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1

New Candidate Eruptive Young Stars in Lynds 1340  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the discovery of three candidate eruptive young stars, found during our comprehensive multi-wavelength study of the young stellar population of the dark cloud L1340. These stars are as follows. (1) IRAS 02224+7227 (2MASS 02270555+7241167, HH 487S) exhibited FUor-like spectrum in our low-resolution optical spectra. The available photometric data restrict its luminosity to 23 L ? < L bol < 59 L ?. (2) 2MASS 02263797+7304575, identified as a classical T Tauri star during our H? survey, exhibited an EXor-type brightening in 2005 November at the time of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations of the region. (3) 2MASS 02325605+7246055, a low-mass embedded young star, associated with a fan-shaped infrared nebula, underwent an outburst between the DSS 1 and DSS 2 surveys, leading to the appearance of a faint optical nebula. Our [S II] and H? images, as well as the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera 4.5 ?m images, revealed Herbig-Haro objects associated with this star. Our results suggest that amplitudes and timescales of outbursts do not necessarily correlate with the evolutionary stage of the stars.

Kun, M.; Apai, D.; O'Linger-Luscusk, J.; Moór, A.; Stecklum, B.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Wolf-Chase, G.

2014-11-01

2

Disk tomography during the outburst of two new young eruptive stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most young stars are variable, and not only at optical, but also at infrared wavelengths. Our group had proposed a new method to interpret such light variations using a tomographic technique. It is based on analyzing the time variations of the integrated flux of a shrinking illuminated disk area during the fading. We also suggested that rearrangement in the density structure of the inner disk - mainly due to evaporation/condensation of dust particles in the outburst heat - can be seen in the multicolor light curves. The outbursts of two so-far unknown young eruptive stars in Cygnus in 2010 August offer the long-waited opportunity to perform a proof-of-concept analysis of our proposed methods to investigate disk tomography and dynamics. Here we propose to conduct a multi-epoch survey of two young eruptive star during their outburst with Spitzer/IRAC. We will obtain 3.6 and 4.5 um images at 9 epochs, and the data will be supplemented by simultaneous ground-based optical and near-infrared photometry. The flux and color variations of HBC 722 will be interpreted using the new method of disk tomography, while the corresponding data on VSX J205126.1+440523 will be interpreted in terms of the sum of variable illumination and time variable density structure of the inner disk/envelope. Our study may demonstrate that variability, in particular the wavelength dependence of flux variations over the whole infrared domain, provides an extremely powerful ?extra dimension? of information, in addition to space and wavelength.

Abraham, Peter; Kospal, Agnes; Moor, Attila

2011-05-01

3

A PECULIAR YOUNG ERUPTIVE STAR IN THE DARK CLOUD LYNDS 1340  

SciTech Connect

We conducted a long-term optical photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of the strongly variable, accreting young sun-like star [KOS94] HA11, associated with the dark cloud Lynds 1340 that exhibited large amplitude (5-6 mag in the I{sub C} band) brightness variations on 2-3 years timescales, flat spectral energy distribution (SED), and extremely strong (300{approx}< EW/A {approx}< 900) H{alpha} emission. In this Letter we describe the basic properties of the star, derived from our observations between 1999 and 2011, and put into context the observed phenomena. The observed variations in the emission spectra, near-infrared colors, and SED suggest that [KOS94] HA11 (spectral type: K7-M0) is an eruptive young star, possibly similar in nature to V1647 Ori: its large-scale photometric variations are governed by variable accretion rate, associated with variations in the inner disk structure. The star recently has undergone strong and rapid brightness variations, thus its further observations may offer a rare opportunity for studying structural and chemical rearrangements of the inner disk, induced by variable central luminosity.

Kun, M.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Moor, A.; Abraham, P.; Kelemen, J.; Pal, A.; Racz, M.; Regaly, Zs.; Szalai, N.; Szing, A. [Konkoly Observatory, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege ut 15-17 (Hungary); Acosta-Pulido, J. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200, La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Apai, D. [Steward Observatory and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Szakats, R., E-mail: kun@konkoly.hu [Baja Astronomical Observatory of Bacs-Kiskun County, P.O. Box 766, 6500 Baja (Hungary)

2011-05-20

4

The outburst and nature of two young eruptive stars in the North America/Pelican Nebula Complex  

E-print Network

Context. In August 2010, the sudden optical brightening of two young stellar objects, located in the North America/Pelican Nebula Complex, was announced. Early photometric and spectroscopic observations of these objects indicated that they may belong to the FUor or EXor class of young eruptive stars. The eruptions of FUors and EXors are often explained by enhanced accretion of material from the circumstellar disk to the protostar. Aims. In order to determine the true nature of these two objects, we started an optical and near-infrared monitoring program, and complemented our data with archival observations and data from the literature. Methods. We plot and analyze pre-outburst and outburst spectral energy distributions (SEDs), multi-filter light curves, and color-color diagrams. Results. While the quiescent SED of HBC 722 is consistent with that of a slightly reddened normal T Tauri-type star, the quiescent SED of VSX J205126.1+440523 is highly extincted, either due to an envelope, or an edge-on disk geometry...

Kóspál, Á; Acosta-Pulido, J A; Morales, M J Arévalo; Carnerero, M I; Elek, E; Kun, M; Pál, A; Szakáts, R

2010-01-01

5

The outburst and nature of two young eruptive stars in the North America/Pelican Nebula Complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The sudden optical brightening of two young stellar objects, HBC 722 and VSX J205126.1+440523, located in the North America/Pelican Nebula Complex, was announced in August 2010. Early photometric and spectroscopic observations of these objects indicated that they may belong to the FUor or EXor class of young eruptive stars. The eruptions of FUors and EXors are often explained by enhanced accretion of material from the circumstellar disk to the protostar. Aims: In order to determine the true nature of these two objects, we started an optical and near-infrared monitoring program, and complemented our data with archival observations and data from the literature. Methods: We plot and analyze pre-outburst and outburst spectral energy distributions (SEDs), multi-filter light curves, and color-color diagrams. Results: The quiescent SED of HBC 722 is consistent with that of a slightly reddened normal T Tauri-type star. The source brightened monotonically in about two months, and the SED obtained during maximum brightness indicates the appearance of a hot, single-temperature blackbody. The current fading rate implies that the star will return to quiescence in about a year, which questions its classification as a bone fide FUor. The quiescent SED of VSX J205126.1+440523 looks like that of a highly embedded Class I source. The outburst of this source happened more gradually, but reached an unprecedentedly high amplitude. Its light curves showed a deep minimum two and a half months after the peak, when the object was close to its pre-outburst optical brightness. Further monitoring indicates that it is still far from being quiescent. Conclusions: The shape of the light curves as well as the bolometric luminosities and accretion rates suggest that these objects do not fit into the classic FUor group. Although HBC 722 exhibits all spectral characteristics of a bona fide FUor, its luminosity and accretion rate is too low and its timescale is too fast compared with classical FUors. VSX J205126.1+440523 seems to be an example where quick extinction changes modulate the light curve. Figure 1 and Tables 1-3 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Kóspál, Á.; Ábrahám, P.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Arévalo Morales, M. J.; Carnerero, M. I.; Elek, E.; Kelemen, J.; Kun, M.; Pál, A.; Szakáts, R.; Vida, K.

2011-03-01

6

Identifying Young, Nearby Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Young stars have certain characteristics, e.g., high atmospheric abundance of lithium and chromospheric activity, fast rotation, distinctive space motion and strong X-ray flux compared to that of older main sequence stars. We have selected a list of candidate young (<100Myr) and nearby (<60pc) stars based on their space motion and/or strong X-ray flux. To determine space motion of a star, one needs to know its coordinates (RA, DEC), proper motion, distance, and radial velocity. The Hipparcos and Tycho catalogues provide all this information except radial velocities. We anticipate eventually searching approx. 1000 nearby stars for signs of extreme youth. Future studies of the young stars so identified will help clarify the formation of planetary systems for times between 10 and 100 million years. Certainly, the final output of this study will be a very useful resource, especially for adaptive optics and space based searches for Jupiter-mass planets and dusty proto-planetary disks. We have begun spectroscopic observations in January, 2001 with the 2.3 m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) in New South Wales, Australia. These spectra will be used to determine radial velocities and other youth indicators such as Li 6708A absorption strength and Hydrogen Balmer line intensity. Additional observations of southern hemisphere stars from SSO are scheduled in April and northern hemisphere observations will take place in May and July at the Lick Observatory of the University of California. AT SSO, to date, we have observed about 100 stars with a high resolution spectrometer (echelle) and about 50 stars with a medium spectral resolution spectrometer (the "DBS"). About 20% of these stars turn out to be young stars. Among these, two especially noteworthy stars appear to be the closest T-Tauri stars ever identified. Interestingly, these stars share the same space motions as that of a very famous star with a dusty circumstellar disk--beta Pictoris. This new finding better constrains the age of beta Pictoris to be approx. 10 Myr.

