Sample records for young chickens vaccinated

  1. Vaccination of chickens against Marek's disease with the turkey herpesvirus vaccine using a pneumatic vaccinator.

    PubMed

    Eidson, C S; Kleven, S H

    1976-05-01

    A pneumatic vaccinator has been successfully used to administer cell-associated turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vaccine without a loss in titer due to the pressure required to administer the vaccine. Laboratory studies have also shown that chickens vaccinated with graded doses of the HVT vaccine using doses as low as 41 PFU offered protection against Marek's disease (MD) when compared to the unvaccinated controls. The pneumatic vaccinator has also been successful in administering a combination of HVT vaccine and tissue culture fowl pox vaccine. Vaccinated birds were protected against challenge with virulent MD virus as well as fowl pox virus. Antibiotics such as spectinomycin pentahydrate or lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate and spectinomycin sulfate tetrahydrate were used in combination with the HVT and fowl pox vaccine and none of the antibiotics appear to have an adverse effect on the efficacy of either vaccine. PMID:180512

  2. Vaccination of broiler chickens with dispersed dry powder vaccines as an alternative for liquid spray and aerosol vaccination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Corbanie; C. Vervaet; J. H. H. van Eck; J. P. Remon; W. J. M. Landman

    2008-01-01

    Vaccination of chickens with dispersable dry powder vaccines was compared with commercial liquid vaccines. A Clone 30 Newcastle disease vaccine virus was spray dried with mannitol or with a mixture of trehalose, polyvinylpyrrolidone and bovine serum albumin. A coarse (±30?m) and fine (±7?m) powder were produced with both formulations. A commercial reconstituted Clone 30 vaccine was applied as coarse liquid

  3. Detection of vvIBDV in Vaccinated SPF Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kabell, S; Handberg, KJ; Li, Y; Kusk, M; Bisgaard, M

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of our experiment was to investigate, if apparently healthy, vaccinated chickens may be involved in maintaining and spreading infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in poultry environments. We aimed at simultaneous detection and identification of very virulent field strain IBDV (vvIBDV) as well as vaccine strain IBDV in experimentally infected chickens. Two groups of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were vaccinated using the intermediate infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine D78. Group 1 was vaccinated at the age of one week and group 2 at the age of three weeks. Both groups were challenged with vvIBDV at the age of four weeks. A third, vaccinated, non-challenged group served as negative control. No clinical symptoms were observed in any of these groups. The chickens were euthanised and submitted to autopsy and sample preparation in groups of three at fixed intervals from the age of 28 to 44 days. Gross pathological lesions were not observed. Lymphoid tissues from the bursa of Fabricius, bone marrow, spleen and thymus in addition to cloacal- and bursal swaps were analysed by one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Positive results were confirmed by two-step strain specific duplex (DPX) RT-PCR. The vaccine strain was detected in bursa tissues from all groups, while the challenge strain was detected in few bursal as well as non-bursal tissue samples. The results indicate a possibility of replication of vvIBDV in vaccinated chickens. PMID:16398333

  4. Chicken Chicken Chicken: Chicken Chicken Doug Zongker

    E-print Network

    Gousie, Michael B.

    Chicken Chicken Chicken: Chicken Chicken Doug Zongker University of Washington Chicken Chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken. Chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken. Chicken, chicken

  5. Transmission of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) between unvaccinated, sub-optimally vaccinated, and well-vaccinated SPF chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the transmissibility of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in vaccinated chickens. Chickens were vaccinated with live LaSota and challenged 21 days later with CA02. Two days after challenge, the vaccinated and infected chickens were moved into clean i...

  6. Anticoccidial vaccines for broiler chickens: Pathways to success

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Williams

    2002-01-01

    The use of live vaccines, either attenuated or non-attenuated, for the control of coccidiosis due to Eimeria infections in broiler breeder or layer chickens is well established. Use in broilers, however, has been slow to gain acceptance. This has been partly for economic reasons, but also because of perceived adverse effects on early chick growth, particularly with non-attenuated vaccines, and

  7. Hatchability, serology and virus excretion following in ovo vaccination of chickens with an avian metapneumovirus vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hess; M. B. Huggins; U. Heincz

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation describes for the first time the effect of an avian metapneumovirus vaccine administered in ovo to 18-day-old chicken embryos. The application of the vaccine had no adverse effect on the hatchability or the health of the chicks post hatch. The antibody titres achieved were higher than those determined for birds vaccinated at 1 day old. Not only

  8. Vaccine Reduces HPV Infections in Young Men

    Cancer.gov

    An international randomized clinical trial has shown that the vaccine Gardasil can reduce the incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young men 16 to 26 years of age at the time of vaccination.

  9. Development and large-scale use of recombinant VP2 vaccine for the prevention of infectious bursal disease of chickens.

    PubMed

    Pitcovski, Jacob; Gutter, Bezalel; Gallili, Gilad; Goldway, Martin; Perelman, Beny; Gross, Gideon; Krispel, Simha; Barbakov, Marisa; Michael, Amnon

    2003-12-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of Gumboro disease, an infectious disease of global economic importance in poultry. One of the most effective types of inactivated IBDV vaccine is produced by infecting young chickens with a virulent strain, sacrificing them and extracting the virus from the bursa of Fabricius. The goal of this study was to produce an effective subunit vaccine against IBDV thereby providing an effective means of combating the disease. In areas in which the bursa-derived vaccine is in use, this subunit vaccine would eliminate the use of live birds for the production of inactivated vaccines. The gene for viral protein 2 (VP2) of IBDV was cloned into a Pichia pastoris expression system. This efficient system allowed us to meet the need for inexpensive vaccines required by the poultry industry. Following expression and scale-up, the protein was used to vaccinate chickens, against either Gumboro disease alone or in combination with inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Full protection was conferred against IBDV following vaccination with the subunit recombinant vaccine. No untoward influence on the response to the NDV vaccine was recorded. Over 250 million birds have already been vaccinated with this vaccine. The advantages of a subunit vaccine over an inactivated one are discussed. This approach will enable rapid adjustment to new virulent strains if and when they appear. PMID:14585684

  10. Infectious bronchitis virus subpopulations in vaccinated chickens after challenge.

    PubMed

    Toro, Haroldo; Pennington, Daniela; Gallardo, Rodrigo A; van Santen, Vicky L; van Ginkel, Frederik W; Zhang, JianFeng; Joiner, Kellye S

    2012-09-01

    Infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) shows extensive genotypic and phenotypic variability. The evolutionary process involves generation of genetic diversity by mutations and recombination followed by replication of those phenotypes favored by selection. In the current study, we examined changes occurring in a wild Arkansas (Ark) challenge strain in chickens that were vaccinated either ocularly with commercially available attenuated ArkDPI-derived vaccines or in ovo with a replication-defective recombinant adenovirus expressing a codon-optimized IBV Ark S1 gene (AdArkIBV.S1(ck)). Commercial IBV Ark vaccines A, B, and C provided slightly differing levels of protection against homologous challenge. Most importantly for the current study, chickens vaccinated with the different vaccines displayed significant differences in specific B-lymphocyte responses in the Harderian gland (i.e., the challenge virus encountered differing immune selective pressure during invasion among host groups). Based on S1 sequences, five predominant populations were found in different individual vaccinated/challenged chickens. Chickens with the strongest immune response (vaccine A) were able to successfully impede replication of the challenge virus in most chickens, and only the population predominant in the challenge strain was detected in a few IBV-positive birds. In contrast, in chickens showing less than optimal specific immune responses (vaccines B and C) IBV was detected in most chickens, and populations different from the predominant one in the challenge strain were selected and became predominant. These results provide scientific evidence for the assumption that poor vaccination contributes to the emergence of new IBV strains via mutation and/or selection. In ovo vaccination with a low dose of AdArkIBV.S1(ck) resulted in a mild increase of systemic antibody and reduced viral shedding but no protection against IBV signs and lesions. Under these conditions we detected only virus populations identical to the challenge virus. Possible explanations are discussed. From a broad perspective, these results indicate that selection is an important force driving IBV evolution. PMID:23050466

  11. Vaccination of chickens against Newcastle disease with a food pellet vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aini Ideris; A. Latif Ibrahim; P. B. Spradbrow

    1990-01-01

    The Australian, heat?resistant, a virulent V4 strain of Newcastle disease (ND) virus was selected for further heat resistance to give a variant designated V4?UPM. V4?UPM was sprayed on to food pellets which were fed to chickens in amounts calculated to give about 10EID50 per chicken. Chickens vaccinated only once by feeding developed no haemagglutination?inhibition (HI) antibodies and were not protected

  12. [Multi-epitope DNA vaccines against avian influenza in chickens].

    PubMed

    Peng, Jin-Mei; Tong, Guang-Zhi; Wang, Yun-Feng; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2003-09-01

    Multiple epitopes from one or more viruses can be lined up and co-expressed in one vector to generate multi-epitopes DNA vaccines. In the study, four recombinant plasmids were constructed based on HA and NP gene of avian influenza virus (AIV) (H5N1): (1) pIRES/HA, carrying the complete HA gene; (2) pIRES/tHA, carrying a truncated HA gene fragment of major neutralizing antigenic epitopes; (3) pIRES/tHA-NPep, in which three CTL epitopes of NP gene of AIV were fused to the truncated HA from the C-terminal; and (4) pIRES/tHA-NPep-IFN-gamma, which was constructed by replacing neo gene in pIRES/ tHA-NPep with IFN-y of chicken. Fifty five SPF chickens were randomly divided into five groups and immunized with the above four constructs and control plasmid. Each chicken was intramuscally immunized with 200 microg plasmid DNA three times in a two-week interval. Two weeks after the third immunization, chickens were injected with H5N1 subtype avian influenza virus. Before the virus loading no detectable antibodies to HA were found in the chicken serum; but high levels of HI antibodies were detected in the serum of the survived chickens. The percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte in peripheral blood of immunized chickens increased steadily after the vaccination. After virus loading all chickens in the control group died within three to eight days, and the survival rates of the four DNA vaccine groups were as follows: pIRES/HA, 54.5%; pIRES/tHA, 30%, pIRES/ tHA-NPep, 36.3%, pIRES/tHA-NPep-IFN-gamma, 50%. These results indicated that multi-epitopes DNA immunization can induce immune response and protect chickens from homologous virus loading. PMID:15969096

  13. Hatchability, serology and virus excretion following in ovo vaccination of chickens with an avian metapneumovirus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hess, M; Huggins, M B; Heincz, U

    2004-12-01

    The present investigation describes for the first time the effect of an avian metapneumovirus vaccine administered in ovo to 18-day-old chicken embryos. The application of the vaccine had no adverse effect on the hatchability or the health of the chicks post hatch. The antibody titres achieved were higher than those determined for birds vaccinated at 1 day old. Not only were the mean titres in the in ovo vaccinated groups higher, but many more birds developed a measurable antibody response than birds vaccinated at 1 day old. Variation of the vaccine dose used in ovo had little effect on the serological responses that peaked 21 to 28 days post hatch. Re-isolation of the vaccine virus was much more successful from birds vaccinated in ovo than from birds vaccinated at 1 day old, and detection of the nucleic acid by polymerase chain reaction correlated with the results of live virus isolation. PMID:15763725

  14. Vaccination of chickens with live fowl pox (FP) vaccine in oil.

    PubMed

    Peleg, B A; Samina, I; Brenner, J

    1993-09-01

    Live fowl pox (FP) vaccine was adjuvanted in oil just prior to the subcutaneous (SC) vaccination of one day old chicks and adult chickens. The birds were challenged by the wing web (WW) method and absence of "takes" were considered as protection. On 21 day post challenge, 90%-100% of the chicks or chickens were protected while on day 9 post challenge 60% were protected. Full protection of the live-in-oil adjuvanted vaccine is probably somewhat delayed as compared to protection endowed by the liquid vaccine. Incorporation of live FP vaccine in two different kinds of commercial Newcastle disease (ND) killed vaccine in oil, was shown to endow full protection following SC administration. PMID:8284967

  15. An in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the virulence of Newcastle disease virus and vaccines for the chicken reproductive tract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sreenivasa Rao; G. Dhinakar Raj; B. Murali Manohar

    2002-01-01

    The virulence of two vaccine strains and two field strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) for the female reproductive tract of chickens was assessed using oviduct organ cultures (OOC) prepared from precociously-induced oviducts in young chicks by oestrogen treatment. Ciliostasis, haemagglutination and virus isolation from infected OOC supernatants, histopathology and immunoperoxidase test results indicated the pathogenic nature of both vaccine

  16. Immune complex vaccines for chicken infectious anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Schat, Karel A; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva; O'Connell, Priscilla H; Piepenbrink, Michael S

    2011-03-01

    Infection of maternal, antibody-negative chickens with chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) can cause clinical disease, while infection after maternal antibodies wane often results in subclinical infection and immunosuppression. Currently, vaccines are not available for vaccination in ovo or in newly hatched chickens. Development of CIAV vaccines for in ovo use depends on the ability to generate vaccines that do not cause lesions in newly hatched chicks and that can induce an immune response regardless of maternal immunity. Immune complex (IC) vaccines have been successfully used for control of infectious bursal disease, and we used a similar approach to determine if an IC vaccine is feasible for CIAV. Immune complexes were prepared that consisted of 0.1 ml containing 10(5.4) tissue culture infective dose 50% of CIA-1 and 0.1 ml containing 10 to 160 neutralizing units (IC Positive [ICP]10 to ICP160), in which one neutralizing unit is the reciprocal of the serum dilution required to protect 50% of CU147 cells from the cytopathic effects caused by CIA-1. Virus replication was delayed comparing ICP80 and ICP160 with combinations using negative serum (IC Negative [ICN]80 or ICN160). In addition, the number of birds with hematocrit values <28% were decreased with ICP80 or ICP160 compared to ICN80 or ICN160. Seroconversion was delayed in ICP80 and ICP160 groups. To determine if ICP80 or ICN 160 protected against challenge, we vaccinated maternal, antibody-free birds at 1 day of age and challenged at 2 wk or 3 wk of age with the 01-4201 strain. Both ICP80 and ICP160 protected against replication of the challenge virus, which was measured using differential quantitative PCR with primers distinguishing between the two isolates. Thus, in principle, immune complex vaccines may offer a method to protect newly hatched chicks against challenge with field virus. However, additional studies using maternal, antibody-positive chicks in combination with in ovo vaccination will be needed to determine if immune complex vaccines will be useful to protect commercial chickens. PMID:21500642

  17. A Comparison of the Different Vaccines Available for the Control of Newcastle Disease in Village Chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Bell

    This paper briefly reviews the advantages and limitations of the different vaccines available for use against Newcastle disease in village chickens. Inactivated vaccines give very good immunity without vaccinal reactions and have been widely used, but are relatively expensive and require training to apply. Live vaccines are easy to apply and relatively inexpensive, and give moderately good immunity. Vaccinal reactions

  18. Astragalus polysaccharide and oxymatrine can synergistically improve the immune efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccine in chicken

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuku Chen; Deyun Wang; Yuanliang Hu; Zhenhuan Guo; Junmin Wang; Xiaona Zhao; Yunpeng Fan; Liwei Guo; Shujuan Yang; Fuding Sai; Yujuan Xing

    2010-01-01

    Three hundred and sixty 14-day-old chickens were divided into seven groups. The chickens, except for blank control group, were vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine, repeated at 28 days old. At the same time of the first vaccination, the chickens in three astragalus polysaccharide-oxymatrine (AP-OM) groups were orally administrated respectively with the mixture of AP-OM at high, medium and low concentrations,

  19. In ovo vaccination of specific-pathogen-free chickens with vaccines containing multiple agents.

    PubMed

    Gagic, M; St Hill, C A; Sharma, J M

    1999-01-01

    We used in ovo technology to protect chickens against multiple diseases by inoculating vaccines containing mixtures of live viral agents. A single in ovo injection of a vaccine containing serotypes 1, 2, and 3 of Marek's disease virus (MDV), a vaccine strain of serotype 1 infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), and recombinant fowl pox vaccine with HN and F genes of Newcastle disease virus (rFP-NDV) induced protection against virulent MDV, IBDV, Newcastle disease virus, and fowl poxvirus. The multiple-agent vaccine induced specific antibodies against the viral agents present in the mixture and did not adversely affect the survival of hatched chickens. Inoculation of a vaccine containing serotypes 1, 2, and 3 of MDV and IBDV did not affect hatchability of eggs, although the addition of rFP-NDV to the mixture reduced hatchability by 23%-26%. In ovo vaccination with a vaccine containing MDV and IBDV vaccine viruses did not exacerbate the inhibitory effect of individual viral agents on humoral and cellular immune competence. PMID:10396643

  20. Comparative Evaluation of Vaccine Efficacy of Recombinant Marek's Disease Virus Vaccine Lacking Meq Oncogene in Commercial Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek's disease virus oncogene meq has been identified as the gene involved in tumorigenesis in chickens. We have recently developed a Meq-null virus, rMd5delMeq, in which the oncogene Meq was deleted. Vaccine efficacy experiments conducted in ADOL 15I5 x 71 chickens vaccinated with rMd5delMeq virus...

  1. Vietnamese trials with a thermostable Newcastle disease vaccine (strain I2) in experimental and village chickens.

    PubMed

    Tu, T D; Phuc, K V; Dinh, N T; Quoc, D N; Spradbrow, P B

    1998-02-27

    The Australian I2 strain of Newcastle disease virus was tested as a vaccine in the laboratory and in Vietnamese villages. The infectivity litre of lyophilised vaccine fell less than 1 log10 unit on storage for 6 days at 26-32 degrees C. Vaccine stored at similar temperatures induced high levels of immunity in laboratory chickens after storage for 17 days and in village chickens after storage for 21 days. I2 vaccine protected for at least 24 weeks after vaccination, and for 16 weeks after application in drinking water. Under laboratory conditions, I2 vaccine given by eye drop spread by contact to unvaccinated chickens, inducing in them both an antibody response and protective immunity. In villages, chickens vaccinated by eye drop, chickens receiving vaccine on food and chickens in contact with vaccinated chickens all resisted artificial challenge 6 weeks after vaccination. There were no adverse reactions to vaccination. Strain I2 was judged to be thermostable, avirulent and immunogenic, and suitable for use as a vaccine under village conditions. PMID:9604268

  2. Detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus antibodies by glycoprotein-specific ELISAs in chickens vaccinated with viral vector vaccines.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Alecia; Icard, Alan; Martinez, Mellisa; Mashchenko, Anna; García, Maricarmen; El-Attrachea, John

    2013-06-01

    Two glycoproteins of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), gI and gB, were expressed in baculovirus and purified for the development of ILTV recombinant protein-based ELISAs. The ability of gB and gI ELISAs to detect ILTV antibodies in chickens vaccinated with viral vector vaccines carrying the ILTV gB gene, Vectormune FP-LT (the commercial fowlpox vector laryngotracheitis vaccine) and Vectormune HVT-LT (commercial turkey herpesvirus vector laryngotracheitis vaccine), was evaluated using serum samples from experimentally vaccinated and challenge chickens. The detection of gB antibodies in the absence of gI antibodies in serum from chickens vaccinated with FP-LT indicated that the gB ELISA was specific for the detection of antibodies elicited by vaccination with this viral vector vaccine. The gB ELISA was more sensitive than the commercial ILTV ELISA to detect seroconversion after vaccination with the FP-LT vaccine. Both gI and gB antibodies were detected in the serum samples collected from chickens at different times postchallenge, indicating that the combination of these ELISAs was suitable to screen serum samples from chickens vaccinated with either recombinant viral vector FP-LT or HVT-LT vaccines. The agreement between the gI ELISA and the commercial ELISA to detect antibodies in serum samples collected after challenge was robust. However, further validation of these ELISAs needs to be performed with field samples. PMID:23901757

  3. Embryo vaccination of chickens using a novel adjuvant formulation stimulates protective immunity against Eimeria maxima infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-Hyen Lee; Hyun S. Lillehoj; Seung I. Jang; Yeong-Ho Hong; Wongi Min; Erik P. Lillehoj; Robert J. Yancey; Paul Dominowski

    2010-01-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that chickens immunized subcutaneously with an Eimeria recombinant profilin protein vaccine emulsified in a Quil A\\/cholesterol\\/DDA\\/Carbopol (QCDC) adjuvant developed partial protection against experimental avian coccidiosis compared with animals immunized with profilin alone. Because in ovo vaccination is presently used in commercial applications worldwide throughout the poultry industry, the current study was undertaken to investigate chicken embryo

  4. Vaccination with affinity?purified glycoproteins protects chickens against infectious laryngotracheitis herpesvirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer J. York; K. J. Fahey

    1991-01-01

    Glycoproteins of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) were purified from detergent extracts of virus?infected cells by lectin affinity chromatography. In these preparations, glycoproteins of 205, 160, 115, 90, 85, 74, 60 and 50 kDa were recognized by immune chicken serum in Western blotting. Vaccination of chickens with these ILTV glycoproteins protected up to 83% of chickens against replication of the challenge

  5. Safety and efficacy of a turkey herpesvirus vector laryngotracheitis vaccine for chickens.

    PubMed

    Esaki, Motoyuki; Noland, Lauren; Eddins, Tim; Godoy, Alecia; Saeki, Sakiko; Saitoh, Shuji; Yasuda, Atsushi; Dorsey, Kristi Moore

    2013-06-01

    Turkey herpesvirus vector laryngotracheitis vaccine (HVT/LT) expressing the glycoprotein B gene of laryngotracheitis virus (LTV) has been developed. In vitro growth kinetics of HVT/LT were similar to those of parental turkey herpesvirus (HVT), FC-126 strain. Genetic and phenotypic stabilities of HVT/LT after in vitro (in cell culture) or in vivo (in chickens) passage were confirmed by various assays, including Southern blot analysis, western blot analysis, and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Safety of HVT/LT was assessed by an overdose study as well as by a backpassage study in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. The overdose study indicated that HVT/LT did not cause any adverse effects in chickens. The backpassage study confirmed that HVT/LT does not revert to virulence after five passages in chickens. The vaccine did not transmit laterally from vaccinated chickens to commingled nonvaccinated chickens. Efficacy of HVT/LT was evaluated in SPF layer chickens after vaccination by the subcutaneous route at 1 day of age. The majority of the vaccinated chickens (92%-100%) were protected against challenge with virulent LTV at 7 wk of age. Efficacy of HVT/LT was further evaluated in broiler chickens from a commercial source after in ovo vaccination to embryos at 18 days of incubation. After challenge with virulent LTV at 21 and 35 days of age, 67% and 87% of HVT/LT-vaccinated chickens did not develop LT clinical signs, respectively, while 100% (21 days of age) and 73% (35 days of age) of the challenge control chickens showed clinical signs of LT. These results suggest that HVT/LT is a safe and efficacious vaccine for control of laryngotracheitis (LT). PMID:24689173

  6. Methylome Analysis in Chickens Immunized with Infectious Laryngotracheitis Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, José A.; He, Yanghua; Luo, Juan; Menendez, Kimberly R.; Tablante, Nathaniel L.; Zhao, Keji; Paulson, Joseph N.; Li, Bichun; Song, Jiuzhou

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the methylome of chickens immunized with Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) vaccine derived from chicken embryos. Methyl-CpG binding domain protein-enriched genome sequencing (MBD-Seq) method was employed in the detection of the 1,155 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) across the entire genome. After validation, we ascertained the genomic DMRs distribution and annotated them regarding genes, transcription start sites (TSS) and CpG islands. We found that global DNA methylation decreased in vaccinated birds, presenting 704 hypomethylated and 451 hypermethylated DMRs, respectively. Additionally, we performed an enrichment analysis detecting gene networks, in which cancer and RNA post-transcriptional modification appeared in the first place, followed by humoral immune response, immunological disease and inflammatory disease. The top four identified canonical pathways were EIF2 signaling, regulation of EIF4 and p70S6K signaling, axonal guidance signaling and mTOR signaling, providing new insight regarding the mechanisms of ILT etiology. Lastly, the association between DNA methylation and differentially expressed genes was examined, and detected negative correlation in seventeen of the eighteen genes. PMID:26107953

  7. Use of a vectored vaccine against infectious bursal disease of chickens in the face of high-titred maternally derived antibody.

    PubMed

    Bublot, M; Pritchard, N; Le Gros, F-X; Goutebroze, S

    2007-07-01

    Interference by maternally derived antibody (MDA) is a major problem for the vaccination of young chickens against infectious bursal disease (IBD). The choice of the timing of vaccination and of the type (degree of attenuation) of modified-live vaccine (MLV) to use is often difficult. An IBD vectored vaccine (vHVT13), in which turkey herpesvirus (HVT) is used as the vector, was recently developed. This vaccine is administered once at the hatchery, either in ovo or by the subcutaneous route, to 1-day-old chicks at a time when MDA is maximal. In terms of safety, the vHVT13 vaccine had negligible impact on the bursa of Fabricius when compared with classical IBD MLV. Vaccination and challenge studies demonstrated that this vaccine is able to protect chickens against various IBD virus (IBDV) challenge strains including very virulent, classical, and USA variant IBDV, despite the presence of high-titred IBD MDA at the time of vaccination. These data show that the vector vaccine combines a safety and efficacy profile that cannot be achieved with classical IBD vaccines. PMID:17560594

  8. Avian influenza in ovo vaccination with replication defective recombinant adenovirus in chickens: Vaccine potency, antibody persistence, and maternal antibody transfer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) can be elicited in chickens in a single-dose regimen by in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad)-vector encoding the AI virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA). We evaluated vaccine potency, antibo...

  9. Young Hispanic Men and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Choices.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tami L; Stephens, Dionne P; Johnson-Mallard, Versie; Higgins, Melinda

    2014-05-19

    This exploratory descriptive study examined perceived vulnerabilities to human papillomavirus (HPV) and the correlation to factors influencing vaccine beliefs and vaccine decision making in young Hispanic males attending a large public urban university. Only 24% of participants believed that the HPV vaccine could prevent future problems, and 53% said they would not be vaccinated. The best predictors of HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men were agreement with doctor recommendations and belief in the vaccine's efficacy. Machismo cultural norms influence young Hispanic men's HPV-related decision making, their perceptions of the vaccine, and how they attitudinally act on what little HPV information they have access to. This study provides culturally relevant information for the development of targeted health education strategies aimed at increasing HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men. PMID:24841473

  10. Characterization of recombinant Raccoonpox Vaccine Vectors in Chickens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hwa, S.-H.; Iams, K.P.; Hall, J.S.; Kingstad, B.A.; Osorio, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Raccoonpox virus (RCN) has been used as a recombinant vector against several mammalian pathogens but has not been tested in birds. The replication of RCN in chick embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) and chickens was studied with the use of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 hemagglutinin (HA) as a model antigen and luciferase (luc) as a reporter gene. Although RCN replicated to low levels in CEFs, it efficiently expressed recombinant proteins and, in vivo, elicited anti-HA immunoglobulin yolk (IgY) antibody responses comparable to inactivated influenza virus. Biophotonic in vivo imaging of 1-wk-old chicks with RCN-luc showed strong expression of the luc reporter gene lasting up to 3 days postinfection. These studies demonstrate the potential of RCN as a vaccine vector for avian influenza and other poultry pathogens. ?? American Association of Avian Pathologists 2010.

  11. Protection of chickens against avian influenza with nonreplicating adenovirus-vectored vaccine.

    PubMed

    Toro, H; Tang, D C

    2009-04-01

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus has been elicited in chickens by single-dose in ovo or i.m. vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (Ad)-free human Ad vector encoding the AI virus A/Turkey/Wisconsin/68 H5 (AdTW68. H5) or the A/Chicken/New York/94 H7 (AdChNY94. H7) hemagglutinin (HA). The AdTW68.H5-vaccinated chickens were protected against both H5N1 and H5N2 highly pathogenic AI virus challenges. The AdChNY94. H7-vaccinated chickens were protected against an H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus challenge. Chickens vaccinated in ovo with AdTW68.H5 followed by posthatch i.m. vaccination with AdChNY94.H7 responded to both vaccinations, with robust antibody titers against both the H5 and H7 AI proteins. The use of a synthetic AI H5 HA gene codon optimized to match the tRNA pool found in chicken cells is more potent than the cognate H5 HA gene. Mass administration of this AI vaccine can be streamlined with available robotic in ovo injectors. In addition, Ad5-vectored vaccines can be produced rapidly and the safety margin of the nonreplicating vector is superior to that of a replicating counterpart. Furthermore, this mode of vaccination will not interfere with epidemiological surveys of natural AI infections. Finally, the demonstration that Ad-vectored vaccines can be administered repeatedly without appreciably losing potency highlights the commercial potential of this new class of vaccine in poultry. PMID:19276437

  12. Protective immune response of chickens to oral vaccination with thermostable live Fowlpox virus vaccine (strain TPV1) coated on oiled rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philemon N. Wambura; S. K. Godfrey

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop and evaluate a local vaccine (strain TPV-1) against Fowl pox (FP) in chickens.\\u000a Two separate groups of chickens were vaccinated with FP vaccine through oral (coated on oiled rice) and wing web stab routes,\\u000a respectively. The results showed that the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titres in both vaccinated groups were\\u000a comparable and

  13. Interaction between live avian pneumovirus and Newcastle disease virus vaccines in specific pathogen free chickens.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, K; Cargill, P; Montiel, E; Jones, R C

    2005-08-01

    One-day-old specific pathogen free White Leghorn chicks were vaccinated with live avian pneumovirus (APV) vaccine, live Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine or both. At intervals up to 28 days after vaccination, distribution of the virus in the tissues was studied, together with humoral and mucosal antibody responses in lachrymal fluid and tracheal washes. APV vaccine was detected for almost twice as long in the dual vaccinates as in the single vaccinates. Higher numbers of isolations of ND virus vaccine were obtained from the dual rather than the single vaccinates at 7 days post-vaccination but the reverse occurred at 14 days. APV serum antibodies were significantly lower in the dual rather than the single vaccinates. However, there were similar levels of local APV-specific IgA in the lachrymal fluids of both single and dual APV vaccinates. NDV serum antibody titres in the dual vaccinates were significantly higher than in the singly NDV-vaccinated chickens. It appears that simultaneous vaccination of chicks with live APV and NDV vaccines causes temporary suppression of APV vaccine proliferation and reduces humoral antibody responses to it, although the antibody response to NDV is enhanced. PMID:16147565

  14. Avian influenza in ovo vaccination with replication defective recombinant adenovirus in chickens: vaccine potency, antibody persistence, and maternal antibody transfer.

    PubMed

    Mesonero, Alexander; Suarez, David L; van Santen, Edzard; Tang, De-Chu C; Toro, Haroldo

    2011-06-01

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) can be elicited in chickens in a single-dose regimen by in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad)-vector encoding the AI virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA). We evaluated vaccine potency, antibody persistence, transfer of maternal antibodies (MtAb), and interference between MtAb and active in ovo or mucosal immunization with RCA-free recombinant Ad expressing a codon-optimized AIV H5 HA gene from A/turkey/WI/68 (AdTW68.H5(ck)). Vaccine coverage and intrapotency test repeatability were based on anti-H5 hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody levels detected in in ovo vaccinated chickens. Even though egg inoculation of each replicate was performed by individuals with varying expertise and with different vaccine batches, the average vaccine coverage of three replicates was 85%. The intrapotency test repeatability, which considers both positive as well as negative values, varied between 0.69 and 0.71, indicating effective vaccination. Highly pathogenic (HP) AIV challenge of chicken groups vaccinated with increasing vaccine doses showed 90% protection in chickens receiving > or = 10(8) ifu (infectious units)/bird. The protective dose 50% (PD50) was determined to be 10(6.5) ifu. Even vaccinated chickens that did not develop detectable antibody levels were effectively protected against HP AIV challenge. This result is consistent with previous findings ofAd-vector eliciting T lymphocyte responses. Higher vaccine doses significantly reduced viral shedding as determined by AIV RNA concentration in oropharyngeal swabs. Assessment of antibody persistence showed that antibody levels of in ovo immunized chickens continued to increase until 12 wk and started to decline after 18 wk of age. Intramuscular (IM) booster vaccination with the same vaccine at 16 wk of age significantly increased the antibody responses in breeder hens, and these responses were maintained at high levels throughout the experimental period (34 wk of age). AdTW68.H5(ch)-immunized breeder hens effectively transferred MtAb to progeny chickens. The level of MtAb in the progenies was consistent with the levels detected in the breeders, i.e., intramuscularly boosted breeders transferred higher concentrations of antibodies to the offspring. Maternal antibodies declined with time in the progenies and achieved marginal levels by 34 days of age. Chickens with high maternal antibody levels that were vaccinated either in ovo or via mucosal routes (ocular or spray) did not seroconvert. In contrast, chickens without MtAb successfully developed specific antibody levels after either in ovo or mucosal vaccination. These results indicate that high levels of MtAb interfered with active Ad-vectored vaccination. PMID:21793447

  15. Evaluation of factors influencing replication of serotype 1 Marek's disease vaccines in the chicken lung.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Isabel M; Cortes, Aneg L

    2010-04-01

    Factors influencing replication of serotype 1 Marek's disease vaccines in the lung of chickens within the first 10 days of age (doa) were evaluated. In particular, the effect of vaccine efficacy, age/route of vaccination, and vaccine dose were examined in three experiments. In the first experiment, three vaccine pairs, each pair consisting of a high protective (HP) and a low protective (LP) vaccine (CVI988/BP5 and CVI988-Clone C, 648A80 and 648A100, R2 and R2/23) were used to inoculate chickens subcutaneously (s.c.) with 2000 plaque-forming units (PFU) at hatch. DNA load in the lung was significantly higher in the HP vaccine group than the LP vaccine group at 5 and 10 doa in two of the three vaccine pairs. In the lung, at 5 doa, early MDV gene transcripts (ICP4 and pp38) were detected in most vaccine groups, whereas late MDV gene transcripts (gB and gI) were detected only in the HP vaccine group. In the second experiment, chickens were vaccinated in ovo or s.c. at hatch with 2000 PFU R2, R2/23, or CVI988/BP5. Compared with s.c. vaccination, in ovo vaccination resulted in higher MDV DNA load in the lung at 3 doa, lower or equal MDV DNA load at 5 doa, and lower MDV DNA load at 10 doa. In the third experiment, chickens were vaccinated s.c. at hatch with either 2000 or 10,000 PFU strain R2. There were no statistically significant differences in the load of MDV DNA in the lung after vaccination with R2 between the two doses. Our results showed that HP vaccines tend to replicate better than LP vaccines in the lung; and vaccine replication in the lung within the first 10 days of age was affected by the age/route of inoculation (in ovo versus s.c.) but not by the dose of vaccine administered. PMID:20390540

  16. Vietnamese trials with a thermostable Newcastle disease vaccine (strain I 2) in experimental and village chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tran Dinh Tu; Kim Van Phuc; Nguyen Thi Kim Dinh; Duong Nghia Quoc; P. B Spradbrow

    1998-01-01

    The Australian I2 strain of Newcastle disease virus was tested as a vaccine in the laboratory and in Vietnamese villages. The infectivity titre of lyophilised vaccine fell less than 1 log10 unit on storage for 6 days at 26–32°C. Vaccine stored at similar temperatures induced high levels of immunity in laboratory chickens after storage for 17 days and in village

  17. Protection of chickens against infectious bronchitis virus with a multivalent DNA vaccine and boosting with an inactivated vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yujun; Hu, Yongting; Qiu, Jianyang; Lei, Wenxin; Ji, Wenhui; Li, Xuying; Wu, Qian; Shi, Xiumin; Li, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    The protective efficacy of DNA plasmids encoding avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1, N, or M protein was investigated in chickens. Chickens were inoculated monovalently (with plasmid pVAX1-16S1, pVAX1-16M, or pVAX1-16N alone) or multivalently (combination of the three different plasmids, pVAX1-16S1/M/N). A prime-boost immunization protocol against IBV was developed. Chickens were immunized with the multivalent DNA vaccine twice and then boosted with an inactivated vaccine once. Antibody titers of the chickens immunized with pVAX1-16S1/M/N were much higher than those of the monovalent groups (p < 0.01). A protective rate up to 90% was observed in the pVAX1-16S1/M/N group. The serum antibody titers in the prime-boost birds were significantly higher than those of the multivalent DNA vaccine group (p < 0.01) but not significantly different compared to the inactivated vaccine group at 49 days of age. Additionally, the prime-boost group also showed the highest level of IBV-specific cellular proliferation compared to the monovalent groups (p < 0.01) but no significant difference was found compared to the multivalent DNA vaccine group, and the prime-boost group completely protected from followed viral challenge. PMID:23388447

  18. Bursal transcriptome of chickens protected by DNA vaccination versus those challenged with infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Chun; Kim, Bong-Suk; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection destroys the bursa of Fabricius, causing immunosuppression and rendering chickens susceptible to secondary bacterial or viral infections. IBDV large-segment-protein-expressing DNA has been shown to confer complete protection of chickens from infectious bursal disease (IBD). The purpose of the present study was to compare DNA-vaccinated chickens and unvaccinated chickens upon IBDV challenge by transcriptomic analysis of bursa regarding innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were vaccinated intramuscularly three times at weekly intervals with IBDV large-segment-protein-expressing DNA. Chickens were challenged orally with 8.2 × 10(2) times the egg infective dose (EID)50 of IBDV strain variant E (VE) one week after the last vaccination. Bursae collected at 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days post-challenge (dpc) were subjected to real-time RT-PCR quantification of bursal transcripts related to innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport. The expression levels of granzyme K and CD8 in DNA-vaccinated chickens were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those in unvaccinated chickens upon IBDV challenge at 0.5 or 1 dpc. The expression levels of other genes involved in innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport were not upregulated or downregulated in DNA-vaccinated chickens during IBDV challenge. Bursal transcripts related to innate immunity and inflammation, including TLR3, MDA5, IFN-?, IFN-?, IRF-1, IRF-10, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, iNOS, granzyme A, granzyme K and IL-10, were upregulated or significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated at 3 dpc and later in unvaccinated chickens challenged with IBDV. The expression levels of genes related to immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport, including CD4, CD8, IL-2, IFN-?, IL-12(p40), IL-18, GM-CSF, GATA-3, p53, glucose transporter-2 and glucose transporter-3, were upregulated or significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated at 3 dpc and later in unvaccinated chickens challenged with IBDV. Taken together, the results indicate that the bursal transcriptome involved in innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport, except for granzyme K and CD8, was not differentially expressed in DNA-vaccinated chickens protected from IBDV challenge. PMID:25267176

  19. Vaccination of chickens with SPI1-lon and SPI1-lon-fliC mutant of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Matulova, Marta; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is gradually decreasing in poultry flocks in the EU, which may result in the demand for a vaccine that allows for the differentiation of vaccinated flocks from those infected by wild-type S. Enteritidis. In this study, we therefore constructed a (Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1) SPI1-lon mutant with or without fliC encoding for S. Enteritidis flagellin. The combination of SPI1-lon mutations resulted in attenuated but immunogenic mutant suitable for oral vaccination of poultry. In addition, the vaccination of chickens with the SPI1-lon-fliC mutant enabled the serological differentiation of vaccinated and infected chickens. The absence of fliC therefore did not affect the immunogenicity of the vaccine strain and allowed for serological differentiation of the vaccinated chickens. The SPI1-lon-fliC mutant is therefore a suitable marker vaccine strain for oral vaccination of poultry. PMID:23785484

  20. The appearance of viral antigen and antibody in the trachea of naive and vaccinated chickens infected with infectious laryngotracheitis virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer J. York; J. G. Young; K. J. Fahey

    1989-01-01

    In chickens vaccinated with SA?2 infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) virus, viral antigen could no longer be detected in tracheal washings from day 7 post infection (pi). Total specific antibody was detected in tracheal washings from day 5 pi, IgA antibody appeared at day 6 pi, but neutralising antibody could not be detected until day 14. In the serum of vaccinated chickens,

  1. Effects of DDA, CpG-ODN, and plasmid-encoded chicken IFN-? on protective immunity by a DNA vaccine against IBDV in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Ha Jung; Sung, Haan Woo

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the adjuvant effects of dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDA), CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN), and chicken interferon-? (ChIFN-?) on a DNA vaccine (pcDNA-VP243) against the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). A plasmid encoding chicken IFN-ã was constructed. Twice at 2-week intervals, two-week-old chickens were injected intramuscularly and intraperitoneally with either a DNA vaccine alone or a DNA vaccine together with the respective adjuvants. On week 2 after the second immunization, the chickens were orally challenged with the highly virulent IBDV. The groups that received the DNA vaccines plus either DDA or CpG-ODN showed significantly lower survival rates than the group that received the DNA vaccine alone. However, the survival rates for the DNA vaccine alone and for the DNA vaccine plus ChIFN-? were similar. The chickens had no detectable antibodies to the IBDV before the challenge but all the surviving chickens in all groups except for the normal control group showed the induction of antibodies to the IBDV at day 10 after the challenge. As judged by the lymphocyte proliferation assays using the a WST-8 solution performed on the peripheral blood and splenic lymphocytes, the stimulation indices (SI) of the peripheral blood lymphocytes in all groups except for the normal control group were similar immediately before the challenge. At 10 days post-challenge, the SI for DNA vaccine plus either CpG-ODN or ChIFN-? was similar to that of the DNA vaccine control group. For splenic lymphocytes, the SI in the DNA vaccine plus CpG-ODN and DNA vaccine plus ChIFN-? groups were higher than for the DNA vaccine control. These results suggest that DDA actually compromises the protection against the IBDV by DNA vaccine, and CpG-ODN and IFN-? had no significant effect. PMID:17106228

  2. Assessment of attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains in controlling experimental Salmonella Typhimurium infection in chickens.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yanlong; Parreira, Valeria R; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy; Prescott, John F

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella hold considerable promise as vaccine delivery vectors for heterologous antigens in chickens. Such vaccines have the potential additional benefit of also controlling Salmonella infection in immunized birds. As a way of selecting attenuated strains with optimal immunogenic potential as antigen delivery vectors, this study screened 20 novel Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, differing in mutations associated with delayed antigen synthesis and delayed attenuation, for their efficacy in controlling colonization by virulent Salmonella Typhimurium, as well as for their persistence in the intestine and the spleen. Marked differences were observed between strains in these characteristics, which provide the basis for selection for further study as vaccine vectors. PMID:24396177

  3. Assessment of attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains in controlling experimental Salmonella Typhimurium infection in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Yanlong; Parreira, Valeria R.; Roland, Kenneth L.; Curtiss, Roy; Prescott, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella hold considerable promise as vaccine delivery vectors for heterologous antigens in chickens. Such vaccines have the potential additional benefit of also controlling Salmonella infection in immunized birds. As a way of selecting attenuated strains with optimal immunogenic potential as antigen delivery vectors, this study screened 20 novel Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, differing in mutations associated with delayed antigen synthesis and delayed attenuation, for their efficacy in controlling colonization by virulent Salmonella Typhimurium, as well as for their persistence in the intestine and the spleen. Marked differences were observed between strains in these characteristics, which provide the basis for selection for further study as vaccine vectors. PMID:24396177

  4. A chronicle of serologic response in commercial layer chickens to vaccination with commercial F strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine.

    PubMed

    Branton, S L; Leigh, S A; Purswell, J L; Evans, J D; Collier, S D; Olanrewaju, H A; Pharr, G T

    2010-09-01

    Vaccination of multi-age layer operations, wherein one million plus commercial layer chickens are housed, has been spurious until the development of a self-propelled, constant-speed spray vaccinator. Still, even with its use, live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccinations have been questionable in terms of seroconversion. Using the vaccinator as a research tool over the past 5 yr, factors have been elucidated which impact seroconversion to one live MG vaccine in particular, the F strain of MG (FMG). These factors include the type of nozzle used to spray the vaccine, the temperature of the water used to rehydrate and administer the vaccine, and the pH and osmolarity of the fluid used to apply the vaccine. In the present study, one farm was monitored for its seroconversion rates over 4 1/2 yr, during which time the FMG vaccination protocol was amended as factors were identified that enhanced seroconversion rates. The results of this study showed that implementation and inclusion of the optimized factors into the vaccination protocol for FMG enhanced seroconversion rates because they went from an initial 50%-55% positive seroconversion rate to a consistent 100% positive seroconversion rate over the 56-mo study period. PMID:20945798

  5. Protection of chickens against avian influenza with non-replicating adenovirus-vectored vaccine.

    PubMed

    Toro, Haroldo; Tang, De-chu C; Suarez, David L; Zhang, Jianfeng; Shi, Zhongkai

    2008-05-19

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose vaccination with a replication competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus (Ad) vector encoding an H7 AI hemagglutinin (AdChNY94.H7). Chickens vaccinated in ovo with an Ad vector encoding an AI H5 (AdTW68.H5) previously described, which were subsequently vaccinated intramuscularly with AdChNY94.H7 post-hatch, responded with robust antibody titers against both the H5 and H7 AI proteins. Antibody responses to Ad vector in ovo vaccination follow a dose-response kinetic. The use of a synthetic AI H5 gene codon optimized to match the chicken cell tRNA pool was more potent than the cognate H5 gene. The use of Ad-vectored vaccines to increase resistance of chicken populations against multiple AI strains could reduce the risk of an avian-originating influenza pandemic in humans. PMID:18384919

  6. Salmonella enteritidis clearance and immune responses in chickens following Salmonella vaccination and challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Babu; R. A. Dalloul; M. Okamura; H. S. Lillehoj; H. Xie; R. B. Raybourne; D. Gaines; R. A. Heckert

    2004-01-01

    Our previous work showed that the cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was enhanced by live Salmonella vaccine (LV). The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of live and killed Salmonella vaccines on Salmonella enteritidis (SE) clearance and to determine if the clearance was mediated by cell-mediated and\\/or humoral immunity. Chickens were first immunized at 2 weeks of age followed

  7. Effects of interferon-? knockdown on vaccine-induced immunity against Marek's disease in chickens.

    PubMed

    Haq, Kamran; Wootton, Sarah K; Barjesteh, Neda; Golovan, Serguei; Bendall, Andrew; Sharif, Shayan

    2015-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-? has been shown to be associated with immunity to Marek's disease virus (MDV). The overall objective of this study was to investigate the causal relationship between IFN-? and vaccine-conferred immunity against MDV in chickens. To this end, 3 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting chicken IFN-?, which had previously been shown to reduce IFN-? expression in vitro, and a control siRNA were selected to generate recombinant avian adeno-associated virus (rAAAV) expressing short-hairpin small interfering RNAs (shRNAs). An MDV challenge trial was then conducted: chickens were vaccinated with herpesvirus of turkey (HVT), administered the rAAAV expressing shRNA, and then challenged with MDV. Tumors were observed in 4 out of 10 birds that were vaccinated with HVT and challenged but did not receive any rAAAV, 5 out of 9 birds that were administered the rAAAV containing IFN-? shRNA, and 2 out of 10 birds that were administered a control enhanced green fluorescent protein siRNA. There was no significant difference in MDV genome load in the feather follicle epithelium of the birds that were cotreated with the vaccine and the rAAAV compared with the vaccinated MDV-infected birds. These results suggest that AAAV-based vectors can be used for the delivery of shRNA into chicken cells. However, administration of the rAAAV expressing shRNA targeting chicken IFN-? did not seem to fully abrogate vaccine-induced protection. PMID:25673902

  8. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…

  9. A Eukaryotic Expression Plasmid Carrying Chicken Interleukin-18 Enhances the Response to Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaokang; Zhang, Chunjie; Wu, Tingcai; Li, Yinju

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an important cytokine involved in innate and acquired immunity. In this study, we cloned the full-length chicken IL-18 (ChIL-18) gene from specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicken embryo spleen cells and provided evidence that the ChIL-18 gene in a recombinant plasmid was successfully expressed in chicken DT40 cells. ChIL-18 significantly enhanced gamma interferon (IFN-?) mRNA expression in chicken splenocytes, which increased IFN-?-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by macrophages. The potential genetic adjuvant activity of the ChIL-18 plasmid was examined in chickens by coinjecting ChIL-18 plasmid and inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. ChIL-18 markedly elevated serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers and anti-hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (anti-HN)-specific antibody levels, induced the secretion of both Th1- (IFN-?) and Th2- (interleukin-4) type cytokines, promoted the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes, and increased the populations of CD3+ T cells and their subsets, CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, a virus challenge revealed that ChIL-18 contributed to protection against Newcastle disease virus challenge. Taken together, our data indicate that the coadministration of ChIL-18 plasmid and NDV vaccine induces a strong immune response at both the humoral and cellular levels and that ChIL-18 is a novel immunoadjuvant suitable for NDV vaccination. PMID:25355794

  10. Differences in the immunopathogenesis of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) following in ovo and post-hatch vaccination of chickens.

    PubMed

    Rautenschlein, Silke; Haase, Christine

    2005-06-15

    Not much is known about IBDV-pathogenesis and immune mechanisms following in ovo vaccination. In this study, we compared the immunopathogenesis of an intermediate IBDV-vaccine in post-hatch- and in ovo-inoculated chickens. In ovo-vaccinated birds recovered significantly faster from lesions of the bursa of Fabricius than post-hatch vaccinated (P<0.05). A significant accumulation of intrabursal CD8(+) T cells was observed in post-hatch but not in in ovo-vaccinated chickens (P<0.05). The innate immunity was comparable between in ovo- and post-hatch-vaccinated groups as indicated by comparable intrabursal macrophage accumulation and intrabursal IBDV-clearance. Overall, our observations indicate that IBDV in ovo vaccination may be advantageous over post-hatch. In ovo-vaccinated birds recover faster from bursa lesions and exhibit similar protection against challenge in comparison to post-hatch vaccinated. PMID:15911001

  11. Comparative evaluation of cell culture-adapted and chicken embryo-adapted fowl pox vaccine strains.

    PubMed

    Baxi, M K; Oberoi, M S

    1999-01-01

    Two types of vaccines, chicken embryo adapted (VacCE) and cell culture adapted (VacCC), were tested for their efficacy to elicite the immune response in birds vaccinated at 2 and 8 wk of age. The cell-mediated immune response studied by blastogenesis assay showed that birds vaccinated at the second week of age by both VacCE and VacCC vaccines had significant increase in T-lymphocyte count at 21 days postvaccination (PV) and 7 days postchallenge (PC), whereas in birds vaccinated at 8 wk of age, a significant increase was seen at 21 days PV and 7 days PC with the VacCC vaccine. The rise in passive hemagglutination titers was observed up to 21 days PV and 7 days PC in birds vaccinated at 2 wk of age. However, only the birds vaccinated with VacCC at 8 wk of age showed rise in titers at days 21 PV and 7 PC. Birds were challenged 90 days PV by scarification on the thigh region, and the birds vaccinated with VacCC showed 90% and 70% protection when vaccinated at 2 and 8 wk, respectively. The birds vaccinated with VacCE showed only 60% and 20% protection at the corresponding levels, respectively. PMID:10216755

  12. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability Among Young Adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high prevalence setting of South Africa—where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. In 2007, we conducted six focus groups (n=42) with South Africans aged 18-24 years old. We used a deductive framework approach to identify key motivators and barriers to future HIV vaccine uptake. Participants identified HIV testing, HIV stigma, mistrust of the health care system, and concerns about sexual disinhibition as barriers to vaccine uptake. For women, family members and friends were strong motivators for vaccine uptake, while men were more likely to see vaccines as an opportunity to stop using HIV prevention strategies such as condoms and partner reductions. Implications of these findings for developing HIV vaccine dissemination strategies and policy in South Africa are discussed. PMID:19509123

  13. Subclinical Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection among Vaccinated Chickens, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qing-Xia; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Liu, Shuo; Wang, Su-Chun; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Hou, Guang-Yu; Liu, Xiang-Ming; Sui, Zheng-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Subclinical infection of vaccinated chickens with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N2) virus was identified through routine surveillance in China. Investigation suggested that the virus has evolved into multiple genotypes. To better control transmission of the virus, we recommend a strengthened program of education, biosecurity, rapid diagnostics, surveillance, and elimination of infected poultry. PMID:25418710

  14. Cellular and Cytokine Responses in Feathers of Chickens Vaccinated Against Marek's Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to characterize cellular and cytokine responses as indicators of cell-mediated immune response in feathers of chickens vaccinated against Marek’s disease (MD). Feathers constitute the site of virus shedding in the case of Marek’s disease virus (MDV). The feather sample...

  15. VACCINATION WITH ALPHAVIRUS-DERIVED NEURAMINIDASE PARTIALLY PROTECTS CHICKENS AGAINST AVIAN INFLUENZA CHALLENGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibodies produced against the influenza hemagglutinin protein protect against avian influenza (AI) infection, whereas the role of anti-neuraminidase (NA) antibodies is less clear. We hypothesized that primary response to NA vaccination was important in protection. Using chickens, we compared three...

  16. Salmonella Enteritidis with double deletion in phoPfliC--a potential live Salmonella vaccine candidate with novel characteristics for use in chickens.

    PubMed

    Methner, Ulrich; Barrow, Paul A; Berndt, Angela; Rychlik, Ivan

    2011-04-12

    Salmonella Enteritidis mutants with deletions in phoP, fliC or phoPfliC were tested for their virulence and their ability to induce parameters of the innate and adaptive immunity in addition to their potential for serological differentiation between vaccinated, non-vaccinated and infected chickens. The double phoPfliC deletion mutant was sufficiently attenuated but not diminished in its capability to inhibit the caecal colonisation and systemic invasion of homologous Salmonella Enteritidis shortly after administration of the vaccine strain to very young chicks. Immunisation with the attenuated ?phoPfliC mutant resulted in protective effects which were only slightly and insignificantly lower than after "immunisation" with a Salmonella wild-type strain, indicating the capability to induce an intense adaptive immune response and protection against Salmonella exposure in older chickens. The deletion in fliC enabled the effective the differentiation between immunised and infected chickens using a commercially available ELISA kit. The double phoPfliC deletion mutant of Salmonella Enteritidis might be a potential and promising live Salmonella vaccine candidate with novel characteristics for use in poultry. PMID:21354250

  17. Vaccine by chicken line interaction alters the protective efficacy against challenge with a very virulent plus strain of Marek's disease virus in white leghorn chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by Marek’s disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic and highly contagious a-herpesvirus. MD has been controlled by vaccination but sporadic outbreaks of MD still occur in some parts of the world. Efforts to improve vaccine ef...

