3) ambiguous information sources, which contribute to misinformation and subsequently affect vaccination decisions. Conclusion Health professionals should use clear and purposeful communication about how cervical cancer develops, the purpose and safety of the HPV vaccine, and the necessity of completing the 3-dose series. Health promotion campaigns and services tailored for young women in Appalachian Kentucky that focus on increasing knowledge and eliminating barriers are needed. PMID:23391293

Head, Katharine J.; Vanderpool, Robin C.

2013-01-01

106

Trust versus concerns--how parents reason when they accept HPV vaccination for their young daughter  

PubMed Central

Background. From spring of 2012, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine against cervical cancer is offered free of charge to all girls aged 10–12 years through a school-based vaccination programme in Sweden. The aim of this study was to explore how parents reason when they accept HPV vaccination for their young daughter and also their views on HPV-related information. Methods. Individual interviews with parents (n = 27) of 11–12-year-old girls. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using thematic content analysis. Results. Three themes emerged through the analysis: Trust versus concern, Responsibility to protect against severe disease, and Information about HPV and HPV vaccination is important. The parents expressed trust in recommendations from authorities and thought it was convenient with school-based vaccination. They believed that cervical cancer was a severe disease and felt a responsibility to protect their daughter from it. Some had certain concerns regarding side effects and vaccine safety, and wished for a dialogue with the school nurse to bridge the information gaps. Conclusions. Trust in the recommendations from authorities and a wish to protect their daughter from a severe disease outweighed concerns about side effects. A school-based vaccination programme is convenient for parents, and the school nurse has an important role in bridging information gaps. The findings from this qualitative study cannot be generalized; however, it can provide a better understanding of how parents might reason when they accept the HPV vaccination for their daughter. PMID:23777602

Gottvall, Maria; Hoglund, Anna T.; Larsson, Margareta; Stenhammar, Christina; Andrae, Bengt; Tyden, Tanja

2013-01-01

107

Seroconversion in captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) following administration of a chicken head bait/SAG-2 oral rabies vaccine combination.  

PubMed

This study determined the proportion of captive juvenile and adult African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) that developed protective titres of rabies neutralising antibodies following ingestion of a chicken head bait/SAG-2 oral rabies vaccine combination. A single chicken head containing 1.8 ml of SAG-2 vaccine (10(8.0) TCID50/ml) in a plastic blister was fed to each of eight adult and three juvenile wild dogs. Bait ingestion resulted in a significant rise in serum neutralising antibody titres. Overall seroconversion rate was eight out of 11 (72.7%), and all the puppies and five out of eight (62.5%) adults showed potentially protective levels of antibodies on day 31. The mean post-vaccination neutralising antibody titre was within the range reported to be protective against challenge with virulent rabies virus in other species. PMID:12825684

Knobel, D L; Liebenberg, A; Du Toit, J T

2003-03-01

108

Effect of delivery method on the efficacy of Salmonella vaccination in chickens.  

PubMed

To investigate whether the efficacy of live vaccines is influenced by the mode of vaccine delivery, a widely-used UK live commercial Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine was delivered to pullet chicks either by spray, in drinking water, or in combination with a bivalent vaccine containing inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium. The birds were subsequently challenged with 10(2) or 10(8) colony-forming units (cfu) of Salmonella Enteritidis through drinking water at either six or 20 weeks of age. Ten days after the challenge, the birds were euthanased and their caecal contents cultured for Salmonella. All of the vaccinated groups contained fewer Salmonella Enteritidis-positive birds than the unvaccinated groups. The 'spray-vaccinated' group contained significantly fewer Salmonella Enteritidis-positive birds than the 'water-vaccinated' group after challenge with 10(8) cfu at 20 weeks. However, there was little or no difference at the other challenge time points between the groups that received vaccine through different modes of delivery. PMID:20675624

Atterbury, R J; Davies, R H; Carrique-Mas, J J; Morris, V; Harrison, D; Tucker, V; Allen, V M

2010-07-31

109

Genomic sequence analysis of the United States infectious laryngotracheitis vaccine strains chicken embryo origin (CEO) and tissue culture origin (TCO).  

PubMed

The genomic sequences of low and high passages of the United States infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) vaccine strains CEO and TCO were determined using hybrid next generation sequencing in order to define genomic changes associated with attenuation and reversion to virulence. Phylogenetic analysis of available full genomes grouped strains into three major clades: TCO, CEO, and Australian. Comparative genomics revealed that TCO attenuation is likely the result of an ORF C truncation. Genes involved in attenuation are generally clade-specific, however four genes ORF C, UL27, UL28 and UL39 commonly contained various mutations across the CEO and TCO lineages. The Thr644 mutation in the UL27 gene encoding glycoprotein B was identified in all virulent US strains. The US10 gene was identified as a potential virulence factor for the TCO revertant 81658. The UL41 gene was responsible for the robust gain in virulence of CEO-Fowl Laryngotracheitis(®) after 20 passages in chickens. PMID:23537957

García, Maricarmen; Volkening, Jeremy; Riblet, Sylva; Spatz, Stephen

2013-05-25

110

Effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccination on serum ?1-acid glycoprotein concentrations in commercial layer chickens.  

PubMed

Increases in circulating acute phase protein (APP) levels occur in reaction to systemic infections in animals. However, no previous research has been conducted to monitor possible changes in APP levels of birds in response to prelay vaccinations of various live attenuated Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines in conjunction with their subsequent use as an overlay vaccine during the production period. Serum concentrations of the APP, ?1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), were determined on d 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 after subjecting commercial laying hens to one of the following treatments at 10 wk of age (woa): 1) control (no vaccination); 2) ts-11 strain M. gallisepticum (ts11MG) vaccination; 3) M. gallisepticum-bacterin (MGBac) vaccination; and 4) ts11MG and MGBac combination (ts11MG & MGBac) vaccination. Furthermore, at 45 woa, the birds in half of the units assigned to each treatment group were vaccinated with high-passage F-strain M. gallisepticum (HpFMG). Birds in treatment 1 that were (single control) and were not (double control) vaccinated with HpFMG, and birds in treatments 2, 3, and 4 that were vaccinated with HpFMG were further tested during lay on d 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 after vaccination. On d 7, 14, and 28 postvaccination at 10 woa, the ts11MG & MGBac, ts11MG, and MGBac group AGP concentrations were not different from one another, but all were higher than those in the control group. Similarly, on d 3, 7, and 14 postvaccination, the single control, and the MGBac ts11MG, and ts11MG & MGBac treatment groups that were later vaccinated with HpFMG at 45 woa, were not different, but all were higher than that in the double control group. In conclusion, elevated circulation AGP concentrations may be used to detect and confirm subclinical infections in pullets up to 28 d after having been vaccinated with ts11MG, MGBac, or their combination. Furthermore, in association with depressed performance, elevated serum AGP concentrations in layers may be used to confirm HpFMG infections up to 28 d after its use as a vaccine. PMID:24879689

Peebles, E D; Jacob, R; Branton, S L; Gerard, P D

2014-06-01

111

Acceptance of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among young women in a country with a high prevalence of HPV infection.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Argentina and the mortality has remained unchanged for the last 30 years. The 2011 national implementation of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination will be a key component of future cervical cancer prevention. Vaccination of young adult women is not included in the program, although these women could also benefit from the vaccine, especially in underserved areas with a high prevalence of HPV. However, research on acceptance of HPV vaccination within this group is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate acceptance of HPV vaccination, the correlation between acceptance and cost, as well as other factors and perceptions of HPV vaccination among young adult women in Argentina. In total, 174 young women aged 18-30 years were included in this quantitative cross-sectional hospital-based study in a low resource area of the Mendoza Province, conducted through structured questionnaire-based interviews. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to investigate correlates of acceptance. Acceptance of HPV vaccination was high if it was free (95%) and even if it was not (75%). A significant positive association was found between acceptance and belief in vaccine safety (p=0.01) and between acceptance and not being a welfare recipient (p=0.00). Nearly half the participants incorrectly believed that they would be fully protected against cervical cancer after vaccination. Our findings suggest that acceptance of HPV vaccination is high among young women in a high-risk, relatively underserved area, even if vaccination is not free. Extensive misconceptions about the vaccine, however, highlight the need for further education about HPV vaccination. PMID:23877491

Alder, Susanna; Perinetti, Claudia; Mints, Miriam; Belki?, Karen; Sundström, Karin; Sandin, Sven; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Andersson, Sonia

2013-10-01

112

Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Use Among Adolescent Girls and Young Adult Women: An Analysis of the 2007 California Health Interview Survey  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Administration of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is recommended for adolescent girls and young adult women. Little is known about the factors associated with vaccination. This study examined prevalence and correlates of HPV vaccine initiation (?1 dose) among a statewide representative sample of adolescent and young adult females living in California. Methods HPV vaccination data on 3615 parents of adolescent girls aged 12–17 and 2068 young adult women aged 18–27 from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were examined by sociodemographic, healthcare access, and health behavior factors using chi-square and multivariable logistic regression models. Results Nineteen percent of adolescent girls and 11% of young adult women had initiated the HPV vaccine series. In both groups, lower educational attainment (parental/own) was associated with lack of vaccine initiation. For adolescents, vaccine initiation was also significantly lower among those whose parents had low incomes or no usual source of care. For young adults, initiation was lower among the older group and those who spent less time in the United States, had public insurance, had no recent provider visit, or had fewer sexual partners. Conclusions In a statewide representative sample, different correlates of early initiation of HPV vaccination emerged for Californian adolescent girls and young adult women. These different patterns may be due to differential access to programs that provide free or low-cost HPV vaccines. Because several of these factors are associated with disparities in use of Pap tests, disparities will persist or even worsen unless greater effort is placed on vaccinating populations at highest risk for cervical cancer. PMID:22420920

Tsui, Jennifer; Bauer, Heidi M.; Yamada, Eileen; Kobrin, Sarah; Breen, Nancy

2012-01-01

113

Protective efficacy of a recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys as an in ovo vaccine against Newcastle and Marek's diseases in specific-pathogen-free chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the potential of a herpesvirus of turkey (HVT)-based recombinant virus (rHVT) as an in in ovo vaccine to protect specific-pathogen-free chickens against Newcastle disease (ND) and Marek's disease (MD). The rHVT, designed to express fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoproteins of the lentogenic Hitchner B1 strain of ND virus (NDV), as well as glycoproteins A and B of

S. K. Reddy; J. M. Sharma; J. Ahmad; D. N. Reddy; J. K. McMillen; S. M. Cook; M. A. Wild; R. D. Schwartz

1996-01-01

114

The influence of liposomal adjuvant on intranasal vaccination of chickens against Newcastle disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adjuvant effect of liposomes formulated with three phospholipids including phosphatidylcholine-liposomes (PC-Lip), phosphatidylserine-liposomes (PS-Lip), and stearylamine-liposomes (SA-Lip) was compared with virus alone using inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) as a model antigen. The difference in adjuvanticity was evaluated using the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a challenge study following intranasal inoculation of specific pathogen-free chickens.After two inoculations, a

Li-Ping Tseng; Hong-Jen Liang; Ming-Chung Deng; Kuo-Ming Lee; Ryh-Nan Pan; Jen-Chang Yang; Yi-You Huang; Der-Zen Liu

2010-01-01

115

Influences of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine on productive and reproductive performance of commercial parent broiler chicken breeders on a multi-age farm.  

PubMed

The influences of F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) vaccine inoculation during the pullet period on the subsequent productive and reproductive performance of parent broiler chicken breeders on a multi-age farm were evaluated. Three thousand breeders were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups that were either vaccinated with FMG (FMG-vaccinated group) or not vaccinated with FMG (FMG-free group). Body weight and egg production were determined through approximately 50 wk of age. Egg weight and feed conversion was determined at 26, 32, 35, 38, and 43 wk of age. Egg quality parameters, including eggshell strength, egg-specific gravity, egg shape index, blood-meat spots, Haugh unit score, eggshell thickness, yolk:albumen ratio, percentage yolk, albumen and eggshell weights, and percentage fertility, hatchability, and second-quality chicks were determined at 26, 32, and 43 wk of age. Air sacs were examined and lesions were scored at 20, 32, and 50 wk of age. The number of mature ovarian follicles, histologies of ovary, and lengths, and histologies of the infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus, and vagina were determined. In the present study, an increase in egg production of broiler breeder hens in the FMG-vaccinated group during peak of lay was compared with the FMG-free group. Feed conversion of hens in the FMG-vaccinated group was significantly less at 32, 35, 38, and 43 wk of age. Eggs from hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly higher Haugh units score at 26 wk of age and had a significantly higher eggshell thickness and lower incidence of blood-meat spots at 32 wk. Hatching eggs from hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly higher hatchability. The mean lesion score of air-sac lesion of birds in the FMG-vaccinated group was significantly less than FMG-vaccinated group. Uteruses of hens in the FMG-vaccinated group had a significantly longer length compared with the FMG-free group at 32 wk of age. The results indicate that inoculation of commercial parent broiler chicken breeders with the FMG vaccine before laying may prevent infection by field M. gallisepticum, and facilitate productive and reproductive performance. PMID:23687149

Liu, J J; Ding, L; Wei, J Z; Li, Y

2013-06-01

116

The Potential Salmonella aroA– Vaccine Strain Is Safe and Effective in Young BALB\\/c Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Due to the increased susceptibility of neonates to pathogens including those with mutations, the use of live vaccine strategies in the human population may present a potential risk to the young. Objectives: The specific aim of this study was to assess the risk that prospective Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine strains pose for the neonate and determine whether the

Stacy M. Burns-Guydish; Hui Zhao; David K. Stevenson; Christopher H. Contag

2007-01-01

117

Protection of chickens against overt clinical disease and determination of viral shedding following vaccination with commercially available Newcastle disease virus vaccines upon challenge with highly virulent virus from the California 2002 exotic Newcastle disease outbreak.  

PubMed

During 2002-2003, exotic Newcastle disease (END) virus caused a major outbreak among commercial and backyard poultry in southern California and adjacent states. The outbreak raised concerns regarding the protective immunity of commercially available vaccines for prevention and control of this virus in poultry. We sought to determine if existing commercial live and inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines could provide protection against the 2002-2003 END virus, and whether current commercial NDV-vaccination programs for broiler-breeders (BB) and broilers (Br) would protect against END-challenge. In the first experiment, birds received a single dose of either inactivated or live B1-type vaccine at 2 weeks-of-age and were challenged 2 weeks post-vaccination with a lethal dose of END. In the second experiment, a high (10(6.9)EID50/bird) or low (10(3.9)EID50/bird) dose of live B1 was applied to 8-week-old chickens, followed by lethal END challenge. In the third experiment, NDV field-vaccinated commercial BB (65 weeks-of-age) and Br (36 days-of-age) were challenged against END virus. Results indicated that both the live and inactivated vaccines protected against morbidity and mortality and significantly reduced the incidence and viral titers shed from chickens in comparison with sham controls, but did not prevent infection and virus shedding. In addition, both doses of live vaccine protected birds and significantly decreased the number of birds shedding virus. All unvaccinated control chickens challenged with END died within 6 days post-challenge (pc). Protection from disease correlated with the presence of antibody titers (determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or hemagglutination inhibition (HI)) at day of challenge. Commercial BB were protected from disease and exhibited low incidence and titer of challenge virus shed. In contrast, commercial Br exhibited 66% mortality and shed significantly more virus than the BB birds. These results underscore the need to develop new NDV vaccines and vaccine strategies for use during outbreak situations to protect birds from both disease and infection to reduce virus shedding. PMID:15837366

Kapczynski, Darrell R; King, Daniel J

2005-05-16

118

Supplemental dietary l-arginine attenuates intestinal mucosal disruption during a coccidial vaccine challenge in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effects of dietary arginine (Arg) supplementation on intestinal structure and functionality in broiler chickens subjected to coccidial challenge. The present study was a randomised complete block design employing a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (n 8) with three dietary concentrations of Arg (11·1, 13·3 and 20·2 g/kg) with or without coccidial vaccine challenge (unchallenged and coccidial challenge). On day 14, birds were orally administered with coccidial vaccine or saline. On day 21, birds were killed to obtain jejunal tissue and mucosal samples for histological, gene expression and mucosal immunity measurements. Within 7 d of the challenge, there was a decrease in body-weight gain and feed intake, and an increase in the feed:gain ratio (P< 0·05). Jejunal inflammation was evidenced by villus damage, crypt dilation and goblet cell depletion. Coccidial challenge increased mucosal secretory IgA concentration and inflammatory gene (iNOS, IL-1?, IL-8 and MyD88) mRNA expression levels (P< 0·05), as well as reduced jejunal Mucin-2, IgA and IL-1RI mRNA expression levels (P< 0·05). Increasing Arg concentration (1) increased jejunal villus height (P< 0·05) and linearly increased jejunal crypt depth (P< 0·05); (2) quadratically increased mucosal maltase activity (P< 0·05) and linearly decreased mucosal secretory IgG concentration (P< 0·05) within the coccidiosis-challenged groups; and (3) linearly decreased jejunal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA expression level (P< 0·05) within the coccidiosis-challenged groups. The mRNA expression of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 pathway genes (mTOR and RPS6KB1) and the anti-apoptosis gene Bcl-2 quadratically responded to increasing dietary Arg supplementation (P< 0·05). These results indicate that dietary Arg supplementation attenuates intestinal mucosal disruption in coccidiosis-challenged chickens probably through suppressing TLR4 and activating mTOR complex 1 pathways. PMID:25181320

Tan, Jianzhuang; Applegate, Todd J; Liu, Shasha; Guo, Yuming; Eicher, Susan D

2014-10-01

119

Efficacy of an anticoccidial live vaccine in prevention of necrotic enteritis in chickens.  

PubMed

Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an important disease in poultry caused by Clostridium perfringens combined with predisposing factors, mainly eimeriosis. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of a commercial attenuated anticoccidial live vaccine against NE in a clinical infection model using 60day-old chicks. Vaccination was performed on study day (SD) 1 with natural booster-infections for 4weeks from Eimeria spp. oocysts present in litter. On SD 28, five groups were formed (n=12): group V+/C-E- (vaccinated, uninfected), group V+/C-E+ (vaccinated, infected with Eimeria spp.), group V+/C+E+ (vaccinated, infected with clostridia and Eimeria spp.), group V-/C+E+ (unvaccinated, infected with clostridia and Eimeria spp.), and group NC (negative control). Efficacy was measured by clinical parameters, pathogen multiplication, and pathological parameters assessed during two necropsies on SD 34 and SD 40, respectively. Additionally, cytokine expression was measured in gut and spleen tissues at necropsy. Clinical signs of NE were observed only in the coinfected groups, mainly in group V-/C+E+. Accordingly, lowest body weight gain was observed in group V-/C+E+ (301.8g from SD 28 to SD 40; group NC: 626.2g). Oocyst excretion varied significantly (P<0.01) between all Eimeria spp. infected groups and was highest in group V-/C+E+, followed by V+/C+E+, and lowest in group V+/C-E+. NE typical intestinal lesions showed only in groups V+/C+E+ and V-/C+E+. The intestinal mucosa featured partly severe lesions in the jejunum, C. perfringens colonization was histologically visible. Upregulation of IFN-?, was observed in the jejunal tissue of group V-/C+E+ (P<0.01 (SD 34) or P<0.05 (SD 40) compared to all other groups). IL-10 and IL-12 were upregulated in group V-/C+E+, IL-10 also in group V+/C+E+ (SD 40) while IL-2 expression remained unaltered. In conclusion, vaccination against coccidiosis was effective in preventing NE in a mixed infection comparable to field situations. PMID:25131774

Bangoura, Berit; Alnassan, Alaa Aldin; Lendner, Matthias; Shehata, Awad Ali; Krüger, Monika; Daugschies, Arwid

2014-10-01

120

Efficacy of Single Dose of a Bivalent Vaccine Containing Inactivated Newcastle Disease Virus and Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus against Lethal HPAI and NDV Infection in Chickens  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are 2 devastating diseases of poultry, which cause great economic losses to the poultry industry. In the present study, we developed a bivalent vaccine containing antigens of inactivated ND and reassortant HPAI H5N1 viruses as a candidate poultry vaccine, and we evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in specific pathogen-free chickens. The 6?2 reassortant H5N1 vaccine strain containing the surface genes of the A/Chicken/Korea/ES/2003(H5N1) virus was successfully generated by reverse genetics. A polybasic cleavage site of the hemagglutinin segment was replaced by a monobasic cleavage site. We characterized the reverse genetics-derived reassortant HPAI H5N1 clade 2.5 vaccine strain by evaluating its growth kinetics in eggs, minimum effective dose in chickens, and cross-clade immunogenicity against HPAI clade 1 and 2. The bivalent vaccine was prepared by emulsifying inactivated ND (La Sota strain) and reassortant HPAI viruses with Montanide ISA 70 adjuvant. A single immunization with this vaccine induced high levels of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers and protected chickens against a lethal challenge with the wild-type HPAI and ND viruses. Our results demonstrate that the bivalent, inactivated vaccine developed in this study is a promising approach for the control of both HPAI H5N1 and ND viral infections. PMID:23469269

Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Jang, Yo-Han; Seong, Baik-Lin; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

2013-01-01

121

Efficacy of single dose of a bivalent vaccine containing inactivated Newcastle disease virus and reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus against lethal HPAI and NDV infection in chickens.  

PubMed

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are 2 devastating diseases of poultry, which cause great economic losses to the poultry industry. In the present study, we developed a bivalent vaccine containing antigens of inactivated ND and reassortant HPAI H5N1 viruses as a candidate poultry vaccine, and we evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in specific pathogen-free chickens. The 6:2 reassortant H5N1 vaccine strain containing the surface genes of the A/Chicken/Korea/ES/2003(H5N1) virus was successfully generated by reverse genetics. A polybasic cleavage site of the hemagglutinin segment was replaced by a monobasic cleavage site. We characterized the reverse genetics-derived reassortant HPAI H5N1 clade 2.5 vaccine strain by evaluating its growth kinetics in eggs, minimum effective dose in chickens, and cross-clade immunogenicity against HPAI clade 1 and 2. The bivalent vaccine was prepared by emulsifying inactivated ND (La Sota strain) and reassortant HPAI viruses with Montanide ISA 70 adjuvant. A single immunization with this vaccine induced high levels of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers and protected chickens against a lethal challenge with the wild-type HPAI and ND viruses. Our results demonstrate that the bivalent, inactivated vaccine developed in this study is a promising approach for the control of both HPAI H5N1 and ND viral infections. PMID:23469269

Lee, Dong-Hun; Park, Jae-Keun; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Jang, Yo-Han; Seong, Baik-Lin; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

2013-01-01

122

Acceptability of HPV vaccination among young adults aged 18-30 years--a population based survey in Sweden.  

PubMed

Acceptability of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination seems to be high in the Western world but fewer data are available for men than for women. There are also concerns that HPV vaccination might lead young people to change their healthcare-related behaviours. We investigated these issues in a population-based survey performed in Sweden during January-May, 2007, just after HPV vaccination had been licensed. A total of 10567 men and women aged 18 to 30 years participated. The intention to accept HPV vaccination among these young adults was relatively high but could likely be improved with higher awareness of HPV-related diseases as well as of the safety and efficacy of vaccines in general. Also, the cost of the vaccine needs to be affordable. Even though few young adults stated their healthcare-related behaviours would change after HPV vaccination, a significant number were uncertain, suggesting a need for continued educational efforts when HPV-vaccinating this group. PMID:20851088

Sundström, Karin; Tran, Trung Nam; Lundholm, Cecilia; Young, Cecilia; Sparén, Pär; Dahlström, Lisen Arnheim

2010-11-01

123

Calcium phosphate coupled Newcastle disease vaccine elicits humoral and cell mediated immune responses in chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium phosphate (CaP) particles were coupled with inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. The surface morphology of CaP particles coupled to NDV was found to be spherical, smooth and with a tendency to agglomerate. The mean (± SE) size of CaP particles was found 557.44±18.62nm. The mean percent encapsulation efficiency of CaP particles coupled to NDV assessed based on total

Sanganagouda Koppad; G. Dhinakar Raj; V. P. Gopinath; J. John Kirubaharan; A. Thangavelu; V. Thiagarajan

2011-01-01

124

School-based vaccination of young US males: impact of health beliefs on intent and first dose acceptance.  

PubMed

Little is known about adolescent males and their parents with respect to intent and first dose uptake of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine outside of primay care settings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential predictors of parental intent to vaccinate (study was conducted in November 2010-December 2012) and of first dose uptake of HPV vaccine among a sample of young adolescent males, 11-15 years of age, who received care at a school-based health center (SBHC). We also examined intent as a potential mediator of the relationships between predictors (health beliefs and perceived spousal agreement) and vaccination. Slightly more than half (n=135 of 249) of parents reported an intention to vaccinate and 28% (n=69) of males received their first dose of the HPV vaccine. Two of three health beliefs were significantly associated with both intention and uptake as was perceived spousal agreement. We found intention to vaccinate was a partial mediatator between the perceived benefits of HPV vaccine and first dose acceptance. We also determined that intent was a strong mediator between both general immunization benefits and perceived spousal agreement and first dose uptake. While vaccine uptake was lower than expected, particularly considering that many barriers to vaccine initiation were eliminated because of the SBHC setting, this rate is higher than in traditional settings. After controlling for intent, only perceived benefits of the HPV vaccine remained a significant predictor of first dose acceptance. PMID:24492015

Rickert, Vaughn I; Auslander, Beth A; Cox, Dena S; Rosenthal, Susan L; Rickert, Jeffrey A; Rupp, Richard; Zimet, Gregory D

2014-04-01

125

The role of an attenuated anticoccidial vaccine on the intestinal ecosystem and on the pathogenesis of experimental necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of an attenuated anticoccidial vaccination on the intestinal ecosystem and on the pathogenesis of experimental necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Cobb 500 broiler chickens were randomly allocated to four treatment groups according to the following experimental design: control Group N; Group PN, where birds were vaccinated with anticoccidial vaccine; Group M, where birds were challenged with Clostridium perfringens and with Eimeria maxima; and Group PM, where birds were both vaccinated and challenged. From each bird, the intestine, gizzard and liver were scored for gross NE lesions. Intestinal digesta were collected for pH and viscosity determination. Samples from the gastrointestinal tract and liver were taken for microbiological analysis. Evaluation of the experimental data revealed that Group M had significantly higher overall mean NE intestinal lesions compared with Group PM. Viscosity values of jejunum digesta as well as pH values of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum digesta in Group M were significantly lower compared with Group PM. C. perfringens counts in the caeca of Group PM were significantly lower compared with Group M. The milder decrease of pH and viscosity values of intestinal content and the reduction of C. perfringens counts in the caeca in challenged and vaccinated birds may explain the lower score of NE gross intestinal lesions and may suggest a positive effect on intestinal ecosystem and a significant protective effect of attenuated anticoccidial vaccination against NE in a subclinical experimental model. PMID:23581444

Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Batzios, C; Pappaioannou, N; Diakou, A; Petridou, E; Ducatelle, R; Fortomaris, P

2013-04-01

126

Protection from clinical disease against three highly virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus after in ovo application of an antibody-antigen complex vaccine in maternal antibody-positive chickens.  

PubMed

Worldwide, Newcastle disease (ND) remains one of the most economically important diseases of poultry. Current vaccination strategies for commercial poultry include the use of inactivated and live ND vaccines that typically induce protection against virulent field viruses. Here, we tested the efficacy of an antigen-antibody complex (AAC) ND vaccine delivered in ovo. Commercial maternal antibody-positive broiler chickens (Gallus domesticus) were vaccinated in ovo with an AAC vaccine composed of live B1-LaSota Newcastle disease virus (NDV) complexed with NDV-specific antiserum, and then they were challenged at weekly intervals after hatch. Challenge viruses included three exotic ND disease (END) viruses: the neurotropic strain Texas GB NDV-92-01 (TxGB) and two viscerotropic isolates, one isolate from the 2002-2003 outbreak in California (California 2002 isolate S212676 [CA]) and the other isolate from a 1997 END outbreak in South Korea (South Korea 94-147 [SK]). Results demonstrate that maternal antibody was able to provide approximately 50% protection in either vaccinated or control chickens at 7 days of age after TxGB challenge. However, with challenge at > or = 14 days, most control birds died, whereas all AAC-vaccinated birds were protected. Challenge with the CA or SK viruses in chickens at 28 days of age resulted in 100% protection of vaccinated birds, whereas all control birds died. In addition, AAC-vaccinated birds displayed decreased incidence of viral shedding in oral and cloacal swabs than control birds. Antibody titers were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in vaccinated chickens, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutinin-inhibition tests, than in nonvaccinated controls. Together, these results demonstrate the efficacy of AAC vaccines delivered in ovo to protect commercial poultry. PMID:23050473

Kapczynski, Darrell R; Martin, Alison; Haddad, Eid E; King, Daniel J

2012-09-01

127

Residual susceptibility to measles among young adults in Victoria, Australia following a national targeted measles-mumps-rubella vaccination campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Past measles immunisation policies in Australia have resulted in a cohort of young adults who have been inadequately vaccinated, but who also have low levels of naturally acquired immunity because immunisation programs have decreased the circulation of wild virus. A measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) immunisation campaign aimed at addressing this susceptibility to measles among young adults was conducted in Australia in

Heath A Kelly; Heather F Gidding; Theo Karapanagiotidis; Jennie A Leydon; Michaela A Riddell

2007-01-01

128

Geographic Variability in Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among U.S. Young Women  

PubMed Central

Background Little information is available on geographic disparity of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among women aged 18–26 years in the U.S. Genital HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the U.S. Persistent HPV infection with oncogenic types can cause cervical cancer. Purpose This study utilized data collected from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). It identified geographic variability and other factors contributing to the disparities in HPV vaccine series initiation in a nationally representative sample of women aged 18–26 years. Methods The study utilized data collected from 1867 women who participated in the Cancer Control Module Supplement of the 2012 NHIS. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess characteristics associated with initiation of the HPV series. Analyses were performed in 2012. Results After adjusting for other characteristics, women living in the West and North Central/Midwest had 54% and 20% greater odds of initiating the HPV series, respectively, compared with those living in the Northeast. Other factors associated with HPV series initiation were: younger age, Hispanic background, being single/never married, childlessness, a history of HPV, and current alcohol use. Factors correlated with failure to initiate the HPV series were: not having insurance, living below the 200% poverty level, not being a high school graduate, not currently using hormone-based birth control, most recent Pap >1 year ago, no regular provider, last clinic visit ?12 months ago, and never having received the hepatitis B vaccine Conclusions Results demonstrate disparity in HPV vaccine uptake by region of residence in the U.S. among young women. Further research is needed to understand the factors contributing to this geographic disparity. Evaluation of vaccination policies and practices associated with higher coverage regions might help characterize effective methods to improve HPV vaccination among women aged 18–26 years. PMID:23332332

Wei, Feifei; Moore, Page C.; Green, Angela L.

2012-01-01

129

Perceptions and acceptability of HPV vaccination among parents of young adolescents: a multicenter national survey in China.  