Webb, Rich; Song, Inseok; Zuckerman, Ben; Bessell, Mike

2001-01-01

7

Ages of Young Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the sequence of events in the formation of stars and planetary systems and their timescales is essential for understanding those processes, yet establishing ages is fundamentally difficult because we lack direct indicators. In this review we discuss the age challenge for young stars, specifically those less than ~100 m.y. old. Most age determination methods that we discuss are primarily applicable to groups of stars but can be used to estimate the age of individual objects. A reliable age scale is established above 20 m.y. from measurement of the lithium depletion boundary (LDB) in young clusters, and consistency is shown between these ages and those from the upper-main-sequence (UMS) and main-sequence (MS) turn-off — if modest core convection and rotation is included in the models of higher-mass stars. Other available methods for age estimation include the kinematics of young groups, placing stars in Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams (HRDs), pulsations and seismology, surface gravity measurement, rotation and activity, and Li abundance. We review each of these methods and present known strengths and weaknesses. Below ~20 m.y., both model-dependent and observational uncertainties grow, the situation is confused by the possibility of age spreads, and no reliable absolute ages yet exist. The lack of absolute age calibration below 20 m.y. should be born in mind when considering the lifetimes of protostellar phases and circumstellar material.

Soderblom, D. R.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; Jeffries, R. D.; Mamajek, E. E.; Naylor, T.

8

A systematic survey for eruptive young stellar objects using mid-infrared photometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accretion in young stellar objects (YSOs) is at least partially episodic, i.e. periods with high accretion rates (`bursts') are interspersed by quiescent phases. These bursts manifest themselves as eruptive variability. Here we present a systematic survey for eruptive YSOs aiming to constrain the frequency of accretion bursts. We compare mid-infrared photometry from Spitzer and WISE separated by ˜5 yr for two samples of YSOs, in nearby star-forming regions and in the Galactic plane, each comprising about 4000 young sources. All objects for which the brightness at 3.6 and 4.5 ?m is increased by at least 1 mag between the two epochs may be eruptive variables and burst candidates. For these objects, we carry out follow-up observations in the near-infrared. We discover two new eruptive variables in the Galactic plane which could be FU Ori-type objects, with K-band amplitudes of more than 1.5 mag. One object known to undergo an accretion burst, V2492 Cyg, is recovered by our search as well. In addition, the young star ISO-Oph-50, previously suspected to be an eruptive object, is found to be better explained by a disc with varying circumstellar obscuration. In total, the number of burst events in a sample of 4000 YSOs is 1-4. Assuming that all YSOs undergo episodic accretion, this constraint can be used to show that phases of strong accretion (>10-6 M? yr-1) occur in intervals of about 104 yr, most likely between 5000 and 50 000 yr. This is consistent with the dynamical time-scales for outflows, but not with the separations of emission knots in outflows, indicating that episodic accretion could either trigger or stop collimated large-scale outflows.

Scholz, Alexander; Froebrich, Dirk; Wood, Kenneth

2013-04-01

9

Eruptions at Lone Star Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, USA, part 1: energetics and eruption dynamics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geysers provide a natural laboratory to study multiphase eruptive processes. We present results from a four–day experiment at Lone Star Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, USA. We simultaneously measured water discharge, acoustic emissions, infraredintensity, and visible and infrared video to quantify the energetics and dynamics of eruptions, occurring approximately every three hours. We define four phases in the eruption cycle: 1) a 28?±?3 minute phase with liquid and steam fountaining, with maximum jet velocities of 16–28?m s??1, steam mass fraction of less than ??0.01. Intermittently choked flow and flow oscillations with periods increasing from 20 to 40?s are coincident with a decrease in jet velocity and an increase of steam fraction; 2) a 26?±?8 minute post–eruption relaxation phase with no discharge from the vent, infrared (IR) and acoustic power oscillations gliding between 30 and 40?s; 3) a 59?±?13 minute recharge period during which the geyser is quiescent and progressively refills, and 4) a 69?±?14 minute pre–play period characterized by a series of 5–10?minute–long pulses of steam, small volumes of liquid water discharge and 50–70?s flow oscillations. The erupted waters ascend froma 160???170° C reservoir and the volume discharged during the entire eruptive cycle is 20.8?±?4.1 m3. Assuming isentropic expansion, we calculate a heat output from the geyser of 1.4–1.5?MW, which is

Karlstrom, Leif; Hurwitz, Shaul; Sohn, Robert; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Murphy, Fred; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Johnston, Malcolm J.S.; Manga, Michael; McCleskey, R. Blaine

2013-01-01

10

Eruptions at Lone Star Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, USA: 1. Energetics and eruption dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geysers provide a natural laboratory to study multiphase eruptive processes. We present results from a 4 day experiment at Lone Star Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, USA. We simultaneously measured water discharge, acoustic emissions, infrared intensity, and visible and infrared video to quantify the energetics and dynamics of eruptions, occurring approximately every 3 h. We define four phases in the eruption cycle (1) a 28±3 min phase with liquid and steam fountaining, with maximum jet velocities of 16-28 m s-1, steam mass fraction of less than ˜0.01. Intermittently choked flow and flow oscillations with periods increasing from 20 to 40 s are coincident with a decrease in jet velocity and an increase of steam fraction; (2) a 26±8 min posteruption relaxation phase with no discharge from the vent, infrared (IR), and acoustic power oscillations gliding between 30 and 40 s; (3) a 59±13 min recharge period during which the geyser is quiescent and progressively refills, and (4) a 69±14 min preplay period characterized by a series of 5-10 min long pulses of steam, small volumes of liquid water discharge, and 50-70 s flow oscillations. The erupted waters ascend from a 160-170°C reservoir, and the volume discharged during the entire eruptive cycle is 20.8±4.1 m3. Assuming isentropic expansion, we calculate a heat output from the geyser of 1.4-1.5 MW, which is <0.1% of the total heat output from Yellowstone Caldera.

Karlstrom, Leif; Hurwitz, Shaul; Sohn, Robert; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Murphy, Fred; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Johnston, Malcolm J. S.; Manga, Michael; McCleskey, R. Blaine

2013-08-01

11

Young and Waltzing Binary Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ADONIS Observes Low-mass Eclipsing System in Orion Summary A series of very detailed images of a binary system of two young stars have been combined into a movie . In merely 3 days, the stars swing around each other. As seen from the earth, they pass in front of each other twice during a full revolution, producing eclipses during which their combined brightness diminishes . A careful analysis of the orbital motions has now made it possible to deduce the masses of the two dancing stars . Both turn out to be about as heavy as our Sun. But while the Sun is about 4500 million years old, these two stars are still in their infancy. They are located some 1500 light-years away in the Orion star-forming region and they probably formed just 10 million years ago . This is the first time such an accurate determination of the stellar masses could be achieved for a young binary system of low-mass stars . The new result provides an important piece of information for our current understanding of how young stars evolve. The observations were obtained by a team of astronomers from Italy and ESO [1] using the ADaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS) on the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. PR Photo 29a/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before primary eclipse PR Photo 29b/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-primary eclipse PR Photo 29c/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after primary eclipse PR Photo 29d/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before secondary eclipse PR Photo 29e/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-secondary eclipse PR Photo 29f/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after secondary eclipse PR Video Clip 06/01 : Video of the RXJ 0529.4+0041 system Binary stars and stellar masses Since some time, astronomers have noted that most stars seem to form in binary or multiple systems. This is quite fortunate, as the study of binary stars is the only way in which it is possible to measure directly one of the most fundamental quantities of a star, its mass. The mass of a star determines its fate . Massive stars (with masses more than 50 times that of the Sun) lead a glorious, but short life. They are hot and very luminous and exhaust their energy supply in just a few million years. At the other end of the scale, low-mass stars like the Sun are more economical with their resources. Being cooler and dimmer, they are able to shine for billions of years [2]. But although the mass determines the fate of a star, it is not a trivial matter to measure this crucial parameter. In fact, it can only be determined directly if the star happens to be gravitationally bound to another star in a binary stellar system. Observations of the orbital motions of the two stars as they circle each other allows to "weigh" them, and also provide other important information, e.g. about their sizes and temperatures. Orbital motions The understanding of orbital motions has a long history in astronomy. The basic laws of Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) are still used to calculate the masses of orbiting objects, in the solar system as well as in binary stellar systems. However, while the observations of the motion of the nine planets and moons have allowed us to measure quite accurately the masses of objects in our vicinity, the information needed to "weigh" the binary stellar systems is not that easy to obtain. As a result, the mass estimates of the stars in binary systems are often rather uncertain. A main problem is that the individual stars in many binary systems can not be visually separated, even in the best telescopes. The information about the orbit may then come from the motions of the stars, if these are revealed by spectroscopic observations of the combined light (such systems are referred to as "spectroscopic binaries"). If absorption lines from both components are present in the spectrum, the measured wavelength of these double lines will shift periodically back and forth. This is the well-known Doppler effect and it directly reflects the changing velocities of the stars, as they move along their orbits and periodically a

2001-10-01

12

Eruptive Mass Loss in Very Massive Stars and Population III Stars  

E-print Network

I discuss the role played by short-duration eruptive mass loss in the evolution of very massive stars. Giant eruptions of Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) like the 19th century event of eta Carinae can remove large quantities of mass almost instantaneously, making them significant in stellar evolution. They can potentially remove much more mass from the star than line-driven winds, especially if stellar winds are highly clumped such that previous estimates of O star mass-loss rates need to be revised downward. When seen in other galaxies as ``supernova impostors'', these LBV eruptions typically last for less than a decade, and they can remove of order 10 Msun as indicated by massive nebulae around LBVs. Such extreme mass-loss rates cannot be driven by radiation pressure on spectral lines, because the lines will completely saturate during the events. Instead, these outbursts must either be continuum-driven super-Eddington winds or outright hydrodynamic explosions, both of which are insensitive to metallicity. As such, this eruptive mode of mass loss could also play a pivotal role in the evolution and ultimate fate of massive metal-poor stars in the early universe. If they occur in these Population III stars, such eruptions would also profoundly affect the chemical yield and types of remnants from early supernovae and hypernovae thought to be the origin of long gamma ray bursts.