  18. Delayed vaccine virus replication in chickens vaccinated subcutaneously with an immune complex infectious bursal disease vaccine: Quantification of vaccine virus by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The distribution of the immune complex vaccine virus for infectious bursal disease (IBD) in tissue was examined and the viral loads of the organs were quantitatively compared. One-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) and maternally immune broiler chickens were injected subcutaneously with the vaccine. Lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues were collected at various time intervals during the experiment to test for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-RNA by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Only the bursa of Fabricius was found to be positive with unusually long viral persistence in the broiler group. The positive bursa samples were further investigated by using real-time PCR coupled with a TaqMan probe. The highest amounts of the virus were detected at its first appearance in the bursa: on day 14 post vaccination (PV) in the SPF chickens and on day 17 and day 21 PV in the maternally immune broiler group. The virus then gradually cleared, most likely due to the parallel appearance of the active immune response indicated by seroconversion. PMID:15971678

  19. The working mechanism of an immune complex vaccine that protects chickens against infectious bursal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Jeurissen, S H; Janse, E M; Lehrbach, P R; Haddad, E E; Avakian, A; Whitfill, C E

    1998-01-01

    The role of immune complexes (Icx) in B-cell memory formation and affinity maturation allow for their potential use as vaccines. Recently, a new immune complex vaccine has been developed that is currently under field trials conducted in commercial poultry. This immune complex vaccine is developed by mixing live intermediate plus infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) with hyperimmune IBDV chicken serum (IBDV-Icx vaccine). Here we have investigated the infectivity of this vaccine as well as the native IBDV (uncomplexed) vaccine in terms of differences in target organs, in target cells and speed of virus replication. At various days after inoculation on day 18 of incubation (in ovo) with either one dose of virus alone or the IBDV-Icx vaccine, the replication of IBDV and the frequency of B cells and other leucocyte populations were examined in the bursa of Fabricius, spleen, and thymus using immunocytochemistry. With both vaccines, IBDV was detected associated with B cells, macrophages and follicular dendritic cells (FDC) in bursa and spleen, although complexing IBDV with specific antibodies caused a delay in virus detection of about 5 days. Most remarkable was the low level of depletion of bursal and splenic B cells in IBDV-Icx vaccinated chickens. Furthermore, in ovo inoculation with the IBDV-Icx vaccine induced more germinal centres in the spleen and larger amounts of IBDV were localized on both splenic and bursal FDC. From these results we hypothesize that the working mechanism of the IBDV-Icx vaccine is related to its specific cellular interaction with FDC in spleen and bursa. Images Figure 1 PMID:9824516

  20. Protection of chicken against very virulent IBDV provided by in ovo priming with DNA vaccine and boosting with killed vaccine and the adjuvant effects of plasmid-encoded chicken interleukin-2 and interferon-?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Ho; Sung, Haan Woo; Yoon, Byung Il

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of in ovo prime-boost vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) using a DNA vaccine to prime in ovo followed by a killed-vaccine boost post hatching. In addition, the adjuvant effects of plasmid-encoded chicken interleukin-2 and chicken interferon-? were tested in conjunction with the vaccine. A plasmid DNA vaccine (pcDNA-VP243) encoding the VP2, VP4, and VP3 proteins of the very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) SH/92 strain was injected into the amniotic sac alone or in combination with a plasmid encoding chicken IL-2 (ChIL-2) or chicken IFN-? (ChIFN-?) at embryonation day 18, followed by an intramuscular injection of a commercial killed IBD vaccine at 1 week of age. The chickens were orally challenged with the vvIBDV SH/92 strain at 3 weeks of age and observed for 10 days. In ovo DNA immunization followed by a killed-vaccine boost provided significantly better immunity than the other options. No mortality was observed in this group after a challenge with the vvIBDV. The prime-boost strategy was moderately effective against bursal damage, which was measured by the bursa weight/body weight ratio, the presence of IBDV RNA, and the bursal lesion score. In ovo DNA vaccination with no boost did not provide sufficient immunity, and the addition of ChIL-2 or ChIFN-? did not enhance protective immunity. In the ConA-induced lymphocyte proliferation assay of peripheral blood lymphocyte collected 10 days post-challenge, there was greater proliferation responses in the DNA vaccine plus boost and DNA vaccine with ChIL-2 plus boost groups compared to the other groups. These findings suggest that priming with DNA vaccine and boosting with killed vaccine is an effective strategy for protecting chickens against vvIBDV. PMID:19461208

  1. Evaluation of the Immunogenisity of Immune Complex Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccine Delivered In ovo to Embryonated Eggs or Subcutaneously to Day-Old Chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    Immune complex vaccine of infectious bursal disease (IBD) were applied in ovo to embryonated eggs and subcutaneously to newly-hatched chickens in the hatchery, while the other group of chicken s received a conventional IBD vaccine at days 12, 17 and 22 of age. At day 28 of age, ten chickens from each group were challenged with the field strain of

  2. Embryo vaccination of chickens using a novel adjuvant formulation stimulates protective immunity against Eimeria maxima infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Hyen; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Hong, Yeong-Ho; Min, Wongi; Lillehoj, Erik P; Yancey, Robert J; Dominowski, Paul

    2010-11-16

    Our previous study demonstrated that chickens immunized subcutaneously with an Eimeria recombinant profilin protein vaccine emulsified in a Quil A/cholesterol/DDA/Carbopol (QCDC) adjuvant developed partial protection against experimental avian coccidiosis compared with animals immunized with profilin alone. Because in ovo vaccination is presently used in commercial applications worldwide throughout the poultry industry, the current study was undertaken to investigate chicken embryo vaccination with profilin plus QCDC adjuvant. Eighteen day-old embryos were immunized with isotonic saline (control), profilin alone, QCDC alone, or profilin plus QCDC, and orally challenged with live Eimeria maxima at 7 days post-hatch. Body weight gain, fecal oocyst output, and intestinal cytokine transcript levels were assessed as measures of protective immunity. While immunization with profilin alone or QCDC alone did not alter body weight gain of infected chickens compared with the saline control group, vaccination with profilin plus QCDC increased body weight gain such that it was equal to the uninfected controls. Immunization with profilin plus QCDC also reduced fecal oocyst shedding compared with unimmunized controls, although in this case QCDC failed to provide an adjuvant effect since no difference was observed between the profilin-only and profilin/QCDC groups. Finally, increased levels of transcripts encoding IL-1?, IL-15, and IFN-? were seen in the intestinal tissues of animals given profilin plus QCDC compared with the profilin-only or QCDC-only groups. In summary, this study demonstrates an adjuvant effect of QCDC on body weight gain and intestinal cytokine responses following in ovo vaccination of chickens with an Eimeria profilin vaccine. PMID:20956029

  3. Protection of chicken against very virulent IBDV provided by in ovo priming with DNA vaccine and boosting with killed vaccine and the adjuvant effects of plasmid-encoded chicken interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Ho; Sung, Haan Woo; Yoon, Byung Il; Kwon, Hyuk Moo

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of in ovo prime-boost vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) using a DNA vaccine to prime in ovo followed by a killed-vaccine boost post hatching. In addition, the adjuvant effects of plasmid-encoded chicken interleukin-2 and chicken interferon-gamma were tested in conjunction with the vaccine. A plasmid DNA vaccine (pcDNA-VP243) encoding the VP2, VP4, and VP3 proteins of the very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) SH/92 strain was injected into the amniotic sac alone or in combination with a plasmid encoding chicken IL-2 (ChIL-2) or chicken IFN-gamma (ChIFN-gamma) at embryonation day 18, followed by an intramuscular injection of a commercial killed IBD vaccine at 1 week of age. The chickens were orally challenged with the vvIBDV SH/92 strain at 3 weeks of age and observed for 10 days. In ovo DNA immunization followed by a killedvaccine boost provided significantly better immunity than the other options. No mortality was observed in this group after a challenge with the vvIBDV. The prime-boost strategy was moderately effective against bursal damage, which was measured by the bursa weight/body weight ratio, the presence of IBDV RNA, and the bursal lesion score. In ovo DNA vaccination with no boost did not provide sufficient immunity, and the addition of ChIL-2 or ChIFN-gamma did not enhance protective immunity. In the ConA-induced lymphocyte proliferation assay of peripheral blood lymphocyte collected 10 days post-challenge, there was greater proliferation responses in the DNA vaccine plus boost and DNA vaccine with ChIL-2 plus boost groups compared to the other groups. These findings suggest that priming with DNA vaccine and boosting with killed vaccine is an effective strategy for protecting chickens against vvIBDV. PMID:19461208

  4. Differences in the immunopathogenesis of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) following in ovo and post-hatch vaccination of chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silke Rautenschlein; Christine Haase

    2005-01-01

    Not much is known about IBDV-pathogenesis and immune mechanisms following in ovo vaccination. In this study, we compared the immunopathogenesis of an intermediate IBDV-vaccine in post-hatch- and in ovo-inoculated chickens. In ovo-vaccinated birds recovered significantly faster from lesions of the bursa of Fabricius than post-hatch vaccinated (P<0.05). A significant accumulation of intrabursal CD8+ T cells was observed in post-hatch but

  5. Effects of Cytosine-phosphate-Guanosine Oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) on vaccination and immunization of neonatal chickens 

    E-print Network

    Barri, Adriana

    2005-02-17

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of administering CpG-ODN to commercial strain chickens as a potential adjuvant to vaccination against Salmonella, Eimeria spp., and Newcastle disease virus, or immunization to bovine...

  6. Effect of montanide adjuvants on recombinant coccidia antigen vaccination against Eimeria infection in commercial meat-type chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of Montanide' adjuvants on protein subunit vaccination against experimental avian coccidiosis. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mi...

  7. Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia Vaccination Programs for Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Chesson, Harrell W.; Gift, Thomas L.; Brunham, Robert C.; Bolan, Gail

    2015-01-01

    We explored potential cost-effectiveness of a chlamydia vaccine for young women in the United States by using a compartmental heterosexual transmission model. We tracked health outcomes (acute infections and sequelae measured in quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) and determined incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) over a 50-year analytic horizon. We assessed vaccination of 14-year-old girls and catch-up vaccination for 15–24-year-old women in the context of an existing chlamydia screening program and assumed 2 prevaccination prevalences of 3.2% by main analysis and 3.7% by additional analysis. Estimated ICERs of vaccinating 14-year-old girls were $35,300/QALY by main analysis and $16,200/QALY by additional analysis compared with only screening. Catch-up vaccination for 15–24-year-old women resulted in estimated ICERs of $53,200/QALY by main analysis and $26,300/QALY by additional analysis. The ICER was most sensitive to prevaccination prevalence for women, followed by cost of vaccination, duration of vaccine-conferred immunity, and vaccine efficacy. Our results suggest that a successful chlamydia vaccine could be cost-effective. PMID:25989525

  8. Interaction between a live avian pneumovirus vaccine and two different Newcastle disease virus vaccines in broiler chickens with maternal antibodies to Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, K; Todd, V; Cargill, P; Montiel, E; Jones, R C

    2006-12-01

    Broiler chicks with maternal antibodies to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) but none to avian metapneumovirus (APV) were divided into six groups. One group was kept as an unvaccinated control group. Three of the other groups were vaccinated at 1 day old with live APV vaccine or one of two live NDV vaccines (VG/GA or HB1). The remaining two groups received the APV vaccine in combination with either of the two NDV vaccines at 1 day old. At intervals after vaccination for up to 42 days, distribution of the viruses in the tissues was monitored, together with humoral antibody responses. Few NDV isolations were made from any NDV-vaccinated chicks, probably due to the presence of NDV maternal antibodies. In both dual-vaccinated groups, APV persisted longer (up to 21 days post vaccination (d.p.v.)) than in the single vaccinates (up to 14 d.p.v.). After 14 d.p.v., antibody titres against APV in both dual-vaccinated groups remained higher than the single APV vaccinates. For NDV haemagglutination inhibition antibodies, similar titres were found in the single and dual NDV VG/GA vaccinates. However, for chickens dually vaccinated with NDV HB1 and APV, the haemagglutination inhibition titres were significantly higher at 21 and 28 d.p.v. than the single HB1 vaccinates. These differences reflect the fact that NDV haemagglutination inhibition titres may depend on the NDV vaccine used. PMID:17121730

  9. Immune responses of chickens inoculated with a recombinant fowlpox vaccine coexpressing glycoprotein B of infectious laryngotracheitis virus and chicken IL-18.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Ying; Cui, Pei; Cui, Bao-An; Li, He-Ping; Jiao, Xian-Qin; Zheng, Lan-Lan; Cheng, Guo; Chao, An-Jun

    2011-11-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes severe and economically significant respiratory disease in poultry worldwide. Herein, the immunogenicity of two recombinant fowlpox viruses (rFPV-gB and rFPV-gB/IL18) containing ILTV glycoprotein B (gB) and chicken interleukin-18 (IL-18) were investigated in a challenge model. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were vaccinated by wing-web puncture with the two rFPVs and challenged with the virulent ILTV CG strain. There were differences in antibody levels elicited by either rFPV-gB/IL18 or rFPV-gB as determined using ELISA. The ratios of CD4(+) to CD8(+) in chickens immunized with rFPV-gB/IL18 were higher (P < 0.05) than in those immunized with rFPV-gB, and the level of proliferative response of the T cells in the rFPV-gB/IL18-vaccinated group was higher (P < 0.05) than that in the rFPV-gB group. All chickens immunized with rFPV-gB/IL18 were protected (10/10), whereas only eight of 10 of the chickens immunized with the rFPV-gB were protected. The results showed that the protective efficacy of the rFPV-gB vaccine could be enhanced by simultaneous expression of chicken IL-18. PMID:22077232

  10. The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox, a live anticoccidial vaccine in a commercial trial in broiler chickens in China.

    PubMed

    Suo, X; Zhang, J X; Li, Z G; Yang, C T; Min, Q R; Xu, L T; Liu, Q; Zhu, X Q

    2006-11-30

    The efficacy and economic benefits of Supercox, a live anticoccidial vaccine were examined and compared with an anticoccidial drug in a trial in broiler chickens under modern commercial conditions in China. In total, 40,660 chickens were used in the present study, half of which were vaccinated with the Supercox vaccine comprising a precocious line of Eimeria tenella and non-attenuated lines of Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina, and the other half were medicated with Diclazuril delivered as feed additive at the dosage of 1mg/kg of feed. The vaccine was administered orally to 7-day-old chickens. No clinical diseases were diagnosed in any of the vaccinated birds. However, clinical coccidiosis occurred in a large proportion of medicated control birds and these chickens had to be treated with anticoccidial drugs (Diclazuril and Toltrazuril). Comparison of production performance between vaccinated birds and medicated control birds revealed that the vaccine Supercox performed better than anticoccidial drugs in terms of mortalities, costs and overall economic benefits (profits). These findings demonstrated that the use of the Supercox vaccine could control clinical coccidiosis in broilers and achieve production performance superior to that using anticoccidial drugs, particularly where drug resistance might result in failure to control clinical diseases. PMID:16876953

  11. Standardization of inactivated H5N2 influenza vaccine and efficacy against lethal A/Chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/83 infection.

    PubMed

    Wood, J M; Kawaoka, Y; Newberry, L A; Bordwell, E; Webster, R G

    1985-01-01

    The hemagglutinin concentration of beta-propiolactone-inactivated influenza vaccine containing A/Duck/N.Y./189/82 (H5N2) virus was measured by single-radial-immunodiffusion (SRD) test. After administration of vaccine to chickens in Freund's complete adjuvant, vaccine efficacy was assessed by challenge with lethal A/Chicken/Penn./1370/83 (H5N2) virus. SRD potency values correlated with post-vaccination antibody levels and protection against infection. PMID:4074253

  12. Baculovirus-derived hemagglutinin vaccine protects chickens from lethal homologous virus H5N1 challenge.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y J; Deng, M C; Wu, S H; Chen, Y L; Cheng, H C; Chang, C Y; Lee, M S; Chien, M S; Huang, C C

    2008-11-01

    Since outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in both human and poultry from 2003, it is critical to have effective vaccines. A cDNA fragment coding the entire hemagglutinin (HA) gene derived from an H5N1 strain (A/duck/China/E319-2/03) was cloned and expressed using the baculovirus system. Two weeks after receiving two doses of recombinant HA (rHA) vaccines, chickens develop high antibody response for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) at titer 7.2 log(2). Challenge studies revealed that vaccinated chickens with HI titers greater than 3 log(2) could have immunoprotection against the same HPAI H5N1 strain virus challenge through intranasal route. Additionally, HI titer of 5 log(2) determined whether the live viruses could not be detected from oropharyngeal, cloacal discharge or in tissues. This result suggests that the rHA expressed from baculovirus system could be a candidate for the development of a safe and efficient subunit vaccine for HPAI (H5N1). PMID:19057130

  13. Progress toward the development of polyvalent vaccination strategies against multiple viral infections in chickens using herpesvirus of turkeys as vector.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Munir

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination is the most cost effective strategy for the control and prevention of the plethora of viral diseases affecting poultry production. The major challenge for poultry vaccination is the design of vaccines that will protect against multiple pathogens via a single protective dose, delivered by mass vaccination. The Marek disease virus and the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus cause severe disease outbreaks in chickens. Vaccination with live herpesvirus of turkeys protects chickens from Marek disease and inactivated influenza viruses are used as antigens to protect chickens against influenza virus infections. We developed herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) as a vaccine vector that can act as a dual vaccine against avian influenza and Marek disease. The HVT vector was developed using reverse genetics based on an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of HVT. The BAC carrying the HVT genome was genetically modified to express the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of a highly pathogenic H7N1 virus. The resultant recombinant BAC construct containing the modified HVT sequence was transfected into chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells and HVT recombinants (rHVT-H7HA) harbouring the H7N1 HA were recovered. Analysis of cultured CEF cells infected with the rHVT-H7HA showed that HA was expressed and that the rescued rHVT-H7HA stocks were stable during several in vitro passages with no difference in growth kinetics compared with the parent HVT. Immunization of one-day-old chicks with rHVT-H7HA induced H7-specific antibodies and protected chickens challenged with homologous H7N1 virus against virus shedding, clinical disease and death. The rHVT-H7HA vaccine also induced strong and long-lasting antibody titers against H7HA in chickens that were vaccinated in ovo 3 d before hatching. This vaccine supports differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA), because no influenza virus nucleoprotein-specific antibodies were detected in the rHVT-H7HA vaccinated birds. The rHVT-H7HA not only provided protection against a lethal challenge with highly pathogenic H7N1 virus but also against highly virulent Marek disease virus and can be used as a DIVA vaccine. PMID:22705840

  14. Progress toward the development of polyvalent vaccination strategies against multiple viral infections in chickens using herpesvirus of turkeys as vector

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Munir

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination is the most cost effective strategy for the control and prevention of the plethora of viral diseases affecting poultry production. The major challenge for poultry vaccination is the design of vaccines that will protect against multiple pathogens via a single protective dose, delivered by mass vaccination. The Marek disease virus and the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus cause severe disease outbreaks in chickens. Vaccination with live herpesvirus of turkeys protects chickens from Marek disease and inactivated influenza viruses are used as antigens to protect chickens against influenza virus infections. We developed herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) as a vaccine vector that can act as a dual vaccine against avian influenza and Marek disease. The HVT vector was developed using reverse genetics based on an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of HVT. The BAC carrying the HVT genome was genetically modified to express the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of a highly pathogenic H7N1 virus. The resultant recombinant BAC construct containing the modified HVT sequence was transfected into chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells and HVT recombinants (rHVT-H7HA) harbouring the H7N1 HA were recovered. Analysis of cultured CEF cells infected with the rHVT-H7HA showed that HA was expressed and that the rescued rHVT-H7HA stocks were stable during several in vitro passages with no difference in growth kinetics compared with the parent HVT. Immunization of one-day-old chicks with rHVT-H7HA induced H7-specific antibodies and protected chickens challenged with homologous H7N1 virus against virus shedding, clinical disease and death. The rHVT-H7HA vaccine also induced strong and long-lasting antibody titers against H7HA in chickens that were vaccinated in ovo 3 d before hatching. This vaccine supports differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA), because no influenza virus nucleoprotein-specific antibodies were detected in the rHVT-H7HA vaccinated birds. The rHVT-H7HA not only provided protection against a lethal challenge with highly pathogenic H7N1 virus but also against highly virulent Marek disease virus and can be used as a DIVA vaccine. PMID:22705840

  15. Adjuvant effects of mannose-binding lectin ligands on the immune response to infectious bronchitis vaccine in chickens with high or low serum mannose-binding lectin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kjaerup, Rikke M; Dalgaard, Tina S; Norup, Liselotte R; Bergman, Ingrid-Maria; Sørensen, Poul; Juul-Madsen, Helle R

    2014-04-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays a major role in the immune response as a soluble pattern-recognition receptor. MBL deficiency and susceptibility to different types of infections have been subject to extensive studies over the last decades. In humans and chickens, several studies have shown that MBL participates in the protection of hosts against virus infections. Infectious bronchitis (IB) is a highly contagious disease of economic importance in the poultry industry caused by the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). MBL has earlier been described to play a potential role in the pathogenesis of IBV infection and the production of IBV-specific antibodies, which may be exploited in optimising IBV vaccine strategies. The present study shows that MBL has the capability to bind to IBV in vitro. Chickens from two inbred lines (L10H and L10L) selected for high or low MBL serum concentrations, respectively, were vaccinated against IBV with or without the addition of the MBL ligands mannan, chitosan and fructooligosaccharide (FOS). The addition of MBL ligands to the IBV vaccine, especially FOS, enhanced the production of IBV-specific IgG antibody production in L10H chickens, but not L10L chickens after the second vaccination. The addition of FOS to the vaccine also increased the number of circulating CD4+ cells in L10H chickens compared to L10L chickens. The L10H chickens as well as the L10L chickens also showed an increased number of CD4-CD8?-?? T-cells when an MBL ligand was added to the vaccine, most pronouncedly after the first vaccination. As MBL ligands co-administered with IBV vaccine induced differences between the two chicken lines, these results indirectly suggest that MBL is involved in the immune response to IBV vaccination. Furthermore, the higher antibody response in L10H chickens receiving vaccine and FOS makes FOS a potential adjuvant candidate in an IBV vaccine. PMID:24305086

  16. Replication of recombinant herpesvirus of turkey expressing genes of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in specific pathogen free and broiler chickens following in ovo and subcutaneous vaccination.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Isabel M; Cortes, Aneg L; Guy, James S; Turpin, Elizabeth; Williams, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    Replication of a recombinant herpesvirus of turkey vaccine expressing infectious laryngotracheitis virus genes (rHVT-LT) was evaluated in specific pathogen free (SPF) and commercial broiler chickens after various vaccination protocols (amniotic route at embryonation day [ED] 18; intra-embryonic route at ED 19; and subcutaneous at 1 day of age [s.c.]). Three experiments were conducted: in the first experiment, replication of rHVT-LT vaccine was chronologically evaluated and compared with the replication of herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) in SPF chickens; in the second experiment, the effect of different in ovo vaccination procedures on rHVT-LT vaccine replication was evaluated in SPF chickens; and in the third experiment, the effect of different in ovo vaccination procedures on rHVT-LT vaccine replication was evaluated in commercial broiler chickens with maternal antibodies against HVT and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (LTV). rHVT-LT vaccine replicated in chickens after in ovo (ED 18 and ED 19) or s.c. administration at a similar level. In vivo replication of rHVT-LT vaccine was slower than HVT vaccine. However, in vivo both rHVT-LT and HVT vaccines replicated at similar levels. Both vaccines were consistently detected in the spleen and feather pulp and at lower frequency in the lung. The frequency of samples with detectable levels of rHVT-LT DNA was lower in broiler chickens than in SPF chickens, probably due to interactions with maternal antibodies. Differences between SPF chickens and broiler chickens were found also in the transcription of the LTV glycoprotein I gene (gI). In SPF chickens, in ovo inoculation resulted in a higher number of spleen samples with detectable gI transcripts than s.c. inoculation. In broiler chickens, however, no differences in the level of gI transcripts in spleen samples were found between chickens vaccinated in ovo and those vaccinated by the s.c. route. Transcription of LTV gI gene in lung samples was very low in both SPF and broiler chickens. Further studies to evaluate the mucosal immune response elicited by rHVT-LT in chicken with and without maternal antibodies are warranted. PMID:21812719

  17. Protection induced by commercially available live-attenuated and recombinant viral vector vaccines against infectious laryngotracheitis virus in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Vagnozzi, Ariel; Zavala, Guillermo; Riblet, Sylva M; Mundt, Alice; García, Maricarmen

    2012-01-01

    Viral vector vaccines using fowl poxvirus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) as vectors and carrying infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genes are commercially available to the poultry industry in the USA. Different sectors of the broiler industry have used these vaccines in ovo or subcutaneously, achieving variable results. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of protection induced by viral vector vaccines as compared with live-attenuated ILTV vaccines. The HVT-LT vaccine was more effective than the FPV-LT vaccine in mitigating the disease and reducing levels of challenge virus when applied in ovo or subcutaneously, particularly when the challenge was performed at 57 days rather than 35 days of age. While the FPV-LT vaccine mitigated clinical signs more effectively when administered subcutaneously than in ovo, it did not reduce the concentration of challenge virus in the trachea by either application route. Detection of antibodies against ILTV glycoproteins expressed by the viral vectors was a useful criterion to assess the immunogenicity of the vectors. The presence of glycoprotein I antibodies detected pre-challenge and post challenge in chickens vaccinated with HVT-LT indicated that the vaccine induced a robust antibody response, which was paralleled by significant reduction of clinical signs. The chicken embryo origin vaccine provided optimal protection by significantly mitigating the disease and reducing the challenge virus in chickens vaccinated via eye drop. The viral vector vaccines, applied in ovo and subcutaneously, provided partial protection, reducing to some degree clinical signs, and challenge VIRUS replication in the trachea. PMID:22845318

  18. Avian influenza vaccination in chickens and pigs with replication-competent adenovirus-free human recombinant adenovirus 5.

    PubMed

    Toro, Haroldo; van Ginkel, Frederik W; Tang, De-Chu C; Schemera, Bettina; Rodning, Soren; Newton, Joseph

    2010-03-01

    Protective immunity to avian influenza (AI) virus can be elicited in chickens by in ovo or intramuscular vaccination with replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) encoding AI virus H5 (AdTW68.H5) or H7 (AdCN94.H7) hemagglutinins. We evaluated bivalent in ovo vaccination with AdTW68.H5 and AdCN94.H7 and determined that vaccinated chickens developed robust hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody levels to both H5 and H7 AI strains. Additionally, we evaluated immune responses of 1-day-old chickens vaccinated via spray with AdCN94.H7. These birds showed increased immunoglobulin A responses in lachrymal fluids and increased interleukin-6 expression in Harderian gland-derived lymphocytes. However, specific HI antibodies were not detected in the sera of these birds. Because pigs might play a role as a "mixing vessel" for the generation of pandemic influenza viruses we explored the use of RCA-free adenovirus technology to immunize pigs against AI virus. Weanling piglets vaccinated intramuscularly with a single dose of RCA-free AdTW68.H5 developed strong systemic antibody responses 3 wk postvaccination. Intranasal application of AdTW68.H5 in piglets resulted in reduced vaccine coverage, i.e., 33% of pigs (2/6) developed an antibody response, but serum antibody levels in those successfully immunized animals were similar to intramuscularly vaccinated animals. PMID:20521636

  19. Ability of MEQ-deleted MDV vaccine candidates to adversely affect lymphoid organs and chicken weight gain.

    PubMed

    Dunn, John R; Silva, Robert F

    2012-09-01

    CVI988 (Rispens) is currently the most effective vaccine used to protect against Marek's disease, a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens. A MEQ-deleted Marek's disease virus strain has shown promise as a vaccine candidate; however, unpublished results from vaccine safety trials suggest that this candidate vaccine induces unwanted lymphoid atrophy. The current study evaluated lymphoid atrophy at multiple time points between 2- and 8-wk postinoculation and attempted to correlate results with virus replication in the thymus. Results confirm reports that MEQ-deleted virus strains are able to cause thymus and bursa atrophy, which is most severe at 2-wk postinoculation. The MEQ-deleted virus strains induced lower body weights and relative thymus and bursa weights compared to uninoculated and Rispens-vaccinated chickens at multiple time points between 2- and 8-wk postinoculation. Both MEQ-deleted virus strains produced high levels of in vivo virus replication in the thymus at rates significantly greater than in Rispens-vaccinated chickens and were comparable to levels of RM1 virus, a MDV previously shown to induce severe thymus and bursa atrophy. Virus replication was highly correlated with relative thymus weights at each time point. Understanding this delicate balance between inducing maximum disease protection and preventing immunodepressive effects is critical for the development of future Marek's disease vaccines. PMID:23050465

  20. Avian Influenza Vaccination in Chickens and Pigs with Replication-Competent Adenovirus–Free Human Recombinant Adenovirus 5

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Haroldo; van Ginkel, Frederik W.; Tang, De-chu C.; Schemera, Bettina; Rodning, Soren; Newton, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Protective immunity to avian influenza (AI) virus can be elicited in chickens by in ovo or intramuscular vaccination with replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) encoding AI virus H5 (AdTW68.H5) or H7 (AdCN94.H7) hemagglutinins. We evaluated bivalent in ovo vaccination with AdTW68.H5 and AdCN94.H7 and determined that vaccinated chickens developed robust hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody levels to both H5 and H7 AI strains. Additionally, we evaluated immune responses of 1-day-old chickens vaccinated via spray with AdCN94.H7. These birds showed increased immunoglobulin A responses in lachrymal fluids and increased interleukin-6 expression in Harderian gland–derived lymphocytes. However, specific HI antibodies were not detected in the sera of these birds. Because pigs might play a role as a “mixing vessel” for the generation of pandemic influenza viruses we explored the use of RCA-free adenovirus technology to immunize pigs against AI virus. Weanling piglets vaccinated intramuscularly with a single dose of RCA-free AdTW68.H5 developed strong systemic antibody responses 3 wk postvaccination. Intranasal application of AdTW68.H5 in piglets resulted in reduced vaccine coverage, i.e., 33% of pigs (2/6) developed an antibody response, but serum antibody levels in those successfully immunized animals were similar to intramuscularly vaccinated animals. PMID:20521636

  1. Comparison of the replication and transmissibility of two infectious laryngotracheitis virus chicken embryo origin vaccines delivered via drinking water.

    PubMed

    Coppo, Mauricio J C; Devlin, Joanne M; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2012-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute infectious viral disease that affects chickens, causing respiratory disease, loss of production and mortality in severe cases. Biosecurity measures and administration of attenuated viral vaccine strains are commonly used to prevent ILT. It is notable that most recent ILT outbreaks affecting the intensive poultry industry have been caused by vaccine-related virus strains. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare viral replication and transmission patterns of two attenuated chicken embryo origin ILT vaccines delivered via the drinking water. Two groups of specific pathogen free chickens were each inoculated with SA-2 ILT or Serva ILT vaccine strains. Unvaccinated birds were then placed in contact with vaccinated birds at regular intervals. Tracheal swabs were collected every 4 days over a period of 60 days and examined for the presence and amount of virus using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A rapid increase in viral genome copy numbers was observed shortly after inoculation with SA-2 ILT virus. In contrast, a comparatively delayed virus replication was observed after vaccination with Serva ILT virus. Transmission to in-contact birds occurred soon after exposure to Serva ILT virus but only several days after exposure to SA-2 ILT virus. Results from this study demonstrate in vivo differences between ILT vaccine strains in virus replication and transmission patterns. PMID:22515537

  2. Vaccination immunity to selected diseases in chickens fed the androgen analog mibolerone.

    PubMed

    Romero, C H; Claflin, W; Frank, F; Chang, T S; Purchase, H G

    1978-01-01

    Chickens fed the androgen analog mibolerone during the first 7 weeks of life regress their bursa of Fabricius but can be properly immunized by vaccination against avian pathogens of major economic importance such as Newcastle disease virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, avian encephalomyelitis virus, infectious bronchitis virus, fowl pox virus, Marek's disease virus, and Pasteurella multocida, the pathogen causing fowl cholera. These findings on immunocompetence to infectious agents are important because we have previously shown that the administration of mibolerone prevents the development of lymphoid leukosis tumors. PMID:209430

  3. Evaluation of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis pathogenicity island-1 proteins as vaccine candidates against S. Enteritidis challenge in chickens.

    PubMed

    Desin, Taseen S; Wisner, Amanda L S; Lam, Po-King S; Berberov, Emil; Mickael, Claudia S; Potter, Andrew A; Köster, Wolfgang

    2011-03-24

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major cause of gastrointestinal disease in humans worldwide, which mainly results from the consumption of contaminated poultry meat and eggs. Vaccination of chickens is an important strategy to lower the prevalence of Salmonella in poultry flocks. The S. Enteritidis type 3 secretion system (T3SS) encoded on Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1) is an important virulence factor that plays a role in invasion and systemic spread in chickens. In this manuscript, we evaluated the efficacy of SPI-1 proteins as vaccine candidates for protection against S. Enteritidis oral challenge. Our results demonstrate for the first time that SPI-1 T3SS proteins elicit antigen specific IgG antibody responses in chickens. In one study we show that vaccination with the aforementioned proteins reduces the levels of S. Enteritidis in the liver, but not in the spleen and cecal contents of chickens. However, a second study shows that vaccination of hens with SPI-1 proteins using a seeder model of infection does not affect the levels of S. Enteritidis in the cecal contents or internal organs of progeny obtained from these hens. Hence, the SPI-1 proteins, in conjunction with other proteins, may form important components of subunit vaccines used for protection against colonization by S. Enteritidis in poultry. PMID:20888713

  4. Vaccination with hemagglutinin produced in Trichoplusia ni larvae protects chickens against lethal H5N1 challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Ju Lin; Tzyy Rong Jinn; Yi-Jiun Chen; Ming-Chung Deng; Chyi-Sing Hwang; Feng-Chia Hsieh; Suey-Sheng Kao; Ying-Ju Chen; Kuo-Lun Tung; Tzong Yuan Wu; Chin-Cheng Huang

    2011-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses in birds and coincident infections in humans have created demand for a cost-effective vaccine to prevent a pandemic of the disease. We report here that Trichoplusia ni (T. ni) larvae can act as a cost-effective bioreactor to produce recombinant HA5 (rH5HA) proteins as an effective vaccine for chickens. Western blot analysis revealed that

  5. Effect of Acid or Aluminum on Growth and Adrenal Function in Young Chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie C. Capdevielle; Rocco V. Carsia; Colin G. Scanes

    1996-01-01

    Acid precipitation can have a harmful effect on aquatic birds, due in part to increases in aluminum availability. Young rapidly growing (broiler strain) chickens were used as a model to examine the effects of aluminum and acid on growth and circulating concentrations of adrenocorticol hormones. Two concentrations of acid (sulfuric acid) or aluminum (aluminum sulfate) or sodium sulfate were administered

  6. Vaccination of chickens with Salmonella Pathogenicity Island (SPI) 1 and SPI2 defective mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Matulova, M; Havlickova, H; Sisak, F; Rychlik, I

    2012-03-01

    In this study we were interested in the vaccine potential of two attenuated mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis for poultry. The first mutant was attenuated by the removal of the whole Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI1) and the second mutant was devoid of the whole SPI2. These 2 mutants were used for oral vaccination of 2 chicken lines; Lohmann Brown and ISA Brown. Chickens were vaccinated orally on day 1 of life, revaccinated on day 21 and challenged on day 42. The challenge was performed either orally or intravenously. Despite a slightly different response between the two chicken lines, both the mutants gave protection to poultry against S. Enteritidis challenge as documented by findings such as the bacterial counts in tissues, spleen weight, antibody production and cytokine response (namely IL-17 and IL-22). When the 2 mutants were compared, vaccination with the SPI1 mutant proved to be more effective in the protection of poultry against S. Enteritidis challenge than the vaccination with the SPI2 mutant. On the other hand, vaccination with the SPI2 mutant stimulated a slightly higher antibody production and such a mutant might therefore be a better choice if Salmonella is used as a vector for the delivery of heterologous antigens with a desired stimulation of the humoral part of the immune system. PMID:22300724

  7. Evaluation of an aroA mutant Salmonella typhimurium vaccine in chickens using modified semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis medium to monitor faecal shedding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Tan; C. L. Gyles; B. N. Wilkie

    1997-01-01

    In groups of chickens vaccinated orally or intramuscularly with a live aroA mutant Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain and then experimentally inoculated with 108 CFU of wild type S. typhimurium or 109 CFU of S. enteritidis, faecal shedding of the vaccine and wild type strains was monitored by the buffered peptone water-modified semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis medium method, which detected less than

  8. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Vaccine Efficacy of Recombinant Marek's Disease Virus Lacking the Meq Oncogene in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously reported that deletion of Meq gene from oncogenic rMd5 virus rendered it apathogenic for chickens. Here we examined multiple factors affecting Marek’s disease (MD) vaccine efficacy of this non-pathogenic recombinant Meq null rMd5 virus (rMd5deltaMeq). These factors included host g...

  9. The Male Factor: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV4 Vaccine Acceptance Among African American Young Men.

    PubMed

    Sledge, Jennifer A

    2015-08-01

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections (STD) in the United States. In the U.S., racial and ethnic minorities are disproportionality affected by STDs. In 2009 the Food and Drug Administration approved the HPV4 vaccine for young men. It is necessary to understand African American young men's HPV knowledge, health beliefs, and perceived risk in relation to HPV4 vaccine acceptance. To date, there remains paucity in the literature regarding African American young men's HPV knowledge and HPV4 vaccine acceptance. The current study was a non-probability convenience sample of 68 African American college students. This study was part of a larger project of HPV4 vaccine acceptance. Participants completed a 68-item questionnaire about personal characteristics, HPV, and the HPV4 vaccine. A majority of the young men had heard about HPV (85 %, n = 58), however, only 38 % (n = 26) new about the HPV4 vaccine for women. Only 12.2 % (n = 9) of the respondents knew of an HPV4 vaccine for men. The top three barriers to HPV4 vaccination were that insurance would not cover the vaccine; they would have to pay a lot for the vaccine and worrying that the vaccine is not safe. Study findings suggest that HPV and HPV4 education programs, and low or no cost HPV4 vaccinations for African American young men are needed. PMID:25750108

  10. Reactogenicity of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in young children: Pronounced reactions by previous successive vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Okada, Chika; Fujieda, Megumi; Fukushima, Wakaba; Ohfuji, Satoko; Kondo, Kyoko; Maeda, Akiko; Nakano, Takashi; Kaji, Masaro; Hirota, Yoshio

    2015-07-01

    In order to assess factors associated with reactogenicity of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) among young children, data on 1538 vaccinees aged 0-5 years in a previous vaccine effectiveness study were analyzed. The most frequent reaction was redness (19%), followed by induration, swelling, itching, and pain (6-12%); there were no serious adverse events. For some local reactions, multivariate analyses indicated associations of younger age, preschool attendance, presence of siblings, and allergy with lower risk, and use of thinner needles with higher risk. Most notably, administration of one or more IIV3 vaccines during the previous 3 seasons was positively associated with each local reaction (adjusted odds ratios: 3.6-5.4). For subjects aged ?3 years, prior successive annual vaccinations were associated with substantially increased local reactions, with clear dose-response relationships (P for trend: <0.001 for each); for example, an 9.8-fold greater risk of swelling following three successive annual vaccinations before the study season. PMID:26044492

  11. Development of a DNA vaccine for chicken infectious anemia and its immunogenicity studies using high mobility group box 1 protein as a novel immunoadjuvant indicated induction of promising protective immune responses.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Pradeep Mahadev; Dhama, Kuldeep; Rawool, Deepak Bhiva; Wani, Mohd Yaqoob; Tiwari, Ruchi; Singh, Shambhu Dayal; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Chicken infectious anaemia (CIA) is an economically important and emerging poultry disease reported worldwide. Current CIA vaccines have limitations like, the inability of the virus to grow to high titres in embryos/cell cultures, possession of residual pathogenicity and a risk of reversion to virulence. In the present study, a DNA vaccine, encoding chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV) VP1 and VP2 genes, was developed and co-administered with truncated chicken high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1?C) protein in young chicks for the evaluation of vaccine immune response. CIAV VP1 and VP2 genes were cloned in pTARGET while HMGB1?C in PET32b vector. In vitro expression of these gene constructs was evaluated by Western blotting. Further, recombinant HMGB1?C was evaluated for its biological activity. The CIAV DNA vaccine administration in specific pathogen free chicks resulted in moderately protective ELISA antibody titres in the range of 4322.87 ± 359.72 to 8288.19 ± 136.38, increased CD8(+) cells, and a higher titre was observed by co-administration of novel adjuvant (HMGB1?C) and booster immunizations. The use of vaccine with adjuvant showed achieving antibody titres nearly 8500, titre considered as highly protective, which indicates that co-immunization of HMGB1?C may have a strong adjuvant activity on CIAV DNA vaccine induced immune responses. The able potential of HMGB1 protein holding strong adjuvant activity could be exploited further with trials with vaccines for other important pathogens for achieving the required protective immune responses. PMID:25448094

  12. A Novel Recombinant BCG Vaccine Encoding Eimeria tenella Rhomboid and Chicken IL-2 Induces Protective Immunity Against Coccidiosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiuyue; Chen, Lifeng; Zheng, Jun; Cai, Ning; Gong, Pengtao; Li, Shuhong; Li, He

    2014-01-01

    A novel recombinant Bacille Calmette-Guerin (rBCG) vaccine co-expressed Eimeria tenella rhomboid and cytokine chicken IL-2 (chIL-2) was constructed, and its efficacy against E. tenella challenge was observed. The rhomboid gene of E. tenella and chIL-2 gene were subcloned into integrative expression vector pMV361, producing vaccines rBCG pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2. Animal experiment via intranasal and subcutaneous route in chickens was carried out to evaluate the immune efficacy of the vaccines. The results indicated that these rBCG vaccines could obviously alleviate cacal lesions and oocyst output. Intranasal immunization with pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2 elicited better protective immunity against E. tenella than subcutaneous immunization. Splenocytes from chickens immunized with either rBCG pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2 had increased CD4+ and CD8+ cell production. Our data indicate recombinant BCG is able to impart partial protection against E. tenella challenge and co-expression of cytokine with antigen was an effective strategy to improve vaccine immunity. PMID:25031464

  13. Prokaryotic recombinant hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein enhances the humoral response and efficacy of commercial Newcastle disease vaccines in chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jai-Wei; Huang, Ji-Ping; Hong, Li-Shian; Shu, Shih-Fang; Yu, Chi; Chu, Chun-Yen

    2010-03-01

    The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Newcastle disease (ND). Recombinant HN (rHN) protein, produced either by direct injection of recombinant viruses containing HN gene or baculovirus expression systems, has been used to elicit immunity against NDV in chickens. In the present study, a 60.4-kDa rHN was expressed by a prokaryotic expression system and formulated into ND vaccines. Inclusion of rHN (10 microg/ml) into conventional, inactivated ND vaccines significantly (P < 0.05) increased the titer of serum hemagglutination-inhibition Ab in specific-pathogen-free or commercial chickens. Furthermore, when the rHN protein was formulated into ND+IC (infectious coryza) bivalent or ND+IC+FC (fowl cholera) multivalent vaccines, the protection rate of immunized chickens increased from approximately 80%-90% to 100% after being challenged by a velogenic strain of NDV. Our data indicated that inclusion of rHN protein produced by an economical prokaryotic expression system could enhance the immunogenicity of traditional and multivalent inactivated ND vaccines. This approach may be adapted to improve the efficacy of ND vaccines currently used in the poultry industry. PMID:20408399

  14. Effects of reticuloendotheliosis virus on the response of chickens to infectious laryngotracheitis virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. X. J. Motha

    1982-01-01

    Effects of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) on the response to infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) were investigated in young chickens with and without maternally derived antibody (MAb) to REV.In the first experiment a group of 1?day?old chickens without REV MAb were inoculated at 1 day of age with REV whilst another group of similar chickens were left uninoculated. All chickens were vaccinated

  15. Effects of u.v. irradiation of very young chickens on growth and bone development.

    PubMed

    Edwards, H M

    2003-07-01

    Six experiments were conducted to study the effects of exposure of young chickens to u.v. radiation. Chickens were fed a cholecalciferol (D3)-deficient diet and exposed to u.v. radiation from fluorescent lights giving total radiance (285-365 nm) at 0.15 m of 99.9 mJ/s per m(2). In Expt 1, chickens had increased body weight, bone ash and plasma Ca and decreased incidence of rickets and tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) when exposed to fluorescent light radiation 24 h per d, 24 h every 2 d, or 24 h every 3 d starting with exposure on day 1 after hatching. However, when not exposed on day 1, but on days 4, 7, 10, 13 and 16, the bone ash was reduced, and the incidence of TD and rickets was increased, compared with chickens exposed on day 1 after hatching. When chickens were exposed at 1 d of age to radiation from two lamps, each of which gave a radiance (285-365 nm) at 0.26 m of 856 mJ/s per m(2), both the length of time of radiation and location of the lamps (above or below the chicken) influenced the response as measured by body weight, bone ash, plasma Ca and incidence of rickets. When chickens that received a TD-inducing diet were exposed to 30 min u.v. radiation from below at 1 d of age they developed significantly less TD than did those not exposed when fed either 27.5 or 55.0 microg D3/kg diet. PMID:12844387

  16. Pathology and microbiology of dermal squamous cell carcinoma in young brown chickens reared on reused litter.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Ito, Mitsuru; Fujino, Koji; Yamamoto, Yu; Mase, Masaji; Yamada, Manabu; Kobayashi, Hideki; Harada, Tadato

    2010-09-01

    Dermal squamous cell carcinoma (DSCC) was found in young brown chicken flocks reared on reused litter in Japan. DSCC was often detected at slaughter from April 2007 to March 2009, especially in June and July 2007. No DSCC was observed in the broiler chickens on the farms. Twelve 11-wk-old brown chickens with DSCC were investigated pathologically and microbiologically. Various degrees of crater-like skin lesions were found on the back, waist, neck, legs, abdomen, and wings of the carcasses. The feather follicles were enlarged. The feather follicular epithelial cells proliferated, and the squamous cells proliferated neoplastically in association with collagen fibers and fibroblasts in the dermis under the feather follicular epithelium. "Keratin pearl" structures were often seen in the dermis. Immunohistochemically, the keratin antigen was positive in the neoplastically proliferated squamous cells in the dermis. Avian leukosis virus antigens could not be found in the neoplastic squamous cells in the dermis. Ultrastructurally, no viral agents could be detected in the skin with DSCC. Virologically, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions of the skin with DSCC for fowlpox virus and avian leukosis virus were negative. No viruses could be isolated from the skin with DSCC. This study suggests that the chicken breed, reused litter, and season may be associated with the incidence of DSCC in brown chickens. PMID:20945801

  17. EFFICACY OF TWO H5N9 INACTIVATED VACCINES AGAINST CHALLENGE WITH A RECENT H5N1 HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA ISOLATED FROM A CHICKEN IN THAILAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of two avian influenza (AI) H5 inactivated vaccines containing either an American (A/turkey/Wisconsin/68 H5N9, H5N9-WI) or a Eurasian isolate (A/chicken/Italy/22A/98 H5N9 or H5N9-It). Three-week-old SPF chickens were vaccinated once and challeng...

  18. Influence of Infectious Bursal Disease and Chicken Anemia Vaccines on the Development of Cellulites and Myositis Lesions in Cage-Reared Broilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chengming Wang; Kenneth S. Macklin; James T. Krehling; Robert A. Norton

    2005-01-01

    Wang, C., Macklin, K.S., Krehling, J.T. and Norton, R.A. 2005. Influence of infectious bursal disease and chicken anemia vaccines on the development of cellulitis and myositis lesions in cage-reared broilers. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 27: 65–69.The present set of experiments was designed to explore the influence of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) and Chicken Anemia Virus (CAV) vaccines on the

  19. Protection of chickens from Newcastle disease by vaccination with a linear plasmid DNA expressing the F protein of Newcastle disease virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masashi Sakaguchi; Hideki Nakamura; Kengo Sonoda; Fukusaburo Hamada; Kanji Hirai

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of a DNA vaccine for chickens, we constructed a plasmid vector expressing the Newcastle disease virus F protein (NDV-F) under the control of the human cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer and chicken ?-actin gene promoter. One-week-old chickens injected intramusculary with the circular plasmid DNA did not produce significant levels of antibody against NDV-F. However, two of five

  20. Vaccination with Newcastle disease vaccine and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides induces specific immunity and protection against Newcastle disease virus in SPF chicken

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Linghua; Tian Xingshan; Zhou Fengzhen

    2007-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG ODN) have been proven to be immunoprotective in mouse models. However, little work has been conducted on in vivo immune responses in chicken with CpG ODN. The objective of this study was to investigate the immunoadjuvant effects of CpG ODN to Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine and its protective effects against ND virus in SPF

  1. Immunological Changes at Point-of-Lay Increase Susceptibility to Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Infection in Vaccinated Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Claire E.; Hartley, Catherine; Salisbury, Anne-Marie; Wigley, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Chicken eggs are the main source of human Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection. S. Enteritidis infects the oviduct and ovary of the chicken leading to infection of developing eggs. Therefore, control in poultry production is a major public health priority. Vaccination of hens has proved successful in control strategies in United Kingdom leading to a 70% drop in human cases since introduced. However, as hens reach sexual maturity they become immunosuppressed and it has been postulated this leads to increased susceptibility to Salmonella infection. In this study we define the changes to the systemic and reproductive tract-associated immune system of hens throughout sexual development by flow cytometry and histology and determine changes in susceptibility to experimental S. Enteritidis challenge in naive and vaccinated hens. Changes to both systemic and local immune systems occur in chickens at sexual development around 140 days of age. The population of several leukocyte classes drop, with the greatest fall in CD4+ lymphocyte numbers. Within the developing reproductive tract there an organised structure of lymphocytic aggregates with ??-T lymphocytes associated with the mucosa. At point-of-lay, this organised structure disappears and only scattered lymphocytes remain. Protection against Salmonella challenge is significantly reduced in vaccinated birds at point-of-lay, coinciding with the drop in CD4+ lymphocytes. Susceptibility to reproductive tract infection by Salmonella increased in vaccinated and naïve animals at 140 and 148 days of age. We hypothesise that the drop in ??-T lymphocytes in the tract leads to decreased innate protection of the mucosa to infection. These findings indicate that systemic and local changes to the immune system increase the susceptibility of hens to S. Enteritidis infection. The loss of protective immunity in vaccinated birds demonstrates that Salmonella control should not rely on vaccination alone, but as part of an integrated control strategy including biosecurity and improved animal welfare. PMID:23133568

  2. The Views of Young Women on HPV Vaccine Communication in Four European Countries.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Dafina; Brunton, Carol Gray; Jaeger, Moritz; Lenneis, Anita; Munoz, Rocio; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Todorova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) and can cause cervical cancer. Two vaccines are available to protect against the most common strands of the virus. Vaccination programs differ across Europe but most neglect young adults, who are the group with the highest risk of contracting STIs. Our aim was to explore the views of young women from four European countries-Scotland, Spain, Serbia, and Bulgaria - about the HPV vaccine communication strategy. These countries are characterized by different cervical cancer prevalence and vaccine implementation policies. We conducted focus group discussions with young women (aged 18-26) with various vaccination histories in a purposive sample. We subjected the data to thematic analysis with the purpose of identifying themes related to communication about the HPV vaccine. We recorded the information sources mentioned by participants. Participants discussed numerous sources of vaccine-related information. They approached information critically rather than naively and questioned the sources' trustworthiness and motives. Participants desired transparent information about the risks of the virus and the risks and benefits of the vaccine. These risks and benefits were individualized in view of personal and external factors. Particular aspects of the vaccine and the way information was communicated resulted in feelings of uncertainty. There were notable cross-cultural differences in experiences with HPV vaccine communication. Our results suggest that transparent risk communication about the HPV vaccine is valued by young women. In addition, both individual and culturally-dependent factors influenced experiences with, and preference for information. PMID:26149158

  3. Protection against exotic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) challenge of chickens vaccinated with NDV vaccines made from different genetic lineages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines for control of Newcastle Disease (ND) have been used for over fifty years in the United States. The available ND vaccines, both live and killed have been shown to prevent mortality and symptoms of disease. However, they typically do not prevent vaccinated birds from becoming infected and ...