PubMed

Prophylactic HPV vaccines target young adolescents to prevent related cervical lesions and even genital warts prior to onset of sexual activity. Parental consent is often essential for success of vaccination program for this age group. We conducted a national multicenter study to explore the acceptability of HPV vaccination among parents of young adolescents and associated factors in relevant parent decision making in China. A total of 2899 parents of young adolescents (11-17 years) participated in the survey between November 28, 2011 and May 9, 2012, but four were excluded from analysis because of inconsistencies in their given information in the questionnaire. Mothers accounted for 62.8% of the parent participants. The mean age of the parents was 40.40 (standard deviation, 4.68) years. Only 36.2% of the parents accepted the vaccine for their children. Knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccine was a positive correlate with HPV vaccination acceptability (Ptrend=0.003). Grade of child (Ptrend=0.015), prior vaccination experience outside the National Expanded Program on Immunization (OR: 1.43; 95%CI: 1.19-1.72), fear of cervical cancer and/or genital warts (OR: 2.47; 95%CI: 2.00-3.05), and prior consultation regarding HPV vaccine information (OR: 2.35; 95%CI: 1.57-3.52) were also positively associated with higher HPV vaccine acceptability. The acceptability was lower in mothers (OR: 0.45; 95%CI: 0.37-0.54) and who had better education (Ptrend=0.009). 57.3% of the parents agreed that the most appropriate venue for HPV vaccination was the local center for disease prevention and control. In conclusion, our study indicates a low acceptability of HPV vaccination among parents of young adolescents in China. We understand there are many challenges in implementing HPV vaccination program. Our findings will serve as valuable references for future HPV vaccination policies and campaigns after HPV vaccines are approved in China. PMID:23707446

Zhang, Shao-Kai; Pan, Xiong-Fei; Wang, Shao-Ming; Yang, Chun-Xia; Gao, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Li, Man; Ren, Ze-Fang; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Qiao, You-Lin

2013-07-11

130

Immunogenicity and Safety of the Influenza A/H1N1 2009 Inactivated Split-Virus Vaccine in Young and Older Adults: MF59-Adjuvanted Vaccine versus Nonadjuvanted Vaccine?†  

PubMed Central

Since initial reports in April 2009, the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus has spread globally. Influenza vaccines are the primary method for the control of influenza and its complications. We conducted a multicenter clinical trial to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of H1N1 vaccine (Green Cross Co.) in young adults (18 to 64 years) and the elderly (?65 years) using a two-dose regimen, with the doses administered 21 days apart. Three different regimens of hemagglutinin antigen were comparatively analyzed: 3.75 ?g (MF59 adjuvanted) versus 7.5 ?g (MF59 adjuvanted) versus 15 ?g (nonadjuvanted) in young adults and 3.75 ?g (MF59 adjuvanted) versus 7.5 ?g (MF59 adjuvanted) in the elderly. In young adults, all three vaccine regimens met the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMA) criteria after the first dose. In the elderly, on day 21 after the first dose, the rates of seroprotection and seroconversion were significantly higher for the 7.5-?g dose of MF59 adjuvanted vaccine than for the 3.75-?g dose (58.0% versus 44.3% [P = 0.03] and 53.7% versus 37.2% [P < 0.01], respectively). After the second dose, the geometric mean titer (GMT) increment was blunted with a 15-?g dose of nonadjuvanted vaccine, whereas the GMT increased about 2-fold with MF59 adjuvanted vaccines. In conclusion, a single 7.5-?g dose of MF59 adjuvanted vaccine would have a practical advantage over a two-dose, 3.75-?g, MF59 adjuvanted vaccine priming schedule. Following a two-dose priming schedule, the increase in hemagglutinin inhibition titers was higher with MF59 adjuvanted vaccine than with nonadjuvanted vaccine. PMID:21715575

Cheong, Hee Jin; Song, Joon Young; Heo, Jung Yeon; Noh, Ji Yun; Choi, Won Suk; Park, Dae Won; Wie, Seong-Heon; Kim, Woo Joo

2011-01-01

131

Estimation of HPV prevalence in young women in Scotland; monitoring of future vaccine impact  

PubMed Central

Background Estimation of pre-immunisation prevalence of HPV and distribution of HPV types is fundamental to understanding the subsequent impact of HPV vaccination. We describe the type specific prevalence of HPV in females aged 20–21 in Scotland who attended or defaulted from cervical screening using three specimen types; from attenders liquid based cytology and from defaulters urine or self-taken swabs. Methods Residual liquid based cytology samples (n?=?2148), collected from women aged 20–21 attending for their first smear were genotyped for HPV. A sample (n?=?709) from women who had defaulted from screening was also made available for HPV testing through the use of postal testing kits (either urine samples (n?=?378) or self-taken swabs (n?=?331)). Estimates of prevalence weighted by deprivation, and for the postal testing kit, also by reminder status and specimen type were calculated for each HPV type. The distribution of HPV types were compared between specimen types and the occurrence of multiple high-risk infections examined. The influence of demographic factors on high-risk HPV positivity and multiple infections was examined via logistic regression. Results The prevalence of any HPV in young women aged 20–21 was 32.2% for urine, 39.5% for self-taken swab, and 49.4% for LBC specimens. Infection with vaccine specific types (HPV 16, 18) or those associated with cross-protection (HPV 31, 33, 45, 51) was common. Individuals were more likely to test positive for high-risk HPV if they resided in an area of high deprivation or in a rural area. The overall distribution of HPV types did not vary between defaulters and attenders. Multiple infections occurred in 48.1% of high-risk HPV positive individuals. Excluding vaccine types the most common pairing was HPV 56 and 66. Conclusions Understanding of the pre-immunisation prevalence of HPV in young women puts Scotland in a prime position to assess the early effect of vaccination as the first highly vaccinated cohorts of individuals enter the screening programme. Differences in results with different specimen types must be taken into account when monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes. PMID:24188790

2013-01-01

132

Nutrition and immunity: the effects of the combination of arginine and tryptophan on growth performance, serum parameters and immune response in broiler chickens challenged with infectious bursal disease vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the effects of the combination of tryptophan (Trp) and arginine (Arg) on growth performance, serum parameters and immune response of broiler chickens challenged with intermediate plus strain of infectious bursal disease virus vaccine, an in vivo experiment was conducted. A corn–soybean meal-based diet containing different levels of Arg and Trp was used. Cobb500 male broiler chickens from 0

M. Emadi; F. Jahanshiri; K. Kaveh; M. Hair-Bejo; A. Ideris; A. R. Alimon

2011-01-01

133

Awareness and knowledge of HPV, cervical cancer, and vaccines in young women after first delivery in São Paulo, Brazil - a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The success of HPV vaccination programs will require awareness regarding HPV associated diseases and the benefits of HPV vaccination for the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness and knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, cervical cancer prevention, vaccines, and factors associated with HPV awareness among young women after birth of the

Cristina H Rama; Luisa L Villa; Sonia Pagliusi; Maria A Andreoli; Maria C Costa; Aline L Aoki; Adhemar Longatto-Filho; José Eluf-Neto

2010-01-01

134

Broilers are young chickens specially bred for fast growth and slaughtered when they weigh about four pounds, usually between seven and nine weeks of age. Birds slaughtered between  

E-print Network

Broilers are young chickens specially bred for fast growth and slaughtered when they weigh about a continuous supply of broilers by starting a new flock of chicks when the previous flock is a month old broilers, use a broiler feed specially developed to meet their require- ments for rapid growth. Call

New Hampshire, University of

135

Different immune responses to three different vaccines following H6N1 low pathogenic avian influenza virus challenge in Taiwanese local chicken breeds  

PubMed Central

Background H6N1 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) are frequently isolated in Taiwan and lead to significant economic losses, either directly or indirectly through association with other infectious diseases. This study investigates immune responses to three different vaccines following a H6N1 challenge in different local breeds. Methods Experimental animals were sampled from six local chicken breeds maintained at the National Chung-Hsing University, namely Hsin-Yi, Ju-Chi, Hua-Tung (Taiwan), Quemoy (Quemoy Island), Shek-Ki (China), Nagoya (Japan) and a specific pathogen free (SPF) White Leghorn line. A total number of 338 chickens have been distributed between a control and a challenge group, H6N1 challenge was performed at 7 weeks of age; vaccination against Newcastle Disease (ND), Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) and Infectious Bronchitis (IB) was performed at 11 weeks. The anti-H6N1 LPAIV antibody titers were measured by ELISA at days 0, 7, 14 and 21 after challenge, and the anti-ND, anti-IBD and anti-IB antibody titers were measured by inhibition of hemagglutination test and ELISA at days 0, 14, 28 after vaccination. Results There was no effect of the H6N1 LPAIV challenge at 7 weeks of age on the subsequent responses to ND and IBD vaccine at 11 weeks of age, but, surprisingly, the H6N1 LPAIV challenge significantly affected antibody levels to IB vaccine in some breeds, since IB0 and IB14 antibody titers were lower in the challenge groups. However, there was no significant difference in IB28 antibody titers among the experimental groups. Conclusions Local breeds have different immune response to H6N1 LPAIV challenge and subsequent vaccines. Differences dealt mainly with kinetics of response and with peak values. Quemoy exhibited higher antibody levels to H6N1, ND and IBD. The negative effect of the H6N1 LPAIV challenge on IB vaccine response may be related to the fact that both viruses target the lung tissues, and the type of local immune response induced by LPAIV challenge may not be favourable for birds to make optimum IB-specific antibody response. PMID:21645314

2011-01-01

136

Assessment of humoral and cellular-mediated immune response in chickens treated with tilmicosin, florfenicol, or enrofloxacin at the time of Newcastle disease vaccination.  

PubMed

The effect of tilmicosin, florfenicol, or enrofloxacin on humoral and cell-mediated immune response induced by Newcastle disease (ND) vaccination was evaluated in 20-wk-old specific-pathogen-free layer chickens. Humoral immunity was measured by detection of ND virus (NDV) antibody titer and anti-NDV IgG response using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and ELISA, respectively, whereas cell-mediated immunity was evaluated by measurement of chicken interferon gamma (ChIFN-gamma) produced in splenocytes cell culture stimulated with concanavalin A, inactivated NDV antigen, or live attenuated La Sota strain using ELISA. Florfenicol hampered the ND antibody production measured by both HI and ELISA. Tilmicosin and enrofloxacin reduced the production of ND antibody in the first 3 wk after the last ND vaccination measured by HI test, which suggests that these antibiotics exert their effect mainly on the IgM isotype. The ND-vaccinated, but not treated group, showed an increase in ChIFN-gamma production after NDV antigen-specific stimulation above the nonstimulated cell culture, whereas this effect was masked in all the antibiotic-treated groups due to the stronger ChIFN-gamma production background value reported in the nonstimulated cell culture. In conclusion, our results showed, for the first time, that tilmicosin, florfenicol, or enrofloxacin reduced the humoral immune response and had beneficial effects on the cell-mediated immune response. In addition, we demonstrated that the combination of both inactivated and attenuated ND vaccine gave a strong immune response at both the humoral and cellular level. PMID:19762865

Khalifeh, M S; Amawi, M M; Abu-Basha, E A; Yonis, I Bani

2009-10-01

137

LEVELS OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN-A IN TRACHEA, GUT AND BILE SAMPLES OF CHICKENS VACCINATED AGAINST NEWCASTLE DISEASE. Niveles de inmunoglobulina A en muestras de tráquea, intestino y bilis provenientes de aves vacunadas contra la enfermedad de Newcastle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunoglobulin-A (IgA) response to Newcastle diseases virus (NDV) vaccination was assessed using enzyme-linked immu- nosorbent assay. Total and NDV specific IgA levels were de- termined in tracheal washings, intestinal washings and bile. Chickens were primed with an in ovo recombinant avian adeno-associated vaccine coding for the NDV hemagglutinin- neuraminidase gene (rAAAV) and revaccinated with B1 or La- Sota strains of

Francisco Perozo; Giovanny Finol; Yaneth Mavárez

138

Factors Associated with the Persuasiveness of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising on HPV Vaccination Among Young Women.  

PubMed

This quantitative study explored young women's response to direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising (DTCA) for a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. In particular, the study examined (a) the association of factors stemming from consumer research with actual and intended behavioral responses to DTCA for HPV and (b) key elements drawn from commonly used health-related theories to determine the strongest associations with behavioral intentions regarding the HPV vaccine. Survey findings showed that vaccinated women indicated that DTCA played a role in their decision to get vaccinated against HPV more so than those who were not vaccinated. Trust in DTCA for an HPV vaccine brand was significantly related to intentions to seek more information about the vaccine. Also, perceived barriers had the only significant association with behavioral intentions when taking into account perceived threat and response efficacy. These results provide practical implications for key industry decision makers and health communication professionals on the design of effective theory-based health communication message content for an HPV vaccine brand with consequent social implications. PMID:24708436

Manika, Danae; Ball, Jennifer G; Stout, Patricia A

2014-11-01

139

Live vaccination with an H5-hemagglutinin-expressing infectious laryngotracheitis virus recombinant protects chickens against different highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5 subtype.  

PubMed

Recently, we described an infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV, gallid herpesvirus 1) recombinant, which had been attenuated by deletion of the viral dUTPase gene UL50, and abundantly expressed the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of a H5N1 type highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of Vietnamese origin. In the present study, efficacy of this vectored vaccine (ILTV-DeltaUL50IH5V) against different H5 HPAIV was evaluated in 6-week-old chickens. After a single ocular immunization all animals developed HA-specific antibodies, and were protected against lethal infection not only with the homologous HPAIV isolate A/duck/Vietnam/TG24-01/2005 (H5N1, clade 1, hemagglutinin amino acid sequence identity 100%), but also with heterologous HPAIV A/swan/Germany/R65/2006 (H5N1, clade 2.2, identity 96.1%) or HPAIV A/chicken/Italy/8/98 (H5N2, identity 93.8%). No symptoms of disease were observed after challenge with the H5N1 viruses, and only 20% of H5N2 challenged animals developed minimal clinical signs. Real-time RT-PCR analyses of oropharyngeal swabs revealed limited challenge virus replication, but the almost complete absence of HPAIV RNA from cloacal swabs indicated that no generalized infections occurred. Thus, unlike several previous vectors, ILTV-DeltaUL50IH5V was able to protect chickens against different HPAIV isolates of the H5 subtype. Vaccination with HA-expressing ILTV also allowed differentiation of immunized from AIV-infected animals by serological tests for antibodies against influenza virus nucleoprotein. PMID:19573638

Pavlova, Sophia P; Veits, Jutta; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

2009-08-13

140

Characteristics Associated With Initiation of the HPV Vaccine Among a National Sample of Male and Female Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine rates of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation, and characteristics associated with initiation, among a national sample of male and female young adults. Methods Participants (n=3,448; 48% female) were recruited using a web-based respondent driven sampling strategy and completed a web-based survey between October and December 2010. Results Forty-five percent of females and four percent of males initiated the vaccine. Females who were younger, never married, in school, attended religious services less than once a month, sexually active, reported a greater number of lifetime sex partners, and who had been tested for HIV were more likely to report initiation. Males who were African American, attended religious services less than once a month, reported a greater number of sex partners in their lifetime and who had been tested for HIV were more likely to report initiation. Conclusions Factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation may differ for males and females. Further research, with larger samples of males, is needed to fully understand characteristics associated with male initiation. Regardless of gender, however, the majority of young adults who have not initiated sexual activity have not received the vaccine. Further research is needed to examine how to increase vaccination rates among this population, as they may benefit most from vaccination. PMID:24138764

Bernat, Debra H.; Gerend, Mary A.; Chevallier, Kenya; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.

2013-01-01

141

Proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis of chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with cell culture-attenuated and vaccine strains of Marek's disease virus.  

PubMed

Vaccination is an effective strategy to reduce the loss of chickens in the poultry industry caused by Marek's Disease (MD), an avian lymphoproliferative disease. The vaccines currently used are from attenuated serotype 1 Marek's disease virus (MDV) or naturally nononcogenic MDV strains. To prepare for future immunity breaks, functional genomic and proteomic studies have been used to better understand the underlying mechanisms of MDV pathogenicity and the effects induced by the vaccine viruses. In this study, a combined approach of quantitative GeLC-MSE and qualitative ERLIC/IMAC/LC-MS/MS analysis were used to identify abundance changes of proteins and the variations of phosphorylation status resulting from the perturbations due to infection with an attenuated oncogenic virus strain (Md11/75C) and several nononcogenic virus strains (CVI988, FC126 and 301B) in vitro. Using this combined approach, several signal transduction pathways mapped by the identified proteins were found to be altered at both the level of protein abundance and phosphorylation. On the basis of this study, a kinase-dependent pathway to regulate phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 to modulate assembly of the protein translation initiation complex was revealed. The differences of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation patterns as well as the measured abundance changes among several other proteins that regulate host transcriptional and translational activities across the virus strains used in this study provide new insight for future functional and biochemical characterization of specific proteins involved in MDV pathogenesis. PMID:23106611

Chien, Ko-yi; Blackburn, Kevin; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Goshe, Michael B

2012-12-01

142

Lymphatic involution and early mortality in the young chicken produced by 2.2 GeV protons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Young single-comb white Leghorn cockerels were subjected to single acute doses of either 2.2 GeV protons or 250 kVp X-rays. Since young chickens exposed in the lethal range die within 48 hours of exposure, an hourly tabulation of deaths was recorded for this length of time after exposure. Animals which were exposed to sublethal doses were killed five days after exposure and their major lymphatic organs, (thymus, bursa, and spleen), removed and weighed. In the lethal range, animals exposed to 2.2 GeV protons died sooner than those receiving similar doses of X-rays, but total mortality was similar in each case at similar dose levels. The 48 hour LD sub 50 was determined to be 710 rad. Measured five days after exposure, 50% depression ED sub 50 for lymphatic organs occurred as follows: (1) thymus, 350 rad; (2) pursa, 500 rad, and (3) spleen, 450 rad. In all case R.B.E. values were not different from unity.

Montour, J. L.; Shellabarger, C. J.

1972-01-01

143

Geographic variation in human papillomavirus vaccination uptake among young adult women in the United States during 2008–2010  

PubMed Central

Very little is known about geographic variation in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake among young adult women in the US. To investigate this, we analyzed data from 12 US states collected through the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System between 2008 and 2010. Among 2,632 young adult women (18–26 years old) who responded to HPV vaccine uptake questions, weighted vaccine initiation and completion rates were: 28.0% and 17.0% overall, 14.0% and 6.6% in the South, 28.7% and 19.3% in the Midwest/West, and 37.2% and 23.1% in the Northeast (P<.001), respectively. Log-binomial regression analysis showed that women living in the South were less likely to initiate (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60–0.83) or complete (aPR 0.61, 95% CI, 0.53–0.71) the HPV vaccine series compared to women living in the Northeast. Interventions programs to improve HPV vaccine uptake in the Southern states are warranted. PMID:24071591

Rahman, Mahbubur; Laz, Tabassum H.; Berenson, Abbey B.

2013-01-01

144

Effects of live and killed vaccines against Mycoplasma gallisepticum on the performance characteristics of commercial layer chickens.  

PubMed

Different vaccine strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum have been used on multiple-age commercial layer farms in an effort to protect birds against virulent field-strain infections. Use of the F-strain of M. gallisepticum (FMG), as an overlay vaccine during lay, may be necessary because of the lower level of protection afforded by M. gallisepticum vaccines of low virulence given before lay. Two replicate trials were conducted to investigate effects of live and killed M. gallisepticum vaccines administered individually and in combination before lay, in conjunction with an FMG vaccine overlay after peak egg production (EP), on the performance characteristics of commercial layers. The following treatments were utilized at 10 wk of age (woa): 1) control (no vaccinations); 2) ts11 strain M. gallisepticum (ts11MG) vaccine; 3) M. gallisepticum-Bacterin vaccine (MG-Bacterin); and 4) ts11MG and MG-Bacterin vaccines combination. At 45 woa, half of the birds were overlaid with an FMG vaccine. Hen mortality, BW, egg weight, percentage hen-day EP, egg blood spots, and egg meat spots were determined at various time periods between 18 and 52 woa. The data from each trial were pooled. Treatment did not affect performance in interval I (23 to 45 woa). However, during interval II (46 to 52 woa), the EP of control and MG-Bacterin-vaccinated birds that later received an FMG vaccine overlay was lower than that in the other treatment groups. Furthermore, treatment application reduced bird BW during interval II. Despite the effects on BW and EP, no differences were observed for egg blood or meat spots among the various treatments. It is suggested that the vaccination of commercial layers before lay with ts11MG, but not MG-Bacterin, may reduce the negative impacts of an FMG overlay vaccination given during lay. These results establish that the vaccination of pullets with ts11MG in combination with the vaccination of hens with an FMG overlay, for continual protection against field-strain M. gallisepticum infections, may be used without suppressing performance. PMID:24879690

Jacob, R; Branton, S L; Evans, J D; Leigh, S A; Peebles, E D

2014-06-01

145

Two decades after vaccine license: hepatitis B immunization and infection among young men who have sex with men.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated hepatitis B immunization coverage and the extent of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among young men who have sex with men (MSM), a group for whom hepatitis B vaccine has been recommended since 1982. METHODS: We analyzed data from 3432 MSM, aged 15 to 22 years, randomly sampled at 194 gay-identified venues in 7 US metropolitan areas from 1994 through 1998. Participants were interviewed, counseled, and tested for serologic markers of HBV infection. RESULTS: Immunization coverage was 9% and the prevalence of markers of HBV infection was 11%. HBV infection ranged from 2% among 15-year-olds to 17% among 22-year-olds. Among participants susceptible to HBV infection, 96% used a regular source of health care or accessed the health care system for HIV or sexually transmitted disease testing. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the availability of an effective vaccine for nearly 2 decades, our findings suggest that few adolescent and young adult MSM in the United States are vaccinated against hepatitis B. Health care providers should intensify their efforts to identify and vaccinate young MSM who are susceptible to HBV. PMID:11392942

MacKellar, D A; Valleroy, L A; Secura, G M; McFarland, W; Shehan, D; Ford, W; LaLota, M; Celentano, D D; Koblin, B A; Torian, L V; Thiede, H; Janssen, R S

2001-01-01

146

Reduction in faecal excretion of Salmonella typhimurium strain F98 in chickens vaccinated with live and killed S. typhimurium organisms.  

PubMed Central

Chickens given orally at 4 days of age a smooth spectinomycin resistant mutant (Spcr) of Salmonella typhimurium strain F98 excreted the organism in their faeces for approximately 4 weeks. Following oral administration of a nalidixic acid resistant (Nalr) mutant of the same strain 4 weeks later when the chickens had virtually cleared themselves of the first infection, these chickens excreted far fewer salmonella organisms and for a shorter time than did a previously uninfected control group of chickens which were infected at the same time with the Nalr mutant. Chickens inoculated intramuscularly at 4 days developed a similar immunity to challenge and also excreted the immunizing strain in their faeces. In contrast intramuscular inoculation or incorporation into the food of formalin-killed S. typhimurium organisms had little lasting effect on the faecal excretion of the challenge strain. Two attenuated mutants of strain F98 Nalr were produced: one was a rough strain produced by lytic bacteriophage and the other was an aro A auxotrophic mutant which had been cured of the 85 kilobase-pair virulence-associated plasmid. These mutants were avirulent for chickens, mice, calves and man and when ingested by human volunteers did not persist in the faeces. When inoculated intramuscularly into chickens they produced an early reduction in faecal excretion of the challenge strain (Spcr) which was not maintained. Oral administration of both strains produced reductions in faecal excretion of the challenge strain. This was much more noticeable with the rough strain which was itself excreted for a much longer period than the parent strain. PMID:2189743

Barrow, P. A.; Hassan, J. O.; Berchieri, A.

1990-01-01

147

Construction of a Salmonella Gallinarum ghost as a novel inactivated vaccine candidate and its protective efficacy against fowl typhoid in chickens  

PubMed Central

In order to develop a novel, safe and immunogenic fowl typhoid (FT) vaccine candidate, a Salmonella Gallinarum ghost with controlled expression of the bacteriophage PhiX174 lysis gene E was constructed using pMMP99 plasmid in this study. The formation of the Salmonella Gallinarum ghost with tunnel formation and loss of cytoplasmic contents was observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. No viable cells were detectable 24?h after the induction of gene E expression by an increase in temperature from 37?°C to 42?°C. The safety and protective efficacy of the Salmonella Gallinarum ghost vaccine was tested in chickens that were divided into four groups: group A (non-immunized control), group B (orally immunized), group C (subcutaneously immunized) and group D (intramuscularly immunized). The birds were immunized at day 7 of age. None of the immunized animals showed any adverse reactions such as abnormal behavior, mortality, or signs of FT such as anorexia, depression, or diarrhea. These birds were subsequently challenged with a virulent Salmonella Gallinarum strain at 3?weeks post-immunization (wpi). Significant protection against the virulent challenge was observed in all immunized groups based on mortality and post-mortem lesions compared to the non-immunized control group. In addition, immunization with the Salmonella Gallinarum ghosts induced significantly high systemic IgG response in all immunized groups. Among the groups, orally-vaccinated group B showed significantly higher levels of secreted IgA. A potent antigen-specific lymphocyte activation response along with significantly increased percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes found in all immunized groups clearly indicate the induction of cellular immune responses. Overall, these findings suggest that the newly constructed Salmonella Gallinarum ghost appears to be a safe, highly immunogenic, and efficient non-living bacterial vaccine candidate that protects against FT. PMID:22620989

2012-01-01

148

Efficacy, immune responses and side-effects of vaccines against Johne's disease in young red deer (Cervus elaphus) experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To test the efficacy of a commercially available and an experimental vaccine against Johne's disease in young red deer (Cervus elaphus), using experimental challenge with live virulent Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (M. ptb), measure injection-site reactions, and assess the effects of vaccination and challenge on results of subsequent skin tests and ancillary blood tests for bovine tuberculosis (Tb).METHODS: Ninety

CG Mackintosh; RE Labes; BR Thompson; RG Clark; GW de Lisle; PD Johnstone; JFT Griffin

2008-01-01

149

Detection of wild- and vaccine-type avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus in clinical samples and feather shafts of commercial chickens.  

PubMed

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a respiratory disease of poultry caused by an alphaherpesvirus (ILTV). To evaluate differential detection of ILTVs belonging to the two types, wild-type or vaccine-type, both causing clinical signs, five PCRs were evaluated to detect wild-type and vaccine-type ILTV in clinical samples. By directly sampling the organs, we aimed to avoid changes in the virus genome and to facilitate a fast diagnosis. The samples were tracheal and spleen homogenates and feather shafts. The latter are easy to collect, nonlethal for the bird, and advantageous for monitoring purposes. We investigated the time interval for vaccine virus detection following commercial vaccination by the vent application, which is successfully practiced in Israel. The study indicated that ILTV amplification from feather shafts was possible in clinical cases for about a one-month period after vaccination. Vaccine strains were identified by nested PCR for the ILTV-gE gene and differed from wild-type ILTV strains by two criteria: (1) While avirulent vaccines could be detected for about a month after the vent application, wild-type virus could be detected, in conjunction with clinical signs, for an unlimited time period; and (2) The ILTV vaccine was present in the bird in minute quantities compared to the wild-type virus. We assessed the virus type that appeared in conjunction with the clinical signs and determined that the clinical signs appeared in conjunction with both molecular forms of ILTV. The vaccine virus-type and the wild-type ILTV differed by their distinct restriction pattern when using the HaeIII restriction enzyme digestion of the nested amplification product. PMID:20095166

Davidson, Irit; Nagar, Sagit; Ribshtein, Israel; Shkoda, Irena; Perk, Shimon; Garcia, Maricarmen

2009-12-01

150

Relationship Between Levels of Very Virulent MDV in Poultry Dust and in Feather Tips from Vaccinated Chickens  

E-print Network

of virulent Marek's disease virus from experimentally infected chickens, quantitative PCR (q-PCR) methods were for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Departments of Biology and Entomology, Pennsylvania State University, University contamination by MDV. RESUMEN. Relacio´n entre los niveles del virus de Marek muy virulento en el polvo de

Read, Andrew

151

Investigations on the Influence of Helminth Parasites on Vaccination of Chickens against Newcastle Disease Virus under Village Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence studies have shown that almost 100% of free-range chickens are infected with a wide range of parasites. The infections are mostly subclinical in nature, resulting in production losses and occasionally mortality. Newcastle disease (ND), on the other hand, results in high mortality rates during epidemics. ND is a limiting factor for increasing poultry production in many tropical countries, where

G. Hørning; S. Rasmussen; A. Permin; M. Bisgaard

2003-01-01

152

Antibody titres after primary and booster vaccination of infants and young children with a virosomal hepatitis A vaccine (Epaxal).  

PubMed

To evaluate the immunogenicity and tolerability of Epaxal in infants and children, 30 infants (aged 6-7 months) and 30 children (aged 5-7 years) received a single intramuscular dose of the aluminium-free virosomal hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine Epaxal and a booster dose after 12 months. Anti-HAV antibody titres were measured at baseline (before injection), at 1 and 12 months after primary vaccination, and 1 month after the booster vaccination. Sixteen evaluable infants had maternal anti-HAV antibodies at baseline. Complete seroprotection (titre >/= 20 mIU/ml) was achieved by all infants and children at Month 1 and at Month 12. Additionally, all subjects showed a strong antibody response to booster vaccination. In infants without maternal anti-HAV antibodies, the response was four-fold higher than in those with maternal anti-HAV antibodies. Both doses of Epaxal were well tolerated. These preliminary data suggest that Epaxal is an effective hepatitis A vaccine for children and infants from 6 months of age. PMID:14575771

Usonis, V; Bakasénas, V; Valentelis, R; Katiliene, G; Vidzeniene, D; Herzog, C

2003-11-01

153

Correlates of HPV Knowledge in the Era of HPV Vaccination: A Study of Unvaccinated Young Adult Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, awareness of the sexually transmitted infection human papillomavirus—the virus that causes cervical cancer—was relatively low. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with human papillomavirus knowledge now that human papillomavirus vaccines have become widely available. Young adult women (n = 739; aged 18–26 years) attending Florida State University who had not yet initiated human papillomavirus

Mary A. Gerend; Janet E. Shepherd

2011-01-01

154

Evaluation of Vaccines on the Prevalence of Salmonella and/or Campylobacter in Layer and Broiler Chickens  

E-print Network

and poultry meat. Previous studies have found that the presence or disappearance of Salmonella or Campylobacter is linked to various environmental and management-based factors, of which include vaccines used in the industry. Presently, we evaluated the effect...

Garcia, Javier Shalin

2013-05-22

155

IMMUNIZATION OF YOUNG FOXES AGAINST RABIES: INTERACTION BETWEEN VACCINATION AND NATURAL INFECTION  

E-print Network

'INFECTION NATURELLE. ― Une expérience préliminaire de vaccination antirabique de renardeaux (Vulpes vulpes L vaccination. Materials and Methods Animals Nineteen red fox cubs (Vulpes vulpes L.) belonging to four litters

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

156

Young and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes have optimal B cell responses to the seasonal influenza vaccine  

PubMed Central

We evaluated immune response to the seasonal influenza vaccine in young and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Immune measures included the in vivo serum response to the vaccine by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and ELISA in 22 patients (14 young, 8 elderly) and 65 healthy age-matched controls (37 young, 28 elderly). B cell-specific biomarkers of optimal vaccine response were measured ex vivo by switched memory B cells and plasmablasts and in vitro by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) in stimulated cells. Markers of systemic and B cell-intrinsic inflammation were also measured. Results show that in vivo responses, as well as B cell-specific markers identified above, decrease by age in healthy individuals but not in T2D patients. This occurred despite high levels of B cell-intrinsic inflammation (TNF-?) in T2D patients, which was surprising as we had previously demonstrated this negatively impacts B cell function. These results altogether suggest that valid protection against influenza can be achieved in T2D patients and proposed mechanisms are discussed. PMID:23711934

Frasca, Daniela; Diaz, Alain; Romero, Maria; Mendez, Nicholas V.; Landin, Ana Marie; Ryan, John G.; Blomberg, Bonnie B.

2013-01-01

157

Multimeric Recombinant M2e Protein-Based ELISA: A Significant Improvement in Differentiating Avian Influenza Infected Chickens from Vaccinated Ones  

PubMed Central

Killed avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines have been used to control H5N1 infections in countries where the virus is endemic. Distinguishing vaccinated from naturally infected birds (DIVA) in such situations however, has become a major challenge. Recently, we introduced the recombinant ectodomain of the M2 protein (M2e) of H5N1 subtype as a novel tool for an ELISA based DIVA test. Despite being antigenic in natural infection the monomer form of the M2e used in ELISA had limited antigenicity and consequently poor diagnostic capability. To address this shortcoming, we evaluated the use of four tandem copies of M2e (tM2e) for increased efficiency of M2e antibody detection. The tM2e gene of H5N1 strain from Indonesia (A/Indonesia/CDC540/2006) was cloned into a pMAL- p4x expression vector and expressed in E.coli as a recombinant tM2e-MBP or M2e-MBP proteins. Both of these, M2e and tM2e antigens reacted with sera obtained from chickens following live H5N1 infection but not with sera from vaccinated birds. A significantly stronger M2e antibody reaction was observed with the tM2e compared to M2e antigen. Western blotting also supported the superiority of tM2e over M2e in detection of specific M2e antibodies against live H5N1 infection. Results from this study demonstrate that M2e tetramer is a better antigen than single M2e and could be more suitable for an ELISA based DIVA test. PMID:25330391

Hadifar, Farshid; Ignjatovic, Jagoda; Tarigan, Simson; Indriani, Risa; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Hasan, Noor Haliza; McWhorter, Andrea; Putland, Sophie; Ownagh, Abdulghaffar; Hemmatzadeh, Farhid

2014-01-01

158

Decline in in-patient treatments of genital warts among young Australians following the national HPV vaccination program  

PubMed Central

Background There has been a rapid decline in the number of young heterosexuals diagnosed with genital warts at outpatient sexual health services since the national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program started in Australia in 2007. We assessed the impact of the vaccination program on the number of in-patient treatments for genital warts. Methods Data on in-patient treatments of genital warts in all private hospitals were extracted from the Medicare website. Medicare is the universal health insurance scheme of Australia. In the vaccine period (2007–2011) and pre-vaccine period (2000–2007) we calculated the percentage change in treatment numbers and trends in annual treatment rates in private hospitals. Australian population data were used to calculate rates. Summary rate ratios of average annual trends were determined. Results Between 2000 and 2011, 6,014 women and 936 men aged 15–44?years underwent in-patient treatment for genital warts in private hospitals. In 15–24?year old women, there was a significant decreasing trend in annual treatment rates of vulval/vaginal warts in the vaccine period (overall decrease of 85.3% in treatment numbers from 2007 to 2011) compared to no significant trend in the pre-vaccine period (summary rate ratio (SRR)?=?0.33, p?vaccine and pre-vaccine periods (overall decrease of 33% vs. 24.3%), but the rate of change was greater in the vaccine period (SRR?=?0.60, p?vaccine period (decrease of 70.6%) compared to an increasing trend in the pre-vaccine period (SRR?=?0.76, p?=?0.02). In 25–34?year old men there was a significant decreasing trend in the vaccine period compared to no change in the pre-vaccine period (SRR?=?0.81, p?=?0.04) and in 35–44?year old men there was no significant change in rates of penile warts both periods, but the rate of change was greater in the vaccine period (SRR?=?0.70, p?=?0.02). Conclusions The marked decline in in-patient treatment of vulval/vaginal warts in the youngest women is probably attributable to the HPV vaccine program. The moderate decline in in-patient treatments for penile warts in men probably reflects herd immunity. PMID:23506489

2013-01-01

159

Antibody titres after primary and booster vaccination of infants and young children with a virosomal hepatitis A vaccine (Epaxal ®)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the immunogenicity and tolerability of Epaxal® in infants and children, 30 infants (aged 6–7 months) and 30 children (aged 5–7 years) received a single intramuscular dose of the aluminium-free virosomal hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine Epaxal® and a booster dose after 12 months. Anti-HAV antibody titres were measured at baseline (before injection), at 1 and 12 months after

V. Usonis; V. Bakasénas; R. Valentelis; G. Katiliene; D. Vidzeniene; C. Herzog

2003-01-01

160

Safety and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in HIV-infected and HIV-negative adolescents and young adults.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is highly prevalent and can lead to cancer; the development of safe and efficacious vaccines for HPV is a major public health concern. The two licensed HPV vaccines contain recombinant virus-like particles of HPV 16 and 18; one of such vaccines also protects against HPV types 6 and 11 which cause genital warts. We determined safety and immunogenicity of quadrivalent HPV vaccine in HIV-infected and HIV-negative adolescents and young adults, aged 13-27 years. The seroconversion rate, assessed by antibody titers, 1 month after the administration of the third vaccine dose was 0.85 (95% CI 0.75-0.95) in the HIV-infected group and 0.91 (0.83-0.99) in the HIV-negative subjects (p=0.52). The vaccine was generally safe and well tolerated; the most common side effect was local pain and the most frequent systemic side effect was headache. This is the first report on response to HPV vaccination in both female and male HIV-infected adolescents and young adults and highlights that this population may benefit from HPV immunoprophylaxis. Further studies are needed to examine the long term efficacy of this vaccine in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:25149430

Giacomet, Vania; Penagini, Francesca; Trabattoni, Daria; Viganò, Alessandra; Rainone, Veronica; Bernazzani, Giada; Bonardi, Claudia Maria; Clerici, Mario; Bedogni, Giorgio; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

2014-09-29

161

Controversies in chicken-pox immunization.  

PubMed

Chicken-pox is one more newer vaccine in our armamentarium against infectious diseases. Due to its extremely contagious nature, varicella is experienced by almost every child or young adult in the world. Each year from 1990 to 1994, prior to availability of varicella vaccine, about 4 million cases of varicella occurred in the United States. Of these cases approximately 10,000 required hospitalization and 100 died. Although varicella is not commonly perceived as an important public health problem, the socioeconomic consequences in industrialized countries of a disease that affects practically every child and causes the carrier absence from work should not be underestimated. The varicella vaccines available in the market are safe and effective. A recent cost-benefit analysis in USA showed that routine chicken-pox vaccination is likely to save five times the investment. Even when only direct costs were considered, benefits almost balanced the costs. At present similar studies from developing countries are not available. The public health impact of varicella and zoster may be increasing in regions with high endemic rates of HIV infection. Varicella vaccine may be used either at an individual level to protect susceptible adolescents and adults, or at a population level, to cover all children as part of a national immunization programme. Vaccination of adolescents and adults will protect at-risk individuals, but will not have a significant impact on the epidemiology of the disease on a population basis. On the other hand, extensive use as a routine vaccine in children will have a significant impact on the epidemiology of the disease. If sustained high coverage can be achieved, the disease may virtually disappear. If only partial coverage can be obtained, the epidemiology may shift, leading to an increase in the number of cases in older children and adults. Hence, routine childhood varicella immunization programmes should emphasize high, sustained coverage. At present, this vaccine will have a lower priority in the National Immunization Schedule that does not have MMR and typhoid, which have a greater socioeconomic impact. Hence, at the present time WHO does not recommend the inclusion of varicella vaccination into the routine immunization programmes of developing countries. PMID:12921321

Bhave, Swati Y

2003-06-01

162

Two successive outbreaks of mumps in Nova Scotia among vaccinated adolescents and young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Before the widespread use of vaccine, mumps was the most common cause of viral meningitis (up to 10% of mumps infections). Vaccination programs have resulted in a drop of more than 99% in the number of reported mumps cases in the United States and Canada. Although rare in Canada, outbreaks have recently occurred through- out the world, including a

Gaynor Watson-Creed; Andrea Saunders; Jeffrey Scott; Luis Lowe; Janice Pettipas; Todd F. Hatchette

2006-01-01

163

Efficacy of mannanoligosaccharides and humate on immune response to Avian Influenza (H9) disease vaccination in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The effect of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and Humate (HU) in broiler diets on antibody titers against Avian Influenza virus (AIV) was evaluated. A completely randomized experimental design was used, and chicks were divided into 8 treatment groups, with 4 replicates per treatment and 10 chicks per replicate. Treatments were: 1) negative control group (CTL-), neither vaccinated against AIV nor given additives; 2) positive control (CTL+) or broilers were vaccinated against AIV + 0 additives; 3,4 and 5) CTL+ plus diet supplemented with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% HU, respectively; 6,7 and 8) CTL+ plus diet supplemented with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% MOS, respectively. For antibody analyses, blood samples were weekly collected by wing veins and the titers of antibody against AIV were measured by haemagglutination-inhibition test (HI). Compared to the positive control, the antibody titers against AIV were determined significantly lower in negative control group from 28 to 42 days of age. The inclusion of MOS resulted in increased antibody titers against AIV in the fourth, fifth and sixth weeks of age. MOS was effective in stimulating the humoral immune responses against AIV vaccine viruses. This study demonstrated an increase in the antibody titers in broilers fed diets containing 0.3% HU. In general, results of this study demonstrated that MOS proved to be much more effective on antibody production against AIV in broiler chicks than HU. Immune function could be modified with dietary HU and MOS supplementation. PMID:20872288

Tohid, Toloei; Hasan, Ghahri; Alireza, Talebi

2010-12-01

164

Effect of ascorbic acid and acute heat exposure on heat shock protein 70 expression by young white Leghorn chickens.  