Nathan Smith

2006-07-19

13

Dating young basalt eruptions by (U-Th)\\/He on xenolithic zircons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate ages for young (e.g., Pleistocene) volcanic eruptions are important for geomorphic, tectonic, climatic, and hazard studies. Existing techniques can be time-consuming and expensive when many ages are needed, and in the case of K\\/Ar and 40Ar\\/39Ar dating, extraneous Ar often can limit precision, especially for continental basalts erupted through old lithosphere. We present a new technique for dating young

Madalyn S. Blondes; Peter W. Reiners; Benjamin R. Edwards; Adrian Biscontini

2007-01-01

14

A search for nearby young stars among the flare stars  

E-print Network

Flare stars were discovered in the late 1940s in the solar vicinity and were named UV Cet-type variables (classical FSs). Among the FSs within 100 pc we search for young stars. For the search we take spectra with sufficient resolution to resolve Lithium at 6707 \\AA and Calcium at 6718 \\AA of all the stars. The real young stars are prime targets for the search of extra-solar planets by direct imaging.

Brigitte König; Ralph Neuhäuser; Valeri Hambaryan

2001-06-11

15

Interstellar Extinction Toward Young Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present work on a molecular hydrogen (H2) fluorescence model to characterize the ultraviolet (UV) extinction curve along the line of sight towards young stars with circumstellar disks. Stellar UV radiation plays a strong role in heating the disk gas and driving chemical reactions, so it is important to measure the UV extinction curve in order to reconstruct the intrinsic stellar UV flux impacting the disk. To measure the extinction, we compare modeled H2 fluorescence spectra to observed H2 lines. Lyman-alpha radiation from the stars pumps electronic transitions of H2 in the disk, and we model the flux that is re-emitted through the subsequent fluorescent cascade. We then extract the extinction along the line-of-sight over the 1100-1700 Angstrom wavelength region from the difference between the modeled H2 fluorescence and the HST-COS data. The shape of the extinction curve allows us to characterize the dust grain distribution in the intervening material as well as to recover the intrinsic spectral energy distribution of the stars over a wide wavelength range.

McJunkin, Matthew; France, Kevin

2015-01-01

16

Young Star Clusters in Starburst Environments  

E-print Network

Recent high-resolution observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) reveal that young star clusters of extraordinary luminosity and compactness ("super star clusters") are commonly found in starburst systems. Cluster formation appears to be a dominant mode of star formation in starbursts. The principal properties of the young clusters are summarized. A new ultraviolet HST imaging survey of the central regions of nearby galaxies indicates that young clusters form in a wide range of environments. Circumnuclear star-forming rings, in particular, are richly populated with clusters, and several examples from recent imaging studies are discussed. There has been much speculation that super star clusters represent present-day analogs of young globular clusters. I will present evidence suggesting that at least some super star clusters indeed have masses and mass densities comparable to those of evolved globular clusters in the Milky Way.

Luis C. Ho

1996-06-04

17

The GALEX Nearby Young-Star Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last few decades, many young stars (ages ~10-100 Myr) have been discovered in moving groups within 100 parsecs of Earth. These stars represent excellent targets for direct imaging searches of extrasolar planets during the coming decades as new imaging systems and larger telescopes are commissioned. However, if the mass functions of nearby young moving groups resembles that of the field or young, rich clusters, then the presently known membership of these nearby groups is significantly lacking in low-mass stars. We have initiated a program, the GALEX Nearby Young-Star Survey, or GALNYSS, to search for these missing M-stars. GALNYSS has combined ultraviolet data from GALEX with near-IR surveys (WISE and 2MASS), as well as kinematic information, in order to identify over 2000 candidate young low-mass stars near Earth. Spectroscopic followup is ongoing, and results thus far confirm the youthful nature of many stars among the GALNYSS sample. This suggests that our technique is capable of revealing the populations of low-mass stars that are presently missing from the nearby young moving groups. We present an overview of our survey to date, including the characteristics of the GALNYSS sample and a summary of GALNYSS's latest contributions to our knowledge of the number and membership of nearby, young stellar associations. This work is supported by NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program award NNX12AH37G to RIT and UCLA and Chilean FONDECYT grant 3130520 to Universidad de Chile.

Rodriguez, David; Zuckerman, B. M.; Kastner, J. H.; Vican, L.; Bessell, M. S.; Faherty, J. K.; Murphy, S.

2014-01-01

18

Dustiest Star Could Harbor a Young Earth  

NSF Publications Database

... Biology Chemistry & Materials Computing Earth & Environment Education Engineering Mathematics ... 05-122Dustiest Star Could Harbor a Young Earth The thick dust shrouding BD +20 307 is thought to ...

19

The GALEX Nearby Young-Star Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last few decades, many ~10-100 Myr-old stars have been identified in moving groups located closer than 100 parsecs to Earth. For direct imaging searches of extrasolar planets these stars represent the best targets and they will be continuously observed during the coming decades as new imaging systems and larger telescopes are commissioned. Recent work has shown that near-IR surveys, like 2MASS, combined with ultraviolet data from GALEX can be used to identify additional members in these moving groups. In particular, this methodology is well suited to searching for low-mass stars, which are generally lacking in moving group member statistics. Initial searches for young stars relied on optical identification (such as with Tycho and Hipparcos) and X-ray detection with ROSAT. The recent release of the all-sky WISE catalog has opened up a new frontier in the search for nearby, young, low-mass stars. We have carried out an all-sky cross correlation between the GALEX, WISE, and 2MASS databases and identified many candidate young, low-mass stars. Early spectroscopic results confirm the youthful nature of our candidates. This suggests that our technique is capable of identifying the many low-mass stars that remain to be found among the nearby young moving groups. This work is supported by a NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program award to RIT and UCLA and a FONDECYT grant at Universidad de Chile.

Rodriguez, David; Zuckerman, Ben; Kastner, Joel; Bessell, Mike; Faherty, Jacqueline; Murphy, Simon; Vican, Laura

2013-07-01

20

Young stars in the Galactic center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central parsec of our Galaxy hosts not only a supermassive black hole, but also a large population of young stars (age <6 Myr) whose presence is puzzling given how inhospitable the region is for star formation. The strong tidal forces require gas densities many orders of magnitude higher than is found in typical molecular clouds. Kinematic observations of this young nuclear cluster show complex structures, including a well-defined inner disk, but also a substantial off-disk population. Spectroscopic and photometric measurements indicate the initial mass function (IMF) differs significantly from the canonical IMF found in the solar neighborhood. These observations have led to a number of proposed star formation scenarios, such as an infalling massive star cluster, a single infalling molecular cloud, or cloud-cloud collisions. I will review recent works on the young stars in the central parsec and discuss connections with young nuclear star clusters in other galaxies, such as M31, and with star formation in the larger central molecular zone.

Lu, Jessica R.; Ghez, Andrea M.; Morris, Mark R.; Clarkson, Will; Stolte, Andrea; Do, Tuan; Yelda, Sylvana; Anderson, Jay

2014-05-01

21

Echography of young stars reveals their evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that a seismic analysis of stars in their earliest evolutionary phases is a powerful method with which to identify young stars and distinguish their evolutionary states. The early star that is born from the gravitational collapse of a molecular cloud reaches at some point sufficient temperature, mass, and luminosity to be detected. Accretion stops, and the pre-main sequence star that emerges is nearly fully convective and chemically homogeneous. It will continue to contract gravitationally until the density and temperature in the core are high enough to start nuclear burning of hydrogen. We show that there is a relationship for a sample of young stars between detected pulsation properties and their evolutionary status, illustrating the potential of asteroseismology for the early evolutionary phases.

Zwintz, K.; Fossati, L.; Ryabchikova, T.; Guenther, D.; Aerts, C.; Barnes, T. G.; Themeßl, N.; Lorenz, D.; Cameron, C.; Kuschnig, R.; Pollack-Drs, S.; Moravveji, E.; Baglin, A.; Matthews, J. M.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Poretti, E.; Rainer, M.; Rucinski, S. M.; Sasselov, D.; Weiss, W. W.