  4. Universal routine HPV vaccination for young girls in Uganda: a review of opportunities and potential obstacles.

    PubMed

    Banura, Cecily; Mirembe, Florence M; Katahoire, Anne R; Namujju, Proscovia B; Mbidde, Edward K

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the existing realities in Uganda to identify opportunities and potential obstacles of providing universal routine HPV vaccination to young adolescent girls. Cervical cancer is a public health priority in Uganda where it contributes to about 50-60% of all female malignancies. It is associated with a dismal 5-year relative survival of approximately 20%. With adequate financial resources, primary prevention through vaccination is feasible using existing education and health infrastructure. Cost-effectiveness studies show that at a cost of US$2 per dose, the current vaccines would be cost effective. With optimal (?70%) coverage of the target population, the lifetime risk of cervical cancer could be reduced by >50%. Uganda fulfils 4 out of the 5 criteria set by the WHO for the introduction of routine HPV vaccination to young adolescent girls. The existing political commitment, community support for immunization and the favorable laws and policy environment all provide an opportunity that should not be missed to introduce this much needed vaccine to the young adolescent girls. However, sustainable financing by the government without external assistances remains a major obstacle. Also, the existing health delivery systems would require strengthening to cope with the delivery of HPV vaccine to a population that is normally not targeted for routine vaccination. Given the high incidence of cervical cancer and in the absence of a national screening program, universal HPV vaccination of Ugandan adolescent girls is critical for cervical cancer prevention. PMID:22950658

  5. The S1 glycoprotein but not the N or M proteins of avian infectious bronchitis virus induces protection in vaccinated chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ignjatovic; L. Galli

    1994-01-01

    Summary The S1, N and M proteins, obtained from the nephropathogenic N1\\/62 strain of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) by immunoaffinity purification with monoclonal antibodies, were used for immunization of chickens. For all three antigens multiple immunizations were necessary for induction of an antibody response. Protection of chickens vaccinated with the S1 glycoprotein against virulent challenge was demonstrated by the complete

  6. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy and its usefulness to mothers and their young infants.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Satoshi; Hisano, Michi; Komano, Jun; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Sago, Haruhiko; Yamaguchi, Koushi

    2015-04-01

    The current approach to protecting pregnant women from influenza infection and serious influenza-related complications is vaccination. It is, therefore, critical to evaluate the vaccine's safety, immunogenicity, and protection efficacy during pregnancy. However, because it is affected by previous influenza vaccination or infection, the efficacy of the seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine is difficult to evaluate in pregnant women. The A/H1N1pdm pandemic in 2009 provided us with the opportunity to evaluate the immunogenicity of the influenza vaccine unaffected by previous vaccinations or infections. Vaccination with inactivated influenza virus during pregnancy elicited neutralizing antibody titers that were sufficient and comparable to those of naturally infected individuals. Furthermore, post-pandemic surveys provided a wealth of definitive information on vaccine efficacy and safety. In addition, transplacental transfer of antibodies following vaccination protected newborn infants against influenza infection. With reports showing the effectiveness of influenza vaccine during pregnancy, it is suggested that influenza vaccination benefits both mothers and their young infants. PMID:25708925

  7. Hepatitis B seroprevalence and anamnestic response amongst Taiwanese young adults with full vaccination in infancy, 20 years subsequent to national hepatitis B vaccination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fu-Hsiung Su; Shu-Hsing Cheng; Chung-Yi Li; Jong-Dar Chen; Chih-Yin Hsiao; Chih-Ching Chien; Ya-Chuan Yang; Hsiu-Hsing Hung; Fang-Yeh Chu

    2007-01-01

    The long-term protective effect of hepatitis B virus (HB) vaccination against HB infection and the necessity for routine booster vaccination in young-adult age subsequent to full HB immunization at birth remain issues of some debate currently. This study is aimed at evaluating the seroprevalence of HB infection and the response to HB booster vaccination amongst young-adult university students who had

  8. Interleukin-18-mediated enhancement of the protective effect of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus glycoprotein B plasmid DNA vaccine in chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Ying; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Li, Xin-Sheng; Cui, Bao-An; Wang, Shu-Juan; Geng, Jing-Wei; Li, Kun

    2011-01-01

    The immunogenicity of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) glycoprotein B (gB) plasmid DNA vaccine and the immunoregulatory activity of chicken interleukin-18 (IL-18) were investigated in a challenge model. Two recombinant plasmids, pcDNA3.1/gB (pgB) and pcDNA3.1/IL-18 (pIL-18), containing gB and IL-18 were constructed. Chickens were intramuscularly administered two immunizations 2 weeks apart, and challenged with the virulent CG strain of ILTV 2 weeks later. All animals vaccinated with pgB alone or with a combination of pgB plus pIL-18 developed a specific anti-ILTV ELISA antibody and splenocyte proliferation response. The ratios of CD4(+) to CD8(+) T lymphocytes in chickens immunized with pgB plus pIL-18 were significantly higher than in those immunized with pgB alone. Co-injection of pIL-18 significantly increased the production of gamma interferon and IL-2, indicating that IL-18 enhances the T helper 1-dominant immune response. Challenge experiments showed that the morbidity rate in the pgB group (25 ?%) was significantly higher than that in the pgB plus pIL-18 group (10? %). The mortality rates in the pgB and pgB plus pIL-18 groups were 10 and 0?%, respectively, and the corresponding protection rates were 60 and 80? %. These results indicate that IL-18 may be an effective adjuvant for an ILTV vaccine. PMID:20829398

  9. Towards a universal vaccine for avian influenza: protective efficacy of modified Vaccinia virus Ankara and Adenovirus vaccines expressing conserved influenza antigens in chickens challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Amy C; Ruiz-Hernandez, Raul; Peroval, Marylene Y; Carson, Connor; Balkissoon, Devanand; Staines, Karen; Turner, Alison V; Hill, Adrian V S; Gilbert, Sarah C; Butter, Colin

    2013-01-11

    Current vaccines targeting surface proteins can drive antigenic variation resulting either in the emergence of more highly pathogenic viruses or of antigenically distinct viruses that escape control by vaccination and thereby persist in the host population. Influenza vaccines typically target the highly mutable surface proteins and do not provide protection against heterologous challenge. Vaccines which induce immune responses against conserved influenza epitopes may confer protection against heterologous challenge. We report here the results of vaccination with recombinant modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and Adenovirus (Ad) expressing a fusion construct of nucleoprotein and matrix protein (NP+M1). Prime and boost vaccination regimes were trialled in different ages of chicken and were found to be safe and immunogenic. Interferon-? (IFN-?) ELISpot was used to assess the cellular immune response post secondary vaccination. In ovo Ad prime followed by a 4 week post hatch MVA boost was identified as the most immunogenic regime in one outbred and two inbred lines of chicken. Following vaccination, one inbred line (C15I) was challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N7 (A/Turkey/England/1977). Birds receiving a primary vaccination with Ad-NP+M1 and a secondary vaccination with MVA-NP+M1 exhibited reduced cloacal shedding as measured by plaque assay at 7 days post infection compared with birds vaccinated with recombinant viruses containing irrelevant antigen. This preliminary indication of efficacy demonstrates proof of concept in birds; induction of T cell responses in chickens by viral vectors containing internal influenza antigens may be a productive strategy for the development of vaccines to induce heterologous protection against influenza in poultry. PMID:23200938

  10. Towards a universal vaccine for avian influenza: Protective efficacy of modified Vaccinia virus Ankara and Adenovirus vaccines expressing conserved influenza antigens in chickens challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Amy C.; Ruiz-Hernandez, Raul; Peroval, Marylene Y.; Carson, Connor; Balkissoon, Devanand; Staines, Karen; Turner, Alison V.; Hill, Adrian V.S.; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Butter, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Current vaccines targeting surface proteins can drive antigenic variation resulting either in the emergence of more highly pathogenic viruses or of antigenically distinct viruses that escape control by vaccination and thereby persist in the host population. Influenza vaccines typically target the highly mutable surface proteins and do not provide protection against heterologous challenge. Vaccines which induce immune responses against conserved influenza epitopes may confer protection against heterologous challenge. We report here the results of vaccination with recombinant modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and Adenovirus (Ad) expressing a fusion construct of nucleoprotein and matrix protein (NP + M1). Prime and boost vaccination regimes were trialled in different ages of chicken and were found to be safe and immunogenic. Interferon-? (IFN-?) ELISpot was used to assess the cellular immune response post secondary vaccination. In ovo Ad prime followed by a 4 week post hatch MVA boost was identified as the most immunogenic regime in one outbred and two inbred lines of chicken. Following vaccination, one inbred line (C15I) was challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N7 (A/Turkey/England/1977). Birds receiving a primary vaccination with Ad-NP + M1 and a secondary vaccination with MVA-NP + M1 exhibited reduced cloacal shedding as measured by plaque assay at 7 days post infection compared with birds vaccinated with recombinant viruses containing irrelevant antigen. This preliminary indication of efficacy demonstrates proof of concept in birds; induction of T cell responses in chickens by viral vectors containing internal influenza antigens may be a productive strategy for the development of vaccines to induce heterologous protection against influenza in poultry. PMID:23200938

  11. Practice and Child Characteristics Associated with Influenza Vaccine Uptake in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Poehling, Katherine A.; Fairbrother, Gerry; Zhu, Yuwei; Donauer, Stephanie; Ambrose, Sandra; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Staat, Mary Allen; Prill, Mila M.; Finelli, Lyn; Allred, Norma J.; Bardenheier, Barbara; Szilagyi, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine both practice and child characteristics and practice strategies associated with receipt of influenza vaccine in young children during the 2004–2005 influenza season, the first season for the universal influenza vaccination recommendation for all children aged 6–23 months. Methods Clinical and demographic data from randomly selected children aged 6–23 months were obtained by chart review from a community-based cohort study in three U.S. counties. The proportion of children vaccinated by April 5, 2005 in each practice was obtained. To assess practice characteristics and strategies, sampled practices received a self-administered practice survey. Practice and child characteristics predicting complete influenza vaccination were determined using multinomial logistic regression. Results Forty-six (88%) of 52 sampled practices completed the survey and permitted chart reviews. Of 2384 children aged 6–23 months who were studied, 27% were completely vaccinated. The proportion of children completely vaccinated varied widely among practices (0–71%). Most practices (87%) implemented ? 1 vaccination strategy (year-round discussion with parents about influenza vaccine, evening/weekend influenza vaccine clinics, standing orders, or saving a second dose for children who had received the first of two recommended doses). Complete influenza vaccination was associated with three practice characteristics-- suburban location, lower patient volume, and vaccination strategies of evening/weekend vaccine clinics; and with child characteristics of younger age, existing high-risk conditions, ? 6 well visits to the practice by age 3 years, and any practice visit from October through January. Conclusion Modifiable factors associated with increased influenza vaccination coverage include October-January practice visits and evening/weekend vaccine clinics. PMID:20819893

  12. A recombinant turkey herpesvirus expressing chicken interleukin-2 increases the protection provided by in ovo vaccination with infectious bursal disease and infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Tarpey, I; van Loon, A A; de Haas, N; Davis, P J; Orbell, S; Cavanagh, D; Britton, P; Casais, R; Sondermeijer, P; Sundick, R

    2007-12-12

    In ovo vaccination remains an attractive option for the mass application of vaccines to poultry, ensuring a uniform application of vaccine in a cost-effective manner. However, the number of vaccines that can be delivered safely by this method is limited. Several infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccines can be given in ovo though most are delivered post-hatch and there are no currently licensed embryo-safe infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines. Reduction in the dose of vaccines given in ovo is one possibility to ensure embryo safety though efficacy can be reduced when low doses are used. We have investigated the use of embryo-safe IBDV and IBV vaccines and the effects of co-delivery of a turkey herpesvirus recombinant expressing bioactive chicken IL-2 (IL-2/HVT). Co-delivery of the IL-2/HVT with low doses of the IBDV or IBV vaccines significantly increased the antibody response against these viruses. In addition the protection against challenge with virulent IBDV or IBV was increased significantly. This suggests that the co-delivery of IL-2/HVT with low doses of other vaccines in ovo may be one method to increase the number of vaccines that can be given safely and efficaciously via in ovo vaccination. PMID:17996994

  13. Replication of recombinant herpesvirus of turkey expressing genes of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in specific pathogen free and broiler chickens following in ovo and subcutaneous vaccination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel M. Gimeno; Aneg L. Cortes; James S. Guy; Elizabeth Turpin; Christopher Williams

    2011-01-01

    Replication of a recombinant herpesvirus of turkey vaccine expressing infectious laryngotracheitis virus genes (rHVT-LT) was evaluated in specific pathogen free (SPF) and commercial broiler chickens after various vaccination protocols (amniotic route at embryonation day [ED] 18; intra-embryonic route at ED 19; and subcutaneous at 1 day of age [s.c.]). Three experiments were conducted: in the first experiment, replication of rHVT-LT

  14. Study of the genetic stability of measles virus CAM70 vaccine strain after serial passages in chicken embryo fibroblasts primary cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Beatriz Borges; Elena Caride; Alfredo V. Jabor; José Marcus N. Malachias; Marcos S. Freire; Akira Homma; Ricardo Galler

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the genetic stability of the CAM-70 measles vaccine strain we have performed 10 serial passages of the seed lot\\u000a virus FMS-7 in chicken embryo fibroblasts primary cultures (CEF) under production conditions. The nucleotide sequences of\\u000a the seed lot virus, the virus from a vaccine vial (third passage) and from the 10th passage were determined and compared with\\u000a each

  15. Are young injection drug users ready and willing to participate in preventive HCV vaccine trials?

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Vivian; Evans, Jennifer L.; Stein, Ellen S.; Davidson, Peter J.; Lum, Paula J.; Hahn, Judith A.; Page, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Trials to evaluate the efficacy of preventive HCV vaccines will need participation from high risk HCV seronegative injection drug users (IDUs). To guide trial planning, we assessed willingness of young IDU in San Francisco to participate in HCV vaccine efficacy trials and evaluate knowledge of vaccine trial concepts: placebo, randomization and blinding. During 2006 and 2007, a total of 67 participants completed the survey. A substantial proportion (88%) would definitely (44%) or probably (44%) be willing to participate in a randomized trial, but knowledge of vaccine trial concepts was low. Reported willingness to participate in an HCV vaccine trial decreased with increasing trial duration, with 67% of participants surveyed willing to participate in a trial of one year duration compared to 43% of participants willing to participate in a trial of 4 years duration. Willingness to enroll in HCV vaccine trials was higher in young IDU than reported by most at-risk populations in HIV vaccine trials. Educational strategies will be needed to ensure understanding of key concepts prior to implementing HCV vaccine trials. PMID:20638453

  16. Study of the genetic stability of measles virus CAM-70 vaccine strain after serial passages in chicken embryo fibroblasts primary cultures.

    PubMed

    Borges, Maria Beatriz; Caride, Elena; Jabor, Alfredo V; Malachias, José Marcus N; Freire, Marcos S; Homma, Akira; Galler, Ricardo

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the genetic stability of the CAM-70 measles vaccine strain we have performed 10 serial passages of the seed lot virus FMS-7 in chicken embryo fibroblasts primary cultures (CEF) under production conditions. The nucleotide sequences of the seed lot virus, the virus from a vaccine vial (third passage) and from the 10th passage were determined and compared with each other and with sequences from other sources. The full genome analysis of the CAM-70 vaccine still considers it as the most divergent among all vaccine strains. The nucleotide sequence analyses of viral genomes from the three CAM-70 passage levels have demonstrated that they are identical. This study shows that the measles CAM-70 vaccine virus is highly adapted to its cultivation conditions and that its genetic stability contributes, in part, to the safety profile of the vaccine. PMID:18040767

  17. Analysis of Salmonella control performance in U.S. young chicken slaughter and pork slaughter establishments.

    PubMed

    Muth, Mary K; Fahimi, Mansour; Karns, Shawn A

    2009-01-01

    In the 1996 U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service's (FSIS) "Pathogen Reduction; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR/HACCP) Systems, Final Rule," Salmonella was selected for microbiological testing and monitoring. Using data from an FSIS-sponsored survey of meat and poultry slaughter establishments, inspection results, and other establishment characteristics, potential variables affecting pathogen control, as measured by Salmonella test results, were investigated. The analysis data sets included 153 federally inspected young chicken slaughter establishments, of which 111 exceeded half the Salmonella performance standard at least once from 2003 through 2005, and 121 federally inspected pork slaughter establishments, of which 28 exceeded half the Salmonella performance standard. Logistic regression results for young chicken slaughter establishments indicate they were more likely to exceed half the standard if they had higher inspection noncompliance rates (P = 0.10) and older production space (P = 0.10), and were less likely to exceed it if they used a higher percentage of raw poultry inputs purchased from outside sources (P = 0.10). Results for pork slaughter establishments indicate they were more likely to exceed half the standard if they had a higher rate of voluntary microbiological testing (P = 0.08), and were less likely to exceed it if they were larger (P = 0.08) and used a higher percentage of raw pork inputs purchased from outside sources (P = 0.02). In general, indicators of plant characteristics, food safety practices, and management philosophy are associated with different levels of pathogen control performance that vary by species slaughtered. PMID:19205457

  18. Drivers and barriers to acceptance of human-papillomavirus vaccination among young women: a qualitative and quantitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gitte Lee Mortensen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical dysplasia and cancer, and of genital warts. Few studies have examined attitudes to HPV vaccination since the introduction of HPV vaccines. We aimed to investigate the reasons for young women's acceptance or rejection of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine after its general availability in Denmark. METHOD: A literature review assessed attitudes

  19. Transcriptome analysis reveals an activation of major histocompatibility complex 1 and 2 pathways in chicken trachea immunized with infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Juan; Carrillo, José A; Menendez, Kimberly R; Tablante, Nathaniel L; Song, Jiuzhou

    2014-04-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis is an acute, contagious, upper respiratory disease of chickens caused by gallid herpes virus 1. Due to mortality rates that can reach up to 70% depending on the virulence of the virus, the disease is of great economic importance to the poultry industry. In this study, 15-d-old specific pathogen-free White Leghorn chickens were used to perform transcriptome analysis of chicken trachea immunized with infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine. Myosin and several collagen-related genes were downregulated in the immunized group, suggesting that normal function and structure may be compromised. In addition, we identified some cytokine receptors and several immune genes, such as Granzyme A (GZMA), CD4 molecule (CD4), CD8a molecule (CD8A), and CD8b molecule (CD8B), that were upregulated upon vaccination. The gene ontology analysis shows that genes included in the biological process cluster were related to antigen processing and presentation, positive regulation of immune system processes, T cell selection, and positive regulation of T cell activation. In conclusion, chicken embryo origin vaccine activation of the major histocompatibility complex 1 and 2 pathways provides insight for evaluation and design of infectious laryngotracheitis vaccines. PMID:24706961

  20. Montanide(TM) ISA 71 VG adjuvant increases protection against experimental necrotic enteritis in commercial broiler chickens following vaccination with Clostridium perfringens recombinant proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was performed to compare four Clostridium perfringens recombinant proteins as vaccine candidates using the Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant in an experimental model of necrotic enteritis. Broiler chickens were immunized with clostridial recombinant proteins with ISA 71 VG, and intestinal le...

  1. Different immune responses to three different vaccines following H6N1 low pathogenic avian influenza virus challenge in Taiwanese local chicken breeds

    E-print Network

    2011-06-03

    investigates immune responses to three different vaccines following a H6N1 challenge in different local breeds. Methods Experimental animals were sampled from six local chicken breeds maintained at the National Chung-Hsing University, namely Hsin-Yi, Ju...

  2. Efficacy of live B1 or Ulster 2C Newcastle disease vaccines simultaneously vaccinated with inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine for protection of Newcastle disease virus in broiler chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Chansiripornchai; J Sasipreeyajan

    2006-01-01

    Two hundred, one-day-old broiler chicks were divided into groups 1, 2 and 3 containing 60, 70 and 70 chicks, respectively. The groups were divided into subgroups of 10 chicks that were vaccinated according to the following scheme: group 1 unvaccinated control, group 2 vaccinated subcutaneously at 1 day old with inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine (IOAV) in combination with live B1

  3. Safety and efficacy of an infectious bronchitis virus used for chicken embryo vaccination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Tarpey; S. J. Orbell; P. Britton; R. Casais; T. Hodgson; F. Lin; E. Hogan; D. Cavanagh

    2006-01-01

    Commercial vaccines for in ovo vaccination have not yet been developed for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the major coronavirus in the poultry industry. Recombinant IBVs based on the Beaudette strain expressing the Beaudette spike protein (Beau-R) or that from the virulent M41 strain (BeauR-M41(S)) were assessed for their potential as prototype vaccines for application to 18-day-old embryos. Pathogenicity was assessed

  4. Progress and problems in vaccination against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mot, Dorien; Timbermont, Leen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Necrotic enteritis in broilers is caused by Clostridium perfringens type A strains that produce the NetB toxin. Necrotic enteritis is one of the gastrointestinal diseases in poultry that has gained worldwide importance during the last decade due to efforts to improve broiler performance. Prevention strategies include avoiding predisposing factors, such as coccidiosis, and in-feed supplementation with a variety of feed additives. However, vaccination with modified toxin or other secreted immunogenic proteins seems a logical preventive tool for protection against a toxin-producing bacterium. Formalin-inactivated crude supernatant has been used initially for vaccination. Several studies have been carried out recently to identify the most important immunogenic and protective proteins that can be used for vaccination. These include the NetB toxin, as well as a number of other proteins. There is evidence that immunization with single proteins is not protective against severe challenge and that combinations of different antigens are needed. Most published studies have used multiple dosage vaccination regimens that are not relevant for practical use in the broiler industry. Single vaccination regimens for 1-day-old chicks appear to be non-protective. This review describes the history of vaccination strategies against necrotic enteritis in broilers and gives an update on future vaccination strategies that are applicable in the field. These may include breeder hen vaccination, in ovo vaccination and live attenuated vectors to be used in feed or in drinking water. PMID:24980518

  5. Effects of Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients on peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titer after vaccination in chicken.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangfeng; Hu, Yuanliang; Rui, Rong; Wang, Deyun; Li, Xiangrui

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of these experiments is to study the effects of Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (CHMIs) on peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titer in chicken vaccinated with Newcastle disease. Nine CHMIs were chosen for the experiments. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), Isatis root polysaccharide (IRPS), Epimedium flavone (EF), Propolis flavone (PF), Astragalosides (AS) and Ginsenosides (GS) could promote lymphocyte proliferation and antibody titer, while Epimedium polysaccharide (EPS) mainly stimulated cellular immune responses. Chinese angelica polysaccharide (CAPS) and Propolis polysaccharide (PPS) exerted weaker effects on promoting immune responses. APS, IRPS, PPS and PF in promoting lymphocyte proliferation, and IRPS, PPS, EF and PF in promoting humoral immunity in higher dose were significantly stronger than in lower dose. Our results indicated that almost all of the nine CHMIs could promote both humoral and cellular immune responses and would be expected as the component drug of a new-type immunopotentiator. PMID:15233143

  6. Genomic sequence analysis of the United States infectious laryngotracheitis vaccine strains chicken embryo origin (CEO) and tissue culture origin (TCO).

    PubMed

    García, Maricarmen; Volkening, Jeremy; Riblet, Sylva; Spatz, Stephen

    2013-05-25

    The genomic sequences of low and high passages of the United States infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) vaccine strains CEO and TCO were determined using hybrid next generation sequencing in order to define genomic changes associated with attenuation and reversion to virulence. Phylogenetic analysis of available full genomes grouped strains into three major clades: TCO, CEO, and Australian. Comparative genomics revealed that TCO attenuation is likely the result of an ORF C truncation. Genes involved in attenuation are generally clade-specific, however four genes ORF C, UL27, UL28 and UL39 commonly contained various mutations across the CEO and TCO lineages. The Thr644 mutation in the UL27 gene encoding glycoprotein B was identified in all virulent US strains. The US10 gene was identified as a potential virulence factor for the TCO revertant 81658. The UL41 gene was responsible for the robust gain in virulence of CEO-Fowl Laryngotracheitis(®) after 20 passages in chickens. PMID:23537957

  7. Immune response to Newcastle disease virus vaccine, fowl-pox vaccine, and Escherichia coli vaccine in Bedouin and White Leghorn chickens.

    PubMed

    Heller, D; Soller, M; Peleg, B A; Ron-Kuper, N; Hornstein, K

    1981-01-01

    Immune response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine, fowl pox, and E. coli vaccine was compared in the native Bedouin fowl of the Sinai desert, in a commercial Leghorn layer strain, and in the reciprocal crosses between them. Differences were not found in antibody titer levels to attenuated or inactivated NDV vaccines, in the proportion of birds showing post-vaccination immunity to fowl pox, or in the kinetics of postvaccination NDV titer levels. Rate of development of titer to Escherichia coli from day 1 to day 4, however, was significantly more rapid in Bedouin chicks than in the purebred Leghorn or the reciprocal crosses. PMID:6262741

  8. In ovo oral vaccination with cmpylobacter jejuni establishes early development of intestinal immunity in chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Noor; A. J. Husband; P. R. Widders

    1995-01-01

    1. Chick embryos were orally immunised at day 16 of incubation by injection of heat?killed Campylobacter jejuni organisms into the amniotic fluid. The response to vaccination was observed at 5 d after hatching or, in some birds which received a postnatal oral booster vaccination, at 7 d after hatching, and the response was observed at 14 d of age.2. The

  9. Aerosol vaccination against Newcastle disease: Factors affecting the serological response in chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Yadin

    1981-01-01

    The effects of vaccine diluent and virus concentration on the immune response following aerosol vaccination against Newcastle Disease (ND) were studied. Four diluents (saline, tap water, distilled water and 2% casitone in distilled water) were used with various concentrations of LaSota strain virus. At low virus concentrations 2% casitone produced a higher HI antibody response than the other diluents. However,

  10. Enhancement of Th1-biased protective immunity against avian influenza H9N2 virus via oral co-administration of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chicken interferon-? and interleukin-18 along with an inactivated vaccine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Control of currently circulating re-assorted low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 is a major concern for both animal and human health. Thus, an improved LPAI H9N2 vaccination strategy is needed to induce complete immunity in chickens against LPAI H9N2 virus strains. Cytokines play a crucial role in mounting both the type and extent of an immune response generated following infection with a pathogen or after vaccination. To improve the efficacy of inactivated LPAI H9N2 vaccine, attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was used for oral co-administration of chicken interferon-? (chIFN-?) and chicken interleukin-18 (chIL-18) as natural immunomodulators. Results Oral co-administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIFN-? and chIL-18, prior to vaccination with inactivated AI H9N2 vaccine, modulated the immune response of chickens against the vaccine antigen through enhanced humoral and Th1-biased cell-mediated immunity, compared to chickens that received single administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing either chIFN-? or chIL-18. To further test the protective efficacy of this improved vaccination regimen, immunized chickens were intra-tracheally challenged with a high dose of LPAI H9N2 virus. Combined administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIFN-? and chIL-18 showed markedly enhanced protection compared to single administration of the construct, as determined by mortality, clinical severity, and feed and water intake. This enhancement of protective immunity was further confirmed by reduced rectal shedding and replication of AIV H9N2 in different tissues of challenged chickens. Conclusions Our results indicate the value of combined administration of chIFN-? and chIL-18 using a Salmonella vaccine strain to generate an effective immunization strategy in chickens against LPAI H9N2. PMID:22776696

  11. Effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccination on serum ?1-acid glycoprotein concentrations in commercial layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E D; Jacob, R; Branton, S L; Gerard, P D

    2014-06-01

    Increases in circulating acute phase protein (APP) levels occur in reaction to systemic infections in animals. However, no previous research has been conducted to monitor possible changes in APP levels of birds in response to prelay vaccinations of various live attenuated Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines in conjunction with their subsequent use as an overlay vaccine during the production period. Serum concentrations of the APP, ?1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), were determined on d 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 after subjecting commercial laying hens to one of the following treatments at 10 wk of age (woa): 1) control (no vaccination); 2) ts-11 strain M. gallisepticum (ts11MG) vaccination; 3) M. gallisepticum-bacterin (MGBac) vaccination; and 4) ts11MG and MGBac combination (ts11MG & MGBac) vaccination. Furthermore, at 45 woa, the birds in half of the units assigned to each treatment group were vaccinated with high-passage F-strain M. gallisepticum (HpFMG). Birds in treatment 1 that were (single control) and were not (double control) vaccinated with HpFMG, and birds in treatments 2, 3, and 4 that were vaccinated with HpFMG were further tested during lay on d 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 after vaccination. On d 7, 14, and 28 postvaccination at 10 woa, the ts11MG & MGBac, ts11MG, and MGBac group AGP concentrations were not different from one another, but all were higher than those in the control group. Similarly, on d 3, 7, and 14 postvaccination, the single control, and the MGBac ts11MG, and ts11MG & MGBac treatment groups that were later vaccinated with HpFMG at 45 woa, were not different, but all were higher than that in the double control group. In conclusion, elevated circulation AGP concentrations may be used to detect and confirm subclinical infections in pullets up to 28 d after having been vaccinated with ts11MG, MGBac, or their combination. Furthermore, in association with depressed performance, elevated serum AGP concentrations in layers may be used to confirm HpFMG infections up to 28 d after its use as a vaccine. PMID:24879689

  12. Effects of in ovo vaccination and anticoccidials on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyung Woo Lee; Hyun S. Lillehoj; Seung I. Jang; Marc Pagès; Daniel A. Bautista; Conrad R. Pope; G. Donald Ritter; Erik P. Lillehoj; Anthony P. Neumann; Gregory R. Siragusa

    The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either chemicals, ionophores, or both. In general, serum samples from these chickens showed anticoccidial antibody titers

  13. Smallpox vaccination is not associated with infertility in a healthy young adult population.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Isabel G; Gumbs, Gia R; Sevick, Carter J; Smith, Tyler C; Ryan, Margaret A K

    2008-01-01

    Concerns exist regarding reproductive health, including potential infertility, among young adults with military-related occupational exposures. This study evaluated infertility diagnoses in a large population of healthy young adults in relation to prior smallpox vaccination. Using a retrospective cohort design, the population consisted of United States military members eligible for smallpox vaccination in 2003-2004 who had electronic health care utilization records available through at least December 2005. Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to evaluate infertility among male and female populations separately. Among 253,973 men and 44,332 women included in these analyses, the adjusted odds of infertility diagnoses in those with prior smallpox vaccination were 0.94 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83-1.06] and 1.10 (95% CI, 0.94-1.28), respectively. Therefore, no association was found between smallpox vaccination and subsequent infertility diagnoses in either men or women. This study represents the first large epidemiologic investigation of infertility after the smallpox vaccine. PMID:18382140

  14. Evaluation of protective efficacy of live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum vaccine strains against fowl typhoid in chickens.

    PubMed

    Laniewski, Pawe?; Mitra, Arindam; Karaca, Kemal; Khan, Ayub; Prasad, Rajeev; Curtiss, Roy; Roland, Kenneth L

    2014-09-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum is the etiological agent of fowl typhoid, which constitutes a considerable economic problem for poultry growers in developing countries. The vaccination of chickens seems to be the most effective strategy to control the disease in those areas. We constructed S. Gallinarum strains with a deletion of the global regulatory gene fur and evaluated their virulence and protective efficacy in Rhode Island Red chicks and Brown Leghorn layers. The fur deletion mutant was avirulent and, when delivered orally to chicks, elicited excellent protection against lethal S. Gallinarum challenge. It was not as effective when given orally to older birds, although it was highly immunogenic when delivered by intramuscular injection. We also examined the effect of a pmi mutant and a combination of fur deletions with mutations in the pmi and rfaH genes, which affect O-antigen synthesis, and ansB, whose product inhibits host T-cell responses. The S. Gallinarum ?pmi mutant was only partially attenuated, and the ?ansB mutant was fully virulent. The ?fur ?pmi and ?fur ?ansB double mutants were attenuated but not protective when delivered orally to the chicks. However, a ?pmi ?fur strain was highly immunogenic when administered intramuscularly. All together, our results show that the fur gene is essential for the virulence of S. Gallinarum, and the fur mutant is effective as a live recombinant vaccine against fowl typhoid. PMID:24990908

  15. IMMUNOLOGY, HEALTH, AND DISEASE Immune Response to a Killed Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Vaccine in Inbred Chicken Lines with Different Major Histocompatibility Complex Haplotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Juul-Madsen; T. S. Dalgaard; C. M. Røntved; K. H. Jensen; N. Bumstead

    The influence of MHC on antibody re- sponses to killed infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine was investigated in several MHC inbred chicken lines. We found a notable MHC haplotype effect on the specific antibody response against IBDV as measured by ELISA. Some MHC haplotypes were high responders (B201,B4, andBR5), whereas other MHC haplotypes were low responders (B19, B12 and

  16. Safety and efficacy of an infectious bronchitis virus used for chicken embryo vaccination.

    PubMed

    Tarpey, I; Orbell, S J; Britton, P; Casais, R; Hodgson, T; Lin, F; Hogan, E; Cavanagh, D

    2006-11-17

    Commercial vaccines for in ovo vaccination have not yet been developed for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the major coronavirus in the poultry industry. Recombinant IBVs based on the Beaudette strain expressing the Beaudette spike protein (Beau-R) or that from the virulent M41 strain (BeauR-M41(S)) were assessed for their potential as prototype vaccines for application to 18-day-old embryos. Pathogenicity was assessed by observing the effect on hatchability, and/or the production of nasal discharge and/or the effects on ciliary activity in the trachea at various time points post hatch. In contrast to commercial IBV vaccines given in ovo, the Beau-R and BeauR-M41(S) strains did not reduce hatchability or cause nasal discharge, and caused minimal damage to the ciliated epithelium of the trachea. The presence of the spike protein from a virulent virus did not increase the pathogenicity of the virus according to the criteria used. Assessment of the BeauR-M41(S) strain for efficacy showed that it protected up to 90% of chicks against challenge with virulent IB virus (M41) in a dose dependent manner. Further egg passage of the BeauR-M41(S) strain (BeauR-M41(S) EP10) did not increase its pathogenicity though it did improve its efficacy, based on serology and protection against a virulent challenge. BeauR-M41(S) EP10 was more efficacious than BeauR-M41(S) protecting more birds against virulent challenge and providing a better serological antibody response. BeauR-M41(S) EP10 induced a serological response similar to that of a commercial vaccine given at day-old though the commercial vaccine provided slightly higher efficacy. These results are promising for the development of embryo safe efficacious IBV vaccines for in ovo application. PMID:16860445

  17. Response of layer and broiler strain chickens to parenteral administration of a live Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine.

    PubMed

    Groves, Peter J; Sharpe, Sue M; Cox, Julian M

    2015-07-01

    Responses to the parenteral administration of a live aroA deletion Salmonella serovar Typhimurium vaccine given to three brown egg layer strains and two broiler strains were studied. Twenty-five birds of each strain were reared together in floor pens to 6 weeks of age and then moved as individual strains to new floor pens and injected with 10(8) colony forming units (CFU) per bird of the vaccine bacteria intramuscularly or subcutaneously, 10(6) CFU per bird subcutaneously, or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) subcutaneously as a vaccination control. Three birds of one layer strain were injected intramuscularly with 0.5mg/ bird S. Typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to evaluate whether response was similar for vaccine and endotoxin. Birds were weighed, and rectal temperatures recorded at the time of injection, then observed over 24 hours. Rectal temperatures were measured and blood samples collected for serum IL-6 assay at 3 hours post injection (PI). At 12 hours PI blood samples were drawn for analyses for plasma phosphorus (P), glucose (Glu), cholesterol (Cho), aspartate transaminase (AST), total protein (Ptn) and creatinine kinase (CK). Blood was sampled 14 days PI and tested for serum antibody to S. Typhimurium. Vaccination resulted in significant seroconversion by 14 days PI in all strains compared to the controls. The three layer strains exhibited a clinical malaise, evident within 90 minutes of injection, lasting for 12 hours, with complete recovery by 24 hours PI. Only the 10(8) CFU dose given subcutaneously produced an increase in rectal temperature 3 hours PI. Vaccination had no effect on IL-6 or Ptn. All vaccine doses increased P and the higher dose by either route decreased Cho in all bird strains. The 10(8) vaccine dose increased Glu and intramuscular injection markedly elevated CK only in the layer strains. The response was not completely congruous with that to LPS alone. The results highlight the need for consideration of differences in response of bird strain when consideration is given to the parenteral administration of live Salmonella vaccines. PMID:26009756

  18. Supplemental dietary L-arginine attenuates intestinal mucosal disruption during a coccidial vaccine challenge in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jianzhuang; Applegate, Todd J; Liu, Shasha; Guo, Yuming; Eicher, Susan D

    2014-10-14

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary arginine (Arg) supplementation on intestinal structure and functionality in broiler chickens subjected to coccidial challenge. The present study was a randomised complete block design employing a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (n 8) with three dietary concentrations of Arg (11·1, 13·3 and 20·2 g/kg) with or without coccidial vaccine challenge (unchallenged and coccidial challenge). On day 14, birds were orally administered with coccidial vaccine or saline. On day 21, birds were killed to obtain jejunal tissue and mucosal samples for histological, gene expression and mucosal immunity measurements. Within 7 d of the challenge, there was a decrease in body-weight gain and feed intake, and an increase in the feed:gain ratio (P< 0·05). Jejunal inflammation was evidenced by villus damage, crypt dilation and goblet cell depletion. Coccidial challenge increased mucosal secretory IgA concentration and inflammatory gene (iNOS, IL-1?, IL-8 and MyD88) mRNA expression levels (P< 0·05), as well as reduced jejunal Mucin-2, IgA and IL-1RI mRNA expression levels (P< 0·05). Increasing Arg concentration (1) increased jejunal villus height (P< 0·05) and linearly increased jejunal crypt depth (P< 0·05); (2) quadratically increased mucosal maltase activity (P< 0·05) and linearly decreased mucosal secretory IgG concentration (P< 0·05) within the coccidiosis-challenged groups; and (3) linearly decreased jejunal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA expression level (P< 0·05) within the coccidiosis-challenged groups. The mRNA expression of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 pathway genes (mTOR and RPS6KB1) and the anti-apoptosis gene Bcl-2 quadratically responded to increasing dietary Arg supplementation (P< 0·05). These results indicate that dietary Arg supplementation attenuates intestinal mucosal disruption in coccidiosis-challenged chickens probably through suppressing TLR4 and activating mTOR complex 1 pathways. PMID:25181320

  19. Expression of H5 hemagglutinin vaccine antigen in common duckweed (Lemna minor) protects against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge in immunized chickens.

    PubMed

    Bertran, Kateri; Thomas, Colleen; Guo, Xuan; Bublot, Michel; Pritchard, Nikki; Regan, Jeffrey T; Cox, Kevin M; Gasdaska, John R; Dickey, Lynn F; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2015-07-01

    A synthetic hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1) (Indo/03) was expressed in aquatic plant Lemna minor (rLemna-HA). In Experiment 1, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on birds immunized with 0.2?g or 2.3?g HA and challenged with 10(6) mean chicken embryo infectious doses (EID50) of homologous virus strain. Both dosages of rLemna-HA conferred clinical protection and dramatically reduced viral shedding. Almost all the birds immunized with either dosage of rLemna-HA elicited HA antibody titers against Indo/03 antigen, suggesting an association between levels of anti-Indo/03 antibodies and protection. In Experiment 2, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on birds immunized with 0.9?g or 2.2?g HA and challenged with 10(6) EID50 of heterologous H5N1 virus strains A/chicken/Vietnam/NCVD-421/2010 (VN/10) or A/chicken/West Java/PWT-WIJ/2006 (PWT/06). Birds challenged with VN/10 exhibited 100% survival regardless of immunization dosage, while birds challenged with PWT/06 had 50% and 30% mortality at 0.9?g HA and 2.2?g HA, respectively. For each challenge virus, viral shedding titers from 2.2?g HA vaccinated birds were significantly lower than those from 0.9?g HA vaccinated birds, and titers from both immunized groups were in turn significantly lower than those from sham vaccinated birds. Even if immunized birds elicited HA titers against the vaccine antigen Indo/03, only the groups challenged with VN/10 developed humoral immunity against the challenge antigen. None (rLemna-HA 0.9?g HA) and 40% (rLemna-HA 2.2?g HA) of the immunized birds challenged with PWT/06 elicited pre-challenge antibody titers, respectively. In conclusion, Lemna-expressed HA demonstrated complete protective immunity against homologous challenge and suboptimal protection against heterologous challenge, the latter being similar to results from inactivated whole virus vaccines. Transgenic duckweed-derived HA could be a good alternative for producing high quality antigen for an injectable vaccine against H5N1 HPAI viruses. PMID:26067184

  20. Protection from clinical disease against three highly virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus after in ovo application of an antibody-antigen complex vaccine in maternal antibody-positive chickens.

    PubMed

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Martin, Alison; Haddad, Eid E; King, Daniel J

    2012-09-01

    Worldwide, Newcastle disease (ND) remains one of the most economically important diseases of poultry. Current vaccination strategies for commercial poultry include the use of inactivated and live ND vaccines that typically induce protection against virulent field viruses. Here, we tested the efficacy of an antigen-antibody complex (AAC) ND vaccine delivered in ovo. Commercial maternal antibody-positive broiler chickens (Gallus domesticus) were vaccinated in ovo with an AAC vaccine composed of live B1-LaSota Newcastle disease virus (NDV) complexed with NDV-specific antiserum, and then they were challenged at weekly intervals after hatch. Challenge viruses included three exotic ND disease (END) viruses: the neurotropic strain Texas GB NDV-92-01 (TxGB) and two viscerotropic isolates, one isolate from the 2002-2003 outbreak in California (California 2002 isolate S212676 [CA]) and the other isolate from a 1997 END outbreak in South Korea (South Korea 94-147 [SK]). Results demonstrate that maternal antibody was able to provide approximately 50% protection in either vaccinated or control chickens at 7 days of age after TxGB challenge. However, with challenge at > or = 14 days, most control birds died, whereas all AAC-vaccinated birds were protected. Challenge with the CA or SK viruses in chickens at 28 days of age resulted in 100% protection of vaccinated birds, whereas all control birds died. In addition, AAC-vaccinated birds displayed decreased incidence of viral shedding in oral and cloacal swabs than control birds. Antibody titers were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in vaccinated chickens, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutinin-inhibition tests, than in nonvaccinated controls. Together, these results demonstrate the efficacy of AAC vaccines delivered in ovo to protect commercial poultry. PMID:23050473

  1. Seroprevalence of Fowl Pox Antibody in Indigenous Chickens in Jos North and South Council Areas of Plateau State, Nigeria: Implication for Vector Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede

    2012-01-01

    Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease. PMID:23762578

  2. Seroprevalence of fowl pox antibody in indigenous chickens in jos north and South council areas of plateau state, Nigeria: implication for vector vaccine.

    PubMed

    Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede

    2012-01-01

    Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease. PMID:23762578

  3. Impact of coccidial infection on vaccine- and vvIBDV in lymphoid tissues of SPF chickens as detected by RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt J; Bisgaard, Magne

    2006-01-01

    Background This study aimed at investigating a potential effect caused by coccidia on the immune response to vaccine- and very virulent infectious bursal disase virus (vvIBDV) in SPF chickens. Methods Two groups of three weeks old SPF chickens were vaccinated prior to inoculation with coccidia and challenge with virulent IBDV, all within a period of eight days. Two control groups were similarly treated, except that challenge with field virus was omitted in one group while inoculation with coccidia was omitted in the other group. Clinical signs, lesions in the intestines caused by coccidia, lesions in the bursa of Fabricius caused by IBDV, IBDV-antibody titres, and virus detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were compared among the groups. Lymphoid tissues and swab samples were analysed by general RT-PCR, and positive results were identified by strain specific duplex (DPX) RT-PCR. Results In the tripple-infected groups, vaccine strain IBDV was detected in spleen and thymus tissues, and no field virus was detected in bursa samples, contrary to the double-infected groups. Conclusion The results suggest an enhancing effect on the immune response caused by subclinical coccidiosis and vvIBDV acting in concert. PMID:16987396

  4. Racial and ethnic differences in HPV knowledge, attitudes, and vaccination rates among low-income African-American, Haitian, Latina and Caucasian young adult women

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jack A.; Mercilus, Glory; Wilbur, MaryAnn B.; Figaro, Jean; Perkins, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine facilitators and barriers to HPV vaccine uptake in African-American, Haitian, Latina, and White women ages 18–22 and to determine vaccination completion rates among participants over 5 years. Design Using semi-structured interviews and medical record review, we assessed HPV knowledge and attitudes towards HPV vaccination among young women. We then determined their subsequent HPV vaccination initiation and completion rates. We used constructs from the Health Belief Model and methods based in grounded theory and content analysis to identify attitudes towards HPV vaccination cues to initiate vaccination, perception of HPV, and how communication about issues of sexuality may impact vaccine uptake. Participants We enrolled 132 African-American, Haitian, Latina, and White women aged 18–22 years who visited an urban academic medical center and two affiliated community health centers between the years 2007 and 2012. Main Outcome Measures Intent to vaccinate and actual vaccination rates Results Of 132 participants, 116 (90%) stated that they were somewhat or very likely to accept HPV vaccination if offered by their physician, but only 51% initiated the vaccination over the next 5 years. Seventy-eight percent of those who initiated vaccination completed the 3 doses of the HPV vaccine series. Forty-five percent (45%, n=50) of the adolescents who started the series completed three doses over a five year period: forty-two percent African-American (n=16), thirty-three percent Haitian (n=13), sixty-three percent Latina (n=10), and sixty-five White young women (n=11) completed the three-dose series. Despite low knowledge, they reported high levels of trust in physicians and were willing to vaccinate if recommended by their physicians. Conclusion Desire for HPV vaccination is high among older adolescents, physician recommendation and use of every clinic visit opportunity may improve vaccine uptake in young women. More White young women completed the HPV vaccine series compared with other race and ethnic young women. PMID:24602302

  5. Drivers and barriers to acceptance of human-papillomavirus vaccination among young women: a qualitative and quantitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical dysplasia and cancer, and of genital warts. Few studies have examined attitudes to HPV vaccination since the introduction of HPV vaccines. We aimed to investigate the reasons for young women's acceptance or rejection of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine after its general availability in Denmark. Method A literature review assessed attitudes towards HPV vaccination and the information was used to identify relevant questions for telephone and focus group interviews with women aged 16-26 who had decided to receive or reject HPV vaccination. 435 women across Denmark were interviewed by telephone. Qualitative interviews were undertaken in focus groups with 33 women living in Odense who had completed the telephone survey. Four focus groups were set up according to age (16-20 and 21-26 years of age) and acceptance/rejection of the vaccine. Results Of 839 women initially contacted by telephone, 794 were included, 411 (49%) said they accepted vaccination but only 201 (24%) had actually received the vaccine and these latter were interviewed. 242 women said they refused vaccination of which 234 were interviewed. Women who were undecided were excluded from the study. Prevention of cervical cancer was the main driver for acceptance of the vaccine, followed by parental encouragement and financial support, personal experience of someone with cancer and recommendation by health-care professionals. The greatest barrier to vaccination was its cost. A lack of information about the benefits of vaccination for sexually active women was also an important barrier and the older participants in particular considered that they were too old to be vaccinated. Knowledge about HPV and its role in the development of cervical cancer and genital warts was poor. Conclusions The difference between intention to be vaccinated and starting vaccination was considerable, and a large proportion of women aged 16-26 did not wish to be vaccinated. If the most important barriers to vaccination were addressed (cost and a lack of information about vaccination benefits), it is likely that the uptake of vaccination in Denmark would increase substantially. PMID:20152055

  6. Outbreak-related mumps vaccine effectiveness among a cohort of children and of young adults in Germany 2011.

    PubMed

    Takla, Anja; Böhmer, Merle M; Klinc, Christina; Kurz, Norbert; Schaffer, Alice; Stich, Heribert; Stöcker, Petra; Wichmann, Ole; Koch, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Mumps outbreaks in populations with high 2-dose vaccination coverage and among young adults are increasingly reported. However, data on the duration of vaccine-induced protection conferred by mumps vaccines are scarce. As part of a supra-regional outbreak in Germany 2010/11, we conducted two retrospective cohort studies in a primary school and among adult ice hockey teams to determine mumps vaccine effectiveness (VE). Via questionnaires we collected information on demography, clinical manifestations, and reviewed vaccination cards. We estimated VE as 1-RR, RR being the rate ratio of disease among two-times or one-time mumps-vaccinated compared with unvaccinated persons. The response rate was 92.6% (100/108--children cohort) and 91.7% (44/48--adult cohort). Fourteen cases were identified in the children and 6 in the adult cohort. In the children cohort (mean age: 9 y), 2-dose VE was 91.9% (95% CI 81.0-96.5%). In the adult cohort (mean age: 26 y), no cases occurred among the 13 2-times vaccinated, while 1-dose VE was 50.0% (95% CI -9.4-87.1%). Average time since last vaccination showed no significant difference for cases and non-cases, but cases were younger at age of last mumps vaccination (children cohort: 2 vs. 3 y, P=0.04; adult cohort: 1 vs. 4 y, P=0.03). We did not observe signs of waning immunity in the children cohort. Due to the small sample size VE in the adult cohort should be interpreted with caution. Given the estimated VE, very high 2-dose vaccination coverage is required to prevent future outbreaks. Intervention efforts to increase coverage must especially target young adults who received<2 vaccinations during childhood. PMID:24091837

  7. Broilers are young chickens specially bred for fast growth and slaughtered when they weigh about four pounds, usually between seven and nine weeks of age. Birds slaughtered between

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Broilers are young chickens specially bred for fast growth and slaughtered when they weigh about a continuous supply of broilers by starting a new flock of chicks when the previous flock is a month old broilers, use a broiler feed specially developed to meet their require- ments for rapid growth. Call

  8. Effect of Dietary Acid or Aluminum on Growth and Growth-Related Hormones in Young Chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Capdevielle; C. G. Scanes

    1995-01-01

    The effect of two concentrations of dietary acid (sulfuric acid) or aluminum (aluminum sulfate) on growth and growth-related hormones was examined in a heavy (broiler) strain of chicken between 4 and 18 days old. Growth (body weight, average daily gain, and tibial length) in chicks receiving either dietary acid or aluminum-containing diets were compared to chicks fed a control diet

  9. A genetically engineered derivative of Salmonella Enteritidis as a novel live vaccine candidate for salmonellosis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Nandre, Rahul M; Matsuda, Kiku; Chaudhari, Atul A; Kim, Bumseok; Lee, John Hwa

    2012-10-01

    To construct a novel live Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccine candidate, SE was genetically engineered using the allelic exchange method to delete two virulence genes, lon and cpxR. The lon gene deletion is essential to impair Salmonella replication and avoid overwhelming systemic disease in the host. The cpxR gene deletion is needed to enhance the ability of bacteria to adhere and invade the host cell. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the derivatives JOL917 (?lon), JOL918 (?cpxR), and JOL919 (?lon/?cpxR) had increased surface fimbrial filamentous structures. Significant elevations of extracellular polysaccharide and FimA expression were observed for the derivatives compared to the parental wild type JOL860, while biochemical properties of the derivatives were not altered. In the safety examination by inoculation of the derivatives in chickens, gross lesion scores of the liver, spleen, kidney, small intestine and caecal tonsils were moderate in the JOL917 and JOL918 groups, and significantly lower in the JOL919 group than those of the JOL860. Bacterial counts from the spleen and caeca of the JOL917 and JOL918 groups were moderate, and significantly reduced in the JOL919 group compared to the JOL860 group. In addition, only the JOL919 group showed significantly lower bacterial counts in the faecal samples than those of the JOL860 group. Significant elevations of IgG and secretory IgA levels observed in the derivative groups, while the JOL919 and JOL860 groups showed a potent lymphocyte proliferation response as compared to those of the control group. In the protection efficacy examination, JOL919 immunized group showed significantly lower depression, lower gross lesion in the liver and spleen, and lower number of the SE positive internal organs than those of the control group against a virulent wild type SE challenge. PMID:22192447

  10. Different immune responses to three different vaccines following H6N1 low pathogenic avian influenza virus challenge in Taiwanese local chicken breeds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background H6N1 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) are frequently isolated in Taiwan and lead to significant economic losses, either directly or indirectly through association with other infectious diseases. This study investigates immune responses to three different vaccines following a H6N1 challenge in different local breeds. Methods Experimental animals were sampled from six local chicken breeds maintained at the National Chung-Hsing University, namely Hsin-Yi, Ju-Chi, Hua-Tung (Taiwan), Quemoy (Quemoy Island), Shek-Ki (China), Nagoya (Japan) and a specific pathogen free (SPF) White Leghorn line. A total number of 338 chickens have been distributed between a control and a challenge group, H6N1 challenge was performed at 7 weeks of age; vaccination against Newcastle Disease (ND), Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) and Infectious Bronchitis (IB) was performed at 11 weeks. The anti-H6N1 LPAIV antibody titers were measured by ELISA at days 0, 7, 14 and 21 after challenge, and the anti-ND, anti-IBD and anti-IB antibody titers were measured by inhibition of hemagglutination test and ELISA at days 0, 14, 28 after vaccination. Results There was no effect of the H6N1 LPAIV challenge at 7 weeks of age on the subsequent responses to ND and IBD vaccine at 11 weeks of age, but, surprisingly, the H6N1 LPAIV challenge significantly affected antibody levels to IB vaccine in some breeds, since IB0 and IB14 antibody titers were lower in the challenge groups. However, there was no significant difference in IB28 antibody titers among the experimental groups. Conclusions Local breeds have different immune response to H6N1 LPAIV challenge and subsequent vaccines. Differences dealt mainly with kinetics of response and with peak values. Quemoy exhibited higher antibody levels to H6N1, ND and IBD. The negative effect of the H6N1 LPAIV challenge on IB vaccine response may be related to the fact that both viruses target the lung tissues, and the type of local immune response induced by LPAIV challenge may not be favourable for birds to make optimum IB-specific antibody response. PMID:21645314

  11. A cyclophosphamide-sensitive cell compartment is essential for homologous protection conferred by licensed vaccines for the control of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in chickens.

    PubMed

    Sadeyen, Jean-Rémy; Kaiser, Pete; Stevens, Mark P; Dziva, Francis

    2015-07-17

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) exert substantial economic costs on poultry producers worldwide. Vaccination is an attractive method of control, but the immunological basis of protection is poorly understood. Here, we examine the effect of intramuscular injection of cyclophosphamide or saline on homologous protection induced by licensed inactivated or live-attenuated APEC O78 vaccines in chickens. In saline-treated birds, both vaccines induced significant APEC-specific IgY and protection against homologous challenge, as evidenced by enumeration of tissue-associated bacteria and analysis of pathology. In cyclophosphamide-treated birds, B cells were severely depleted whereas percentages of circulating CD4- and CD8-positive T cells were normal as detected by flow cytometry. Further, such birds did not produce APEC-specific IgY and were as susceptible to challenge as age-matched unvaccinated controls. The data indicate that homologous protection conferred by licensed APEC vaccines strictly requires a cyclophosphamide-sensitive cell population that includes B cells. PMID:26087298

  12. Factors associated with the persuasiveness of direct-to-consumer advertising on HPV vaccination among young women.

    PubMed

    Manika, Danae; Ball, Jennifer G; Stout, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study explored young women's response to direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising (DTCA) for a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. In particular, the study examined (a) the association of factors stemming from consumer research with actual and intended behavioral responses to DTCA for HPV and (b) key elements drawn from commonly used health-related theories to determine the strongest associations with behavioral intentions regarding the HPV vaccine. Survey findings showed that vaccinated women indicated that DTCA played a role in their decision to get vaccinated against HPV more so than those who were not vaccinated. Trust in DTCA for an HPV vaccine brand was significantly related to intentions to seek more information about the vaccine. Also, perceived barriers had the only significant association with behavioral intentions when taking into account perceived threat and response efficacy. These results provide practical implications for key industry decision makers and health communication professionals on the design of effective theory-based health communication message content for an HPV vaccine brand with consequent social implications. PMID:24708436

  13. Characteristics Associated With Initiation of the HPV Vaccine Among a National Sample of Male and Female Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bernat, Debra H.; Gerend, Mary A.; Chevallier, Kenya; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine rates of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation, and characteristics associated with initiation, among a national sample of male and female young adults. Methods Participants (n=3,448; 48% female) were recruited using a web-based respondent driven sampling strategy and completed a web-based survey between October and December 2010. Results Forty-five percent of females and four percent of males initiated the vaccine. Females who were younger, never married, in school, attended religious services less than once a month, sexually active, reported a greater number of lifetime sex partners, and who had been tested for HIV were more likely to report initiation. Males who were African American, attended religious services less than once a month, reported a greater number of sex partners in their lifetime and who had been tested for HIV were more likely to report initiation. Conclusions Factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation may differ for males and females. Further research, with larger samples of males, is needed to fully understand characteristics associated with male initiation. Regardless of gender, however, the majority of young adults who have not initiated sexual activity have not received the vaccine. Further research is needed to examine how to increase vaccination rates among this population, as they may benefit most from vaccination. PMID:24138764

  14. Effect of in ovo vaccination and anticoccidials on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on used litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on used litter. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either chemi...

  15. The role of rpoS, hmp, and ssrAB in Salmonella enterica Gallinarum and evaluation of a triple-deletion mutant as a live vaccine candidate in Lohmann layer chickens

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Youngjae; Park, Yoon Mee; Barate, Abhijit Kashinath; Park, So-Yeon; Park, Hee Jeong; Lee, Mi Rae; Truong, Quang Lam; Yoon, Jang Won

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica Gallinarum (SG) causes fowl typhoid (FT), a septicemic disease in avian species. We constructed deletion mutants lacking the stress sigma factor RpoS, the nitric oxide (NO)-detoxifying flavohemoglobin Hmp, and the SsrA/SsrB regulator to confirm the functions of these factors in SG. All gene products were fully functional in wild-type (WT) SG whereas mutants harboring single mutations or a combination of rpoS, hmp, and ssrAB mutations showed hypersusceptibility to H2O2, loss of NO metabolism, and absence of Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-2 expression, respectively. A triple-deletion mutant, SG?3 (SG?rpoS?hmp?ssrAB), was evaluated for attenuated virulence and protection efficacy in two-week-old Lohmann layer chickens. The SG?3 mutant did not cause any mortality after inoculation with either 1 × 106 or 1 × 108 colony-forming units (CFUs) of bacteria. Significantly lower numbers of salmonellae were recovered from the liver and spleen of chickens inoculated with the SG?3 mutant compared to chickens inoculated with WT SG. Vaccination with the SG?3 mutant conferred complete protection against challenge with virulent SG on the chickens comparable to the group vaccinated with a conventional vaccine strain, SG9R. Overall, these results indicate that SG?3 could be a promising candidate for a live Salmonella vaccine against FT. PMID:25549217

  16. The role of rpoS, hmp, and ssrAB in Salmonella enterica Gallinarum and evaluation of a triple-deletion mutant as a live vaccine candidate in Lohmann layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youngjae; Park, Yoon Mee; Barate, Abhijit Kashinath; Park, So-Yeon; Park, Hee Jeong; Lee, Mi Rae; Truong, Quang Lam; Yoon, Jang Won; Bang, Iel Soo; Hahn, Tae-Wook

    2015-06-01

    Salmonella enterica Gallinarum (SG) causes fowl typhoid (FT), a septicemic disease in avian species. We constructed deletion mutants lacking the stress sigma factor RpoS, the nitric oxide (NO)-detoxifying flavohemoglobin Hmp, and the SsrA/SsrB regulator to confirm the functions of these factors in SG. All gene products were fully functional in wild-type (WT) SG whereas mutants harboring single mutations or a combination of rpoS, hmp, and ssrAB mutations showed hypersusceptibility to H2O2, loss of NO metabolism, and absence of Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-2 expression, respectively. A triple-deletion mutant, SG?3 (SG?rpoS?hmp?ssrAB), was evaluated for attenuated virulence and protection efficacy in two-week-old Lohmann layer chickens. The SG?3 mutant did not cause any mortality after inoculation with either 1 × 10(6) or 1 × 10(8) colony-forming units (CFUs) of bacteria. Significantly lower numbers of salmonellae were recovered from the liver and spleen of chickens inoculated with the SG?3 mutant compared to chickens inoculated with WT SG. Vaccination with the SG?3 mutant conferred complete protection against challenge with virulent SG on the chickens comparable to the group vaccinated with a conventional vaccine strain, SG9R. Overall, these results indicate that SG?3 could be a promising candidate for a live Salmonella vaccine against FT. PMID:25549217

  17. Effects of in ovo vaccination and anticoccidials on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either ...

  18. The safety and immunogenicity of an in ovo vaccine against Newcastle disease virus differ between two lines of chicken

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitrios Dilaveris; Changlin Chen; Pete Kaiser; Peter H. Russell

    2007-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus is a major threat to poultry and in ovo vaccines are needed. A live in ovo vaccine for Newcastle disease virus, which was licensed but not marketed, was unsafe. It killed 32% of line 0 chicks and 10% of vaccine Lohmann (VALO) chicks using the maximum recommended dose that infected about 40% of the embryos. VALO's made

  19. Memory T-cell immune response in healthy young adults vaccinated with live attenuated influenza A (H5N2) vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chirkova, T V; Naykhin, A N; Petukhova, G D; Korenkov, D A; Donina, S A; Mironov, A N; Rudenko, L G

    2011-10-01

    Cellular immune responses of both CD4 and CD8 memory/effector T cells were evaluated in healthy young adults who received two doses of live attenuated influenza A (H5N2) vaccine. The vaccine was developed by reassortment of nonpathogenic avian A/Duck/Potsdam/1402-6/68 (H5N2) and cold-adapted A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2) viruses. T-cell responses were measured by standard methods of intracellular cytokine staining of gamma interferon (IFN-?)-producing cells and a novel T-cell recognition of antigen-presenting cells by protein capture (TRAP) assay based on the trogocytosis phenomenon, namely, plasma membrane exchange between interacting immune cells. TRAP enables the detection of activated trogocytosis-positive T cells after virus stimulation. We showed that two doses of live attenuated influenza A (H5N2) vaccine promoted both CD4 and CD8 T-memory-cell responses in peripheral blood of healthy young subjects in the clinical study. Significant differences in geometric mean titers (GMTs) of influenza A (H5N2)-specific IFN-?(+) cells were observed at day 42 following the second vaccination, while peak levels of trogocytosis(+) T cells were detected earlier, on the 21st day after the second vaccination. The inverse correlation of baseline levels compared to postvaccine fold changes in GMTs of influenza-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells demonstrated that baseline levels of these specific cells could be considered a predictive factor of vaccine immunogenicity. PMID:21813657

  20. Lymphatic involution and early mortality in the young chicken produced by 2.2 GeV protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montour, J. L.; Shellabarger, C. J.

    1972-01-01

    Young single-comb white Leghorn cockerels were subjected to single acute doses of either 2.2 GeV protons or 250 kVp X-rays. Since young chickens exposed in the lethal range die within 48 hours of exposure, an hourly tabulation of deaths was recorded for this length of time after exposure. Animals which were exposed to sublethal doses were killed five days after exposure and their major lymphatic organs, (thymus, bursa, and spleen), removed and weighed. In the lethal range, animals exposed to 2.2 GeV protons died sooner than those receiving similar doses of X-rays, but total mortality was similar in each case at similar dose levels. The 48 hour LD sub 50 was determined to be 710 rad. Measured five days after exposure, 50% depression ED sub 50 for lymphatic organs occurred as follows: (1) thymus, 350 rad; (2) pursa, 500 rad, and (3) spleen, 450 rad. In all case R.B.E. values were not different from unity.