PubMed

Dietary ascorbic acid (AA) and heat stress (HS) affect heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and body temperature (BT) of strain cross white Leghorn chickens. At five weeks of age, chicks fed either no supplemental AA (N-AA) or 200 mg/kg AA (AA) were subjected to either HS (42 degrees C) or maintained in control (CN, 23 degrees C) ambient temperature (T(a)) for 1 h. Body temperature (BT) was recorded for each bird before collection of heart and liver for hsp70 assay. In the CN AA-fed groups, neither the lower constitutive hsc70 nor the decreased hsp70 response to HS in the heart and liver were sex-dependent. The BT was increased by HS, but neither AA nor sex of the bird affected BT response. A diet X T(a) interaction revealed that BT of CN AA-fed chickens was lower than in N-AA-fed chickens, but BT of HS AA-fed chicks was greater than BT in HS N-AA-fed chickens. The BT and hsp70 responses were positively correlated. A lower expression of hsp70 indicated less of a stress response in the AA-fed chickens. PMID:15012904

Mahmoud, Kamel Z; Edens, F W; Eisen, E J; Havenstein, G B

2003-12-01

165

Sudden death after typhoid and Japanese encephalitis vaccination in a young male taking pseudoephedrine.  

PubMed

The case of a 21-year-old male taking over-the-counter pseudoephedrine for weight loss who died suddenly during exercise shortly after inoculation with Japanese encephalitis and phenol-inactivated typhoid vaccines is presented. The patient collapsed in mild weather while exercising 75 minutes after his vaccinations. He presented in asystole with a core temperature of 42.2 degrees C (108 degrees F). There was no evidence of urticaria or angioedema. It is likely that the combined pyrogenic effects of the vaccines, pseudoephedrine, exercise, and mild obesity contributed to a failure of the thermoregulatory system. Fever is still a common side effect of numerous other vaccines. Military physicians should consider administrative controls on thermogenic activities for a period after inoculations. Additionally, the dangers of ephedrine-containing compounds need to be more widely publicized. PMID:10050577

Franklin, Q J

1999-02-01

166

Correlates of HPV knowledge in the era of HPV vaccination: a study of unvaccinated young adult women.  

PubMed

Until recently, awareness of the sexually transmitted infection human papillomavirus-the virus that causes cervical cancer-was relatively low. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with human papillomavirus knowledge now that human papillomavirus vaccines have become widely available. Young adult women (n = 739; aged 18-26 years) attending Florida State University who had not yet initiated human papillomavirus vaccination completed a survey between March-August 2009. The survey assessed human papillomavirus awareness, human papillomavirus knowledge, demographics, socio-political variables, sexual history, and health history variables. Over 97% of participants were aware of human papillomavirus prior to study enrollment; however, knowledge of human papillomavirus was only moderate. A multivariate regression analysis examining factors related to human papillomavirus knowledge revealed five independent correlates: Latina ethnicity, premarital sex values, number of lifetime sexual partners, history of cervical dysplasia, and HIV testing. These variables accounted for 14% of the variance in human papillomavirus knowledge. Less knowledge was observed for Latinas and women opposed to premarital sex. Greater knowledge was observed for women who had been tested for HIV and women with more sexual partners or a history of cervical dysplasia. These findings can inform future human papillomavirus vaccination campaigns and may be particularly useful in developing interventions for individuals with the largest deficits in human papillomavirus knowledge. PMID:21391159

Gerend, Mary A; Shepherd, Janet E

2011-01-01

167

Pneumonia hospitalizations among young children before and after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine--United States, 1997-2006.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading bacterial cause of community-acquired pneumonia hospitalizations and an important cause of bacteremia and meningitis, especially among young children and older adults. A 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was licensed and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices formulated recommendations for its use in infants and children in February 2000. Vaccination coverage rapidly increased during the second half of 2000, in part through funding by CDC's Vaccines for Children program. Subsequently, active population- and laboratory-based surveillance demonstrated substantial reductions in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children and adults. In addition, decreases in hospitalizations and ambulatory-care visits for all-cause pneumonia also were reported. To gauge whether the effects of PCV7 on reducing pneumonia continue, CDC is monitoring pneumonia hospitalizations by using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. This report provides an update for 2005 and 2006, the most recent years for which information is available. In 2005 and 2006, the incidence rates for all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations among children aged <2 years were 9.1 per 1,000 and 8.1 per 1,000, respectively. In 2006, the rate for all-cause pneumonia among children aged <2 years was approximately 35% lower than during 1997--1999. Most of this decrease occurred soon after the vaccine was licensed in 2000, and the rates have remained relatively stable since then. The rate for all-cause pneumonia among children aged 2--4 years did not change after PCV7 licensure and has remained stable. Continued monitoring of pneumonia-related hospitalizations among children is needed to track the effects of pneumococcal immunization programs. PMID:19145219

2009-01-16

168

Randomized trial on the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM, an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine, administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine in adolescents and young adults.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, when administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, in subjects aged 11 to 25 years. Subjects received either MenACWY-CRM and Tdap, MenACWY-CRM and saline placebo, or Tdap and saline placebo. No significant increase in reactogenicity and no clinically significant vaccine-related adverse events (AEs) occurred when MenACWY-CRM and Tdap were administered concomitantly. Similar immunogenic responses to diphtheria, tetanus, and meningococcal (serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y) antigens were observed, regardless of concomitant vaccine administration. Antipertussis antibody responses were comparable between vaccine groups for filamentous hemagglutinin and were slightly lower, although not clinically significantly, for pertussis toxoid and pertactin when the two vaccines were administered concomitantly. These results indicate that the investigational MenACWY-CRM vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic and that it can be coadministered with Tdap to adolescents and young adults. PMID:20164251

Gasparini, Roberto; Conversano, Michele; Bona, Gianni; Gabutti, Giovanni; Anemona, Alessandra; Dull, Peter M; Ceddia, Francesca

2010-04-01

169

Randomized Trial on the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM, an Investigational Quadrivalent Meningococcal Glycoconjugate Vaccine, Administered Concomitantly with a Combined Tetanus, Reduced Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine in Adolescents and Young Adults? †  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, when administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, in subjects aged 11 to 25 years. Subjects received either MenACWY-CRM and Tdap, MenACWY-CRM and saline placebo, or Tdap and saline placebo. No significant increase in reactogenicity and no clinically significant vaccine-related adverse events (AEs) occurred when MenACWY-CRM and Tdap were administered concomitantly. Similar immunogenic responses to diphtheria, tetanus, and meningococcal (serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y) antigens were observed, regardless of concomitant vaccine administration. Antipertussis antibody responses were comparable between vaccine groups for filamentous hemagglutinin and were slightly lower, although not clinically significantly, for pertussis toxoid and pertactin when the two vaccines were administered concomitantly. These results indicate that the investigational MenACWY-CRM vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic and that it can be coadministered with Tdap to adolescents and young adults. PMID:20164251

Gasparini, Roberto; Conversano, Michele; Bona, Gianni; Gabutti, Giovanni; Anemona, Alessandra; Dull, Peter M.; Ceddia, Francesca

2010-01-01

170

VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine  

E-print Network

much sicker than others. These people include young children, people 65 and older, pregnant women vaccine contain a small amount of egg. · If you ever had Guillain-Barré Syndrome (a severe paralyzing

Oklahoma, University of

171

The effects of vaccine timing on the efficacy of an acute eccentric exercise intervention on the immune response to an influenza vaccine in young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acute bout of exercise prior to vaccination can improve the antibody and cell-mediated responses to influenza vaccination. The mechanisms underpinning this adjuvant effect remain unclear, and further investigation to determine the optimal exercise protocol is warranted. The aim of the current study was to determine whether exercise augmented the immune response to vaccination, and whether the timing of exercise

John P. Campbell; Kate M. Edwards; Christopher Ring; Mark T. Drayson; Jos A. Bosch; Andrew Inskip; Joanna E. Long; Daniel Pulsford; Victoria E. Burns

2010-01-01

172

HPV-Related Risk Perceptions and HPV Vaccine Uptake Among a Sample of Young Rural Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appalachia Kentucky is recognized for increased cervical cancer incidence, morbidity and mortality and lower rates of Pap\\u000a testing. Understanding the predictors of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake is warranted among this population. The\\u000a purpose of this exploratory research is to determine associations between HPV-related risk perceptions and uptake of free\\u000a Gardasil offered to rural Appalachian women ages 18–26 attending regional

Robin C. VanderpoolBaretta; Baretta R. Casey; Richard A. Crosby

173

Development of influenza H7N9 virus like particle (VLP) vaccine: homologous A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) protection and heterologous A/chicken/Jalisco/CPA1/2012 (H7N3) cross-protection in vaccinated mice challenged with H7N9 virus.  

PubMed

The recent emergence of severe human illness caused by avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) viruses in China has precipitated a global effort to rapidly develop and test vaccine candidates. To date, non-A(H7N9) H7 subtype influenza vaccine candidates have been poorly immunogenic and difficulties in production of A(H7N9) virus seed strains have been encountered. A candidate recombinant A(H7N9) vaccine consisting of full length, unmodified hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) from the A/Anhui/1/2013 and the matrix 1 (M1) protein from the A/Indonesia/05/2005 (H5N1) were cloned into a baculovirus vector. Baculovirus infected Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells secreted virus like particles (VLP) composed of HA, NA, and M1 that resemble mature influenza virions. Genetic construction of vaccine from acquisition of an H7N9 genomic sequence to production of A(H7N9) VLP occurred in 26 days. The immunogenicity and efficacy of A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) VLP vaccine administered on days 0 and 14 were evaluated in a lethal wild-type challenge Balb/c mouse model. Control groups included a non-homologous H7 vaccine (A/chicken/Jalisco/CPA1/2012 (H7N3)-VLP), and A/Indonesia/05/2005 (H5N1)-VLP, or placebo. All vaccines were administered with or without ISCOMATRIX. A(H7N9) VLP elicited hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) antibody titers of ? 1:64 against the homologous virus, cross-reactive HAI against the heterologous A(H7N3), and 3- to 4-fold higher HAI responses in corresponding ISCOMATRIX subgroups. Similarly, all doses of H7N9 VLP elicited anti-neuraminidase (NA) antibody, with 3- to 4-fold higher responses measured in the corresponding ISCOMATRIX subgroups. The non-homologous H7 vaccine induced both H7N3 and H7N9 HAI but no N9 anti-NA antibodies. A lethal murine wild-type A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) challenge demonstrated 100% survival of all animals receiving A(H7N9) and A(H7N3) vaccine, versus 0% survival in A(H5N1) vaccine and placebo groups. Together, the data demonstrate that recombinant H7N9 vaccine can be rapidly developed that was immunogenic and efficacious supporting testing in man as a pandemic influenza H7N9 vaccine candidate. PMID:23891795

Smith, Gale E; Flyer, David C; Raghunandan, Ramadevi; Liu, Ye; Wei, Ziping; Wu, Yingyun; Kpamegan, Eloi; Courbron, Denise; Fries, Louis F; Glenn, Gregory M

2013-09-13

174

VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine 2012 -2013  

E-print Network

the same symptoms and are often mistaken for influenza. Young children, people 65 and older, pregnant womenVACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine 2012 - 2013 Inactivated What You Need to Know://www.immunize.org/vis Why get vaccinated?1 Influenza ("flu") is a contagious disease. It is caused by the influenza virus

Kim, Duck O.

175

Vaccination against Moroccan strains of Newcastle disease virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different vaccination programmes commonly used in Moroccan poultry farms were tested for their capacity to protect chickens against two representative Moroccan strains of velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus under controlled conditions. All vaccination programmes protected the chickens against mortality and the inactivated vaccine gave the highest antibody titres and the best protection against respiratory symptoms.

J. G. Bell; M. Mouahid

1987-01-01

176

Vaccination against Newcastle disease: Efficacy of an oil emulsion vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccination using injectable Newcastle vaccine (inactivated) oil emulsion at 21 days of age stimulated high and persistent H.I. antibody levels.Vaccine prepared on an industrial scale contained not less then 100 PD50 in 0.5 ml.High levels of maternal antibodies had a negative influence on vaccination of chickens when carried out during the first 3 weeks of age, but not when performed

D. Cessi; L. Nardelli

1974-01-01

177

The Immunogenicity of a Single Dose of Hepatitis A Virus Vaccines (Havrix(R) and Epaxal(R)) in Korean Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose Assessing the immunogenicity of a single dose of hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccines is important because some people receive only a single dose. However, previous studies have shown variable results and have not examined the effects of demographic characteristics other than gender. This study was performed to examine the immunogenicity of a single dose of HAV vaccine according to the vaccine type and demographic characteristics in young adults. Materials and Methods Seronegative medical school students were randomly allocated to receive either Havrix or Epaxal. Results After approximately 11 months, the seroconversion rate in 451 participants was 80.7%. In men, the Havrix group showed a significantly higher seroconversion rate (81.9%) than the Epaxal group (69.2%), whereas both vaccine groups showed similarly high immunogenicity in women (Havrix: 90.1%, Epaxal: 92.9%; P for interaction=0.062). According to the results of a multivariate analysis, Epaxal showed significantly lower immunogenicity than Havrix only in men. Age, obesity, drinking, smoking, and follow-up time did not significantly affect seroconversion in either gender. Conclusion The seroconversion rate of single-dose HAV vaccines was low in men, particularly in those who received Epaxal. Our results suggest that gender effects should be considered when comparing the immunogenicity of different HAV vaccines. PMID:24339297

Lim, Jiseun; Song, Yeong-Jun; Park, Woong-Sub; Sohn, Haesook; Lee, Moo-Sik; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Hwasung; Oh, Gyung-Jae

2014-01-01

178

A bivalent Neisseria meningitidis recombinant lipidated factor H binding protein vaccine in young adults: results of a randomised, controlled, dose-escalation phase 1 trial.  

PubMed

Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of meningitis and septicaemia, but a broadly-protective vaccine against endemic serogroup B disease is not licensed and available. The conserved, outer-membrane lipoprotein factor H binding protein (fHBP, also known as LP2086) is expressed as one of two subfamily variants in virtually all meningococci. This study investigated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant-expressed bivalent fHBP (r-fHBP) vaccine in healthy adults. Participants (N=103) aged 18-25 years were recruited into three ascending dose level cohorts of 20, 60, and 200?g of a bivalent r-fHBP vaccine formulation and randomised to receive vaccine or placebo at 0, 1, and 6 months. The vaccine was well tolerated. Geometric mean titres (GMTs) for r-fHBP subfamily-specific IgG antibodies increased 19-168-fold from pre-vaccination to post-dose 2 in a dose level-dependent manner. In addition, robust serum bactericidal assay using human complement (hSBA) responses for strains expressing both homologous and heterologous fHBP variants were observed. After three vaccinations, 16-52% of the placebo group and 47-90%, 75-100%, and 88-100%, of the 20, 60, and 200?g dose levels, respectively, had seroprotective (? 1:4) hSBA titres against six serogroup B strains. The bivalent r-fHBP vaccine was well tolerated and induced robust bactericidal activity against six diverse serogroup B strains in young adults at the 60 and 200?g dose levels. PMID:22871351

Richmond, P C; Nissen, M D; Marshall, H S; Lambert, S B; Roberton, D; Gruber, W C; Jones, T R; Arora, A

2012-09-21

179

Qualitative study of the feasibility of HPV vaccine delivery to young adolescent girls in Vietnam: evidence from a government-implemented demonstration program  

PubMed Central

Background Introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in national programs has proceeded apace since 2006, mostly in high-income countries. Recently concluded pilots of HPV vaccination in low-income countries have provided important lessons learned for these settings; however, rigorous evaluations of the feasibility of these delivery strategies that effectively reach young adolescents have been few. This paper presents results from a qualitative evaluation of a demonstration program which implemented school-based and health center–based HPV vaccinations to all girls in grade 6, or 11 years of age, for two years in four districts of Vietnam. Methods Using semi-structured interviews of 131 health and education staff from local, district, province, and national levels and 26 focus-group discussions with local project implementers (n?=?153), we conducted a qualitative two-year evaluation to measure the impact of HPV vaccinations on the health and education systems. Results HPV vaccine delivery at schools or health centers was made feasible by: a. close collaboration between the health and education sectors, b. detailed planning for implementation, c. clearly defined roles and responsibilities for project implementers, d. effective management and supervision of vaccinations during delivery, and e. engagement with community organizations for support. Both the health and education systems were temporarily challenged with the extra workload, but the disruptions were short-lived (a few days for each of three doses) and perceived as worth the longer-term benefit of cervical cancer prevention. Conclusion The learning from Vietnam has identified critical elements for successful vaccine delivery that can provide a model for other countries to consider during their planning of national rollout of HPV vaccine. PMID:24898950

2014-01-01

180

Unusual Patterns of IgG Avidity in Some Young Children following Two Doses of the Adjuvanted Pandemic H1N1 (2009) Influenza Virus Vaccine  

PubMed Central

During the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic, an adjuvanted monovalent vaccine containing ?25% of the normal antigen dose and AS03 adjuvant was widely used in Canada. This vaccine was found to be well-tolerated and immunogenic in young children (D. W. Scheifele et al., Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 30:402–407, 2011). We report here additional analyses to further characterize the humoral response to this vaccine. We measured standard hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN) titers, as well as influenza virus-specific IgG avidity and subclass distribution by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 73 subjects. Sera were collected before (day 0) and 3 weeks after each dose of vaccine (days 21 and 42). Most children (55/73) had undetectable HAI and MN titers at day 0 (presumed to be antigen naive) and mounted good responses at days 21 and 42. The majority of these children (43/55) had the expected pattern of an increasing IgG avidity index (AI) after each dose of vaccine (not detected [ND], 0.30, and 2.97 at days 0, 21, and 42, respectively). The avidity responses in the remaining children (12/55) were quite different, with AIs increasing abruptly after the first dose and then declining after the second dose of vaccine (ND, 8.83, and 7.15, respectively). These children also had higher concentrations of influenza virus-specific IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies at day 21. Although the antibody titers were similar, some antigen-naive children demonstrated an unusual pattern of avidity maturation after two immunizations with AS03-adjuvanted, low-dose influenza virus vaccine. These data suggest the presence of subtle differences in the quality of the antibodies produced by some subjects in response to this vaccine. PMID:23345582

Yam, Karen K.; Gupta, Jyotsana; Brewer, Angela; Scheifele, David W.; Halperin, Scott

2013-01-01

181

Characterization of the 2012 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H7N3 Virus Isolated from Poultry in an Outbreak in Mexico: Pathobiology and Vaccine Protection  

PubMed Central

In June of 2012, an H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was identified as the cause of a severe disease outbreak in commercial laying chicken farms in Mexico. The purpose of this study was to characterize the Mexican 2012 H7N3 HPAI virus (A/chicken/Jalisco/CPA1/2012) and determine the protection against the virus conferred by different H7 inactivated vaccines in chickens. Both adult and young chickens intranasally inoculated with the virus became infected and died at between 2 and 4 days postinoculation (p.i.). High virus titers and viral replication in many tissues were demonstrated at 2 days p.i. in infected birds. The virus from Jalisco, Mexico, had high sequence similarity of greater than 97% to the sequences of wild bird viruses from North America in all eight gene segments. The hemagglutinin gene of the virus contained a 24-nucleotide insert at the hemagglutinin cleavage site which had 100% sequence identity to chicken 28S rRNA, suggesting that the insert was the result of nonhomologous recombination with the host genome. For vaccine protection studies, both U.S. H7 low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses and a 2006 Mexican H7 LPAI virus were tested as antigens in experimental oil emulsion vaccines and injected into chickens 3 weeks prior to challenge. All H7 vaccines tested provided ?90% protection against clinical disease after challenge and decreased the number of birds shedding virus and the titers of virus shed. This study demonstrates the pathological consequences of the infection of chickens with the 2012 Mexican lineage H7N3 HPAI virus and provides support for effective programs of vaccination against this virus in poultry. PMID:23760232

Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Guzman, Sofia G.; Ricardez, Yadira; Spackman, Erica; Bertran, Kateri; Suarez, David L.; Swayne, David E.

2013-01-01

182

Impact of the Change to Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine on the Immunization Status of Young Children in the United States: A Study From Pediatric Research in Office Settings and the National Medical Association  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine whether the change from an all oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) sched- ule to an inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV)-containing schedule has adversely affected the immunization status of young children in the United States. Methods. Immunization data were abstracted from the medical records of children 8 to 35 months old seen consecutively for any reason in the offices of

James A. Taylor; Paul M. Darden; Dennis A. Brooks; J. W. Hendricks; Alison E. Baker; Alison B. Bocian; Karyn Rohder; Richard C. Wasserman

183

Microsatellite markers linked to Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis vaccine response in young F1 broiler-cross chicks.  

PubMed

Reduction in Salmonella enteritidis (SE) contamination is of importance for poultry production as well as for food safety. The objectives of this study were to identify potential genetic markers of antibody response to SE vaccine in young broiler chicks and then to confirm this linkage in broiler-cross offspring, as well as to explore interactions of marker alleles with dam line and sex. The initial identification of suggestive quantitative trait loci (QTL) markers for antibody response to SE vaccine was conducted by using bulked segregant analysis (BSA) with 58 microsatellite markers in a broiler breeder male line. Four unlinked microsatellites that had allele frequency differences between the high and low antibody response DNA pools were selected for subsequent analysis in a linkage study. Antibody response was measured in an F1 population (n = 379) that was derived by crossing each of four males of the broiler line with several dams from four genetically distant, highly inbred lines (Spanish, Fayoumi, and MHC-congenic G-B1 and G-B2 Leghorn). These crosses enabled us to evaluate the broiler sire QTL-marker allele effects and to explore QTL interactions with the dam lines by individual genotyping. Each of the four microsatellites identified by BSA in the broiler population had a significant (P < 0.05) association with F1 population antibody response in one or more sire families. The effect of the interaction of microsatellite allele with dam line or sex on antibody response was frequently significant. Microsatellite markers linked to antibody response QTL were identified, and genetic interactions with dam line and sex were detected. PMID:11873827

Kaiser, M G; Deeb, N; Lamont, S J

2002-02-01

184

Chicken Feet  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: American chicken feet are no longer welcome on Chinese soil. A possible congressional ban on the import of Chinese chicken for safety reasons has made China madder than a wet hen. And, though officially China is saying...

Hacker, Randi

2009-09-02

185

Determination of minimum hemagglutinin units in an inactivated Newcastle disease virus vaccine for clinical protection of chickens from exotic Newcastle disease virus challenge.  

PubMed

The potency of inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines in the United States is currently determined using vaccination and challenge of experimental animals against a velogenic strain of NDV. Because velogenic strains of NDV are now classified as select agents in the United States, all vaccine potency testing must be performed in live animals under biosafety level 3 agriculture conditions. If the minimum amount of inactivated viral antigen required for clinical protection can be determined using other methods, vaccines meeting these criteria might be considered of adequate potency. The linearity of correlation between the hemagglutination (HA) assay measurement and the 50% embryo infectious dose titer ofNDV Hitchner B1 vaccine virus was determined. Correlation between hemagglutinin units (HAU) per vaccine dose, clinical protection, and antibody response was then determined using a vaccinate-and-challenge model similar to Chapter 9 of the U.S. code of federal regulations approved method for vaccine potency testing. The dose providing 50% protection of an in-house water-in-oil emulsion vaccine formulated with inactivated NDV B1 was determined to be between 400 and 600 HAU from two separate trials. A positive correlation (R2 = 0.97) was observed between antibody response and HAU per vaccine dose. Serum antibody responses from vaccinated birds indicate HA inhibition titers >2(5) log2 would provide 100% protection from morbidity and mortality and require a minimum protective dose of 1000 HAU per bird. These are the first studies to examine establishing both a minimum protective HAU content for inactivated ND vaccines and a minimum serologic response necessary to ensure potency. PMID:18646455

Liljebjelke, K A; King, D J; Kapczynski, D R

2008-06-01

186

Health beliefs and attitudes associated with HPV vaccine intention among young gay and bisexual men in the Southeastern United States.  

PubMed

Gay and bisexual men are at increased risk of anal cancer as a result of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Prophylactic vaccination is a potentially effective strategy for preventing anal cancer in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with gay and bisexual men's intention to receive HPV vaccine. In the fall of 2010, 179 self-identified gay and bisexual men (mean age 22 years) completed an Internet-based questionnaire assessing beliefs and attitudes toward HPV vaccination. Men were recruited from college-based and Internet venues throughout the southeastern United States. The probability of intent to receive HPV vaccine was modeled using logistic regression. A majority of men (93%) had heard of HPV prior to participation but were generally unaware of the association of HPV with anal, penile, and oral cancers. Only 26% were aware of an HPV vaccine for males. Of the 179 participants, 64 (36%) were likely to be vaccinated. Men most likely to receive HPV vaccine perceived stronger physical and psychological benefits from vaccination and had more positive attitudes toward the vaccine. Conversely, intent to be vaccinated was negatively associated with concern over the financial cost of vaccination. Findings from this study can inform college-based health education programs aimed at increasing vaccine uptake among gay and bisexual men. PMID:21864615

Wheldon, Christopher W; Daley, Ellen M; Buhi, Eric R; Nyitray, Alan G; Giuliano, Anna R

2011-10-19

187

Parents' Knowledge, Risk Perception and Willingness to Allow Young Males to Receive Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines in Uganda  

PubMed Central

The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH) supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008–2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s) to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10–23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s) to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s) to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p?=?0.003), believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p?=?0.006), thought their son(s) couldn't contract HPV (p?=?0.010), didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p?=?0.002), knew that males could not acquire HPV (p?=?0.000) and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p?=?0.000). Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s) of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital. PMID:25203053

Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Banura, Cecily; Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Mirembe, Florence

2014-01-01

188

Parents' Knowledge, Risk Perception and Willingness to Allow Young Males to Receive Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines in Uganda.  

PubMed

The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH) supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008-2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s) to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10-23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s) to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s) to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p?=?0.003), believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p?=?0.006), thought their son(s) couldn't contract HPV (p?=?0.010), didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p?=?0.002), knew that males could not acquire HPV (p?=?0.000) and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p?=?0.000). Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s) of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital. PMID:25203053

Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Banura, Cecily; Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Mirembe, Florence

2014-01-01

189

Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens  

PubMed Central

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

2012-01-01

190

Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens.  

PubMed

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

2012-10-12

191

Isolation and molecular analysis of colonising and non-colonising strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli following experimental infection of young chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen-day-old chickens were inoculated with selected Campylobacter coli and C. jejuni strains. C. jejuni strains were of two subgroups based on a polymorphism detected using a DNA probe and represented the profiles typical for the majority of strains of either chicken or human origin. All C. coli strains previously isolated from humans colonised chickens, whereas from 4\\/7 C. jejuni strains

V Korolik; M. R Alderton; S. C Smith; J Chang; P. J Coloe

1998-01-01

192

Protection of chickens against overt clinical disease and determination of viral shedding following vaccination with commercially available Newcastle disease virus vaccines upon challenge with highly virulent virus from the California 2002 exotic Newcastle disease outbreak  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2002–2003, exotic Newcastle disease (END) virus caused a major outbreak among commercial and backyard poultry in southern California and adjacent states. The outbreak raised concerns regarding the protective immunity of commercially available vaccines for prevention and control of this virus in poultry. We sought to determine if existing commercial live and inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines could provide

Darrell R. Kapczynski; Daniel J. King

2005-01-01

193

Identification of Critical Residues in the Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase of Influenza Virus H1N1pdm for Vaccine Virus Replication in Embryonated Chicken Eggs  

PubMed Central

In 2009, we successfully produced a high-yield live attenuated H1N1pdm A/California/7/2009 vaccine (CA/09 LAIV) by substitution of three residues (K119E, A186D, and D222G) in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. Since then, we have generated and evaluated additional H1N1pdm vaccine candidates from viruses isolated in 2010 and 2011. The 2010 strains with the new HA substitutions near the HA receptor binding site (N125D and D127E or D127E and K209E) grew well in eggs and formed large plaques in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Introduction of these acidic amino acids into the HA of CA/09 also improved vaccine virus growth in eggs to a titer comparable to that of CA/09 LAIV. However, the high growth of A/Gilroy/231/2011 (Gil/11) vaccine virus required modification in both the HA and the NA segments. The residue at position 369 of the NA was found to be critical for virus replication in MDCK cells and eggs. These HA and NA residues had minimal impact on viral entry but greatly improved viral release from infected cells. Our data implied that the HA receptor binding and NA receptor cleaving function of the poor-growth H1N1pdm virus was not well balanced for virus replication in host cells. The high-growth vaccine candidates described in this study maintained vaccine virus antigenicity and induced high levels of neutralizing antibodies in immunized ferrets, making them suitable for vaccine production. The identification of the amino acids and their roles in viral replication should greatly help vaccine manufacturers to produce high-yield reassortant vaccine viruses against the future drifted H1N1pdm viruses. PMID:23408613

Wang, Weijia; Lu, Janine; Cotter, Christopher R.; Wen, Katie; Jin, Hong

2013-01-01

194

Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptance and perceived effectiveness, and HPV infection concern among young New Zealand university students.  

PubMed

Two-hundred undergraduate students completed an anonymous questionnaire after viewing a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine television commercial. Eight-four percent of participants would accept a free HPV vaccine, whereas 47% were unconcerned about future personal HPV infection risk. Males were less likely to accept a free HPV vaccine and to be concerned about future personal HPV infection risk. Perceived HPV vaccine effectiveness was significantly greater among participants who had previously heard of the vaccine and who knew that HPV is sexually transmitted. More education on the role of sexual behavioural characteristics of both males and females in HPV transmission is necessary to promote awareness and concern of personal HPV infection risk and acceptance of HPV vaccination. PMID:20719233

Chelimo, Carol; Wouldes, Trecia A; Cameron, Linda D

2010-09-01

195

Studies of the transmission routes of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale and immunoprophylaxis to prevent infection in young meat turkeys.  

PubMed

The importance and prevention of the horizontal as well as the vertical transmission of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale were investigated. In our first experiment we observed that specific-pathogen-free broiler chickens that were placed in hatching incubators at a commercial turkey hatchery during hatch showed respiratory tract lesions at postmortem examination that were positive for O. rhinotracheale by bacteriology and immunohistology. It appeared that vertical transmission occurred and that horizontal transmission of O. rhinotracheale is possible. In a second experiment, the turkeys derived from vaccinated parents showed significantly fewer respiratory tract lesions at postmortem examination at 16 days of age than the birds derived from nonvaccinated parents. In a third experiment, all vaccinated young birds, regardless of the vaccination state of their parents, showed significantly fewer respiratory tract lesions at 6 wk of age. We concluded that vaccination of the breeders reduces vertical transmission and that vaccination of the progeny is needed to resist challenge at 6 wk of age. PMID:15283409

van Veen, L; Vrijenhoek, M; van Empel, P

2004-01-01

196

Immunogenicity and Safety of an Inactivated Trivalent Split Influenza Virus Vaccine in Young Children with Recurrent Wheezing  

PubMed Central

Influenza virus vaccination is recommended for children, but so far, active vaccination has not been achieved because most parents lack knowledge of vaccine safety and many doctors are reluctant to administer vaccine due to concerns that steroids might alter immunogenicity. The aim of this study was to compare the immunogenicity and safety of inactivated trivalent split influenza virus vaccine between children with recurrent wheezing and healthy children of the same age group. Sixty-eight healthy children and 62 children with recurrent wheezing took part in this study. Seroconversion rates, seroprotection rates, geometric mean titers (GMTs), and geometric mean titer ratios (GMTRs) were measured by a hemagglutination inhibition assay for the assessment of immunogenicity. Solicited and unsolicited local and systemic adverse events were measured for the assessment of safety. Regarding immunogenicity, the seroconversion and seroprotection rates showed no difference overall between healthy children and children with recurrent wheezing. Also, no difference was observed between steroid-treated and nontreated groups with recurrent wheezing. Generally, the GMTs after vaccination were higher in the one-dose vaccination groups for healthy children and children with recurrent wheezing, but the GMTRs revealed different results according to strain in the two groups. Regarding safety, solicited local and systemic adverse events showed no differences between healthy children and children with recurrent wheezing. This study demonstrates that inactivated split influenza virus vaccine is able to induce protective immune responses in healthy children, as observed in previous studies, as well as in children with recurrent wheezing who require frequent steroid treatment. PMID:23536692

Bae, E. Young; Choi, Ui Yoon; Kwon, Hyo Jin; Jeong, Dae Chul; Rhim, Jung Woo; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Kyung Il

2013-01-01

197

Parental acceptance of the human papillomavirus vaccine.  

PubMed

We conducted focus groups and individual interviews to explore parental views on the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Parents were generally positive about the HPV vaccine. Some participants perceived their children were not at risk for acquiring HPV and questioned vaccinating young adolescents against HPV. Vaccine education should target parental beliefs about HPV and the optimal age for HPV vaccine administration. PMID:16109349

Olshen, Elyse; Woods, Elizabeth R; Austin, S Bryn; Luskin, Marlise; Bauchner, Howard

2005-09-01

198

Vaccination of fowl with inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine by the respiratory route  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chickens were vaccinated with inactivated Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine by the oculonasal, intratracheal (it) or the aerosol route and immunity was measured by determination of haemagglutinating inhibiting (HI) antibodies and survival following challenge. Dose?response to various vaccination schedules was studied in birds of various ages with or without maternal antibodies.IT application induced a stronger response than oculonasal application. A single

J. H. H. van Eck

1990-01-01

199

Protection by attenuated and polyvalent vaccines against highly virulent strains of Marek's disease virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests confirmed that turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vaccine protected chickens poorly against challenge with the highly virulent Md5 strain of Marek's disease (MD) virus, especially in chickens with homologous HVT antibodies. The naturally avirulent SB?1 vaccine virus was likewise poorly protective against challenge with the Md5 strain. Homologous antibodies reduced the protective efficacy of both vaccines, but SB?1 was not affected

R. L. Witter

1982-01-01

200

Oral vaccination of chickens with the V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus. Cooked and raw white rice as a vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncooked white rice and cooked white rice were tested as vehicles for the V4 strain of oral Newcastle disease vaccine. The results of feeding experiments were evaluated by the measurement of haemagglutination inhibition antibodies against Newcastle disease virus. Little of the virus applied to uncooked white rice could be recovered, even immediately after mixing, whereas when the virus was applied

J. L. Samuel; Z. Bensink; P. B. Spradbrow

1993-01-01

201

Enhancing Chicken Mucosal IgA Response Against Clostridium Perfringens a-toxin  

E-print Network

localized lesions upon challenge with C. perfringens type A. These results demonstrate the usefulness of CpaCD as an immunogen for vaccine development against NE for chickens. Chicken CD40 (chCD40) is mainly expressed on the surface of chicken antigen...