2014-08-01

22

Numerical Simulations of Giant Eruptions from Massive Stars and their Recoveries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a 3D hydro code to model the response of a massive star to a high mass loss episode. Starting with a modified version of the 1D stellar evolution code MESA, we obtain a model of an evolved massive star, with properties similar to those of Eta Carinae, known for its giant eruption in the 19th century.We simulate a giant eruption using two approaches:1.Removing a layer from the star using energy from inner layers.2.Extracting energy from the core to outer layers that spontaneously causes mass loss.We then follow the evolution of the star using the FLASH code. Our hydrodynamical simulation includes radiation transfer with realistic opacities and convection.We find that the star develops a strong wind, powered by pulsation in the inner parts of the star. The strong eruptive mass loss phase lasts for a few years, followed by centuries of continually weakening mass loss.

Kashi, Amit; Davidson, Kris; Humphreys, Roberta M.

2015-01-01

23

Young Star Populations in the Kepler Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kepler satellite is providing spectacular optical photometric light-curves of unprecedented precision and duration that routinely allow detailed studies of stellar magnetic activity on late-type stars that were difficult previously. Kepler provides multi-year duration light-curves that allow investigation of how activity phenomena -- such as the growth, migration, and decay of star-spots, differential rotation, activity cycles, and flaring -- operate on a wide variety of single and binary stars. The 105 square degree Kepler Field contains tens of thousands of late-type stars showing rotational modulation due to star-spots with periods ranging from one day to a ``solar-like'' month. Short rotation periods and high levels of magnetic activity are strongly correlated. However, there are only two basic reasons why stars with rotation periods of a few days possess such high angular momentum --- either they are close binaries or they are young stars. During Kepler GO Cycles 1 through 4 we have been studying the Long-cadence (30 minute sampling) photometry of hundreds of active late-type stars and as an absolutely essential complement we have been obtaining high resolution optical spectra to understand the physical properties of these stars. We present results from a spectroscopic survey using the MMT Hectochelle multi-object echelle of 4 square degrees of the Kepler Field. We have discovered a significant population of young stars with Li I absorption indicating ages of ~100 Myr or less at a spatial density of at least 20 stars per square degree. Our detected young star sample comprises at least 80 stars and represents a dramatic advance compared to the previously known sample over the full Kepler Field of three stars in this age range. Roughly one sixth of the stars observed are young and a similar number short-period binaries based on 2-4 radial velocities. We show how the rotational properties of the stars and their physical properties are related. This work is based on data obtained with the NASA Kepler satellite and the MMT Hectochelle spectrograph using NOAO community access time. Support by NASA Kepler grants to the University of Colorado and by NSF grant to the College of Charleston.

Brown, Alexander; Neff, J. E.; Wells, M.; Saar, S.; Furesz, G.; Walkowicz, L. M.; Ayres, T. R.; Basri, G. S.; Berdyugina, S.; Harper, G.; Hawley, S. L.; Korhonen, H.; Kowalski, A.; Micela, G.; Piskunov, N. E.; Ramsey, L. W.

2013-01-01

24

Young star clusters: Progenitors of globular clusters!?  

E-print Network

Star cluster formation is a major mode of star formation in the extreme conditions of interacting galaxies and violent starbursts. Young clusters are observed to form in a variety of such galaxies, a substantial number resembling the progenitors of globular clusters in mass and size, but with significantly enhanced metallicity. From studies of the metal-poor and metal-rich star cluster populations of galaxies, we can therefore learn about the violent star formation history of these galaxies, and eventually about galaxy formation and evolution. We present a new set of evolutionary synthesis models of our GALEV code, with special emphasis on the gaseous emission of presently forming star clusters, and a new tool to compare extensive model grids with multi-color broad-band observations to determine individual cluster masses, metallicities, ages and extinction values independently. First results for young star clusters in the dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 1569 are presented. The mass distributions determined for the young clusters give valuable input to dynamical star cluster system evolution models, regarding survival and destruction of clusters. We plan to investigate an age sequence of galaxy mergers to see dynamical destruction effects in process.

P. Anders; U. Fritze--v. Alvensleben; R. de Grijs

2003-09-04

25

Starspots on Young Solar-Type Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Doppler Imaging of starspots on young solar analogues is a way to investigate the early history of solar magnetic activity by proxy. Doppler images of young G-dwarfs have yielded the presence of large polar spots, extending to moderate latitudes, along with measurements of the surface differential rotation. The differential rotation measurement for one star (RX J0850.1-7554) suggests it is possibly the first example of a young G-type dwarf whose surface rotates as almost a solid body, in marked contrast to the differential rotation of other rapidly rotating young G-dwarfs and the present-day Sun. Overall, our Doppler imaging results show that the young Sun possessed a fundamentally different dynamo to today.

Brown, Carolyn; Carter, Brad; Marsden, Stephen; Waite, Ian

2014-08-01

26

Young Massive Star Clusters in Spiral Galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Using ground-based UBVRIH,CCD photometry we have been carrying out a search for young massive star clus- ters (YMCs) in a sample consisting of 21 nearby spiral galaxies. We find a large variety concerning the richness of the cluster sys- tems, with some galaxies containing no YMCs at all and others hosting very large numbers of YMCs. Examples of galaxies

Soeren S. Larsen; T. Richtler

1999-01-01

27

ERUPTIVE VARIABLE STARS AND OUTFLOWS IN SERPENS NW  

SciTech Connect

We study the outflow activity, photometric variability, and morphology of three very young stellar objects in the Serpens NW star-forming region: OO Serpentis, EC 37 (V370 Ser), and EC 53 (V371 Ser). High spatial resolution Keck/NIRC2 laser guide star adaptive optics images obtained in 2007 and 2009 in broadband K and in a narrowband filter centered on the 1-0 S(1) emission line of H{sub 2} allow us to identify the outflows from all three objects. We also present new, seeing-limited data on the photometric evolution of the OO Ser reflection nebula and re-analyze previously published data. We find that OO Ser declined in brightness from its outburst peak in 1995 to about 2003, but that this decline has recently stopped and actually reversed itself in some areas of the reflection nebula. The morphology and proper motions of the shock fronts MHO 2218 near EC 37 suggest that they all originate in EC 37 and that this is an outflow seen nearly along its axis. We identify an H{sub 2} jet emerging from the cometary nebula EC 53. The star illuminating EC 53 is periodically variable with a period of 543 days and has a close-by, non-variable companion at a projected distance of 92 AU. We argue that the periodic variability is the result of accretion instabilities triggered by another very close, not directly observable, binary companion and that EC 53 can be understood in the model of a multiple system developing into a hierarchical configuration.

Hodapp, Klaus W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Chini, Rolf; Watermann, Ramon; Lemke, Roland, E-mail: hodapp@ifa.hawaii.edu [Ruhr Universitaet Bochum, Astronomisches Institut, Universitaetsstrasse 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

2012-01-01

28

Captured older stars as the reason for apparently prolonged star formation in young star clusters  

E-print Network

The existence of older stars within a young star cluster can be interpreted to imply that star formation occurs on time scales longer than a free-fall time of a pre-cluster cloud core. Here the idea is explored that these older stars are not related to the star formation process forming the young star cluster but rather that the orbits of older field stars are focused by the collapsing pre-cluster cloud core. Two effects appear: The focussing of stellar orbits leads to an enhancement of the density of field stars in the vicinity of the centre of the young star cluster. And due to the time-dependent potential of the forming cluster some of these stars can get bound gravitationally to the cluster. These stars exhibit similar kinematical properties as the newly formed stars and can not be distinguished from them on the basis of radial-velocity or proper-motion surveys. Such contaminations may lead to a wrong apparent star-formation history of a young cluster. In the case of the ONC the theoretical number of gravitationally bound older low-mass field stars agrees with the number of observed older low-mass stars.

Jan Pflamm-Altenburg; Pavel Kroupa

2006-11-16

29

Radio and infrared properties of young stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observing young stars, or more appropriately, pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars, in the infrared and at radio frequencies has the advantage over optical observation in that the heavy extinction associated with a star forming region is only a minor problem, so that the whole region can be studied thoroughly. Therefore, it means being able to: (1) search for stars and do statistical studies on the rate of star formation; (2) determine their luminosity, hence, to study luminosity functions and initial mass functions down to low masses; and (3) to study their spectra and, thus, to determine the prevailing conditions at and near the surface of a newly born star and its relations with the surrounding environment. The third point is of principal interest. The report limits itself to a consideration of the observations concerning the processes of outflows from, and accretion onto, PMS stars and the theory necessary to interpret them. Section 2 discusses the radiative processes relevant in stellar outflows. The main observational results are presented in Section 3. A discussion of the statistical properties of stellar winds from PMS stars are given in Section 4.