  1. Reduction of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in eggs from chickens once or twice vaccinated with an oil-emulsified inactivated H5 avian influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Swayne, David E; Eggert, Dawn; Beck, Joan R

    2012-07-13

    The negative impact of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection on egg production and deposition of virus in eggs, as well as any protective effect of vaccination, is unknown. Individually housed non-vaccinated, sham-vaccinated and inactivated H5N9 vaccinated Once or Twice adult White leghorn hens were challenged intranasally/intratracheally 3-weeks post-vaccination with H5N2 HPAIV. The non-/sham-vaccinated layers experienced 100% mortality (0% survivability) within 3-4 days post-challenge (DPC), and major changes to reproductive parameters including precipitous drops in egg production (79-0% in <5 days), production of soft and thin-shelled eggs, and deposition of virus in albumin and yolk, and on the egg shell surface of 53% of eggs. By comparison, the three H5-vaccinated groups had 83%, 100% and 100% survivability after challenge; the two H5-vaccinated Once hens that died had low pre-challenge HI titers (GMT=16). H5-vaccinated Once or Twice groups maintained egg production after challenge (63%), but there was a mild and significant reduction in egg production as compared to pre-challenge egg production (79%). H5-vaccinated groups had reduced number of virus contaminated eggs (28%), and in most groups, reduced quantity of virus in contaminated eggs compared to non-/sham-vaccinated groups. No HPAIV-positive eggs were laid on or after 5 DPC. In conclusion, HPAIV infection had major negative impact on egg production and other reproductive parameters. H5-vaccination Once or Twice prevented declines in egg production after HPAIV challenge, reduced number of virus-infected eggs, and typically reduced the titer of virus in internal contents and on eggshell surface. PMID:22652397

  2. Barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccination of young women in high-income countries: a qualitative systematic review and evidence synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is recommended for adolescent young women prior to sexual debut to reduce cervical cancer related mortality and morbidity. Understanding factors affecting decision-making of HPV vaccination of young women is important so that effective interventions can be developed which address barriers to uptake in population groups less likely to receive the HPV vaccine. Methods We undertook a qualitative systematic review and evidence synthesis to examine decision-making relating to the HPV vaccination of young women in high-income countries. A comprehensive search of databases from inception to March 2012 was undertaken to identify eligible studies reporting the perspectives of key stakeholders including policy makers, professionals involved in programme, parents, and young women. Factors affecting uptake of the vaccine were examined at different levels of the socio-ecological model (policy, community, organisational, interpersonal and intrapersonal). Results Forty-one studies were included. Whether young women receive the HPV vaccine is strongly governed by the decisions of policy makers, healthcare professionals, and parents. These decisions are shaped by: financial considerations; social norms and values relating to sexual activity, and; trust in vaccination programmes and healthcare providers. Financial constraints may be overcome through universal healthcare systems offering the HPV vaccine free at the point of delivery. In the healthcare setting, judgements by healthcare professionals about whether to recommend the vaccine may restrict a young woman’s access to the vaccine irrespective of her own beliefs and preferences. Parents may decide not to allow their daughters to be vaccinated, based on cultural or religious perceptions about sexual activity. Conclusions Barriers to the uptake of the HPV vaccine have implications for young women’s future sexual, physical and reproductive health. Interventions to address barriers to uptake of the vaccine should target appropriate, and multiple, levels of the socio-ecological model. Issues of trust require clear, accessible, and sometimes culturally appropriate, information about the HPV vaccination programme. Although young women are central to the HPV vaccination programme, their views are underrepresented in the qualitative literature. Future research should consider young women’s perceptions of, and involvement in, consent and decision-making. PMID:25004868

  3. Effect of nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis viruses on renal function in young male broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Afanador, G; Roberts, J R

    1994-07-01

    1. The acute effects of challenge with Australian T-strain infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) on renal function were evaluated, following primary vaccination in 1-d-old male broilers. 2. Challenge with T-strain IBV decreased body weight and induced kidney hypertrophy and kidney asymmetry. 3. Haematocrit was reduced in birds challenged with the Australian T-strain IBV and plasma uric acid was elevated in unvaccinated birds exposed to the IBV challenge. 4. Challenge with T-strain IBV caused significant increases in urinary water losses, accompanied by decreased urine osmolality and increased fractional excretion of sodium, calcium and potassium. 5. Vaccination at 1-d-old with Vic S-strain IBV provided a limited degree of protection against an heterologous challenge with T-strain IBV at 15 d of age. PMID:7953788

  4. Two decades after vaccine license: hepatitis B immunization and infection among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed Central

    MacKellar, D A; Valleroy, L A; Secura, G M; McFarland, W; Shehan, D; Ford, W; LaLota, M; Celentano, D D; Koblin, B A; Torian, L V; Thiede, H; Janssen, R S

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated hepatitis B immunization coverage and the extent of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among young men who have sex with men (MSM), a group for whom hepatitis B vaccine has been recommended since 1982. METHODS: We analyzed data from 3432 MSM, aged 15 to 22 years, randomly sampled at 194 gay-identified venues in 7 US metropolitan areas from 1994 through 1998. Participants were interviewed, counseled, and tested for serologic markers of HBV infection. RESULTS: Immunization coverage was 9% and the prevalence of markers of HBV infection was 11%. HBV infection ranged from 2% among 15-year-olds to 17% among 22-year-olds. Among participants susceptible to HBV infection, 96% used a regular source of health care or accessed the health care system for HIV or sexually transmitted disease testing. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the availability of an effective vaccine for nearly 2 decades, our findings suggest that few adolescent and young adult MSM in the United States are vaccinated against hepatitis B. Health care providers should intensify their efforts to identify and vaccinate young MSM who are susceptible to HBV. PMID:11392942

  5. Vaccination of chicken embryos with escape mutants of La Sota Newcastle disease virus induces a protective immune response.

    PubMed

    Mast, Jan; Nanbru, Cécile; Decaesstecker, Mireille; Lambrecht, Bénédicte; Couvreur, Bernard; Meulemans, Guy; van den Berg, Thierry

    2006-03-10

    To reduce the embryonic pathogenicity of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), escape mutants of the La Sota strain were produced with selected monoclonal antibodies. Immunoselection resulted in the elimination of an epitope by single amino acid substitution (F and HN molecule) or in a conformational change (HN molecule). The embryonic pathogenicity of these escape mutants was reduced and their dose was optimised for in ovo vaccination. Because antibody responses and protection of in ovo vaccinated chicks were similar to controls vaccinated at hatch with the La Sota strain, immunoselection appears a valuable technique to produce attenuated NDV strains, which are candidate in ovo vaccines. PMID:16343701

  6. Protection induced by commercially available live-attenuated and recombinant viral vector vaccines against infectious laryngotracheitis virus in broiler chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariel Vagnozzi; Guillermo Zavala; Sylva M. Riblet; Alice Mundt; Maricarmen García

    2012-01-01

    Viral vector vaccines using fowl poxvirus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) as vectors and carrying infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genes are commercially available to the poultry industry in the USA. Different sectors of the broiler industry have used these vaccines in ovo or subcutaneously, achieving variable results. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of

  7. The protective effect of MD-resistant breeding and HVT vaccination against immunosuppression caused by MDV infection in chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan-Chang Jin; Ping Wei; Wei-Fen Liang; Ya Li; Bo-Xue Niu; Xian-Rong Yang

    2010-01-01

    By the titrations of the antibody response to the vaccinations of avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND), the present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Marek's disease (MD)-resistant breeding and vaccination against the immunosuppression induced by virulent Marek's disease virus (MDV). The results showed that haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titres to AI and ND in MDV-unchallenged groups were

  8. Effects of different vaccine combinations against Mycoplasma gallisepticum on the internal egg and eggshell characteristics of commercial layer chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Live F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) vaccines are presently being used to help control field strain MG outbreaks. However, they may exert some adverse effects on egg production. Live strains of MG of lesser virulence as well as killed vaccines have little or no effect on egg production, bu...

  9. The safety and immunogenicity of an in ovo vaccine against Newcastle disease virus differ between two lines of chicken.

    PubMed

    Dilaveris, Dimitrios; Chen, Changlin; Kaiser, Pete; Russell, Peter H

    2007-05-10

    Newcastle disease virus is a major threat to poultry and in ovo vaccines are needed. A live in ovo vaccine for Newcastle disease virus, which was licensed but not marketed, was unsafe. It killed 32% of line 0 chicks and 10% of vaccine Lohmann (VALO) chicks using the maximum recommended dose that infected about 40% of the embryos. VALO's made more antibody than line 0's whether infected in ovo or by contact. The vaccine interrupted the massive development of the air capillaries between injection and hatch 3 days later. Cytokines, delivered as DNA in plasmids, did not function as adjuvants. IFN-gamma prevented infection. IL-4 or IL-18 had little or no effect. Line 0 chicks that had been infected by contact were protected and so the unsafe in ovo vaccination of a minority could protect the majority. PMID:17321645

  10. Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored H7 and H5 Live Vaccines Protect Chickens from Challenge with H7N9 or H5N1 Avian Influenza Viruses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qinfang; Mena, Ignacio; Ma, Jingjiao; Bawa, Bhupinder; Krammer, Florian; Lyoo, Young S; Lang, Yuekun; Morozov, Igor; Mahardika, Gusti Ngurah; Ma, Wenjun; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Richt, Juergen A

    2015-07-15

    Sporadic human infections by a novel H7N9 virus occurred over a large geographic region in China. In this study, we show that Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-vectored H7 (NDV-H7) and NDV-H5 vaccines are able to induce antibodies with high hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers and completely protect chickens from challenge with the novel H7N9 or highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses, respectively. Notably, a baculovirus-expressed H7 protein failed to protect chickens from H7N9 virus infection. PMID:25926639

  11. Nasal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes and Staphylococcus aureus in Streptococcus pneumoniae-vaccinated and non-vaccinated young children.

    PubMed

    Dukers-Muijrers, N H T M; Stobberingh, E; Beisser, P; Boesten, R C H; Jacobs, P; Hoebe, C J P A

    2013-03-01

    Since the implementation of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SPn) conjugate vaccination (PCV), non-vaccine types have prevailed in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), and an increase in Staphylococcus aureus (SA) burden has been suggested. Here, we assess the epidemiology of SA and SPn nasal carriage in 620 children at day-care centres; 141 of these children had received 1-4 PCV7 doses. A higher vaccine dosage was associated with non-vaccine-type SPn carriage. Of all SPn isolates, 45% were PCV7 types, 1% were additional PCV10 types and 22% were the three additional PCV13 types. SA carriage was inversely associated with vaccine-type SPn carriage. SPn serotype 19A showed higher SA co-carriage rates compared to other SPn serotypes. PCV7 implementation does not prevent children from being part of the IPD-related SPn transmission chain. These results contribute to the monitoring of SA- and SPn-related disease and add to the debate on the current national vaccination policy that recently included a change from PCV7 to PCV10. PMID:22687602

  12. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...shall be conducted using susceptible chicken embryos: Provided, That, if a non-embryo adapted virus is used for vaccine production...conducted in susceptible chickens. (i) Chicken Embryo Test. Each of 15 or more AE susceptible...

  13. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...shall be conducted using susceptible chicken embryos: Provided, That, if a non-embryo adapted virus is used for vaccine production...conducted in susceptible chickens. (i) Chicken Embryo Test. Each of 15 or more AE susceptible...

  14. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...shall be conducted using susceptible chicken embryos: Provided, That, if a non-embryo adapted virus is used for vaccine production...conducted in susceptible chickens. (i) Chicken Embryo Test. Each of 15 or more AE susceptible...

  15. Delay of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Infection by In Ovo Vaccination of Antibody-Positive Chicken Eggs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. McCarty; T. P. Brown; J. J. Giambrone

    SUMMARY Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a highly immunosuppressive disease of chickens. Long-term immunosuppression is most severe in broiler chicks infected immediately after hatch, whereas chicks infected in the second or third week of age demonstrate progressively milder impairment of the immune system. After 3 wk of age, IBD virus (IBDV) infection does not permanently damage a broiler's ability to

  16. Multimeric recombinant M2e protein-based ELISA: a significant improvement in differentiating avian influenza infected chickens from vaccinated ones.

    PubMed

    Hadifar, Farshid; Ignjatovic, Jagoda; Tarigan, Simson; Indriani, Risa; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Hasan, Noor Haliza; McWhorter, Andrea; Putland, Sophie; Ownagh, Abdulghaffar; Hemmatzadeh, Farhid

    2014-01-01

    Killed avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines have been used to control H5N1 infections in countries where the virus is endemic. Distinguishing vaccinated from naturally infected birds (DIVA) in such situations however, has become a major challenge. Recently, we introduced the recombinant ectodomain of the M2 protein (M2e) of H5N1 subtype as a novel tool for an ELISA based DIVA test. Despite being antigenic in natural infection the monomer form of the M2e used in ELISA had limited antigenicity and consequently poor diagnostic capability. To address this shortcoming, we evaluated the use of four tandem copies of M2e (tM2e) for increased efficiency of M2e antibody detection. The tM2e gene of H5N1 strain from Indonesia (A/Indonesia/CDC540/2006) was cloned into a pMAL- p4x expression vector and expressed in E.coli as a recombinant tM2e-MBP or M2e-MBP proteins. Both of these, M2e and tM2e antigens reacted with sera obtained from chickens following live H5N1 infection but not with sera from vaccinated birds. A significantly stronger M2e antibody reaction was observed with the tM2e compared to M2e antigen. Western blotting also supported the superiority of tM2e over M2e in detection of specific M2e antibodies against live H5N1 infection. Results from this study demonstrate that M2e tetramer is a better antigen than single M2e and could be more suitable for an ELISA based DIVA test. PMID:25330391

  17. Multimeric Recombinant M2e Protein-Based ELISA: A Significant Improvement in Differentiating Avian Influenza Infected Chickens from Vaccinated Ones

    PubMed Central

    Hadifar, Farshid; Ignjatovic, Jagoda; Tarigan, Simson; Indriani, Risa; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Hasan, Noor Haliza; McWhorter, Andrea; Putland, Sophie; Ownagh, Abdulghaffar; Hemmatzadeh, Farhid

    2014-01-01

    Killed avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines have been used to control H5N1 infections in countries where the virus is endemic. Distinguishing vaccinated from naturally infected birds (DIVA) in such situations however, has become a major challenge. Recently, we introduced the recombinant ectodomain of the M2 protein (M2e) of H5N1 subtype as a novel tool for an ELISA based DIVA test. Despite being antigenic in natural infection the monomer form of the M2e used in ELISA had limited antigenicity and consequently poor diagnostic capability. To address this shortcoming, we evaluated the use of four tandem copies of M2e (tM2e) for increased efficiency of M2e antibody detection. The tM2e gene of H5N1 strain from Indonesia (A/Indonesia/CDC540/2006) was cloned into a pMAL- p4x expression vector and expressed in E.coli as a recombinant tM2e-MBP or M2e-MBP proteins. Both of these, M2e and tM2e antigens reacted with sera obtained from chickens following live H5N1 infection but not with sera from vaccinated birds. A significantly stronger M2e antibody reaction was observed with the tM2e compared to M2e antigen. Western blotting also supported the superiority of tM2e over M2e in detection of specific M2e antibodies against live H5N1 infection. Results from this study demonstrate that M2e tetramer is a better antigen than single M2e and could be more suitable for an ELISA based DIVA test. PMID:25330391

  18. Evaluation of the toxicity of alum (aluminum sulfate) in young broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Huff, W E; Moore, P A; Balog, J M; Bayyari, G R; Rath, N C

    1996-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to characterize the toxicity and evaluate the efficacy of alum to increase intestinal strength in young broiler chicks. Cobb x Cobb male broiler chicks were placed in an experimental design consisting of six dietary treatments of alum (control, 0.23, 0.47, 0.93, 1.9, and 3.7%) with four replicate pens of 10 broilers per pen. The chicks were housed in electrically heated batteries and provided the treatments for ad libitum consumption from 1 d to 3 wk of age. Alum significantly (P < or = 0.05) decreased body weights at 1.9 and 3.7% in Experiment 1 and at 0.93, 1.9, and 3.7% in Experiment 2. Feed conversion and the relative weight of the gizzard were increased in both experiments at 3.7%. Serum phosphorus was decreased at 1.9 and 3.7% in Experiment 1 and at 3.7% in Experiment 2. Intestinal and bone strength were decreased in both experiments at 3.7%. Bone ash was reduced at 3.7% in Experiment 2, bone S levels increased at 1.9 and 3.7% in Experiment 1 and at 3.7% in Experiment 2, and bone Al levels were elevated in both experiments at 3.7%. Muscle levels of P and S decreased, and that of Ca increased at 3.7%. Aluminum levels were not elevated in muscle tissues. These data indicate that alum can be toxic to young broiler chicks, but at levels that would not be expected to be reached through litter consumption, and that alum did not increase intestinal strength. PMID:8933589

  19. Protective Effect of In ovo Vaccination with IBV-Spike-Recombinant DNA and Chicken Interferon as an Adjuvant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sankhiros Babapoor; Davi de Oliveira Almeida; Jaroslaw J. Fabis; Zeinab H. Helal; Xiuqing Wang; Theodore Girshick; Mazhar I. Khan

    2009-01-01

    5 Abstract: Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) can cause high mortality, poor weight gain and low feed efficiency of infected chickens, which leading to considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. In this study, a plasmid DNA pTracer-CVM2-IBVS (abbr: pCMV-S) that expresses the immunogenic S glycoprotein genes of IBV serotype Massachusetts 41 was inoculated in ovo into 18-days-old embryonating Specific-Pathogen- Free

  20. Seroprevalence of measles, mumps and rubella among young adults, after 20 years of universal 2-dose MMR vaccination in Israel.

    PubMed

    Levine, Hagai; Zarka, Salman; Ankol, Omer E; Rozhavski, Vladi; Davidovitch, Nadav; Aboudy, Yair; Balicer, Ran D

    2015-06-01

    Evidence-based vaccination policy is important for the global and local efforts of achieving control over measles. In 2007, the first Israeli birth cohort to be twice vaccinated during childhood with Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine reached adulthood. In parallel, Israel experienced its largest measles outbreak since 1994. We aimed to assess the seroprevalence of measles IgG antibodies and concordance with rubella and mumps seroprevalence among young Israeli adults born 1988-9 in comparison to previous birth cohorts, in order to inform evidence based prevention policy. We conducted a seroprevalence study of IgG antibodies among 439 Israeli adults born in 1988-9, based on a representative sample of sera collected at age 18-19 upon recruitment to mandatory military service in 2007. In total, 85.7% were seropositive for measles as compared with 95.6% in the 1996 recruitment (P < 0.001). The absolute decline was significant both for males (8.8%, P = 0.001) and females (12.1%, P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in seropositivity by gender, years of education, country of birth or smoking status. Rubella seropositivity among measles seropositives was 90.4%, significantly (P < 0.001) higher than 72.1% among measles seronegatives. Mumps seropositivity among measles seropositives was 87.0%, significantly (P < 0.001) higher than 62.3% among measles seronegatives. Results were similar for Israeli-born only. Our findings indicate that measles seroprevalence decreased after the last change in vaccination policy and reach sub-optimal level. Until global eradication is reached, a proactive vaccination program to supplement routine childhood vaccination program should be considered in Israel and in other countries. PMID:25891446

  1. Effects of Gan lian Yu ping feng powder on the antibody titers to infectious laryngotracheitis vaccine and some nonspecific immune indexes in chickens.

    PubMed

    Chunmei, Kong; Zhujun, Zhao; Xiuhui, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted in order to investigate the immuno-enhancing property of the Chinese herbal formula, Gan lian Yu ping feng powder. Three hundred and thirty six 45-day-old chicks were randomly divided into eight groups. The chicks in groups A, B, C were orally given 0.25 g/mL (low-), 0.5 g/mL (middle-) and 1.0 g/mL (high) dose of Gan lian Yu ping feng powder in the drinking water respectively for 3 days consecutively. They were then immunised with infectious laryngotracheitis vaccine (ILTV) on the 4th day. Groups D, E, F were given 0.25 g/mL, 0.5 g/mL and 1.0 g/mL dose of Gan lian Yu ping feng powder respectively after the immunisation for three days consecutively. Group G was Wen du qing (a government approved herbal product for ILT) control group, and group H was blank control group. At 52, 59, 73, 87 days of age, 8 chicks of each group were selected randomly for blood sampling to determine the levels of IFN-?, IL-4 and the antibody of ILT. Then the chickens were sacrificed, with the thymus, spleen and Bursa of Fabricius being weighed for the calculation of immune organ indexes. The results showed that high and middle dosages of Gan lian Yu ping feng powder given at the day before immunisation and 3 days after immunisation elevated not only the contents of IFN-?, the antibody titers of ILT (P<0.01) and the immune organ indexes (P<0.05) significantly, but also reduced the contents of IL-4. There was a significantly different degree of enhancement in the content of IFN-?, the antibody of ILT (P<0.01) and the immune organ index (P<0.05). The results indicate that Gan lian Yu ping feng powder effectively improves the immunity in chickens. PMID:24146504

  2. Study on Immunomodulatory Activity of Dietary Garlic in Chickens Vaccinated against Avian Influenza Virus (Subtype H9N2)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Jafari; M. Ghorbanpoor; S. Hoshmand Diarjan

    2009-01-01

    Fresh garlic powder was evaluated for ability to potentiate the immune response of broiler chicks to Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) vaccine. For this purpose, 280 day-old chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to 4 groups A, B (52 each) C and D (88 each). The birds in groups A and B were given control diet during the experiment, but those

  3. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF REFERENCE ANTISERA AGAINST 15 HEMAGGLUTININ SUBTYPES OF INFLUENZA VIRUS BY DNA VACCINATION OF CHICKENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reference antisera were produced against 15 influenza hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes using DNA vaccination to produce a high quality polyclonal serum to the HA protein without antibodies to other influenza viral proteins. The HA gene from each of 15 different HA subtypes of influenza virus was cloned i...

  4. An observational study of the temporal and spatial patterns of Marek's-disease-associated leukosis condemnation of young chickens in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David A; Dunn, John R; Dunn, Patricia A; Read, Andrew F

    2015-07-01

    Marek's disease, a disease primarily affecting immature chickens, is a worldwide problem that has on at least three occasions threatened the poultry industry in the United States. A rich dataset to study the epidemiology of this disease is available because the United States Department of Agriculture has required mandatory inspections of all commercially sold poultry of significant scale since the mid-20th century with over 99% of all chickens inspected. This dataset includes monthly totals aggregated by state since 1961 of the number of "young chickens" inspected and the number with "leukosis", a condemnation category that is almost always associated with Marek's disease in this category of birds. The objective of this study was to analyze temporal and spatial patterns in this condemnation data to gain insight into the ecology and epidemiology of the causative virus. We extracted visual patterns in the data using seasonal trend decomposition, and we tested for statistical significance using extended linear modeling techniques. The analysis confirmed previous findings that there are differences in leukosis condemnation rates between states, across years, and within years. The analysis also revealed several patterns not previously highlighted, including spatial and temporal autocorrelations in leukosis condemnation, changes to the amplitude of seasonality over time, and increasing within-year variation in condemnation rate over time. These patterns suggest that locally shared farm practices, virus transmission between farms, or viral persistence may be important to understanding the dynamics of the disease. We also discuss the plausibility of other potential explanations for these patterns. PMID:25998661

  5. Safety and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in HIV-infected and HIV-negative adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Giacomet, Vania; Penagini, Francesca; Trabattoni, Daria; Viganò, Alessandra; Rainone, Veronica; Bernazzani, Giada; Bonardi, Claudia Maria; Clerici, Mario; Bedogni, Giorgio; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2014-09-29

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is highly prevalent and can lead to cancer; the development of safe and efficacious vaccines for HPV is a major public health concern. The two licensed HPV vaccines contain recombinant virus-like particles of HPV 16 and 18; one of such vaccines also protects against HPV types 6 and 11 which cause genital warts. We determined safety and immunogenicity of quadrivalent HPV vaccine in HIV-infected and HIV-negative adolescents and young adults, aged 13-27 years. The seroconversion rate, assessed by antibody titers, 1 month after the administration of the third vaccine dose was 0.85 (95% CI 0.75-0.95) in the HIV-infected group and 0.91 (0.83-0.99) in the HIV-negative subjects (p=0.52). The vaccine was generally safe and well tolerated; the most common side effect was local pain and the most frequent systemic side effect was headache. This is the first report on response to HPV vaccination in both female and male HIV-infected adolescents and young adults and highlights that this population may benefit from HPV immunoprophylaxis. Further studies are needed to examine the long term efficacy of this vaccine in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:25149430

  6. Compliance with herpes zoster vaccination in young and adult individuals in two regions of Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonino Parlato; Vincenzo Romano Spica; Massimo Ciccozzi; Francesca Farchi; Francesca Gallè; Valeria Di Onofrio; Elisabetta Franco; Giorgio Liguori

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this work was to explore the knowledge and acceptance of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)-Herpes Zoster (HZ) vaccination in the general Italian population, where the HZ vaccine has not yet been distributed, using a prevalence study of subjects from two regions in Italy. METHODS: A group of 3,173 individuals were interviewed using a questionnaire. The youngest age

  7. Helix stabilization in the C-terminal peptide of chicken riboflavin carrier protein enhances immunogenicity and prolongs contraceptive potential as an epitope-based vaccine in female rats.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, S; Karande, A A; Adiga, P R

    2001-09-14

    Earlier investigations have shown that (a) antibodies against a carrier-coupled 20-residue synthetic peptide (C-20), (200)HACQKKLLKFEALQQEEGEE(219), corresponding to the C-terminal partially helical sequence of chicken riboflavin carrier protein (RCP; 219 AA) curtail pregnancy in mammals and (b) helix stabilization by introducing appropriately spaced salt bridges in the flanking sequences of its B-cell epitopic structure enhances RCP antigenicity to peptide antibodies. Among such engineered C-20 analogs, HE-20 (HAEQKKLLKFEALEQEKGKE) exhibited maximum helical propensity. Since C-20 per se, i.e., without carrier conjugation, elicits RCP-reactive neutralizing antibodies in rodents, we mapped its T-cell epitope which overlaps its B-cell epitope, both of which remain unmodified in HE-20. Comparative evaluation of immunogenicity of the two epitope-based peptide vaccines showed that HE-20 was far superior to C-20 in generating RCP-reactive antibodies in terms of both affinity and titer. With regard to bioefficacy, passive immunoneutralization of RCP in pregnant rats by administering purified IgG from either of the antipeptide sera terminated pregnancy. Similarly, active immunization of fertile female rats with the individual peptide analogs curtailed pregnancy. However, HE-20 was more efficient in eliciting higher affinity, longer-lasting, RCP-crossreactive antibodies with consequently more prolonged immunocontraceptive efficacy. PMID:11549280

  8. Experimental infections with fowl pox in chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Howell; R. Hunter

    1978-01-01

    Seven groups of chickens were challenged with a field isolate of fowl pox virus at 18 weeks old. The birds in the groups that had been vaccinated 3 weeks previously with fowl pox vaccinates showed no signs of disease. Birds which had not been vaccinated against fowl pox developed upper respiratory disease after challenge, and some birds had diphtheritic tracheitis

  9. A new generation of modified live-attenuated avian influenza viruses using a two-strategy combination as potential vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Song, Haichen; Nieto, Gloria Ramirez; Perez, Daniel R

    2007-09-01

    In light of the recurrent outbreaks of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), there is a pressing need for the development of vaccines that allow rapid mass vaccination. In this study, we introduced by reverse genetics temperature-sensitive mutations in the PB1 and PB2 genes of an avian influenza virus, A/Guinea Fowl/Hong Kong/WF10/99 (H9N2) (WF10). Further genetic modifications were introduced into the PB1 gene to enhance the attenuated (att) phenotype of the virus in vivo. Using the att WF10 as a backbone, we substituted neuraminidase (NA) for hemagglutinin (HA) for vaccine purposes. In chickens, a vaccination scheme consisting of a single dose of an att H7N2 vaccine virus at 2 weeks of age and subsequent challenge with the wild-type H7N2 LPAI virus resulted in complete protection. We further extended our vaccination strategy against the HPAI H5N1. In this case, we reconstituted an att H5N1 vaccine virus, whose HA and NA genes were derived from an Asian H5N1 virus. A single-dose immunization in ovo with the att H5N1 vaccine virus in 18-day-old chicken embryos resulted in more than 60% protection for 4-week-old chickens and 100% protection for 9- to 12-week-old chickens. Boosting at 2 weeks posthatching provided 100% protection against challenge with the HPAI H5N1 virus for chickens as young as 4 weeks old, with undetectable virus shedding postchallenge. Our results highlight the potential of live att avian influenza vaccines for mass vaccination in poultry. PMID:17596317

  10. A New Generation of Modified Live-Attenuated Avian Influenza Viruses Using a Two-Strategy Combination as Potential Vaccine Candidates?

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haichen; Nieto, Gloria Ramirez; Perez, Daniel R.

    2007-01-01

    In light of the recurrent outbreaks of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), there is a pressing need for the development of vaccines that allow rapid mass vaccination. In this study, we introduced by reverse genetics temperature-sensitive mutations in the PB1 and PB2 genes of an avian influenza virus, A/Guinea Fowl/Hong Kong/WF10/99 (H9N2) (WF10). Further genetic modifications were introduced into the PB1 gene to enhance the attenuated (att) phenotype of the virus in vivo. Using the att WF10 as a backbone, we substituted neuraminidase (NA) for hemagglutinin (HA) for vaccine purposes. In chickens, a vaccination scheme consisting of a single dose of an att H7N2 vaccine virus at 2 weeks of age and subsequent challenge with the wild-type H7N2 LPAI virus resulted in complete protection. We further extended our vaccination strategy against the HPAI H5N1. In this case, we reconstituted an att H5N1 vaccine virus, whose HA and NA genes were derived from an Asian H5N1 virus. A single-dose immunization in ovo with the att H5N1 vaccine virus in 18-day-old chicken embryos resulted in more than 60% protection for 4-week-old chickens and 100% protection for 9- to 12-week-old chickens. Boosting at 2 weeks posthatching provided 100% protection against challenge with the HPAI H5N1 virus for chickens as young as 4 weeks old, with undetectable virus shedding postchallenge. Our results highlight the potential of live att avian influenza vaccines for mass vaccination in poultry. PMID:17596317

  11. A recombinant turkey herpesvirus expressing chicken interleukin-2 increases the protection provided by in ovo vaccination with infectious bursal disease and infectious bronchitis virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Tarpey; A. A. van Loon; N. de Haas; P. J. Davis; S. Orbell; D. Cavanagh; P. Britton; R. Casais; P. Sondermeijer; R. Sundick

    2007-01-01

    In ovo vaccination remains an attractive option for the mass application of vaccines to poultry, ensuring a uniform application of vaccine in a cost-effective manner. However, the number of vaccines that can be delivered safely by this method is limited. Several infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccines can be given in ovo though most are delivered post-hatch and there are

  12. Effect of subcutaneous pox vaccination of young chicks on immune responses and weight gains.

    PubMed

    Springer, W T; Truman, R W

    1981-06-01

    Two fowl pox and two pigeon pox vaccines were administered subcutaneously in the dorsum of the neck of specific-pathogen-free (SPAFAS) chicks at day of hatch in separate studies. Treatment levels used were 1:2, 1:10, or 1:50 dilution of the recommended wing web dose. Both pigeon pox vaccines and one fowl pox vaccine depressed body weight gains significantly by day 14. Mean body weight gains of female chicks were less affected by pigeon pox vaccines than by fowl pox vaccines. The mean hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titer to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) of chicks given one pigeon pox vaccine at the 1:2 dilution was significantly lower (P less than .01) than titers of sham-treated controls. The number of immunoglobulin-M (IgM) secreting cells in the spleen was significantly less (P less than .05) at day 14 in all pox vaccinated chicks when compared to sham-treated controls. PMID:6267579

  13. Safety and Immunogenicity of 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Vaccination in Perinatally HIV-1–Infected Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Patricia M.; Nachman, Sharon; Muresan, Petronella; Fenton, Terence; Spector, Stephen A.; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Pass, Robert; Yogev, Ram; Burchett, Sandra; Heckman, Barbara; Bloom, Anthony; Utech, L. Jill; Anthony, Patricia; Petzold, Elizabeth; Levy, Wende; Siberry, George K.; Ebiasah, Ruth; Miller, Judi; Handelsman, Edward; Weinberg, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Background.?The safety and immunogenicity of high-dose pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) vaccination in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–infected children, adolescents, and young adults are unknown. Methods.?Two 30-?g doses of 2009 Novartis pH1N1 monovalent vaccine (Fluvirin) were administered 21–28 days apart to perinatally HIV-1–infected children, adolescents, and young adults. Antibodies were measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay at baseline, 21–28 days after first vaccination, 7–13 days after the second vaccination, and 7 months after the first vaccination. Results.?Among the 155 participants, 54 were aged 4–8 years, 51 were aged 9–17 years, and 50 were aged 18–24 years. After 2 doses of Fluvirin, seroresponse (?4-fold rise in HAI titers) was demonstrated in 79.6%, 84.8%, and 83% of participants in the aforementioned age groups, respectively, and seroprotection (HAI titers ?40) was shown in 79.6%, 82.6%, and 85.1%, respectively. Of those lacking seroresponse (n = 43) or seroprotection (n = 37) after the first vaccination, 46.5% and 40.5% achieved seroresponse or seroprotection, respectively, after the second vaccination. Among participants who lacked seroprotection at entry, a “complete response” (both seroresponse and seroprotection) after first vaccination was associated with higher baseline log10 HAI titer and non-Hispanic ethnicity. No serious vaccine-related events occurred. Conclusion.?Two doses of double-strength pH1N1 vaccine are safe and immunogenic and may provide improved protection against influenza in perinatally HIV-1–infected children and youth. Clinical Trials Registration.?NCT00992836. PMID:22615311

  14. Correlates of HPV knowledge in the era of HPV vaccination: a study of unvaccinated young adult women.

    PubMed

    Gerend, Mary A; Shepherd, Janet E

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, awareness of the sexually transmitted infection human papillomavirus-the virus that causes cervical cancer-was relatively low. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with human papillomavirus knowledge now that human papillomavirus vaccines have become widely available. Young adult women (n = 739; aged 18-26 years) attending Florida State University who had not yet initiated human papillomavirus vaccination completed a survey between March-August 2009. The survey assessed human papillomavirus awareness, human papillomavirus knowledge, demographics, socio-political variables, sexual history, and health history variables. Over 97% of participants were aware of human papillomavirus prior to study enrollment; however, knowledge of human papillomavirus was only moderate. A multivariate regression analysis examining factors related to human papillomavirus knowledge revealed five independent correlates: Latina ethnicity, premarital sex values, number of lifetime sexual partners, history of cervical dysplasia, and HIV testing. These variables accounted for 14% of the variance in human papillomavirus knowledge. Less knowledge was observed for Latinas and women opposed to premarital sex. Greater knowledge was observed for women who had been tested for HIV and women with more sexual partners or a history of cervical dysplasia. These findings can inform future human papillomavirus vaccination campaigns and may be particularly useful in developing interventions for individuals with the largest deficits in human papillomavirus knowledge. PMID:21391159

  15. Chicken anaemia agent: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. McNulty

    1991-01-01

    Chicken anaemia agent (CAA) is a small, unclassified, icosahedral DNA virus with a single?stranded, circular genome. It seems to have a worldwide distribution. Only one serotype of CAA has been found, and all isolates investigated so far are pathogenic for young chicks.CAA causes a syndrome in chickens characterised by increased mortality, anaemia associated with atrophy of the haematopoietic tissues in

  16. Chinese herbal ingredients are effective immune stimulators for chickens infected with the Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Kong, X-F; Hu, Y-L; Yin, Y-L; Wu, G-Y; Rui, R; Wang, D-Y; Yang, C-B

    2006-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of 4 Chinese herbal ingredients (CHI) as immune stimulators for an active vaccine in chickens using both in vitro and in vivo assays. The CHI used were Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), Isatis root polysaccharide (IRPS), Propolis polysaccharide, and Epimedium flavone at various concentrations. Two hundred 14-d-old male White Roman chickens were randomly divided into 10 groups. Chickens in groups 1 to 9 were inoculated with the New-castle disease virus (NDV) strain IV vaccine by intranasal and intraocular administration. Chickens in groups 1 to 8 were also administered subcutaneously on the dorsal region of the neck with 0.5 mL of the corresponding CHI at 2 doses: 29 and 58 mg/kg of BW for APS and IRPS and 7.25 and 14.5 mg/kg of BW for the others, once daily for 3 successive days. In group 9 (CHI-free control) and group 10 (both vaccine- and CHI-free control), chickens were injected with 0.5 mL of physiological saline. New-castle disease virus-specific serum hemagglutination inhibition antibody (Ab) production in immunized chickens was quantified using established methods. The results indicate that a majority of the CHI used at appropriate concentrations were effective in enhancing in vitro proliferation of chick embryo fibroblasts in response to the NDV infection. In vivo administration of CHI to vaccinated chickens (7.25 to 58 mg/kg of BW, depending on type) increased serum anti-NDV hemagglutination inhibition Ab titer concentrations, compared with the administration the NDV alone. For all CHI, a beneficial effect on the Ab production was observed on d 21 after the initiation of the vaccination. On the basis of the in vivo doses used, Propolis polysaccharide and Epimedium flavone were more potent than APS and IRPS in promoting the humoral immune response in the young birds (P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggest that appropriate doses of CHI can be used as novel, effective immune stimulators for chickens. PMID:17135673

  17. An observational study of the temporal and spatial patterns of Marek’s-disease-associated leukosis condemnation of young chickens in the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, John R.; Dunn, Patricia A.; Read, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    Marek’s disease, a disease primarily affecting immature chickens, is a worldwide problem that has on at least three occasions threatened the poultry industry in the United States. A rich dataset to study the epidemiology of this disease is available because the United States Department of Agriculture has required mandatory inspections of all commercially sold poultry of significant scale since the mid-20th century with over 99% of all chickens inspected. This dataset includes monthly totals aggregated by state since 1961 of the number of “young chickens” inspected and the number with “leukosis”, a condemnation category that is almost always associated with Marek’s disease in this category of birds. The objective of this study was to analyze temporal and spatial patterns in this condemnation data to gain insight into the ecology and epidemiology of the causative virus. We extracted visual patterns in the data using seasonal trend decomposition, and we tested for statistical significance using extended linear modeling techniques. The analysis confirmed previous findings that there are differences in leukosis condemnation rates between states, across years, and within years. The analysis also revealed several patterns not previously highlighted, including spatial and temporal autocorrelations in leukosis condemnation, changes to the amplitude of seasonality over time, and increasing within-year variation in condemnation rate over time. These patterns suggest that locally shared farm practices, virus transmission between farms, or viral persistence may be important to understanding the dynamics of the disease. We also discuss the plausibility of other potential explanations for these patterns. PMID:25998661

  18. RECOMBINANT PARAMYXOVIRUS TYPE 1-AVIAN INFLUENZA-H7 VIRUS AS A VACCINE FOR PROTECTION OF CHICKENS AGAINST INFLUENZA AND NEWCASTLE DISEASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current vaccines to prevent avian influenza rely upon labor-intensive parenteral injection. A more advantageous vaccine would be capable of administration by mass immunization methods such as spray or water vaccination. A recombinant vaccine (rNDV-AIV-H7) was constructed by using a lentogenic Paramy...

  19. Protection against H7N3 high pathogenicity avian influenza in chickens immunized with a recombinant fowlpox and an inactivated avian influenza vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning on June 2012, an H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epizootic was reported in the State of Jalisco (Mexico), with some 22.4 million chickens that died, were slaughtered on affected farms or were preemptively culled on neighboring farms. In the current study, layer chickens were ...

  20. Cardiac Safety of Modified Vaccinia Ankara for Vaccination against Smallpox in a Young, Healthy Study Population

    PubMed Central

    Zitzmann-Roth, Eva-Maria; von Sonnenburg, Frank; de la Motte, Stephan; Arndtz-Wiedemann, Nathaly; von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Uebler, Nadine; Vollmar, Jens; Virgin, Garth; Chaplin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional smallpox vaccines based on replicating vaccinia virus (VV) strains (e.g. Lister Elstree, NYCBOH) are associated with a high incidence of myo-/pericarditis, a severe inflammatory cardiac complication. A new smallpox vaccine candidate based on a non-replicating Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) poxvirus has been assessed for cardiac safety in a large placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods Cardiac safety of one and two doses of MVA compared to placebo was assessed in 745 healthy subjects. Vaccinia-naïve subjects received either one dose of MVA and one dose of placebo, two doses of MVA, or two doses of placebo by subcutaneous injection four weeks apart; vaccinia-experienced subjects received a single dose of MVA. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AE) and cardiac safety parameters (recorded as Adverse Events of Special Interest, AESI) were monitored after each injection. Results A total of 5 possibly related AESI (3 cases of palpitations, 2 of tachycardia) were reported during the study. No case of myo- or pericarditis occurred. One possibly related serious AE (SAE) was reported during the 6-month follow-up period (sarcoidosis). The most frequently observed AEs were injection site reactions. Conclusions Vaccination with MVA was safe and well tolerated and did not increase the risk for development of myo-/pericarditis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00316524 PMID:25879867

  1. Skin thickness in young infants and adolescents: Applications for intradermal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Akihiko; Aizawa, Yuta; Sato, Isamu; Hirano, Harunobu; Sakai, Takatsugu; Mori, Masaaki

    2015-06-26

    As compared with standard intramuscular and subcutaneous vaccines, intradermal (ID) vaccines elicit a more potent immune response in both adults and children, with equivalent dosage or antigen dose sparing. Recently, various devices for ID injection have been developed; the length of needles ranges in 0.6-1.5mm. However, skin thickness must be measured to determine optimal needle length for ID vaccines. Use of ID vaccines in infants and children is appealing because children require more vaccines than do adults; however, information on skin thickness in infants and children is limited. We used ultrasound echography to measure skin thickness in Japanese infants aged 2 months (n=78) and adolescents aged 13-15 years (n=82). Mean (range) deltoid and suprascapular skin thickness was 1.67mm (1.16-2.39mm) and 1.83mm (1.24-2.60mm), respectively, in infants and 1.81mm (1.25-3.00mm) and 2.43mm (1.51-3.95mm), respectively, in adolescents. Among infants who underwent re-measurement of skin thickness at age 6 months (n=11), mean deltoid skin thickness (1.84mm) was significantly greater than at age 2 months (1.60mm) (P<0.001). In contrast, no significant difference was observed in suprascapular skin thickness (1.79mm vs. 1.67mm, respectively; P=0.17). Gender was not associated with skin thickness in either age group. Skin thickness was positively correlated with body weight in adolescents (r=0.43, P<0.001 in deltoid region; r=0.30, P=0.01 in suprascapular region). In conclusion, this is the first study to evaluate skin thickness in different age groups of children, including at age 2 months. Skin thickness gradually increased from age 2 months to age 13-15 years, but no consistent trend was noted in analysis stratified by measurement site, gender, or age. These findings suggest that an appropriate length of ID device needle for infants and children is likely to be less than 1.2mm and a special device with shorter length of needle is warranted for infants and children. PMID:25944297

  2. Long-term persistence of systemic and mucosal immune response to HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in preteen/adolescent girls and young women.

    PubMed

    Petäjä, Tiina; Pedersen, Court; Poder, Airi; Strauss, Gitte; Catteau, Gregory; Thomas, Florence; Lehtinen, Matti; Descamps, Dominique

    2011-11-01

    Vaccination against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is one key intervention for cervical cancer prevention. This follow-up study assessed the persistence of the systemic and mucosal immune responses together with the safety profile of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to young women aged 10-25 years. Serum and cervicovaginal secretion (CVS) samples were collected at prespecified time-points during the 48-month follow-up period. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody levels in serum and CVS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). At Month 48, all subjects remained seropositive for serum anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies. As previously observed, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies levels (ELISA Units/mL) were higher in subjects vaccinated at the age of 10-14 years (2862.2 and 940.8) compared to subjects vaccinated at the age of 15-25 years (1186.2 and 469.8). Moreover, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies in CVS were still detectable for subjects aged 15-25 years (84.1% and 69.7%, respectively). There was a strong correlation between serum and CVS anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies levels (correlation coefficients = 0.84 and 0.90 at Month 48, respectively) supporting the hypothesis of transudation or exudation of serum immunoglobulin G antibodies through the cervical epithelium. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile. In conclusion, this follow-up study shows that the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to preteen/adolescents girls and young women induces long-term systemic and mucosal immune response and has a clinically acceptable safety profile up to 4 years after the first vaccine dose. PMID:21190190

  3. Chicken Feet

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2009-09-02

    Broadcast Transcript: American chicken feet are no longer welcome on Chinese soil. A possible congressional ban on the import of Chinese chicken for safety reasons has made China madder than a wet hen. And, though officially China is saying...

  4. Qualitative study of the feasibility of HPV vaccine delivery to young adolescent girls in Vietnam: evidence from a government-implemented demonstration program

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in national programs has proceeded apace since 2006, mostly in high-income countries. Recently concluded pilots of HPV vaccination in low-income countries have provided important lessons learned for these settings; however, rigorous evaluations of the feasibility of these delivery strategies that effectively reach young adolescents have been few. This paper presents results from a qualitative evaluation of a demonstration program which implemented school-based and health center–based HPV vaccinations to all girls in grade 6, or 11 years of age, for two years in four districts of Vietnam. Methods Using semi-structured interviews of 131 health and education staff from local, district, province, and national levels and 26 focus-group discussions with local project implementers (n?=?153), we conducted a qualitative two-year evaluation to measure the impact of HPV vaccinations on the health and education systems. Results HPV vaccine delivery at schools or health centers was made feasible by: a. close collaboration between the health and education sectors, b. detailed planning for implementation, c. clearly defined roles and responsibilities for project implementers, d. effective management and supervision of vaccinations during delivery, and e. engagement with community organizations for support. Both the health and education systems were temporarily challenged with the extra workload, but the disruptions were short-lived (a few days for each of three doses) and perceived as worth the longer-term benefit of cervical cancer prevention. Conclusion The learning from Vietnam has identified critical elements for successful vaccine delivery that can provide a model for other countries to consider during their planning of national rollout of HPV vaccine. PMID:24898950

  5. A bivalent Neisseria meningitidis recombinant lipidated factor H binding protein vaccine in young adults: results of a randomised, controlled, dose-escalation phase 1 trial.

    PubMed

    Richmond, P C; Nissen, M D; Marshall, H S; Lambert, S B; Roberton, D; Gruber, W C; Jones, T R; Arora, A

    2012-09-21

    Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of meningitis and septicaemia, but a broadly-protective vaccine against endemic serogroup B disease is not licensed and available. The conserved, outer-membrane lipoprotein factor H binding protein (fHBP, also known as LP2086) is expressed as one of two subfamily variants in virtually all meningococci. This study investigated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant-expressed bivalent fHBP (r-fHBP) vaccine in healthy adults. Participants (N=103) aged 18-25 years were recruited into three ascending dose level cohorts of 20, 60, and 200?g of a bivalent r-fHBP vaccine formulation and randomised to receive vaccine or placebo at 0, 1, and 6 months. The vaccine was well tolerated. Geometric mean titres (GMTs) for r-fHBP subfamily-specific IgG antibodies increased 19-168-fold from pre-vaccination to post-dose 2 in a dose level-dependent manner. In addition, robust serum bactericidal assay using human complement (hSBA) responses for strains expressing both homologous and heterologous fHBP variants were observed. After three vaccinations, 16-52% of the placebo group and 47-90%, 75-100%, and 88-100%, of the 20, 60, and 200?g dose levels, respectively, had seroprotective (? 1:4) hSBA titres against six serogroup B strains. The bivalent r-fHBP vaccine was well tolerated and induced robust bactericidal activity against six diverse serogroup B strains in young adults at the 60 and 200?g dose levels. PMID:22871351

  6. Recombinant fowlpox viruses coexpressing chicken type I IFN and Newcastle disease virus HN and F genes: influence of IFN on protective efficacy and humoral responses of chickens following in ovo or post-hatch administration of recombinant viruses.

    PubMed

    Karaca, K; Sharma, J M; Winslow, B J; Junker, D E; Reddy, S; Cochran, M; McMillen, J

    1998-10-01

    We have constructed recombinant (r) fowl pox viruses (FPVs) coexpressing chicken type I interferon (IFN) and/or hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) proteins of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). We administered rFPVs and FPV into embryonated chicken eggs at 17 days of embryonation or in chickens after hatch. Administration of FPV or rFPVs did not influence hatchability and survival of hatched chicks. In ovo or after hatch vaccination of chickens with the recombinant viruses resulted in protection against challenge with virulent FPV and NDV. Chickens vaccinated with FPV or FPV-NDV recombinant had significantly lower body weight 2 weeks following vaccination. This loss in body weight was not detected in chickens receiving FPV-IFN and FPV-NDV-IFN recombinants. Chickens vaccinated with FPV coexpressing IFN and NDV genes produced less antibodies against NDV in comparison with chickens vaccinated with FPV expressing NDV genes. PMID:9711795

  7. Impact of the Change to Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine on the Immunization Status of Young Children in the United States: A Study From Pediatric Research in Office Settings and the National Medical Association

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Taylor; Paul M. Darden; Dennis A. Brooks; J. W. Hendricks; Alison E. Baker; Alison B. Bocian; Karyn Rohder; Richard C. Wasserman

    Objective. To determine whether the change from an all oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) sched- ule to an inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV)-containing schedule has adversely affected the immunization status of young children in the United States. Methods. Immunization data were abstracted from the medical records of children 8 to 35 months old seen consecutively for any reason in the offices of

  8. ATTITUDES OF ADOLESCENT\\/YOUNG ADULT WOMEN TOWARD HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS VACCINATION AND CLINICAL TRIALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2000-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection. It often inflicts adolescents and young adults shortly after onset of sexual activity. More than 30 types of HPV infect the anogenital area; some HPV types cause cervical cancer in women decades after infection, whereas other types cause genital warts in both men and women within a year after infection.

  9. Meningococcal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rüggeberg, Jens U; Pollard, Andrew J

    2004-01-01

    Meningococcal disease is one of the most feared and serious infections in the young and its prevention by vaccination is an important goal. The high degree of antigenic variability of the organism makes the meningococcus a challenging target for vaccine prevention. Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines against serogroup A and C are efficacious and have been widely used, often in combination with serogroup Y and W135 components. Their relative lack of immunogenicity in young children and infants can be overcome by conjugation to a protein carrier. The effectiveness of serogroup C glycoconjugate vaccines in children of all ages has been demonstrated and they have now been introduced into routine vaccination schedules. Conjugate vaccines against other serogroups, including A, Y, and W135 will soon be available and it is hoped they may emulate this success. Prevention of serogroup B disease has proven more elusive. Several serogroup B vaccines based on outer membrane vesicles have been shown to be immunogenic and reasonably effective in adults and older children, but the protection offered by them is chiefly strain-specific. Multivalent recombinant PorA vaccines have been developed to broaden the protective effect, but no efficacy data are available as yet. Intensive efforts have been directed at other outer membrane protein vaccine candidates and lipopolysaccharide, and some of these have been shown to offer protection in experimental animal models. Nonpathogenic Neisseriae spp. such as Neisseria lactamica are also possible vaccine candidates. Previously unknown proteins have been identified from in silico analysis of the meningococcal genome and their vaccine potential explored. However, none of these has yet been presented as the 'universal' protective antigen and work in this field continues to be held back by our limited knowledge concerning the mechanisms of natural protection against serogroup B meningococci. PMID:15339202

  10. Chicken bone marrow-derived dendritic cells maturation in response to infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinfeng; Yin, Yinyan; Qin, Tao; Yang, Qian

    2015-03-15

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is highly contagious disease which easily lead to immunosuppression and a decreased response to vaccinations in young chicken. Since dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial to induce immunity and their maturation and functions are influenced by microbial and environmental stimuli, we investigated the effects of inactivated IBDV and IBDV on chicken DC activation and maturation. Chicken bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (chBM-DCs) cultured in complete medium (including recombinant chicken: granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin 4) expressed high levels of MHC-II and the putative CD11c. After LPS or virus stimulation, chBM-DCs displayed the typical morphology of DCs. In addition, stimulation by LPS or viruses significantly elevated chBM-DCs surface expression levels of CD40 and CD86 molecules, as well as the ability to induce T-cell proliferative response, compared to the non-stimulated chBM-DCs. Interestingly, inactive IBDV showed stronger ability to up-regulate expression levels of CD40 and CD86 molecules and stimulate naive T cells proliferation than live IBDV. These results revealed that live viruses infection impaired DC maturation and functions, probably explaining why chickens infected with IBDV fails to trigger an effective specific immune response or develop immune memory. PMID:25613777

  11. Comparison of in ovo and post?hatch vaccination with particular reference to infectious bursal disease. A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Negash; E. Gruys

    2004-01-01

    In ovo vaccination is an alternative approach to post?hatch vaccination of chickens, particularly in broilers. Vaccination at embryonation day 18 helps to ‘close the window’ of susceptibility i.e. the time between vaccination and early exposure to infectious agents compared with post?hatch vaccination. Attempts on embryonal vaccination as a mode of vaccine delivery were approached from the observation that chickens already

  12. [Vaccines pharmacovigilance].

    PubMed

    Autret-Leca, Elisabeth; Jonville-Béra, Annie-Pierre; Beau-Salinas, Frédérique

    2004-03-15

    The pharmacovigilance of vaccines has the particularity of concerning medications with a preventative target, used in healthy subjects, who are often young. Their individual benefit is deferred and unknown, whereas their risk is immediate. Certain undesirable effects are linked to the antigen of live attenuated vaccines (post-MMR lymphocytic meningitis). Other non-specific effects are linked to other different components of the vaccines (macrophage and aluminium myofasciitis). Undesirable events susceptible to being due to the vaccination are identified and managed according to standardised procedures of pharmacovigilance, that is to say, based on "spontaneous notification", generation of an alert, confirmed or not by studies of pharmaco-epidemiology. The studies of pharmaco-epidemiology: have made evident oedematous reactions with cyanosis or purpura, with the vaccines containing the Haemophilus b valence, and the absence of an association with sudden death of the newborn; have excluded the existence of an elevated risk of demyelinisation or auto-immune disease associated with vaccination against hepatitis B, without being able to exclude a slight risk; go against the finding of an association between Crohn's disease and/or autisim and the MMR vaccination. Only their frequently encountered undesirable effects are well identified at the moment of commercialisation. Post-marketing surveillance of vaccines (declaration to the regional pharmacovigilance centres) allow the detection of possible rare and serious effects and the evaluation of the real vaccination risk. Thus it must be intensive and systematic. PMID:15176512

  13. Efficacy of turkey herpesvirus vaccine when administered simultaneously with fowl pox vaccine.

    PubMed

    Eidson, C S; Villegas, P; Kleven, S H

    1975-11-01

    The efficacy of the turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vaccine in protecting chickens challenged with virulent Marek's disease (MD) virus was unaffected by the presence of either the chick embryo fowl pox vaccine or fowl pox vaccine derived from cell culture. Conversely the HVT vaccine did not affect the efficacy of the fowl pox vaccine in chickens challenged with pathogenic fowl pox virus. A combination of spectinomycin dihydrochloride pentahydrate and lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate as well as spectinomycin sulfate tetrahydrate were found to be compatible with the HVT and fowl pox vaccines as demonstrated by resistance after challenge with virulent MD virus or fowl pox virus. PMID:180502

  14. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  15. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-10-12

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  16. Quantitative histological changes produced in the tracheal mucosa of young chickens by the inhalation of sulfur dioxide in low concentrations.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, H; Majima, Y; Dannenberg, A M; Suga, M; Bang, B G; Bang, F B

    1979-01-01

    Chickens were exposed to SO2 in relatively low concentrations (3.4 to 18.5 parts per million (ppm)) for 1 to 14 days. A portion of their tracheas was embedded in water-soluble methacrylate, cut at 2 micrometer and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Wright's stain, methyl green-pyronin, Alcian blue - periodic and Schiff, and for acid phosphatase. An increase was found in (a) the mucosa to wall ratio; (b) the number of mucosal cells in mitosis; (c) the number of macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and neutrophils in the epithelium and lamina propria; and (d) the number of these infiltrating cells which contained acid phosphatase. The number of mucus- and seromucus- secreting cells and vasoamine-containing cells were sometimes increased, but not consistently. The percentage of cells containing sialidase-sensitive sialomucins was elevated, and percentage of cells containing neutral mucins was reduced. These changes were only partly related to the SO2 concentration and the duration of SO2 exposure, in that increasing amounts of SO2 did not always cause increasing changes in the mucin composition. Evidently, the altered mucins sometimes protected against further mucin modification. PMID:555468

  17. Isolation and molecular analysis of colonising and non-colonising strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli following experimental infection of young chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Korolik; M. R Alderton; S. C Smith; J Chang; P. J Coloe

    1998-01-01

    Fourteen-day-old chickens were inoculated with selected Campylobacter coli and C. jejuni strains. C. jejuni strains were of two subgroups based on a polymorphism detected using a DNA probe and represented the profiles typical for the majority of strains of either chicken or human origin. All C. coli strains previously isolated from humans colonised chickens, whereas from 4\\/7 C. jejuni strains

  18. Protection induced by commercially available live-attenuated and recombinant viral-vector vaccines against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in broiler chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariel Vagnozzi; Guillermo Zavala; Sylva M. Riblet; Alice Mundt; Maricarmen García

    2011-01-01

    Viral vector vaccines using fowl poxvirus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) carrying Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genes are commercially available to the poultry industry in the United States. Different sectors of the broiler industry have used these vaccines in ovo or subcutaneously achieving variable results. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of protection induced by

  19. Parents' knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow young males to receive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Banura, Cecily; Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH) supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008-2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s) to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10-23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s) to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s) to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p = 0.003), believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p = 0.006), thought their son(s) couldn't contract HPV (p = 0.010), didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p = 0.002), knew that males could not acquire HPV (p = 0.000) and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p = 0.000). Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s) of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital. PMID:25203053

  20. Parents' Knowledge, Risk Perception and Willingness to Allow Young Males to Receive Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Banura, Cecily; Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH) supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008–2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s) to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10–23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s) to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s) to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p?=?0.003), believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p?=?0.006), thought their son(s) couldn't contract HPV (p?=?0.010), didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p?=?0.002), knew that males could not acquire HPV (p?=?0.000) and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p?=?0.000). Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s) of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital. PMID:25203053

  1. A mutation in the NLRC5 promoter limits NF-?B signaling after Salmonella Enteritidis infection in the spleen of young chickens.