Chen, Chang-Hsin 1977-

2012-07-27

202

Impact of competitive non-protective antigens in a booster killed vaccine on seroconversions to protective antigens of Newcastle disease virus in chickens.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine the impact of competitive non-protective antigens in a bivalent killed vaccine of Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis (IB) virus on seroconversions against protective fusion protein of Newcastle disease (ND) virus (NDV), in free-range layers primed by live ND-clone 30 and IB-H120 vaccines. The experimental design included two free-range layer farms in which sera of randomly chosen layers were collected on two occasions from each of the two farms namely: at the time of administration of the killed booster vaccine (23 weeks of age) and three weeks later. The Western immunoblotting technique was used to react the individual pooled sera collected at different times from each farm with antigens used in priming, namely those of the ND-clone 30 virus and the IB-H120 virus. The optical density bands formed by reactions were compared statistically between seroconverted antibodies at 23 weeks with those of layers aged 26 weeks. The killed booster vaccine offered a significant seroconversion on both farms to the non-protective L-protein (248.0 kDa) of NDV and on one of the two farms to the non-protective NDV-matrix protein (40.0 kDa) (p<0.05). However, seroconversion to the protective fusion protein of NDV (60 kDa) failed on both farms (p<0.05). In addition, on one farm, a statistical significance was revealed by the killed booster vaccine seroconversion to non-protective IBV-nucleocapsid protein (510 kDa) and, on the other farm, to another non-protective IBV-glycoprotein (28.0 kDa) (p<0.05). The impact of competitive seroconversions to non-protective antigens and seroconversion failures to low molecular weights of NDV protective fusion protein is discussed. PMID:22194228

Barbour, Elie K; Halawi, Hussein M; Shaib, Houssam A; Jaber, Lina S; Harakeh, Steve

2011-01-01

203

Protection of the reproductive tract of young chicks by Newcastle disease virus-induced haemagglutinationinhibition antibodies.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to assess the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) titres required to protect the chicken reproductive tract against direct damage caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Precociously induced oviduct and uterus by oestrogen treatment of young chicks were used to assess the damage or protection against the damage by analysis of ciliostasis or histopathological lesions. Unvaccinated day-old female white leghorn chickens were used as the maternally derived antibody (MDA) group. Chickens were vaccinated with either a live lentogenic vaccine on day 14 of age or, along with it, an inactivated vaccine at day 36 of age, to generate birds with a range of primary or secondary response induced HI antibodies. Birds with different HI antibody levels were challenged with virulent NDV. It was found that a HI antibody titre of 128 and above was protective against direct damage of the reproductive tract, while the 32-64 titre range was protective when derived through secondary vaccination only. PMID:16362614

Raghul, J; Raj, G Dhinakar; Manohar, B Murali; Balachandran, C

2006-01-01

204

Cattle Vaccines  

E-print Network

Vaccines deliver antigens that stimulate the body's production of antibodies in response to disease. Cattle can be vaccinated with noninfectious or infectious vaccines. The types of vaccine products, proper handling of vaccines, and vaccination...

Faries Jr., Floron C.

2005-11-11

205

From vanA Enterococcus hirae to vanA Enterococcus faecium: a Study of Feed Supplementation with Avoparcin and Tylosin in Young Chickens  

PubMed Central

Fifteen newborn chickens were isolated in separate cages after 1 month of living together, divided into three groups, and challenged for 5 weeks with seed food which either was supplemented with avoparcin (10 mg/kg of animal food) or tylosin (40 mg/kg) or was nonsupplemented. At 9 weeks of age and after the 5-week challenge, all chickens received nonsupplemented feed for 4 additional weeks. At 4, 9, and 13 weeks of life, feces were collected and inoculated on M-Enterococcus agar plates with and without vancomycin (4 ?g/ml). vanA-containing Enterococcus hirae was isolated from 11 of 15 chickens before antibiotic challenge, without detection of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. At 9 weeks of age and after the 5-week avoparcin challenge, vanA E. hirae strains were no longer detected, but five of five chickens now had vanA E. faecium. At a lower frequency, vanA E. faecium had also displaced vanA E. hirae in both the tylosin group (one of four chickens) and the control group (two of five chickens). One month after avoparcin discontinuation, the number of chickens colonized with vanA E. faecium decreased from five to one. All vanA-containing E. hirae strains detected in the first month of life and most of the vanA-containing E. faecium strains detected in the second month of life showed identical ApaI and SmaI restriction patterns, respectively, when analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All vanA E. hirae isolates transferred glycopeptide and macrolide resistance to Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 in vitro; the level of glycopeptide resistance was higher in the transconjugants than in the donor E. hirae strains. These data suggest that E. hirae may be a significant source of vanA determinants with the potential of transfer to other enterococcal species from humans or animals. PMID:10223926

Robredo, Beatriz; Singh, Kavindra V.; Baquero, Fernando; Murray, Barbara E.; Torres, Carmen

1999-01-01

206

Hatching Chickens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, from Science NetLinks, is intended to help students realize that they can learn a lot about chickens -and animals in general - through close observation. Students begin the lesson by expressing what they know about chickens in general and then are encouraged to think and talk about how eggs hatch into chicks and the kinds of special things that are needed to care for eggs/chicks.

Science Netlinks;

2003-11-20

207

The vaccination-challenge trial: the gold standard test to evaluate the protective efficacy of infectious coryza vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious coryza is an upper respiratory tract disease of chickens with the major impact occurring in multi-age flocks. We investigated the relationship between the level of antibodies, as detected by a haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay, in infectious coryza-vaccinated chickens and the protection against challenge in those chickens. In one experiment, chickens given a single dose of either of two infectious coryza

A. García; F. Romo; A. M. Ortiz; P. J. Blackall

2008-01-01

208

Mean total arsenic concentrations in chicken 1989-2000 and estimated exposures for consumers of chicken.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to estimate mean concentrations of total arsenic in chicken liver tissue and then estimate total and inorganic arsenic ingested by humans through chicken consumption. We used national monitoring data from the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program to estimate mean arsenic concentrations for 1994-2000. Incorporating assumptions about the concentrations of arsenic in liver and muscle tissues as well as the proportions of inorganic and organic arsenic, we then applied the estimates to national chicken consumption data to calculate inorganic, organic, and total arsenic ingested by eating chicken. The mean concentration of total arsenic in young chickens was 0.39 ppm, 3- to 4-fold higher than in other poultry and meat. At mean levels of chicken consumption (60 g/person/day), people may ingest 1.38-5.24 microg/day of inorganic arsenic from chicken alone. At the 99th percentile of chicken consumption (350 g chicken/day), people may ingest 21.13-30.59 microg inorganic arsenic/day and 32.50-47.07 microg total arsenic/day from chicken. These concentrations are higher than previously recognized in chicken, which may necessitate adjustments to estimates of arsenic ingested through diet and may need to be considered when estimating overall exposure to arsenic. PMID:14698925

Lasky, Tamar; Sun, Wenyu; Kadry, Abdel; Hoffman, Michael K

2004-01-01

209

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines  

MedlinePLUS

... young women. New England Journal of Medicine 2006; 354(25):2645–2654. [PubMed Abstract] Koutsky LA, Ault ... papillomavirus vaccines. New England Journal of Medicine 2006; 354(11):1109–1112. [PubMed Abstract] Slade BA, Leidel ...

210

Determining the validity of hospital laboratory reference intervals for healthy young adults participating in early clinical trials of candidate vaccines  

PubMed Central

This was a retrospective study to determine the validity of institutional reference intervals for interpreting biochemistry and hematology results in healthy adults in the context of clinical trials of preventive vaccines. An example population of 974 healthy adults participating in clinical trials at the Jenner Institute, Oxford, UK, between 1999 and 2009 was studied. Methods for calculating the central 95% ranges and determining the coefficients of within person variation were demonstrated. Recommendations have been made as to how these data can be usefully applied to the interpretation of blood results in healthy adult subjects for the purposes of clinical trial inclusion decisions and post-vaccination safety monitoring. PMID:23733037

Rowland, Rosalind; O'Hara, Geraldine A; Hamill, Matthew; Poulton, Ian D; Donaldson, Hannah; Dinsmore, Laura; James, Timothy; Barnes, Eleanor; Klenerman, Paul; Gilbert, Sarah C; Hill, Adrian VS; Shine, Brian; McShane, Helen

2013-01-01

211

Evaluation of Maternal and Humoral Immunity against Newcastle Disease Virus in Chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt has been undertaken to evaluate the humoral immunity against Newcastle disease in vaccinated chickens. Two different vaccination schedules were followed in 4000 Bovans White chickens (2000 in each treatment) with the history of ND vaccination in parent stock. The mean HI antibody titres of control groups of Treatment-1 and Treatment-2 revealed day-1 (285.51 and 289.43), day-5 (145.74 and

2002-01-01

212

How to Inform: Comparing Written and Video Education Interventions to Increase Human Papillomavirus Knowledge and Vaccination Intentions in Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the efficacy of two Human Papillomavirus (HPV) educational interventions on increasing HPV knowledge and vaccination intentions in college students. Participants: Male (n = 60) and female (n = 140) undergraduates (Mage = 20.4, SD = 2.3) recruited from a university in Montreal Canada, from October 2009-March 2010. Methods: Using theory based interventions, participants were randomly assigned to

Andrea Krawczyk; Elsa Lau; Samara Perez; Vanessa Delisle; Rhonda Amsel; Zeev Rosberger

2012-01-01

213

How to Inform: Comparing Written and Video Education Interventions to Increase Human Papillomavirus Knowledge and Vaccination Intentions in Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare the efficacy of 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) educational interventions on increasing HPV knowledge and vaccination intentions in college students. Participants: Male (n = 60) and female (n = 140) undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 20.4, SD = 2.3) recruited from a university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from October 2009 to…

Krawczyk, Andrea; Lau, Elsa; Perez, Samara; Delisle, Vanessa; Amsel, Rhonda; Rosberger, Zeev

2012-01-01

214

Experimental induction and oral transmission of avian AA amyloidosis in vaccinated white hens.  

PubMed

Avian AA amyloidosis is commonly observed in adult birds afflicted with bacterial infections or chronic inflammatory disorders. Experimental AA amyloidosis in birds can be induced by repeated inflammatory stimulation, such as injection with casein or vaccination with oil-emulsified bacterins. However, the transmission of amyloidosis among avian species has not been studied well to date. In the present study, we confirm the potential induction of avian AA amyloidosis by inoculation of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) vaccine or Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine. To determine the transmission of chicken AA amyloidosis among white hens, we induced experimental AA amyloidosis in vaccinated chickens by intravenous or oral administration of chicken AA fibrils. Amyloid deposits were observed in chickens injected with SE and inoculated with chicken AA fibrils intravenously (21/26: 81%) and orally (8/12: 67%). These results suggest that chicken AA amyloidosis can be induced by vaccinations, and may be transmitted among like species by oral administration. PMID:23548152

Murakami, Tomoaki; Muhammad, Naeem; Inoshima, Yasuo; Yanai, Tokuma; Goryo, Masanobu; Ishiguro, Naotaka

2013-06-01

215

Effects of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D-Conjugate Vaccine on Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Colonization in Young Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background.?This study evaluated the effects of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D–conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization compared with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) in young children. Methods.?A randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands, initiated 2 years after 7vCRM introduction, was conducted between 1 April 2008 and 1 December 2010. Infants (N = 780) received either PHiD-CV or 7vCRM (2:1) at 2, 3, 4, and 11–13 months of age. Nasopharyngeal samples taken at 5, 11, 14, 18, and 24 months of age were cultured to detect Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Polymerase chain reaction assays quantified H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae and confirmed H. influenzae as nontypeable (NTHi). Primary outcome measure was vaccine efficacy (VE) against NTHi colonization. Results.?In both groups, NTHi colonization increased with age from 33% in 5-month-olds to 65% in 24-month-olds. Three months postbooster, VE against colonization was 0.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], ?21.8% to 18.4%) and VE against acquisition 10.9% (95% CI, ?31.3% to 38.9%). At each sampling moment, no differences between groups in either NTHi prevalence or H. influenzae density were detected. Streptococcus pneumoniae (range, 39%–57%), M. catarrhalis (range, 63%­–69%), and S. aureus (range, 9%–30%) colonization patterns were similar between groups. Conclusions.?PHiD-CV had no differential effect on nasopharyngeal NTHi colonization or H. influenzae density in healthy Dutch children up to 2 years of age, implying that herd effects for NTHi are not to be expected. Other bacterial colonization patterns were also similar. Clinical Trials Registration?NCT00652951. PMID:23118268

van den Bergh, Menno R.; Spijkerman, Judith; Swinnen, Kristien M.; Francois, Nancy A.; Pascal, Thierry G.; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode; IJzerman, Ed P. F.; Bruin, Jacob P.; van der Ende, Arie; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.

2013-01-01

216

Efficacy of Pneumococcal Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Young Latin American Children: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between pneumococcal conjugate vaccine–induced antibody responses and protection against community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute otitis media (AOM) is unclear. This study assessed the impact of the ten-valent pneumococcal nontypable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on these end points. The primary objective was to demonstrate vaccine efficacy (VE) in a per-protocol analysis against likely bacterial CAP (B-CAP: radiologically confirmed CAP with alveolar consolidation/pleural effusion on chest X-ray, or non-alveolar infiltrates and C-reactive protein ? 40 µg/ml); other protocol-specified outcomes were also assessed. Methods and Findings This phase III double-blind randomized controlled study was conducted between 28 June 2007 and 28 July 2011 in Argentine, Panamanian, and Colombian populations with good access to health care. Approximately 24,000 infants received PHiD-CV or hepatitis control vaccine (hepatitis B for primary vaccination, hepatitis A at booster) at 2, 4, 6, and 15–18 mo of age. Interim analysis of the primary end point was planned when 535 first B-CAP episodes, occurring ?2 wk after dose 3, were identified in the per-protocol cohort. After a mean follow-up of 23 mo (PHiD-CV, n?=?10,295; control, n?=?10,201), per-protocol VE was 22.0% (95% CI: 7.7, 34.2; one-sided p?=?0.002) against B-CAP (conclusive for primary objective) and 25.7% (95% CI: 8.4%, 39.6%) against World Health Organization–defined consolidated CAP. Intent-to-treat VE was 18.2% (95% CI: 5.5%, 29.1%) against B-CAP and 23.4% (95% CI: 8.8%, 35.7%) against consolidated CAP. End-of-study per-protocol analyses were performed after a mean follow-up of 28–30 mo for CAP and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) (PHiD-CV, n?=?10,211; control, n?=?10,140) and AOM (n?=?3,010 and 2,979, respectively). Per-protocol VE was 16.1% (95% CI: ?1.1%, 30.4%; one-sided p?=?0.032) against clinically confirmed AOM, 67.1% (95% CI: 17.0%, 86.9%) against vaccine serotype clinically confirmed AOM, 100% (95% CI: 74.3%, 100%) against vaccine serotype IPD, and 65.0% (95% CI: 11.1%, 86.2%) against any IPD. Results were consistent between intent-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. Serious adverse events were reported for 21.5% (95% CI: 20.7%, 22.2%) and 22.6% (95% CI: 21.9%, 23.4%) of PHiD-CV and control recipients, respectively. There were 19 deaths (n?=?11,798; 0.16%) in the PHiD-CV group and 26 deaths (n?=?11,799; 0.22%) in the control group. A significant study limitation was the lower than expected number of captured AOM cases. Conclusions Efficacy was demonstrated against a broad range of pneumococcal diseases commonly encountered in young children in clinical practice. Trial registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00466947 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24892763

Tregnaghi, Miguel W.; Saez-Llorens, Xavier; Lopez, Pio; Abate, Hector; Smith, Enrique; Posleman, Adriana; Calvo, Arlene; Wong, Digna; Cortes-Barbosa, Carlos; Ceballos, Ana; Tregnaghi, Marcelo; Sierra, Alexandra; Rodriguez, Mirna; Troitino, Marisol; Carabajal, Carlos; Falaschi, Andrea; Leandro, Ana; Castrejon, Maria Mercedes; Lepetic, Alejandro; Lommel, Patricia; Hausdorff, William P.; Borys, Dorota; Guinazu, Javier Ruiz; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Yarzabal, Juan P.; Schuerman, Lode

2014-01-01

217

Vaccination against Marek's disease: Immunizing effect of purified turkey herpes virus and cellular membranes from infected cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-day-old chickens susceptible to Marek's disease were vaccinated with experimental vaccines prepared from purified turkey herpes virus (HVT), inactivated HVT preparations or a membrane fraction isolated from HTV-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts, respectively. Purified HVT was found to be as effective in immunization against Marek's disease as cell-associated virus. The specific mortality of chickens twice vaccinated with cellular membranes from HVT-infected

O.-R. Kaaden; B. Dietzschold; S. UeberschÄr

1974-01-01

218

Seasonal influenza vaccines.  

PubMed

Influenza vaccines are the mainstay of efforts to reduce the substantial health burden from seasonal influenza. Inactivated influenza vaccines have been available since the 1940s and are administered via intramuscular injection. Inactivated vaccines can be given to anyone six months of age or older. Live attenuated, cold-adapted influenza vaccines (LAIV) were developed in the 1960s but were not licensed in the United States until 2003, and are administered via nasal spray. Both vaccines are trivalent preparations grown in eggs and do not contain adjuvants. LAIV is licensed for use in the United States for healthy nonpregnant persons 2-49 years of age.Influenza vaccination induces antibodies primarily against the major surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA); antibodies directed against the HA are most important for protection against illness. The immune response peaks at 2-4 weeks after one dose in primed individuals. In previously unvaccinated children <9 years of age, two doses of influenza vaccine are recommended, as some children in this age group have limited or no prior infections from circulating types and subtypes of seasonal influenza. These children require both an initial priming dose and a subsequent booster dose of vaccine to mount a protective antibody response.The most common adverse events associated with inactivated vaccines are sore arm and redness at the injection site; systemic symptoms such as fever or malaise are less commonly reported. Guillian-Barré Syndrome (GBS) was identified among approximately 1 per 100,000 recipients of the 1976 swine influenza vaccine. The risk of influenza vaccine-associated GBS from seasonal influenza vaccine is thought to be at most approximately 1-2 cases per 1 million vaccinees, based on a few studies that have found an association; other studies have found no association.The most common adverse events associated with LAIV are nasal congestion, headache, myalgias or fever. Studies of the safety of LAIV among young children suggest an increased risk of wheezing in some young children, and the vaccine is not recommended for children younger than 2 years old, ages 2-4 old with a history of recurrent wheezing or reactive airways disease, or older persons who have any medical condition that confers an increased risk of influenza-related complications.The effectiveness of influenza vaccines is related predominantly to the age and immune competence of the vaccinee and the antigenic relatedness of vaccine strains to circulating strains. Vaccine effectiveness in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza illness when the vaccine strains are well matched to circulating strains is 70-90% in randomized, placebo-controlled trials conducted among children and young healthy adults, but is lower among elderly or immunocompromised persons. In years with a suboptimal match, vaccine benefit is likely to be lower, although the vaccine can still provide substantial benefit, especially against more severe outcomes. Live, attenuated influenza vaccines have been most extensively studied among children, and have been shown to be more effective than inactivated vaccines in several randomized controlled trials among young children.Influenza vaccination is recommended in the United States for all children six months or older, all adults 50 years or older, all persons with chronic medical conditions, and pregnant women, and contacts of these persons, including healthcare workers. The global disease burden of influenza is substantial, and the World Health Organization has indicated that member states should evaluate the cost-effectiveness of introducing influenza vaccination into national immunization programs. More research is needed to develop more effective seasonal influenza vaccines that provide long-lasting immunity and broad protection against strains that differ antigenically from vaccine viruses. PMID:19768400

Fiore, Anthony E; Bridges, Carolyn B; Cox, Nancy J

2009-01-01

219

Immune responses induced by DNA vaccines encoding Newcastle virus haemagglutinin and/or fusion proteins in maternal antibody-positive commercial broiler chicken.  

PubMed

1. The immune responses induced by recombinant plasmids containing Newcastle disease virus (NDV) F (pVAX.nd.f) or HN (pcDNA.nd.hn) genes separately or in combination in bi-cistronic (pIRES.nd.hn.f) constructs were evaluated in maternal antibody-positive commercial chicks. 2. Immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase tests demonstrated the expression of both F and HN proteins in Vero cells. Real-time PCR analysis revealed the expression of HN and/or F genes in muscle, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), spleen and liver after immunisation. 3. Chicks inoculated intramuscularly thrice (two booster doses) with pVAX.nd.f and pcDNA.nd.hn did not develop detectable haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies. In contrast, an increase in a NDV-specific cell-mediated immune response was demonstrated. 4. After challenge with virulent NDV, chicks immunised with the recombinant plasmids as well as those in control groups succumbed to Newcastle disease. 5. Based on these results, it is concluded that DNA vaccines containing HN and/or F genes fail to protect commercial chicks, possibly due to interference from maternal antibodies. PMID:18409084

Rajawat, Y S; Sundaresan, N R; Ravindra, P V; Kantaraja, C; Ratta, B; Sudhagar, M; Rai, A; Saxena, V K; Palia, S K; Tiwari, A K

2008-03-01

220

A model for the transfer of passive immunity against Newcastle disease and avian influenza in specific pathogen free chickens.  

PubMed

Chicks possess maternally derived antibody (MDA) against pathogens and vaccines previously encountered by the dams. This passive immunity is important in early life, when the immune system is immature and unable to fight off infection. On the other hand, MDA can also affect the development of the immune system and interfere with vaccination against avian diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI). The effect of MDA is generally investigated by studying the progeny of vaccinated dams, which is time-consuming, poorly flexible and expensive. Moreover, the antibody titres obtained are not homogeneous. In this study, a model was developed to offer a faster, more reproducible and cheaper way to study passive immunity in specific pathogen free chickens by injection of a polyclonal serum into the egg yolk at embryonic day 14, combined with an intraperitoneal injection at day 1. A satisfactory model, with consistent, homogeneous antibody titres, as well as persistence close to natural passive immunity, could be obtained for ND virus. On the other hand, the application of this optimized protocol in an H5 AI context induced only a low artificial passive immunity compared with that described in the literature for the progeny of AI vaccinated dams. This artificial model should facilitate future studies regarding the effect of passive immunity on vaccine efficacy at a young age and its effect on immune system development. PMID:24397892

Lardinois, Amélyne; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte; Steensels, Mieke

2014-01-01

221

Influenza vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

Vaccine - influenza; Immunization - influenza; Flu shot; Flu vaccine ... with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) United States, 2013-2014. Available at: ...

222

Comparative evaluation of Salmonella Enteritidis ghost vaccines with a commercial vaccine for protection against internal egg contamination with Salmonella.  

PubMed

The study was conducted for the comparative evaluation of the vaccine potential of Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis, SE) ghost, SE ghost carrying Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) protein, and a commercial vaccine. Group A chickens were used as a non-vaccinated control, group B chickens were immunized with the ghost carrying LTB protein, group C chickens were immunized with the ghost and, group D chickens were immunized with a commercial vaccine. Group D chickens showed the swelling at the injection site, while no adverse reactions were observed at injection sites of the group B and C chickens. Chickens from the immunized groups B, C, and D demonstrated significant increases in plasma IgG, intestinal secretory IgA levels, and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative responses. After challenge with a virulent SE strain via intravenous route, groups B, C, and D showed significantly higher egg production and lower internal egg contamination and lower recovery of the challenge strain from internal organs compared to non-immunized-challenged control group A. In conclusion, these data indicate that immunization of chickens with the ghost and ghost carrying LTB is safe, without causing any adverse reaction, and is effective as the commercial vaccine in terms of reduction in internal egg contamination and internal organ colonization of Salmonella. PMID:25218296

Jawale, Chetan V; Lee, John Hwa

2014-10-14

223

Eye surface area and dosage rates for spray vaccination.  

PubMed

Spray application of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccines is a labor- and time-saving means of mass vaccination of layer chickens. Recent assessment of spray characteristics of nozzles commonly used to apply MG vaccine in layer chicken operations has shown that the amount of respirable droplets (< 5 microm) is negligible. Topical application of vaccine onto the eye surface has been suggested as a route of vaccination, but no estimates of vaccine load delivered via spray application were found in the literature. Estimates of eye surface area were developed using digital imaging; 24 layer pullets were used for analysis, and the mean eye surface area, corrected for corneal curvature, was found to be 0.609 cm2. This surface area was then used to estimate vaccine load for commercially available live MG vaccine sprayed through popular nozzles. Less than 3000 colony-forming units can be expected for direct deposition onto the surface of an eye. PMID:21313856

Purswell, J L; Mayer, J J; Evans, J D; Branton, S L; Davis, J D

2010-12-01

224

Comparison of three rocky mountain spotted fever vaccines.  

PubMed Central

Growth of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) rickettsiae in duck embryo cell (DEC) cultures and chicken embryo cell (CEC) cultures was evaluated. Experimental lots of duck embryo cell- and chicken embryo cell-grown Rocky Mountain spotted fever vaccines and a commercial lot of yolk sac-grown vaccine were compared for protective efficacy in rhesus monkeys. Incidence and magnitude of antibody response, febrile response, and rickettsemia, as well as incidence of fatalities, suggested that both cell culture-derived vaccines were more immunogenic than the yolk sac-grown vaccine. PMID:810494

Kenyon, R H; Sammons, L S; Pedersen, C E

1975-01-01

225

Probable Congenital Transmission of Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Caused by Vaccination with Contaminated Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Contaminated vaccine is one unexpected and potential origin of virus infection. In order to investigate the most likely cause of disease in a broiler breeder company of Shandong Province, all 17 batches of live-virus vaccines used in the affected flocks and 478 tissue samples were tested by dot-blot hybridization, nested PCR, and IFA. The results suggested the outbreak of disease was most probably due to the vaccination of REV-contaminated MD-CVI988/Rispens vaccines and ND-LaSota+IB-H120 vaccines. Furthermore, the REV was probably transmitted to the commercial chickens through congenital transmission. PMID:22912872

Zhu, Shufen; Guo, Wenlong; Sheng, Pengcheng; Wang, Zunmin; Zhao, Changliang; Zhao, Qingyou; Zhu, Ruiliang

2012-01-01

226

Development of a bait and baiting system for delivery of oral rabies vaccine to free-ranging African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to develop a bait and baiting system capable of delivering one effective dose of oral rabies vaccine to each member of a free-ranging African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) pack. Trials were conducted between June and October 2000. The results of cafeteria-style bait preference trials testing seven candidate baits in captive wild dogs revealed a significant preference for chicken heads (June trials: P = 0.023, September trials: P = 0.021). Trials using a topical biomarker (rhodamine B) showed that chicken head baits were sufficiently chewed on most occasions to rupture the vaccine container. Free-ranging wild dogs and young pups ingested chicken head baits. Significant dominance of bait intake by a single individual was seen in four of six study packs and in the three packs in which an alpha pair could be distinguished, the dominant feeder was an alpha animal. Pattern of bait distribution and degree of satiation had no effect on pack coverage (proportion of pack ingesting at least one bait). Pack coverage was significantly related to trial number (r = 0.71, P < 0.001), with pack coverage increasing with increased exposure of the pack to the baits. During 46 hr of diurnal observations of free-ranging wild dogs only two baits were lost to non-target species. A baiting system for the oral vaccination of captive and free-ranging wild dogs is proposed. PMID:12038135

Knobel, D L; du Toit, J T; Bingham, J

2002-04-01

227

Adjuvanticity of epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone on inactivated vaccines against AI and ND virus.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to compare the activities of different dose of epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone adjuvant (EPA). The inactivated avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine containing three doses of EPA were prepared. In AI vaccine vaccination experiment, 300 14-day-old chickens were randomly divided into 6 groups and inoculated with three EPA-AI vaccines taking oil adjuvant (OA), non-adjuvant (NA) vaccines and physiological saline as controls, repeated at 28-day-old. The lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titer were determined. In ND vaccine vaccination experiment, 300 14-day-old chickens were grouped, treated with three EPA-ND vaccines, and determined same to AI vaccine vaccination experiment; at 42-day-old the chickens were challenged with NDV. On D(15) after challenged, the immune protective effect was observed. The results showed that EPA could significantly promote lymphocyte proliferation and enhance serum antibody titer against AI and ND, and reduce the morbidity of chickens challenged with NDV after vaccinated with ND vaccine, especially the effect of medium dose was better than that of non-adjuvant and oil adjuvant. These results indicated that EPA could enhance the immune effect of inactivated AI vaccine and ND vaccine and would be expected as a new-type adjuvant. PMID:22935524

Fan, Yunpeng; Wang, Deyun; Liu, Jiaguo; Hu, Yuanliang; Zhao, Xiaojuan; Han, Guocai; Nguyen, The Luong; Chang, Shanshan

2012-12-01

228

Accuracy of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold in Tube for diagnosing tuberculosis in a young pediatric population previously vaccinated with Bacille Calmette-Gu?rin  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of an interferongamma release assay (QuantiFERON-TB Gold in Tube) for diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a young pediatric population. Methods: 195 children previously vaccinated with BCG were evaluated, being 184 healthy individuals with no clinical or epidemiological evidence of mycobacterial infection, and 11 with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, according to clinical, radiological, and laboratory parameters. A blood sample was obtained from each child and processed according to the manufacturer's instructions. The assay performance was evaluated by a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: In the group of 184 non-infected children, 130 (70.6%) were under the age of four years (mean age of 35 months). In this group, 177 children (96.2%) had negative test results, six (3.2%) had indeterminate results, and one (0.5%) had a positive result. In the group of 11 infected children, the mean age was 58.5 months, and two of them (18%) had negative results. The ROC curve had an area under the curve of 0.88 (95%CI 0.82-0.92; p<0.001), disclosing a predictive positive value of 81.8% for the test (95%CI 46.3-97.4). The assay sensitivity was 81.8% (95%CI 48.2-97.2) and the specificity was 98.8% (95%CI 96-99.8). Conclusions: In the present study, the QuantiFERON-TB Gold in Tube performance for diagnosing M. tuberculosis infection was appropriate in a young pediatric population. PMID:24676183

Vallada, Marcelo Genofre; Okay, Thelma Suely; Del Negro, Gilda Maria B.; Antonio, Claudio Amaral; Yamamoto, Lidia; Ramos, Sonia Regina T. S.

2014-01-01

229

Virulence of Francisella spp. in Chicken Embryos  

PubMed Central

We examined the utility of infecting chicken embryos as a means of evaluating the virulence of different Francisella sp. strains and mutants. Infection of 7-day-old chicken embryos with a low dose of F. novicida or F. tularensis subsp. holarctica live vaccine strain (LVS) resulted in sustained growth for 6 days. Different doses of these two organisms were used to inoculate chicken embryos to determine the time to death. These experiments showed that wild-type F. novicida was at least 10,000-fold more virulent than the LVS strain. We also examined the virulence of several attenuated mutants of F. novicida, and they were found to have a wide range of virulence in chicken embryos. Fluorescent microscopic examination of infected chicken embryo organs revealed that F. tularensis grew in scattered foci of infections, and in all cases the F. tularensis appeared to be growing intracellularly. These results demonstrate that infection of 7-day-old chicken embryos can be used to evaluate the virulence of attenuated F. tularensis strains. PMID:16861669

Nix, Eli B.; Cheung, Karen K. M.; Wang, Diana; Zhang, Na; Burke, Robert D.; Nano, Francis E.

2006-01-01

230

Efficacy of an inactivated aqueous?suspension Newcastle disease virus vaccine against paramyxovirus type 1 infection in young pigeons with varying amounts of maternal antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigeons aged 3 weeks were vaccinated, subcutaneously, with an inactivated aqueous?suspension LaSota vaccine. Irrespective of the level of maternally?derived antibodies the single vaccination gave protection lasting 1 year as shown by resistance against an intramuscular challenge with a virulent ‘pigeon’ PMV?1 strain.

J. P. Duchatel; P. H. Flore; W. Hermann; H. Vindevogel

1992-01-01

231

Enhancement of natural killer cell activity by Marek's disease vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccination against Marek's disease with herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) has been reported to cause increased natural killer (NK) cell activity as detected in vitro against LSCC?RP9 target cells. The effect of vaccination with SB?1 (a nononcogenic chicken herpesvirus), HVT and the HVT\\/SB?1 combination on NK cell activation was compared in Marek's disease susceptible (P?2) and resistant (N?2) chickens. Birds were

E. D. Heller; K. A. Schat

1987-01-01

232

Long-Term Immunogenicity after One and Two Doses of a Monovalent MF59-Adjuvanted A/H1N1 Influenza Virus Vaccine Coadministered with the Seasonal 2009-2010 Nonadjuvanted Influenza Virus Vaccine in HIV-Infected Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial?  

PubMed Central

Few data are available on the safety and long-term immunogenicity of A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccines for HIV-infected pediatric patients. We performed a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the safety and long-term immunogenicity of 1 versus 2 doses of the 2009 monovalent pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine (PV) coadministered with the seasonal 2009-2010 trivalent nonadjuvanted influenza vaccine (SV) to HIV-infected children, adolescents, and young adults. A total of 66 HIV-infected patients aged 9 to 26 years were randomized to receive one (group 1) or two (group 2) doses of PV coadministered with 1 dose of SV. The main outcome was the seroconversion rate for PV at 1 month. Secondary outcomes were the geometric mean titer ratios and the seroprotection rates at 1 month for all vaccines, seroconversion rates at 1 month for SV, and longitudinal changes of antibody titers (ABTs) at 1, 2, 6, and 12 months for all vaccines. Groups 1 and 2 had similar CD4 counts and HIV RNA levels during the study. The seroconversion rate for PV was 100% at 1 month in both groups. ABTs for PV were high during the first 6 months and declined below seroprotection levels thereafter. Longitudinal changes in ABTs were similar in groups 1 and 2 for both PV and SV. The side effects of vaccination were mild and mostly local. In HIV-infected children, adolescents, and young adults, the immune response triggered by a single dose of PV was similar to that obtained with a double dose and was associated with long-term antibody response. PMID:21795458

Vigano, Alessandra; Giacomet, Vania; Pariani, Elena; Giani, Elisa; Manfredini, Valeria; Bedogni, Giorgio; Erba, Paola; Amendola, Antonella; Zanetti, Alessandro; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo

2011-01-01

233

Impact Assessment of a Disease Vaccination Project in Rural Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the socioeconomic impact of the Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza Control Research Project, a chicken vaccination project designed by the GL-CRSP Avian Flu School (AFS), on villagers and households in rural Iringa, Tanzania. Findings showed that households in project villages kept significantly more chickens than households in control villages, however, there was

Danielle Knueppel

234

Chinese Herbal Ingredients Are Effective Immune Stimulators for Chickens Infected with the Newcastle Disease Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of 4 Chinese herbal ingredients (CHI) as immune stimulators for an active vaccine in chickens using both in vitro and in vivo assays. The CHI used were Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), Isatis root polysaccharide (IRPS), Propolis polysaccharide, and Epimedium flavone at vari- ous concentrations. Two hundred 14-d-old male White Roman chickens were randomly

X.-F. Kong; Y.-L. Hu; Y.-L. Yin; G.-Y. Wu; R. Rui; D.-Y. Wang; C.-B. Yang

235

At What Age Should We Be Vaccinating for Human Papillomavirus?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause high disease burden. Primary prevention by vaccination is a major breakthrough. HPV vaccines are well tolerated and safe. Vaccines protect unexposed individuals against high-grade CIN and VIN\\/VaIN caused by the vaccine HPV types. Vaccines also provide protection against related oncogenic HPV types. The primary target population is young adolescents before their sexual debut. Catch-up vaccination

Jorma Paavonen

2010-01-01

236

[Childhood immunization schedule 2001-2002. Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics].  