Panagia, Nino

1987-01-01

30

Eruptions at Lone Star geyser, Yellowstone National Park, USA: 2. Constraints on subsurface dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

use seismic, tilt, lidar, thermal, and gravity data from 32 consecutive eruption cycles of Lone Star geyser in Yellowstone National Park to identify key subsurface processes throughout the geyser's eruption cycle. Previously, we described measurements and analyses associated with the geyser's erupting jet dynamics. Here we show that seismicity is dominated by hydrothermal tremor (~5-40 Hz) attributed to the nucleation and/or collapse of vapor bubbles. Water discharge during eruption preplay triggers high-amplitude tremor pulses from a back azimuth aligned with the geyser cone, but during the rest of the eruption cycle it is shifted to the east-northeast. Moreover, ~4 min period ground surface displacements recur every 26 ± 8 min and are uncorrelated with the eruption cycle. Based on these observations, we conclude that (1) the dynamical behavior of the geyser is controlled by the thermo-mechanical coupling between the geyser conduit and a laterally offset reservoir periodically filled with a highly compressible two-phase mixture, (2) liquid and steam slugs periodically ascend into the shallow crust near the geyser system inducing detectable deformation, (3) eruptions occur when the pressure decrease associated with overflow from geyser conduit during preplay triggers an unstable feedback between vapor generation (cavitation) and mass discharge, and (4) flow choking at a constriction in the conduit arrests the runaway process and increases the saturated vapor pressure in the reservoir by a factor of ~10 during eruptions.

Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Sohn, Robert A.; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Manga, Michael; Johnston, Malcolm J. S.; Soule, S. Adam; McPhee, Darcy; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Karlstrom, Leif; Murphy, Fred

2014-12-01

31

Jets and disks around young stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equilibrium models are constructed for quasi-Keplerian pressure-confined gas disks with a constant half-thickness-to-radius ratio, in the gravitational field of a central massive object (young star). It is shown that the equilibrium parameters of such disks are uniquely determined by the physical parameters of the surrounding atmosphere. A linear analysis is performed for the stability of a model with a gas

K. A. Levin; V. V. Mustsevoi; S. S. Khrapov

1999-01-01

32

Young cumulate complex beneath Veniaminof caldera, Aleutian arc, dated by zircon in erupted plutonic blocks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mount Veniaminof volcano, Alaska Peninsula, provides an opportunity to relate Quaternary volcanic rocks to a coeval intrusive complex. Veniaminof erupted tholeiitic basalt through dacite in the past ???260 k.y. Gabbro, diorite, and miarolitic granodiorite blocks, ejected 3700 14C yr B.P. in the most recent caldera-forming eruption, are fragments of a shallow intrusive complex of cumulate mush and segregated vapor-saturated residual melts. Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) analyses define 238U-230Th isochron ages of 17.6 ?? 2.7 ka, 5+11/-10 ka, and 10.2 ?? 4.0 ka (2??) for zircon in two granodiorites and a diorite, respectively. Sparse zircons from two gabbros give 238-230Th model ages of 36 ?? 8 ka and 26 ?? 7 ka. Zircons from granodiorite and diorite crystallized in the presence of late magmatic aqueous fluid. Although historic eruptions have been weakly explosive Strombolian fountaining and small lava effusions, the young ages of plutonic blocks, as well as late Holocene dacite pumice, are evidence that the intrusive complex remains active and that evolved magmas can segregate at shallow levels to fuel explosive eruptions. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

Bacon, C.R.; Sison, T.W.; Mazdab, F.K.

2007-01-01

33

Jets from young stars and brown dwarfs  

E-print Network

The protostellar outflow mechanism operates for a significant fraction of the pre-main sequence phase of a solar mass star and is thought to have a key role in star and perhaps even planet formation. This energetic mechanism manifests itself in several different forms and on many scales. Thus outflow activity can be probed in numerous different regimes from radio to X-ray wavelengths. Recent discoveries have shown that it is not only solar mass stars that launch outflows during their formation but also the sub-stellar brown dwarfs. In this article what is currently known about jets from young stars is summarised, including an outline of why it is important to study jets. The second part of this article is dedicated to jets from young brown dwarfs. While only a small number of brown dwarf outflows have been investigated to date, interesting properties have been observed. Here observations of brown dwarf outflows are described and what is currently known of their properties compared to low mass protostellar out...

Whelan, E T

2014-01-01

34

Young Binary Stars and Associated Disks  

E-print Network

The typical product of the star formation process is a binary star. Binaries have provided the first dynamical measures of the masses of pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars, providing support for the calibrations of PMS evolutionary tracks. Surprisingly, in some star-forming regions PMS binary frequencies are higher than among main-sequence solar-type stars. The difference in PMS and main-sequence binary frequencies is apparently not an evolutionary effect; recent attention has focussed on correlations between binary frequency and stellar density or cloud temperatures. Accretion disks are common among young binary stars. Binaries with separations between 1 AU and 100 AU have substantially less submillimeter emission than closer or wider binaries, suggesting that they have truncated their disks. Evidence of dynamical clearing has been seen in several binaries. Remarkably, PMS binaries of all separations show evidence of circumstellar disks and continued accretion. This suggests that the circumstellar disks are replenished from circumbinary disks or envelopes. The frequent presence of disks suggests that planet formation can occur in binary environments, and formation of planets in wide binaries is already established by their discovery. Circumbinary disk masses around very short period binaries are ample to form planetary systems such as our own. The nature of planetary systems among the most common binaries, with separations between 10 AU and 100 AU, is less clear given the observed reduction in disk mass, though they may have disk masses adequate for the formation of terrestrial-like planets.

Robert D. Mathieu; Andrea M. Ghez; Eric L. N. Jensen; Michal Simon

1999-09-24

35

SED modeling of Young Massive Stars  

E-print Network

In this contribution, I review the applications and potential limitations of the spectral energy distribution fitting tool that I have developed, with a strong emphasis on the limits to which this tool can be used to improve our understanding of massive star formation. I discuss why our current grid of models cannot be used to distinguish between the several competing theories of massive star formation. I also discuss stellar mass determinations, artificial correlations between parameters in the grid of models, multiplicity, confusion, dust assumptions, and unique fits. I briefly review the improvements we intend to carry out for our next grid of models, which will eliminate many of these limitations. Finally, I show examples of applications of this tool to massive young stars.

Thomas P. Robitaille

2007-11-27

36

TeV mu Neutrinos from Young Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

Neutron stars are efficient accelerators for bringing charges up to relativistic energies. We show that if positive ions are accelerated to ~1 PeV near the surface of a young neutron star (t_age Earth; the star would be a ``neutrino pulsar''. Looking for muon neutrino emission from young neutron stars will provide a valuable probe of the energetics of the neutron star magnetosphere.

B. Link; Fiorella Burgio

2004-12-20

37

NEW YOUNG STAR CANDIDATES IN CG4 AND Sa101  

SciTech Connect

The CG4 and Sa101 regions together cover a region of {approx}0.5 deg{sup 2} in the vicinity of a 'cometary globule' that is part of the Gum Nebula. There are seven previously identified young stars in this region; we have searched for new young stars using mid- and far-infrared data (3.6-70 {mu}m) from the Spitzer Space Telescope, combined with ground-based optical data and near-infrared data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. We find infrared excesses in all six of the previously identified young stars in our maps and identify 16 more candidate young stars based on apparent infrared excesses. Most (73%) of the new young stars are Class II objects. There is a tighter grouping of young stars and young star candidates in the Sa101 region, in contrast to the CG4 region, where there are fewer young stars and young star candidates, and they are more dispersed. Few likely young objects are found in the 'fingers' of the dust being disturbed by the ionization front from the heart of the Gum Nebula.

Rebull, L. M.; Laine, S.; Laher, R.; Legassie, M. [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, M/S 220-6, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Johnson, C. H. [Breck School Science Department, 123 Ottawa Ave., N., Golden Valley, MN 55422 (United States); Hoette, V. [The University of Chicago Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yerkes Observatory Education and Outreach, 373 W. Geneva St., Williams Bay, WI 53191 (United States); Kim, J. S.; Foster, M. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mallory, C. R. [Department of Astronomy, Pierce College, 6201 Winnetka Ave., Woodland Hills, CA 91371 (United States); McCarron, K. [Science Division, Oak Park and River Forest High School, 201 N. Scoville Ave., Oak Park, IL 60302 (United States); Sherry, W. H., E-mail: luisa.rebull@jpl.nasa.gov [NOAO/NSO, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

2011-07-15

38

Embedded young stars in northern NGC 3372  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep narrow-band (Br? at 2.17?m and H_2 at 2.12?m) and broad-band (JHKs) near-infrared images are presented of the young regions Tr14-N4 and Car I. The observations were made with PANIC, attached to the Baade 6.5 m Magellan Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. These were supplemented by archive Spitzer/IRAC images. Evidence is given of an embedded young compact cluster (r=23'') of medium-to-low mass stars in Tr14-N4 but that includes at least one high mass protostar. Its properties are derived from the 1.2 to 11?m photometry. The presence of outflows is evinced by knotty H_2 emission near the edge of a cavity. We also presented updates of near-IR light-curves of Car I-136 and 125 embedded in the dark cloud associated with Car I.

Tapia, M.; Roth, M.; Persi, P.