    PubMed

    Chang, Guobin; Liu, Xiangping; Ma, Teng; Xu, Lu; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Zhiteng; Guo, Xiaomin; Xu, Qi; Chen, Guohong

    2015-09-01

    To date, the functions of the NLRC5 in chickens remain undefined. In the current study, chicken NLRC5 was cloned and an A1017G mutation was detected in its promoter region. The relative expression levels of the NLRC5 and key NF-?B pathway genes, IKK?, IKK?, NF-?B, IL-6, IL-1? and IFN-?, in the spleens of wild and mutant type birds, AA and GG, were determined using FQ-PCR at 7day post-infection (DPI) with Salmonella Enteritidis. Additionally, the bacterial burden in the caecum and various immune response parameters were measured to evaluate immune responses. All of the examined immune response parameters were significantly different between the AA chickens and the GG chickens. Specifically, the mRNA expression levels of IKK?, NF-?B, IL-6, IL-1? and IFN-? were higher in AA chickens than those in GG chickens, while the mRNA expression levels of NLRC5 were lower in AA chickens than those in GG chickens (P<0.05). Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of TLR4 and MyD88 were not affected in either group. Collectively, considering former NLRC5 functional study in vitro, the wild genotype birds presented with better resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis through the actions of the NLRC5 and subsequent inhibition of the NF-?B pathway in chickens. PMID:25979675

  2. Latency and reactivation of infectious laryngotracheitis vaccine virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Hughes; R. A. Williams; R. M. Gaskell; F. T. W. Jordan; J. M. Bradbury; M. Bennett; R. C. Jones

    1991-01-01

    Summary Latency and reactivation of a commercial infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine were demonstrated in live chickens. Virus was re-isolated at intervals between seven and fourteen weeks post-vaccination and this may be of epizootiological significance.

  3. Effects of different vaccine combinations against Mycoplasma gallisepticum on the internal egg and eggshell characteristics of commercial layer chickens1,2,3.

    PubMed

    Jacob, R; Branton, S L; Evans, J D; Leigh, S A; Peebles, E D

    2015-05-01

    Live F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) vaccines are presently being used to help control field-strain MG outbreaks. However, they may exert some adverse effects on egg production. Live strains of MG of lesser virulence as well as killed vaccines have little or no effect on egg production, but afford lower levels of protection. This has led to research investigating their use in combination with a subsequent overlay vaccination of FMG given later in the production cycle. In the present study, 2 trials were conducted to investigate the effects of prelay vaccinations of live and killed MG vaccines or their combination, in conjunction with an FMG vaccine overlay after peak production, on the egg characteristics of commercial layers. The following vaccination treatments were administered at 10 wk of age (woa): 1) unvaccinated (Control), 2) MG-Bacterin (MGBac) vaccine, 3) ts-11 strain MG (ts11MG) vaccine, and 4) MGBac and ts11MG combination (MGBac + ts11MG). At 45 woa, half of the birds were overlaid with an FMG vaccine. In each trial, internal egg and eggshell parameters including egg weight (EW), Haugh unit score (HU), eggshell breaking strength (EBS), percentage yolk weight (PYW), percentage albumen weight (PAW), percentage eggshell weight (PSW), eggshell weight per unit surface area (SWUSA), percentage yolk moisture (PYM), and percent total lipids (PYL) were determined at various time periods between 21 and 52 woa. At 28 woa, SWUSA was lower in the ts11MG and MGBac + ts11MG groups compared to the Control group. Conversely, at 43 woa, SWUSA was higher in the ts11MG than in the MGBac group. Between 23 and 43 woa, PYL was higher in the MGBac and ts11MG groups in comparison to the Control group. In conclusion, vaccination with MGBac alone or in combination with ts11MG at 10 woa with or without an FMG vaccine overlay at 45 woa does not adversely affect the internal egg or eggshell quality of commercial layers throughout lay. PMID:25701207

  4. ACUTE PHASE IMMUNE GENE PROFILING OF SPLEEN AND PEYER’S PATCH IN NAÏVE AND VACCINATED CHICKENS FOLLOWING AVIAN INFLUENZA A (H5N1) VIRUS INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advances in immunogenomic and proteomic tools are facilitating the characterization of complex host-pathogen immunobiology. In this study, we applied functional genomics tools to investigate the early immunological response of chickens to highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV). ...

  5. ACUTE PHASE IMMUNE GENE PROFILING OF SPLEEN AND PEYER’S PATCH IN NAÏVE AND VACCINATED CHICKENS FOLLOWING AVIAN INFLUENZA A (H5N1) VIRUS INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we applied functional genomics tools to investigate the early immunological response of chickens to highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV). Infection with HPAIV usually results in the rapid death of poultry. The aim of this study was to identify host immune genes which a...

  6. Enhancement of mucosal immune responses by intranasal co-delivery of Newcastle disease vaccine plus CpG oligonucleotide in SPF chickens in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linghua Zhang; Meirong Zhang; Jiaoqing Li; Ting Cao; Xingshan Tian; Fengzhen Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Immunostimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) have been tested as immunoadjuvants for various vaccines in mice and human. Findings from previous reports suggest that CpG ODN can be used to enhance magnitude and balance of an immune response while reducing undesirable side effects of commercial vaccine, when delivered by parenteral route. Recently, it has been showed that CpG ODN is a promising

  7. Inactivated North American and European H5N2 avian influenza virus vaccines protect chickens from Asian H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Swayne; Chang-Won Lee; Erica Spackman

    2006-01-01

    High-pathogenicity (HP) avian influenza (AI) virus of the H5N1 subtype has caused an unprecedented epizootic in birds within nine Asian countries\\/regions since it was first reported in 1996. Vaccination has emerged as a tool for use in managing the infection in view of future eradication. This study was undertaken to determine whether two divergent H5N2 commercial vaccine strains, one based

  8. Evaluation of inactivated avian influenza H7 vaccines for protection of chickens against a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H7N3 isolated from chickens in Jalisco, Mexico, during 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N3 was reported poultry in Jalisco, Mexico, beginning in June of 2012. To date more than 11 million birds have died or been slaughtered in an effort to stop the spread of disease. In response to the outbreak, vaccine efficacy trials wer...

  9. Human papilloma virus vaccination induces strong human papilloma virus specific cell-mediated immune responses in HIV-infected adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Rainone, Veronica; Giacomet, Vania; Penagini, Francesca; Fabiano, Valentina; Calascibetta, Francesca; Mameli, Chiara; Pisanelli, Stefania; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Clerici, Mario; Trabattoni, Daria

    2015-03-27

    The ability of a quadrivalent human papilloma virus (HPV)-16/18/6/11 virus-like particles vaccine (Gardasil) to elicit HPV-specific cell-mediated immune responses was evaluated in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated HIV-infected young adults. Results showed that, after three doses of vaccine, central memory and effector memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes, as well as HPV-specific interleukin (IL)2(+)/CD4(+), interferon-gamma (IFN-?(+))/CD4(+), IFN-?(+)/CD8(+) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocytes and Perforin and Granzyme B secreting CD8(+) T lymphocytes were significantly increased. Notably, results obtained in HIV-infected patients were comparable to those seen in HIV-uninfected age-matched healthy controls. PMID:25849837

  10. Chicken Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  11. Protection of chickens from lethal avian influenza A virus infection by live-virus vaccination with infectious laryngotracheitis virus recombinants expressing the hemagglutinin ( H5) gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dörte Lüschow; Ortrud Werner; Thomas C. Mettenleiter; Walter Fuchs

    2001-01-01

    The H5 hemagglutinin (HA) gene of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV) isolate (A\\/chicken\\/Italy\\/8\\/98) was cloned and sequenced, and inserted at the non-essential UL50 (dUTPase) gene locus of a virulent strain of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Northern and Western blot analyses of the obtained ILTV recombinants demonstrated stable expression of the HA gene under control of the human cytomegalovirus

  12. Epimedium polysaccharide and propolis flavone can synergistically stimulate lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and enhance the immune responses to ND vaccine in chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunpeng Fan; Yuanliang Hu; Deyun Wang; Zhenhuan Guo; Xiaona Zhao; Liwei Guo; Biao Zhao; Jing Zhang; Yuanlei Wang

    2010-01-01

    Four prescriptions, epimedium flavone plus propolis flavone (EF–PF), epimedium flavone plus propolis extracts (EF–PE), epimedium polysaccharide plus propolis flavone (EP–PF) and epimedium polysaccharide plus propolis extracts (EP–PE), were prepared and their immune-enhancing effects were compared. In test in vitro, the effects of them on chicken peripheral lymphocyte proliferation were determined by MTT method. The results showed that EP–PF group presented

  13. Restoration of sensitivity to salinomycin in Eimeria following 5 flocks of broiler chickens reared in floor-pens using drug programs and vaccination to control coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, H D; Jeffers, T K

    2015-05-01

    Five successive flocks of broilers were reared in floor-pens and given different drug programs or were vaccinated against coccidiosis. Oocysts of Eimeria were isolated from the litter of pens during the fifth flock and their sensitivity to salinomycin (Sal) investigated by measuring new oocyst production following infection of medicated and unmedicated birds. Parasites obtained following 5 flocks given Sal were not well-controlled and it was concluded that they were partially resistant to the drug. Parasites obtained following 4 unmedicated flocks and one medicated flock were better controlled by Sal and it was concluded that in the absence of continuous medication there had been an improvement in drug efficacy. Sal almost completely suppressed oocyst production of isolates from treatments in which medication was followed by vaccination, indicating that when a drug program is followed by vaccination, restoration of sensitivity to Sal had occurred. PMID:25796273

  14. Puzzling inefficiency of H5N1 influenza vaccines in Egyptian poultry

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Ki; Kayali, Ghazi; Walker, David; Forrest, Heather L.; Ellebedy, Ali H.; Griffin, Yolanda S.; Rubrum, Adam; Bahgat, Mahmoud M.; Kutkat, M. A.; Ali, M. A. A.; Aldridge, Jerry R.; Negovetich, Nicholas J.; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    In Egypt, efforts to control highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus in poultry and in humans have failed despite increased biosecurity, quarantine, and vaccination at poultry farms. The ongoing circulation of HP H5N1 avian influenza in Egypt has caused >100 human infections and remains an unresolved threat to veterinary and public health. Here, we describe that the failure of commercially available H5 poultry vaccines in Egypt may be caused in part by the passive transfer of maternal H5N1 antibodies to chicks, inhibiting their immune response to vaccination. We propose that the induction of a protective immune response to H5N1 is suppressed for an extended period in young chickens. This issue, among others, must be resolved and additional steps must be taken before the outbreaks in Egypt can be controlled. PMID:20534457

  15. PRINCIPLES FOR VACCINE PROTECTION IN CHICKENS AND DOMESTIC WATERFOWL AGAINST AVIAN INFLUENZA: EMPHASIS ON ASIAN H5N1 HIGH PATHOGENICITY AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza (AI) epizootic began with reports of mortality from China in 1996 and has since caused outbreaks of disease in nine Asian countries, affecting or resulting in culling of over 200 million birds. Vaccines can be used in programs to prevent, manage or era...

  16. Towards universal influenza vaccines?

    PubMed Central

    Osterhaus, Ab; Fouchier, Ron; Rimmelzwaan, Guus

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination is the most cost-effective way to reduce the considerable disease burden of seasonal influenza. Although seasonal influenza vaccines are effective, their performance in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals would benefit from improvement. Major problems related to the development and production of pandemic influenza vaccines are response time and production capacity as well as vaccine efficacy and safety. Several improvements can be envisaged. Vaccine production technologies based on embryonated chicken eggs may be replaced by cell culture techniques. Reverse genetics techniques can speed up the generation of seed viruses and new mathematical modelling methods improve vaccine strain selection. Better understanding of the correlates of immune-mediated protection may lead to new vaccine targets besides the viral haemagglutinin, like the neuraminidase and M2 proteins. In addition, the role of cell-mediated immunity could be better exploited. New adjuvants have recently been shown to increase the breadth and the duration of influenza vaccine-induced protection. Other studies have shown that influenza vaccines based on different viral vector systems may also induce broad protection. It is to be expected that these developments may lead to more universal influenza vaccines that elicit broader and longer protection, and can be produced more efficiently. PMID:21893539

  17. Vaccines for Farrowing Operations

    E-print Network

    Lawhorn, D. Bruce

    1999-02-15

    6 months. Young pigs (4 to 8 weeks of age, depending on the brand of the vaccine) should receive two vaccinations 3 to 4 weeks apart with an erysipelas bacterin. Pigs vacci- nated at a young age and then selected for breeding stock should.... Erysipelas, leptospirosis, and parvovirus vacci- nations are given to breeding animals at 6 1/2 months of age, 3 to 4 weeks later, and at weaning, or every 6 months. Erysipelas vac- cine is also administered to young pigs. At a minimum, your vaccination...

  18. Curry Chicken Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Curry Chicken Ingredients: 2 boneless, skinless chicken breasts 6 ounces plain low-fat yogurt (one in a shallow bowl. 3. Add chicken to yogurt sauce and coat evenly. 4. Place chicken in baking dish. 5. Spoon remainder of yogurt sauce on top of the chicken. 6. Bake chicken for 35 minutes or until it's no longer pink

  19. Administration of a probiotic associated with nasal vaccination with inactivated Lactococcus lactis-PppA induces effective protection against pneumoccocal infection in young mice

    PubMed Central

    Vintiñi, E; Villena, J; Alvarez, S; Medina, M

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a serious public health problem, especially in developing countries, where available vaccines are not part of the vaccination calendar. We evaluated different respiratory mucosa immunization protocols that included the nasal administration of Lactococcus lactis-pneumococcal protective protein A (PppA) live, inactivated, and in association with a probiotic (Lc) to young mice. The animals that received Lc by the oral and nasal route presented the highest levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG anti-PppA antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) and IgG in serum, which no doubt contributed to the protection against infection. However, only the groups that received the live and inactivated vaccine associated with the oral administration of the probiotic were able to prevent lung colonization by S. pneumoniae serotypes 3 and 14 in a respiratory infection model. This would be related to a preferential stimulation of the T helper type 1 (Th1) cells at local and systemic levels and with a moderate Th2 and Th17 response, shown by the cytokine profile induced in BAL and by the results of the IgG1/IgG2a ratio at local and systemic levels. Nasal immunization with the inactivated recombinant strain associated with oral Lc administration was able to stimulate the specific cellular and humoral immune response and afford protection against the challenge with the two S. pneumoniae serotypes. The results obtained show the probiotic-inactivated vaccine association as a valuable alternative for application to human health, especially in at-risk populations, and are the first report of a safe and effective immunization strategy using an inactivated recombinant strain. PMID:20002449

  20. Host Genetics and Vaccine Efficacy: Global gene expression differentiation induced by vaccine and MDV in MD resistant and susceptible chickens based on Next-Gen RNA-Seq reads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a herpesvirus-induced disease of poultry and it continues to threaten the poultry industry worldwide as MD virus (MDV) evolves to escalate the virulence of field strains. MD has been primarily controlled by vaccination and management measures. This study aimed to compare the ...

  1. Cattle Vaccines 

    E-print Network

    Faries Jr., Floron C.

    2005-11-11

    Vaccines deliver antigens that stimulate the body's production of antibodies in response to disease. Cattle can be vaccinated with noninfectious or infectious vaccines. The types of vaccine products, proper handling of vaccines, and vaccination...

  2. Chicken Industry Strategies for Control of Tumor Virus Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KENTON S. KREAGER

    Marek's disease (MD) and lymphoid leukosis (LL) are two distinct viral diseases that cause tumor mortality in chickens. Marek's disease, being horizontally transmitted, is controlled through biosecu- rity measures and vaccination. Prevention of early exposure before vaccine immunity is established is most important. Some multi-house growing farms have converted to all single-age placements to break the ongoing cycle of transmission.

  3. Serological examination of sera from hyperimmunized chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection of avian influenza (AI) H5 and H7 antibody in commercial poultry is a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) notifiable event and impacts trade. Chickens and turkeys which had been vaccinated with an oil-emulsion H1N1/H3N2 influenza autogenous vaccine were inoculated with inactivated ...

  4. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination timing and autism among young african american boys: a reanalysis of CDC data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A significant number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder suffer a loss of previously-acquired skills, suggesting neurodegeneration or a type of progressive encephalopathy with an etiological basis occurring after birth. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectof the age at which children got their first Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine on autism incidence. This is a reanalysis of the data set, obtained from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Protection (CDC), used for the Destefano et al. 2004 publication on the timing of the first MMR vaccine and autism diagnoses. Methods The author embarked on the present study to evaluate whether a relationship exists between child age when the first MMR vaccine was administered among cases diagnosed with autism and controls born between 1986 through 1993 among school children in metropolitan Atlanta. The Pearson’s chi-squared method was used to assess relative risks of receiving an autism diagnosis within the total cohort as well as among different race and gender categories. Results When comparing cases and controls receiving their first MMR vaccine before and after 36 months of age, there was a statistically significant increase in autism cases specifically among African American males who received the first MMR prior to 36 months of age. Relative risks for males in general and African American males were 1.69 (p=0.0138) and 3.36 (p=0.0019), respectively. Additionally, African American males showed an odds ratio of 1.73 (p=0.0200) for autism cases in children receiving their first MMR vaccine prior to 24 months of age versus 24 months of age and thereafter. Conclusions The present study provides new epidemiologic evidence showing that African American males receiving the MMR vaccine prior to 24 months of age or 36 months of age are more likely to receive an autism diagnosis. PMID:25114790

  5. Blood Stage Malaria Vaccine Eliciting High Antigen-Specific Antibody Concentrations Confers No Protection to Young Children in Western Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhards R. Ogutu; Odika J. Apollo; Denise McKinney; Willis Okoth; Joram Siangla; Filip Dubovsky; Kathryn Tucker; John N. Waitumbi; Carter Diggs; Janet Wittes; Elissa Malkin; Amanda Leach; Lorraine A. Soisson; Jessica B. Milman; Lucas Otieno; Carolyn A. Holland; Mark Polhemus; Shon A. Remich; Christian F. Ockenhouse; Joe Cohen; W. Ripley Ballou; Samuel K. Martin; Evelina Angov; V. Ann Stewart; Jeffrey A. Lyon; D. Gray Heppner; Mark R. Withers; James G. Beeson

    2009-01-01

    ObjectiveThe antigen, falciparum malaria protein 1 (FMP1), represents the 42-kDa C-terminal fragment of merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) of the 3D7 clone of P. falciparum. Formulated with AS02 (a proprietary Adjuvant System), it constitutes the FMP1\\/AS02 candidate malaria vaccine. We evaluated this vaccine's safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy in African children.MethodsA randomised, double-blind, Phase IIb, comparator-controlled trial.The trial was conducted in 13

  6. An observational study of the temporal and spatial patterns of Marek's-disease-associated leukosis condemnation of young chickens in the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek's disease, a disease primarily affecting immature chickens, is a worldwide problem that has on at least three occasions threatened the poultry industry in the United States. A rich dataset to study the epidemiology of this disease is available because the United States Department of Agricultu...

  7. Enterococcus hirae, a New Species That Includes Amino Acid Assay Strain NCDO 1258 and Strains Causing Growth Depression in Young Chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN A. E. FARROW; MATTHEW D. COLLINS

    1985-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid base composition, deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization, lipid, and biochemical studies were performed with Enterococcus faecium NCDO 1258 (= Snell strain R) and other atypical Enferococcus faecium strains from pigs and chickens in an attempt to clarify their taxonomy. Our results indicate that these strains constitute a new species, for which the name Enferococcus hirae sp. nov. is proposed.

  8. Experimental induction and oral transmission of avian AA amyloidosis in vaccinated white hens.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tomoaki; Muhammad, Naeem; Inoshima, Yasuo; Yanai, Tokuma; Goryo, Masanobu; Ishiguro, Naotaka

    2013-06-01

    Avian AA amyloidosis is commonly observed in adult birds afflicted with bacterial infections or chronic inflammatory disorders. Experimental AA amyloidosis in birds can be induced by repeated inflammatory stimulation, such as injection with casein or vaccination with oil-emulsified bacterins. However, the transmission of amyloidosis among avian species has not been studied well to date. In the present study, we confirm the potential induction of avian AA amyloidosis by inoculation of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) vaccine or Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine. To determine the transmission of chicken AA amyloidosis among white hens, we induced experimental AA amyloidosis in vaccinated chickens by intravenous or oral administration of chicken AA fibrils. Amyloid deposits were observed in chickens injected with SE and inoculated with chicken AA fibrils intravenously (21/26: 81%) and orally (8/12: 67%). These results suggest that chicken AA amyloidosis can be induced by vaccinations, and may be transmitted among like species by oral administration. PMID:23548152

  9. Randomized Phase I: Safety, Immunogenicity and Mucosal Antiviral Activity in Young Healthy Women Vaccinated with HIV-1 Gp41 P1 Peptide on Virosomes

    PubMed Central

    Leroux-Roels, Geert; Maes, Cathy; Clement, Frédéric; van Engelenburg, Frank; van den Dobbelsteen, Marieke; Adler, Michael; Amacker, Mario; Lopalco, Lucia; Bomsel, Morgane; Chalifour, Anick; Fleury, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Mucosal antibodies harboring various antiviral activities may best protect mucosal surfaces against early HIV-1 entry at mucosal sites and they should be ideally induced by prophylactic HIV-1 vaccines for optimal prevention of sexually transmitted HIV-1. A phase I, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in twenty-four healthy HIV-uninfected young women. The study objectives were to assess the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of virosomes harboring surface HIV-1 gp41-derived P1 lipidated peptides (MYM-V101). Participants received placebo or MYM-V101 vaccine at 10 ?g/dose or 50 ?g/dose intramuscularly at week 0 and 8, and intranasally at week 16 and 24. MYM-V101 was safe and well-tolerated at both doses administered by the intramuscular and intranasal routes, with the majority of subjects remaining free of local and general symptoms. P1-specific serum IgGs and IgAs were induced in all high dose recipients after the first injection. After the last vaccination, vaginal and rectal P1-specific IgGs could be detected in all high dose recipients. Approximately 63% and 43% of the low and high dose recipients were respectively tested positive for vaginal P1-IgAs, while 29% of the subjects from the high dose group tested positive for rectal IgAs. Serum samples had total specific IgG and IgA antibody concentrations ?0.4 ?g/mL, while mucosal samples were usually below 0.01 ?g/mL. Vaginal secretions from MYM-V101 vaccinated subjects were inhibiting HIV-1 transcytosis but had no detectable neutralizing activity. P1-specific Th1 responses could not be detected on PBMC. This study demonstrates the excellent safety and tolerability of MYM-V101, eliciting systemic and mucosal antibodies in the majority of subjects. Vaccine-induced mucosal anti-gp41 antibodies toward conserved gp41 motifs were harboring HIV-1 transcytosis inhibition activity and may contribute to reduce sexually-transmitted HIV-1. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01084343 PMID:23437055

  10. Recent Advances in Mycoplasma gallisepticum Vaccine Administration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines to layer chickens generally occurs at 9 to 10 weeks of age. Mycoplasma organisms are extremely fastidious in the laboratory and difficult to grow. Very little attention has been accorded to optimizing parameters for vaccine administration in th...

  11. Sexual behaviour and risk factors for the acquisition of human papillomavirus infections in young people in Italy: suggestions for future vaccination policies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection. The main risk factors correlated with HPV infection are: early sexual debut, the number of partners, frequency and type of sexual contact and partner’s sexual histories. We surveyed sexual habits among young people in order to provide information that might orient decision-makers in adopting HPV multi-cohort vaccination policies. Methods We administered a questionnaire to students (14–24?years old) in five Italian cities. Results 7298 questionnaires were analyzed (4962 females and 2336 males); 55.3% of females (95% CI 53.9–56.7) and 52.5% of males (95% CI 50.5–54.5) reported regular sexual activity. The mean age at sexual debut was 15.7?±?1.6 and 15.6?±?1.6 for females and males, respectively, and the median age was 16 for both sexes. With regard to contraceptive use during the last year, 63.6% of males and 62.8% of females responded affirmatively; 42.6% of males and 42.8% of females used condoms. Conclusion The results reveal precocious sexual activity among respondents, with the mean age at first intercourse declining as age decreases. Condom use proved to be scant. Considering lifestyle-related risk factors, males appear to have a higher probability of acquiring HPV infection than females. These data support the importance of promoting multi-cohort HPV vaccination strategies for females up to 25?years of age. It is essential to improve vaccination coverage through different broad-spectrum strategies, including campaigns to increase awareness of sexually transmitted diseases and their prevention. PMID:22871132

  12. Chicken skeleton

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (CSUF; )

    2007-09-01

    The long neck and beak allow the chicken to peck at food to eat it. The large breastbone of birds is indicative a large, volumous chest that fills with air while flying. Thin legs makes the animal lighter in weight, which also aids in flight.

  13. Chicken Barbecue. 

    E-print Network

    Miller, Marshall M.; Mellor, David B.

    1979-01-01

    ;: -:. .. : ;., .~ ... '., 1 .' " . .. 1'- ! 1 CHICKEN B A R B E C U E *Extension poultry marketing specialists, The Texas A&M University System. Marshall M. Miller and David B. Mellor* CONTENTS History 3 The Basting Sauce 5 Splitting the Broilers in Half 5...

  14. Efficacy of Pneumococcal Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Young Latin American Children: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tregnaghi, Miguel W.; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; López, Pio; Abate, Hector; Smith, Enrique; Pósleman, Adriana; Calvo, Arlene; Wong, Digna; Cortes-Barbosa, Carlos; Ceballos, Ana; Tregnaghi, Marcelo; Sierra, Alexandra; Rodriguez, Mirna; Troitiño, Marisol; Carabajal, Carlos; Falaschi, Andrea; Leandro, Ana; Castrejón, Maria Mercedes; Lepetic, Alejandro; Lommel, Patricia; Hausdorff, William P.; Borys, Dorota; Guiñazú, Javier Ruiz; Ortega-Barría, Eduardo; Yarzábal, Juan P.; Schuerman, Lode

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between pneumococcal conjugate vaccine–induced antibody responses and protection against community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute otitis media (AOM) is unclear. This study assessed the impact of the ten-valent pneumococcal nontypable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on these end points. The primary objective was to demonstrate vaccine efficacy (VE) in a per-protocol analysis against likely bacterial CAP (B-CAP: radiologically confirmed CAP with alveolar consolidation/pleural effusion on chest X-ray, or non-alveolar infiltrates and C-reactive protein ? 40 µg/ml); other protocol-specified outcomes were also assessed. Methods and Findings This phase III double-blind randomized controlled study was conducted between 28 June 2007 and 28 July 2011 in Argentine, Panamanian, and Colombian populations with good access to health care. Approximately 24,000 infants received PHiD-CV or hepatitis control vaccine (hepatitis B for primary vaccination, hepatitis A at booster) at 2, 4, 6, and 15–18 mo of age. Interim analysis of the primary end point was planned when 535 first B-CAP episodes, occurring ?2 wk after dose 3, were identified in the per-protocol cohort. After a mean follow-up of 23 mo (PHiD-CV, n?=?10,295; control, n?=?10,201), per-protocol VE was 22.0% (95% CI: 7.7, 34.2; one-sided p?=?0.002) against B-CAP (conclusive for primary objective) and 25.7% (95% CI: 8.4%, 39.6%) against World Health Organization–defined consolidated CAP. Intent-to-treat VE was 18.2% (95% CI: 5.5%, 29.1%) against B-CAP and 23.4% (95% CI: 8.8%, 35.7%) against consolidated CAP. End-of-study per-protocol analyses were performed after a mean follow-up of 28–30 mo for CAP and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) (PHiD-CV, n?=?10,211; control, n?=?10,140) and AOM (n?=?3,010 and 2,979, respectively). Per-protocol VE was 16.1% (95% CI: ?1.1%, 30.4%; one-sided p?=?0.032) against clinically confirmed AOM, 67.1% (95% CI: 17.0%, 86.9%) against vaccine serotype clinically confirmed AOM, 100% (95% CI: 74.3%, 100%) against vaccine serotype IPD, and 65.0% (95% CI: 11.1%, 86.2%) against any IPD. Results were consistent between intent-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. Serious adverse events were reported for 21.5% (95% CI: 20.7%, 22.2%) and 22.6% (95% CI: 21.9%, 23.4%) of PHiD-CV and control recipients, respectively. There were 19 deaths (n?=?11,798; 0.16%) in the PHiD-CV group and 26 deaths (n?=?11,799; 0.22%) in the control group. A significant study limitation was the lower than expected number of captured AOM cases. Conclusions Efficacy was demonstrated against a broad range of pneumococcal diseases commonly encountered in young children in clinical practice. Trial registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00466947 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24892763

  15. The role of antigenic composition of Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines in ND control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates from recent outbreaks are the same serotype but are antigenically different from current vaccine strains. Recent experiments in chickens with an inactivated vaccine show significantly less virus shed in birds vaccinated with homologous vaccines compar...

  16. Vaccination priorities.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Robert; Baños, Ana; deBernardis, Chiara

    2003-02-01

    Selection of immunizations should be based on requirements and on risk of infection. According to the International Health Regulations, many countries require yellow fever vaccination and proof thereof as the International Certificate of vaccination. Additionally selected countries require proof of vaccination against cholera and meningococcal disease. A consultation for travel health advice is always an opportunity to ascertain that routine immunizations have been performed. Recommended immunizations often are more important for traveller's health than the required or routine ones. The most frequent vaccine preventable infection in non-immune travellers to developing countries is hepatitis A with an average incidence rate of 0.3% per month; in high risk backpackers or foreign-aid-volunteers this rate is 2.0%. Many immunizations are recommended for special risk groups only: there is a growing tendency in many countries to immunize all young travellers to developing countries against hepatitis B, as it is uncertain who will voluntarily or involuntarily get exposed. The attack rate of influenza in intercontinental travel is estimated to be 1%. Immunity against poliomyelitis remains essential for travel to Africa and parts of Asia. Many of the 0.2-0.4% who experience an animal bite are at risk of rabies. Typhoid fever is diagnosed with an incidence rate of 0.03% per month among travellers to the Indian subcontinent, North and West Africa (except Tunisia), and Peru, elsewhere this rate is 10-fold lower. Meningococcal disease, Japanese encephalitis, cholera and tuberculosis have been reported in travellers, but these infections are rare in this population. Although no travel health vaccine is cost beneficial, most professionals will offer protection against the frequent risks, while most would find it ridiculous to use all available vaccines in every traveller. It is essentially an arbitrary decision made on the risk level one wishes to recommend protection--but the priorities need to be set correctly. PMID:12615383

  17. Tuberculosis vaccine types and timings.

    PubMed

    Orme, Ian M

    2015-03-01

    Traditionally, the design of new vaccines directed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the most successful bacterial pathogen on the planet, has focused on prophylactic candidates that would be given to individuals while they are still young. It is becoming more apparent, however, that there are several types of vaccine candidates now under development that could be used under various conditions. Thus, in addition to prophylactic vaccines, such as recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG or BCG-boosting vaccines, other applications include vaccines that could prevent infection, vaccines that could be given in emergency situations as postexposure vaccines, vaccines that could be used to facilitate chemotherapy, and vaccines that could be used to reduce or prevent relapse and reactivation disease. These approaches are discussed here, including the type of immunity we are trying to specifically target, as well as the limitations of these approaches. PMID:25540272

  18. Growth hormone secretory response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone in normal and dwarf chickens

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Growth hormone secretory response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone in normal and dwarf chickens L. Young, growing chickens of different ages (3, 5 and 7 weeks old) were used to determine whether in dwarf chickens. Introduction. Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates growth hormone (GH

  19. Comparative evaluation of Salmonella Enteritidis ghost vaccines with a commercial vaccine for protection against internal egg contamination with Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Jawale, Chetan V; Lee, John Hwa

    2014-10-14

    The study was conducted for the comparative evaluation of the vaccine potential of Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis, SE) ghost, SE ghost carrying Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) protein, and a commercial vaccine. Group A chickens were used as a non-vaccinated control, group B chickens were immunized with the ghost carrying LTB protein, group C chickens were immunized with the ghost and, group D chickens were immunized with a commercial vaccine. Group D chickens showed the swelling at the injection site, while no adverse reactions were observed at injection sites of the group B and C chickens. Chickens from the immunized groups B, C, and D demonstrated significant increases in plasma IgG, intestinal secretory IgA levels, and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative responses. After challenge with a virulent SE strain via intravenous route, groups B, C, and D showed significantly higher egg production and lower internal egg contamination and lower recovery of the challenge strain from internal organs compared to non-immunized-challenged control group A. In conclusion, these data indicate that immunization of chickens with the ghost and ghost carrying LTB is safe, without causing any adverse reaction, and is effective as the commercial vaccine in terms of reduction in internal egg contamination and internal organ colonization of Salmonella. PMID:25218296

  20. Qualitative map of Salmonella contamination on the chicken carcass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella contamination of poultry is a global public health problem. The objective of this study was to map the distribution of Salmonella on the chicken carcass for the purpose of improving poultry inspection and food safety. Young chickens (n = 70) in the Cornish game hen class were obtained a...

  1. Chicken recombinant antibodies against infectious bursal disease virus are able to form antibody–virus immune complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ignjatovic; G. Gould; L. Trinidad; S. Sapats

    2006-01-01

    Virus particles exposed to specific anti-virus antibodies result in the formation of immune complexes (Icx). Recent vaccination strategies have employed this feature, and an infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine based on Icx has been released and is expected to replace conventional IBDV vaccines. We evaluated whether chicken recombinant antibodies (rAb) specific for IBDV, rather than conventional chicken anti-IBDV sera,

  2. Comparison of three rocky mountain spotted fever vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, R H; Sammons, L S; Pedersen, C E

    1975-01-01

    Growth of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) rickettsiae in duck embryo cell (DEC) cultures and chicken embryo cell (CEC) cultures was evaluated. Experimental lots of duck embryo cell- and chicken embryo cell-grown Rocky Mountain spotted fever vaccines and a commercial lot of yolk sac-grown vaccine were compared for protective efficacy in rhesus monkeys. Incidence and magnitude of antibody response, febrile response, and rickettsemia, as well as incidence of fatalities, suggested that both cell culture-derived vaccines were more immunogenic than the yolk sac-grown vaccine. PMID:810494

  3. Pineapple Chicken Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Pineapple Chicken Ingredients: 1 1/2 pounds boneless, skinless chicken breasts 1 chicken bouillon cube 1 cup water, hot 28 ounces canned pineapple chunks in juice 1/4 cup rice wine vinegar 1 tablespoon hot water, set aside. Open pineapple and drain juice into a cup. Set aside. 3. Once chicken is done

  4. Salsa Baked Chicken Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Salsa Baked Chicken Ingredients: 4 skinless, boneless chicken breasts 1 cup salsa Directions 1. Preheat oven to 400ºF. 2. Place chicken breasts in a medium bowl. Add salsa an allow to marinate for 20 minutes in refrigerator. 3. Spray baking dish with non stick spray. Place chicken in baking dish and pour

  5. Chicken Burritos Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Chicken Burritos Ingredients: 1 cup skinless, boneless chicken breasts, skinless (two breasts in foil. Bake for 10 minutes. 2. Meanwhile, dice the chicken into small pieces. Chop the tomato and grate cheese. 3. Put the chicken, corn and salsa in a large skillet. Cook over medium heat until mixture

  6. Probable Congenital Transmission of Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Caused by Vaccination with Contaminated Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shufen; Guo, Wenlong; Sheng, Pengcheng; Wang, Zunmin; Zhao, Changliang; Zhao, Qingyou; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2012-01-01

    Contaminated vaccine is one unexpected and potential origin of virus infection. In order to investigate the most likely cause of disease in a broiler breeder company of Shandong Province, all 17 batches of live-virus vaccines used in the affected flocks and 478 tissue samples were tested by dot-blot hybridization, nested PCR, and IFA. The results suggested the outbreak of disease was most probably due to the vaccination of REV-contaminated MD-CVI988/Rispens vaccines and ND-LaSota+IB-H120 vaccines. Furthermore, the REV was probably transmitted to the commercial chickens through congenital transmission. PMID:22912872

  7. Immune dysfunction following infection with chicken anemia agent and infectious bursal disease virus. II. Alterations of in vitro lymphoproliferation and in vivo immune responses.

    PubMed

    Cloud, S S; Rosenberger, J K; Lillehoj, H S

    1992-11-01

    To determine the functional impact of alterations in lymphocyte concentrations and ratios following infection with chicken anemia agent (CAA) alone or in combination with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on the immune system of young chickens, in vitro lymphoproliferation assays and in vivo responses to vaccination with several common viral agents were assessed at various time intervals post-inoculation (PI). Concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) stimulation of splenic lymphocytes (SPL) collected from control birds could not be detected until 10-14 days PI. Infection with CAA was characterized by significantly higher PWM stimulation of SPL at 17 days PI and significantly lower PWM stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) at 14 days PI, compared with uninfected controls. Concanavalin A and PWM stimulation of SPL was significantly increased in birds inoculated with IBDV alone. Lymphocytes harvested from birds inoculated simultaneously with CAA and IBDV had significantly lower responses. Effects on humoral and cell-mediated immunity following CAA and/or IBDV were determined by evaluating vaccination responses to Newcastle disease virus (NDV), fowl pox virus (FPV) and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) during the acute phase of CAA infection (2 weeks PI). Vaccination of birds 2 weeks following CAA infection at 1 day of age resulted in decreased protection against NDV (85.7%) and ILTV (7.1%) challenge compared with protection rates in control birds (100% and 53.3% respectively). Infectious bursal disease virus infection was associated with decreased protection against NDV (60%) only. Concomitant infection at 1 day of age resulted in a greater reduction in NDV challenge protection (33.3%), slightly decreased FPV protection (87.5%), increased numbers of persistent FPV vaccination lesions and increased protection against ILTV challenge (71.4%). Vaccination of birds 2 weeks following CAA infection at 2 weeks of age resulted in slightly decreased NDV humoral antibody, development of persistent FPV vaccination lesions (17%) and increased immunity to ILTV challenge compared with control birds (83.3% vs. 66.7%). Chickens inoculated with IBDV alone displayed a more severe depression in NDV antibody titers and only a slight decrease in ILTV protection. Vaccination following concomitant infection at 2 weeks of age resulted in a higher percentage of FPV persistent vaccination lesions (39%) and greatly enhanced immunity to ILTV challenge (100%). PMID:1333677

  8. 9 CFR 113.328 - Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...be tested for pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test prescribed in § 113...dilutions shall be used for vaccine of chicken embryo origin and the test conducted as follows...For each dilution, inject at least five embryos, 9 to 11 days old, on the...

  9. 9 CFR 113.328 - Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...be tested for pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test prescribed in § 113...dilutions shall be used for vaccine of chicken embryo origin and the test conducted as follows...For each dilution, inject at least five embryos, 9 to 11 days old, on the...

  10. 9 CFR 113.328 - Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...be tested for pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test prescribed in § 113...dilutions shall be used for vaccine of chicken embryo origin and the test conducted as follows...For each dilution, inject at least five embryos, 9 to 11 days old, on the...

  11. Prevalence and cross-immunity of Eimeria species on Korean chicken farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epidemiology of Eimeria species in poultry flocks is important to increase the effectiveness of vaccinations and prophylactic strategies on chicken farms. In this study, fecal samples from 356 chicken farms were collected randomly and examined for the prevalence of Eimeria species. Through micro...

  12. A serological survey of domestic poultry in the united kingdom for antibody to chicken anaemia agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. McNulty; T. J. Connor; F. McNeilly; K. S. Kirkpatrick; J. B. McFerran

    1988-01-01

    A serological survey for antibody to chicken anaemia agent (CAA) was carried out by indirect immunofluorescence. Antibody to CAA was widespread in broiler breeders and in parent and commercial layers in the UK. Antibody to CAA was also detected in five of 11 specific pathogen?free (SPF) chicken flocks tested; positive flocks included those being used for vaccine production or as

  13. Identification of specific long noncoding RNA profiles in chicken with different susceptibility to Marek's disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is an avian herpesvirus-induced lymphoma in chicken, which causes more than $1 billion economic loss in poultry industry worldwide. Breeding of genetically resistant chickens has become an important measure in MD control to augment vaccination. Evidently, a better understanding ...

  14. Dramatic decline of serogroup C meningococcal disease incidence in Catalonia (Spain) 24 months after a mass vaccination programme of children and young people

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Salleras; A Domínguez; G Prats; I Parron; P Muñoz

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVESThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a mass vaccination programme carried out in Catalonia (Spain) in the last quarter of 1997 in response to an upsurge of serogroup C meningococcal disease (SCMD).DESIGNVaccination coverage in the 18 month to 19 years age group was investigated by means of a specific vaccination register. Vaccination effectiveness was

  15. Long-Term Immunogenicity after One and Two Doses of a Monovalent MF59-Adjuvanted A/H1N1 Influenza Virus Vaccine Coadministered with the Seasonal 2009-2010 Nonadjuvanted Influenza Virus Vaccine in HIV-Infected Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial?

    PubMed Central

    Viganò, Alessandra; Giacomet, Vania; Pariani, Elena; Giani, Elisa; Manfredini, Valeria; Bedogni, Giorgio; Erba, Paola; Amendola, Antonella; Zanetti, Alessandro; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Few data are available on the safety and long-term immunogenicity of A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccines for HIV-infected pediatric patients. We performed a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the safety and long-term immunogenicity of 1 versus 2 doses of the 2009 monovalent pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine (PV) coadministered with the seasonal 2009-2010 trivalent nonadjuvanted influenza vaccine (SV) to HIV-infected children, adolescents, and young adults. A total of 66 HIV-infected patients aged 9 to 26 years were randomized to receive one (group 1) or two (group 2) doses of PV coadministered with 1 dose of SV. The main outcome was the seroconversion rate for PV at 1 month. Secondary outcomes were the geometric mean titer ratios and the seroprotection rates at 1 month for all vaccines, seroconversion rates at 1 month for SV, and longitudinal changes of antibody titers (ABTs) at 1, 2, 6, and 12 months for all vaccines. Groups 1 and 2 had similar CD4 counts and HIV RNA levels during the study. The seroconversion rate for PV was 100% at 1 month in both groups. ABTs for PV were high during the first 6 months and declined below seroprotection levels thereafter. Longitudinal changes in ABTs were similar in groups 1 and 2 for both PV and SV. The side effects of vaccination were mild and mostly local. In HIV-infected children, adolescents, and young adults, the immune response triggered by a single dose of PV was similar to that obtained with a double dose and was associated with long-term antibody response. PMID:21795458

  16. Protective avian influenza in ovo vaccination with non-replicating human adenovirus vector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haroldo Toro; De-chu C. Tang; David L. Suarez; Matt J. Sylte; Jennifer Pfeiffer; Kent R. Van Kampen

    2007-01-01

    Protective immunity against avian influenza virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose in ovo vaccination with a non-replicating human adenovirus vector encoding an H5N9 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin. Vaccinated chickens were protected against both H5N1 (89% hemagglutinin homology; 68% protection) and H5N2 (94% hemagglutinin homology; 100% protection) highly pathogenic avian influenza virus challenges. This vaccine can be mass-administered using available

  17. Development and Evaluation of an in ovo Plasmid DNA Vaccine Against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Moura; M. Liu; V. N. Vakharia

    2007-01-01

    Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) is a highly contagious disease of chickens, which is controlled by live and inactivated vaccines. In this study, we evaluated a novel approach to vaccinate chickens against IBDV using DNA vaccinology. Plasmid DNA was administered in ovo to 18-day-old embryos. The DNA vaccine expresses the polyprotein VP2-VP4-VP3 of IBDV. The VP2 gene expresses epitopes of

  18. INITIAL PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED PROTEINS FROM MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM VACCINE STRAINS TS-11 AND F DETECTED BY WESTERN BLOTTING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) reduces the number of eggs produced by layer chickens. Three live MG vaccine strains are available for use in layer chickens and include F, ts-11 and 6/85. The MG vaccine strains ts-11 and 6/85 are safer than F and they have little or no potential of spreading from bi...

  19. Respiratory syncytial virus vaccines for otitis media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry J Anderson

    2000-01-01

    RSV is a high priority for vaccine development because of its propensity to cause pneumonia and bronchiolitis in the infant and young child. Since RSV infection is likely to be a substantial contributor to otitis media, a vaccine could also decrease rates of this disease. No vaccine has yet been developed but it is hoped that the availability of an

  20. Influenza virus (A/HK/156/97) hemagglutinin expressed by an alphavirus replicon system protects chickens against lethal infection with Hong Kong-origin H5N1 viruses.

    PubMed

    Schultz-Cherry, S; Dybing, J K; Davis, N L; Williamson, C; Suarez, D L; Johnston, R; Perdue, M L

    2000-12-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRP) containing the gene expressing hemagglutinin (HA) from the human Hong Kong Influenza A isolate (A/HK/156/97) were evaluated as vaccines in chicken embryos and young chicks. Expressed HA was readily detected in bird-tissue staining with anti-H5 HA antibody and in chicken cells infected with the replicon preparations following immunoprecipitation with monoclonal antibody. Birds challenged with a dose of the lethal parent virus were protected to different extents depending on the age of the bird. In ovo and 1-day-old inoculated animals that received no boost with the VRP were partially protected; birds 2 weeks of age were completely protected with a single dose of VRP. PMID:11112481

  1. Field trial in commercial broilers with a multivalent in ovo vaccine comprising a mixture of live viral vaccines against Marek's disease, infectious bursal disease, Newcastle disease, and fowl pox.

    PubMed

    Sharma, J M; Zhang, Y; Jensen, D; Rautenschlein, Silke; Yeh, H Y

    2002-01-01

    A multivalent in ovo vaccine (MIV) was tested for safety and efficacy in a commercial broiler complex. The MIV comprised five replicating live viruses including serotypes 1, 2, and 3 of Marek's disease virus (MDV), an intermediate infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and a recombinant fowl poxvirus (FPV) vector vaccine containing HN and F genes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The performance of MIV-vaccinated broilers was compared with that of hatchmates that received turkey herpesvirus (HVT) alone (routinely used in ovo vaccine in the broiler complex). The chickens that hatched from the MIV-injected and HVT-injected eggs were raised under commercial conditions in six barns. Barn 1 housed 17,853 MIV-vaccinated chickens and each of the barns 2-6 housed 18,472-22,798 HVT-vaccinated chickens. The HVT-vaccinated chickens were given infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and NDV vaccines at hatch and at 2 wk of age. The MIV-vaccinated chickens received IBV vaccine at hatch and IBV + NDV at 2 wk of age. The relative values of hatchability of eggs, livability and weight gain of chickens, and condemnation rates at processing were comparable between the MIV and the HVT groups (P > 0.05). Chickens from the MIV- and the HVT-vaccinated groups were challenged with virulent viruses under laboratory conditions. The resistance of vaccinated chickens against Marek's disease could not be assessed because of high natural resistance of unvaccinated commercial broilers to virulent MDV. The relative resistances of the MIV- and the HVT-vaccinated groups, respectively, against other virulent viruses were as follows: IBDV, 100% for both groups; NDV, 81% vs. 19%; FPV, 86% vs. 0%. The successful use of MIV under field conditions expands the usefulness of the in ovo technology for poultry. PMID:12243525

  2. Chicken soup and sickness

    MedlinePLUS

    Chicken soup, a popular home remedy for the common cold since at least the 12th century, may really ... chicken soup reduce the inflammation associated with the common cold, thus providing some relief of symptoms. Although researchers ...

  3. STRATEGIES FOR VACCINATION OF FAMILY POULTRY AGAINST NEWCASTLE DISEASE IN AFRICA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. ALDERS

    STRATEGIES FOR VACCINATION OF FAMILY POULTRY AGAINST NEWCASTLE DISEASE IN AFRICA. Criteria for the selection of vaccines against Newcastle disease (ND) appropriate for use in village chickens are discussed. Emphasis is given to the need to ensure that the selected vaccine is used successfully in the field. Those implementing ND control activities are encouraged to collaborate with all stakeholders and

  4. Preparation of Rocky Mountain spotted fever vaccine suitable for human immunization.

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, R H; Pedersen, C E

    1975-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever vaccine was produced from rickettsiae grown in chicken embryo cells in roller bottle cultures. The rickettsiae were concentrated and purified by passage through a sucrose gradient and inactivated with formalin. This vaccine satisfactorily passed preinactivation and final container testing and is believed to be superior to the presently available yolk sac vaccine. PMID:809483

  5. Effect of Different Cell Fractions of Mycobacterium avium and Vaccination Regimens on Mycobacterium

    E-print Network

    Falkinham, Joseph

    Effect of Different Cell Fractions of Mycobacterium avium and Vaccination Regimens on Mycobacterium therapy of animals and birds is not cost-effective. Fortunately, vaccines have been shown to be cost-effective in humans [11­13] and chickens [14], we also measured the effect of different stress levels on vaccine

  6. Aerosol vaccination against Newcastle disease using the Ulster strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Gough; W. H. Allan

    1976-01-01

    The Ulster strain of Newcastle disease when administered as an aerosol vaccine has been shown to give a level of protection which is slightly lower than that produced by a commercial Hitchner B1 strain but which is not associated with any respiratory reaction. Both strains proved to be poor vaccines when used in chickens with high levels of maternal antibody.

  7. Honey Lemon Chicken Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Honey Lemon Chicken Ingredients: 4 boneless, skinless chicken breasts 1/3 cup flour 1/3 cup honey 1/4 cup lemon juice Directions 1. Preheat oven to 375ºF. Spray a cooking sheet with non stick cooking. 5. Meanwhile, mix together honey and lemon juice in a small bowl. 6. Remove chicken from oven

  8. The Chicken Genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Burt

    2006-01-01

    The chicken has long been an important model organism for developmental biology, as well as a major source of protein with billions of birds used in meat and egg production each year. Chicken genomics has been transformed in recent years, with the characterisation of large EST collections and most recently with the assembly of the chicken genome sequence. Since the

  9. Chicken Salad Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Chicken Salad Ingredients: 2 1/2 cups boneless skinless chicken breasts, cooked and diced 1/2 onion cooked chicken breasts and add to bowl. 2. Cut the ends off of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Run under water to remove any dirt. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side

  10. CONSERVATION NOTES WILD CHICKENS

    E-print Network

    ^-^ CONSERVATION NOTES AMERICA'S WILD CHICKENS Most natural environments in the United States once had at least one kind of Nature's wild chickens, the upland game birds. Just as there are many kinds, wild turkey, and chachalaca. Like domestic chickens they are ground dwellers. They scratch chickenlike

  11. Effect of Passive Immunization on Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of Vaccination against a Mexican Low Pathogenic Avian H5N2 Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Heather L.; Garcia, Alejandro; Danner, Angela; Seiler, Jon P.; Friedman, Kimberly; Webster, Robert G.; Jones, Jeremy C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the use of vaccines, low pathogenic (LP) H5N2 influenza viruses have continued to circulate and evolve in chickens in Mexico since 1993, giving rise to multiple genetic variants. Antigenic drift is partially responsible for the failure to control H5N2 influenza by vaccination; the contribution of maternal antibodies to this problem has received less attention. Methods We investigated the effect of different antisera on the efficacy of vaccination and whether booster doses of vaccine can impact immune suppression. Results While single doses of inactivated, oil emulsion vaccine to currently circulating H5N2 influenza viruses provide partial protection from homologous challenge, chickens that receive high-titer homologous antisera intraperitoneally before vaccination showed effects ranging from added protection to immunosuppression. Post-infection antisera were less immunosuppressive than antisera obtained from field-vaccinated chickens. Homologous, post-infection chicken antisera provided initial protection from virus challenge but reduced the induction of detectable antibody responses. Homologous antisera from field-vaccinated chickens were markedly immunosuppressive, annulling the efficacy of the vaccine and leaving the chickens as susceptible to infection as non-vaccinated birds. Booster doses of vaccine reduced the immunosuppressive effects of the administered sera. Conclusion Vaccine efficacy against LP H5N2 in Mexico can be severely reduced by maternal antibodies. Source dependent antisera effects offer the possibility of further elucidation of the immunosuppressive components involved. PMID:23889740

  12. Safety and reactogenicity of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, 18) L1 viral-like-particle vaccine in older adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Palefsky, Joel M; Giuliano, Anna R; Goldstone, Stephen; Aranda, Carlos; Jessen, Heiko; Hillman, Richard J; Ferris, Daron; Coutlee, Francois; Vardas, Eftyhia; Marshall, J Brooke; Vuocolo, Scott; Haupt, Richard M; Guris, Dalya; Garner, Elizabeth IO

    2011-01-01

    Background Prophylactic vaccination with a quadrivalent HPV (types 6, 11, 16, 18) vaccine (qHPV) has been shown to prevent infection with HPV 6/11/16/18 and associated disease in women and more recently, in men. Here we report on the safety and reactogenicity of the qHPV vaccine in males. A total of 4,065 healthy males aged 16–26 years were enrolled into a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Subjects were randomized 1:1 to receive qHPV vaccine or placebo at day 1, month 2 and month 6. Safety and tolerability were assessed via the collection of reported adverse experiences (AEs). All serious AEs (vaccine- or procedure-related or not) and all deaths occurring during the study were recorded. Safety analyses were conducted in all subjects who received at least one dose of vaccine or placebo. The proportion of subjects who reported at least one injection-site AE was higher in the qHPV vaccine group versus the placebo group (60.1% vs. 53.7%, respectively), however most of these AEs were mild/moderate in intensity. The incidence of at least one systemic AE was comparable between the vaccine and placebo groups (31.7% vs. 31.4%, respectively). There were no vaccine-related serious AEs or deaths. The occurrence of AEs did not increase with each successive injection, and among trial participants who were seropositive for at least one vaccine HPV type at enrollment, the profile of adverse events was similar to that of the entire study cohort. The qHPV vaccine was generally well tolerated in males aged 16–26 years and had a favorable safety profile. PMID:21712645

  13. Typhoid Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... risks from typhoid vaccine?Like any medicine, a vaccine could cause a serious problem, such as a severe allergic reaction. The risk of typhoid vaccine causing serious harm, or death, is extremely small. ...

  14. Vaccine Shortages

    MedlinePLUS

    ... part of their regular immunizations) and others. What causes vaccine shortages? A vaccine shortage can occur for many ... quickly enough. Often, a combination of these factors causes a vaccine shortage in one or more areas of the ...

  15. Efficacy of human papillomavirus 16 and 18 (HPV-16/18) AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infection and precancer in young women: final event-driven analysis of the randomized, double-blind PATRICIA trial.