PubMed

In 1994 the Spanish Association of Pediatrics founded the Advisory Committee on Vaccines with the aim of providing advice on matters related to childhood immunizations and of implementing vaccination schedules. The latest recommendations concern the immunization schedule for 2001-2002, in which indications for the inactivated poliovirus vaccine instead of the attenuated poliovirus vaccine are of prime importance. The advisability of including the vaccine against chicken pox in healthy children is stressed. PMID:11412466

2001-07-01

237

[Efficacy of production of reassortant of epidemic strains and cold-adapted influenza viruses in chicken embryo and MDCK cells].  

PubMed

Reassortant strains for modern live influenza vaccines are prepared using growing chicken embryos. It is very important to switch manufacture of influenza vaccines from chicken embryos to cell cultures, especially due to the threat of future pandemic, when there will be need of big quantities of vaccine for immunization of all age groups. Efficacy of production of reassortant strains with 6:2 vaccine formulation of genome (6 internal genes from the donor of attenuation and 2 genes coding external antigens--hemagglutinin and neuraminidase--from epidemic strain) in MDCK cell culture, using standard techniques employed for production of the vaccine in chicken embryos, was studied. It was shown that yield frequency of aforementioned reassortants of influenza A viruses did not exceed 5.7% whereas in chicken embryos vaccine 6:2 reassortants were isolated with frequency of 4%. For influenza B viruses, yield of 6:2 reassortants in growing chicken embryos exceeded 67% whereas in MDCK cell culture we were unable to produce clones with required genome composition. Thus, existing method while effective for production of vaccine reassortants in chicken embryos is low effective for isolation of 6:2 reassortants in MDCK cell culture. Fundamentally new techniques are needed for production of reassortant strains for live influenza vaccine in cell culture. PMID:18283733

Kiseleva, I V; Isakova, I N; Larionova, N V; Ole?nik, E S; Rudenko, L G

2007-01-01

238

HPV vaccination: effects on cervical screening.  

PubMed

Uptake of cervical screening has declined slightly since the 1990s, and is generally lower among young women than older women. Although the human papillomavirus vaccination programme is successful, some girls are still not being vaccinated. In addition, the programme may have a negative impact on the uptake of cervical screening, as young women may not realise they are still vulnerable to cervical cancer after vaccination. Nurses should encourage girls and young women to take up both HPV vaccination and cervical screening. PMID:25007499

Kothari, Aine

239

The Influence of Vitamin A on the Utilization and Amelioration of Toxicity of Cholecalciferol, 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol, and 1,25 Dihydroxycholecalciferol in Young Broiler Chickens1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments were conducted to determine the influence of vitamin A on the utilization and amelioration of toxicity of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-(OH)D3), and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2D3) in young broiler chicks. Two levels of vitamin A (1,500 and 45,000 IU\\/kg or 450 and 13,500 mg) were fed in all experiments. In Experiment 1, chicks were fed six levels of vitamin

A. ABURTO; H. M. EDWARDS; W. M. BRITTON

240

Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in healthy young adults in a country with high tuberculosis burden and BCG vaccination at birth  

PubMed Central

Background One third of the world’s population is thought to have latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) with the potential for subsequent reactivation of disease. To better characterize this important population, studies comparing Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and the new interferon-? release assays including QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) have been conducted in different parts of the world, but most of these have been in countries with a low incidence of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the use of QFT-GIT assay as compared with TST in the diagnosis of LTBI in Ethiopia, a country with a high burden of TB and routine BCG vaccination at birth. Methods Healthy medical and paramedical male students at the Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia were enrolled into the study from December 2008 to February 2009. The TST and QFTG-IT assay were performed using standard methods. Results The mean age of the study participants was 20.9 years. From a total of 107 study participants, 46.7% (95%CI: 37.0% to 56.6%) had a positive TST result (TST?10 mm), 43.9% (95%CI: 34.3% to 53.9%) had a positive QFT-GIT assay result and 44.9% (95%CI: 35.2% to 54.8%) had BCG scar. There was strong agreement between TST (TST ?10mm) and QFT-GIT assay (Kappa?=?0.83, p value?=?0.000). Conclusion The TST and QFT-GIT assay show similar efficacy for the diagnosis of LTBI in healthy young adults residing in Ethiopia, a country with high TB incidence. PMID:22870897

2012-01-01

241

Leptospirosis vaccines  

PubMed Central

Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the recent advancements of recombinant outer membrane protein (OMP) vaccines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) vaccines, inactivated vaccines, attenuated vaccines and DNA vaccines against leptospirosis are reviewed. A comparison of these vaccines may lead to development of new potential methods to combat leptospirosis and facilitate the leptospirosis vaccine research. Moreover, a vaccine ontology database was built for the scientists working on the leptospirosis vaccines as a starting tool. PMID:18072968

Wang, Zhijun; Jin, Li; Wegrzyn, Alicja

2007-01-01

242

Vaccine Shortages  

MedlinePLUS

... produce the vaccine fast enough to meet the demand. The company decides to stop making the vaccine ... will last and what to do until new supplies arrive. Typically, the vaccine supply is not completely ...

243

HPV vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Committee Opinion No. 588: Human Papillomavirus Vaccination. Obstet Gynecol . 2014;123:712-8. American ...

244

Bench-to-bedside review: Vaccine protection strategies during pandemic flu outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Vaccination is the most effective means for the prevention of influenza, including pandemic strains. An ideal pandemic influenza vaccine should provide effective protection with the fewest number of doses in the shortest amount of time, and among the greatest proportion of the population. The current manufacturing processes required for embryonated chicken-egg-based influenza vaccines are limited in their ability to

Joel V Chua; Wilbur H Chen

2010-01-01

245

STRATEGIES FOR VACCINATION OF FAMILY POULTRY AGAINST NEWCASTLE DISEASE IN AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

STRATEGIES FOR VACCINATION OF FAMILY POULTRY AGAINST NEWCASTLE DISEASE IN AFRICA. Criteria for the selection of vaccines against Newcastle disease (ND) appropriate for use in village chickens are discussed. Emphasis is given to the need to ensure that the selected vaccine is used successfully in the field. Those implementing ND control activities are encouraged to collaborate with all stakeholders and

R. G. ALDERS

246

Footrot vaccines and vaccination.  

PubMed

Research on footrot in small ruminants, which is caused by Dichelobacter nodosus, has led to development of vaccines and their application for control, treatment and eradication of the disease in sheep. Footrot vaccines have evolved over decades to contain monovalent whole cell, multivalent recombinant fimbrial, and finally mono or bivalent recombinant fimbrial antigens. Initially whole cell vaccines made against the few known serogroups of D. nodosus were found to be inefficient in control of the disease in the field, which was attributed to the presence of other unidentified serogroups and also the use of inefficient adjuvants. Fimbriae or pili, which are the basis for antigenic variation, were found to be the major protective and also curative antigens but they are not cross protective between the different serogroups. Multivalent vaccines incorporating all the known serogroups have been proven to be of limited efficacy due to the phenomenon of antigenic competition. Recent studies in Nepal, Bhutan and Australia have shown that outbreak-specific vaccination which involves targeting identified serogroups with mono- or bivalent recombinant fimbrial vaccines, can be very effective in sheep and goats. Where multiple serogroups are present in a flock, antigenic competition can be overcome by sequentially targeting the serogroups with different bivalent vaccines every 3 months. A common antigen which would confer immunity to all serogroups would be the ideal immunogen but the initial studies were not successful in this area. Until universal antigen/s are available, flock specific mono or bivalent fimbrial vaccines are likely to be the most effective tool for control and eradication of footrot in sheep and goats. Future research in footrot vaccines should be focused on improving the duration of prophylaxis by incorporating new and emerging immunomodulators or adjuvants with modified delivery vehicles, discovering a common antigen and understanding the mechanisms of acquired immunity. PMID:24736003

Dhungyel, Om; Hunter, James; Whittington, Richard

2014-05-30

247

75 FR 27579 - Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...will be considered including no-action, hand and remote delivery vaccination of young non- pregnant bison, and hand and remote delivery vaccination of young...alternatives include the continuation of the hand delivery program described under no...

2010-05-17

248

Chickenpox vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

Immunization - chickenpox; Vaccine - VAR;Immunization - VAR; Varicella zoster vaccine ... for Disease Control and Prevention. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Recommended Immunization Schedules for Persons Aged ...

249

VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Hepatitis B Vaccine  

E-print Network

VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Hepatitis B Vaccine What You Need to Know ManyVaccine; - beingstuckwithausedneedle. 2 Hepatitis B vaccine: Why get vaccinated? Hepatitis hepatitis B vaccine and when? Children and Adolescents · Babiesnormallyget3dosesofhepatitisBvaccine: 1st

Tennessee, University of

250

The adjuvanticity of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide for Newcastle disease vaccine.  

PubMed

The adjuvant activity of GLP was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiment, the effects of GLP on chicken peripheral lymphocytes proliferation were compared by MTT assay. The results showed that GLP could significantly enhance lymphocytes proliferation singly or synergistically with ConA. The interferon-gamma (IFN-?) mRNA levels of chicken peripheral lymphocytes stimulated by GLP synergistically with ConA were measured using fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that GLP could promote interferon-? mRNA levels in peripheral lymphocytes. In vivo experiment, 175 14-day-old chickens were randomly divided into 7 groups. The chickens except blank control (BC) group were vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine, repeated vaccination at 28 days old. At the same time of the first vaccination, the chickens in experimental groups were orally administrated with 5 different doses of GLP respectively, whereas vaccination control (VC) and BC groups were treated with physiological saline, once a day for three successive days. On Day 7, 14, 21 and 28 after the first vaccination, the peripheral lymphocytes proliferation and serum ND antibody titer were determined. The results showed that GLP could significantly promote lymphocyte proliferation and enhance serum antibody titer. The results indicated that GLP may be a novel immunomodulator. PMID:24530324

Zhang, Ping; Ding, Ronglong; Jiang, Shanxiang; Ji, Liwei; Pan, Mingming; Liu, Li; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiuge; Huang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Guanjun; Peng, Lin; Ji, Hui

2014-04-01

251

Immunogenicity of an inactivated Chinese bovine viral diarrhea virus 1a (BVDV 1a) vaccine cross protects from BVDV 1b infection in young calves.  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1a and 1b strains are the predominant subgenotypes in China. Because of the genetic and antigenic variability among different BVDV strains, a vaccine effective in one region may fail to protect against infections caused by different virus strains in another region. No BVDV vaccine developed with the predominant strains in China are available. In this study, the immunogenicity of an inactivated Chinese BVDV 1a NM01 vaccine strain was evaluated by challenging with a Chinese BVDV 1b JL strain. Ten 2-4-month-old calves were intramuscularly vaccinated with a single dose of the vaccine strain and boosted with same dose three weeks after the first vaccination, with five mock immunized calves serving as a control group. The average titer of neutralization antibody to BVDV 1a and BVDV 1b of immunized calves reached 1:410 and 1:96, respectively, at 21 days post the second vaccination. Twenty-one days post the second vaccination, all calves were challenged with strain JL. The clinical signs, such as the temperature and leukopenia of the immunized calves and viral shedding, were significantly less than the mock immunized calves after challenging with the virulent BVDV 1b strain, indicating that the BVDV 1a vaccine strain elicited efficacious protection against the endemic BVDV 1b strain in China. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an inactivated BVDV vaccine which demonstrated effective cross-protection against BVDV type 1b infection in China. PMID:24880701

Wang, Wei; Shi, Xinchuan; Wu, Yongwang; Li, Xiaoxin; Ji, Ye; Meng, Qingsen; Zhang, Shucheng; Wu, Hua

2014-08-15

252

At what age should we be vaccinating for human papillomavirus?  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause high disease burden. Primary prevention by vaccination is a major breakthrough. HPV vaccines are well tolerated and safe. Vaccines protect unexposed individuals against high-grade CIN and VIN/VaIN caused by the vaccine HPV types. Vaccines also provide protection against related oncogenic HPV types. The primary target population is young adolescents before their sexual debut. Catch-up vaccination policy up to age 26 may facilitate long-term health benefits but should not divert resources from vaccinating the primary target population or from effective cervical cancer screening programmes. Health benefits of vaccinating older age groups beyond age 26 are unknown. PMID:21051841

Paavonen, Jorma

2010-01-01

253

Measles, Mumps, Rubella and the MMR Vaccine during Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... defects. I have heard about a risk of autism with vaccination use. Is there a risk for autism with the MMR vaccine? Current data do not support an increased risk for autism when infants or young children have been exposed ...

254

Efficacy and Safety of the RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Vaccine during 18 Months after Vaccination: A Phase 3 Randomized, Controlled Trial in Children and Young Infants at 11 African Sites  

PubMed Central

Background A malaria vaccine could be an important addition to current control strategies. We report the safety and vaccine efficacy (VE) of the RTS,S/AS01 vaccine during 18 mo following vaccination at 11 African sites with varying malaria transmission. Methods and Findings 6,537 infants aged 6–12 wk and 8,923 children aged 5–17 mo were randomized to receive three doses of RTS,S/AS01 or comparator vaccine. VE against clinical malaria in children during the 18 mo after vaccine dose 3 (per protocol) was 46% (95% CI 42% to 50%) (range 40% to 77%; VE, p<0.01 across all sites). VE during the 20 mo after vaccine dose 1 (intention to treat [ITT]) was 45% (95% CI 41% to 49%). VE against severe malaria, malaria hospitalization, and all-cause hospitalization was 34% (95% CI 15% to 48%), 41% (95% CI 30% to 50%), and 19% (95% CI 11% to 27%), respectively (ITT). VE against clinical malaria in infants was 27% (95% CI 20% to 32%, per protocol; 27% [95% CI 21% to 33%], ITT), with no significant protection against severe malaria, malaria hospitalization, or all-cause hospitalization. Post-vaccination anti-circumsporozoite antibody geometric mean titer varied from 348 to 787 EU/ml across sites in children and from 117 to 335 EU/ml in infants (per protocol). VE waned over time in both age categories (Schoenfeld residuals p<0.001). The number of clinical and severe malaria cases averted per 1,000 children vaccinated ranged across sites from 37 to 2,365 and from ?1 to 49, respectively; corresponding ranges among infants were ?10 to 1,402 and ?13 to 37, respectively (ITT). Meningitis was reported as a serious adverse event in 16/5,949 and 1/2,974 children and in 9/4,358 and 3/2,179 infants in the RTS,S/AS01 and control groups, respectively. Conclusions RTS,S/AS01 prevented many cases of clinical and severe malaria over the 18 mo after vaccine dose 3, with the highest impact in areas with the greatest malaria incidence. VE was higher in children than in infants, but even at modest levels of VE, the number of malaria cases averted was substantial. RTS,S/AS01 could be an important addition to current malaria control in Africa. Trial registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00866619 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25072396

2014-01-01

255

Glycomics-based analysis of chicken red blood cells provides insight into the selectivity of the viral agglutination assay  

E-print Network

Agglutination of red blood cells (RBCs), including chicken RBCs (cRBCs), has been used extensively to estimate viral titer, to screen glycan-receptor binding preference, and to assess the protective response of vaccines. ...

Aich, Udayanath

256

Sustained efficacy and immunogenicity of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine up to 7.3 years in young adult women.  

PubMed

We report efficacy and immunogenicity of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine up to 7.3 years post-vaccination. The study was conducted in a population (N=433) of women enrolled in Brazilian centres from an initial placebo-controlled study. Women were aged 15-25 years at first vaccination. During the most recent year of follow-up, approximately 7 years after initial vaccination, no cases of infection or cytohistological lesions associated with HPV-16/18 were observed in the vaccinees. Vaccine efficacy (95% confidence interval) up to 7.3 years was 94.5% (82.9, 98.9) for incident infection, 100% (55.7, 100) for 12-month persistent infection and 100% (-129.8, 100) for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+. Antibody titres for total IgG and neutralising antibodies remained several folds above natural infection levels and >or=96% of women were seropositive. Vaccine safety was similar to placebo. This is the longest follow-up study for a licensed cervical cancer vaccine. PMID:20643092

De Carvalho, N; Teixeira, J; Roteli-Martins, C M; Naud, P; De Borba, P; Zahaf, T; Sanchez, N; Schuind, A

2010-08-31

257

Vaccination-challenge interval markedly influences protection provided by Rispens CVI988 vaccine against very virulent Marek's disease virus challenge.  

PubMed

The Rispens (CVI988) vaccine is widely used to vaccinate chickens worldwide. We tested the protective effects of the Rispens vaccine against challenge with very virulent Marek's disease virus (vvMDV) at various intervals at, before or after vaccination. The experiment used commercial ISA Brown layers and vvMDV isolate 02LAR. The protective index (PI) was measured for vaccination challenge intervals (VCI) of -10, -5, 0, 5 and 10 days, with the negative values indicating challenge prior to vaccination. Chickens were challenged by injection with 400 plaque-forming units (PFU) of 02LAR and/or vaccinated with 3200 PFU of the Rispens vaccine virus at days 0, 5 and 10 of age, with appropriate negative controls injected with diluent only. The presence of visible Marek's disease tumours was assessed up to 56 days post challenge. MDV challenge in unvaccinated chickens resulted in tumours in 52% of chickens. The Rispens vaccine provided no significant protection when challenge preceded vaccination, with PIs of -4 and 21% for VCI of -5 and -10 days respectively. On the other hand, it provided PIs of 60, 85 and 100% at VCI of 0, 5 and 10 days respectively. The study also revealed that the vvMDV load in peripheral blood lymphocytes or feather tips at 14 and 21 days post infection as determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, which can distinguish pathogenic MDV from the Rispens vaccine strain, was an accurate early predictor of Marek's disease incidence at 56 days post challenge. The load of Rispens virus in peripheral blood lymphocytes or feathers at the same times post vaccination did not offer similar predictive power. PMID:24098951

Islam, Tanzila; Walkden Brown, Stephen W; Renz, Katrin G; Fakhrul Islam, A F M; Ralapanawe, Sithara

2013-12-01

258

Protective efficacy of several vaccines against highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus under experimental conditions.  

PubMed

Although several vaccines have been developed to protect against highly pathogenic avian influenza of subtype H5N1 'Asia' their efficiency has primarily been assessed individually. Thus, a direct comparison of their performance is still lacking. The following study was conducted to compare the protective efficacy of three commercially available inactivated vaccines based on influenza virus strains of subtypes H5N2 (vaccine A), H5N9 (vaccine B), and H5N3 (vaccine C), as well as two hemagglutinin expressing experimental vector vaccines (modified vaccinia virus Ankara-H5 and Newcastle disease virus-H5) against a lethal dose of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus in chickens. To assess their potential as emergency vaccines, a single immunisation was performed for all vaccines, despite the recommendation of a double-vaccination schedule for commercial vaccines B and C. Overall, all vaccines induced clinical protection against challenge infection 3 weeks after immunisation. No mortality was observed in chickens immunised with vaccine A and viral shedding could not be detected. Immunisation with NDV-H5, vaccine C and MVA-H5 conferred also protection against lethal challenge. However, viral RNA was detected by real-time RT-PCR in swabs of 10%, 20% and 50% of animals, and 0%, 10% and 30% of animals, respectively, shed infectious virus. Immunisation with vaccine B was less protective since 50% of the vaccinated animals shed infectious virus after challenge and 20% of the chickens succumbed to disease. These results indicate that the NDV-H5 vectored vaccine is similarly effective as the best inactivated vaccine. Considering the advantage of live NDV which can be administered via spray or drinking water as well as the potential use of this H5 expressing vector vaccine for an easy DIVA (differentiating infected from vaccinated animals) strategy, NDV-H5 could represent an alternative for extensive vaccination against avian influenza in chickens. PMID:18291561

Veits, Jutta; Römer-Oberdörfer, Angela; Helferich, Dorothee; Durban, Markus; Suezer, Yasemin; Sutter, Gerd; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

2008-03-20

259

Protection against infectious laryngotracheitis by in ovo vaccination with commercially available viral vector recombinant vaccines.  

PubMed

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease is mainly controlled through biosecurity and by vaccination with live-attenuated vaccines. The chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines, although proven to be effective in experimental settings, have limited efficacy in controlling the disease in dense broiler production sites due to unrestricted use and poor mass vaccination coverage. These factors allowed CEO vaccines to regain virulence, causing long lasting and, consequently, severe outbreaks of the disease. A new generation of viral vector fowl poxvirus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) vaccines carrying ILTV genes has been developed and such vaccines are commercially available. These vaccines are characterized by their lack of transmission, lack of ILTV-associated latent infections, and no reversion to virulence. HVT-vectored ILTV recombinant vaccines were originally approved for subcutaneous HVT or transcutaneous (pox) delivery. The increased incidence of ILTV outbreaks in broiler production sites encouraged the broiler industry to deliver the FPV-LT and HVT-LT recombinant vaccines in ovo. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protection induced by ILTV viral vector recombinant vaccines after in ovo application in 18-day-old commercial broiler embryos. The protection induced by recombinant ILTV vaccines was assessed by their ability to prevent clinical signs and mortality; to reduce challenge virus replication in the trachea; to prevent an increase in body temperature; and to prevent a decrease in body weight gain after challenge. In this study, both recombinant-vectored ILTV vaccines provided partial protection, thereby mitigating the disease, but did not reduce challenge virus loads in the trachea. PMID:21313847

Johnson, Deirdre I; Vagnozzi, Ariel; Dorea, Fernanda; Riblet, Sylva M; Mundt, Alice; Zavala, Guillermo; García, Maricarmen

2010-12-01

260

Chicken embryo origin-like strains are responsible for Infectious laryngotracheitis virus outbreaks in Egyptian cross-bred broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) continues to cause respiratory disease in Egypt in spite of vaccination. The currently available modified live ILTV vaccines provide good protection but may also induce latent infections and even clinical disease if they spread extensively from bird-to-bird in the field. Four field ILTV isolates, designated ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Giza2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 were isolated from cross-bred broiler chickens. The pathogenicity based on intratracheal pathogenicity index, tracheal lesion score, and mortality index for chicken embryos revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009 and ILT-Behera2010 isolates were highly pathogenic whereas ILT-Giza2007 was non-pathogenic. To study the molecular epidemiology of these field isolates, the infected cell protein 4 gene was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 are chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine-related isolates while ILT-Giza2007 is a tissue culture origin vaccine-related isolate. These results suggest that CEO laryngotracheitis vaccine viruses could increase in virulence after bird-to-bird passages causing severe outbreaks in susceptible birds. PMID:23288626

Shehata, Awad A; Halami, Mohammad Y; Sultan, Hesham H; Abd El-Razik, Alaa G; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

2013-06-01

261

Antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type-b conjugate vaccine in children and young adults with congenital asplenia or after undergoing splenectomy.  

PubMed

Absence of the spleen constitutes a risk of infection caused by encapsulated bacteria. The aim of our study was to determine the immune response to Haemophilus influenzae type-b (Hib) conjugate vaccine (HibCV) in asplenic individuals, considering the cause of asplenia, the age when splenectomy was carried out, and previous Hib vaccinations. Twenty asplenic patients, aged five to 25 years, were immunized with a single dose of HibCV. The specific antibody concentrations against HibCV were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Before vaccinations, the geometric mean antibody concentration (GMC) had an average value of 3.21 ?g/ml and was comparable for all of the patients, regardless of the causes of asplenia. After vaccinations, the GMC was significantly higher, with an average of 6.78 ?g/ml. Further, 4.5 years after vaccinations, the GMC was comparable to that of previously unvaccinated children. Moreover, 17/20 patients had GMC???1.0 ?g/ml, which included all of the children with congenital asplenia, children splenectomized before the age of six years, and only 57% of children splenectomized after that age. HibCV gives asplenic patients long-term protection. Hence, HibCV should be administered regardless of previous vaccinations and time from splenectomy, even if antibody evaluation is not available. PMID:21874399

Mikoluc, B; Motkowski, R; Käyhty, H; Heropolitanska-Pliszka, E; Pietrucha, B; Bernatowska, E

2012-05-01

262

Protection induced by infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccines alone and combined with Newcastle disease virus and/or infectious bronchitis virus vaccines.  

PubMed

Two types of live attenuated vaccines have been used worldwide for the control of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV): 1) chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines; and 2) tissue culture origin vaccines (TCO). However, the disease persists in spite of extensive use of vaccination, particularly in areas of intense broiler production. Among the factors that may influence the efficiency of ILTV live attenuated vaccines is a possible interference of Newcastle Disease virus (NDV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines with the protection induced by ILTV vaccines. The protection induced by CEO and TCO vaccines was evaluated when administered at 14 days of age alone or in combination with the B1 type strain of NDV (B1) and/or the Arkansas (ARK) and Massachusetts (MASS) serotypes of IBV vaccines. Two weeks after vaccination (28 days of age), the chickens were challenged with a virulent ILTV field strain (63140 isolate, group V genotype). Protection was evaluated at 5 and 7 days postchallenge by scoring clinical signs and quantifying the challenge virus load in the trachea using real-time PCR (qPCR). In addition, the viral load of the vaccine viruses (ILTV, NDV, and IBV) was quantified 3 and 5 days postvaccination also using qPCR. The results of this study indicate that the NDV (B1) and IBV (ARK) vaccines and a multivalent vaccine constituted by NDV (B1) and IBV (ARK and MASS) did not interfere with the protection induced by the CEO ILTV vaccine. However, the NDV (BI) and the multivalent (B1/MASS/ARK) vaccines interfered with the protection induced by the TCO vaccine (P < 0.05). Either in combination or by themselves, the NDV and IBV vaccines decreased the tracheal replication of the TCO vaccine and the protection induced by this vaccine, since the ILTV-vaccinated and -challenged chickens displayed significantly more severe clinical signs and ILTV load (P < 0.05) than chickens vaccinated with the TCO vaccine alone. Although NDV and IBV challenges were not performed, the antibody responses elicited by NDV and/or the IBV vaccinations were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) when applied in combination with the CEO vaccine. PMID:21313841

Vagnozzi, Ariel; García, Maricarmen; Riblet, Sylva M; Zavala, Guillermo

2010-12-01

263

Effects of immune stress on growth performance, immunity, and cecal microflora in chickens.  

PubMed

Immune stress is the loss of immune homeostasis by external forces. This study investigated the effects of different types of immune stress on growth performance, immunity, and the distribution of cecal microflora in broiler chickens. In total, 540 one-day-old Cobb 500 broilers were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 5 (n = 108 birds/group) treatments: 1) no vaccination; 2) simplified vaccination, which included the infectious bronchitis vaccine (H120), the inactivated avian influenza vaccine (AI), the live vaccine strain Clone-30 of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and the combined inactive vaccine for infectious bursal diseases and the Newcastle disease vaccine (ND-IB); 3) normal vaccination (simplified vaccination + second dose of ND-IB, H120, and AI); 4) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stress (normal vaccination+LPS); or 5) cyclophosphamide (CPM) stress (normal vaccination+CPM).The results showed that the average BW and average feed intake decreased significantly after treatment with LPS or CPM (P < 0.05). Chickens that were challenged by LPS or CPM had a lower ileal CP digestibility than that of the control group (P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, the levels of secreted IgA decreased significantly at 42 d of age in the chickens that were treated with LPS or CPM (P < 0.01). The proliferation of the peripheral blood mononuclear cell and the levels of serum IgG in the LPS-challenged chickens were higher than those in the control group chickens at 21 and 42 d of age, respectively (P < 0.05). Six clusters were identified at 21 d of age, but cluster 6 was a single sample. Only 5 clusters were identified at 42 d of age. The enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR fingerprints of the cecal samples from the no vaccination and the simplified vaccination groups clustered together with high coefficients. The ERIC-PCR fingerprints of the 3 cecal samples from the CPM and LPS treatment groups clustered together with high coefficients among them. The ERIC-PCR fingerprints of the microbial flora of the cecal contents revealed the potential effects of immune stress on the microbial populations of treated birds. These data suggest that broilers with simplified vaccinations or without vaccinations can achieve the same growth performance as broilers with general vaccinations, but immune stress can break the homeostasis of cecal microflora and impair intestinal mucosal immune function. PMID:22080012

Yang, X J; Li, W L; Feng, Y; Yao, J H

2011-12-01

264

Human diploid cell culture rabies vaccine (HDCV) and purified chick embryo cell culture rabies vaccine (PCECV) both confer protective immunity against infection with the silver-haired bat rabies virus strain (SHBRV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demonstration of extensive differences in the antigenic makeups of the silver-haired bat rabies virus (SHBRV) and canine rabies virus (COSRV) strains raised concerns as to whether current licensed rabies vaccines are sufficiently protective against SHBRV. NIH mouse protection test results show that both the human diploid cell culture rabies vaccine (HDCV) and the purified chicken embryo cell rabies vaccine

Bernhard Dietzschold; D. Craig Hooper

1998-01-01

265

Protection and differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals by an inactivated recombinant Newcastle disease virus/avian influenza H5 vaccine.  

PubMed

Specific-pathogen-free chickens immunized at 14 days of age with either an inactivated recombinant Newcastle disease virus-LaSota/avian influenza H5 (K-rNDV-LS/AI-H5) vaccine or a killed Newcastle disease/avian influenza whole-virus vaccine (K-ND/AI) were protected from disease when challenged with either A/chicken/Queretaro/14588-19/95 (H5N2), a high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strain isolated in Mexico in 1995, or with a Mexican velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus (VVNDV) strain 21 days postvaccination. All nonvaccinated chickens challenged with HPAIV or VVNDV succumbed to disease, while those vaccinated with K-rNDV-LS/AI-H5 or K-ND/AI were protected from severe clinical signs and death. Both vaccines induced hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody responses against NDV and AIV. Antibodies against AIV nucleoprotein were not detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in birds vaccinated with the inactivated rNDV-LS/AI-H5 vaccine. These chickens became positive for AIV antibodies by ELISA only after challenge with HPAIV. The data clearly indicate that the inactivated rNDV-LS/AI-H5 vaccine confers protection comparable to that of the conventional killed whole-virus vaccine against both NDV and AIV, while still allowing differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals by HI and ELISA tests. PMID:20521639

Lozano-Dubernard, Bernardo; Soto-Priante, Ernesto; Sarfati-Mizrahi, David; Castro-Peralta, Felipa; Flores-Castro, Ricardo; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; Gay-Gutiérrez, Manuel

2010-03-01

266

Comparison of viral shedding following vaccination with inactivated and live Newcastle disease vaccines formulated with wild-type and recombinant viruses.  

PubMed

Virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates from the 1971 and 2002 U.S. outbreaks are of the same serotype but a different genotype than current vaccine strains. Prior experiments with inactivated vaccines in chickens show significantly less virus shed in birds vaccinated with a homologous vaccine (same genotype as challenge) compared to chickens vaccinated with genotypically heterologous vaccines. Subsequent experiments have compared the protection induced in chickens by live vaccines of B1 and LaSota (genotype II), Ulster (genotype I), and recombinant viruses that express the hemagglutinin neuraminidase gene (HN) or the HN and fusion gene (F) of CA 2002 (genotype V). Vaccinates were challenged with virulent viruses CA 2002 (genotype V) or Texas GB (TXGB, genotype II). After challenge with CA 2002 the birds vaccinated with a live recombinant genotype V virus containing the HN of CA 2002 shed significantly less virus in oropharyngeal swabs compared to B1 and had fewer birds shedding virus compared to B1, LaSota, and Ulster vaccinates. After challenge with CA 2002 birds vaccinated with the recombinant containing both the HN and F of CA 2002 (rA-CAFHN) shed less virus, and fewer birds shed virus compared to LaSota-vaccinated birds. TXGB-challenged LaSota-vaccinated birds shed less virus, and fewer birds shed virus compared to TXGB-challenged rA-CAFHN-vaccinated birds. Genotypic differences between vaccine and challenge did not diminish ability of vaccines to protect against disease, but genotypic similarity did reduce virus shed and may reduce transmission. The development and use of vaccines of the same genotype as the expected field challenge may provide an additional tool for control of this important poultry pathogen. PMID:19432002

Miller, Patti J; Estevez, Carlos; Yu, Qingzhong; Suarez, David L; King, Daniel J

2009-03-01

267

Modeling the effects of annual influenza vaccination  

SciTech Connect

Although influenza vaccine efficacy is 70--90% in young healthy first-time vaccinees, the efficacy in repeat vaccinees has varied considerably. In some studies, vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccinees was higher than in first-time vaccinees, whereas in other studies vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccinees was significantly lower than in first-time vaccinees and sometimes no higher than in unvaccinated controls. It is known that the closeness of the antigenic match between the vaccine strain and the epidemic virus is important for vaccine effectiveness. In this study the authors show that the antigenic differences between a first vaccine strain and a second vaccine strain, and between the first vaccine strain and the epidemic strain, might account for the observed variation in attack rate among two-time vaccinees.

Smith, D.J.; Ackley, D.H.; Forrest, S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Div.

1998-12-31

268

Production of a falcon herpesvirus vaccine.  