2011-10-01

39

New Young Star Candidates in BRC 27  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All stars originate from clouds of interstellar gas that collapse either under their own gravity or with external help. In triggered star formation, the collapse of a cloud is initiated by pressure, e.g., from nearby star(s). When the external source is bright stars, it can illuminate the rims of the cloud, creating bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs) to be visible at optical and infrared (IR) wavelengths. We searched for new candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) primarily using the March 2012 all-sky release of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data in BRC 27, which is part of CMa R1, a region of known star formation. Spitzer data of a 5’x5’ region centered on BRC 27 were presented by Johnson et al. 2012 and Rebull et al. 2012. We investigated WISE data within a 20 arcminute radius of BRC 27 0.35 sq. deg), combining it with Spitzer data serendipitously obtained in this region, 2MASS data, and optical data. We started from nearly 4000 WISE sources and identified about 200 candidate YSOs via a series of color cuts (Koenig et al. 2012) to identify objects with WISE colors consistent with other YSOs, e.g., having an apparent IR excess. There are about 100 objects in this region already identified in the literature as possible YSOs, about 40 of which we recovered with the color cuts. We investigated these literature YSOs and YSO candidates in all available images, and created spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and color-magnitude diagrams for further analysis of each object. We will present an analysis of our selected sub-sample of YSO candidates. This research was made possible through the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Project (NITARP) and was funded by NASA Astrophysics Data Program and Archive Outreach funds. Our education results are described in a companion education poster, Bonadurer et al.

Novatne, Lauren J.; Mattrocce, G.; Milan, T.; Quinonez, A.; Rebull, L. M.; Barge, J.; Amayo, R.; Bieber, H.; Block, L.; Cheung, E.; Cruz, A.; Elkin, D.; Figueroa, A.; Jakus, M.; Kelo, A.; Larson, O.; Lemma, B.; Li, Y.; Loe, C.; Maciag, V.; Moreno, N.; Nevels, M.; Pezanoski-Cohen, G.; Short, M.; Skatchke, K.; Tur-Kaspa, A.; Zegeye, D.; Armstrong, J.; Bonadurer, R.; French, D.; Free, B.; Miller, C.; Scherich, H.; Willis, T.; Koenig, X.; Laher, R.; Padgett, D.; Piper, M.; Pavlak, A.; Piper, M.; Venezio, E.; Ali, B.

2013-01-01

40

The Sizes of the Nearest Young Stars  

E-print Network

We present moderate resolution (R $\\sim$ 3575) optical spectra of 19 known or suspected members of the AB Doradus and $\\beta$ Pictoris Moving Groups, obtained with the DeVeny Spectrograph on the 72-inch Perkins telescope at Lowell Observatory. For 4 of 5 recently proposed members, signatures of youth such as Li\\,I 6708 \\AA\\, absorption and H$\\alpha$ emission further strengthen the case for youth and membership. Effective temperatures are determined via line ratio analyses for the 11 F, G and early K stars observed, and via spectral comparisons for the 8 late-K and M stars observed. We assemble updated candidate membership lists for these Moving Groups that account for known binarity. We then use temperature, luminosity, and distance estimates to predict angular diameters for these stars; the motivation is to identify stars that can be spatially resolved with long-baseline optical/infrared interferometers in order to improve age estimates for these Groups and to constrain evolutionary models at young ages. Con...

McCarthy, Kyle A

2012-01-01

41

Young Stars Emerge from Orion's Head  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows infant stars 'hatching' in the head of the hunter constellation, Orion. Astronomers suspect that shockwaves from a supernova explosion in Orion's head, nearly three million years ago, may have initiated this newfound birth

The region featured in this Spitzer image is called Barnard 30. It is located approximately 1,300 light-years away and sits on the right side of Orion's 'head,' just north of the massive star Lambda Orionis.

Wisps of green in the cloud are organic molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These molecules are formed anytime carbon-based materials are burned incompletely. On Earth, they can be found in the sooty exhaust from automobile and airplane engines. They also coat the grills where charcoal-broiled meats are cooked.

Tints of orange-red in the cloud are dust particles warmed by the newly forming stars. The reddish-pink dots at the top of the cloud are very young stars embedded in a cocoon of cosmic gas and dust. Blue spots throughout the image are background Milky Way along this line of sight.

This composite includes data from Spitzer's infrared array camera instrument, and multiband imaging photometer instrument. Light at 4.5 microns is shown as blue, 8.0 microns is green, and 24 microns is red.

2007-01-01

42

Development of dental charts according to tooth development and eruption for Turkish children and young adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose In this study, we aimed to develop dental charts for Turkish children and young adults of both genders within the age group of 4.5-22.5 years according to tooth mineralization and eruption in a format similar to that proposed by AlQahtani et al. Materials and Methods In total, 753 digital panoramic radiographs from 350 males and 403 females were assessed. The permanent teeth were evaluated according to the classification system described by Demirjian et al. The eruption stage was assessed with Bengston's system, which was modified by AlQahtani et al at four points. Results Teeth generally developed earlier in females than in males. This was particularly notable in the age group of 5-14 years. However, this difference was usually visible in only one stage, not in all teeth. It has been determined that the mixed dentition period ended with the shedding of the second deciduous molars in both genders. Conclusion The dental charts presented here included information that could be beneficial to dental clinicians in making appropriate diagnosis and planning orthodontic and surgical procedures. These charts also provided datasets for preliminary dental age estimation in Turkish children and young adults. PMID:24944959

Af?in, Hüseyin; Ozaslan, Abdi; Karaday?, ?ükriye

2014-01-01

43

THE SIZES OF THE NEAREST YOUNG STARS  

SciTech Connect

We present moderate resolution (R {approx} 3575) optical spectra of 19 known or suspected members of the AB Doradus and {beta} Pictoris Moving Groups, obtained with the DeVeny Spectrograph on the 72 inch Perkins telescope at Lowell Observatory. For four of five recently proposed members, signatures of youth such as Li I 6708 A absorption and H{alpha} emission further strengthen the case for youth and membership. The lack of detected lithium in the proposed {beta} Pic member TYC 2211-1309-1 implies that it is older than all other K-type members and weakens the case for membership. Effective temperatures are determined via line ratio analyses for the 11 F, G, and early-K stars observed, and via spectral comparisons for the eight late-K and M stars observed. We assemble updated candidate membership lists for these moving groups that account for known binarity. Currently, the AB Dor Moving Group contains 127 proposed members and the {beta} Pic Moving Group holds 77 proposed members. We then use temperature, luminosity, and distance estimates to predict angular diameters for these stars; the motivation is to identify stars that can be spatially resolved with long-baseline optical/infrared interferometers in order to improve age estimates for these groups and to constrain evolutionary models at young ages. Considering the portion of the sky accessible to northern hemisphere facilities (decl. > - 30), six stars have diameters large enough to be spatially resolved ({theta} > 0.4 mas) with the CHARA Array, which currently has the world's longest baseline of 331 m; this subsample includes the low-mass M2.5 member of AB Dor, GJ 393, which is likely to still be pre-main sequence. For southern hemisphere facilities (decl. < + 30), 18 stars have diameters larger than this limiting size, including the low-mass debris disk star AU Mic (0.72 mas). However, the longest baselines of southern hemisphere interferometers (160 m) are only able to resolve the largest of these, the B6 star {alpha} Gru (1.17 mas); proposed long-baseline stations may alleviate the current limitations.

McCarthy, Kyle; White, Russel J., E-mail: kyle.mccarthy@uky.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303-4106 (United States)

2012-06-15

44

Circumstellar material around young stars in Orion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The star cluster associated with the Orion nebula is one of the richest known. Lying at the nearside of the Orion Molecular cloud and at a distance of about 500 pc from us, it contains many premain-sequence stars with ages of about 300,000 yr. The nebula itself is a blister type, representing a wall of material ionized by the hottest star in the Trapezium group (member C). Although this is not the closest star formation region, it is probably the easiest place to detect circumstellar, possibly proto-planetary, material around these solar mass stars. This is because the same process of photoionization that creates the nebula also photoionizes these circumstellar clouds, thus rendering them easily visible. Moreover, their dust component is made visible by extinction of light from the background nebula. Young stars with circumstellar material were found in Orion on the second set of HST images and were called proplyds, indicating their special nature as circumstellar clouds caused to be luminous by being in or near a gaseous nebula. The brightest objects in the field had previously been seen in the optical and radio, and although their true nature had been hypothesized it was the HST images that made it clear what they are. The forms vary from cometlike when near the Trapezium to elliptical when further away, with the largest being 1000 AU and the bright portions of the smallest, which are found closest to the Trapezium, being about 100 AU in diameter. We now have a second set of HST observations made immediately after the refurbishment mission that provides even greater detail and reveals even more of these objects. About half of all the low-luminosity stars are proplyds. The poster paper describes quantitative tests about their fundamental structure and addresses the question of whether the circumstellar material is a disk or shell. One object (HST 16) is seen only in silhouette against the nebula and is easily resolved into an elliptical form of optical depth monotonically increasing toward the central star.

Odell, C. R.