    PubMed

    Apter, Dan; Wheeler, Cosette M; Paavonen, Jorma; Castellsagué, Xavier; Garland, Suzanne M; Skinner, S Rachel; Naud, Paulo; Salmerón, Jorge; Chow, Song-Nan; Kitchener, Henry C; Teixeira, Julio C; Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Limson, Genara; Szarewski, Anne; Romanowski, Barbara; Aoki, Fred Y; Schwarz, Tino F; Poppe, Willy A J; Bosch, F Xavier; Mindel, Adrian; de Sutter, Philippe; Hardt, Karin; Zahaf, Toufik; Descamps, Dominique; Struyf, Frank; Lehtinen, Matti; Dubin, Gary

    2015-04-01

    We report final event-driven analysis data on the immunogenicity and efficacy of the human papillomavirus 16 and 18 ((HPV-16/18) AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in young women aged 15 to 25 years from the PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults (PATRICIA). The total vaccinated cohort (TVC) included all randomized participants who received at least one vaccine dose (vaccine, n = 9,319; control, n = 9,325) at months 0, 1, and/or 6. The TVC-naive (vaccine, n = 5,822; control, n = 5,819) had no evidence of high-risk HPV infection at baseline, approximating adolescent girls targeted by most HPV vaccination programs. Mean follow-up was approximately 39 months after the first vaccine dose in each cohort. At baseline, 26% of women in the TVC had evidence of past and/or current HPV-16/18 infection. HPV-16 and HPV-18 antibody titers postvaccination tended to be higher among 15- to 17-year-olds than among 18- to 25-year-olds. In the TVC, vaccine efficacy (VE) against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or greater (CIN1+), CIN2+, and CIN3+ associated with HPV-16/18 was 55.5% (96.1% confidence interval [CI], 43.2, 65.3), 52.8% (37.5, 64.7), and 33.6% (-1.1, 56.9). VE against CIN1+, CIN2+, and CIN3+ irrespective of HPV DNA was 21.7% (10.7, 31.4), 30.4% (16.4, 42.1), and 33.4% (9.1, 51.5) and was consistently significant only in 15- to 17-year-old women (27.4% [10.8, 40.9], 41.8% [22.3, 56.7], and 55.8% [19.2, 76.9]). In the TVC-naive, VE against CIN1+, CIN2+, and CIN3+ associated with HPV-16/18 was 96.5% (89.0, 99.4), 98.4% (90.4, 100), and 100% (64.7, 100), and irrespective of HPV DNA it was 50.1% (35.9, 61.4), 70.2% (54.7, 80.9), and 87.0% (54.9, 97.7). VE against 12-month persistent infection with HPV-16/18 was 89.9% (84.0, 94.0), and that against HPV-31/33/45/51 was 49.0% (34.7, 60.3). In conclusion, vaccinating adolescents before sexual debut has a substantial impact on the overall incidence of high-grade cervical abnormalities, and catch-up vaccination up to 18 years of age is most likely effective. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT001226810.). PMID:25651922

  16. Glycomics-based analysis of chicken red blood cells provides insight into the selectivity of the viral agglutination assay

    E-print Network

    Aich, Udayanath

    Agglutination of red blood cells (RBCs), including chicken RBCs (cRBCs), has been used extensively to estimate viral titer, to screen glycan-receptor binding preference, and to assess the protective response of vaccines. ...

  17. Haemophilus influenzae Type b Carriage among Young Children in Metropolitan Atlanta in the Context of Vaccine Shortage and Booster Dose Deferral ?

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jennifer Dolan; Jackson, Michael L.; Sharma, Dolly; Mair, Raydel; Bach, Michelle C.; Castillo, Dana; Ejigiri, O. Grace; Satola, Sarah; Cohn, Amanda C.; Jerris, Robert; Jain, Shabnam; Farley, Monica M.; Mayer, Leonard W.; Messonnier, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    Short-term deferral of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine booster dose during a recent U.S. Hib vaccine shortage did not result in widespread Hib carriage in Atlanta, as the Hib carriage rate was found to be 0.3% (1/342). Hib colonization was significantly more common among males and day care attendees. PMID:22012977

  18. What About Vaccinating Newborns?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this review, results from studies evaluating immune competency of the pre-ruminant calf are discussed. It has been believed that vaccination of the young calf is not effective. Recent studies, however, have revealed that certain aspects of the neonatal calf’s immune system are fully intact or e...

  19. Baseline characteristics and prevalence of HPV 6, 11, 16, 18 in young German women participating in phase III clinical trials of a quadrivalent HPV (6\\/11\\/16\\/18) vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth Barthell; Linn Woelber; Karin Hellner; Birka Camerer; Friederike Gieseking; Maik Hauschild; Ioannis Mylonas; Klaus Friese; Heather L. Sings; Radha Railkar; Christine Gause; Eliav Barr

    2009-01-01

    Introduction  As limited data among German women exist about HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, we report the prevalence of these genital infections and general baseline demographics of the young German women enrolled\\u000a in the phase III trials of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  German females (n = 437; 9–23 years) were recruited among 3 international phase 3 studies of an HPV-6\\/11\\/16\\/18

  20. Vaccine acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Ford, John A; Mahgoub, Hamid; Shankar, Ananda Giri

    2013-01-01

    The United Kingdom has had a long history with vaccine acceptability dating back to Edward Jenner’s theory of small pox vaccination. More recently, the discredited, Wakefield study published in 1998 continues to cause MMR skepticism. In pregnant women pertussis vaccination has been considerably more successful than influenza vaccination. Influenza vaccine uptake in healthcare workers remains poor. The media, politicians, and health reforms have contributed to the mixed coverage for these vaccines. In this article we examine vaccine acceptability from a UK perspective, and consider the future impact this is likely to have on the introduction of rotavirus and shingles vaccine in the UK in 2013. PMID:24025731

  1. Prevention of pertussis through adult vaccination.

    PubMed

    Suryadevara, Manika; Domachowske, Joseph B

    2015-07-01

    Pertussis is a vaccine preventable respiratory infection. Young infants are at high risk of developing severe complications from infection. Despite high rates of pediatric vaccine uptake, there continues to be increases in pertussis cases, likely due to waning immunity from childhood vaccine and increased transmission through adults. Currently, pertussis booster vaccine (Tdap) is recommended for unimmunized adults and for women in the third trimester of each pregnancy; yet adult Tdap coverage remains low. Administering Tdap vaccine at non-traditional vaccination clinics and at sites where adults are accessing care for their children are effective in improving adult Tdap uptake. While most are willing to receive vaccine when recommended by their provider, lack of provider recommendation is a major obstacle to immunization. Future studies to understand barriers to provider vaccine recommendations need to be undertaken to develop interventions to improve adult Tdap vaccine uptake and reduce pertussis infection in the susceptible population. PMID:25912733

  2. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by turkey herpesvirus increases the immune response against Marek's disease virus but fails to increase protection against virulent challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Tarpey; P. J. Davis; P. Sondermeijer; C. van Geffen; I. Verstegen; V. E. J. C. Schijns; Jill Kolodsick; R. Sundick

    2007-01-01

    As Marek's disease virus continues to evolve towards greater virulence, more efficacious vaccines will be required in the future. We expressed chicken interleukin-2 (IL-2) from a turkey herpesvirus (HVT) in an attempt to increase the efficacy of HVT as a vaccine against Marek's disease. The recombinant IL-2\\/HVT was safe for in ovo vaccination, although it replicated less in the birds

  3. Pathogenesis and protective efficacy of attenuated Meq null rMd5 virus in maternal antibody negative and commercial chickens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A serotype 1 Marek’s disease Meq null virus (rMd5'Meq) has been shown to be an excellent vaccine in maternal antibody positive (MAb+) chickens. The only drawback of this non-oncogenic virus is that, like parental rMd5, it retains the ability to induce bursa and thymus atrophy (BTA) in MAb- chickens....

  4. Anthrax vaccines.

    PubMed

    Splino, Miroslav; Patocka, Jiri; Prymula, Roman; Chlibek, Roman

    2005-01-01

    Anthrax, an uncommon disease in humans, is caused by a large bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. The risk of inhalation infection is the main indication for anthrax vaccination. Pre-exposure vaccination is provided by an acellular vaccine (anthrax vaccine adsorbed or AVA), which contains anthrax toxin elements and results in protective immunity after 3 to 6 doses. Anthrax vaccine precipitated (AVP) is administered at primovaccination in 3 doses with a booster dose after 6 months. To evoke and maintain protective immunity, it is necessary to administer a booster dose once at 12 months. In Russia, live spore vaccine (STI) has been used in a two-dose schedule. Current anthrax vaccines show considerable local and general reactogenicity (erythema, induration, soreness, fever). Serious adverse reactions occur in about 1% of vaccinations. New second-generation vaccines in current research programs include recombinant live vaccines and recombinant sub-unit vaccines. PMID:15977694

  5. Impact of vaccination on infection with Vietnam H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in hens and the eggs they lay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infections in chickens decrease egg production and eggs that are laid contain HPAIV. Vaccination once or twice was examined as a way to protect chickens from Vietnamese H5N1 HPAIV. Eighty-three percent of hens without vaccination died within 3 days ...

  6. Chicken embryo origin-like strains are responsible for Infectious laryngotracheitis virus outbreaks in Egyptian cross-bred broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Awad A; Halami, Mohammad Y; Sultan, Hesham H; Abd El-Razik, Alaa G; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2013-06-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) continues to cause respiratory disease in Egypt in spite of vaccination. The currently available modified live ILTV vaccines provide good protection but may also induce latent infections and even clinical disease if they spread extensively from bird-to-bird in the field. Four field ILTV isolates, designated ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Giza2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 were isolated from cross-bred broiler chickens. The pathogenicity based on intratracheal pathogenicity index, tracheal lesion score, and mortality index for chicken embryos revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009 and ILT-Behera2010 isolates were highly pathogenic whereas ILT-Giza2007 was non-pathogenic. To study the molecular epidemiology of these field isolates, the infected cell protein 4 gene was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 are chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine-related isolates while ILT-Giza2007 is a tissue culture origin vaccine-related isolate. These results suggest that CEO laryngotracheitis vaccine viruses could increase in virulence after bird-to-bird passages causing severe outbreaks in susceptible birds. PMID:23288626

  7. Protection against infectious laryngotracheitis by in ovo vaccination with commercially available viral vector recombinant vaccines.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Deirdre I; Vagnozzi, Ariel; Dorea, Fernanda; Riblet, Sylva M; Mundt, Alice; Zavala, Guillermo; García, Maricarmen

    2010-12-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease is mainly controlled through biosecurity and by vaccination with live-attenuated vaccines. The chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines, although proven to be effective in experimental settings, have limited efficacy in controlling the disease in dense broiler production sites due to unrestricted use and poor mass vaccination coverage. These factors allowed CEO vaccines to regain virulence, causing long lasting and, consequently, severe outbreaks of the disease. A new generation of viral vector fowl poxvirus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) vaccines carrying ILTV genes has been developed and such vaccines are commercially available. These vaccines are characterized by their lack of transmission, lack of ILTV-associated latent infections, and no reversion to virulence. HVT-vectored ILTV recombinant vaccines were originally approved for subcutaneous HVT or transcutaneous (pox) delivery. The increased incidence of ILTV outbreaks in broiler production sites encouraged the broiler industry to deliver the FPV-LT and HVT-LT recombinant vaccines in ovo. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protection induced by ILTV viral vector recombinant vaccines after in ovo application in 18-day-old commercial broiler embryos. The protection induced by recombinant ILTV vaccines was assessed by their ability to prevent clinical signs and mortality; to reduce challenge virus replication in the trachea; to prevent an increase in body temperature; and to prevent a decrease in body weight gain after challenge. In this study, both recombinant-vectored ILTV vaccines provided partial protection, thereby mitigating the disease, but did not reduce challenge virus loads in the trachea. PMID:21313847

  8. Current status of vaccines against infectious bursal disease.

    PubMed

    Müller, Hermann; Mundt, Egbert; Eterradossi, Nicolas; Islam, M Rafiqul

    2012-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the aetiological agent of the acute and highly contagious infectious bursal disease (IBD) or "Gumboro disease". IBD is one of the economically most important diseases that affects commercially produced chickens worldwide. Along with strict hygiene management of poultry farms, vaccination programmes with inactivated and live attenuated viruses have been used to prevent IBD. Live vaccines show a different degree of attenuation; many of them may cause bursal atrophy and thus immunosuppression with poor immune response to vaccination against other pathogens and an increase in vulnerability to various types of infections as possible consequences. Depending on their intrinsic characteristics or on the vaccination procedures, some of the vaccines may not induce full protection against the very virulent IBDV strains and antigenic variants observed in the last three decades. As chickens are most susceptible to IBDV in their first weeks of life, active immunity to the virus has to be induced early after hatching. However, maternally derived IBDV-specific antibodies may interfere with early vaccination with live vaccines. Thus new technologies and second-generation vaccines including rationally designed and subunit vaccines have been developed. Recently, live viral vector vaccines have been licensed in several countries and are reaching the market. Here, the current status of IBD vaccines is discussed. PMID:22515532

  9. Virulent Salmonella typhimurium-induced lymphocyte depletion and immunosuppression in chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, J O; Curtiss, R

    1994-01-01

    The effect of experimental Salmonella infection on chicken lymphoid organs, immune responses, and fecal shedding of salmonellae were assessed following oral inoculation of 1-day-old chicks or intra-air-sac infection of 4-week-old chickens with virulent S. typhimurium wild-type chi 3761 or avirulent S. typhimurium delta cya delta crp vaccine strain chi 3985. Some 4-week-old chickens infected intra-air-sac with chi 3761 or chi 3985 were challenged with Bordetella avium to determine the effect of Salmonella infection on secondary infection by B. avium. S. typhimurium chi 3761 caused lymphocyte depletion, atrophy of lymphoid organs, and immunosuppression 2 days after infection in 1-day-old chicks and 4-week-old chickens. The observed lymphocyte depletion or atrophy of lymphoid organs was transient and dose dependent. Lymphocyte depletion and immunosuppression were associated with prolonged fecal shedding of S. typhimurium chi 3761. No lymphocyte depletion, immunosuppression, or prolonged Salmonella shedding was observed in groups of chickens infected orally or intra-air-sac with chi 3985. Infection of chickens with salmonellae before challenge with B. avium did not suppress the specific antibody response to B. avium. However, B. avium isolation was higher in visceral organs of chickens infected with chi 3761 and challenged with B. avium than in chickens infected with B. avium only. Infection of chickens with chi 3985 reduced B. avium colonization. We report a new factor in Salmonella pathogenesis and reveal a phenomenon which may play a critical role in the development of Salmonella carrier status in chickens. We also showed that 10(8) CFU of chi 3985, which is our established oral vaccination dose for chickens, did not cause immunosuppression or enhance the development of Salmonella carrier status in chickens. Images PMID:8168969

  10. Protection induced by infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccines alone and combined with Newcastle disease virus and/or infectious bronchitis virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Vagnozzi, Ariel; García, Maricarmen; Riblet, Sylva M; Zavala, Guillermo

    2010-12-01

    Two types of live attenuated vaccines have been used worldwide for the control of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV): 1) chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines; and 2) tissue culture origin vaccines (TCO). However, the disease persists in spite of extensive use of vaccination, particularly in areas of intense broiler production. Among the factors that may influence the efficiency of ILTV live attenuated vaccines is a possible interference of Newcastle Disease virus (NDV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines with the protection induced by ILTV vaccines. The protection induced by CEO and TCO vaccines was evaluated when administered at 14 days of age alone or in combination with the B1 type strain of NDV (B1) and/or the Arkansas (ARK) and Massachusetts (MASS) serotypes of IBV vaccines. Two weeks after vaccination (28 days of age), the chickens were challenged with a virulent ILTV field strain (63140 isolate, group V genotype). Protection was evaluated at 5 and 7 days postchallenge by scoring clinical signs and quantifying the challenge virus load in the trachea using real-time PCR (qPCR). In addition, the viral load of the vaccine viruses (ILTV, NDV, and IBV) was quantified 3 and 5 days postvaccination also using qPCR. The results of this study indicate that the NDV (B1) and IBV (ARK) vaccines and a multivalent vaccine constituted by NDV (B1) and IBV (ARK and MASS) did not interfere with the protection induced by the CEO ILTV vaccine. However, the NDV (BI) and the multivalent (B1/MASS/ARK) vaccines interfered with the protection induced by the TCO vaccine (P < 0.05). Either in combination or by themselves, the NDV and IBV vaccines decreased the tracheal replication of the TCO vaccine and the protection induced by this vaccine, since the ILTV-vaccinated and -challenged chickens displayed significantly more severe clinical signs and ILTV load (P < 0.05) than chickens vaccinated with the TCO vaccine alone. Although NDV and IBV challenges were not performed, the antibody responses elicited by NDV and/or the IBV vaccinations were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) when applied in combination with the CEO vaccine. PMID:21313841

  11. Passive immunization using purified IgYs against infectious bursal disease of chickens in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Muhammad Wasif; Ayub, Najma

    2006-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute and highly contagious disease of young chickens caused by Birnavirus. Mortality of infected birds can be best prevented if injected with antibodies. The present study was an attempt to raise specific hyper-immune polyclonal antibodies against IBD virus in Pakistan. Commercial layers divided into four groups were injected with IBD vaccine subcutaneously according to four different treatment regimens. Eggs were collected daily and antibodies were purified from yolk with dextran sulphate. Titers of antibodies in serum and yolk were evaluated with enzyme linked immunosorbant assay and agar gel precipitation test. Antibody titers were significantly higher in yolk than serum. Eggs collected at 28 days post-vaccination had maximum antibody titers. Of treatment regimens, T3 was found to be most effective for hyperimmunization. Lyophilized antibodies stored at 4? did not lose their activity till the end of experiment. IBD virus infected birds were injected with purified antibodies which induced 92% recovery as compared to control birds. The study implicates that the purified antibodies may be useful as a therapeutic agent to cure IBD infected birds. PMID:16434848

  12. Advancement in vaccination against Newcastle disease: recombinant HVT NDV provides high clinical protection and reduces challenge virus shedding with the absence of vaccine reactions.

    PubMed

    Palya, V; Kiss, I; Tatár-Kis, T; Mató, T; Felföldi, B; Gardin, Y

    2012-06-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease of chickens causing significant economic losses worldwide. Due to the limitation in their efficacy, current vaccination strategies against ND need improvements. This study aimed to evaluate a new-generation ND vaccine for its efficacy in providing clinical protection and reducing virus shedding after challenge. Broiler chickens were vaccinated in ovo or subcutaneously at hatch with a turkey herpesvirus-based recombinant vaccine (rHVT) expressing a key protective antigen (F glycoprotein) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Groups of birds were challenged at 20, 27, and 40 days of age with a genotype V viscerotropic velogenic NDV strain. Protection was 57% and 81%, 100% and 95%, and 100% and 100% after the subsequent challenges in the in ovo and subcutaneously vaccinated chickens, respectively. Humoral immune response to vaccination could be detected from 3-4 wk of age. Challenge virus shedding was lower and gradually decreased over time in the vaccinated birds compared to the unvaccinated control chickens. In spite of the phylogenetic distance between the NDV F gene inserted into the vector vaccine and the challenge virus (genotype I and V, respectively), the rHVT NDV vaccine provided good clinical protection and significantly reduced challenge virus shedding. PMID:22856183

  13. VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine What You Need to Know (Flu Vaccine, Live idiomas. Visite www.immunize.org/vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Influenza ("flu") is a contagious disease by the influenza virus, and can be spread by coughing, sneezing, and close contact. Anyone can get flu

  14. VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine What You Need to Know (Flu Vaccine, Inactivated.immunize.org/vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Influenza ("flu") is a contagious disease that spreads around the United States every winter, usually between October and May. Flu is caused by the influenza virus, and can

  15. VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine

    E-print Network

    Lien, Jyh-Ming

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Influenza Vaccine What You Need to Know (Flu Vaccine, Inactivated idiomas. Visite www.immunize.org/vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Influenza ("flu") is a contagious disease that spreads around the United States every winter, usually between October and May. Flu is caused by influenza

  16. DETECTION OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS IN OIL EMULSION VACCINES BY REAL-TIME RT-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of poultry vaccines with adventitious agents (i.e. reticuloendotheliosis virus, chicken anemia virus) has been previously reported. Contaminating agents may be introduced at various stages during production, whether through propagation systems or shared equipment. Contamination of ina...

  17. Onset of immunity following in ovo delivery of avian metapneumovirus vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Tarpey; M. B. Huggins

    2007-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an important cause of disease in chickens and turkeys. As infection can occur early in life and spread of the virus throughout a flock is rapid, an early onset of immunity post-vaccination would be advantageous. We have studied the serological immune response and the onset of protective immunity of an aMPV vaccine delivered to chickens via

  18. EFFICACY OF TWO INACTIVATED VACCINES AGAINST AN ASIAN HPAI H5N1 CHALLENGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of inactivated vaccines containing either an American isolate (A/turkey/Wisconsin/68 H5N9; GALLIMUNE FLU H5N9 or H5N9-WI) or an Eurasian isolate (A/chicken/Italy/22A/98 H5N9 or H5N9-It). Three weeks-old SPF chickens were vaccinated and challeng...

  19. Production of a falcon herpesvirus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wernery, U; Wernery, R; Kinne, J

    1999-09-01

    Ten common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) were used for this falcon herpes vaccine experiment. Four kestrels were subcutaneously given 1 ml of an attenuated falcon herpesvirus that had originally been isolated from the liver of an American prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus). This virus was then passaged 100 times on chicken embryo fibroblast cells (CEF-cells). Another 4 kestrels were given subcutaneously an inactivated falcon herpesvirus vaccine derived from the same American field strain. This vaccine was concentrated, inactivated by heat and betapropiolactone and emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvans. Two further kestrels served as controls and were not vaccinated. Twenty-one days after vaccination, all 10 kestrels were challenged with passage 3 of the American falcon herpesvirus. The 2 control kestrels died 6 days after challenge and 3 of those given the inactivated herpes vaccine died 9 days after challenge, with typical lesions of herpesvirus inclusion body hepatitis. Before the vaccination experiment, all 10 kestrels were free of serum neutralising antibodies to the falcon herpesvirus. Twenty-one days after vaccination, all 4 kestrels vaccinated with the attenuated vaccine, and one vaccinated with the killed vaccine, had seroconverted, having shown no symptoms to the challenge with a low passage virulent American herpesvirus strain. Following the challenge their antibody titres to falcon herpesvirus increased. No herpesvirus was isolated from any of the cloacal swabs taken during this experiment, indicating that there is no danger for any other birds from the attenuated herpesvirus vaccine. This experiment clearly shows that an attenuated falcon herpesvirus vaccine can protect kestrels from fatal inclusion body hepatitis. PMID:10507183

  20. Candidate Gene Approach: Potentional Association of Caspase?1, Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein?1, and Prosaposin Gene Polymorphisms with Response to Salmonella enteritidis Challenge or Vaccination in Young Chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Liu; S. J. Lamont

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella enteritidis (SE) contamination of poultry products is a major cause of food?borne disease worldwide. Caspase?1 and inhibitor of apoptosis protein?1 (IAP?1) were selected as candidate genes for chicken response to SE because their proteins play critical roles in the apoptotic pathway when intracellular bacteria interact with host cells. Prosaposin (PSAP) was selected as a positional candidate gene based on

  1. Effects of various field coccidiosis control programs on host innate and adaptive immunity in commercial broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidiosis control programs such as vaccines or in-feed anticoccidials are commonly practiced in poultry industry to improve growth performance and health of commercial broiler chickens. In this study, we assessed the effects of various coccidiosis control programs (e.g., in ovo vaccination, synth...

  2. The biology of avian Eimeria with an emphasis on their control by vaccination.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Martin W; Smith, Adrian L; Tomley, Fiona M

    2005-01-01

    Studies on the biology of the avian species of Eimeria are currently benefiting from the availability of a comprehensive sequence for the nuclear genome of Eimeria tenella. Allied to some recent advances in transgenic technologies and genetic approaches to identify protective antigens, some elements are now being assembled that should be helpful for the development of a new generation of vaccines. In the meantime, control of avian coccidiosis by vaccination represents a major success in the fight against infections caused by parasitic protozoa. Live vaccines that comprise defined populations of oocysts are used routinely and this form of vaccination is based upon the long-established fact that chickens infected with coccidial parasites rapidly develop protective immunity against challenge infections with the same species. Populations of wild-type Eimeria parasites were the basis of the first live vaccines introduced around 50 years ago and the more recent introduction of safer, live-attenuated, vaccines has had a significant impact on coccidiosis control in many areas of the world. In Europe the introduction of vaccination has coincided with declining drug efficacy (on account of drug resistance) and increasing concerns by consumers about the inclusion of in-feed medication and prospects for drug residues in meat. The use of attenuated vaccines throughout the world has also stimulated a greater interest in the vaccines that comprise wild-type parasites and, during the past 3 years worldwide, around 3x10(9) doses of each type of vaccine have been used. The need for only small numbers of live parasites to induce effective protective immunity and the recognition that Eimeria spp. are generally very potent immunogens has stimulated efforts to develop other types of vaccines. None has succeeded except for the licensing, within several countries in 2002, of a vaccine (CoxAbic vaccine; Abic, Israel) that protects via the maternal transfer of immunoglobulin to the young chick. Building on the success of viral vaccines that are delivered via the embryonating egg, an in ovo coccidiosis vaccine (Inovocox, Embrex Inc.) is currently in development. Following successful field trials in 2001, the product will be ready for Food and Drug Administration approval in 2005 and a manufacturing plant will begin production for sale in late 2005. Limited progress has been achieved towards the development of subunit or recombinant vaccines. No products are available and studies to identify potential antigens remain compromised by an absence of effective in vitro assays that correlate with the induction of protective immunity in the host. To date, only a relatively small portfolio of molecules has been evaluated for an ability to induce protection in vivo. Although Eimeria are effective immunogens, it is probable that to date none of the antigens that induce potent protective immune responses during the course of natural infection has been isolated. PMID:16230106

  3. CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken coops on the farm were used by both chickens and turkeys. The yards around the buildings were once fenced in to give the poultry brooding space. - Kineth Farm, Chicken Coop, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  4. Understanding vaccines: a public imperative.

    PubMed

    Federman, Ross S

    2014-12-01

    Though once a discovery greatly celebrated by the nation, the vaccine has come under fire in recent decades from skeptics, critics, and a movement set into motion by fraudulent scientists and fueled by frustrated parents looking for answers to the autism conundrum. There is enough denialist resistance to vaccination to bring upon renewed fear of young children and infants becoming infected with diseases, the threats of which had been functionally eradicated from the United States. In more recent years, the surge in independent online journalism and blogging has invited many to rapidly share their opinions with millions of readers and, importantly, has appeared to open the door for opinion to be portrayed as fact. As a result, many parents are inundated with horror stories of vaccine dangers, all designed to eat away at them emotionally while the medical and scientific communities have mounted their characteristic response by sharing the facts, the data, and all of the reliable peer-reviewed and well-cited research to show that vaccines are safe and effective. It has become clear to me that facts are no match for emotion, but perhaps an understanding behind vaccine methodology will help parents overcome these fears of vaccinating. By helping those who doubt vaccines better understand what vaccines really are and how they work in such an incredibly engineered fashion, we may have a stronger weapon than we realize in battling the emotional arsenal that comes from the fear and skepticism of vaccinating. PMID:25506276

  5. Chicken Noodle Soup Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    /2 teaspoon salt 1/4 teaspoon black pepper 1 teaspoon thyme or sage (optional) 8 ounces whole wheat noodles Directions 1. Remove skin and place chicken in large pot. Cover completely with water. Cover, bring to boil, reduce heat, and simmer until chicken falls off bones, about 1 hour. 2. Remove pot from stove and remove

  6. CANCER VACCINES IN OLD AGE

    PubMed Central

    Gravekamp, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of cancer has increased over the last decade, mainly due to an increase in the elderly population. Vaccine therapy for cancer is less toxic than chemotherapy or radiation and could be, therefore, especially effective in older, more frail cancer patients. However, it has been shown that older individuals do not respond to vaccine therapy as well as younger adults. This has been attributed to T cell unresponsiveness, a phenomenon also observed in cancer patients per se. This review summarizes the current knowledge of T cell unresponsiveness in cancer patients and elderly, the results of cancer vaccination in preclinical models and in clinical trials, and recent data of cancer vaccination at young and old age in preclinical models. Finally, experimental approaches will be proposed how to make cancer vaccines more effective at older age. PMID:17197144

  7. Seasonal Inactivated Influenza Virus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    Inactivated influenza virus vaccines are the primary modality used for prevention of influenza. A system of annual identification of new strains causing illnesses, selections for vaccines, chick embryo growth, inactivation, processing, packaging, distribution and usage has been in place for decades. Current vaccines contain 15 µg of the HA of an A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B strain and are given parenterally to induce serum anti-HA antibody for prevention of subsequent infection and illness from natural influenza. Reactogenicity is low and protection among healthy older children and adults is good; protection levels are generally lower in young children and the elderly. Needs include ensuring antigenic matches of vaccine and epidemic viruses each season, enhancing immunization rates, and providing new and improved vaccines and immunization approaches for the varied populations and circumstances globally. PMID:18602728

  8. Enhancement of the immunogenicity of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus DNA vaccine by a bicistronic plasmid encoding glycoprotein B and interleukin-18.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Ying; Zhao, Li; Wei, Zhan-Yong; Cui, Bao-An; Wang, Zhen-Ya; Li, Xin-Sheng; Xia, Ping-An; Liu, Jin-Peng

    2010-08-01

    A DNA vaccine against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) can induce specific humoral and cell-mediated immunity. However, compared to conventional vaccines, DNA vaccines usually induce poor antibody responses. To determine if co-expression of a cytokine can result in a more potent ILTV DNA vaccine, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a monocistronic vector encoding the glycoprotein B (gB) of ILTV was compared to that of a bicistronic vector separately encoding the gB and chicken interleukin-18. Humoral and cellular responses induced by the DNA vaccines administered to the quadriceps muscle of chickens were evaluated. There were significant differences in antibody levels elicited by either monocistronic or bicistronic DNA vaccines as determined by ELISA. The percentages of CD3(+), CD3(+)CD8(+) and CD3(+)CD4(+) subgroups of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes in chickens immunized with the bicistronic DNA vaccine were higher than those in chickens immunized with monocistronic DNA vaccine. When chickens were challenged with a virulent CG strain of ILTV, the protective efficacy was enhanced significantly after immunization with the bicistronic DNA vaccine. These results demonstrated that co-expression of an adjuvant cytokine from a bicistronic DNA vaccine may be an effective approach to increasing ILTV DNA vaccine immunogenicity. PMID:20553764

  9. Matrix and Backstage: Cellular Substrates for Viral Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Ingo; Sandig, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines are complex products that are manufactured in highly dynamic processes. Cellular substrates are one critical component that can have an enormous impact on reactogenicity of the final preparation, level of attenuation of a live virus, yield of infectious units or antigens, and cost per vaccine dose. Such parameters contribute to feasibility and affordability of vaccine programs both in industrialized countries and developing regions. This review summarizes the diversity of cellular substrates for propagation of viral vaccines from primary tissue explants and embryonated chicken eggs to designed continuous cell lines of human and avian origin. PMID:24732259

  10. Orally administered attenuated Salmonella enteritidis reduces chicken cecal carriage of virulent Salmonella challenge organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Cristina Cerquetti; M. Magdalena Gherardi

    2000-01-01

    Chickens were immunized orally with 109cfu of the temperature-sensitive (Ts) mutant E\\/1\\/3 of Salmonella enteritidis at 1, 2, 3 and 7 days of age. The animals were challenged with wild-type strains of Salmonella of different serotypes 7 or 14 days following immunization. Chickens receiving multiple oral doses of the vaccine strain showed no signs of disease. Immunized animals shed the

  11. Vaccine Finder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccine Information Statement for Shingles . Tetanus, Diphtheria, Whooping Cough (Tdap) Protects against whooping cough (pertussis), a very ... Vaccine Information Statement for Td . Tetanus, Diphtheria, Whooping Cough Tetanus, Diphtheria, Whooping Cough (Tdap) Protects against whooping ...

  12. Smallpox Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... outbreak of the disease. In most cases, the vaccine causes mild side effects, such as soreness around the vaccination site, fever, and body aches. A very small percentage of people will suffer serious side effects and may even die. Thus the vaccine is only necessary when there has been an ...

  13. DNA vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2001-12-01

    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  14. Improved vaccination against Newcastle disease by an in ovo recombinant HVT-ND combined with an adjuvanted live vaccine at day-old

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabienne Rauw; Yannick Gardin; Vilmos Palya; Sofia Anbari; Sophie Lemaire; Marc Boschmans; Thierry van den Berg; Bénédicte Lambrecht

    2010-01-01

    The continuous outbreaks of fatal Newcastle disease (ND) in commercial poultry flocks demonstrate that current vaccination strategies are not fully efficacious and should be improved by new generation of vaccines. In this context, maternally immune conventional layer chickens were vaccinated in ovo with a turkey herpesvirus recombinant expressing the fusion (F) gene of NDV (rHVT-ND) and\\/or at day-old with an

  15. Disparities in Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Literacy and Vaccine Completion among Asian American Pacific Islander Undergraduates: Implications for Cancer Health Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hee Yun; Kwon, Melissa; Vang, Suzanne; DeWolfe, Jessica; Kim, Nam Keol; Lee, Do Kyung; Yeung, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Low rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among young Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) women need to be addressed, particularly given the high incidence of cervical cancer in this population. The current study aims to investigate predictors of HPV vaccination in young AAPI and non-Latina white (NLW) women. Methods: A…

  16. Heterologous expression of synthetic chicken IFN ? in transgenic tobacco plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongjun Wu; Degang Zhao; Li Song; Wenzhao Xu

    2009-01-01

    To develop a plant expression system for the production of the chicken interferon gamma (ChIFN-?) oral vaccine adjuvant, we investigated whether the ChIFN-? protein can be expressed in tobacco plants. The coding sequence of the ChIFN-? gene was optimized by modification of codon usage to that of tobacco plant genes. A synthetic ChIFN-? gene was inserted into plasmid pSW-IFNG containing

  17. Invasive pneumococcal infection despite 7-valent conjugated vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Joye, Sebastien; Gao, Anja; Kayemba-Kay’s, Simon; Cotting, Jacques; Perez, Marie-Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Despite good cover with 7-valent vaccination, invasive pneumococcal infections may still be misdiagnosed and may lead to lifethreatening situations or death in young children. New serotypes are emerging and, therefore, clinicians must keep a high level of suspicion in young children regardless of their vaccination status. We report three cases of invasive pneumococcal infection due to new serotypes not covered by the 7-valent conjugated vaccine, two of which led children to death. PMID:24765491

  18. Comparison of the safety and protective efficacy of vaccination with glycoprotein-G-deficient infectious laryngotracheitis virus delivered via eye-drop, drinking water or aerosol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Devlin; G. F. Browning; J. R. Gilkerson; S. P. Fenton; C. A. Hartley

    2008-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), an alphaherpesvirus, causes respiratory disease in chickens and is commonly controlled by vaccination with conventionally attenuated virus strains. These vaccines have limitations due to residual pathogenicity and reversion to virulence. To avoid these problems and to better control disease, attention has recently turned towards developing a novel vaccine strain that lacks virulence gene(s). Glycoprotein G (gG)

  19. Molecular evaluation of responses to vaccination and challenge by Marek's disease viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianming Tan; Julie Cooke; Nadeene Clarke; Gregory A. Tannock

    2007-01-01

    A real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was utilized to study the in vivo replication of Marek's disease vaccine viruses and of virulent oncogenic strains. In the first of four experiments, the growth of the herpes virus of turkeys (HVT) vaccine was detectable in various organs of infected chicken embryos, with the highest viral loads being present in the spleen. No

  20. Onset of immunity following in ovo delivery of avian metapneumovirus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tarpey, I; Huggins, M B

    2007-09-20

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an important cause of disease in chickens and turkeys. As infection can occur early in life and spread of the virus throughout a flock is rapid, an early onset of immunity post-vaccination would be advantageous. We have studied the serological immune response and the onset of protective immunity of an aMPV vaccine delivered to chickens via the in ovo route compared to oculonasal delivery at day old. A 1000-fold lower dose delivered in ovo to chicken specific pathogen free (SPF) embryos, than vaccination at day old, provided a significantly higher antibody response. In the presence of maternally derived antibody (MDA), there was no significant difference in antibody response between the vaccination routes. However, the onset of immunity (OOI) for the vaccine delivered to MDA positive chicken embryos was 5 days post-hatch in comparison to 8 days post-hatch for the same dose of vaccine given at day old indicating that chicks would be protected against disease earlier in the field if vaccinated by the in ovo route. In further experiments the OOI for a turkey vaccine delivered to MDA positive turkey embryos was shown to be 8 days post-hatch. PMID:17462834

  1. Eggcited about Chickens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  2. Vaccine allergies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the increasing numbers of vaccine administrations are associated with increased reports of adverse vaccine reactions. Whilst the general adverse reactions including allergic reactions caused by the vaccine itself or the vaccine components, are rare, they can in some circumstances be serious and even fatal. In accordance with many IgE-mediated reactions and immediate-type allergic reactions, the primary allergens are proteins. The proteins most often implicated in vaccine allergies are egg and gelatin, with perhaps rare reactions to yeast or latex. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the injectable influenza vaccine can be safely administered, although with appropriate precautions, to patients with severe egg allergy, as the current influenza vaccines contain small trace amounts of egg protein. If an allergy is suspected, an accurate examination followed by algorithms is vital for correct diagnosis, treatment and decision regarding re-vaccination in patients with immediate-type reactions to vaccines. Facilities and health care professionals should be available to treat immediate hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylaxis) in all settings where vaccines are administered. PMID:24427763

  3. Co-administration of avian influenza virus H5 plasmid DNA with chicken IL-15 and IL-18 enhanced chickens immune responses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA vaccines offer several advantages over conventional vaccines in the development of effective vaccines against avian influenza virus (AIV). However, one of the limitations of the DNA vaccine in poultry is that it induces poor immune responses. In this study, chicken interleukin (IL) -15 and IL-18 were used as genetic adjuvants to improve the immune responses induced from the H5 DNA vaccination in chickens. The immunogenicity of the recombinant plasmid DNA was analyzed based on the antibody production, T cell responses and cytokine production, following inoculation in 1-day-old (Trial 1) and 14-day-old (Trial 2) specific-pathogen-free chickens. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to explore the role of chicken IL-15 and IL-18 as adjuvants following the vaccination of chickens with the H5 DNA vaccine. Results The overall HI antibody titer in chickens immunized with pDis/H5?+?pDis/IL-15 was higher compared to chickens immunized with pDis/H5 (p?chickens exhibited a shorter time to achieve the highest HI titer in comparison to the inoculation of the 1-day-old chickens. The cellular immunity was assessed by the flow cytometry analysis to enumerate CD4+ and CD8 + T cells in the peripheral blood. The chickens inoculated with pDis/H5?+?pDis/IL-15 demonstrated the highest increase in CD4+ T cells population relative to the control chickens. However, this study revealed that pDis/H5?+?pDis/IL-15 was not significant (P?>?0.05) in inducing CD8+ T cells. Meanwhile, with the exception of Trial 1, the flow cytometry results for Trial 2 demonstrated that the pDis/H5?+?pDis/IL-18 inoculated group was able to trigger a higher increase in CD4+ T cells than the pDis/H5 group (P??0.05) in modulating CD8+ T cells population in both trials. The pDis/H5?+?pDis/IL-15 inoculated group showed the highest IL-15 gene expression in both trials compared to other inoculated groups (P?chicken IL-15 and IL-18,with pDis/H5?+?pDis/IL-15 being a better vaccine candidate compared to other groups. PMID:22866758

  4. Development of Streptococcus pneumoniae Vaccines Using Live Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shifeng; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae still causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in young children and the elderly. Much effort has been dedicated to developing protein-based universal vaccines to conquer the current shortcomings of capsular vaccines and capsular conjugate vaccines, such as serotype replacement, limited coverage and high costs. A recombinant live vector vaccine delivering protective antigens is a promising way to achieve this goal. In this review, we discuss the researches using live recombinant vaccines, mainly live attenuated Salmonella and lactic acid bacteria, to deliver pneumococcal antigens. We also discuss both the limitations and the future of these vaccines. PMID:25309747

  5. Immunomodulatory effects of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide and propolis on immunosuppressed chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Wei, Kai; Yang, Shifa; Yang, Ya; Zhang, Yongbing; Zhu, Fujie; Wang, Di; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2015-01-01

    Co-infection of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), which can cause suppressed immunity and vaccination failure, frequently occurs in chicken flocks in China. Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS) and propolis (PP) have been proven to possess immune modulatory effects and improve the immune effects of vaccines. This study aimed to investigate the immune modulatory ability of TPPPS and PP on chickens co-infected with immunosuppressive viruses. Prior to the study, chickens were artificially established as REV and ALV-J co-infection models. Four randomly assigned groups of these immunosuppressed chickens were successively administered with TPPPS, PP, mixture of TPPPS and PP (TPPPS-PP), or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for three days. At nine days old, the four immunosuppressed groups, as well as one normal group, were inoculated with the attenuated Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine. During the monitoring period, the indices of immune organ weight, lymphocyte transformation rates, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocyte counts in peripheral blood, IL-2 and IFN-? secretions, serum antibody titers of ND vaccine, and viral loads in spleens were determined. The results showed that chickens administered with TPPPS, PP, or TPPPS-PP could significantly enhance the levels of the above immune parameters compared to chickens in the PBS group. We observed the strongest immunity in the TPPPS-PP group, which indicates that the combination of TPPPS and PP versus TPPPS or PP alone, could generate better effects on improving the immune system effectiveness of immunosuppressed chickens. PMID:25450885

  6. Initial Proteomics Analysis of Differentially Expressed Proteins from Mycoplasma gallisepticum Vaccine Strains ts-11 and F Detected by Western Blotting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is the causative agent of chronic respiratory disease in laye r chickens. The live MG vaccine strains that are available for use in layer chickens include F, ts-11 and 6\\/85. The MG vaccine strains ts-11 and 6\\/85 are safer than F and they have little or no potential of spreading from bird to bird. However, ts-11 and

  7. Protective avian influenza in ovo vaccination with non-replicating human adenovirus vector.

    PubMed

    Toro, Haroldo; Tang, De-chu C; Suarez, David L; Sylte, Matt J; Pfeiffer, Jennifer; Van Kampen, Kent R

    2007-04-12

    Protective immunity against avian influenza virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose in ovo vaccination with a non-replicating human adenovirus vector encoding an H5N9 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin. Vaccinated chickens were protected against both H5N1 (89% hemagglutinin homology; 68% protection) and H5N2 (94% hemagglutinin homology; 100% protection) highly pathogenic avian influenza virus challenges. This vaccine can be mass-administered using available robotic in ovo injectors which provide a major advantage over current vaccination regimens. In addition, this class of adenovirus-vectored vaccines can be produced rapidly with improved safety since they do not contain any replication-competent adenoviruses. Furthermore, this mode of vaccination is compatible with epidemiological surveys of natural avian influenza virus infections. PMID:17055126

  8. Characterization and Expression of Chicken Selenoprotein U.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yun-Yun; Huang, Jia-Qiang; Lin, Gao-Chao; Guo, Hui-Yuan; Ren, Fa-Zheng; Zhang, Hao

    2015-08-01

    Selenoprotein U (SelU) may regulate a myriad of biological processes through its redox function. In chicks, neither the nucleotide sequence nor the amino acid sequence is known. The main objectives of this study were to clone and characterize the chicken Selu gene and investigate Selu messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in chicken tissues. The coding sequence (CDS) of Selu contained 387 bases with a typical mammalian selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) located in the 3'-untranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequence of chicken SelU contains 224 amino acids with UAA as the stop codon. Like all SelU genes identified in different species, chicken SelU contains one well-conserved selenocysteine (Sec) at the 85th position encoded by the UGA codon. The SECIS element was with the conserved denosine (--AAA--) rather than the motif cytidine (--CC--) motif. Moreover, the expression pattern of Selu mRNA in muscle, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, lung, testis, and brain was analyzed with real-time quantitative PCR in young male chickens fed a Se-deficient corn-soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0.0 and 0.3 mg Se/kg in the form of sodium selenite. We found that the abundance of Selu mRNA in muscle, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and lung was downregulated (P < 0.05) by Se deficiency. However, it was not affected by dietary Se concentrations in testis and brain. Furthermore, protein abundance of SelU in these seven tissues was consistent with the mRNA abundance. Hence, we suggest that Selu might play an important role in the biochemical function of Se in birds. PMID:25876085

  9. Progress and pitfalls in Shigella vaccine research

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Eileen M.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Fasano, Alessio; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.

    2013-01-01

    Renewed awareness of the significant morbidity and mortality that Shigella causes among young children in developing countries combined with technological innovations in vaccinology has led to the development of novel vaccine strategies in the past five years. Along with advancement of classical vaccines in clinical trials and new sophisticated measurements of immunological responses, much new data has been produced lending promise to the potential for production of safe and effective Shigella vaccines. Herein we review the recent progress in Shigella vaccine development within the framework of persistent obstacles. PMID:23419287

  10. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Hepatitis B vaccine: Why get vaccinated?Hepatitis B vaccine can prevent hepatitis B, and the serious consequences of hepatitis ...

  11. Risk compensation and vaccination: Can getting vaccinated cause people to engage in risky behaviors?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noel T. Brewer; Cara L. Cuite; James E. Herrington; Neil D. Weinstein

    2007-01-01

    Background: Some believe that vaccinating young women against human papillomavirus (HPV) will increase their risky behavior. In more\\u000a formal terms, vaccination lowers risk perception, and people compensate for their lower perceived risk by reducing other preventive\\u000a behaviors.Purpose: We test several predictions from the risk compensation hypothesis in the context of vaccination behavior.Methods: We obtained a random sample of adults (N=705),

  12. Vaccine Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack Melling

    \\u000a The biotechnology revolution which began in the 1970s with the advent of genetic engineering, coupled with major developments\\u000a in fermentation and downstream processing technology, has had major impacts on research, development and production of vaccines.\\u000a In the case of vaccine production, the effect of recombinant DNA techniques has been to make vaccines available against agents\\u000a where previously production and isolation

  13. Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Recombinants Expressing Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus (ILTV) Glycoproteins gB and gD Protect Chickens against ILTV and NDV Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Spatz, Stephen; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wen, Guoyuan; Garcia, Maricarmen; Zsak, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease is controlled mainly through biosecurity and vaccination with live attenuated strains of ILTV and vectored vaccines based on turkey herpesvirus (HVT) and fowlpox virus (FPV). The current live attenuated vaccines (chicken embryo origin [CEO] and tissue culture origin [TCO]), although effective, can regain virulence, whereas HVT- and FPV-vectored ILTV vaccines are less efficacious than live attenuated vaccines. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more efficacious ILTV vaccines. In the present study, we generated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants, based on the LaSota vaccine strain, expressing glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) of ILTV using reverse genetics technology. These recombinant viruses, rLS/ILTV-gB and rLS/ILTV-gD, were slightly attenuated in vivo yet retained growth dynamics, stability, and virus titers in vitro that were similar to those of the parental LaSota virus. Expression of ILTV gB and gD proteins in the recombinant virus-infected cells was detected by immunofluorescence assay. Vaccination of specific-pathogen-free chickens with these recombinant viruses conferred significant protection against virulent ILTV and velogenic NDV challenges. Immunization of commercial broilers with rLS/ILTV-gB provided a level of protection against clinical disease similar to that provided by the live attenuated commercial vaccines, with no decrease in body weight gains. The results of the study suggested that the rLS/ILTV-gB and -gD viruses are safe, stable, and effective bivalent vaccines that can be mass administered via aerosol or drinking water to large chicken populations. IMPORTANCE This paper describes the development and evaluation of novel bivalent vaccines against chicken infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) and Newcastle disease (ND), two of the most economically important infectious diseases of poultry. The current commercial ILT vaccines are either not safe or less effective. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more efficacious ILT vaccines. In the present study, we generated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants expressing glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) using reverse genetics technology. These recombinant viruses were safe, stable, and immunogenic and replicated efficiently in birds. Vaccination of chickens with these recombinant viruses conferred complete protection against ILTV and NDV challenge. These novel bivalent vaccines can be mass administered via aerosol or drinking water to large chicken populations at low cost, which will have a direct impact on poultry health, fitness, and performance. PMID:24829337

  14. BCG vaccination.

    PubMed

    Guerin, N; Bregere, P

    1992-01-01

    The practical elements of BCG vaccination in neonates are used in most developing countries are outlined. The World Health Organization that all neonates be vaccinated, as well as all unvaccinated children when they present for health care, without prior PPD testing. BCG vaccine is a live attenuated TB vaccine in lyophilized state, so it must be kept cold and away from light. After redissolving, the vaccine is given intradermally with a 0.45% 10 mm needle either on the volar left forearm or the posterior left arm, at a consistent site in each country. The dose must be 0.05 ml for babies 1 year old, and 0.1 ml for older children. A wheal is formed that disappears in 30 minutes, followed by a red nodule in 3-4 weeks. The depressed scar is evidence of vaccination. In rare cases, lymphadenitis may appear, sometimes with a fistula. This is more likely when 0,1 ml is given to infants, the vaccine is not diluted properly, or the injection is given too deeply. While immunodeficiency is considered a contraindication for BCG vaccination, infants born to HIV-positive mothers have received it without adverse effects. Other immunizations such as oral polio may be given concomitantly. Verification of BCG vaccination is by presence of the scar or PPD testing. About 30-50% of children entering school are still positive; negative children may be revaccinated. PMID:12345145

  15. Evaluation of the Efficacy of an Attenuated Live Vaccine against Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Xue; Li, Zhenguang; Xia, Mingqi; He, Yanliang

    2012-01-01

    Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is characterized by high fever and high mortality in pigs of all ages and has severely affected the pork industry of China in the last few years. An attenuated HP-PRRSV strain, TJM, was obtained by passaging HP-PRRSV strain TJ on MARC-145 cells for 92 passages. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)- and antibody-free pigs were inoculated intramuscularly with TJM (105.0 50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50]) and challenged at 28, 60, 120, and 180 days postimmunization (dpi). The results showed that 5/5, 5/5, 5/5, and 4/5 immunized pigs were protected from the lethal challenge and did not develop fever and clinical diseases at each challenge, respectively. Compared to control pigs, vaccinated pigs showed much milder pathological lesions and gained significantly more weight (P < 0.01). Sequence analysis of different passages of strain TJ showed that the attenuation resulted in a deletion of a continuous 120 amino acids (aa), in addition to the discontinuous 30-aa deletion in the nsp2 region. The analysis also demonstrated that the 120-aa deletion was genetically stable in vivo. These results suggested that HP-PRRSV TJM was efficacious against a lethal challenge with a virulent HP-PRRSV strain, and effective protection could last at least 4 months. Therefore, strain TJM is a good candidate for an efficacious modified live virus vaccine as well as a useful molecular marker vaccine against HP-PRRSV. PMID:22695163

  16. HPV vaccination and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Szarewski, Anne

    2012-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide and often affects women under 40 years with young families. Vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major advance, since it offers primary prevention against the infectious agent that is the main cause of the disease. Two prophylactic vaccines have shown great promise in clinical trials. One of these (Gardasil(®)) contains all four HPV types, offering protection against genital warts (types 6 and 11) as well as cervical cancer (types 16 and 18). The other (Cervarix(®)) contains types 16 and 18, targeting cervical cancer alone, but also has a degree of cross-protection against types 31 and 45, which could significantly increase the level of protection. Adolescent girls remain the primary target of vaccination programmes, but the issues of vaccinating boys and older women are increasingly debated. PMID:22890794

  17. Committee opinion no. 588: human papillomavirus vaccination.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination routinely be targeted to females and males aged 11 years or 12 years as part of the adolescent immunization platform to help reduce the incidence of anogenital cancers and genital warts associated with HPV infection. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine is approved for use in males and females, whereas the bivalent HPV vaccine is approved for use only in females. For those not vaccinated at the target age, catch-up vaccination is recommended up to age 26 years. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists endorses these recommendations. Although obstetrician-gynecologists are not likely to care for many patients in the initial HPV vaccination target group, they have the opportunity to educate mothers about the importance of vaccinating their children at the recommended age and are critical to vaccinating adolescent girls and young women during the catch-up period. Obstetrician-gynecologists should advise patients and parents that HPV vaccines are most effective in preventing genital cancers when administered before the onset of sexual activity. However, sexually active individuals can receive some benefit from the vaccination because exposure to all HPV types prevented by the vaccines is unlikely in persons aged 13 years through 26 years. Although HPV vaccination in pregnancy is not recommended, neither is routine pregnancy testing before vaccination. Lactating women can receive either HPV vaccine. The need for ongoing cervical cytology screening should be emphasized in all women aged 21 years and older, even those who received HPV vaccination before the onset of sexual activity. PMID:24553168

  18. Epidemiology of vaccine hesitancy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Mariam; Salmon, Daniel A; Omer, Saad B

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are among the most effective public health interventions against infectious diseases. However, there is evidence in the United States for parents either delaying or refusing recommended childhood vaccination. Exemptions to school immunization laws and use of alternative schedule from those recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and the American Academy of Pediatrics cannot only increase the risk of children contracting vaccine-preventable diseases but also increases the risk of infecting others who are either too young to be vaccinated, cannot be vaccinated for medical reasons or did not develop a sufficient immunological response to the vaccine. Healthcare providers are cited as the most influential source by parents on vaccine decision-making. Vaccine hesitancy needs to be addressed by healthcare providers and the scientific community by listening to the parental concerns and discussing risks associated with either delaying or refusing vaccines. PMID:24247148

  19. Epidemiology of vaccine hesitancy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Mariam; Salmon, Daniel A; Omer, Saad B

    2013-12-01

    Vaccines are among the most effective public health interventions against infectious diseases. However, there is evidence in the United States for parents either delaying or refusing recommended childhood vaccination. Exemptions to school immunization laws and use of alternative schedule from those recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and the American Academy of Pediatrics cannot only increase the risk of children contracting vaccine-preventable diseases but also increases the risk of infecting others who are either too young to be vaccinated, cannot be vaccinated for medical reasons or did not develop a sufficient immunological response to the vaccine. Healthcare providers are cited as the most influential source by parents on vaccine decision-making. Vaccine hesitancy needs to be addressed by healthcare providers and the scientific community by listening to the parental concerns and discussing risks associated with either delaying or refusing vaccines. PMID:24247148

  20. Inactivated and adjuvanted influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rappuoli, Rino

    2015-01-01

    Inactivated influenza vaccines are produced every year to fight against the seasonal epidemics of influenza. Despite the nonoptimal coverage, even in subjects at risk like the elderly, pregnant women, etc., these vaccines significantly reduce the burden of mortality and morbidity linked to the influenza infection. Importantly, these vaccines have also contributed to reduce the impact of the last pandemics. Nevertheless, the performance of these vaccines can be improved mainly in those age groups, like children and the elderly, in which their efficacy is suboptimal. The use of adjuvants has proven effective to this scope. Oil-in-water adjuvants like MF59 and AS03 have been licensed and widely used, and shown efficacious in preventing influenza infection in the last pandemic. MF59-adjuvanted inactivated vaccine was more efficacious than non-adjuvanted vaccine in preventing influenza infection in young children and in reducing hospitalization due to the influenza infection in the elderly. Other adjuvants are now at different stages of development and some are being tested in clinical trials. The perspective remains to improve the way inactivated vaccines are prepared and to accelerate their availability, mainly in the case of influenza pandemics, and to enhance their efficacy/effectiveness for a more successful impact at the public health level. PMID:25038938

  1. Evaluation of a commercial modified live virus fowl pox vaccine for the control of "variant" fowl poxvirus infections.