PubMed

Ten common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) were used for this falcon herpes vaccine experiment. Four kestrels were subcutaneously given 1 ml of an attenuated falcon herpesvirus that had originally been isolated from the liver of an American prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus). This virus was then passaged 100 times on chicken embryo fibroblast cells (CEF-cells). Another 4 kestrels were given subcutaneously an inactivated falcon herpesvirus vaccine derived from the same American field strain. This vaccine was concentrated, inactivated by heat and betapropiolactone and emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvans. Two further kestrels served as controls and were not vaccinated. Twenty-one days after vaccination, all 10 kestrels were challenged with passage 3 of the American falcon herpesvirus. The 2 control kestrels died 6 days after challenge and 3 of those given the inactivated herpes vaccine died 9 days after challenge, with typical lesions of herpesvirus inclusion body hepatitis. Before the vaccination experiment, all 10 kestrels were free of serum neutralising antibodies to the falcon herpesvirus. Twenty-one days after vaccination, all 4 kestrels vaccinated with the attenuated vaccine, and one vaccinated with the killed vaccine, had seroconverted, having shown no symptoms to the challenge with a low passage virulent American herpesvirus strain. Following the challenge their antibody titres to falcon herpesvirus increased. No herpesvirus was isolated from any of the cloacal swabs taken during this experiment, indicating that there is no danger for any other birds from the attenuated herpesvirus vaccine. This experiment clearly shows that an attenuated falcon herpesvirus vaccine can protect kestrels from fatal inclusion body hepatitis. PMID:10507183

Wernery, U; Wernery, R; Kinne, J

1999-09-01

269

Potency test of inactivated Newcastle disease vaccines by monoclonal antibody blocking ELISA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potency of 27 different inactivated Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines was determined by immunization and challenge tests. Three- and four-week-old SPF chickens were immunized with 1\\/50 dose of vaccines. The chickens were bled and challenged three weeks later. The protected\\/challenged ratio was determined. Serum samples were tested by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and by a monoclonal antibody (MAB) blocking

E. Horváth; G. Czifra; E. Nagy; B. Engström; M. Mérza

1999-01-01

270

Polio Vaccination  

MedlinePLUS

... the benefits of OPV use (i.e. intestinal immunity, secondary spread) outweighed the risk for vaccine-associated ... to its advantages over IPV in providing intestinal immunity and providing secondary spread of the vaccine to ...

271

Meningococcal Vaccines  

MedlinePLUS

... common after MCV4 than after MPSV4.A small percentage of people who receive the vaccine develop a ... Vaccine Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National ...

272

Viruses, Cancer Warts and All: The HPV Vaccine for Cervical Cancer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FASEB Breakthroughs in Bioscience article. Scientist Peyton Rous used Plymouth Rock chickens to make his Nobel Prize winning discovery that viruses can cause cancer. Chickens, rabbits, and mice were among the animal models that made invaluable contributions to the development of the HPV vaccine to protect against cervical cancer.

2010-07-12

273

Smallpox Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

... outbreak of the disease. In most cases, the vaccine causes mild side effects, such as soreness around the vaccination site, fever, ... very small percentage of people will suffer serious side effects and may even die. Thus the vaccine is only necessary when there has been an ...

274

Vaccination Mathematics  

E-print Network

Vaccination Strategies for Epidemic Models Douglas B. Meade Department of Mathematics University://www.math.sc.edu/~meade/ 27 May 1999 #12; May 1999 IMA Mathematical Biology Seminar 0 Vaccination Strategies for Epidemic and natural death -- no death from infection -- no vaccination Ref: Shulgin, Stone, and Agur, Bull Math Bio

Meade, Douglas B.

275

Antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine.  

PubMed

West Nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the United States since 1999. Five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for West Nile virus: black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus), little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor), American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis), and Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). All birds were vaccinated intramuscularly at least twice with a commercially available inactivated whole virus vaccine (Innovator). Significant differences in antibody titer over time were detected for black-footed penguins and both flamingo species. PMID:17679507

Okeson, Danelle M; Llizo, Shirley Yeo; Miller, Christine L; Glaser, Amy L

2007-06-01

276

Adjuvant effects of chitosan and calcium phosphate particles in an inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine.  

PubMed

The adjuvant activity of chitosan (CS) and calcium phosphate (CAP) particles was studied following intranasal (mucosal) administration to commercial chickens with inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. After three vaccinations with inactivated NDV in combination with CS or CAP an increase in antibody titers in blood and mucosal samples in chickens was observed when compared with the administration of NDV antigen only. A lower level of humoral immunity was observed in broiler chickens compared to layer-type birds. The CS-based vaccine demonstrated higher antigenic and protective activity following lethal challenge than the vaccine containing CAP. Because CS particles efficiently changed mucosal and humoral immunity and protective activity, CS may in the future be considered for use as a potential adjuvant for production of vaccines for poultry. PMID:24758112

Volkova, Marina A; Irza, Anna V; Chvala, Irina A; Frolov, Sergy F; Drygin, Vladimir V; Kapczynski, Darrell R

2014-03-01

277

Evaluation of the Acceptability and Feasibility of a Computer-Tailored Intervention to Increase Human Papillomavirus Vaccination among Young Adult Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine acceptability and feasibility of a Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based computer-tailored intervention (CTI) for increasing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in college-aged women. Participants: Two hundred forty-three women aged 18-26 were recruited between February and May of 2011. Methods: Participants completed the…

Paiva, Andrea L.; Lipschitz, Jessica M.; Fernandez, Anne C.; Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.

2014-01-01

278

Effect of the Pre-erythrocytic Candidate Malaria Vaccine RTS,S/AS01E on Blood Stage Immunity in Young Children  

PubMed Central

(See the article by Greenhouse et al, on pages 19-26.) Background.?RTS,S/AS01E is the lead candidate malaria vaccine and confers pre-erythrocytic immunity. Vaccination may therefore impact acquired immunity to blood-stage malaria parasites after natural infection. Methods.?We measured, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, antibodies to 4 Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens (AMA-1, MSP-142, EBA-175, and MSP-3) and by growth inhibitory activity (GIA) using 2 parasite clones (FV0 and 3D7) at 4 times on 860 children who were randomized to receive with RTS,S/AS01E or a control vaccine. Results.?Antibody concentrations to AMA-1, EBA-175, and MSP-142 decreased with age during the first year of life, then increased to 32 months of age. Anti–MSP-3 antibody concentrations gradually increased, and GIA gradually decreased up to 32 months. Vaccination with RTS,S/AS01E resulted in modest reductions in AMA-1, EBA-175, MSP-142, and MSP-3 antibody concentrations and no significant change in GIA. Increasing anti-merozoite antibody concentrations and GIA were prospectively associated with increased risk of clinical malaria. Conclusions.?Vaccination with RTS,S/AS01E reduces exposure to blood-stage parasites and, thus, reduces anti-merozoite antigen antibody concentrations. However, in this study, these antibodies were not correlates of clinical immunity to malaria. Instead, heterogeneous exposure led to confounded, positive associations between increasing antibody concentration and increasing risk of clinical malaria. PMID:21628653

Cook, Jackie; Bergmann-Leitner, Elke; Olotu, Ally; Lusingu, John; Mwacharo, Jedidah; Vekemans, Johan; Njuguna, Patricia; Leach, Amanda; Lievens, Marc; Dutta, Sheetij; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Savarese, Barbara; Villafana, Tonya; Lemnge, Martha M.; Cohen, Joe; Marsh, Kevin; Corran, Patrick H.; Angov, Evelina; Riley, Eleanor M.; Drakeley, Chris J.

2011-01-01

279

VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Hepatitis A Vaccine  

E-print Network

VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Hepatitis A Vaccine What You Need to Know Many Vaccine Information 1,000 cases). Hepatitis A vaccine can prevent hepatitis A. 2 Who should get hepatitis A vaccine and when? WHO? Some people should be routinely vaccinated with hepatitis A vaccine: · All children between

Leistikow, Bruce N.

280

Therapeutic HIV Vaccines What is a vaccine?  

E-print Network

Therapeutic HIV Vaccines What is a vaccine? A vaccine is a medical product designed to stimulate there are currently no vaccines to prevent or treat HIV, researchers are developing and testing potential HIV vaccines. HIV vaccines designed to prevent HIV infection in HIV negative people are called preventive vaccines

Levin, Judith G.

281

Severe acute respiratory syndrome vaccine development: experiences of vaccination against avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus.  

PubMed

Vaccines against infectious bronchitis of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) have arguably been the most successful, and certainly the most widely used, of vaccines for diseases caused by coronaviruses, the others being against bovine, canine, feline and porcine coronaviruses. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), together with the genetically related coronaviruses of turkey (Meleagris gallopovo) and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), is a group 3 coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus being tentatively in group 4, the other known mammalian coronaviruses being in groups 1 and 2. IBV replicates not only in respiratory tissues (including the nose, trachea, lungs and airsacs, causing respiratory disease), but also in the kidney (associated with minor or major nephritis), oviduct, and in many parts of the alimentary tract--the oesophagus, proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, bursa of Fabricius, caecal tonsils (near the distal end of the tract), rectum and cloaca (the common opening for release of eggs and faeces), usually without clinical effects. The virus can persist, being re-excreted at the onset of egg laying (4 to 5 months of age), believed to be a consequence of the stress of coming into lay. Genetic lines of chickens differ in the extent to which IBV causes mortality in chicks, and in respect of clearance of the virus after the acute phase. Live attenuated (by passage in chicken embryonated eggs) IBV strains were introduced as vaccines in the 1950s, followed a couple of decades later by inactivated vaccines for boosting protection in egg-laying birds. Live vaccines are usually applied to meat-type chickens at 1 day of age. In experimental situations this can result in sterile immunity when challenged by virulent homologous virus. Although 100% of chickens may be protected (against clinical signs and loss of ciliary activity in trachea), sometimes 10% of vaccinated chicks do not respond with a protective immune response. Protection is short lived, the start of the decline being apparent 9 weeks after vaccination with vaccines based on highly attenuated strains. IBV exists as scores of serotypes (defined by the neutralization test), cross-protection often being poor. Consequently, chickens may be re-vaccinated, with the same or another serotype, two or three weeks later. Single applications of inactivated virus has generally led to protection of <50% of chickens. Two applications have led to 90 to 100% protection in some reports, but remaining below 50% in others. In practice in the field, inactivated vaccines are used in laying birds that have previously been primed with two or three live attenuated virus vaccinations. This increases protection of the laying birds against egg production losses and induces a sustained level of serum antibody, which is passed to progeny. The large spike glycoprotein (S) comprises a carboxy-terminal S2 subunit (approximately 625 amino acid residues), which anchors S in the virus envelope, and an amino-terminal S1 subunit (approximately 520 residues), believed to largely form the distal bulbous part of S. The S1 subunit (purified from IBV virus, expressed using baculovirus or expressed in birds from a fowlpoxvirus vector) induced virus neutralizing antibody. Although protective immune responses were induced, multiple inoculations were required and the percentage of protected chickens was too low (<50%) for commercial application. Remarkably, expression of S1 in birds using a non-pathogenic fowl adenovirus vector induced protection in 90% and 100% of chickens in two experiments. Differences of as little as 5% between the S1 sequences can result in poor cross-protection. Differences in S1 of 2 to 3% (10 to 15 amino acids) can change serotype, suggesting that a small number of epitopes are immunodominant with respect to neutralizing antibody. Initial studies of the role of the IBV nucleocapsid protein (N) in immunity suggested that immunization with bacterially expressed N, while not inducing protection directly, improved the induction of protection by a

Cavanagh, Dave

2003-12-01

282

Enhancement of the immunogenicity of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus DNA vaccine by a bicistronic plasmid encoding glycoprotein B and interleukin-18.  

PubMed

A DNA vaccine against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) can induce specific humoral and cell-mediated immunity. However, compared to conventional vaccines, DNA vaccines usually induce poor antibody responses. To determine if co-expression of a cytokine can result in a more potent ILTV DNA vaccine, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a monocistronic vector encoding the glycoprotein B (gB) of ILTV was compared to that of a bicistronic vector separately encoding the gB and chicken interleukin-18. Humoral and cellular responses induced by the DNA vaccines administered to the quadriceps muscle of chickens were evaluated. There were significant differences in antibody levels elicited by either monocistronic or bicistronic DNA vaccines as determined by ELISA. The percentages of CD3(+), CD3(+)CD8(+) and CD3(+)CD4(+) subgroups of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes in chickens immunized with the bicistronic DNA vaccine were higher than those in chickens immunized with monocistronic DNA vaccine. When chickens were challenged with a virulent CG strain of ILTV, the protective efficacy was enhanced significantly after immunization with the bicistronic DNA vaccine. These results demonstrated that co-expression of an adjuvant cytokine from a bicistronic DNA vaccine may be an effective approach to increasing ILTV DNA vaccine immunogenicity. PMID:20553764

Chen, Hong-Ying; Zhao, Li; Wei, Zhan-Yong; Cui, Bao-An; Wang, Zhen-Ya; Li, Xin-Sheng; Xia, Ping-An; Liu, Jin-Peng

2010-08-01

283

[Study on immune efficacy of Newcastle disease chitosan microsphere vaccine].  

PubMed

Newcastle disease is an acute and highly contagious disease caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), one of which does great harms to the poultry industry. The most basic measure of controlling New Castle disease is to alid vaccine, now we usually use La Sota live vaccine and inactivated NDV vaccine, but these two vaccines both have more or less limitation. It can produce higher mucosal immunity titers by taking vaccine orally, meanwhile it can induce humoral and cell-mediated immune response and mucosal immunity strongly. Therefore, it becomes the focus of the research, which prepare new pattern vaccines taking orally. NDV chitosan microsphere vaccine was prepared using chitosan as capsule wall material, NDV as core material, glutaraldehyde as cross-linking material, and its even particle diameter was 5.83um, and its surface was smooth and glossy, no obviously pore space, yellow brown pykno-ball, and its safety and potency were evaluated. The SPF chickens were immunized with NDV chitosan microsphere vaccine, La Sota live vaccine and inactivated NDV vaccine respectively. To evaluate vaccine's immune efficacy, using MTT to measure lymphocytes proliferation in vitro, using HI to measure serum special IgG and using ELISA tests to detect mucosal sIgA titers. The results show that NDV chitosan microsphere vaccine was safe, could induce humoral and cell-mediated immune response and mucosal immunity strongly. The results of the potency tests conformed that the vaccine could produce good protective effect. PMID:17944374

Zhai, Rong-ling; Xu, Huai-ying; Wang, You-ling; Qin, Zhuo-ming; Jiang, Shi-jin

2007-08-01

284

VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine  

E-print Network

. The viruses in the vaccine have been weakened so they can't make you sick. A different vaccine, the "flu shot disease that year. While flu vaccine cannot prevent all cases of flu, it is our best defense against are not feeling well. They might suggest waiting. But you should come back. #12;· You should get the flu shot

Oklahoma, University of

285

DNA vaccines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

Gregersen, Jens-Peter

2001-12-01

286

Parental perspectives on vaccinating children against sexually transmitted infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several vaccines for sexually transmitted infections (STI) are presently in development and the eventual availability of such vaccines is expected to result in the prevention of a significant number of burdensome conditions. Young adolescents are presumed to be likely targets for these vaccines since adolescents’ risk for STI increases as they age and become sexually active. It is unclear, however,

Rose M. Mays; Lynne A. Sturm; Gregory D. Zimet

2004-01-01

287

Evaluation of Targeted Influenza Vaccination Strategies via Population Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBecause they can generate comparable predictions, mathematical models are ideal tools for evaluating alternative drug or vaccine allocation strategies. To remain credible, however, results must be consistent. Authors of a recent assessment of possible influenza vaccination strategies conclude that older children, adolescents, and young adults are the optimal targets, no matter the objective, and argue for vaccinating them. Authors of

John Glasser; Denis Taneri; Zhilan Feng; Jen-Hsiang Chuang; Peet Tüll; William Thompson; Mary Mason McCauley; James Alexander

2010-01-01

288

Fostering acceptance of human papillomavirus vaccines.  

PubMed

Multivalent prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines currently in the late stages of clinical testing are safe, immunogenic, and efficacious; and phase 3 tests of a quadrivalent vaccine show that it is 100% effective at preventing HPV types 16 and 18-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3, adenocarcinoma in situ, and cervical cancer through 2 years of postvaccination follow-up. These vaccines promise to reduce the burden of HPV-related disease. Realizing the full benefit of these vaccines will require a vaccination program that addresses the needs and concerns of healthcare providers, parents, and young adolescent patients who will be involved in the vaccine decisionmaking process. Osteopathic physicians, by virtue of their dedication to holistic care, are in an optimal position to play a key role in facilitating acceptance of these vaccines among potential vaccinees and their parents and guardians. PMID:16729556

Dekker, Anthony H

2006-03-01

289

Effects of peptides Lys-Glu-Asp-Gly and Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly on hormonal activity and structure of the thyroid gland in hypophysectomized young chickens and old hens.  

PubMed

Hypophysectomy in 5-days chickens and old hens was followed by hormonal disturbances and structural changes in the thyroid gland. Administration of peptides Lys-Glu-Asp-Gly and Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly synthesized on the basis the amino acid composition of extracts from the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland, respectively, to hypophysectomized birds for 40 days significantly reduced the degree of these changes. The normalizing effect of synthetic peptides on the concentration of thyrotrophic hormone and thyroid hormones in old hens was less pronounced than in chickens. PMID:22268052

Kuznik, B I; Pateyuk, A V; Rusaeva, N S; Baranchugova, L M; Obydenko, V I

2011-02-01

290

Development of avian influenza virus H5 DNA vaccine and MDP-1 gene of Mycobacterium bovis as genetic adjuvant  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have shown that DNA vaccines can induce protective immunity, which demonstrated the high potential of DNA vaccines as an alternative to inactivated vaccines. Vaccines are frequently formulated with adjuvants to improve their release, delivery and presentation to the host immune system. Methods The H5 gene of H5N1 virus (A/Ck/Malaysia/5858/04) was cloned separately into pcDNA3.1 + vector. The immunogenicity of the cloned H5 DNA vaccine was tested on SPF chickens using two different approaches. First approach was using H5 DNA vaccine (pcDNA3.1/H5) and the second was using H5 DNA vaccine in addition to the pcDNA3.1/MDP1 vaccine. Ten days old chickens inoculated three times with two weeks intervals. The spleen and muscle samples from chickens immunized with H5 (pcDNA3.1/H5) and H5 + MDP1 (pcDNA3.1/H5 + pcDNA3.1/MDP1) vaccines were collected after sacrificing the chickens and successfully expressed H5 and MDP1 RNA transcripts. The sera of immunized chickens were collected prior to first immunization and every week after immunization; and analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Results Results of competitive ELISA showed successful antibody responses two weeks post immunization. The HI test showed an increased in antibody titers during the course of experiment in group immunized with H5 and H5 + MDP1 vaccines. The result showed that the constructed DNA vaccines were able to produce detectable antibody titer in which the group immunized with H5 + MDP1 vaccine produced higher antibody comparing to H5 vaccine alone. Conclusions This study shows for the first time the usefulness of MDP1 as a genetic adjuvant for H5 DNA vaccine. PMID:20497569

2010-01-01

291

Rubella: Current Status, Diagnosis, Outbreak Control, and Use of Rubella Vaccine in Females of Childbearing Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Widespread rubella vaccination of young children with a secondary emphasis on vaccinating susceptible adolescents and young adults has prevented epidemics of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome. Benefits of ensuring high immunity levels in college students, quick response to disease outbreak, and safety and efficacy of rubella vaccine in this…

Preblud, Stephen R.

1984-01-01

292

Vaccination against herpesvirus, fiction or reality?  

PubMed

Against Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) there are commercially available vaccines which may induce protection against symptoms of primary infections, but not against establishment of latency. Effective animal vaccines have been developed against herpes simplex-like viruses, for example pseudorabies vaccine for pigs, and an experimental vaccine can protect cattle against infection with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus. There are also commercially available effective live vaccines against Marek's disease virus which belongs to the lymphoproliferative group of herpesviruses and causes lymphoma in chicken. An experimental immunostimulating complex (iscom) vaccine against Equine herpesvirus 2, an equine cytomegalovirus, has been tested in horse and protective immunity was induced. In man vaccines against Cytomegalovirus are used in immunosuppressed patients. Several laboratory animal models have been created for HSV-1 and HSV-2 mostly using mice but also guinea pigs. In these models many different HSV-1 or HSV-2 vaccines have been tested and induced protective immunity. The antigens in the vaccines have been envelope proteins extracted from native virus or envelope glycoproteins gB or gD in single or combined use. Glycoprotein C seems to be a less interesting as antigen for a HSV-1 vaccine. The cottontop tamarin monkey has been studied as a model for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) induced lymphoma. An iscom vaccine containing the envelop protein gp340 of EBV induced full protection in the cottontop tamarins against a challenge infection. The iscom vaccine concept is discussed and the formation of an iscom particle with "tailor made" antigens and immunomodulators is presented. PMID:1666442

Morein, B; Merza, M

1991-01-01

293

Molecular Characterization of Chicken Anemia Virus Circulating in Chicken Flocks in Egypt  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Although many previous studies reported detection of chicken anemia virus (CAV) in Egypt since 1990, genomic characterization of this circulating CAV has not been published. In the present study, four nucleotide sequences of detected CAV were genetically characterized. Methods. These nucleotide sequences were obtained from commercial chicken flocks in two different locations of Egypt during 2010. The target region for sequencing was 675?bp nucleotide of partial coding region of VP1 protein. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the detected CAV were aligned and compared to worldwide CAV isolates including commonly used vaccine strains. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences was also carried out. Results. Our results showed that all the Egyptian CAV sequences were grouped in one group with viruses from diverse geographic regions. This group is characterized by amino acids profile 75I, 97L, 139Q, and 144Q in VP1. The phylogenetic and amino acid analyses of deduced amino acid indicated that the detected CAV sequences differ from CAV vaccine strains. Conclusion. This is the first report that describes molecular characterization of circulating CAV in Egypt. The study showed that the detected CAV, in Egypt are field viruses and unrelated to vaccine strains. PMID:25302064

AboElkhair, Mohammed; Abd El-Razak, Alaa G.; Metwally, Abd Elnaby Y.

2014-01-01

294

Safety and Immunogenicity of Two Different Lots of the Oral, Killed Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-Cholera Toxin B Subunit Vaccine in Israeli Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the leading causes of diarrhea among Israeli soldiers serving in field units. Two double-blind placebo-controlled, randomized trials were performed among 155 healthy volunteers to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of different lots of the oral, killed ETEC vaccine consisting of two doses of whole cells plus recombinantly produced cholera toxin B subunit (rCTB).

DANI COHEN; NADAV ORR; MOTI HAIM; SHAI ASHKENAZI; GUY ROBIN; MANFRED S. GREEN; MOSHE EPHROS; TAMAR SELA; RAPHAEL SLEPON; ISAAC ASHKENAZI; DAVID N. TAYLOR; ANN-MARI SVENNERHOLM; ARIEH ELDAD; JOSHUA SHEMER

2000-01-01

295

Recombinant duck enteritis virus works as a single-dose vaccine in broilers providing rapid protection against H5N1 influenza infection.  

PubMed

Although vaccination is an important strategy for controlling H5N1 avian influenza virus infections, broilers (short-lived meat chickens) remain the major victims in disease-endemic countries. Inactivated vaccine usually requires 2-3weeks to establish solid protection, and recombinant vaccines, including the recombinant fowlpox virus vaccine and the recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccine are affected by maternal antibodies against the vectors. These disadvantages compromise the protective efficacy of these vaccines in broilers. Here, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of a new recombinant duck enteritis virus that expresses the HA gene of an H5N1 virus (rDEV-re6) in specific-pathogen-free chickens and broilers. We found this new rDEV-re6 virus to be safe in chickens and to induce rapid and solid protection after a single dose. This virus may therefore serve as an ideal single-dose vaccine for broilers. PMID:23267833

Liu, Jinxiong; Chen, Pucheng; Jiang, Yongping; Deng, Guohua; Shi, Jianzhong; Wu, Li; Lin, Yuan; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

2013-03-01

296

Some safety aspects of Salmonella vaccines for poultry: in vivo study of the genetic stability of three Salmonella typhimurium live vaccines.  

PubMed

Live vaccine strains of Salmonella should be avirulent, immunogenic and genetically stable. Some isolates of three commercially available live vaccine strains of Salmonella typhimurium, sampled during a study on their persistence in a vaccinated flock of chickens, were analyzed for genetic stability using macrorestriction analysis of their genome. Two out of the three vaccine strains showed genetic instabilities. Two of the 51 isolates of Zoosaloral vaccine strain and nine of the 32 analyzed isolates of chi(3985), a genetically modified organism, were variants and showed different macrorestriction profiles. PMID:11040436

Barbezange, C; Ermel, G; Ragimbeau, C; Humbert, F; Salvat, G

2000-11-01

297

Invasive pneumococcal infection despite 7-valent conjugated vaccine  

PubMed Central

Despite good cover with 7-valent vaccination, invasive pneumococcal infections may still be misdiagnosed and may lead to lifethreatening situations or death in young children. New serotypes are emerging and, therefore, clinicians must keep a high level of suspicion in young children regardless of their vaccination status. We report three cases of invasive pneumococcal infection due to new serotypes not covered by the 7-valent conjugated vaccine, two of which led children to death. PMID:24765491

Joye, Sebastien; Gao, Anja; Kayemba-Kay’s, Simon; Cotting, Jacques; Perez, Marie-Hélène

2013-01-01

298

[Influence of avian reovirus infection on the Bursa and immune-reactions in chickens].  

PubMed

The influences of avian reovirus (ARV) infection at 1 day of age on bursa development, antibody responses after vaccinations to avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), and pathogenecity of virulent IBDV (v-IBDV) were studied in chickens of SPF-origin. The results indicated that LY strain ARV infection in 1-day-old chickens caused atrophy of the Bursa and decreased lymphocyte numbers in the bursa, but it gave no significant negative effects on growth rates and antibody titers to AIV and NDV after vaccination. LY strain ARV infection decreased antibody titers to IBDV in B87 vaccinated birds but all vaccinated birds infected with ARV were still full protected from death or clinical syndromes after v-IBDV challenge. Although all B87-vaccinated birds were full protected from death after v-IBDV challenges, the antibody titers to AIV or NDV after vaccinations with inactivated vaccines were significantly lower in v-IBDV challenged birds than controls. Supprisingly, ARV infection at ages of 1-7 days could compromise the immune suppression induced by v-IBDV in B87-vaccinated birds as HI antibody titers to AIV and NDV in ARV-infected groups were significantly higher than chicknes with no ARV infection. A discussion was made on the interactions between ARV infection and vaccine IBDV or v-IBDV to explain such sophisticated phenomena in the bird experiments. PMID:17672312

Wang, Lei; Cui, Zhi-zhong; Sun, Ai-jun; Sun, Shu-hong

2007-06-01

299

Vaccine History Form for OUHSC Employees and Students Name (print) Dept. EmplID Date  

E-print Network

A-4 Vaccine History Form for OUHSC Employees and Students Name (print) Dept. EmplID Date Date the rest of this form and attach proof of vaccinations or blood tests. " 1. Tuberculin PPD Mantoux Skin-ray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X-Ray Date ii. Did you receive isoniazid-based therapy? " Yes " No " 2. Varicella (Chicken Pox

Oklahoma, University of

300

Population-based incidence of herpes zoster after introduction of a publicly funded varicella vaccination program  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPast varicella infection (chicken pox) may reactivate into herpes zoster (shingles). Varicella vaccination leads to a reduction in cases of varicella that may in turn increase herpes zoster rates due to reduction in the immune boosting effect of exposure to varicella zoster virus against varicella reactivation. We assessed the impact of childhood varicella vaccination in Ontario, Canada on zoster incidence

Peter Tanuseputro; Brandon Zagorski; Kevin J. Chan; Jeffrey C. Kwong

2011-01-01

301

Vaccine Effectiveness During a Varicella Outbreak Among Schoolchildren: Utah, 2002-2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. In the context of a chicken- pox outbreak involving 2 Utah elementary schools, we conducted an investigation to assess vaccine effective- ness, describe illness severity, and examine risk factors for breakthrough varicella (ie, varicella in those who have been vaccinated). Methods. All parents were asked to complete a ques- tionnaire about their child's medical history. Parents of children with

Maryam B. Haddad; Mary B. Hill; Andrew T. Pavia; Caroline E. Green; Aisha O. Jumaan; Anindya K. De; Robert T. Rolfs

2010-01-01

302

Vaccines for Pregnant Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccines for Adults Share Compartir Vaccines for Pregnant Women On this Page Vaccine Safety Before, During and ... appropriate for you. Important Vaccines to Consider for Women Planning a Pregnancy Vaccines Before Pregnancy Rubella (German ...

303

Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

... product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine, Varicella Vaccine) ... about 1 person in 20) than MMR and varicella vaccines given separately. Moderate Problems:Seizure (jerking or staring) ...

304

Development of Streptococcus pneumoniae Vaccines Using Live Vectors  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae still causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in young children and the elderly. Much effort has been dedicated to developing protein-based universal vaccines to conquer the current shortcomings of capsular vaccines and capsular conjugate vaccines, such as serotype replacement, limited coverage and high costs. A recombinant live vector vaccine delivering protective antigens is a promising way to achieve this goal. In this review, we discuss the researches using live recombinant vaccines, mainly live attenuated Salmonella and lactic acid bacteria, to deliver pneumococcal antigens. We also discuss both the limitations and the future of these vaccines. PMID:25309747

Wang, Shifeng; Curtiss, Roy

2014-01-01

305

[Vaccination programmes].  

PubMed

Immunization is a highly cost-effective intervention that saves many lives. Its objective is to control and eliminate vaccine-preventable diseases (when the characteristics of the disease and the vaccine make it possible), resulting in improvements in the health of the population. In Spain, the first vaccination schedule was introduced in 1975 and currently coverages > 95% are achieved in children aged < 2 years of age. Before deciding to introduce a vaccination programme in a community or country, a series of aspects should be considered, including the disease burden in the population, the effectiveness and safety of the vaccine, the changes in the dynamics of the infection when the vaccine is introduced, the cost-effectiveness of the vaccine, the theoretical potential of elimination/eradication of the disease and the existence of other preventive or therapeutic measures. Once the programme has been introduced it should be subject to evaluation, considering aspects such as the coverage, effectiveness, safety and the impact on the population. This work defines different vaccination strategies for three diseases for which efficacious and safe vaccines are available: hepatitis A, influenza and varicella. PMID:20111812

Varela, M Carmen

2009-01-01

306

Preventive HIV Vaccines What is a vaccine?  

E-print Network

Preventive HIV Vaccines What is a vaccine? A vaccine is a medical product designed to stimulate infection or make you sick. What is the difference between a preventive HIV vaccine and a therapeutic HIV vaccine? Therapeutic HIV vaccines are designed to control HIV infection in people who are already HIV

Levin, Judith G.

307

Progress and pitfalls in Shigella vaccine research  

PubMed Central

Renewed awareness of the significant morbidity and mortality that Shigella causes among young children in developing countries combined with technological innovations in vaccinology has led to the development of novel vaccine strategies in the past five years. Along with advancement of classical vaccines in clinical trials and new sophisticated measurements of immunological responses, much new data has been produced lending promise to the potential for production of safe and effective Shigella vaccines. Herein we review the recent progress in Shigella vaccine development within the framework of persistent obstacles. PMID:23419287

Barry, Eileen M.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Fasano, Alessio; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.

2013-01-01

308

Reasons for non-vaccination against HPV and future vaccination intentions among 19-26 year-old women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite CDC recommendations regarding universal catch-up vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), only about ten percent of young adult women in the United States have been vaccinated. The purpose of this study was to better understand reasons for non-vaccination among insured 19-26 year-old women and to evaluate future vaccination intentions. METHODS: We used an administrative claims database from a large

Gregory D Zimet; Thomas W Weiss; Susan L Rosenthal; Margaret B Good; Michelle D Vichnin

2010-01-01

309

Development of Heart Rate Circadian Rhythm in Chickens *, R. Akiyamab  

E-print Network

Development of Heart Rate Circadian Rhythm in Chickens K. Moriyaa *, R. Akiyamab , E.M. Dzialowskic, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, USA ABSTRACT In chick embryos, various instantaneous heart rate of mean heart rate (MHR) have been elucidated. IHR changes have also measured in newly hatched and young

Burggren, Warren

310

Co-administration of avian influenza virus H5 plasmid DNA with chicken IL-15 and IL-18 enhanced chickens immune responses  

PubMed Central

Background DNA vaccines offer several advantages over conventional vaccines in the development of effective vaccines against avian influenza virus (AIV). However, one of the limitations of the DNA vaccine in poultry is that it induces poor immune responses. In this study, chicken interleukin (IL) -15 and IL-18 were used as genetic adjuvants to improve the immune responses induced from the H5 DNA vaccination in chickens. The immunogenicity of the recombinant plasmid DNA was analyzed based on the antibody production, T cell responses and cytokine production, following inoculation in 1-day-old (Trial 1) and 14-day-old (Trial 2) specific-pathogen-free chickens. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to explore the role of chicken IL-15 and IL-18 as adjuvants following the vaccination of chickens with the H5 DNA vaccine. Results The overall HI antibody titer in chickens immunized with pDis/H5?+?pDis/IL-15 was higher compared to chickens immunized with pDis/H5 (p?chickens exhibited a shorter time to achieve the highest HI titer in comparison to the inoculation of the 1-day-old chickens. The cellular immunity was assessed by the flow cytometry analysis to enumerate CD4+ and CD8 + T cells in the peripheral blood. The chickens inoculated with pDis/H5?+?pDis/IL-15 demonstrated the highest increase in CD4+ T cells population relative to the control chickens. However, this study revealed that pDis/H5?+?pDis/IL-15 was not significant (P?>?0.05) in inducing CD8+ T cells. Meanwhile, with the exception of Trial 1, the flow cytometry results for Trial 2 demonstrated that the pDis/H5?+?pDis/IL-18 inoculated group was able to trigger a higher increase in CD4+ T cells than the pDis/H5 group (P??0.05) in modulating CD8+ T cells population in both trials. The pDis/H5?+?pDis/IL-15 inoculated group showed the highest IL-15 gene expression in both trials compared to other inoculated groups (P?chicken IL-15 and IL-18,with pDis/H5?+?pDis/IL-15 being a better vaccine candidate compared to other groups. PMID:22866758

2012-01-01

311

DNA Vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In just a few years, injection of plasmid DNA to elicit immune responses in vivo has developed from an interesting observation to a viable vaccine strategy. DNA vaccines have been shown to elicit both cellular and humoral immune responses and to be effective in a variety of preclinical bacterial, viral, and parasitic animal models. This review will discuss the current

Donna L. Montgomery; Jeffrey B. Ulmer; John J. Donnelly; Margaret A. Liu

1997-01-01

312

Acceptability of the human papillomavirus vaccine among urban adolescent males.  

PubMed

The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was recently approved for use in males. Certain groups, such as men who have sex with men (MSM), are at increased risk of HPV infection. The purpose of the study was to understand perceptions of HPV and the vaccine among adolescent and young adult males, both heterosexual and MSM. Seventy-six males (45 heterosexual, 31 MSM) completed a questionnaire and participated in a focus group. Overall, 42% had heard of HPV and 39% had heard of the HPV vaccine. Males had moderate to favorable attitudes toward vaccination, although intentions to vaccinate were more neutral. MSM were more knowledgeable, aware, and in control of the decision to vaccinate than heterosexual males. Increasing awareness and knowledge about HPV and the vaccine may be necessary to encourage vaccination; certain subgroups of males may be more receptive to HPV vaccination than others. PMID:22892147

Gutierrez, Baudelio; Leung, Anthony; Jones, Kevin Trimell; Smith, Peter; Silverman, Randee; Frank, Ian; Leader, Amy E

2013-01-01

313

Evaluation of vaccination to support control of H5N1 avian influenza in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997, 2002 and 2003 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was diagnosed on chicken farms in Hong Kong. Following the February-April 2002 outbreak, vaccination using a killed oil-adjuvanted H5N2 avian influenza vaccine was evaluated as an additional control measure on 22 farms within a 2-km radius of the four farms that were depopulated following infection with HPAI H5N1 virus. Vaccination

T. M. Ellis; L. D. Sims; H. K. H. Wong; L. A. Bissett; K. C. Dyrting

314

Potency test of inactivated Newcastle disease vaccines by monoclonal antibody blocking ELISA.  