1994-01-01

45

Evolution of Young Neutron Star Envelopes  

E-print Network

We extend our initial study of diffusive nuclear burning (DNB) for neutron stars (NSs) with Hydrogen atmospheres and an underlying layer of proton capturing nuclei. Our initial study showed that DNB can alter the photospheric abundance of Hydrogen on surprisingly short timescales ($10^{2-4}\\yrs$). Significant composition evolution impacts the radiated thermal spectrum from the NS as well as its overall cooling rate. In this paper, we consider the case when the rate limiting step for the H consumption is diffusion to the burning layer, rather than the local nuclear timescale. This is relevant for NSs with surface temperatures in excess of $10^6 {\\rm K}$, such as young ($<10^5$ yr) radio pulsars and accreting NSs in quiescence. When downward diffusion is the limiting rate in DNB, the rate of H consumption is suppressed by 1-2 orders of magnitude compared to a DNB estimate that assumes diffusive equilibrium. In order to apply our ongoing study to young neutron stars, we also include the important effects of strong magnetic fields ($B \\sim 10^{12} {\\rm G}$). In this initial study of magnetic modifications to DNB, we find that the H burning time is lengthened by 2-3 orders of magnitude for a $10^{12} {\\rm G}$ field. However, even for NSs with dipole field strengths of $10^{12}$ G, we find that all of the H can be burned before the pulsar reaches an age of $\\sim 10^5 \\ {\\rm yr}$, thus potentially revealing the underlying proton-capturing elements. Finally, we conclude by providing an overview of what can be learned about fallback and pulsar winds from measuring the surface composition of a young NS.

P. Chang; L. Bildsten

2003-12-22

46

A BOW SHOCK NEAR A YOUNG STAR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope continues to reveal various stunning and intricate treasures that reside within the nearby, intense star-forming region known as the Great Nebula in Orion. One such jewel is the bow shock around the very young star, LL Ori, featured in this Hubble Heritage image. Named for the crescent-shaped wave made by a ship as it moves through water, a bow shock can be created in space when two streams of gas collide. LL Ori emits a vigorous solar wind, a stream of charged particles moving rapidly outward from the star. Our own Sun has a less energetic version of this wind that is responsible for auroral displays on the Earth. The material in the fast wind from LL Ori collides with slow-moving gas evaporating away from the center of the Orion Nebula, which is located to the lower right in this Heritage image. The surface where the two winds collide is the crescent-shaped bow shock seen in the image. Unlike a water wave made by a ship, this interstellar bow shock is a three-dimensional structure. The filamentary emission has a very distinct boundary on the side facing away from LL Ori, but is diffuse on the side closest to the star, a characteristic common to many bow shocks. A second, fainter bow shock can be seen around a star near the upper right-hand corner of the Heritage image. Astronomers have identified numerous shock fronts in this complex star-forming region and are using this data to understand the many complex phenomena associated with the birth of stars. This image was taken in February 1995 as part of the Hubble Orion Nebula mosaic. A close visitor in our Milky Way galaxy, the nebula is only 1,500 light-years from Earth. The filters used in this color composite represent oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen emissions. Image Credit: NASA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: C. R. O'Dell (Vanderbilt University)

2002-01-01

47

UV spectroscopy of young star clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to take spectra of young star clusters (t < 1 Gyr) in the Magellanic Clouds. These data will serve to improve and extend the calibration of the UV spectral index system for stellar population models, which we have built with IUE spectra from the data bases of Fanelli et al. (1992) and Cassatella et al. (1987). We have developed evolutionary population synthesis models of the most relevant absorption features of stellar systems with ages in the range 1 Myr to 1 Gyr, covering the most important elements including C, Si, Fe and Mg (Nieves & Maraston 2004). The new data will allow the calibration of these spectral indices for different chemical abundances and ages. The calibrated stellar population models will provide an important tool to interpret spectra of high redshift galaxies

Maraston, Claudia

48

Fundamental Parameters of Nearby Young Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present high resolution (R ~ 60,000) spectroscopic data of F and G members of the nearby, young associations AB Doradus and ? Pictoris obtained with the Cross-Dispersed Echelle Spectrograph on the 2.7 meter telescope at the McDonald Observatory. Effective temperatures, log(g), [Fe/H], and microturbulent velocities are first estimated using the TGVIT code, then finely tuned using MOOG. Equivalent width (EW) measurements were made using TAME alongside a self-produced IDL routine to constrain EW accuracy and improve computed fundamental parameters. MOOG is also used to derive the chemical abundance of several elements including Mn which is known to be over abundant in planet hosting stars. Vsin(i) are also computed using a ?2 analysis of our observed data to Atlas9 model atmospheres passed through the SPECTRUM spectral synthesis code on lines which do not depend strongly on surface gravity. Due to the limited number of Fe II lines which govern the surface gravity fit in both TGVIT and MOOG, we implement another ?2 analysis of strongly log(g) dependent lines to ensure the values are correct. Coupling the surface gravities and temperatures derived in this study with the luminosities found in the Tycho-2 catalog, we estimate masses for each star and compare these masses to several evolutionary models to begin the process of constraining pre-main sequence evolutionary models.

McCarthy, Kyle; Wilhelm, R. J.

2013-06-01

49

Gravitational waves from hot young rapidly rotating neutron stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gravitational radiation drives an instability in the r-modes of young rapidly rotating neutron stars. This instability is expected to carry away most of the angular momentum of the star by gravitational radiation emission, leaving a star rotating at about 100 Hz. In this paper we model in a simple way the development of the instability and evolution of the neutron

Benjamin J. Owen; Lee Lindblom; Curt Cutler; Bernard F. Schutz; Alberto Vecchio; Nils Andersson

1998-01-01

50

3Celestial Fireworks Near Cluster NGC-3603 This young star  

E-print Network

3Celestial Fireworks Near Cluster NGC-3603 This young star cluster, barely 1 million years old,000 light-years away in the constellation Carina, contains a central cluster of 50, huge, hot stars, hot stars in this cluster emit nearly 1/3 of their light at ultraviolet wavelengths and shorter

51

Nearby Post-T Tauri Stars: Young Solar System Analogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-T Tauri stars are low-mass, pre-MS stars which have ceased accreting, and are not necessarily near star-forming molecular clouds. Historically, they have been difficult to identify due to their benign spectroscopic signatures compared to T Tauri stars. The advent of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and recent astrometric surveys has, however, accelerated the pace of discovery of these young suns. The

E. E. Mamajek

2003-01-01

52

Magnetic field of young star RW Aur  

E-print Network

Results of longitudinal magnetic field B_z measurements for young star RW Aur A are presented. We found that B_z in the formation region of HeI 5876 line's narrow component varies from -1.47 \\pm 0.15 kG to +1.10 \\pm 0.15 kG. Our data are consistent with a stellar rotational period of \\simeq 5.6^d and with a model of two hotspots with an opposite polarity of magnetic field and with a difference in a longitude about 180^o. The spot with B_z0 is below the midplane. The following upper limits for B_z (at 3\\sigma{} level) were found after averaging of all our observations: 180 G for photosperic lines, 220 G and 230 G for formation regions of H_\\alpha{} and [OI] 6300 lines respectively. Upper limit 600 G were found in the region where broad components of emisson lines form. For two cases out of 11 we observed the field in a formation region of a blue absorption wing of NaI D lines i.e. in an outflow: B_z= -180 \\pm 50 G and -810 \\pm 80 G. Radial velocity of RW Aur's photospheric lines averaged over all our observati...

Dodin, A V; Chountonov, G A

2011-01-01

53

HIPPARCOS results for ROSAT-discovered young stars  

E-print Network

Out of about 500 Lithium-rich ROSAT counterparts, which are presumed to be low-mass pre-main sequence stars, 21 stars have been observed by HIPPARCOS. We study their parallaxes, proper motions, and photometric data. For 7 out of 10 Taurus and Lupus stars in our sample, proper motions and parallaxes are not inconsistent with membership to these associations, while most of the stars in Chamaeleon and Scorpius appear to be young foreground stars. Combined with ground based photometry and spectroscopy, HIPPARCOS parallaxes allow us to place 15 stars on an H-R diagram. All these 15 stars are indeed pre-main sequence stars with ages from 1 to 15 Myr. Only two of the stars are located on the Hayashi-tracks, whereas the other 13 are post-T Tauri stars located on radiative tracks. Although this sample is admittedly small, containing only 3% of the total sample of Lithium-rich ROSAT counterparts, it does not confirm recent predictions by other authors: We find no stars in the age range from 20 to 100 Myr. The foreground pre-main sequence stars may have been ejected towards us, or they belong to the Gould Belt system, a plane filled with young stars.

Ralph Neuhaeuser; Wolfgang Brandner

1997-12-07

54

Stellar-Dynamics of Young Star Clusters  

E-print Network

The stellar-dynamical evolution of bound star clusters during the first few Myr is dominated by binary-binary and binary-star interactions, the rapid sinking of the most massive stars to the centre of the clusters and mass loss from evolving stars. The consequences of these processes for the binary and stellar population in clusters, and for the star clusters as a whole, are studied by following the evolution over 150 Myr of a library of compact cluster models containing up to 10^4 stars.