    PubMed

    Fatunmbi, O O; Reed, W M

    1996-01-01

    Three-week-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were vaccinated with either a commercial modified live virus fowl pox vaccine or five "variant" poxvirus field isolates. Immunity engendered by the commercial modified vaccine or field isolates was challenged with either the variant isolates or commercial modified vaccine virus. The commercial modified vaccine did not adequately protect vaccinates against challenge with the variant isolates. The percentages of vaccinated chickens protected following challenge with each of the variant isolates were 70%, 20%, 30%, 20%, and 25%. However, when the isolates were applied as vaccines, 100% of the vaccinates were protected against challenge from the modified vaccine virus. Furthermore, the variant poxvirus isolates offered excellent protection from challenge with homologous variant isolates. The modified live virus vaccine was expected to offer significant protection against challenge from the variant pox isolates, but in this experiment it did not. The variant isolates tested may be good vaccine candidates to prevent the vaccine breaks currently encountered in previously pox-vaccinated flocks. PMID:8883788

  2. Protective Oral Vaccination against Infectious bursal disease virus Using the Major Viral Antigenic Protein VP2 Produced in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Taghavian, Omid; Spiegel, Holger; Hauck, Rüdiger; Hafez, Hafez M.; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes economically important immunosuppressive disease in young chickens. The self-assembling capsid protein (VP2) from IBDV strain IR01 was expressed in Pichia pastoris resulting in the formation of homomeric, 23-nm infectious bursal disease subviral particles (IBD-SVPs) with a yield of 76 mg/l before and 38 mg/l after purification. Anti-IBDV antibodies were detected in chickens injected with purified IBD-SVPs or fed with either purified IBD-SVPs or inactivated P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 (cell-encapsulated). Challenge studies using the heterologous classical IBDV strain (MB3) showed that intramuscular vaccination with 20 µg purified IBD-SVPs conferred full protection, achieved complete virus clearance and prevented bursal damage and atrophy, compared with only 40% protection, 0–10% virus clearance accompanied by severe atrophy and substantial bursal damage in mock-vaccinated and challenge controls. The commercial IBDV vaccine also conferred full protection and achieved complete virus clearance, albeit with partial bursal atrophy. Oral administration of 500 µg purified IBD-SVPs with and without adjuvant conferred 100% protection but achieved only 60% virus clearance with adjuvant and none without it. Moderate bursal damage was observed in both cases but the inclusion of adjuvant resulted in bursal atrophy similar to that observed with live-attenuated vaccine and parenteral administration of 20 µg purified IBD-SVPs. The oral administration of 250 mg P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 resulted in 100% protection with adjuvant and 60% without, accompanied by moderate bursal damage and atrophy in both groups, whereas 25 mg P. pastoris cells containing IBD-VP2 resulted in 90–100% protection with moderate bursal lesions and severe atrophy. Finally, the oral delivery of 50 µg purified IBD-SVPs achieved 40–60% protection with severe bursal lesions and atrophy. Both oral and parenteral administration of yeast-derived IBD-VP2 can therefore induce a specific and protective immune response against IBDV without affecting the growth rate of chickens. PMID:24376665

  3. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants expressing infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) glycoproteins gB and gD protect chickens against ILTV and NDV challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease is mainly controlled through biosecurity and vaccination with live-attenuated strains of the virus and vectored vaccines based on turkey he...

  4. Further observations on serotype 2 Marek's disease virus-induced enhancement of spontaneous avian leukosis virus-like bursal lymphomas in ALVA6 transgenic chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeders of the 2009 generation of Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory transgenic chicken line ALVA6, known to be resistant to infection with subgroups A and E avian leukosis virus (ALV), were vaccinated at hatch with a trivalent Marek's disease (MD) vaccine containing serotypes 1, 2, and 3 Marek'...

  5. BVDV vaccination in North America: risks versus benefits.

    PubMed

    Griebel, Philip J

    2015-06-01

    The control and prevention of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections has provided substantial challenges. Viral genetic variation, persistent infections, and viral tropism for immune cells have complicated disease control strategies. Vaccination has, however, provided an effective tool to prevent acute systemic infections and increase reproductive efficiency through fetal protection. There has been substantial controversy about the safety and efficacy of BVDV vaccines, especially when comparing killed versus modified-live viral (MLV) vaccines. Furthermore, numerous vaccination protocols have been proposed to protect the fetus and ensure maternal antibody transfer to the calf. These issues have been further complicated by reports of immune suppression during natural infections and following vaccination. While killed BVDV vaccines provide the greatest safety, their limited immunogenicity makes multiple vaccinations necessary. In contrast, MLV BVDV vaccines induce a broader range of immune responses with a longer duration of immunity, but require strategic vaccination to minimize potential risks. Vaccination strategies for breeding females and young calves, in the face of maternal antibody, are discussed. With intranasal vaccination of young calves it is possible to avoid maternal antibody interference and induce immune memory that persists for 6-8 months. Thus, with an integrated vaccination protocol for both breeding cows and calves it is possible to maximize disease protection while minimizing vaccine risks. PMID:26050569

  6. Characterization of nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus DMV/1639/11 recovered from Delmarva broiler chickens in 2011.

    PubMed

    Gelb, Jack; Ladman, Brian S; Pope, Conrad R; Ruano, J Miguel; Brannick, Erin M; Bautista, Daniel A; Coughlin, Colleen M; Preskenis, Lauren A

    2013-03-01

    A limited outbreak of nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis (NIB) occurred in three Delmarva (DMV) commercial broiler chicken flocks in 2011. Isolates of NIB virus (NIBV)--DMV/1639/11, DMV/3432/11, and DMV/3902/11--were characterized by sequence analysis of the N-terminal subunit (S1) of the spike (S) gene. Findings indicated that the isolates were identical to each other and to PA/9579A/10, a 2010 isolate from poultry in Pennsylvania. The 2010 and 2011 isolates appear to have originated from a 1997-2000 NIB outbreak in Pennsylvania. DMV/1639/11 and PA/9579A/10 were determined to be nephropathogenic in susceptible chickens, yielding virus reisolations from kidney and inducing characteristic interstitial nephritis microscopic lesions. In a controlled laboratory study, 40% of chickens vaccinated with a combination live vaccine containing infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains Massachusetts (Mass) + Connecticut (Conn) were positive on virus isolation attempts after challenge with DMV/1639/11, compared with only 13% of Mass + Arkansas (Ark) vaccinates. Both combination vaccines gave partial protection against the development of DMV/1639/11-induced renal lesions. Although numerically fewer chickens vaccinated with Mass + Conn had interstitial nephritis compared with those vaccinated with Mass + Ark, neither vaccine combination offered greater protection (P < 0.05) than observed in unvaccinated chickens challenged with DMV/1639/11. Mass + Ark vaccinations, applied under commercial conditions in the hatchery (spray) and on-farm (spray), did not protect the trachea or kidney from DMV/1639/11 challenge. Serologic testing of broiler flocks found < 3% (2 of 69) tested to possess specific antibodies to DMV/1639/11, indicating the virus had not become established in the region. PMID:23678731

  7. Tailored Vaccines Targeting the Elderly Using Whole Inactivated Influenza Vaccines Bearing Cytokine Immunomodulators

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Tila; Heffron, Connie L.; High, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza and its complications disproportionately affect the elderly, leading to high morbidity and mortality in this ever-increasing population. Despite widespread vaccination efforts, the current influenza vaccines are less effective in the elderly; hence newer vaccine strategies are needed to improve their efficacy in this age group. We have previously shown that co-presentation of cytokines on the surface of inactivated influenza virus particles affords better protection from lethal homotypic viral challenge in young adult mice than conventional non-adjuvanted whole inactivated vaccine. Here, we determined the efficacy of these vaccine formulations in Balb/c mice “aged” to 17 months (“aged mice”) along with the addition of a membrane-bound interleukin-12 (IL-12) vaccine formulation. Our investigations found that a single low-dose intramuscular vaccination with inactivated whole influenza vaccine co-presenting IL-12 was sufficient to provide enhanced protection from subsequent influenza challenge as compared with non-adjuvanted whole inactivated vaccine. Our results indicate that incorporation of cytokines such as IL-12 in a membrane-bound formulation in whole inactivated vaccine may provide a means to lower the vaccine dose while eliciting enhanced protective responses in the elderly, an age group that responds poorly to current vaccination regimens. PMID:24102577

  8. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...applicable requirements prescribed in § 113.200. (b) Each lot of Master Seed shall be tested for pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test prescribed in § 113.37, except that, if the test is inconclusive because of a vaccine virus...

  9. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...applicable requirements prescribed in § 113.200. (b) Each lot of Master Seed shall be tested for pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test prescribed in § 113.37, except that, if the test is inconclusive because of a vaccine virus...

  10. Review Article: Current status of vaccines against infectious bursal disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hermann Müller; Egbert Mundt; Nicolas Eterradossi; M. Rafiqul Islam

    2012-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the aetiological agent of the acute and highly contagious infectious bursal disease (IBD) or “Gumboro disease”. IBD is one of the economically most important diseases that affects commercially produced chickens worldwide. Along with strict hygiene management of poultry farms, vaccination programs with inactivated and live attenuated viruses have been used to prevent IBD. Live

  11. Adult vaccination.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Kena A; Schmitt, H Josef; Jansen, Kathrin U; Anderson, Annaliesa S

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination of children has had a major impact on the morbidity and mortality of many infectious diseases globally. However, with age, immune responses to vaccines can be less robust, which can be further enhanced by underlying diseases that are common in the older adult. In many countries around the globe booster vaccinations against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis are recommended for adults. For the older adult, vaccination against pneumococcal diseases, influenza and herpes zoster are also recommended. Despite these recommendations, the widespread use of these vaccines in the adult population clearly lags behind the vaccine uptake and successes documented for pediatric vaccination programs. Furthermore, extensive and sometimes inappropriate use of antibiotics have fostered the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (e.g., methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) as well as increased susceptibility in the elderly to bacterial species such as Clostridium difficile. Infectious diseases remain an important unmet medical need and new concepts to successfully implement vaccination of adults are urgently needed. PMID:25483533

  12. RESEARCH UPDATE ON H7N2 AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS IN TURKEYS AND CHICKENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The outbreak of H7N2 low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) in Virginia during 2002 raised questions about the susceptibility of turkeys verses chickens to the virus and the potential of vaccines to provide protection. The virus A/turkey/Virginia/158512/02 (H7N2) replicated from day 2 through 7 po...

  13. Deposition of differently sized airborne microspheres in the respiratory tract of chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Corbanie; M. G. R. Matthijs; J. H. H. van Eck; J. P. Remon; W. J. M. Landman; C. Vervaet

    2006-01-01

    As a part of the development of an efficient dry powder aerosol vaccine for poultry, the objective of this study was to accurately determine the deposition pattern of nebulized microspheres in the airways of unanaesthetized chickens of different ages (1 day, 2 weeks and 4 weeks old). In the first part of the study, the aerosol administration method was characterized:

  14. Serological and molecular detection of avian pneumovirus in chickens with respiratory disease in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, S M; Algharaibeh, G R

    2007-08-01

    Avian pneumovirus (APV) causes upper respiratory tract infection in chickens and turkeys. There is a serious respiratory disease in chickens, resulting in catastrophic economic losses to chicken farmers in Jordan. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of APV as a factor in the respiratory disease of chickens in Jordan by serological and molecular methods. Thirty-eight chicken flocks were examined by competitive ELISA (23 broilers, 8 layers, and 7 broiler breeders), and 150 chicken flocks were examined by reverse-transcription PCR (133 broiler flocks, 7 layer flocks, and 10 broiler breeder flocks). Avian pneumovirus antibodies were detected in 5 out of 23 broiler flocks (21.7%), 6 out of 8 layer flocks (75%), and 7 out of 7 broiler breeder flocks (100%). Avian pneumovirus nucleic acid was detected in 17 broiler flocks (12.8%) and 3 layer flocks (42.9%). None of the broiler breeder flocks tested by reverse-transcription PCR was positive. All of the 20 detected APV isolates were subtype B. This is the first report of APV infection in Jordan. In conclusion, the Jordanian poultry industry, vaccination programs should be adjusted to include the APV vaccine to aid in the control of this respiratory disease. PMID:17626813

  15. The current situation of voluntary vaccination and the factors influencing its coverage among children in Takatsuki, Japan: focus on Hib and pneumococcal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Yuko; Watanabe, Misuzu; Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Hayashida, Itsushi; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Komiyama, Maki; Kono, Koichi

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to understand the current scenario of voluntary vaccination and the factors influencing its coverage among 18-month-old children of Takatsuki City, Japan. Based on 1167 parents responses, we found that voluntary vaccination coverage rates were low when compared with routine vaccination rates. The children who were not the first born of the family and who had young and poorly educated parents were less likely to receive voluntary vaccination. Japanese government-supported vaccines, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal vaccine, had a higher coverage than the vaccines for which parents had to bear the entire vaccination cost. Furthermore, it was found that mass communication media and family pediatricians were effective means to disseminate voluntary vaccination-related information. We envisage that an active participation of medical professionals, easy access to vaccinations, and mass awareness programs will increase voluntary vaccination coverage in Takatsuki. PMID:23674825

  16. Avian influenza adenovirus-vectored in ovo vaccination: target embryo tissues and combination with Marek's disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Breedlove, C; Minc, J K; Tang, D C; van Santen, V L; van Ginkel, F W; Toro, H

    2011-12-01

    We investigated embryo tissues targeted by replication competent adenovirus (Ad)-free recombinant Ad expressing a codon-optimized avian influenza (AI) H5 gene from A/turkey/WI/68 (AdH5) when injected into 18-day embryonated eggs. We also evaluated the effects of concurrent in ovo vaccination with the experimental AdH5 vaccine and commercially available Marek's disease virus (MDV) vaccine combinations Rispens/turkey herpesvirus (HVT) or HVT/SB-1. Computed tomography indicates that in ovo injection on day 18 of incubation places the solution in the amnion cavity, allantoic cavity, or both. Ad DNA was consistently detected in the chorioallantoic membranes as well as in the embryonic bursa of Fabricius, esophagus, and thymus 3 days postinoculation. H5 expression in these tissues also was detected by immunofluorescence assay. These results indicate possible swallowing of vaccine virus contained in the amnion. In contrast, vaccine localization in the allantoic fluid would have allowed bursal exposure through the cloaca. When the AdH5 vaccine was used in combination with MDV, chickens responding to the AdH5 vaccine had similar AI antibody levels compared with AdH5-only-vaccinated birds. However, combined vaccinated groups showed reduced vaccine coverage to AI, suggesting some level of interference. The combination of AdH5 with MDV Rispens/HVT affected the vaccine coverage to AI more severely. This result suggests that the replication rate of the more aggressive Rispens strain of serotype 1 may have interfered with the Ad-vectored vaccine. Increasing the Ad concentration produced similar AI antibody titers and AI vaccine coverage when applied alone or in combination with the HVT/SB-1 vaccine. Ad DNA was detected in hatched chickens 2 days after hatch but was undetectable on day 9 after hatch. MDV DNA was detected in feather follicles of all vaccinated birds at 12 days of age. Thus, Ad-vector vaccination does not interfere with the efficacy of MDV vaccination by using any of the commonly used vaccine strains. PMID:22312988

  17. [Human papillomavirus vaccine. Efficacy and safety].

    PubMed

    Bruni, Laia; Serrano, Beatriz; Bosch, Xavier; Castellsagué, Xavier

    2015-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) related disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prophylactic vaccines have been recognized as the most effective intervention to control for HPV-related diseases. This article reviews the major phaseii/iii trials of the bivalent (HPVs16/18), quadrivalent (HPVs6/11/16/18), and the recently approved 9-valent vaccine (HPVs6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58). Large trials have been conducted showing the safety, immunogenicity and high efficacy of the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines in the prevention of pre-invasive lesions and infection, especially when administered at young ages before exposure to HPV. Trials of the 9-valent vaccine have also demonstrated the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the vaccine in the prevention of infection and disease associated with the vaccine types, and its potential to substantially increase the overall prevention of HPV-related diseases. Post-licensure country reports have shown the recent and early impact of these vaccines at population level after the implementation of established HPV vaccination programs, including decreases in the prevalence of vaccine HPV types, the incidence of genital warts, and the incidence of high-grade cervical abnormalities. If widely implemented, current HPV vaccines may drastically reduce the incidence of cervical cancer and other HPV-related cancers and diseases. PMID:25937455

  18. Immunologic synergism with IL2 and effects of cCHMIs on mRNA expression of IL2 and IFN-? in chicken peripheral T lymphocyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deyun Wang; Xiangrui Li; Lixin Xu; Yuanliang Hu; Baokang Zhang; Jiaguo Liu

    2006-01-01

    Two compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (cCHMIs) were prepared, respectively, with epimedium polysaccharide plus propolis flavone (cCHMIs 1) and astragalus polysaccharide plus ginsenoside (cCHMIs 2). In animal immune experiment, Newcastle disease vaccine was mixed, respectively, with two cCHMIs and IL-2 to vaccinate 15-day-old chicken in experimental groups. On days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after vaccination, the dynamic changes of

  19. Comparison of a live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine candidate secreting Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit with a commercial vaccine for efficacy of protection against internal egg contamination by Salmonella in hens.

    PubMed

    Nandre, Rahul M; Eo, Seong Kug; Park, Sang Youel; Lee, John Hwa

    2015-07-01

    This study compared a new live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine candidate secreting Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (SE-LTB) with a commercial Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccine for efficacy of protection against SE infection in laying hens. Chickens were divided into 3 groups of 20 each. Group A chickens were inoculated orally with phosphate-buffered saline and served as controls, group B chickens were inoculated orally with the vaccine candidate, and group C chickens were inoculated intramuscularly with a commercial vaccine, the primary inoculation in groups B and C being at 10 wk of age and the booster at 16 wk. Groups B and C showed significantly higher titers of plasma immunoglobulin G, intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A, and egg yolk immunoglobulin Y antibodies compared with the control group, and both vaccinated groups showed a significantly elevated cellular immune response. After virulent challenge, group B had significantly lower production of thin-shelled and/or malformed eggs and a significantly lower rate of SE contamination of eggs compared with the control group. Furthermore, the challenge strain was detected significantly less in all of the examined organs of group B compared with the control group. Group C had lower gross lesion scores only in the spleen and had lower bacterial counts only in the spleen, ceca, and ovary. These findings indicate that vaccination with the SE-LTB vaccine candidate can efficiently reduce internal egg and internal organ contamination by Salmonella and has advantages over the commercial vaccine. PMID:26130857

  20. Protection and antibody response caused by turkey herpesvirus vector Newcastle disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Esaki, Motoyuki; Godoy, Alecia; Rosenberger, Jack K; Rosenberger, Sandra C; Gardin, Yannick; Yasuda, Atsushi; Dorsey, Kristi Moore

    2013-12-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is prevalent worldwide and causes significant clinical and economic losses to the poultry industry. Current vaccine programs using live attenuated vaccines and inactivated vaccines have limitations, and new vaccines with distinct features are needed. To offer an alternative solution to control ND, a turkey herpesvirus vector Newcastle disease vaccine (HVT/ND) expressing the fusion gene of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been developed. First, immunogenicity of the HVT/ND was evaluated in specific-pathogen-free layer chickens after vaccination by the in ovo route to 18-day-old embryos or by the subcutaneous route to 1-day-old chicks. Antibodies against NDV were detected at 24 days of age using a commercial NDV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit and the hemagglutination inhibition test. At least 90% of chickens were protected against challenge with velogenic neurotropic NDV Texas GB strain (genotype II; pathotype velogenic) at 4 wk of age, while none of the nonvaccinated, challenged controls were protected from challenge. Second, the age at which a vaccinated chicken elicits an immunologic response to the HVT/ND prepared for this study, and thus is protected from ND virus, was assessed in commercial broiler chickens after in ovo vaccination of 18-day-old embryos. Challenge was conducted using a low-virulence NDV strain (genotype II; pathotype lentogenic) via the respiratory tract each week between 1 and 5 wk of age, in order to mimic the situation in areas where virulent NDV strains do not normally exist and low-virulence strains cause mild respiratory symptoms leading to economic losses. Protection was evaluated by the presence or absence of isolated virus from tracheal swabs at 5 days postchallenge. Partial protection was observed at 3 wk of age, when 6 out of 10 (60%) chickens were protected. Full protection was obtained at 4 and 5 wk of age, when 9 out of 10 (90%) and 10 out of 10 (100%) chickens were protected, respectively. Finally, protection against challenge with virulent Texas GB strain at 19 wk of age was evaluated in commercial female layer chickens vaccinated at 1 day of age with HVT/ND. All of the vaccinated chickens were protected, while all of the challenge controls succumbed to the challenge. Furthermore, anti-NDV antibodies measured by ELISA were maintained through 50 wk of age. PMID:24597117

  1. Vaccine legislation.

    PubMed

    1999-07-23

    Rep. Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif.) has introduced the Lifesaving Vaccine Technology Act of 1999, designed to provide biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies with a 30 percent tax credit for costs associated with vaccine development. Sen. John Kerry (D-Mass.) is drafting similar legislation in the Senate. The tax credits would apply to vaccines for HIV, tuberculosis and malaria, which together kill more than 7 million people worldwide each year. The bill has not made it out of the House Ways and Means Committee; Pelosi hopes to attach the bill to one of several tax-cutting measures scheduled for a vote before the summer congressional recess. PMID:11366597

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A CHALLENGE MODEL FOR MEASURING EFFICACY OF VACCINES AGAINST MILDLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of vaccine efficacy for mildly pathogenic (MP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) is difficult since such viruses usually do not cause illness or death in experimentally infected poultry. In a series of experimental trials, vaccinated chickens were evaluated for morbidity rates, mortality rat...

  3. Control of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Gallinarum in birds by using live vaccine candidate containing attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum mutant strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Antonio Casarin Penha Filho; Jacqueline Boldrin de Paiva; Mariana Dias da Silva; Adriana Maria de Almeida; Angelo Berchieri Junior

    2010-01-01

    The ideal live vaccine to control Salmonella in commercial chicken flocks should engender protection against various strains. The purpose of the present study was to confirm the attenuation of a Salmonella Gallinarum (SG) mutant strain with deletion on genes cobS and cbiA, that are involved in the biosynthesis of cobalamin. Furthermore, evaluate its use as a live vaccine against Salmonella.

  4. Immunization of chickens with Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis pathogenicity island-2 proteins.

    PubMed

    Wisner, Amanda L S; Desin, Taseen S; Lam, Po-King S; Berberov, Emil; Mickael, Claudia S; Townsend, Hugh G; Potter, Andrew A; Köster, Wolfgang

    2011-12-15

    Several structural components of the type III secretion systems (T3SS) encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-1 and SPI-2 are exposed to the host's immune system prior to/during the infection/invasion process, making them potential vaccine candidates. In this study we evaluated whether chickens vaccinated with SPI-2 T3SS components could mount a significant humoral immune response (as measured by serum IgG titres) and whether these antibodies could be transferred to progeny (as measured by egg yolk IgG titres), and whether vaccinates and progeny of vaccinates could be protected against challenge with SE. The results of our studies show that vaccinated chickens do produce high levels of SPI-2 T3SS specific serum IgG that they are able to transfer to their progeny. It was demonstrated that vaccinates and progeny of vaccinates had lower overall countable recovered Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) per bird in most situations. PMID:21684090

  5. Chicken Quesadillas Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    -cooked and shredded 2 tablespoons chunky salsa 1/4 onion, chopped 1/4 cup green bell pepper, chopped 1/2 cup Monterey with cooking spray and heat to medium. 2. Mix chicken, salsa, onion, and green pepper (optional). 3. Place 1

  6. Aerosol vaccination against newcastle disease: Virus inhalation and retention during vaccination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Yadin

    1980-01-01

    During aerosol vaccination of chickens with the LaSota strain of Newcastle disease virus, the quantities of inhaled and expired virus were determined by sampling the inhaled and expired air with a “capillary impinger”, and virus retention in the respiratory tract was calculated. In serial experiments under smi?field conditions virus was nebulised in an amount of 4.4 ± 0.4 log10 EID50

  7. [Vaccine against human papilloma virus].

    PubMed

    Juárez-Albarrán, Alfredo César; Juárez-Gámez, Carlos Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Genital human papilloma virus infection (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide, it is the cause of genital warts, and it is related with cervical cancer, the second most common cause of death from cancer in women in America, and the first in underdeveloped countries, and it is related with penis and prostate cancer in males also, and with anal cancer in both genders. This review examines the most important actual facts about HPV infection, and the new prophylactic vaccines. Two versions of the vaccine had been developed, both target HPV 16 and HPV 18, which involve approximately 70% of cervical cancer. One of them also targets HPV 6 and HPV 11, which account for approximately 90% of external genital warts. Both vaccines have an excellent safety profile, are highly immunogenic, and have atributed complete type specific protection against persistent infection and associated lesions in fully vaccinated girls and young women. The role of men as carriers of HPV as well as vectors for transmission is well documented. Several clinical trials are currently under way to determine the efficacy of vaccinating men. Reducing the cost of vaccination would be a priority for the developing world in order to get a broad target in poor countries. PMID:19263667

  8. Country- and age-specific optimal allocation of dengue vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Mbah, Martial L. Ndeffo; Durham, David P.; Medlock, Jan; Galvani, Alison P.

    2013-01-01

    Several dengue vaccines are under development, and some are expected to become available imminently. Concomitant with the anticipated release of these vaccines, vaccine allocation strategies for dengue endemic countries in Southeast Asia and Latin America are currently under development. We developed a model of dengue transmission that incorporates the age-specific distributions of dengue burden corresponding to those in Thailand and Brazil, respectively, to determine vaccine allocations that minimize the incidence of dengue hemorrhagic fever, taking into account limited availability of vaccine doses in the initial phase of production. We showed that optimal vaccine allocation strategies vary significantly with the demographic burden of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Consequently, the strategy that is optimal for one country may be sub-optimal for another country. More specifically, we showed that, during the first years following introduction of a dengue vaccine, it is optimal to target children for dengue mass vaccination in Thailand, whereas young adults should be targeted in Brazil. PMID:24161462

  9. Construction of Recombinant Baculoviruses Expressing Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Main Protective Antigen and Their Immune Effects on Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shanshan; Gao, Dongni; Ping, Wenxiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the limitations of conventional vaccines for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), we constructed recombinant dual expression system baculoviruses with VP2 and VP2/4/3, the main protective antigens of IBDV. We compared the immune effects of the baculoviruses in avian cells and detected their control effects on chickens with infectious bursal disease. We used Western blot analysis to measure VP2 protein and VP2/4/3 polyprotein expression in avian cells infected using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. The recombinant baculoviruses were used to vaccinate specific pathogen-free chickens, which produced specific protective antibodies and strong cellular immune responses. The results of the virus challenge experiment revealed that the protective efficiency of VP2 and VP2/4/3 virus vaccines were 95.8% and 100%, respectively, both of which were higher than the vaccine group (87.5%), and significantly higher than the control group (50%). The results demonstrated that the immune effect of BV-S-ITRs-VP2/4/3 was superior to that of BV-S-ITRs-VP2. Compared with traditional attenuated vaccine and genetically engineered live vector vaccine, the dual expression viral vector vaccine has good bio-safety. The results of this study provide a foundation for the further development of poultry vaccines, in addition to providing a useful reference for developing non-replicating live vaccines against other viral diseases. PMID:26167907

  10. Typhoid Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... serious disease. It is caused by bacteria called Salmonella Typhi. Typhoid causes a high fever, fatigue, weakness, ... a typhoid carrier. • Laboratory workers who work with Salmonella Typhi bacteria. Inactivated typhoid vaccine (shot) • One dose ...

  11. Oral vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qing; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    Oral vaccines are safe and easy to administer and convenient for all ages. They have been successfully developed to protect from many infectious diseases acquired through oral transmission. We recently found in animal models that formulation of oral vaccines in a nanoparticle-releasing microparticle delivery system is a viable approach for selectively inducing large intestinal protective immunity against infections at rectal and genital mucosae. These large-intestine targeted oral vaccines are a potential substitute for the intracolorectal immunization, which has been found to be effective against rectogenital infections but is not feasible for mass vaccination. Moreover, the newly developed delivery system can be modified to selectively target either the small or large intestine for immunization and accordingly revealed a regionalized immune system in the gut. Future applications and research endeavors suggested by the findings are discussed. PMID:23493163

  12. Pertussis Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further co-develop vaccines against pertussis.

  13. HPV Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español ... Body Image HPV Vaccine KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > STDs & ...

  14. Meningococcal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Bethell, Delia; Pollard, Andrew J

    2002-06-01

    The successful introduction of a protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccine against serogroup C meningococci into the UK infant immunization schedule, in combination with a catch-up campaign for individuals less than 18 years of age, has seen virtually all group C disease eliminated in childhood. From being a devastating disease with a very high mortality, the possibility of eradicating invasive meningococcal disease now seems eminently feasible. Since similar technology is likely to facilitate prevention of disease caused be serogroup A, Y and W135 meningococci, the major hurdle in achieving the goal of eradication is development of a safe and immunogenic vaccine against serogroup B infections. Outer membrane vesicle vaccines remain in development and further trials are anticipated. Through the recent availability of the meningococcal genome sequence, many new vaccine candidates are being identified and there is increasing optimism that a solution to the problem can be found. PMID:12908514

  15. Implementing poultry vaccination and biosecurity at the village level in Tanzania: a social strategy to promote health in free-range poultry populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter L. M. Msoffe; David Bunn; A. P. Muhairwa; M. M. A. Mtambo; H. Mwamhehe; A. Msago; M. R. S. Mlozi; Carol J. Cardona

    2010-01-01

    A social strategy was tested for implementing Newcastle disease (ND) vaccination and biosecurity improvements among free-ranging\\u000a chicken at village level in Tanzania. In addition to training the local poultry vaccinators, data recorders and poultry-keepers,\\u000a the strategy involved training and empowering leaders at the district, ward and village level. The trainings covered poultry\\u000a health, management, and marketing of village chickens, with

  16. Vaccines for List A poultry diseases: emphasis on avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Swayne, D E

    2003-01-01

    Various vaccine technologies have been shown experimentally to be effective for immunization against avian influenza (AI) virus and include conventional inactivated oil-based whole AI virus, vectored virus, subunit protein and DNA vaccines. Vaccine-induced protection is based upon antibodies produced against the surface glycoproteins, principally the haemagglutinin, but also the neuraminidase. This protection is specific only for individual subtypes of haemagglutinin (H1-15) and neuraminidase (N1-9) proteins. AI vaccines protect chickens and turkeys from clinical signs and death, and reduce respiratory and intestinal replication of a challenge virus containing homologous haemagglutinin protein. Many of the vaccines are effective if given as a single injection and provide protection for greater than 20 weeks. Protection has been demonstrated against both low and high doses of challenge virus. Furthermore, subtype H5 AI vaccine has been shown to provide protection against heterologous H5 strains with 89.4% or greater haemagglutinin deduced amino acid sequence similarity and isolated over 38 years. Currently, inactivated whole AI virus vaccines and a fowl pox-vectored vaccine with AI H5 haemagglutinin gene insert are used commercially in various countries of the world. These vaccines have some disadvantages associated with the labour requirements for parenteral administration. However, an experimental recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccine with an AI haemagglutinin gene insert shows some promise as a low cost, mass administered aerosol vaccine. A critical issue for the use of vaccines in the field is the need to differentiate vaccinated birds from those infected with the field virus. Differentiation is necessary for outbreak surveillance and trade. The use of AI vaccines varies with individual countries and for different AI virus subtypes. PMID:14677690

  17. Application of aluminum hydroxide for an in ovo live Newcastle disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Hideyuki; Ezoe, Shinsuke; Yamazaki, Kenichi; Kawai, Toru; Honda, Takashi

    2009-09-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a major threat to poultry, but the outbreak of the disease is well controlled by the vaccination. Recently, in ovo administration technology has been realized as a safe, efficacious, and convenient method for chicken vaccination. However, no in ovo administration has been applied for ND or other live vaccines that are highly pathogenic against chicken embryos. We found that an attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was applicable for an in ovo vaccination by adsorbing the virus to aluminum hydroxide (AH). Pathogenicity to chicken embryos of the AH-adsorbed NDV could be decreased compared with the administration of the virus alone. Namely, in ovo administration of the AH-adsorbed attenuated NDV resulted in improved hatchability and survival rate and better antibody responses of protection-level immunity compared with the administration of NDV alone. However, further improvements in hatchability and survival rate are necessary for practical application. From these results, in ovo vaccination with the AH-adsorbed attenuated NDV was revealed to be safe and immunogenic to chicken embryos. The use of AH-adsorbed attenuated live viruses might be applicable for in ovo vaccinations against not only ND but also other avian infectious diseases. PMID:19848078

  18. Your baby's first vaccines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to the antibiotics neomycin, streptomycin or polymyxin B. Hepatitis B vaccine , if your child has a severe allergy to ... half of vaccinations, depending on the vaccine. Polio, Hepatitis B and Hib vaccines have been associated only with these kinds of ...

  19. Your Baby's First Vaccines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to the antibiotics neomycin, streptomycin or polymyxin B. Hepatitis B vaccine , if your child has a severe allergy to ... half of vaccinations, depending on the vaccine. Polio, Hepatitis B and Hib Vaccines have been associated only with these kinds of ...

  20. Ultrasonic determination of chicken composition.

    PubMed

    Chanamai, R; McClements, D J

    1999-11-01

    An ultrasonic technique has been developed for measuring the composition of chicken meat. The relationship between the composition and ultrasonic velocity of chicken meat was determined using chicken analogues of different composition, prepared from dried chicken powder, corn oil, and distilled water. The ultrasonic velocity of chicken analogues was measured at temperatures from 5 to 35 degrees C using an ultrasonic spectrometer. The ultrasonic velocity increased with solids-nonfat (SNF) content at all temperatures but had a more complex dependence on fat content. Around 15 degrees C the ultrasonic velocity was independent of fat content; however, at lower temperatures it increased with fat content, and at higher temperatures it decreased. Semiempirical equations were developed to describe the relationship between ultrasonic velocity and chicken composition. To determine the usefulness of these equations, the ultrasonic velocities of various chicken meats were measured. The compositions of the chicken meats predicted on the basis of ultrasonic measurements were in good agreement with those determined by using standard methods (r(2) > 0. 97). The ultrasonic technique could also be used to measure the solid fat content of chicken fat. This study shows that ultrasonic velocity measurements can be used to characterize chicken composition. This method has great potential for application in the food industry because it is simple, fast, nondestructive, and reliable. PMID:10552873

  1. Protective immune responses of recombinant VP2 subunit antigen of infectious bursal disease virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Satya Narayan; Prince, Prabhu Rajaiah; Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Roy, Parimal; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri; Antony, Usha

    2012-08-15

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of Gumboro disease and poses a huge threat to poultry industry. The risks associated with conventional attenuated viral vaccines make it indispensable to probe into the development of novel and rationally designed subunit vaccines which are safer as well as effective. VP2 is the major host-protective antigen found in IBDV capsid. It encompasses different independent epitopes responsible for the induction of neutralizing antibody. Here, we report the efficacy of the immunodominant fragment of VP2 which induces both humoral and cellular immunity against infectious bursal disease. A 366 bp fragment (52-417 bp) of the VP2 gene from an IBDV field isolate was amplified and expressed in Escherichia coli as a 21 kDa recombinant protein. The efficacy of rVP2(52-417) antigen was compared with two commercial IBDV whole virus vaccine strains. The rVP2(52-417) induced significantly high antibody titres in chicken compared to commercial vaccines and the anti-rVP2(52-417) sera showed reactivity with viral antigens from both commercial strains (P<0.0001) and field isolates. Also, the chicken splenocytes from rVP2(52-417) immunized group showed a significantly high proliferation (P<0.01) compared to other groups, which implies that the rVP2(52-417) fragment contains immunogenic epitopes capable of eliciting both B and T cell responses. Further, rVP2(52-417) conferred 100% protection against vIBDV challenge in the immunized chickens which was significantly higher (P<0.001) compared to 55-60% protection by commercial vaccine strains. Hence, the study confirms the efficacy of the immunodominant VP2 fragment that could be used as a potent vaccine against IBDV infection in chicken. PMID:22795186

  2. Decay of maternal antibodies in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Mahmoud, Kamel

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the decay rate of maternal antibodies against major broiler chicken pathogens. A total of 30 one-day-old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and reared in isolation. These chicks were retrieved from a parent flock that received a routine vaccination program. Chicks were bled at hatch and sequentially thereafter every 5 d through 30 d of age. Maternal antibody titers were measured by ELISA for avian encephalomyelitis (AEV), avian influenza virus (AIV), chicken anemia virus (CAV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), and reovirus (Reo). Maternal antibody titers for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were measured using a hemagglutination inhibition test. Half-life estimates of maternal antibody titers were 5.3, 4.2, 7, 5.1, 3.9, 3.8, 4.9, 4.1, 6.3, and 4.7 d for AEV, AIV, CAV, IBDV, IBV, ILTV, MG, MS, NDV, and Reo, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences among half-lives of maternal antibody titers against certain pathogens. Furthermore, all maternal antibody titers were depleted by 10 d of age except for IBDV. PMID:23960115

  3. Immunoadjuvant effects of Hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E) on the inactivated H9 subtype avian influenza virus vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quan Zhang; Zhen Wang; Yan Yuan; Zhengfeng Xue; Guoqin Zhai; Weiyong Zuo; Shanyuan Zhu; Guoqiang Zhu; Xiangming Xu

    2011-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIV) of the H9 subtype cause serious health problems in chickens, resulting in great economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. The killed vaccine (KV) against H9 subtype AIV has been widely used in China since 1998 but has been linked with side effects in chickens and only partial protection. A few studies have demonstrated the immunostimulatory

  4. Effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and rotavirus vaccine introduction into the South African public immunisation programme.

    PubMed

    Madhi, S A; Bamford, L; Ngcobo, N

    2014-03-01

    Immunisation has contributed greatly to the control of vaccine-preventable diseases and therefore to improvements in health and survival, especially among young children, and remains one of the most successful and cost-effective public health interventions. This remains true for many of the newer, more expensive vaccines. Vaccines against invasive pneumococcal disease and rotavirus infection were introduced into the South African Expanded Programme on Immunization in April 2009. This article describes the rationale for and process of the introduction of these two vaccines, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and rotavirus vaccine. It also aims to evaluate the success of and challenges related to their introduction, in terms of both achieving universal coverage and improving survival and health in South African children. PMID:24893498

  5. Rabies vaccination for international travelers.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Parola, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Rabies prevention in travelers is a controversial issue. According to experts, the decision to vaccinate results from an individual risk assessment based on the duration of stay, the likelihood of engagement in at-risk activities, the age of the traveler, the rabies endemicity and access to appropriate medical care in the country of destination. However, no detailed information is available regarding the last two determinants in many regions. Twenty-two cases of rabies were reported in tourists, expatriates and migrant travelers over the last decade, including three cases following short-term travel of no more than two weeks. Studies on rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in travelers show that overall, 0.4% (range 0.01-2.3%) of travelers have experienced an at-risk bite per month of stay in a rabies-endemic country, while 31% of expatriates and 12% of tourists were vaccinated against rabies before traveling. The main reason cited by travelers for not being vaccinated is the cost of the vaccine. The majority of patients who sustained a high risk injury was not vaccinated against rabies before traveling and were not properly treated abroad. From available studies, the following risk factors for injuries sustained from potentially rabid animals may be identified: traveling to South-East Asia, India or North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism. The duration of travel does not appear to be a risk factor. It should be noted that "at-risk activities" have not been addressed in these studies. Detailed rabies distribution maps and information on the availability of rabies biologics are urgently needed in order to identify those travelers who need pre-travel vaccination. Meanwhile, cost-minimization of rabies pre-exposure vaccination may be achieved in several ways, notably by using the intra-dermal method of vaccination. PMID:22085557

  6. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the...

  7. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken means...

  8. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken means...

  9. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the...

  10. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the...

  11. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken means...

  12. Immunization with Plant-Expressed Hemagglutinin Protects Chickens from Lethal Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 Challenge Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Kalthoff, Donata; Giritch, Anatoli; Geisler, Katharina; Bettmann, Ulrike; Klimyuk, Victor; Hehnen, Hans-Robert; Gleba, Yuri; Beer, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a striking disease in susceptible poultry, which leads to severe economic losses. Inactivated vaccines are the most widely used vaccines in avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccination programs. However, these vaccines interfere with the serological detection of wild-type AIV infections in immunized populations. The use of vaccines that allow differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA strategy) would stop current stamping-out policies. Therefore, novel vaccination strategies are needed to allow improved protection of animals and humans against HPAI virus (HPAIV) infection. The presented study analyzed for the first time the immunogenic capacity of plant-expressed full-length hemagglutinin (rHA0) of HPAIV H5N1 in several vaccine formulations within the highly relevant host species chicken. We were able to express plant-expressed rHA0 at high levels and could show that, when administered with potent adjuvants, it is highly immunogenic and can fully protect chicken against lethal challenge infection. Real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and serological tests demonstrated only marginally increased virus replication in animals vaccinated with plant-derived rHA0 compared to animals immunized with an inactivated reference vaccine. In addition, the use of plant-expressed rHA0 also allowed an easy serological differentiation of vaccinated from AIV-infected animals based on antibodies against the influenza virus NP protein. PMID:20810729

  13. Comparative analysis of the complete genome sequences of two Australian origin live attenuated vaccines of infectious laryngotracheitis virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Won Lee; Joanne M. Devlin; John F. Markham; Amir H. Noormohammadi; Glenn F. Browning; Nino P. Ficorilli; Carol A. Hartley; Philip F. Markham

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes acute respiratory disease in poultry. Live attenuated ILTV vaccines have been used extensively to help control outbreaks of disease. Two Australian-origin attenuated vaccine strains, SA2 and A20 ILTV, are commercially available and are in frequent use in Australia. Both these vaccines are of chicken embryo origin (CEO). The A20 ILTV strain

  14. Overview of vaccines and vaccination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon Ada

    2005-01-01

    Of the 80-plus known infectious agents pathogenic for humans, there are now more than 30 vaccines against 26 mainly viral\\u000a and bacterial infections and these greatly minimize subsequent disease and prevent death after exposure to those agents. This\\u000a article describes the nature of the vaccines, from live attenuated agents to subunits, their efficacy and safety, and the\\u000a kind of the

  15. Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Hurwitz, Julia L

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract viral disease in infants and young children. Presently, there are no explicit recommendations for RSV treatment apart from supportive care. The virus is therefore responsible for an estimated 160,000 deaths per year worldwide. Despite half a century of dedicated research, there remains no licensed vaccine product. Herein are described past and current efforts to harness innate and adaptive immune potentials to combat RSV. A plethora of candidate vaccine products and strategies are reviewed. The development of a successful RSV vaccine may ultimately stem from attention to historical lessons, in concert with an integral partnering of immunology and virology research fields. PMID:21988307

  16. Vibrio cholerae: lessons for mucosal vaccine design

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Anne L; Camilli, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The ability of Vibrio cholerae to persist in bodies of water will continue to confound our ability to eradicate cholera through improvements to infrastructure, and thus cholera vaccines are needed. We aim for an inexpensive vaccine that can provide long-lasting protection from all epidemic cholera infections, currently caused by O1 or O139 serogroups. Recent insights into correlates of protection, epidemiology and pathogenesis may help us design improved vaccines. This notwithstanding, we have come to appreciate that even marginally protective vaccines, such as oral whole-cell killed vaccines, if widely distributed, can provide significant protection, owing to herd immunity. Further efforts are still required to provide more effective protection of young children. PMID:21162623

  17. 70 FR 43694 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Hepatitis A and Influenza Vaccines; Interim Vaccine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-07-28

    ...Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Hepatitis A and Influenza Vaccines; Interim Vaccine...new vaccine information materials for hepatitis A and trivalent influenza vaccines...Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: hepatitis B, haemophilus influenzae type b...

  18. Depression of vaccinal immunity to Marek's disease by infection with reticuloendotheliosis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Witter, R L; Lee, L F; Bacon, L D; Smith, E J

    1979-01-01

    The effect of infection with low-virulence, tissue culture-propagated strains of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) on protective vaccinal immunity against Marek's disease (MD) lymphomas was investigated. Vaccinated chickens inoculated at hatching with greater than 10(4) focus-forming units of REV and challenged with MD virus were poorly protected against MD lesion development as indicated by protective indices of 53 to 79% for strain CS (P less than 0.05) and 42 to 49% for strain T (P less than 0.01) compared to 78 to 100% for REV-free controls. Furthermore, the response of blood lymphocytes to mitogen stimulation and the antibody response to sheep erythrocytes and Brucella abortus were less in REV-inoculated chickens than in controls. The REV-induced depression of immune responses was more severe in chickens infected with mildly pathogenic strain T than in chickens infected with the apathogenic strain CS and was generally transient with both virus strains. Little or no depression of immune responses was observed in chickens inoculated with less than 10(3) focus-forming units of REV. These studies extend knowledge on the immunodepressive ability of low-virulence REV strains and establish that infection with these viruses depresses certain parameters of MD vaccinal immunity, an important model for cellular immunity against virus-induced neoplasia in the chicken. PMID:227800

  19. Chicken anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Schat, K A

    2009-01-01

    Chicken anemia virus (CAV), the only member of the genus Gyrovirus of the Circoviridae, is a ubiquitous pathogen of chickens and has a worldwide distribution. CAV shares some similarities with Torque teno virus (TTV) and Torque teno mini virus (TTMV) such as coding for a protein inducing apoptosis and a protein with a dual-specificity phosphatase. In contrast to TTV, the genome of CAV is highly conserved. Another important difference is that CAV can be isolated in cell culture. CAV produces a single polycistronic messenger RNA (mRNA), which is translated into three proteins. The promoter-enhancer region has four direct repeats resembling estrogen response elements. Transcription is enhanced by estrogen and repressed by at least two other transcription factors, one of which is COUP-TF1. A remarkable feature of CAV is that the virus can remain latent in gonadal tissues in the presence or absence of virus-neutralizing antibodies. In contrast to TTV, CAV can cause clinical disease and subclinical immunosuppression especially affecting CD8+ T lymphocytes. Clinical disease is associated with infection in newly hatched chicks lacking maternal antibodies or older chickens with a compromised humoral immune response. PMID:19230563

  20. Preparation and Efficacy of a Live Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccine Encapsulated in Chitosan Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ting-ting; Li, Wei; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Feng-qiang; Wu, Jin; Cui, Xianlan; Wang, Yun-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Background Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious viral disease of poultry caused by pathogenic strains of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Live NDV vaccines are administered by drinking water, eyedrops or coarse aerosol spray. To further enhance mucosal immune responses, chitosan nanoparticles were developed for the mucosal delivery of a live NDV vaccine. Methodology/Principal Findings A lentogenic live-virus vaccine (strain LaSota) against NDV encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles were developed using an ionic crosslinking method. Chitosan nanoparticles containing the lentogenic live-virus vaccine against NDV (NDV-CS-NPs) were produced with good morphology, high stability, a mean diameter of 371.1 nm, an encapsulation rate of 77% and a zeta potential of +2.84 mV. The Western blotting analysis showed that NDV structural proteins were detected in NDV-CS-NPs. The virus release assay results of NDV-CS-NPs indicated that NDV was released from NDV-CS-NPs. Chickens immunized orally or intranasally with NDV-CS-NPs were fully protected whereas one out of five chickens immunized with the LaSota live NDV vaccine and three out of five chickens immunized with the inactivated NDV vaccine were dead after challenge with the highly virulent NDV strain F48E9. Conclusions/Significance NDV-CS-NPs induced better protection of immunized specific pathogen free chickens compared to the live NDV vaccine strain LaSota and the inactivated NDV vaccine. This study lays a foundation for the further development of mucosal vaccines and drugs encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles. PMID:23285276

  1. Molecular evaluation of responses to vaccination and challenge by Marek's disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jianming; Cooke, Julie; Clarke, Nadeene; Tannock, Gregory A

    2007-10-01

    A real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was utilized to study the in vivo replication of Marek's disease vaccine viruses and of virulent oncogenic strains. In the first of four experiments, the growth of the herpes virus of turkeys (HVT) vaccine was detectable in various organs of infected chicken embryos, with the highest viral loads being present in the spleen. No evidence was obtained for replication of serotype-1 Marek's disease viruses in embryos. In the second experiment, viral loads were measured in several organs of chickens after administration of the Rispens and HVT vaccines immediately after hatching. Lowest levels were noted for the Rispens strain after 1 to 8 weeks. By contrast, HVT vaccine grew well in all tested organs, with the highest loads being present in the spleen. Highest loads were observed in unvaccinated birds after challenge with the highly virulent strain MPF57 at day 8, especially in lymphoid organs. A positive relationship was observed between viral load and clinical signs, including tumour formation. In a third study, viral loads were measured in the organs of chickens administered the Rispens vaccine on the day of hatch and challenged at day 8 with MPF57. High levels of clinical protection were afforded against MPF57 by the Rispens vaccine but, in confirmation of earlier findings, sterilizing immunity was not induced. In a fourth study, two experiments were conducted--in which viral loads were measured after challenge of chickens vaccinated with HVT in ovo or at day 1 after hatching. Similar protection was achieved in birds vaccinated in ovo on embryonic days 11 and 17, although protection was slightly, but not significantly, lower than for birds vaccinated at day 1. PMID:17899458

  2. The history of vaccination and current vaccination policies in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There may be many reasons for the significant decrease in the incidence of the pediatric infectious diseases in modern Korea; this could be due to the improvement of sanitary facilities, significant growth of Korean economy, improvement of nutrition, development and dissemination of antibiotics and implantation of vaccination, and overall improvement of medical technology. The development of vaccination has been highlighted as a striking achievement of the modern medical sciences with new technologies in many fields of medicine. Since 1876, the method for vaccination has opened its new era by Suk-Young Jee, known as the Jenner in Korea who wrote a book about smallpox vaccination, and it led an opportunity to propagate the needs for the vaccination in Korea. There was a time when pediatric wards were full of patients with parasitic diseases and many vaccine-preventable diseases such as diphtheria, pertussis, Japanese B encephalitis, and poliomyelitis in 1950s-1960s. We do not see those infectious diseases that often any more in recent years. However, we still have patients with water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases related to increasing international travels. We just experienced the first pandemic influenza of the 21st century in 2009 and avian influenza is still a threat to humans in other parts of the world with an unpredictable potential of pandemicity. In addition, we have tough battles with emerging antibiotic resistance in many strains of bacteria and increased opportunistic infections due to improvement of medical technology involving more aggressive treatment modality and use of medical devices. Researches in many areas are under way and we hope that some of them may be preventable and decreased with a development of new vaccines in the future. PMID:23596573

  3. Rationing of influenza vaccine during a pandemic: Ethical analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Kent Zimmerman

    2007-01-01

    Rationing of scarce vaccine supplies will likely be required when the next pandemic occurs, raising the questions about how to ration and upon what principles. Because influenza pandemics have differing mortality patterns, such as the 1918 pandemic's “W” shaped curve that effected healthy young adults, the particular pattern should inform rationing. Competing ethical principles for vaccine rationing are utilitarianism and

  4. Cost-effectiveness of Rotavirus vaccination in Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun-Young Kim; Sue J Goldie; Joshua A Salomon

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea leading to hospitalization or disease-specific death among young children. New rotavirus vaccines have recently been approved. Some previous studies have provided broad qualitative insights into the health and economic consequences of introducing the vaccines into low-income countries, representing several features of rotavirus infection, such as varying degrees of severity and

  5. Efficacy of anti-influenza peptide vaccine in aged mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamar Ben-Yedidia; Loya Abel; Ruth Arnon; Amiela Globerson

    1998-01-01

    Influenza infections may cause serious morbidity, as well as mortality in the elderly. In the present study we vaccinated old and young mice of two strains with three synthetic recombinant constructs (Levi and Arnon, 1995. In: Chanock, R.M. et al. (Eds.), Vaccines 95. CSHL Press, New York, pp. 311–316) and examined their capacity to eliminate a challenge of virus. Virus

  6. Cytomegalovirus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    McVoy, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    An effective cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccine could prevent the majority of birth defects caused by congenital CMV infections. Candidate vaccines in clinical evaluation include live attenuated, protein subunit, DNA, and viral-vectored approaches. Subunit approaches have focused on the CMV proteins pp65 and IE1 as important inducers of cytotoxic T cells and glycoprotein B (gB) as an important inducer of neutralizing antibodies. A vaccine comprised of recombinant gB protein with MF59 adjuvant reduced the incidence of primary infection by 50%. Recent revelations regarding CMV entry pathways into different cell types suggest a possible course for improvement. A 5-subunit pentameric complex is uniquely required for endothelial and epithelial cell entry. Sera from naturally infected subjects contain high-potency neutralizing activities specific for this complex, whereas the gB/MF59 vaccine fails to induce comparable neutralizing activities. A vaccine's ability to induce salivary antibodies that neutralize epithelial cell entry may be especially important for preventing oral transmission as the first cells infected are presumably epithelial cells of the oral mucosa. In addition, recent evidence suggests that antibodies can inhibit postentry CMV spread between endothelial and epithelial cells. Such activities may serve to limit viral replication in tissues or impair dissemination to the placenta and fetus. Thus, inclusion of epitopes derived from the pentameric complex may provide enhanced efficacy by inducing potent neutralizing/spread-inhibiting antibodies that target virus replication in a broad spectrum of cell types. Next-generation vaccine candidates in preclinical development incorporate peptides, subunits, or multisubunit complexes representing parts or all of the pentameric complex. Approaches include peptides, recombinant proteins, DNA, replication-defective viral vectors, genetically disabled CMV, and inactivated CMV virions. The diversity of novel strategies under development engenders optimism that a successful candidate will emerge. PMID:24257427

  7. Flagellin from Recombinant Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Reveals a Fundamental Role in Chicken Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhiming; Cong, Qiuxia; Geng, Shizhong; Fang, Qiang; Kang, Xilong; You, Meng

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines have been extensively studied, with a focus on eliciting specific immune responses against foreign antigens. However, very little is known about the innate immune responses, particularly the role of flagellin, in the induction of innate immunity triggered by recombinant attenuated Salmonella in chickens. In the present report, we describe two Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine strains, wild-type (WT) or flagellin-deficient (flhD) Salmonella, both expressing the fusion protein (F) gene of Newcastle disease virus. We examined the bacterial load and spatiotemporal kinetics of expression of inflammatory cytokine, chemokine, and Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) genes in the cecum, spleen, liver, and heterophils following oral immunization of chickens with the two Salmonella strains. The flhD mutant exhibited an enhanced ability to establish systemic infection compared to the WT. In contrast, the WT strain induced higher levels of interleukin-1? (IL-1?), CXCLi2, and TLR5 mRNAs in cecum, the spleen, and the heterophils than the flhD mutant at different times postinfection. Collectively, the present data reveal a fundamental role of flagellin in the innate immune responses induced by recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines in chickens that should be considered for the rational design of novel vaccines for poultry. PMID:22237893

  8. Detection of lymphoid leukosis tumors in white leghorn chickens of line ALV6 that is resistant to subgroups A and E avian leukosis virus and maintained under specific pathogen-free conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickens from Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) line alv6 that is known to be resistant to infection with subgroups A and E avian leukosis virus (ALV) were vaccinated at hatch with a Marek’s disease (MD) vaccine containing serotypes 1, 2 and 3 MD viruses, and were maintained under specifi...

  9. A comparative evaluation of the protective efficacy of rMd5-delta-Meq and CV1988/Rispens against a vv+ strain of Marek's disease virus infection in a series of recombinant congenic strains of white leghorn chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly infectious, oncogenic alpha-herpesvirus known as Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MD is presently controlled by vaccination. Current MD vaccines include attenuated serotype 1 strains (e.g. CVI988/Rispens), avir...

  10. HPV Vaccine Promotion: Does Referring to Both Cervical Cancer and Genital Warts Affect Intended and Actual Vaccination Behavior?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilona Juraskova; Royena Abdul Bari; Michaeley Therese O’Brien; Kirsten Jo McCaffery

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundYoung women have poor awareness that human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause both cervical cancer and genital warts, a sexually transmitted infection (STI). A newly developed HPV vaccine can provide protection against both cervical cancer and genital warts. This vaccine could be promoted by health authorities\\/professionals as preventing cervical cancer plus genital warts, or cervical cancer alone. Because stigma around STIs

  11. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2013-01-01

    Oncolytic vaccinia virus vaccine: Promising in liver cancer patients FDA panel endorses quadrivalent influenza vaccines Approval for the first meningitis B vaccine Stallergenes seeks FDA approval for sublingual grass-pollen allergy tablet Live-attenuated dengue vaccine promising in Phase 1 GAVI funds HPV vaccines for girls in developing countries First human trials for new superantigen bioterrorism vaccine Hexyon hexavalent pediatric vaccine recommended for approval

  12. killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine FluMist Thomas Francis, Jr. National Institutes of Health live-virus influenza vaccine Hunein Maassab Jonas Salk Type-A virus trivalent cold that Maassab's innovative, trivalent, cold- adapted influenza vaccine, FluMist, which uses live but weakened

  13. Improved vaccination against Newcastle disease by an in ovo recombinant HVT-ND combined with an adjuvanted live vaccine at day-old.