PubMed

The potency of 27 different inactivated Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines was determined by immunization and challenge tests. Three- and four-week-old SPF chickens were immunized with 1/50 dose of vaccines. The chickens were bled and challenged three weeks later. The protected/challenged ratio was determined. Serum samples were tested by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and by a monoclonal antibody (MAB) blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (B-ELISA). Ninety-four percent of the vaccinated chickens (353 birds) with a B-ELISA value above 60% were protected. A strong positive correlation (0.934) was found between 'actual protection' (protection against challenge) and 'estimated protection' (protection calculated from the B-ELISA results). Based upon the results obtained, this B-ELISA seems to be suitable for replacing the challenge test in the potency control of inactivated ND vaccines in the future. PMID:10462231

Horváth, E; Czifra, G; Nagy, E; Engström, B; Mérza, M

1999-08-01

315

Correlates of human papillomavirus vaccination among female university students.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most frequently occurring sexually transmitted infection in the United States, but only one third of adolescent girls have received the HPV vaccine (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2012; Committee on Infectious Diseases, 2012). Understanding correlates of vaccination behavior among young women has important implications for health care delivery and public service messages targeting HPV vaccination. Female college students (N = 313) completed web-based surveys during their sophomore (second) year of college, fall 2008. Surveys included questions about HPV vaccination, demographic factors (ethnicity/race, socioeconomic status [SES]), individual characteristics (romantic relationship status, grade point average, religiosity), and sexual behavior. Lifetime HPV vaccination was reported by 46.5% of participants. Being African American/Black was associated with a lower likelihood of vaccination. Having a mother with more education, adhering to religious teachings about sex-related principles, and having engaged in recent penetrative sex were associated with a higher likelihood of vaccination. Health care providers should consider young women to be an important group for HPV vaccine education and catch-up, particularly for African American/Black young women and young women from lower SES backgrounds. Providing vaccine education and access to young women before they become sexually active is critical. PMID:24964295

Lefkowitz, Eva S; Kelly, Kate M; Vasilenko, Sara A; Maggs, Jennifer L

2014-01-01

316

Comparative study of hepatic VLDL secretion in vivo in the growing turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo) and chicken ( Gallus domesticus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatic secretion of VLDL was compared in young turkeys and chickens (8 and 4 weeks of age, respectively) and older birds (11 and 8 weeks of age, respectively) reared together under the same nutritional conditions. VLDL, VLDL-TG and total TG secretion rates were higher in chickens than in turkeys. The cholesteryl ester content of turkey VLDL was higher than that

Maryline Kouba; Dominique Hermier; Marie-Annick Bernard-Griffiths

1995-01-01

317

Tdap and Td vaccines  

MedlinePLUS

Tdap immunization; Td immunization; Diphtheria vaccination; Tetanus vaccination; Pertussis vaccination ... for Disease Control and Prevention. General recommendations on immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ( ...

318

Immunization of Aged Mice with a Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Combined with an Unmethylated CpG-Containing Oligodeoxynucleotide Restores Defective Immunoglobulin G Antipolysaccharide Responses and Specific CD4+-T-Cell Priming to Young Adult Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysaccharide (PS)-protein conjugate vaccines, in contrast to purified PS vaccines, recruit CD4-T-cell help and restore defective PS-specific humoral immunity in the immature host. Surprisingly, in the immunocompromised, aged host, anti-PS responses to conjugate vaccines are typically no better than those elicited by purified PS vaccines. Although aging leads to defects in multiple immune cell types, diminished CD4-T-cell helper function has

Goutam Sen; Quanyi Chen; Clifford M. Snapper

2006-01-01

319

Impact of vaccines and vaccination on global control of avian influenza.  

PubMed

There are 30 recorded epizootics of H5 or H7 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) from 1959 to early 2012. The largest of these epizootics, affecting more birds and countries than the other 29 epizootics combined, has been the H5N1 HPAI, which began in Guangdong China in 1996, and has killed or resulted in culling of over 250 million poultry and/or wild birds in 63 countries. Most countries have used stamping-out programs in poultry to eradicate H5N1 HPAI. However, 15 affected countries have utilized vaccination as a part of the control strategy. Greater than 113 billion doses were used from 2002 to 2010. Five countries have utilized nationwide routine vaccination programs, which account for 99% of vaccine used: 1) China (90.9%), 2) Egypt (4.6%), 3) Indonesia (2.3%), 4) Vietnam (1.4%), and 5) Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (< 0.01%). Mongolia, Kazakhstan, France, The Netherlands, Cote d'Ivoire, Sudan, North Korea, Israel, Russia, and Pakistan used < 1% of the avian influenza (AI) vaccine, and the AI vaccine was targeted to either preventive or emergency vaccination programs. Inactivated AI vaccines have accounted for 95.5% of vaccine used, and live recombinant virus vaccines have accounted for 4.5% of vaccine used. The latter are primarily recombinant Newcastle disease vectored vaccine with H5 influenza gene insert. China, Indonesia, Egypt, and Vietnam implemented vaccination after H5N1 HPAI became enzootic in domestic poultry. Bangladesh and eastern India have enzootic H5N1 HPAI and have not used vaccination in their control programs. Clinical disease and mortality have been prevented in chickens, human cases have been reduced, and rural livelihoods and food security have been maintained by using vaccines during HPAI outbreaks. However, field outbreaks have occurred in vaccinating countries, primarily because of inadequate coverage in the target species, but vaccine failures have occurred following antigenic drift in field viruses within China, Egypt, Indonesia, Hong Kong, and Vietnam. The primary strategy for HPAI and H5/H7 low pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza control will continue to be immediate eradication using a four-component strategy: 1) education, 2) biosecurity, 3) rapid diagnostics and surveillance, and 4) elimination of infected poultry. Under some circumstances, vaccination can be added as an additional tool within a wider control strategy when immediate eradication is not feasible, which will maintain livelihoods and food security, and control clinical disease until a primary strategy can be developed and implemented to achieve eradication. PMID:23402099

Swayne, David E

2012-12-01

320

Pertussis Vaccine  

Cancer.gov

The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further co-develop vaccines against pertussis.

321

Rabies Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

... rabies infection in the United States. Skunks, raccoons, dogs, and cats can also transmit the disease.Human ... rabies-related deaths each year. Bites from unvaccinated dogs cause most of these cases. Rabies vaccine can ...

322

DNA vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA vaccines use eukaryotic expression vectors to produce immunizing proteins in the vaccinated host. Popular methods of delivery are intramuscular and intradermal saline injections of DNA and gene gun bombardment of skin with DNA-coated gold beads. The method of DNA inoculation (gene gun versus intramuscular injection) and the form of the DNA-expressed antigen (cell-associated versus secreted) determine whether T-cell help

Harriet L. Robinson; Celia Aurora Tiglao Torres

1997-01-01

323

Development and application of avian influenza vaccines in China.  

PubMed

Following the first detection of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus in sick geese in Guangdong Province in China in 1996, scientists began to develop vaccines in preparation for an avian influenza pandemic. An inactivated H5N2 vaccine was produced from a low pathogenic virus, A/turkey/England/N-28/73, and was used for buffer zone vaccination during H5N1 outbreaks in 2004 in China. We also generated a low pathogenic H5N1 reassortant virus (Re-1) that derives its HA and NA genes from the GS/GD/96 virus and six internal genes from the high-growth A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus using plasmid-based reverse genetics. The inactivated vaccine derived from the Re-1 strain could induce more than ten months of protective immunity in chickens after one-dose inoculation; most importantly, this vaccine is immunogenic for geese and ducks. We recently developed a Newcastle virus-vectored live vaccine that exhibits great promise for use in the field to prevent highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease in chickens. Over 30 billion doses of these vaccines have been used in China and other countries, including Vietnam, Mongolia, and Egypt, and have played an important role in H5N1 avian influenza control in these countries. PMID:19768404

Chen, Hualan; Bu, Zhigao

2009-01-01

324

Phase I Evaluation of Intranasal Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine with Nontoxigenic Escherichia coli Enterotoxin and Novel Biovector as Mucosal Adjuvants, Using Adult Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trivalent influenza virus A\\/Duck\\/Singapore (H5N3), A\\/Panama (H3N2), and B\\/Guandong vaccine prepara- tions were used in a randomized, controlled, dose-ranging phase I study. The vaccines were prepared from highly purified hemagglutinin and neuraminidase from influenza viruses propagated in embryonated chicken eggs and inactivated with formaldehyde. We assigned 100 participants to six vaccine groups, as follows. Three intranasally vaccinated groups received 7.5-g

Iain Stephenson; Maria C. Zambon; Anna Rudin; Anthony Colegate; Audino Podda; Roberto Bugarini; Giusseppe del Giudice; Ada Minutello; Susan Bonnington; Jan Holmgren; Kingston H. G. Mills; Karl G. Nicholson

2006-01-01

325

Protection and antibody response caused by turkey herpesvirus vector Newcastle disease vaccine.  

PubMed

Newcastle disease (ND) is prevalent worldwide and causes significant clinical and economic losses to the poultry industry. Current vaccine programs using live attenuated vaccines and inactivated vaccines have limitations, and new vaccines with distinct features are needed. To offer an alternative solution to control ND, a turkey herpesvirus vector Newcastle disease vaccine (HVT/ND) expressing the fusion gene of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been developed. First, immunogenicity of the HVT/ND was evaluated in specific-pathogen-free layer chickens after vaccination by the in ovo route to 18-day-old embryos or by the subcutaneous route to 1-day-old chicks. Antibodies against NDV were detected at 24 days of age using a commercial NDV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit and the hemagglutination inhibition test. At least 90% of chickens were protected against challenge with velogenic neurotropic NDV Texas GB strain (genotype II; pathotype velogenic) at 4 wk of age, while none of the nonvaccinated, challenged controls were protected from challenge. Second, the age at which a vaccinated chicken elicits an immunologic response to the HVT/ND prepared for this study, and thus is protected from ND virus, was assessed in commercial broiler chickens after in ovo vaccination of 18-day-old embryos. Challenge was conducted using a low-virulence NDV strain (genotype II; pathotype lentogenic) via the respiratory tract each week between 1 and 5 wk of age, in order to mimic the situation in areas where virulent NDV strains do not normally exist and low-virulence strains cause mild respiratory symptoms leading to economic losses. Protection was evaluated by the presence or absence of isolated virus from tracheal swabs at 5 days postchallenge. Partial protection was observed at 3 wk of age, when 6 out of 10 (60%) chickens were protected. Full protection was obtained at 4 and 5 wk of age, when 9 out of 10 (90%) and 10 out of 10 (100%) chickens were protected, respectively. Finally, protection against challenge with virulent Texas GB strain at 19 wk of age was evaluated in commercial female layer chickens vaccinated at 1 day of age with HVT/ND. All of the vaccinated chickens were protected, while all of the challenge controls succumbed to the challenge. Furthermore, anti-NDV antibodies measured by ELISA were maintained through 50 wk of age. PMID:24597117

Esaki, Motoyuki; Godoy, Alecia; Rosenberger, Jack K; Rosenberger, Sandra C; Gardin, Yannick; Yasuda, Atsushi; Dorsey, Kristi Moore

2013-12-01

326

Vaccines and Thimerosal  

MedlinePLUS

... Thimerosal in Vaccines Qs and As Studies on Mercury and Vaccines Thimerosal Since 2001, with the exception ... in routinely recommended childhood vaccines. Thimerosal is a mercury-containing preservative used in some vaccines and other ...

327

Coadministration of IFN-gamma enhances antibody responses in chickens.  

PubMed

The development of new generation vaccines has focused on the use of natural immunologic adjuvants that are capable of enhancing a protective immune response. The use of cytokines as immunomodulators in livestock animals, particularly poultry, is becoming more feasible with the recent cloning of several cytokine genes and the progression of new delivery technologies, such as live vectors and DNA delivery. Given that chickens are reared under intensive conditions that are conducive to infection by opportunistic pathogens, the primary mechanism for disease control in poultry is early and effective vaccination. However, many poultry vaccines offer only short-term protection or give nonuniform responses within flocks. We have developed a model system with which to measure the adjuvant potential of cytokines in chickens. This involves measuring antibody levels following coadministration of chicken interferon-gamma (Ch-IFN-gamma) with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Groups of SPF and commercial broiler birds were injected with two different doses of SRBC with and without coadministration of Ch-IFN-y. Three weeks later, all birds were boosted with SRBC alone. Sera were collected weekly and anti-SRBC antibody titers (total Ig and IgG) were determined by hemagglutination. Priming Ch-IFN-gamma resulted in enhanced primary and secondary (IgG) antibody responses that persisted at higher levels when compared with birds that received SRBC alone. Second, coadministration of Ch-IFN-y allowed a 10-fold lower dose of antigen to be as effective as a high dose of antigen that was given without Ch-IFN-gamma. Third, treatment with Ch-IFN-y resulted in an increase in the proportion of birds responding to antigen challenge. These results suggest the potential use for Ch-IFN-gamma as a vaccine adjuvant. PMID:9726443

Lowenthal, J W; O'Neil, T E; Broadway, M; Strom, A D; Digby, M R; Andrew, M; York, J J

1998-08-01

328

An Age-Structured Model for Pneumococcal Infection with Vaccination  

E-print Network

]). In developed countries, the disease burden is largely carried by elderly adults and young children, with older the young and the old. The development of an effective vaccine against these infections, especially pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis, pri- marily affect the young and elderly. Most affected are children

329

Country- and age-specific optimal allocation of dengue vaccines.  

PubMed

Several dengue vaccines are under development, and some are expected to become available imminently. Concomitant with the anticipated release of these vaccines, vaccine allocation strategies for dengue-endemic countries in Southeast Asia and Latin America are currently under development. We developed a model of dengue transmission that incorporates the age-specific distributions of dengue burden corresponding to those in Thailand and Brazil, respectively, to determine vaccine allocations that minimize the incidence of dengue hemorrhagic fever, taking into account limited availability of vaccine doses in the initial phase of production. We showed that optimal vaccine allocation strategies vary significantly with the demographic burden of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Consequently, the strategy that is optimal for one country may be sub-optimal for another country. More specifically, we showed that, during the first years following introduction of a dengue vaccine, it is optimal to target children for dengue mass vaccination in Thailand, whereas young adults should be targeted in Brazil. PMID:24161462

Ndeffo Mbah, Martial L; Durham, David P; Medlock, Jan; Galvani, Alison P

2014-02-01

330

Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics: news.  

PubMed

Infant rotavirus vaccination provides for herd immunity Nonreplicating sporozoite vaccine protects humans against malaria Personalized brain cancer vaccine enters phase 2 trial Novel implantable therapeutic cancer vaccine to be tested in humans Clostridium difficile vaccine candidate successful in phase 1 CDC reports strong uptake of HPV vaccine in boys Whooping cough outbreak in Texas. PMID:24056006

Riedmann, Eva M

2013-10-01

331

Preflucel®: a Vero-cell culture-derived trivalent influenza vaccine.  

PubMed

Vaccination is the principal means to reduce the impact of influenza infection. Effective vaccination programs require a reliable and safe production system. Traditionally, influenza vaccines are produced in embryonated chicken eggs. Over the last two decades, new cell culture-derived vaccines have been licensed and manufactured, and other vaccines are still in various phases of development. Vero cells have been used for the development of a wide variety of vaccines including influenza vaccines. Pandemic and avian influenza vaccines derived from Vero cells have been shown to be well tolerated and immunogenic in animal and Phase I-II clinical studies. A Phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a trivalent influenza vaccine produced in Vero-cell culture was conducted in 7250 adults aged 18-49 years. Overall protective efficacy for antigenically matched influenza vaccine was 78.5%. The vaccine was well tolerated with no treatment-related serious adverse events and compared favorably with egg-derived vaccines from previous trials. Vero-cell-derived influenza vaccines have the potential to be an important parts of the influenza vaccine strategy, especially if an avian-derived strain becomes predominant or the demand outstrips the capacity of egg-based production systems. PMID:22913252

Chan, Candice Yuen-Yue; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah

2012-07-01

332

[Live influenza vaccine: laboratory markers of attenuation].  

PubMed

Screening for candidate reassortants is an important step in the development of live influenza vaccine (LIV). The temperature-sensitive (ts) and cold-adapted (ca) phenotypes of vaccine strains are generally determined, by employing chicken embryos, and used as ts and ca attenuation markers. However, it is difficult to use the egg-determined ts phenotypes of vaccine candidate reassortants as an attenuation marker due to a wide circulation of natural ts epidemic influenza viruses. This study used two new alternative ts and ca attenuation markers in MDCK cells. The MDCK cell line was shown to be able to differentiate cold-adapted influenza viruses from any epidemic strains whereas they were undistinguishable when using eggs. The reduced ability of influenza type A vaccine viruses to grow in the MDCK cell culture at temperatures above 37 degrees C can be successfully used as a "cell-culture" ts marker. The similar marker for influenza B viruses may serve their reduced activity in the MDCK cells at 38 degrees C. The high reproductive activity of cold-adapted viruses in the MDCK cells at 26 degrees C was shown to be a suitable ca attenuation marker. The presented attenuation markers may be included into the standard scheme of primary screening of ts reassortant candidates for commercial live influenza vaccine as additional selection factors and may be used as basic markers in the design of culture vaccine. PMID:17722606

Isakova, I N; Kiseleva, I V; Larionova, N V; Ole?nik, E S; Rudenko, L G

2007-01-01

333

Effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and rotavirus vaccine introduction into the South African public immunisation programme.  

PubMed

Immunisation has contributed greatly to the control of vaccine-preventable diseases and therefore to improvements in health and survival, especially among young children, and remains one of the most successful and cost-effective public health interventions. This remains true for many of the newer, more expensive vaccines. Vaccines against invasive pneumococcal disease and rotavirus infection were introduced into the South African Expanded Programme on Immunization in April 2009. This article describes the rationale for and process of the introduction of these two vaccines, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and rotavirus vaccine. It also aims to evaluate the success of and challenges related to their introduction, in terms of both achieving universal coverage and improving survival and health in South African children. PMID:24893498

Madhi, S A; Bamford, L; Ngcobo, N

2014-03-01

334

Implementing poultry vaccination and biosecurity at the village level in Tanzania: a social strategy to promote health in free-range poultry populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A social strategy was tested for implementing Newcastle disease (ND) vaccination and biosecurity improvements among free-ranging\\u000a chicken at village level in Tanzania. In addition to training the local poultry vaccinators, data recorders and poultry-keepers,\\u000a the strategy involved training and empowering leaders at the district, ward and village level. The trainings covered poultry\\u000a health, management, and marketing of village chickens, with

Peter L. M. Msoffe; David Bunn; A. P. Muhairwa; M. M. A. Mtambo; H. Mwamhehe; A. Msago; M. R. S. Mlozi; Carol J. Cardona

2010-01-01

335

Requirements of New Vaccines against Novel Influenza Viruses  

PubMed Central

The currently available influenza vaccines were developed in the 1930s through the 1960s using technologies that were state-of-the art for the times. Decades of advancement in virology and immunology have provided the tools for making better vaccines against influenza virus. Among young children, live attenuated vaccine had significantly better efficacy than inactivated vaccine. An evaluation of the risks and benefits indicates that live attenuated vaccine should be a highly effective, safe vaccine for children 12 to 59 months of age who do not have a history of asthma or wheezing. Otherwise, MF59 adjuvanted influenza vaccine, ATIV was well tolerated in healthy young children and elderly after each of 3 doses and induced greater, longer-lasting, and broader immune responses than a nonadjuvanted trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine, TIV. The enhanced immunogenicity of the adjuvanted vaccine was most evident in very young children and for the B vaccine strain. In case of AS03 ATIV, the safety signal of increased narcolepsy diagnoses following the start of the pandemic vaccination campaign as observed in Sweden and Finland could be observed with this approach. An increase in narcolepsy diagnoses was not observed in other countries, where vaccination coverage was low in the affected age group, or did not follow influenza. A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination. Patient level analyses in these countries are being conducted to verify the signal in more detail. In conclusion, current improved influenza vaccines are; in the problem target groups are children aged 6–24 months and people over 65 years old of age. Only ATIV has shown significantly greater efficacy than TIV, and its safe.

2014-01-01

336

Decay of maternal antibodies in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the decay rate of maternal antibodies against major broiler chicken pathogens. A total of 30 one-day-old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and reared in isolation. These chicks were retrieved from a parent flock that received a routine vaccination program. Chicks were bled at hatch and sequentially thereafter every 5 d through 30 d of age. Maternal antibody titers were measured by ELISA for avian encephalomyelitis (AEV), avian influenza virus (AIV), chicken anemia virus (CAV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), and reovirus (Reo). Maternal antibody titers for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were measured using a hemagglutination inhibition test. Half-life estimates of maternal antibody titers were 5.3, 4.2, 7, 5.1, 3.9, 3.8, 4.9, 4.1, 6.3, and 4.7 d for AEV, AIV, CAV, IBDV, IBV, ILTV, MG, MS, NDV, and Reo, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences among half-lives of maternal antibody titers against certain pathogens. Furthermore, all maternal antibody titers were depleted by 10 d of age except for IBDV. PMID:23960115

Gharaibeh, Saad; Mahmoud, Kamel

2013-09-01

337

Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine development  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract viral disease in infants and young children. Presently, there are no explicit recommendations for RSV treatment apart from supportive care. The virus is therefore responsible for an estimated 160,000 deaths per year worldwide. Despite half a century of dedicated research, there remains no licensed vaccine product. Herein are described past and current efforts to harness innate and adaptive immune potentials to combat RSV. A plethora of candidate vaccine products and strategies are reviewed. The development of a successful RSV vaccine may ultimately stem from attention to historical lessons, in concert with an integral partnering of immunology and virology research fields. PMID:21988307

Hurwitz, Julia L

2011-01-01

338

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Effect of immunization on nocturnal NAT activity in chicken pineal gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

pineal gland; N-acetyltransferase; melatonin; immunization; chickens Abstract OBJECTIVES: The effect of a single immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) on the nocturnal NAT activity in the pineal gland and serum anti-SRBC agglutinin titer was examined in the young, sexually immature ASTRA S chickens. METHODS: 3-, 4-, and 5-week-old birds of both sexes, hatched in long (Spring) and short (Autumn)

Magdalena Markowska; Beata Bialecka; Magdalena Ciechanowska; Zbigniew Koter; Hanna Laskowska; Agnieszka Karkucinska-Wieckowska; Krystyna Skwarlo-Sont

339

Vibrio cholerae: lessons for mucosal vaccine design  

PubMed Central

The ability of Vibrio cholerae to persist in bodies of water will continue to confound our ability to eradicate cholera through improvements to infrastructure, and thus cholera vaccines are needed. We aim for an inexpensive vaccine that can provide long-lasting protection from all epidemic cholera infections, currently caused by O1 or O139 serogroups. Recent insights into correlates of protection, epidemiology and pathogenesis may help us design improved vaccines. This notwithstanding, we have come to appreciate that even marginally protective vaccines, such as oral whole-cell killed vaccines, if widely distributed, can provide significant protection, owing to herd immunity. Further efforts are still required to provide more effective protection of young children. PMID:21162623

Bishop, Anne L; Camilli, Andrew

2011-01-01

340

A Dual Chicken IgY Against Rotavirus and Norovirus  

PubMed Central

Rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) are the two most important causes of viral gastroenteritis. While vaccine remains an effective prophylactic strategy, development of other approaches, such as passive immunization to control and treat clinical infection and illness of the two pathogens, is necessary. Previously we demonstrated that high titers of NoV-specific IgY were readily developed by immunization of chickens with the NoV P particles. In this study, we developed a dual IgY against both RV and NoV through immunization of chickens with a divalent vaccine comprising neutralizing antigens of both RV and NoV. This divalent vaccine, named P-VP8* particle, is made of the NoV P particle as a carrier with the RV spike protein VP8* as a surface insertion. Approximately 45 mg of IgY were readily obtained from each yolk with high titers of anti-P particle and anti-VP8* antibodies detected by ELISA, Western blot, HBGA blocking (NoV and RV) and neutralization (RV) assays. Reductions of RV replication were observed with viruses treated with the IgY before and after inoculation into cells, suggesting an application of the IgY as both prophylactic and a therapeutic treatment. Collectively, our data suggested that the P-VP8* based IgY could serve as a practical approach against both NoV and RV. PMID:23267830

Dai, Ying-Chun; Zhang, Xu-Fu; Tan, Ming; Huang, Pengwei; Lei, Wen; Fang, Hao; Zhong, Weiming; Jiang, Xi

2013-01-01

341

Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News  

PubMed Central

Agenus reports increased survival rates for its brain cancer vaccine First vaccines developed for avian influenza A H7N9 virus Ovarian cancer vaccine shows promise in early clinical trial  No increased risk of GBS following vaccination Heroin vaccine blocks relapse in animal study New pediatric vaccine approved in Europe Safe antigen delivery: Engineered type-III secretion system in bacterial mini-cells Universal influenza T-cell vaccine effective in an elderly population

Riedmann, Eva M.

2013-01-01

342

Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics: news.  

PubMed

Vaccinating boys against HPV to reduce cancer rates across the sexes: New melanoma vaccine contains natural product from marine sponges: Impact of Hib conjugate vaccines in developing countries: Electronic Health Records to keep track of immunization status: Pregnant women urged to get whooping cough vaccination: New nano-coating developed to preserve vaccines: Alternative approach to creating a universal flu vaccine: New modular vaccine design: MAPS technology. PMID:24051387

Riedmann, Eva M

2013-09-01

343

Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News  

PubMed Central

Vaccinating boys against HPV to reduce cancer rates across the sexes New melanoma vaccine contains natural product from marine sponges Impact of Hib conjugate vaccines in developing countries Electronic Health Records to keep track of immunization status Pregnant women urged to get whooping cough vaccination New nano-coating developed to preserve vaccines Alternative approach to creating a universal flu vaccine New modular vaccine design: MAPS technology PMID:24051387

Riedmann, Eva M

2013-01-01

344

Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News  

PubMed Central

Oncolytic vaccinia virus vaccine: Promising in liver cancer patients FDA panel endorses quadrivalent influenza vaccines Approval for the first meningitis B vaccine Stallergenes seeks FDA approval for sublingual grass-pollen allergy tablet Live-attenuated dengue vaccine promising in Phase 1 GAVI funds HPV vaccines for girls in developing countries First human trials for new superantigen bioterrorism vaccine Hexyon hexavalent pediatric vaccine recommended for approval

Riedmann, Eva M.

2013-01-01

345

ClinicalStudy Strategies for Fostering HPV Vaccine Acceptance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccines that protect against infection with the types of human papillomavirus (HPV) commonly associated with cervical cancer (HPV 16 and 18) and genital warts (HPV 6 and 11) are expected to become available in the near future. Because HPV vaccines are prophylactic, they must be administered prior to exposure to the virus, ideally during preadolescence or adolescence. The young age

Bernard Gonik

346

HPV Vaccine: Access and Use in the U.S.  

MedlinePLUS

... poverty line (Figure 2) . 36 The vaccination rates for adolescents in 2013 are only slightly higher than in 2012. ... of 2 doses of HPV vaccine in younger adolescents vs 3 doses in young women. JAMA 309(17): ... for clinicians-Fact sheet . ? Return to text CDC. (2014). ...

347

RESEARCH Open Access Optimal H1N1 vaccination strategies based on  

E-print Network

in vaccine delivery for the H1N1 influenza pandemic, a large fraction of population was exposed to the H1N1. To determine optimal vaccine allocation for pandemic influenza, public health agencies need to consider both healthy, young adults [2]. Vaccines hold considerable promise for reducing the spread of H1N1 influenza A

Myers, Lauren Ancel

348

disease in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Soon these vaccines will undergo testing for  

E-print Network

disease in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Soon these vaccines will undergo testing for efficacy in one target group, young African children. Trials of pre-erythrocytic vaccines de- veloped Africa. Vaccines against blood stages of the parasite will soon be tested for efficacy in Af- rica

349

Preparation and Efficacy of a Live Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccine Encapsulated in Chitosan Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Background Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious viral disease of poultry caused by pathogenic strains of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Live NDV vaccines are administered by drinking water, eyedrops or coarse aerosol spray. To further enhance mucosal immune responses, chitosan nanoparticles were developed for the mucosal delivery of a live NDV vaccine. Methodology/Principal Findings A lentogenic live-virus vaccine (strain LaSota) against NDV encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles were developed using an ionic crosslinking method. Chitosan nanoparticles containing the lentogenic live-virus vaccine against NDV (NDV-CS-NPs) were produced with good morphology, high stability, a mean diameter of 371.1 nm, an encapsulation rate of 77% and a zeta potential of +2.84 mV. The Western blotting analysis showed that NDV structural proteins were detected in NDV-CS-NPs. The virus release assay results of NDV-CS-NPs indicated that NDV was released from NDV-CS-NPs. Chickens immunized orally or intranasally with NDV-CS-NPs were fully protected whereas one out of five chickens immunized with the LaSota live NDV vaccine and three out of five chickens immunized with the inactivated NDV vaccine were dead after challenge with the highly virulent NDV strain F48E9. Conclusions/Significance NDV-CS-NPs induced better protection of immunized specific pathogen free chickens compared to the live NDV vaccine strain LaSota and the inactivated NDV vaccine. This study lays a foundation for the further development of mucosal vaccines and drugs encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles. PMID:23285276

Gao, Ting-ting; Li, Wei; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Feng-qiang; Wu, Jin; Cui, Xianlan; Wang, Yun-Feng

2012-01-01

350

AIDS Vaccines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reveals that success of discovering vaccines is far from being assured although several candidates are being tested. States that the devious nature of the virus, the lack of a good animal model for the disease, and the difficulties of clinical trials inhibit the efforts of researchers. (RT)

Matthews, Thomas J.; Bolognesi, Dani P.

1988-01-01

351

Vexing Vaccines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…

Bowman, Darcia Harris

2004-01-01

352

DNA vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preclinical DNA vaccine development has continued apace during the past year, with the investigation of several new infectious and non-infectious disease targets as well as advances in our understanding of some of the basic immunologic mechanisms, such as effector cells, responsible for conferring protection. The coming year promises to be at least as exciting, as initial human clinical studies have

Jeffrey B Ulmer; Jerald C Sadoff; Margaret A Liu

1996-01-01

353

Valuing vaccination  

PubMed Central

Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

Barnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O'Brien, Jennifer Carroll

2014-01-01

354

Lactobacillus acidophilus as a live vehicle for oral immunization against chicken anemia virus.  

PubMed

The AcmA binding domains of Lactococcus lactis were used to display the VP1 protein of chicken anemia virus (CAV) on Lactobacillus acidophilus. One and two repeats of the cell wall binding domain of acmA gene were amplified from L. lactis MG1363 genome and then inserted into co-expression vector, pBudCE4.1. The VP1 gene of CAV was then fused to the acmA sequences and the VP2 gene was cloned into the second MCS of the same vector before transformation into Escherichia coli. The expressed recombinant proteins were purified using a His-tag affinity column and mixed with a culture of L. acidophilus. Whole cell ELISA and immunofluorescence assay showed the binding of the recombinant VP1 protein on the surface of the bacterial cells. The lactobacilli cells carrying the CAV VP1 protein were used to immunize specific pathogen-free chickens through the oral route. A moderate level of neutralizing antibody to CAV was detected in the serum of the immunized chickens. A VP1-specific proliferative response was observed in splenocytes of the chickens after oral immunization. The vaccinated groups also showed increased levels of Th1 cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, and IFN-?. These observations suggest that L. acidophilus can be used in the delivery of vaccines to chickens. PMID:21181148

Moeini, Hassan; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Shafee, Norazizah; Yusoff, Khatijah

2011-04-01

355

Generation and evaluation of a Newcastle disease virus-based H9 avian influenza live vaccine.  

PubMed

Infection with H9 avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two important causes of egg drop in layer and breeder poultry, leading to severe economic loss in the industry. Currently in China, inactivated H9 AIV vaccine and live attenuated NDV vaccine have to be repeatedly administered to prevent egg drop in layer animals. Using reverse genetics, we constructed a recombinant NDV expressing an H9 AIV hemagglutinin (HA) from an H9N2 field isolate, A/Chicken/ Shandong/2/2007. The HA gene was inserted into the intergenic region between the phosphoprotein (P) and matrix (M) genes of the LaSota NDV vaccine strain. The recombinant virus stably expressing the HA gene, rL-H9, was found to be innocuous after intracerebral inoculation of 1-day-old chickens. A single dose of 10(6) 50% egg infectious dose of the recombinant virus intranasally inoculated into chickens induced high levels of NDV- and AIV H9-specific hemagglutination-inhibition antibody. Complete protection from clinical disease and mortality against challenge with a lethal dose of velogenic NDV was observed in chickens and 90% of chickens were protected from clinical disease, mortality, and virus shedding against challenge with homologous H9N2 AIV. Our results suggest that recombinant NDV is suitable as a potential bivalent live attenuated vaccine against both NDV and H9 AIV infection in poultry. PMID:20521648

Ge, Jinying; Tian, Guobin; Zeng, Xianying; Jiang, Yongping; Chen, Hualan; Bua, Zhigao

2010-03-01

356

Vaccine knowledge in students in Paris, France, and surrounding regions  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: In France, young adults are legally freed from parental authority at the age of 18 years and are, thus, responsible for their own vaccine record. This young adult population is more frequently exposed to vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors associated with students’ knowledge of the interval between two antitetanus boosters and their report of having up-to-date vaccinations. METHODS: In April 2009, a survey was conducted involving a random sample of students between 18 and 25 years of age eating lunch at university dining facilities in Paris and its suburbs (Ile de France). RESULTS: Among the 677 students approached, 583 agreed to participate. Only 207 (36%) of respondents knew the recommended dosing interval between two doses of tetanus vaccine booster (10 years). The majority of students (69%) reported having up-to-date vaccinations. Declaring having up-to-date vaccinations was significantly associated with having a general practitioner (OR 3.03 [95% CI 1.69 to 5.55]). Health care students were significantly more likely to know the decennial interval between two antitetanus boosters (OR 2 [95% CI 1.28 to 3.25]). Most of responding students (n=519 [89%]) believed that vaccines were very useful. CONCLUSIONS: An overall lack of knowledge of vaccines was observed among this student population. Health care providers, such as GPs and university medical practice staff, who interact with these young individuals have an essential role to promote better vaccination coverage in this population.

Mellon, Guillaume; Rigal, Laurent; Partouche, Henri; Aoun, Olivier; Jaury, Philippe; Joannard, Nathalie; Guthmann, Jean Paul; Cochereau, Delphine; Caumes, Eric; Bricaire, Francois; Salmon-Ceron, Dominique

2014-01-01

357

Chicken Caesar Salad $8 Caesar salad, grilled chicken breast, herb  

E-print Network

olives, sweet onions, red wine vinaigrette EXPLORER PIZZA Cheese Pizza $6 Pepperoni Pizza $6.25 Vegetable Pizza $6.5 AMERICAN GRILL 100% Angus Ground Beef with Cheese $8 Toasted roll, iceberg, tomato, red onionSALAD Chicken Caesar Salad $8 Caesar salad, grilled chicken breast, herb croutons, Parmesan cheese

Patterson, Bruce D.