    PubMed

    Rauw, Fabienne; Gardin, Yannick; Palya, Vilmos; Anbari, Sofia; Lemaire, Sophie; Boschmans, Marc; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2010-01-01

    The continuous outbreaks of fatal Newcastle disease (ND) in commercial poultry flocks demonstrate that current vaccination strategies are not fully efficacious and should be improved by new generation of vaccines. In this context, maternally immune conventional layer chickens were vaccinated in ovo with a turkey herpesvirus recombinant expressing the fusion (F) gene of NDV (rHVT-ND) and/or at day-old with an apathogenic enterotropic live ND vaccine co-administrated or not with chitosan by oculo-nasal route. The induced vaccinal immune responses and conferred protection against a challenge with a circulating NDV velogenic viscerotropic strain were evaluated. The innovative rHVT-ND/live ND-chitosan vaccination regimen provided the best protection against mortality and morbidity as well as the strongest reduction of virus shedding that could be related to the higher measured cellular immune response and digestive antibody-mediated immunity. PMID:19879230

  14. Population impact of HPV vaccines: summary of early evidence.

    PubMed

    Hariri, Susan; Markowitz, Lauri E; Dunne, Eileen F; Unger, Elizabeth R

    2013-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are available in the United States and around the world to prevent HPV-associated diseases including cervical cancer and genital warts. HPV vaccination is currently recommended for adolescents: target ages for routine and catch-up vaccinations vary by country. Because the time from vaccination to cancer development can be several decades, many studies are evaluating more immediate outcomes. In the 4 years since the vaccine was introduced, reductions in HPV vaccine type prevalence and genital warts have been reported in young females in the United States and other countries. Many questions remain about the long-term impact, but the initial studies show promising results for the relatively new HPV vaccine. PMID:24263069

  15. GREEN CHICKEN EXAM -NOVEMBER 2012 GREEN CHICKEN AND STEVEN J. MILLER

    E-print Network

    Stoiciu, Mihai

    GREEN CHICKEN EXAM - NOVEMBER 2012 GREEN CHICKEN AND STEVEN J. MILLER Question 1: The Green Chicken many primes p such that p + 2 is also prime! You'll also automatically bring back the Green Chicken vertices are not colored the same. The Brown Chicken says the coloring number of this graph is at most 9

  16. Balsamic Tomato Chicken Pasta Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Balsamic Tomato Chicken Pasta Ingredients: 1 1/2 pounds chicken breast, skinless, boneless 1 onion of the onion and peel off the brown layers. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side tops and stems, set aside. 4. Spray a large skillet with nonstick cooking spray. Add onion

  17. Chicken Pineapple Orange Salad Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Chicken Pineapple Orange Salad Ingredients: 4 boneless, skinless chicken breasts 2 stalks celery 1 cup seedless grapes 20 ounces pineapple chunks in juice 11 ounces mandarin orange 1/4 teaspoon pepper each grape in half. Add to bowl. 4. Open cans of pineapple chunks and mandarin oranges, and drain juice

  18. Chicken and Fruit Salad Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    pineapple chunks in juice, drained well 11 ounces mandarin orange, drained 3 cups boneless, skinless chicken in half. Add to bowl. 3. Open cans of pineapple chunks and mandarin oranges, and drain juice. Save juice for other uses. Add pineapple and oranges to bowl. Sprinkle with pepper. 4. Add cooked chicken and half

  19. Asian Chicken & Orange Packets Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    /6 of sliced chicken on rice. Season with pepper. Evenly share vegetables on top of chicken among packets. 7 Nutrition Assistance Program ­ SNAP. The Supple- mental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides nutrition assistance to people with low income. It can help you buy nutritious foods for a better diet

  20. Chicken Skeleton - Gliding Joint (Skull)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-28

    The chicken uses its beak to pick up small pieces of food from the ground. The gliding joint at the base of the skull allows the chicken to move its head in different directions. It can also defend itself by pecking.

  1. Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines: characteristics, development, and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-12-01

    The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

  2. Pneumococcal vaccine and opsonic pneumococcal antibody.

    PubMed

    Song, Joon Young; Moseley, M Allen; Burton, Robert L; Nahm, Moon H

    2013-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen responsible for the majority of bacterial pneumonia cases as well as invasive pneumococcal diseases with high mortality and morbidity. Use of conjugate vaccines targeting the pneumococcal capsule has dramatically reduced the incidence of invasive diseases, and there are active efforts to further improve the conjugate vaccines. However, in children new pneumococcal vaccines can no longer be tested with placebo-based clinical trials because effective vaccines are currently available. Thus, vaccine studies must depend on surrogate markers of vaccine efficacy. Although traditional antibody levels (e.g., ELISA) are useful as a surrogate marker of protection, they have limitations, and a bioassay measuring the capacity of antibodies to opsonize pneumococci has been developed. This opsonophagocytosis assay (OPA) replicates the in vivo mechanism of antibody protection and should therefore better reflect protection by vaccine-induced antibodies. Technical improvements of OPA have made this bioassay rapid, multiplexed, and practical for analyzing small samples including those from children. Strong correlations between ELISA and OPA have been observed in many studies of young children. However, poor correlations have been found in some important clinical situations (such as determination of protection by cross-reactive antibodies) and populations (such as elderly adults and immunodeficient patients). In these settings, OPA has become a useful supplementary measure of pneumococcal vaccine immunogenicity. Current efforts to standardize OPA will further expand its uses. PMID:23657429

  3. Replicating vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early work on fish immunology and disease resistance demonstrated fish (like animals and humans) that survived infection were typically resistant to re-infection with the same pathogen. The concepts of resistance upon reinfection lead to the research and development of replicating (live) vaccines in...

  4. AIDS Vaccines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Bolognesi, Dani P.

    1988-01-01

    Reveals that success of discovering vaccines is far from being assured although several candidates are being tested. States that the devious nature of the virus, the lack of a good animal model for the disease, and the difficulties of clinical trials inhibit the efforts of researchers. (RT)

  5. Immunity to viruses: learning from successful human vaccines.

    PubMed

    Pulendran, Bali; Oh, Jason Z; Nakaya, Helder I; Ravindran, Rajesh; Kazmin, Dmitri A

    2013-09-01

    For more than a century, immunologists and vaccinologists have existed in parallel universes. Immunologists have for long reveled in using 'model antigens', such as chicken egg ovalbumin or nitrophenyl haptens, to study immune responses in model organisms such as mice. Such studies have yielded many seminal insights about the mechanisms of immune regulation, but their relevance to humans has been questioned. In another universe, vaccinologists have relied on human clinical trials to assess vaccine efficacy, but have done little to take advantage of such trials for studying the nature of immune responses to vaccination. The human model provides a nexus between these two universes, and recent studies have begun to use this model to study the molecular profile of innate and adaptive responses to vaccination. Such 'systems vaccinology' studies are beginning to provide mechanistic insights about innate and adaptive immunity in humans. Here, we present an overview of such studies, with particular examples from studies with the yellow fever and the seasonal influenza vaccines. Vaccination with the yellow fever vaccine causes a systemic acute viral infection and thus provides an attractive model to study innate and adaptive responses to a primary viral challenge. Vaccination with the live attenuated influenza vaccine causes a localized acute viral infection in mucosal tissues and induces a recall response, since most vaccinees have had prior exposure to influenza, and thus provides a unique opportunity to study innate and antigen-specific memory responses in mucosal tissues and in the blood. Vaccination with the inactivated influenza vaccine offers a model to study immune responses to an inactivated immunogen. Studies with these and other vaccines are beginning to reunite the estranged fields of immunology and vaccinology, yielding unexpected insights about mechanisms of viral immunity. Vaccines that have been proven to be of immense benefit in saving lives offer us a new fringe benefit: lessons in viral immunology. PMID:23947360

  6. Laboratory methods for assessing and licensing influenza vaccines for poultry.

    PubMed

    Swayne, David E

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza vaccines for poultry are based on hemagglutinin proteins, and protection is specific to the vaccine subtype. Over 113 billion doses have been used between 2002 and 2010 for high pathogenicity avian influenza control. No universal vaccines are currently available. The majority of avian influenza vaccines are inactivated whole influenza viruses that are grown in embryonating eggs, inactivated, emulsified in oil adjuvant systems, and injected into chickens. Live virus-vectored vaccines such as recombinant viruses of fowl pox, Newcastle disease, herpesvirus of turkeys and duck enteritis containing inserts of avian influenza virus hemagglutinin genes have been used on a more limited basis. In studies to evaluate vaccine efficacy and potency, the protocol design and its implementation should address the biosafety level needed for the work, provide information required for approval by Institutional Biosafety and Animal Care Committees, contain information on seed strain selection, provide needed information on animal subjects and their relevant parameters, and address the selection and use of challenge viruses. Various metrics have been used to directly measure vaccine induced protection. These include prevention of death, clinical signs, and lesions; prevention of decreases in egg production and alterations in egg quality; quantification of the reduction in virus replication and shedding from the respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tracts; and prevention of contact transmission in in vivo poultry experiments. In addition, indirect measures of vaccine potency and protection can be developed and validated against the direct measures and include serological assays in vaccinated poultry and assessment of the content of hemagglutinin antigen in the vaccine. These indirect assessments of protection are useful in determining if vaccine batches have a consistent ability to protect. For adequate potency, vaccines should contain 50 mean protective doses of antigen, which corresponds to 0.3-7.8 ?g of hemagglutinin protein, depending on immunogenicity of individual seed strains. PMID:24899430

  7. News media coverage of policies surrounding the HPV vaccine before and after Texas Governor Rick Perry's executive order, February 2006February 2008

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinne Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Objective. In June 2006, the first vaccine for human papillomavirus (HPV) was approved by the FDA and shortly after approval, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted to recommend the HPV vaccine for young girls. As a result of ACIP recommendations, state legislators introduced bills to mandate the vaccine. Policies related to public health issues, such as vaccination mandates,

  8. Development of a cDNA array for chicken gene expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Burnside, Joan; Neiman, Paul; Tang, Jianshan; Basom, Ryan; Talbot, Richard; Aronszajn, Mark; Burt, David; Delrow, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    Background The application of microarray technology to functional genomic analysis in the chicken has been limited by the lack of arrays containing large numbers of genes. Results We have produced cDNA arrays using chicken EST collections generated by BBSRC, University of Delaware and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. From a total of 363,838 chicken ESTs representing 24 different adult or embryonic tissues, a set of 11,447 non-redundant ESTs were selected and added to an existing collection of clones (4,162) from immune tissues and a chicken bursal cell line (DT40). Quality control analysis indicates there are 13,007 useable features on the array, including 160 control spots. The array provides broad coverage of mRNAs expressed in many tissues; in addition, clones with expression unique to various tissues can be detected. Conclusions A chicken multi-tissue cDNA microarray with 13,007 features is now available to academic researchers from genomics@fhcrc.org. Sequence information for all features on the array is in GenBank, and clones can be readily obtained. Targeted users include researchers in comparative and developmental biology, immunology, vaccine and agricultural technology. These arrays will be an important resource for the entire research community using the chicken as a model. PMID:15694003

  9. Automated mass immunization of poultry: the prospect for nonreplicating human adenovirus-vectored in ovo vaccines.

    PubMed

    Avakian, Alan P; Poston, Rebecca M; Kong, Fan-kun; Van Kampen, Kent R; Tang, De-chu C

    2007-06-01

    Automated in ovo vaccination is an efficient method for mass immunization of poultry. Although in ovo vaccination has been used to mass immunize chickens against several infectious diseases, there are common poultry diseases for which in ovo-compatible vaccines are not commercially available. It was recently demonstrated that in ovo administration of a nonreplicating human adenovirus vector encoding an avian influenza virus hemagglutinin induced protective immunity against highly pathogenic avian influenza. The advantages of this new class of poultry vaccine include in ovo delivery of a wide variety of pathogen-derived antigens, high potency in a single-dose regimen, rapid production in response to increased demand, no replication of the vector, no pre-existing immunity to human adenovirus in chickens, compatibility with automated in ovo administration and no interference with epidemiological surveys of natural infections. PMID:17542759

  10. Evaluation of the protection elicited by direct and indirect exposure to live attenuated infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccines against a recent challenge strain from the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrés Rodríguez-Avila; Ivomar Oldoni; Sylva Riblet; Maricarmen García

    2008-01-01

    In a recent study (Oldoni & García, 2007), some field strains of infectious laryngotracheitis viruses (ILTV) were characterized as genotypically different (group VI) from ILT vaccine strains. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protection elicited by one chicken embryo origin (CEO) and one tissue culture origin (TCO) vaccine against a field isolate from group VI after direct

  11. Comparative evaluation of a bivalent killed Salmonella vaccine to prevent egg contamination with Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Typhimurium, and Gallinarum biovar Pullorum, using 4 different challenge models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masashi Okamura; Hajime Tachizaki; Takashi Kubo; Shuichi Kikuchi; Akiko Suzuki; Kazuaki Takehara; Masayuki Nakamura

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated a newly developed commercial bivalent killed Salmonella vaccine Oilvax® SET for its ability to decrease contamination with Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium in layer chickens. In either an oral or intravaginal challenge model, the fecal shedding was decreased in vaccinated hens, but egg contamination was not evaluated due to scarcity of contaminated eggs even in the unvaccinated

  12. Immunology of Vaccine Adjuvants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. S. Ribeiro; V. E. J. C. Schijns

    2010-01-01

    In recent times vaccine adjuvants, or immunopotentiators, received abundant attention in the media as critical ingredients of current and future vaccines. Indeed, vaccine adjuvants are recognized to make the difference between competing vaccines based on identical antigens. Moreover, it is recognized that vaccines designed for certain indications require a matching combination of selected antigen(s) together with a critical immunopotentiator that

  13. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2013-01-01

    DNA vaccine for T1D promising in the clinic HPV vaccines halved infections in US teenage girls Modified DC immunotherapy against melanoma New study looks at clinical severity of human H7N9 infections Prevnar vaccines are valuable for healthcare systems GAPVAC: New consortium in the fight of brain cancer Cytomegalovirus vaccine to enter phase 3 Malaria vaccination using chemically attenuated parasites

  14. Challenges and recent advancements in infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Coppo, Mauricio J C; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Browning, Glenn F; Devlin, Joanne M

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 80 years, biosecurity measures and vaccines have been used to prevent the occurrence of outbreaks of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT). Despite these control strategies, ILT continues to have an impact on intensive poultry industries. Attenuated vaccines, particularly those derived by passage in chicken embryos, have been associated with a number of side effects, including residual virulence, transmission to naïve birds, establishment of latent infections with subsequent reactivation and shedding of virus, and reversion to virulence after in vivo passage. Most recently, recombination between attenuated ILT vaccines in the field has been shown to be responsible for the emergence of new virulent viruses that have caused widespread disease. To address some of these issues, new-generation virally vectored recombinant vaccines have been developed and recently released in some countries. In addition, recombinant deletion mutants of ILT virus have been proposed as vaccine candidates. In this review, recent advances in the understanding of the epidemiology of traditionally attenuated ILT vaccines as well as in the development and use of new generation vaccines are examined. Next-generation vaccines, along with more appropriate immunological screening strategies, are identified as particularly promising options to enhance ILT control in the future. PMID:23718807

  15. Evaluation of the Salmonella enterica Serovar Pullorum Pathogenicity Island 2 Mutant as a Candidate Live Attenuated Oral Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Yin, Junlei; Cheng, Zhao; Wang, Xiaochun; Xu, Lijuan; Li, Qiuchun; Geng, Shizhong; Jiao, Xinan

    2015-07-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum) is a highly adapted pathogen that causes pullorum disease (PD), an important systemic disease of poultry that causes severe economic losses in developing countries. In the interests of developing a safe and immunogenic oral vaccine, the efficacy of a Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2)-deleted mutant of S. Pullorum (S06004?SPI2) was evaluated in chickens. S06004?SPI2 was severely less virulent than the parental wild-type strain S06004 as determined by the 50% lethal dose (LD50) for 3-day-old chickens when injected intramuscularly. Two-day-old chickens immunized with a single oral dose of S06004?SPI2 showed no differences in body weight or clinical symptoms compared with those in the negative-control group. S06004?SPI2 bacteria were not isolated from livers or spleens of immunized chickens after a short period of time, and specific humoral and cellular immune responses were significantly induced. Immunized chickens were challenged with S. Pullorum strain S06004 and Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum (S. Gallinarum) strain SG9 at 10 days postimmunization (dpi), and efficient protection against the challenges was observed. None of the immunized chickens died, the clinical symptoms were slight and temporary following challenge in immunized chickens compared with those in the control group, and these chickens recovered by 3 to 5 dpi. Overall, these results demonstrate that S06004?SPI2 can be used as a live attenuated oral vaccine. PMID:25924763

  16. Chicken Embryonic Heart Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Jacqueline S McLaughlin (Berks-Lehigh Valley College Biology)

    2006-01-09

    Both in vivo and in vitro techniques are used to investigate the development of the vertebrate heart using the chicken embryo as a model system. Simultaneously, the students are exposed to the physiology of embryonic blood flow, the electrical circuitry of the developing heart, and the effects of reproductive toxins on heart rate. Classical embryological microtechniques, explantation of the embryo, surgical removal of the beating heart, and isolation of the heart chambers, are conducted. Student teams devise a hypothesis concerning the effects of caffeine or alcohol on the in vivo or in vitro heart rate.

  17. Differentiation of field isolates and vaccine strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus by DNA sequencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Luis Chacón; Antonio J. Piantino Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Two different regions of the infected cell protein 4 (ICP4) gene of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) were amplified and sequenced for characterization of field isolates and tissue culture-origin (TCO) and chicken embryo-origin (CEO) vaccine strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the two regions showed differences in nucleotide and amino acid sequences between field isolates and attenuated vaccines. The PCR-RFLP results were identical

  18. Growth and Replication of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in the DF-1 Cell Line and Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Sivasubramanian, Chandran; Chung, Ill-Min; Thiruvengadam, Muthu

    2014-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes a highly contagious disease in young chicks and leads to significant economic losses in the poultry industry. To determine a suitable cell line for IBDV infection, replication, and growth kinetics of the virus, DF-1 cells and chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) were used. The population doubling per day (Pd/D) was found to be higher in DF-1 as compared to CEF cells. A suitable time of infection (TOI) was established for increased production of virus and greater infectivity titers. The DF-1 and CEF cells were found to be susceptible to infection by producing marked cytopathic effects (CPEs), and the growth curves of IBDV in DF-1 and CEF cells were evaluated by infectivity assay using tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50). The cytopathic effects of the virus in DF-1 and CEF cells were found to be similar, but higher viral titers were detected in the DF-1 cells as compared to CEF. Thus the DF-1 cell line had a higher growth potential and infectivity, which will be of advantage in vaccine production. PMID:24949455

  19. SPI1 defective mutants of Salmonella enterica induce cross-protective immunity in chickens against challenge with serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Matulova, Marta; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Babak, Vladimir; Rychlik, Ivan

    2013-06-28

    In this study we were interested in the serovar cross-protection potential of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI1) attenuated vaccine strains of Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium and immune response of vaccinated and naive chickens to Salmonella infection. The immune response was characterized by real time PCR quantifying transcripts of interleukins IL1?, IL17, IL22, interferon gamma (IFN?), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), immunoglobulins IgM, IgA, IgY and Ig light chain, and six genes of acute phase response including avidin, serum amyloid A, extracellular fatty acid-binding protein (Ex-FABP), immune responsive gene 1, chemokine AH221 and trappin-6. Vaccination with SPI1 mutants of both serovars protected chickens against Salmonella infection, independent of the serovar used for the challenge and the time post infection. However, expressions of all interleukins, iNOS and Ex-FABP showed that protection against homologous serovars was significantly higher than against heterologous serovars after intravenous challenge at 4 days post infection. The vaccination with a mixture of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium SPI1 mutants induced an intermediate protection against challenge with both serovars, i.e. the mixed vaccine provided an additional protective effect when compared with the chickens vaccinated with a vaccine formed by only a single Salmonella serovar. PMID:23684831

  20. Comparison of the replication and transmissibility of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine delivered via eye-drop or drinking-water.

    PubMed

    Coppo, Mauricio J C; Devlin, Joanne M; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2012-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccines have been extensively used to control infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT). Most vaccines are registered/recommended for use via eye-drop although vaccination via drinking-water is commonly used in the field. Drinking-water vaccination has been associated with non-uniform protection. Bird-to-bird passage of chick-embryo-origin (CEO) ILT vaccines has been shown to result in reversion to virulence. The purpose of the present study was to examine the replication and transmission of a commercial CEO infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccine strain following drinking-water or eye-drop inoculation. Two groups of 10 specific-pathogen-free chickens were each vaccinated with Serva ILTV vaccine strain either via eye-drop or drinking-water. Groups of four or five unvaccinated birds were placed in contact with vaccinated birds at regular intervals. Tracheal swabs were collected every 4 days from vaccinated and in-contact birds to assess viral replication and transmission using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Compared with eye-drop-vaccinated birds, drinking-water-vaccinated birds showed delayed viral replication but had detectable viral DNA for a longer period of time. Transmission to chickens exposed by contact on day 0 of the experiments was similar in both groups. Birds exposed to ILTV by contact with eye-drop vaccinated birds on days 4, 8, 12 and 16 of the experiment had detectable ILTV for up to 8 days post exposure. ILTV was not detected in chickens that were exposed by contact with drinking-water vaccinated birds on day 12 of the experiment or later. Results from this study provide valuable practical information for the use of ILT vaccine. PMID:22845327

  1. Newcastle disease virus fusion protein is the major contributor to protective immunity of genotype-matched vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Wanasen, Nanchaya; Paldurai, Anandan; Xiao, Sa; Collins, Peter L; Samal, Siba K

    2013-01-01

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can cause devastating disease in chickens worldwide. Although the current vaccines are substantially effective, they do not completely prevent infection, virus shedding and disease. To produce genotype-matched vaccines, a full-genome reverse genetics system has been used to generate a recombinant virus in which the F protein cleavage site has been changed to that of avirulent vaccine virus. In the other strategy, the vaccines have been generated by replacing the F and HN genes of a commercial vaccine strain with those from a genotype-matched virus. However, the protective efficacy of a chimeric virus vaccine has not been directly compared with that of a full-genome virus vaccine developed by reverse genetics. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of genotype VII matched chimeric vaccines by generating three recombinant viruses based on avirulent LaSota (genotype II) strain in which the open reading frames (ORFs) encoding the F and HN proteins were replaced, individually or together, with those of the circulating and highly virulent Indonesian NDV strain Ban/010. The cleavage site of the Ban/010 F protein was mutated to the avirulent motif found in strain LaSota. In vitro growth characteristics and a pathogenicity test indicated that all three chimeric viruses retained the highly attenuated phenotype of the parental viruses. Immunization of chickens with chimeric and full-length genome VII vaccines followed by challenge with virulent Ban/010 or Texas GB (genotype II) virus demonstrated protection against clinical disease and death. However, only those chickens immunized with chimeric rLaSota expressing the F or F plus HN proteins of the Indonesian strain were efficiently protected against shedding of Ban/010 virus. Our findings showed that genotype-matched vaccines can provide protection to chickens by efficiently preventing spread of virus, primarily due to the F protein. PMID:24015313

  2. Vaccines for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lifestyle, medical conditions you may have, such as asthma or diabetes, type and locations of travel, and previous vaccinations. See the Immunization and Pregnancy Vaccines Flyer [1 page] , which shows the vaccines ...

  3. Vaccinations and HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Do not measure your viral load within 4 weeks of any vaccination. Flu shots have been studied ... live” vaccination in the past 2 or 3 weeks. Still, the “MMR” vaccine against measles, mumps and ...

  4. Differential diagnosis of fowlpox and infectious laryngotracheitis viruses in chicken diphtheritic manifestations by mono and duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Irit; Raibstein, Israel; Altory, Amira

    2015-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) and fowlpox virus (FPV) cause diphtheritic lesions in chicken tracheas and can simultaneously infect the same bird. A differential molecular diagnostic test, the duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction, is now reported using ILTV and FPV vaccine viruses and clinical samples from chickens, either uninfected or naturally infected with ILTV or FPV, or with both viruses. The dual virus amplification by real-time polymerase chain reaction was demonstrated to behave similarly to monoplex amplification, in spite of the fact that the real-time exponential amplification plots of the vaccine viruses were more illustrative than those of the clinical samples. PMID:25317604

  5. Genome-wide association study of antibody response to Newcastle disease virus in chicken

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the first outbreak in Indonesia in 1926, Newcastle disease has become one of the most common and contagious bird diseases throughout the world. To date, enhancing host antibody response by vaccination remains the most efficient strategy to control outbreaks of Newcastle disease. Antibody response plays an important role in host resistance to Newcastle disease, and selection for antibody response can effectively improve disease resistance in chickens. However, the molecular basis of the variation in antibody response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is not clear. The aim of this study was to detect genes modulating antibody response to NDV by a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in chickens. Results To identify genes or chromosomal regions associated with antibody response to NDV after immunization, a GWAS was performed using 39,833 SNP markers in a chicken F2 resource population derived from a cross between two broiler lines that differed in their resistance. Two SNP effects reached 5% Bonferroni genome-wide significance (P<1.26×10-6). These two SNPs, rs15354805 and rs15355555, were both on chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome 1 and spanned approximately 600 Kb, from 100.4 Mb to 101.0 Mb. Rs15354805 is in intron 7 of the chicken Roundabout, axon guidance receptor, homolog 2 (ROBO2) gene, and rs15355555 is located about 243 Kb upstream of ROBO2. Rs15354805 explained 5% of the phenotypic variation in antibody response to NDV, post immunization, in chickens. Rs15355555 had a similar effect as rs15354805 because of its linkage disequilibrium with rs15354805 (r2=0.98). Conclusion The region at about 100 Mb from the proximal end of chicken chromosome 1, including the ROBO1 and ROBO2 genes, has a strong effect on the antibody response to the NDV in chickens. This study paves the way for further research on the host immune response to NDV. PMID:23663563

  6. The chicken gastrointestinal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Brian B; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Kogut, Michael H; Kim, Woo K; Maurer, John J; Pedroso, Adriana; Lee, Margie D; Collett, Stephen R; Johnson, Timothy J; Cox, Nelson A

    2014-11-01

    The domestic chicken is a common model organism for human biological research and of course also forms the basis of a global protein industry. Recent methodological advances have spurred the recognition of microbiomes as complex communities with important influences on the health and disease status of the host. In this minireview, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome focusing on spatial and temporal variability, the presence and importance of human pathogens, the influence of the microbiota on the immune system, and the importance of the microbiome for poultry nutrition. Review and meta-analysis of public data showed cecal communities dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroides at the phylum level, while at finer levels of taxonomic resolution, a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of microorganisms appears to have similar metabolic functions that provide important benefits to the host as inferred from metagenomic data. This observation of functional redundancy may have important implications for management of the microbiome. We foresee advances in strategies to improve gut health in commercial operations through management of the intestinal microbiota as an alternative to in-feed subtherapeutic antibiotics, improvements in pre- and probiotics, improved management of polymicrobial poultry diseases, and better control of human pathogens via colonization reduction or competitive exclusion strategies. PMID:25263745

  7. Oral and parenteral immunization of chickens (Gallus gallus) against West Nile virus with recombinant envelope protein

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fassbinder-Orth, C. A.; Hofmeister, E.K.; Weeks-Levy, C.; Karasov, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes morbidity and mortality in humans, horses, and in more than 315 bird species in North America. Currently approved WNV vaccines are designed for parenteral administration and, as yet, no effective oral WNV vaccines have been developed. WNV envelope (E) protein is a highly antigenic protein that elicits the majority of virus-neutralizing antibodies during a WNV immune response. Leghorn chickens were given three vaccinations (each 2 wk apart) of E protein orally (20 ??g or 100 ??g/dose), of E protein intramuscularly (IM, 20 ??g/dose), or of adjuvant only (control group) followed by a WNV challenge. Viremias were measured post-WNV infection, and three new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were developed for quantifying IgM, IgY, and IgA-mediated immune response of birds following WNV infection. WNV viremia levels were significantly lower in the IM group than in both oral groups and the control group. Total WNV E protein-specific IgY production was significantly greater, and WNV nonstructural 1-specific IgY was significantly less, in the IM group compared to all other treatment groups. The results of this study indicate that IM vaccination of chickens with E protein is protective against WNV infection and results in a significantly different antibody production profile as compared to both orally vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds. ?? 2009 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

  8. Cell culture-based influenza vaccines: A necessary and indispensable investment for the future.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Nagendra R

    2015-05-01

    The traditional platform of using embryonated chicken eggs for the production of influenza vaccines has several drawbacks including the inability to meet the volume of required doses in the case of widespread epidemics and pandemics. Cell culture platforms have therefore been explored in the last 2 decades, and have attracted further attention following the H1N1 pandemic outbreak. This platform, while not the most economical for large-scale production, has several advantages, and can supplement the vaccine requirement when needed. Recent developments in production technologies have contributed greatly to fine-tuning this platform. In combination with other technologies such as live attenuated and recombinant protein or virus-like particle vaccines, and different adjuvants and delivery systems, cell culture-based influenza vaccine platform can be used both for production of seasonal vaccine, and to mitigate vaccine shortages in pandemic situations. PMID:25875691

  9. Progress and hurdles in the development of influenza virus-like particle vaccines for veterinary use

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs), which resemble infectious virus particles in structure and morphology, have been proposed to provide a new generation of vaccine candidates against various viral infections. As effective immunogens, characterized by high immunogenicity and safety, VLPs have been employed in the development of human influenza vaccines. Recently, several influenza VLP vaccines have been developed for veterinary use and successfully evaluated in swine, canine, duck, and chicken models. These VLP vaccine candidates induced protective immune responses and enabled serological differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals in conjunction with a diagnostic test. Here, we review the current progress of influenza VLP development as a next-generation vaccine technology in the veterinary field and discuss the challenges and future direction of this technology. PMID:25003086

  10. Determination of the optimal time of vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus (Gumboro) in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Besseboua, Omar; Ayad, Abdelhanine; Benbarek, Hama

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of maternally derived antibody (MDA) on live vaccine against infectious bursal disease. A total of 140 chicks selected from vaccinated parent stock were used in this investigation. In a preset vaccination schedule, blood samples were collected to check for the actual effect. It was noticed that on day 1 the chicks contained a high level (6400.54 ± 2993.67) of maternally derived antibody that gradually decreased below a positive level within 21 days (365.86 ± 634.46). It was found that a high level of MDA interferes with the vaccine virus, resulting in no immune response. For better immune response, it is suggested that the chickens should be vaccinated at day 21, as the uniformity of MDA is poor (coefficient of the variation [CV] > 30%), and boosted at day 28. Indeed, two vaccinations are necessary to achieve good protection against infectious bursal disease virus of the entire flock. PMID:26018110

  11. Subviral Particle as Vaccine and Vaccine Platform

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ming; Jiang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subvirual particles retain similar antigenic features of their authentic viral capsids and thus have been applied as nonreplicating subunit vaccines against viral infection and illness. Additionally, the self-assembled, polyvalent subviral particles are excellent platforms to display foreign antigens for immune enhancement for vaccine development. These subviral particle-based vaccines are noninfectious and thus safer than the conventional live attenuated and inactivated vaccines. While several VLP vaccines are available in the markets, numerous others, including dual vaccines against more than one pathogen, are under clinical or preclinical development. This article provides an update of these efforts. PMID:24662314

  12. Engineered human vaccines

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, J.S. (Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Div. of Immunology and Neurobiology)

    1994-01-01

    The limitations of human vaccines in use at present and the design requirements for a new generation of human vaccines are discussed. The progress in engineering of human vaccines for bacteria, viruses, parasites, and cancer is reviewed, and the data from human studies with the engineered vaccines are discussed, especially for cancer and AIDS vaccines. The final section of the review deals with the possible future developments in the field of engineered human vaccines and the requirement for effective new human adjuvants.

  13. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic HIV vaccine promising in the clinic GAVI aims to immunize 30 million against HPV by 2020 Self-destructing Salmonella to deliver oral DNA vaccines Novel strategy for vaccine design: Enzymatically modified antibodies GSK’s four-strain seasonal influenza vaccine approved in the US MVA85A TB vaccine tested in newborns of HIV-positive mothers Use of oral cholera vaccines promoted GSK partners with Vodafone to increase childhood vaccinatin in Mozambique PMID:23449312

  14. Further observations on serotype 2 Marek's disease virus-induced enhancement of spontaneous avian leukosis virus-like bursal lymphomas in ALVA6 transgenic chickens.

    PubMed

    Cao, Weisheng; Mays, Jody; Kulkarni, Gururaj; Dunn, John; Fulton, Richard M; Fadly, Aly

    2015-01-01

    Breeders of the 2009 generation of Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory transgenic chicken line ALVA6, known to be resistant to infection with subgroups A and E avian leukosis virus (ALV), were vaccinated at hatch with a trivalent Marek's disease (MD) vaccine containing serotypes 1, 2, and 3 Marek's disease virus (MDV) and were maintained under pathogen-free conditions from the day of hatch until 75 weeks of age. Spontaneous ALV-like bursal lymphomas, also termed lymphoid leukosis (LL)-like lymphomas, were detected in 7% of the ALVA6 breeders. There was no evidence of infection with exogenous and endogenous ALV as determined by virus isolation tests of plasma and tumour tissue homogenates. For the next three generations, serotype 2 MDV was eliminated from the trivalent MD vaccine used. Results show, for the first time, that removal of serotype 2 MDV from MD vaccines eliminated spontaneous LL-like lymphomas within 50 to 72 weeks of age for at least three consecutive generations. Two experiments were also conducted to determine the influence of in ovo vaccination with serotype 2 MD vaccines on enhancement of spontaneous LL-like lymphomas in ALVA6 chickens. Chickens from the 2012 generation were each inoculated in ovo or at hatch with 5000 plaque-forming units of serotype 2 MDV. Results indicate that by 50 weeks of age the incidence of spontaneous LL-like lymphomas in chickens inoculated in ovo with serotype 2 MDV was comparable with that in chickens inoculated with virus at hatch, suggesting that the augmentation effect of serotype 2 MDV is independent of age of vaccination. PMID:25407937

  15. Effects of Taishan Robinia pseudoacacia Polysaccharides on immune function in chickens.

    PubMed

    Liang, Man-fei; Liu, Guan-hua; Zhao, Qing-you; Yang, Shi-fa; Zhong, Shi-xun; Cui, Guo-lin; He, Xiao-hua; Zhao, Xue; Guo, Fan-xia; Wu, Cun; Zhu, Rui-liang

    2013-04-01

    To determine the immune function of Taishan Robinia pseudoacacia Polysaccharide (TRPPS) on chickens, 240 chickens were selected as experimental animals and treated with various doses of TRPPS by hypodermic injection before immunized NDV inactivated vaccine. The results indicated that any dose of TRPPS could significantly promote the development of the immune organs, increase the quantity of leukocyte and the ratio of lymphocyte, and improve the antibody titers against Newcastle disease. Meanwhile, it also increased the magnitude of SIgA in duodenum. However, the dose of 200 mg/ml showed to be the most effective. Therefore, in terms of improving immunologic function and production performance, TRPPS could be used as a vaccine immunopotentiator for immune responses. PMID:23507193

  16. Influenza virus propagation in embryonated chicken eggs.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Rena; Chen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Influenza infection is associated with about 36,000 deaths and more than 200,000 hospitalizations every year in the United States. The continuous emergence of new influenza virus strains due to mutation and re-assortment complicates the control of the virus and necessitates the permanent development of novel drugs and vaccines. The laboratory-based study of influenza requires a reliable and cost-effective method for the propagation of the virus. Here, a comprehensive protocol is provided for influenza A virus propagation in fertile chicken eggs, which consistently yields high titer viral stocks. In brief, serum pathogen-free (SPF) fertilized chicken eggs are incubated at 37 °C and 55-60% humidity for 10-11 days. Over this period, embryo development can be easily monitored using an egg candler. Virus inoculation is carried out by injection of virus stock into the allantoic cavity using a needle. After 2 days of incubation at 37 °C, the eggs are chilled for at least 4 hr at 4 °C. The eggshell above the air sac and the chorioallantoic membrane are then carefully opened, and the allantoic fluid containing the virus is harvested. The fluid is cleared from debris by centrifugation, aliquoted and transferred to -80 °C for long-term storage. The large amount (5-10 ml of virus-containing fluid per egg) and high virus titer which is usually achieved with this protocol has made the usage of eggs for virus preparation our favorable method, in particular for in vitro studies which require large quantities of virus in which high dosages of the same virus stock are needed. PMID:25867050

  17. Characteristics of Nasal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT) and Nasal Absorption Capacity in Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2013-01-01

    As the main mucosal immune inductive site of nasal cavity, nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) plays an important role in both antigen recognition and immune activation after intranasal immunization. However, the efficiency of intranasal vaccines is commonly restricted by the insufficient intake of antigen by the nasal mucosa, resulting from the nasal mucosal barrier and the nasal mucociliary clearance. The distribution of NALT and the characteristic of nasal cavity have already been described in humans and many laboratory rodents, while data about poultry are scarce. For this purpose, histological sections of the chicken nasal cavities were used to examine the anatomical structure and histological characteristics of nasal cavity. Besides, the absorptive capacity of chicken nasal mucosa was also studied using the materials with different particle size. Results showed that the NALT of chicken was located on the bottom of nasal septum and both sides of choanal cleft, which mainly consisted of second lymphoid follicle. A large number of lymphocytes were distributed under the mucosal epithelium of inferior nasal meatus. In addition, there were also diffuse lymphoid tissues located under the epithelium of the concha nasalis media and the walls of nasal cavity. The results of absorption experiment showed that the chicken nasal mucosa was capable to absorb trypan blue, OVA, and fluorescent latex particles. Inactivated avian influenza virus (IAIV) could be taken up by chicken nasal mucosa except for the stratified squamous epithelium sites located on the forepart of nasal cavity. The intake of IAIV by NALT was greater than that of the nasal mucosa covering on non-lymphoid tissue, which could be further enhanced after intranasal inoculation combined with sodium cholate or CpG DNA. The study on NALT and nasal absorptive capacity will be benefit for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and development of nasal vaccines for poultry. PMID:24391892

  18. Vaccines for Farrowing Operations 

    E-print Network

    Lawhorn, D. Bruce

    1999-02-15

    Routine vaccination is necessary to control economically important swine diseases such as erysipelas, leptospirosis, parvovirus and colibacillosis. The symptoms and specific vaccines for these diseases are discussed....

  19. Pertussis models to inform vaccine policy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Patricia T; McCaw, James M; McVernon, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    Pertussis remains a challenging public health problem with many aspects of infection, disease and immunity poorly understood. Initially controlled by mass vaccination, pertussis resurgence has occurred in some countries with well-established vaccination programs, particularly among adolescents and young adults. Several studies have used mathematical models to investigate drivers of pertussis epidemiology and predict the likely impact of different vaccination strategies. We reviewed a number of these models to evaluate their suitability to answer questions of public health importance regarding optimal vaccine scheduling. We critically discuss the approaches adopted and the impact of chosen model structures and assumptions on study conclusions. Common limitations were a lack of contemporary, population relevant data for parameterization and a limited understanding of the relationship between infection and disease. We make recommendations for future model development and suggest epidemiologic data collections that would facilitate efforts to reduce uncertainty and improve the robustness of model-derived conclusions. PMID:25714499

  20. HIV vaccine research: the way forward.

    PubMed

    Fauci, Anthony S; Johnston, Margaret I; Dieffenbach, Carl W; Burton, Dennis R; Hammer, Scott M; Hoxie, James A; Martin, Malcolm; Overbaugh, Julie; Watkins, David I; Mahmoud, Adel; Greene, Warner C

    2008-07-25

    The need to broaden research directed at answering fundamental questions in HIV vaccine discovery through laboratory, nonhuman primate (NHP), and clinical research has recently been emphasized. In addition, the importance of attracting and retaining young researchers, developing better NHP models, and more closely linking NHP and clinical research is being stressed. In an era of a level budget for biomedical research at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), HIV/AIDS vaccine research efforts will need to be carefully prioritized such that resources to energize HIV vaccine discovery can be identified. This article summarizes progress and challenges in HIV vaccine research, the priorities arising from a recent summit at NIAID, and the actions needed, some already under way, to address those priorities. PMID:18653883

  1. 71 FR 30938 - Vaccine Information Statement for Hepatitis A Vaccine; Revised Instructions for Use of Vaccine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-05-31

    ...Prevention Vaccine Information Statement for Hepatitis A Vaccine; Revised Instructions for...new vaccine information materials for hepatitis A vaccine. Following review of the comments...under the law, CDC has finalized the hepatitis A vaccine information materials....

  2. Edinburgh Research Explorer Functional conservation between rodents and chicken of

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Functional conservation between rodents and chicken of regulatory sequences driving skeletal muscle gene expression in transgenic chickens Citation for published version: Mc and chicken of regulatory sequences driving skeletal muscle gene expression in transgenic chickens' BMC

  3. Genome sequence comparison of two United States live attenuated vaccines of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV).

    PubMed

    Chandra, Yohanna Gita; Lee, Jeongyoon; Kong, Byung-Whi

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to identify unique nucleotide differences in two U.S. chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines [LT Blen (GenBank accession: JQ083493) designated as vaccine 1; Laryngo-Vac(®) (GenBank accession: JQ083494) designated as vaccine 2] of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genomes compared to an Australian Serva vaccine reference ILTV genome sequence [Gallid herpesvirus 1 (GaHV-1); GenBank accession number: HQ630064]. Genomes of the two vaccine ILTV strains were sequenced using Illumina Genome Analyzer 2X of 36 cycles of single-end reads. Results revealed that few nucleotide differences (23 in vaccine 1; 31 in vaccine 2) were found and indicate that the US CEO strains are practically identical to the Australian Serva CEO strain, which is a European-origin vaccine. The sequence differences demonstrated the spectrum of variability among vaccine strains. Only eight amino acid differences were found in ILTV proteins including UL54, UL27, UL28, UL20, UL1, ICP4, and US8 in vaccine 1. Similarly, in vaccine 2, eight amino acid differences were found in UL54, UL27, UL28, UL36, UL1, ICP4, US10, and US8. Further comparison of US CEO vaccines to several ILTV genome sequences revealed that US CEO vaccines are genetically close to both the Serva vaccine and 63140/C/08/BR (GenBank accession: HM188407) and are distinct from the two Australian-origin CEO vaccines, SA2 (GenBank accession: JN596962) and A20 (GenBank accession: JN596963), which showed close similarity to each other. These data demonstrate the potential of high-throughput sequencing technology to yield insight into the sequence variation of different ILTV strains. This information can be used to discriminate between vaccine ILTV strains and further, to identify newly emerging mutant strains of field isolates. PMID:22382591

  4. Evaluation of Toxoplasma gondii as a live vaccine vector in susceptible and resistant hosts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii has been shown to trigger strong cellular immune responses to heterologous antigens expressed by the parasite in the inbred mouse model [1]. We studied the immune response induced by T. gondii as an effective vaccine vector in chickens and rabbits. Results T. gondii RH strain was engineered to express the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in the cytoplasm. A subcutaneous injection of the transgenic T. gondii YFP in chickens afforded partial protection against the infection of transgenic E. tenella YFP. T. gondii YFP induced low levels of antibodies to YFP in chickens, suggesting that YFP specific cellular immune response was probably responsible for the protective immunity against E. tenella YFP infection. The measurement of T-cell response and IFN-? production further confirmed that YFP specific Th1 mediated immune response was induced by T. gondii YFP in immunized chickens. The transgenic T. gondii stimulated significantly higher YFP specific IgG titers in rabbits than in chickens, suggesting greater immunogenicity in a T. gondii susceptible species than in a resistant species. Priming with T. gondii YFP and boosting with the recombinant YFP can induce a strong anti-YFP antibody response in both animal species. Conclusions Our findings suggest that T. gondii can be used as an effective vaccine vector and future research should focus on exploring avirulent no cyst-forming strains of T. gondii as a live vaccine vector in animals. PMID:21871123

  5. [Vaccination and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Anselem, Olivia; Parat, Sophie; Théau, Anne; Floret, Daniel; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Goffinet, François; Launay, Odile

    2014-06-01

    Vaccination against influenza is recommended during the vaccination period in pregnant women regardless of trimester. In contrast, administration of live vaccines, such as the vaccine against varicella, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) is contraindicated in pregnant women. Vaccinations against hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, hepatitis A can be made as indicated. Vaccination against yellow fever may be considered in pregnant women travelling to endemic countries. In post-partum period, live vaccines may be administered if necessary, especially vaccination against whooping cough for women not to date with their vaccinations. Vaccination against yellow fever is contraindicated in case of breast feeding. Prevention of pertussis in newborns is based in France on vaccination of the mothers in the post-partum period, and the close contacts of the newborn during the pregnancy ("cocooning"). PMID:24863661

  6. Chews Like Chicken Animal Ambulation

    E-print Network

    Glaser, Rainer

    Stories: Chews Like Chicken Animal Ambulation Going Negative Novel Reaction The Smart Set Copper of the strands to unravel and reform during cell division. The malfunction damages cells and could even cause

  7. Is administration of the HPV vaccine during pregnancy feasible in the future?

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Abbey B.; Patel, Pooja R.; Barrett, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the strong evidence supporting the efficacy of the HPV vaccine, the uptake rate remains low. One reason for this is that young females do not interact frequently with the health care system. In fact, pregnancy is often the first time young women experience multiple scheduled visits to a health provider. We review the data regarding safety of administering the HPV vaccine during pregnancy and consider the possibility of incorporating vaccination into prenatal care. Although the optimal time for vaccination is prior to sexual debut, this does not always occur. A broader approach to HPV vaccination may be necessary. Increasing the vaccine uptake rate among young women who did not initiate or complete the series earlier may significantly contribute to the decline in HPV associated diseases. PMID:24308583

  8. Self-reported pediatricians' management of the well-appearing young child with fever without a source: first survey in an European country in the anti-pneumococcal vaccine era

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Chiappini; Luisa Galli; Francesca Bonsignori; Elisabetta Venturini; Nicola Principi; Maurizio de Martino

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest a substantially reduced risk of invasive bacterial infection in children vaccinated with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). To investigate whether the introduction of PCV might affect clinical decision making, we conducted a cross-sectional survey aimed at Italian Pediatric physicians. RESULTS: The study included 348 (46.5%) primary care pediatricians; 251 (36.4%) hospital pediatricians, and 139 (20.1%) pediatric

  9. Mucosal (SIgA) and serum (IgG) immunologic responses in young adults following intranasal administration of one or two doses of inactivated, trivalent anti-influenza vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evgenia Greenbaum; Dan Engelhard; Reuven Levy; Miriam Schlezinger; Avraham Morag; Zichria Zakay-Rones

    2004-01-01

    Influenza morbidity affects the entire population and has an enormous impact upon the economic burden and the health care systems.Available vaccines are often unsatisfactory and many individuals are reluctant to receive injections. Intranasal immunization is painless, side effect free and may encourage a large number of individuals to participate in the vaccination programs.Ninety-two students were immunized intranasally once or twice,

  10. Long?Term Persistence of Mumps Antibody after Receipt of 2 Measles?Mumps?Rubella (MMR) Vaccinations and Antibody Response after a Third MMR Vaccination among a University Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Klahn; LeAnn Obrecht; Terry Krohn; Josh Rowland; Steve Rubin

    2008-01-01

    Background. High attack rates among vaccinated young adults reported during the 2006 mumps outbreak in the United States heightened concerns regarding mumps vaccine failure. Methods. Serum specimens from university students and staff were tested for mumps immunoglobulin (Ig) G by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). A subset of participants vaccinated for 5 years and 15 years were tested by neutral- izing antibody

  11. Eggs: the uncracked potential for improving maternal and young child nutrition among the world's poor.

    PubMed

    Iannotti, Lora L; Lutter, Chessa K; Bunn, David A; Stewart, Christine P

    2014-06-01

    Eggs have been consumed throughout human history, though the full potential of this nutritionally complete food has yet to be realized in many resource-poor settings around the world. Eggs provide essential fatty acids, proteins, choline, vitamins A and B12 , selenium, and other critical nutrients at levels above or comparable to those found in other animal-source foods, but they are relatively more affordable. Cultural beliefs about the digestibility and cleanliness of eggs, as well as environmental concerns arising from hygiene practices and toxin exposures, remain as barriers to widespread egg consumption. There is also regional variability in egg intake levels. In Latin American countries, on average, greater proportions of young children consume eggs than in Asian or African countries. In China and Indonesia, nutrition education and social marketing have been associated with greater amounts of eggs in the diets of young children, though generally, evidence from interventions is minimal. Homestead chicken-and-egg production with appropriate vaccination, extension service, and other supports can simultaneously address poverty and nutrition in very poor rural households. With undernutrition remaining a significant problem in many parts of the world, eggs may be an uncracked part of the solution. PMID:24807641

  12. Newcastle disease virus strain I 2 – a prospective thermostable vaccine for use in developing countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Bensink; P. Spradbrow

    1999-01-01

    Forty-five avirulent Australian strains of Newcastle disease virus had been examined for antigenicity in chickens and 18 of these were tested for thermostability. Strain I2, chosen for a combination of antigenicity and thermostability, was artificially selected for enhanced thermostability. Master seed material was then prepared in minimal disease eggs, and vaccine by a further two passages in conventional eggs. Strain

  13. Comparative genomic sequence analysis of the Marek’s disease vaccine strain SB-1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is one of the most oncogenic herpesviruses known and induces a rapid onset T-cell lymphoma and demyelinating disease in chickens. Since the 1970s, the disease has been controlled through mass vaccination with meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 (MeHV-1). Over time the efficacy o...

  14. VACCINATION OF POULTRY: THE SPECIAL CASE OF MAREK'S DISEASE HERPESVIRUS-INDUCED LYMPHOMAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines are the cornerstone of programs to control infectious diseases in chickens. Marek's disease (MD) is caused by a cell-associated alpha herpesvirus and is characterized by lymphomas, neurological disease and immunosuppression. The disease has a rapid onset and can result in up to 100% mortal...

  15. Proof of principle for epitope-focused vaccine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Bruno E.; Bates, John T.; Loomis, Rebecca J.; Baneyx, Gretchen; Carrico, Chris; Jardine, Joseph G.; Rupert, Peter; Correnti, Colin; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Vittal, Vinayak; Connell, Mary J.; Stevens, Eric; Schroeter, Alexandria; Chen, Man; MacPherson, Skye; Serra, Andreia M.; Adachi, Yumiko; Holmes, Margaret A.; Li, Yuxing; Klevit, Rachel E.; Graham, Barney S.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Baker, David; Strong, Roland K.; Crowe, James E.; Johnson, Philip R.; Schief, William R.

    2014-03-01

    Vaccines prevent infectious disease largely by inducing protective neutralizing antibodies against vulnerable epitopes. Several major pathogens have resisted traditional vaccine development, although vulnerable epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies have been identified for several such cases. Hence, new vaccine design methods to induce epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies are needed. Here we show, with a neutralization epitope from respiratory syncytial virus, that computational protein design can generate small, thermally and conformationally stable protein scaffolds that accurately mimic the viral epitope structure and induce potent neutralizing antibodies. These scaffolds represent promising leads for the research and development of a human respiratory syncytial virus vaccine needed to protect infants, young children and the elderly. More generally, the results provide proof of principle for epitope-focused and scaffold-based vaccine design, and encourage the evaluation and further development of these strategies for a variety of other vaccine targets, including antigenically highly variable pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and influenza.

  16. Use of the Carolina HPV Immunization Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (CHIAS) in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, Amanda F.; Fuhrel-Forbis, Andrea; Konrath, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background Validated measures that can accurate describe young adults’ HPV vaccination attitudes and how these relate to vaccination intention and receipt are needed for developing interventions to improve low HPV vaccination levels. The Carolina HPV Immunization Attitudes Scale (CHIAS) is a validated measure of these outcomes that was originally designed for parents. Objective To assess the performance of the CHIAS among young adult women using an exploratory factor analysis. Methods A convenience sample of 139 young adult women (age 18–26 years) were given the CHIAS measure at baseline. Factor analysis was used to determine attitudinal factor groupings and the association of these factors with HPV vaccination intention. A 6-month follow up assessment examined the stability of the CHIAS over time and the association of baseline vaccine factors with vaccine receipt. Results Five factors loaded on to the CHIAS in young adults - “Barriers,” “Harms,” “Effectiveness,” “Risk Denial” and “Uncertainty,” - which was similar to the factor loadings of CHIAS for parents. “Harms” was the factor most consistently associated with vaccination intention at all time points assessed. Only 5 women had received or made an appointment to receive the vaccine at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusions In terms of categorizing HPV vaccination attitudes, the CHIAS appears to have similar performance among young adults as in parents. However, additional studies are needed to assess the utility of the CHIAS for predicting HPV vaccine receipt among the young adult population. PMID:24945630

  17. History of vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before. PMID:25136134

  18. Hypothesis: conjugate vaccines may predispose children to autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Richmand, Brian J

    2011-12-01

    The first conjugate vaccine was approved for use in the US in 1988 to protect infants and young children against the capsular bacteria Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Since its introduction in the US, this vaccine has been approved in most developed countries, including Denmark and Israel where the vaccine was added to their national vaccine programs in 1993 and 1994, respectively. There have been marked increases in the reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) among children in the US beginning with birth cohorts in the late 1980s and in Denmark and Israel starting approximately 4-5 years later. Although these increases may partly reflect ascertainment biases, an exogenous trigger could explain a significant portion of the reported increases in ASDs. It is hypothesized here that the introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine in the US in 1988 and its subsequent introduction in Denmark and Israel could explain a substantial portion of the initial increases in ASDs in those countries. The continuation of the trend toward increased rates of ASDs could be further explained by increased usage of the vaccine, a change in 1990 in the recommended age of vaccination in the US from 15 to 2 months, increased immunogenicity of the vaccine through changes in its carrier protein, and the subsequent introduction of the conjugate vaccine for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although conjugate vaccines have been highly effective in protecting infants and young children from the significant morbidity and mortality caused by Hib and S. pneumoniae, the potential effects of conjugate vaccines on neural development merit close examination. Conjugate vaccines fundamentally change the manner in which the immune systems of infants and young children function by deviating their immune responses to the targeted carbohydrate antigens from a state of hypo-responsiveness to a robust B2 B cell mediated response. This period of hypo-responsiveness to carbohydrate antigens coincides with the intense myelination process in infants and young children, and conjugate vaccines may have disrupted evolutionary forces that favored early brain development over the need to protect infants and young children from capsular bacteria. PMID:21993250

  19. Immune responses to oral vaccination with Salmonella-delivered avian pathogenic Escherichia coli antigens and protective efficacy against colibacillosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, John Hwa; Chaudhari, Atul A; Oh, In Gyoung; Eo, Seong Kug; Park, Sang-Youel; Jawale, Chetan V

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the immune responses to and protective efficacy of a live attenuated Salmonella-delivered vaccine candidate secreting the papA, papG, iutA, and clpG antigens of Escherichia coli were evaluated against infection with avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) in layer chickens. Primary vaccination was done at age 7 d and booster vaccination at age 5 wk. The levels of intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A specific to the 4 antigens were significantly higher in the vaccinated group than in the control group. A potent lymphocyte-proliferation response and increased levels of interferon-?, interleukin-2, and interleukin-6 in the plasma and in culture supernatants of antigen-stimulated lymphocytes from the vaccinated group suggested significant induction of the cell-mediated immune response in this group compared with the control group. Upon challenge with a virulent APEC strain at 8 wk of age, the vaccinated group had no deaths, whereas the control group had a 15% mortality rate. In addition, the morbidity rate was significantly higher in the control group (55%) than in the vaccinated group (15%). Thus, giving primary and booster vaccination with the Salmonella-delivered APEC vaccine candidate significantly elevated both mucosal and cellular immune responses, which protected the chickens against colibacillosis. PMID:26130856

  20. A single dose of recombinant Salmonella typhimurium induces specific humoral immune responses against heterologous Eimeria tenella antigens in chicken.

    PubMed

    Pogonka, Thomas; Klotz, Christian; Kovács, Ferenc; Lucius, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strains were used as antigen delivery system for oral immunisation of chickens against two antigens of the coccidian parasite Eimeria tenella. The cDNAs of the known E. tenella proteins, SO7 and TA4, were isolated from total RNA and subcloned into the expression vectors pQE30 and pTECH2. Subcutaneous immunisation of chickens with Escherichia coli-expressed SO7 and TA4 revealed that both proteins were immunogenic. Both cDNAs were subcloned into plasmids of the pTECH2 vector system, which allows them to be expressed as fusion proteins with the highly immunogenic fragment C of the tetanus toxin under control of the anaerobically inducible nirB promoter. Plasmids were introduced into the S. typhimurium vaccine strains SL3261, C5aroD and C5htrA. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis revealed expression of both fusion proteins in all strains under anaerobic culture conditions. Three-week-old white leghorn chickens were orally immunised with 10(9) CFU per animal. The stability of the recombinant bacteria was revealed by recovery of viable Salmonella containing the respective plasmids from the liver of the immunised chickens at day 3 after inoculation. Specific serum IgG antibodies against the SO7-or TA4-antigens were detectable by ELISA 2 weeks after oral immunisation and remained for at least 6 weeks, while specific IgA antibodies were restricted to the bile of the birds. All chickens produced serum IgG and IgA to S. typhimurium lipopolysaccharides. Our data show that a single oral inoculation with recombinant S. typhimurium SL3261, C5aroD and C5htrA can induce specific antibody responses to heterologous Eimeria antigens in chickens, suggesting that recombinant Salmonella are a suitable delivery system for vaccines against Eimeria infections. PMID:12547349