358

Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics  

PubMed Central

DNA vaccine for T1D promising in the clinic HPV vaccines halved infections in US teenage girls Modified DC immunotherapy against melanoma New study looks at clinical severity of human H7N9 infections Prevnar vaccines are valuable for healthcare systems GAPVAC: New consortium in the fight of brain cancer Cytomegalovirus vaccine to enter phase 3 Malaria vaccination using chemically attenuated parasites

Riedmann, Eva M

2013-01-01

359

The combination of attenuated Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine with rHVT-ND vaccine at 1 day old is more protective against ND virus challenge than when combined with inactivated ND vaccine.  

PubMed

The recurrent outbreaks of fatal Newcastle disease (ND) in commercial poultry flocks throughout the world indicate that routine vaccinations are failing to sufficiently induce the high levels of immunity necessary to control ND. There is a need for vaccination programmes that could be initiated at 1-day-old for mass application and which would induce a long-lasting immunity, with no need for a booster vaccination at a later age. In this context, the duration of immunity delivered by a vaccination programme including a recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys expressing the F gene of ND virus (rHVT-ND) and live ND vaccine at 1-day-old was compared with a classical programme that included a conventional live and an inactivated ND vaccine at the same age in commercial layer chickens. The humoral, cell-mediated and local immunity were followed weekly and birds were challenged with a viscerotropic velogenic ND virus strain at 6 and 10 weeks of age. We determined that immunity induced by the vaccination programme involving the rHVT-ND vaccine was more protective than that provided by the conventional vaccine-based regime. This might be related to a T-helper type 1 (Th1) cellular-driven immunological response, in contrast to the T-helper type 2 (Th2) humoral-oriented immune response provided by the current conventional vaccine-based vaccination programmes. PMID:24283258

Rauw, F; Gardin, Y; Palya, V; van den Berg, T; Lambrecht, B

2014-01-01

360

Immunity to viruses: learning from successful human vaccines  

PubMed Central

For more than a century immunologists and vaccinologists have existed in parallel universes. Immunologists have for long reveled in using “model antigens,” such as chicken egg ovalbumin or nitrophenyl haptens to study immune responses in model organisms such as mice. Such studies have yielded many seminal insights about the mechanisms of immune regulation, but their relevance to humans has been questioned. In another universe, vaccinologists have relied on human clinical trials to assess vaccine efficacy, but have done little to take advantage of such trials for studying the nature of immune responses to vaccination. The human model provides a nexus between these two universes, and recent studies have begun to use this model to study the molecular profile of innate and adaptive responses to vaccination. Such “systems vaccinology” studies are beginning to provide mechanistic insights about innate and adaptive immunity in humans. Here we present an overview of such studies, with particular examples from studies with the yellow fever and the seasonal influenza vaccines. Vaccination with the yellow fever vaccine causes a systemic acute viral infection and thus provides an attractive model to study innate and adaptive responses to a primary viral challenge. Vaccination with the live attenuated influenza vaccine causes a localized acute viral infection in mucosal tissues, and induces a recall response since most vaccinees have had prior exposure to influenza, and thus provides a unique opportunity to study innate and antigen-specific memory responses in mucosal tissues and in the blood. Vaccination with the inactivated influenza vaccine offers a model to study immune responses to an inactivated immunogen. Studies with these and other vaccines are beginning to reunite the estranged fields of immunology and vaccinology, and yielding unexpected insights about mechanisms of viral immunity. Therefore, vaccines that have been proven to be of immense benefit in saving lives offer us a new fringe benefit: lessons in viral immunology. PMID:23947360

Pulendran, Bali; Oh, Jason Z.; Nakaya, Helder; Ravindran, Rajesh; Kazmin, Dmitri A.

2013-01-01

361

Assessment of Newcastle disease-specific T cell proliferation in different inbred MHC chicken lines.  

PubMed

In this study, we have described the establishment of an antigen-specific T cell proliferation assay based on recall stimulation with Newcastle disease (ND) antigen; further, we have described the results obtained after recall stimulation of animals containing different major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes, vaccinated against ND. First optimization of the assay was performed to lower unspecific proliferation and to enhance antigen-specific T cell proliferation. These two issues were achieved using ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid as stabilizing agent in blood samples and autologous immune serum in culture medium. The optimized assay was used to screen chickens with different MHC haplotypes for their ability to perform T cell proliferation. Results showed that the antigen-specific response of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from B12 chickens was generally low, whereas B13, B130 and B201 chickens were medium in CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cell responses. High responses were seen only in few animals of each haplotype and not in general. A polymorphism in the chicken CD8? gene was found in our experimental chicken lines, resulting in incapability to detect CD8?(+) T cells using antibodies from the CT8 clone. Screening chickens with alternative antibodies showed that antibodies from the 2-398 clone were able to discriminate all CD8?(+) cells from CD8?(-) cells, and consequently this antibody was used in a second vaccination experiment performed with chickens of the haplotypes B13 and B130. This experiment showed a significant difference in antigen-specific proliferation of CD4(+) T cells between the two lines, but not in CD8?(+) T cell proliferation. PMID:21332569

Norup, L R; Dalgaard, T S; Pedersen, A R; Juul-Madsen, H R

2011-07-01

362

Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from the "Chicken

Dwyer, Edward J.

363

The Avian EB66(R) Cell Line, Application to Vaccines, and Therapeutic Protein Production.  

PubMed

Embryonated chicken eggs and primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) have been used for decades as a means of manufacturing human and veterinary vaccines. However, these egg and CEF-based production systems are associated with many serious limitations in terms of their regulatory acceptability, production capacity, and supply chain risks. The development of a safer, cheaper, and more efficient cell substrate for vaccine production would represent a significant business advantage for vaccine manufacturers. Building on the exceptional properties of avian embryonic stem cells, Vivalis has created a new cell substrate, the Duck EB66® cell line. This article describes how this cell substrate was derived, the manufacture and qualification of a master cell bank, and the evaluation of the cell substrate for the manufacture of vaccines and human therapeutic proteins. PMID:21502045

Brown, Stephen W; Mehtali, Majid

2010-01-01

364

Challenges and recent advancements in infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccines.  

PubMed

Over the past 80 years, biosecurity measures and vaccines have been used to prevent the occurrence of outbreaks of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT). Despite these control strategies, ILT continues to have an impact on intensive poultry industries. Attenuated vaccines, particularly those derived by passage in chicken embryos, have been associated with a number of side effects, including residual virulence, transmission to naïve birds, establishment of latent infections with subsequent reactivation and shedding of virus, and reversion to virulence after in vivo passage. Most recently, recombination between attenuated ILT vaccines in the field has been shown to be responsible for the emergence of new virulent viruses that have caused widespread disease. To address some of these issues, new-generation virally vectored recombinant vaccines have been developed and recently released in some countries. In addition, recombinant deletion mutants of ILT virus have been proposed as vaccine candidates. In this review, recent advances in the understanding of the epidemiology of traditionally attenuated ILT vaccines as well as in the development and use of new generation vaccines are examined. Next-generation vaccines, along with more appropriate immunological screening strategies, are identified as particularly promising options to enhance ILT control in the future. PMID:23718807

Coppo, Mauricio J C; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Browning, Glenn F; Devlin, Joanne M

2013-01-01

365

Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV)Treatment of pneumococcal infections with penicillin and other drugs used to be more effective. But ... the disease, through vaccination, even more important. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV) protects against 23 types of pneumococcal ...

366

Vaccinations and HIV  

MedlinePLUS

... Do not measure your viral load within 4 weeks of any vaccination. Flu shots have been studied ... live” vaccination in the past 2 or 3 weeks. Still, the “MMR” vaccine against measles, mumps and ...

367

Limited efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccine in elderly individuals is associated with decreased production of vaccine-specific antibodies  

PubMed Central

During seasonal influenza epidemics, disease burden is shouldered predominantly by the very young and the elderly. Elderly individuals are particularly affected, in part because vaccine efficacy wanes with age. This has been linked to a reduced ability to induce a robust serum antibody response. Here, we show that this is due to reduced quantities of vaccine-specific antibodies, rather than a lack of antibody avidity or affinity. We measured levels of vaccine-specific plasmablasts by ELISPOT 1 week after immunization of young and elderly adults with inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine. Plasmablast-derived polyclonal antibodies (PPAbs) were generated from bulk-cultured B cells, while recombinant monoclonal antibodies (re-mAbs) were produced from single plasmablasts. The frequency of vaccine-specific plasmablasts and the concentration of PPAbs were lower in the elderly than in young adults, whereas the yields of secreted IgG per plasmablast were not different. Differences were not detected in the overall vaccine-specific avidity or affinity of PPAbs and re-mAbs between the 2 age groups. In contrast, reactivity of the antibodies induced by the inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine toward the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus, which was not present in the vaccine, was higher in the elderly than in the young. These results indicate that the inferior antibody response to influenza vaccination in the elderly is primarily due to reduced quantities of vaccine-specific antibodies. They also suggest that exposure history affects the cross-reactivity of vaccination-induced antibodies. PMID:21785218

Sasaki, Sanae; Sullivan, Meghan; Narvaez, Carlos F.; Holmes, Tyson H.; Furman, David; Zheng, Nai-Ying; Nishtala, Madhuri; Wrammert, Jens; Smith, Kenneth; James, Judith A.; Dekker, Cornelia L.; Davis, Mark M.; Wilson, Patrick C.; Greenberg, Harry B.; He, Xiao-Song

2011-01-01

368

Anticancer vaccines.  

PubMed

With the tools of molecular biology and a greater understanding of mechanisms to harness the immune system, effective tumor immunotherapy is becoming a reality. This new class of therapeutics offers a more targeted, and therefore precise, approach to the treatment of cancer. The recent conditional licensure of a xenogeneic DNA vaccine for advanced canine malignant melanoma strongly suggests that immunotherapy can play an extremely important role alongside the classic cancer treatment triad components of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. PMID:17950885

Bergman, Philip J

2007-11-01

369

[Poliovirus vaccine].  

PubMed

To avoid the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and polio outbreaks due to circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, an inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) was introduced for routine immunization in a number of countries with a low risk of polio outbreaks. Currently, production and marketing of a standalone conventional IPV and two diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus-IPV (Sabin-derived IPV; sIPV) products have been submitted, and it is expected that the IPV products will be introduced in Japan in the autumn of 2012. At the same time, a decline in the OPV immunization rate became apparent in Japan due to serious public concerns about a remaining risk of VAPP and introduction of IPV in the near future. Therefore, the recent development of polio immunity gaps should be carefully monitored, and surveillance of suspected polio cases and laboratory diagnosis of polioviruses have to be intensified for the transition period from OPV to IPV in Japan. The development of sIPV is one of the most realistic options to introduce affordable IPV to developing countries. In this regard, further clinical studies on its efficacy, safety, and interchangeability of sIPV will be needed after the introduction of the sIPV products, which will be licensed in Japan for the first time in the world. PMID:23189825

Shimizu, Hiroyuki

2012-06-01

370

Chicken anaemia virus inoculated by the oral route causes lymphocyte depletion in the thymus in 3-week-old and 6-week-old chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been many reports of the severe clinical disease and pathology seen in young chicks that have been vertically infected with chicken anaemia virus (CAV). The disease is characterized by anaemia, and atrophy of the thymus and bone marrow. However, while it has been suggested that horizontally acquired infections of older birds are common, to date there has been

J. A. Smyth; D. A. Moffett; T. J. Connor; M. S. McNulty

2006-01-01

371

The Moral Justification for a Compulsory Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Program  

PubMed Central

Compulsory human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young girls has been proposed as a public health intervention to reduce the threat of the disease. Such a program would entail a symbiotic relationship between scientific interests in reducing mortality and morbidity and philosophical interests in promoting morality. This proposal raises the issue of whether government should use its police powers to restrict liberty and parental autonomy for the purpose of preventing harm to young people. I reviewed the scientific literature that questions the value of a HPV vaccination. Applying a principle-based approach to moral reasoning, I concluded that compulsory HPV vaccinations can be justified on moral, scientific, and public health grounds. PMID:19197085

2009-01-01

372

Engineered human vaccines  

SciTech Connect

The limitations of human vaccines in use at present and the design requirements for a new generation of human vaccines are discussed. The progress in engineering of human vaccines for bacteria, viruses, parasites, and cancer is reviewed, and the data from human studies with the engineered vaccines are discussed, especially for cancer and AIDS vaccines. The final section of the review deals with the possible future developments in the field of engineered human vaccines and the requirement for effective new human adjuvants.

Sandhu, J.S. (Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Div. of Immunology and Neurobiology)

1994-01-01

373

Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics: news.  

PubMed

Measles vaccination: Targeted and non-targeted benefits: CDC reports: 2-dose regimen of chickenpox vaccine is a success: Positive preliminary results from the CAPiTA study: Seasonal flu vaccine associate with reduced stroke risk: HPV vaccine shown to halve cervical abnormalities: Global prize for mobile mast vaccine storage project: Developmental pathway of potent HIV-neutralizing antibodies: Burkholderia vaccine: US Dep of Defense collaborates with Bavarian Nordic. PMID:24784565

Riedmann, Eva M

2014-04-01

374

Protection of laying hens against infectious bronchitis with inactivated emulsion vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercially-reared laying chickens were challenged at 31 weeks of age with a virulent infectious bronchitis (IB) virus. They showed a sharp drop in egg production, despite having been vaccinated at four and eight weeks old with live attenuated IB vaccines to a recommended schedule. In contrast, similar birds that had been further immunised at point-of-lay with inactivated oil emulsion IB

PG Box; AV Beresford; B Roberts

1980-01-01

375

Influenza Vaccination Guidelines and Vaccine Sales in Southeast Asia: 2008-2011  

PubMed Central

Background Southeast Asia is a region with great potential for the emergence of a pandemic influenza virus. Global efforts to improve influenza surveillance in this region have documented the burden and seasonality of influenza viruses and have informed influenza prevention strategies, but little information exists about influenza vaccination guidelines and vaccine sales. Methods To ascertain the existence of influenza vaccine guidelines and define the scope of vaccine sales, we sent a standard three-page questionnaire to the ten member nations of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. We also surveyed three multinational manufacturers who supply influenza vaccines in the region. Results Vaccine sales in the private sector were <1000 per 100,000 population in the 10 countries. Five countries reported purchasing vaccine for use in the public sector. In 2011, Thailand had the highest combined reported rate of vaccine sales (10,333 per 100,000). In the 10 countries combined, the rate of private sector sales during 2010–2011 (after the A(H1N1)2009pdm pandemic) exceeded 2008 pre-pandemic levels. Five countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam) had guidelines for influenza vaccination but only two were consistent with global guidelines. Four recommended vaccination for health care workers, four for elderly persons, three for young children, three for persons with underlying disease, and two for pregnant women. Conclusions The rate of vaccine sales in Southeast Asia remains low, but there was a positive impact in sales after the A(H1N1)2009pdm pandemic. Low adherence to global vaccine guidelines suggests that more work is needed in the policy arena. PMID:23285200

Gupta, Vinay; Dawood, Fatimah S.; Muangchana, Charung; Lan, Phan Trong; Xeuatvongsa, Anonh; Sovann, Ly; Olveda, Remigio; Cutter, Jeffery; Oo, Khin Yi; Ratih, Theresia Sandra Diah; Kheong, Chong Chee; Kapella, Bryan K.; Kitsutani, Paul; Corwin, Andrew; Olsen, Sonja J.

2012-01-01

376

Chicken Embryonic Heart Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Both in vivo and in vitro techniques are used to investigate the development of the vertebrate heart using the chicken embryo as a model system. Simultaneously, the students are exposed to the physiology of embryonic blood flow, the electrical circuitry of the developing heart, and the effects of reproductive toxins on heart rate. Classical embryological microtechniques, explantation of the embryo, surgical removal of the beating heart, and isolation of the heart chambers, are conducted. Student teams devise a hypothesis concerning the effects of caffeine or alcohol on the in vivo or in vitro heart rate.

PhD Jacqueline S McLaughlin (Berks-Lehigh Valley College Biology)

2006-01-09

377

Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

Vaccine - pneumovax; Vaccine - PPSV23; Immunization - pneumovax ... Immunocompromising Conditions: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR. 2012;61(40):816-819. ...

378

Vaccines for Farrowing Operations  

E-print Network

Routine vaccination is necessary to control economically important swine diseases such as erysipelas, leptospirosis, parvovirus and colibacillosis. The symptoms and specific vaccines for these diseases are discussed....

Lawhorn, D. Bruce

1999-02-15

379

Comparison of the replication and transmissibility of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine delivered via eye-drop or drinking-water.  

PubMed

Live attenuated vaccines have been extensively used to control infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT). Most vaccines are registered/recommended for use via eye-drop although vaccination via drinking-water is commonly used in the field. Drinking-water vaccination has been associated with non-uniform protection. Bird-to-bird passage of chick-embryo-origin (CEO) ILT vaccines has been shown to result in reversion to virulence. The purpose of the present study was to examine the replication and transmission of a commercial CEO infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccine strain following drinking-water or eye-drop inoculation. Two groups of 10 specific-pathogen-free chickens were each vaccinated with Serva ILTV vaccine strain either via eye-drop or drinking-water. Groups of four or five unvaccinated birds were placed in contact with vaccinated birds at regular intervals. Tracheal swabs were collected every 4 days from vaccinated and in-contact birds to assess viral replication and transmission using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Compared with eye-drop-vaccinated birds, drinking-water-vaccinated birds showed delayed viral replication but had detectable viral DNA for a longer period of time. Transmission to chickens exposed by contact on day 0 of the experiments was similar in both groups. Birds exposed to ILTV by contact with eye-drop vaccinated birds on days 4, 8, 12 and 16 of the experiment had detectable ILTV for up to 8 days post exposure. ILTV was not detected in chickens that were exposed by contact with drinking-water vaccinated birds on day 12 of the experiment or later. Results from this study provide valuable practical information for the use of ILT vaccine. PMID:22845327

Coppo, Mauricio J C; Devlin, Joanne M; Noormohammadi, Amir H

2012-01-01

380

Newcastle Disease Virus Fusion Protein Is the Major Contributor to Protective Immunity of Genotype-Matched Vaccine  

PubMed Central

Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can cause devastating disease in chickens worldwide. Although the current vaccines are substantially effective, they do not completely prevent infection, virus shedding and disease. To produce genotype-matched vaccines, a full-genome reverse genetics system has been used to generate a recombinant virus in which the F protein cleavage site has been changed to that of avirulent vaccine virus. In the other strategy, the vaccines have been generated by replacing the F and HN genes of a commercial vaccine strain with those from a genotype-matched virus. However, the protective efficacy of a chimeric virus vaccine has not been directly compared with that of a full-genome virus vaccine developed by reverse genetics. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of genotype VII matched chimeric vaccines by generating three recombinant viruses based on avirulent LaSota (genotype II) strain in which the open reading frames (ORFs) encoding the F and HN proteins were replaced, individually or together, with those of the circulating and highly virulent Indonesian NDV strain Ban/010. The cleavage site of the Ban/010 F protein was mutated to the avirulent motif found in strain LaSota. In vitro growth characteristics and a pathogenicity test indicated that all three chimeric viruses retained the highly attenuated phenotype of the parental viruses. Immunization of chickens with chimeric and full-length genome VII vaccines followed by challenge with virulent Ban/010 or Texas GB (genotype II) virus demonstrated protection against clinical disease and death. However, only those chickens immunized with chimeric rLaSota expressing the F or F plus HN proteins of the Indonesian strain were efficiently protected against shedding of Ban/010 virus. Our findings showed that genotype-matched vaccines can provide protection to chickens by efficiently preventing spread of virus, primarily due to the F protein. PMID:24015313

Kim, Shin-Hee; Wanasen, Nanchaya; Paldurai, Anandan; Xiao, Sa; Collins, Peter L.; Samal, Siba K.

2013-01-01

381

Pneumococcal vaccines: World Health Organization position paper.  

PubMed

Pneumococcal diseases are a major public-health problem all over the world. The etiological agent, Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) in surrounded by a polysaccharide capsule. Differences in the composition of this capsule permit the serological differentiation between about 90 capsular types, some of which are frequently associated with pneumococcal disease, others rarely. Invasive pneumococcal infections include pneumonia, meningitis, and febrile bacteremia; among the common non-invasive manifestations are otitis media, sinusitis, and bronchitis. At least one million children die of pneumococcal disease every year, most of these being young children in developing countries. In the developed world, elderly persons carry the major disease burden. Conditions associated with increased risk of serious pneumococcal disease include HIV infection, sickle-cell anaemia, and a variety of chronic organ failures. Vaccination is the only available tool to prevent pneumococcal disease. The recent development of widespread microbial resistance to essential antibiotics underlines the urgent need for more efficient pneumococcal vaccines. Immunity following pneumococcal disease is directed primarily against the capsular serotype involved. The currently licensed pneumococcal vaccine is based on the 23 most common serotypes, against which the vaccine has an overall protective efficacy of about 60% to 70%. Children aged < 2 years, and persons suffering from various states of immunodeficiency, for example HIV infection, do not consistently develop immunity following vaccination, thus reducing the protective value of the vaccine in some major target groups for pneumococcal disease. However, in the healthy elderly population, the polysaccharide vaccine provides relatively efficient protection against invasive pneumococcal disease. Extensive clinical trials are now under way with a new generation of pneumococcal vaccines. These protein-polysaccharide combinations, known as conjugate vaccines, contain 7-11 selected polysaccharides bound to a protein carrier, and induce a T-cell dependent immune response. These vaccines are likely to be protective even in children < 2 years of age, and may reduce pneumococcal transmission through a herd effect. PMID:10513118

1999-09-01

382

Efficacy of DNA vaccines carrying Eimeria acervulina lactate dehydrogenase antigen gene against coccidiosis.  

PubMed

The efficacies of DNA vaccines encoding either Eimeria acervulina lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) antigen or a combination of LDH antigen and chicken IL-2 or IFN-gamma were evaluated against chicken coccidiosis. Three vaccine plasmids pVAX-LDH, pVAX-LDH-IFN-gamma and pVAX-LDH-IL-2 were constructed using the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1. Expressions of proteins encoded by plasmids DNA in vivo were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot assay. Average body weight gain, oocyst output, survival rate and lesion scores were measured to evaluate the protective effects of vaccination on challenge infection. The results showed that DNA vaccines could obviously alleviate body weight loss, duodenal lesions, oocyst output and enhance oocyst decrease ratio. Anti-coccidial indexes (ACIs) of pVAX-LDH-IFN-gamma and pVAX-LDH-IL-2 groups were higher than that of other groups. Flow cytometric analysis of T lymphocytes in spleen and cecal tonsil demonstrated that DNA vaccines had significantly increased percentages of CD3(+) T cells compared with pVAX1 alone or TE buffer. The results provided the first proof that DNA vaccine carrying E. acervulina LDH antigen gene induced protective immunity against homologous infection and its effect could be enhanced by co-expression of chicken IL-2 or IFN-gamma. PMID:20566413

Song, Hongyan; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Song, Xiaokai; Shah, Muhammad Ali A; Zhu, Huili; Li, Xiangrui

2010-10-01

383

Progress and hurdles in the development of influenza virus-like particle vaccines for veterinary use  

PubMed Central

Virus-like particles (VLPs), which resemble infectious virus particles in structure and morphology, have been proposed to provide a new generation of vaccine candidates against various viral infections. As effective immunogens, characterized by high immunogenicity and safety, VLPs have been employed in the development of human influenza vaccines. Recently, several influenza VLP vaccines have been developed for veterinary use and successfully evaluated in swine, canine, duck, and chicken models. These VLP vaccine candidates induced protective immune responses and enabled serological differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals in conjunction with a diagnostic test. Here, we review the current progress of influenza VLP development as a next-generation vaccine technology in the veterinary field and discuss the challenges and future direction of this technology. PMID:25003086

2014-01-01

384

VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT HPV Vaccine Gardasil  

E-print Network

VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT HPV Vaccine Gardasil® What You Need to Know (Human Papillomavirus.immunize.org/vis 1 What is HPV? Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted virus

Plotkin, Joshua B.

385

[Vaccination and pregnancy].  

PubMed

Vaccination against influenza is recommended during the vaccination period in pregnant women regardless of trimester. In contrast, administration of live vaccines, such as the vaccine against varicella, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) is contraindicated in pregnant women. Vaccinations against hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, hepatitis A can be made as indicated. Vaccination against yellow fever may be considered in pregnant women travelling to endemic countries. In post-partum period, live vaccines may be administered if necessary, especially vaccination against whooping cough for women not to date with their vaccinations. Vaccination against yellow fever is contraindicated in case of breast feeding. Prevention of pertussis in newborns is based in France on vaccination of the mothers in the post-partum period, and the close contacts of the newborn during the pregnancy ("cocooning"). PMID:24863661

Anselem, Olivia; Parat, Sophie; Théau, Anne; Floret, Daniel; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Goffinet, François; Launay, Odile

2014-06-01

386

Formulation of Newcastle disease virus coupled calcium phosphate nanoparticles: an effective strategy for oculonasal delivery to chicken.  

PubMed

In this report, calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles were synthesized by continuous flow method using ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) as a medium and functionalized with amino propyl triethoxy silane (APTES). The blood biocompatibility of the nanoparticles was assessed using the whole blood haemolysis, erythrocytes haemolysis and erythrocyte aggregation tests. Based on the results, we found that the synthesized ?-CD-CaP nanoparticles did not cause any remarkable toxic effect. The 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay of chicken peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs) incubated with these nanoparticles indicated that these particles did not exert any significant cytotoxicity. The aminosilane functional group modified ?-CD-CaP was used as tool for coupling of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The NDV conjugated nanoparticles were confirmed by using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, Raman spectroscopy differential scanning calorimetry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Immunogenicity trials in chickens proved that ?-CD-CaP-NDV used as a vaccine was better than the commercial vaccine when given oculonasally during the first 2 weeks post vaccination. The birds vaccinated with the above nano-NDV vaccine were completely protected against virulent NDV challenge. This study confirms that the oculonasal ?-CD-CaP-NDV delivery of vaccines is a potential method for enhancing the immune responses of existing commercial vaccines. PMID:24441177

Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal; Gopinath, Vadivel Ponnuswamy; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar

2014-04-01

387

Oral and parenteral immunization of chickens (Gallus gallus) against West Nile virus with recombinant envelope protein  

USGS Publications Warehouse

West Nile virus (WNV) causes morbidity and mortality in humans, horses, and in more than 315 bird species in North America. Currently approved WNV vaccines are designed for parenteral administration and, as yet, no effective oral WNV vaccines have been developed. WNV envelope (E) protein is a highly antigenic protein that elicits the majority of virus-neutralizing antibodies during a WNV immune response. Leghorn chickens were given three vaccinations (each 2 wk apart) of E protein orally (20 ??g or 100 ??g/dose), of E protein intramuscularly (IM, 20 ??g/dose), or of adjuvant only (control group) followed by a WNV challenge. Viremias were measured post-WNV infection, and three new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were developed for quantifying IgM, IgY, and IgA-mediated immune response of birds following WNV infection. WNV viremia levels were significantly lower in the IM group than in both oral groups and the control group. Total WNV E protein-specific IgY production was significantly greater, and WNV nonstructural 1-specific IgY was significantly less, in the IM group compared to all other treatment groups. The results of this study indicate that IM vaccination of chickens with E protein is protective against WNV infection and results in a significantly different antibody production profile as compared to both orally vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds. ?? 2009 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

Fassbinder-Orth, C. A.; Hofmeister, E. K.; Weeks-Levy, C.; Karasov, W. H.

2009-01-01

388

Husbandry and trade of indigenous chickens in Myanmar--results of a participatory rural appraisal in the Yangon and the Mandalay divisions.  

PubMed

There is a variety of professions working with village chickens in developing countries, including farmers, veterinarians and chicken traders. People from all these occupations were involved in a participatory rural appraisal to investigate husbandry practices and trade of village chickens in Myanmar. Data were collected in two climatically different regions of the country, in the Yangon and in the Mandalay divisions. The breeding and training of fighting cocks was practised only in the Mandalay division, with well-trained birds sold for very high prices. Apart from this, chickens were raised in both regions mainly for small disposable income and were generally sold when money was needed, in particular during religious festivals. Chicken traders on bicycles, often called 'middle men', usually purchase birds from farmers in about 10 villages per day. Several 'middle men' supply birds to wealthier chicken merchants, who sell these birds at larger chicken markets. There is in general limited knowledge among farmers about the prevention of Newcastle disease via vaccination. Commercial indigenous chicken production is practised in Myanmar, but family poultry farming dominates indigenous chicken production in the country. PMID:17265778

Henning, J; Khin, A; Hla, T; Meers, J

2006-01-01

389

Recombinant FAdV-4 fiber-2 protein protects chickens against hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS).  

PubMed

Virulent fowl adenovirus (FAdV) serotype 4 strains are the etiological agents of hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS), a highly infectious disease in chickens with severe economic impact. In the present study, three different FAdV-4 derived capsid proteins, fiber-1, fiber-2, and hexon loop-1, were expressed in a baculovirus system and tested for their capacity to induce protection in chickens. Purified recombinant proteins were administered to day-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens allocated in three separate groups and challenged with virulent FAdV-4 at 21 days of life. Two additional groups served as controls, a challenge control group with mock-vaccinated but infected birds and a negative control group with PBS injection substituting both vaccination and challenge. The fiber-2 vaccinated group displayed high resistance against the adverse effects of the challenge with only one dead bird out of 28, as compared to the challenge control group where the infection caused 78% mortality. A moderate protective effect resulting in 38% mortality was observed for fiber-1, whereas the hexon loop-1 vaccinated group was not effectively protected as manifested by 73% mortality. While a fiber-2 specific ELISA showed a gradual antibody increase after immunization of birds with the homologous protein, a commercial ELISA did not detect vaccination-induced antibodies in any of the groups but displayed a difference in challenge virus-directed response in protected and non-protected birds. Although immunoblotting confirmed the presence of specific antibodies in all vaccinated groups, the anti-protein sera did not exhibit neutralizing activity. Fecal excretion of challenge virus DNA was detected with a real-time PCR in the majority of tested birds until termination of the study independent of protection, indicating the prevention of clinical symptoms, but not infection, by vaccination. In conclusion, recombinant fiber-2 was identified as a protective immunogen and is proposed as an attractive candidate for a subunit vaccine to prevent hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome in chickens. PMID:24397897

Schachner, Anna; Marek, Ana; Jaskulska, Barbara; Bilic, Ivana; Hess, Michael

2014-02-19

390

Genome sequence comparison of two United States live attenuated vaccines of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV).  

PubMed

This study was conducted to identify unique nucleotide differences in two U.S. chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines [LT Blen (GenBank accession: JQ083493) designated as vaccine 1; Laryngo-Vac(®) (GenBank accession: JQ083494) designated as vaccine 2] of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genomes compared to an Australian Serva vaccine reference ILTV genome sequence [Gallid herpesvirus 1 (GaHV-1); GenBank accession number: HQ630064]. Genomes of the two vaccine ILTV strains were sequenced using Illumina Genome Analyzer 2X of 36 cycles of single-end reads. Results revealed that few nucleotide differences (23 in vaccine 1; 31 in vaccine 2) were found and indicate that the US CEO strains are practically identical to the Australian Serva CEO strain, which is a European-origin vaccine. The sequence differences demonstrated the spectrum of variability among vaccine strains. Only eight amino acid differences were found in ILTV proteins including UL54, UL27, UL28, UL20, UL1, ICP4, and US8 in vaccine 1. Similarly, in vaccine 2, eight amino acid differences were found in UL54, UL27, UL28, UL36, UL1, ICP4, US10, and US8. Further comparison of US CEO vaccines to several ILTV genome sequences revealed that US CEO vaccines are genetically close to both the Serva vaccine and 63140/C/08/BR (GenBank accession: HM188407) and are distinct from the two Australian-origin CEO vaccines, SA2 (GenBank accession: JN596962) and A20 (GenBank accession: JN596963), which showed close similarity to each other. These data demonstrate the potential of high-throughput sequencing technology to yield insight into the sequence variation of different ILTV strains. This information can be used to discriminate between vaccine ILTV strains and further, to identify newly emerging mutant strains of field isolates. PMID:22382591

Chandra, Yohanna Gita; Lee, Jeongyoon; Kong, Byung-Whi

2012-06-01

391

Genome-wide association study of antibody response to Newcastle disease virus in chicken  

PubMed Central

Background Since the first outbreak in Indonesia in 1926, Newcastle disease has become one of the most common and contagious bird diseases throughout the world. To date, enhancing host antibody response by vaccination remains the most efficient strategy to control outbreaks of Newcastle disease. Antibody response plays an important role in host resistance to Newcastle disease, and selection for antibody response can effectively improve disease resistance in chickens. However, the molecular basis of the variation in antibody response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is not clear. The aim of this study was to detect genes modulating antibody response to NDV by a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in chickens. Results To identify genes or chromosomal regions associated with antibody response to NDV after immunization, a GWAS was performed using 39,833 SNP markers in a chicken F2 resource population derived from a cross between two broiler lines that differed in their resistance. Two SNP effects reached 5% Bonferroni genome-wide significance (P<1.26×10-6). These two SNPs, rs15354805 and rs15355555, were both on chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome 1 and spanned approximately 600 Kb, from 100.4 Mb to 101.0 Mb. Rs15354805 is in intron 7 of the chicken Roundabout, axon guidance receptor, homolog 2 (ROBO2) gene, and rs15355555 is located about 243 Kb upstream of ROBO2. Rs15354805 explained 5% of the phenotypic variation in antibody response to NDV, post immunization, in chickens. Rs15355555 had a similar effect as rs15354805 because of its linkage disequilibrium with rs15354805 (r2=0.98). Conclusion The region at about 100 Mb from the proximal end of chicken chromosome 1, including the ROBO1 and ROBO2 genes, has a strong effect on the antibody response to the NDV in chickens. This study paves the way for further research on the host immune response to NDV. PMID:23663563

2013-01-01

392

killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine  

E-print Network

killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine FluMist Thomas Francis, Jr. National Institutes of Michigan's Rackham Auditorium and watched Thomas Francis Jr. announce to the world that the polio vaccine petitioned to spend a year or two in Francis's lab. Indeed, Jonas Salk, developer of the Salk polio vac- cine

Shyy, Wei

393

Enquête sur le statut vaccinal des parents de jeunes nourrissons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2004, in France, pertussis booster is recommended in parents of young infants and adults likely to become parents. This recommendation adds to others such as rubella vaccination in unvaccinated or seronegative women and decennial dT–IPV booster. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of these recommendations in parents of young infants. Pediatricians had to include parents

F. de La Rocque; E. Grimprel; J. Gaudelus; A. Lécuyer; C. Wollner; M.-C. Leroux; R. Cohen

2007-01-01

394

Effects of Taishan Robinia pseudoacacia Polysaccharides on immune function in chickens.  

PubMed

To determine the immune function of Taishan Robinia pseudoacacia Polysaccharide (TRPPS) on chickens, 240 chickens were selected as experimental animals and treated with various doses of TRPPS by hypodermic injection before immunized NDV inactivated vaccine. The results indicated that any dose of TRPPS could significantly promote the development of the immune organs, increase the quantity of leukocyte and the ratio of lymphocyte, and improve the antibody titers against Newcastle disease. Meanwhile, it also increased the magnitude of SIgA in duodenum. However, the dose of 200 mg/ml showed to be the most effective. Therefore, in terms of improving immunologic function and production performance, TRPPS could be used as a vaccine immunopotentiator for immune responses. PMID:23507193