Pavel Kroupa

2000-01-12

55

Planets of young stars: the TLS radial velocity survey  

E-print Network

We report on the search for planets orbiting 46 nearby young stars performed at the State Observatory of Turingia (TLS) by means of a radial velocity survey. The aim of this program is to test the theories of formation/evolution of planetary systems. For 19(8) stars we can exclude planets with Msini > 1 MJ (5 MJ) and P < 10 days; we find 1 short period binary and 5 stars with long period RV-trend. One good young exo-planet candidate is presented.

M. Esposito; E. Guenther; A. P. Hatzes; M. Hartmann

2005-10-14

56

Investigating the process of star formation in young LMC star clusters  

E-print Network

The rich star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) are ideal for studying the process of star formation. Here we focus on the determination of age spreads amongst the massive stars in two young clusters, NGC1818 and NGC1805. We present colour magnitude diagrams (derived from HST data) for these clusters, and discuss the difficulties in age spread determination.

R. A. Johnson; S. F. Beaulieu; R. A. W. Elson; G. Gilmore; N. Tanvir; B. Santiago

1999-07-19

57

YOUNG CLUSTERS, PREMAIN SEQUENCE STARS, AND THE YOUNG SUN  

E-print Network

­ OSAT, ASCA) had detectors with \\DeltaE â?? 150 eV, so one could not measure individual emission lines the cloud collapse? Shock waves and photoionizing ra­ diation from nearby hot stars and supernovae

Linsky, Jeffrey L.

58

DIRECT DETECTIONS OF YOUNG STARS IN NEARBY ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

Small amounts of star formation in elliptical galaxies are suggested by several results: surprisingly young ages from optical line indices, cooling X-ray gas, and mid-infrared dust emission. Such star formation has previously been difficult to directly detect, but using ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 imaging, we have identified individual young stars and star clusters in four nearby ellipticals. Ongoing star formation is detected in all galaxies, including three ellipticals that have previously exhibited potential signposts of star-forming conditions (NGC 4636, NGC 4697, and NGC 4374), as well as the typical ''red and dead'' NGC 3379. The current star formation in our closest targets, where we are most complete, is between 2.0 and 9.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The star formation history was roughly constant from 0.5 to 1.5 Gyr (at (3-5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}), but decreased by a factor of several in the past 0.3 Gyr. Most star clusters have a mass between 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }. The specific star formation rates of {approx}10{sup -16} yr{sup -1} (at the present day) or {approx}10{sup -14} yr{sup -1} (when averaging over the past Gyr) imply that a fraction 10{sup -8} of the stellar mass is younger than 100 Myr and 10{sup -5} is younger than 1 Gyr, quantifying the level of frosting of recent star formation over the otherwise passive stellar population. There is no obvious correlation between either the presence or spatial distribution of postulated star formation indicators and the star formation we detect.

Ford, H. Alyson; Bregman, Joel N., E-mail: aford@nrao.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2013-06-20

59

Young viscous flows in the Lowell crater of Orientale basin, Moon: Impact melts or volcanic eruptions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topographical, morphological and spectral reflectance studies have been carried out for a distinct resurface event inside Copernican aged Lowell crater (13.00°S 103.40°W), Orientale basin, using high resolution TC, MI-VIS, LROC-NAC, and M3 data from Kaguya, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Chandrayaan-1 missions. The resurfacing is predominantly gabbroic/basaltic in composition and is confined to nearly a linear ~17 km long, a 3-6 km wide and a ~100 m deep channel, possibly a graben. It is characterised with distinct surface features such as small uplift with melt pond, several lava-like flows, cracks going up to decimetre size, 20-80 m pits/craters with small central uplifts or depressions and ~100 m craters that emanate liquid. A minimum of three generations of flows have been identified within the unit, the oldest one being less viscous and the subsequent younger ones showing well developed lobes due to the high viscosity. There is a conspicuous absence of unambiguously identified primary impact craters on these flows suggesting their fresh nature. On the basis of these integrated observations we hypothesise that at least the younger portions of this amazingly carved resurfaced unit might be composed of volcanic flows erupted from single or multiple sources subsequent to the emplacement of impact melts from a ~9 km diameter crater on the edge of Lowell crater. Gabbroic/basaltic signatures have also been identified at several other locations inside Lowell crater indicating that it would have impacted on a pre-existing basaltic surface or on a gabbroic pluton. These findings have implications to lunar magmatism and understanding of the genesis of young flows on the lunar surface.

Srivastava, N.; Kumar, D.; Gupta, R. P.

2013-10-01

60

CANDIDATE CORONAGRAPHIC DETECTIONS OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS AROUND FOUR YOUNG STARS  

SciTech Connect

We present potential detections of H-band scattered light emission around four young stars, selected from a total sample of 45 young stars observed with the Coronagraphic Imager with Adaptive Optics coronagraph of the Subaru telescope. Two Classical T Tauri stars, CI Tau and DI Cep, and two weak-lined T Tauri stars, LkCa 14 and RXJ 0338.3+1020, were detected. In all the four cases, the extended emission is within the area of the residual point-spread function halo, and is revealed only through careful data reduction. We compare the observed extended emission with simulations of the scattered light emission to evaluate the plausibility and nature of the detected emission.

Karr, J. L.; Ohashi, N. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Kudo, T.; Tamura, M. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2010-03-15

61

RCW 108: Massive Young Stars Trigger Stellar Birth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

RCW 108 is a region where stars are actively forming within the Milky Way galaxy about 4,000 light years from Earth. This is a complicated region that contains young star clusters, including one that is deeply embedded in a cloud of molecular hydrogen. By using data from different telescopes, astronomers determined that star birth in this region is being triggered by the effect of nearby, massive young stars.

This image is a composite of X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory (blue) and infrared emission detected by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (red and orange). More than 400 X-ray sources were identified in Chandra's observations of RCW 108. About 90 percent of these X-ray sources are thought to be part of the cluster and not stars that lie in the field-of-view either behind or in front of it. Many of the stars in RCW 108 are experiencing the violent flaring seen in other young star-forming regions such as the Orion nebula. Gas and dust blocks much of the X-rays from the juvenile stars located in the center of the image, explaining the relative dearth of Chandra sources in this part of the image.

The Spitzer data show the location of the embedded star cluster, which appears as the bright knot of red and orange just to the left of the center of the image. Some stars from a larger cluster, known as NGC 6193, are also visible on the left side of the image. Astronomers think that the dense clouds within RCW 108 are in the process of being destroyed by intense radiation emanating from hot and massive stars in NGC 6193.

Taken together, the Chandra and Spitzer data indicate that there are more massive star candidates than expected in several areas of this image. This suggests that pockets within RCW 108 underwent localized episodes of star formation. Scientists predict that this type of star formation is triggered by the effects of radiation from bright, massive stars such as those in NGC 6193. This radiation may cause the interior of gas clouds in RCW 108 to be compressed, leading to gravitational collapse and the formation of new stars.

2008-01-01

62

Young Star Cluster Aglow With Mysterious X-Ray Cloud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At a distance of 6,000 light years from Earth, the star cluster RCW 38 is a relatively close star-forming region. This area is about 5 light years across, and contains thousands of hot, very young stars formed less than a million years ago, 190 of which exposed x-rays to Chandra. Enveloping the star cluster, the diffused cloud of x-rays shows an excess of high energy x-rays, which indicates that the x-rays come from trillion-volt electrons moving in a magnetic field. Such particles are typically produced by exploding stars, or in the strong magnetic fields around neutron stars or black holes, none of which are evident in RCW 38. One possible origin for the particles, could be an undetected supernova that occurred in the cluster, possibly thousands of years ago, producing a shock wave that is interacting with the young stars. Regardless of the origin of these energetic electrons, their presence could change the chemistry of the disks that will eventually form planets around the stars in the cluster.

2002-01-01

63

Two young stars in L 43  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical and infrared photometry has been obtained for the two stars (RNO 90 and RNO 91) illuminating reflection nebulae in the small, filamentary dust cloud L 43. Spectrograms of RNO 90 in the blue and red have also been obtained, which show that it is a T Tauri star. Both stars have strong infrared excesses, placing them firmly in the 'dust' position of the H - K, K - L diagram. The absorption reversals superimposed on the Balmer lines from H-alpha to H-delta in RNO 90 display an interesting effect. They appear to move progressively redward from a position near the blue edge of the emission line at H-alpha to a nearly central location at H-delta. L 43 is located near the star-forming end of the Sco OB2 association, but is relatively isolated from the major center of activity, the Rho Oph cloud. There are a large number of similar-looking small clouds in its vicinity, only one of which is known to have an associated T Tauri star (AS 209). The complexity of this, the nearest star-forming region in an OB association, is illustrated.

Herbst, W.; Warner, J. W.

1981-01-01

64

Winds and Accretion in Young Stars  

E-print Network

Establishing the origin of accretion powered winds from forming stars is critical for understanding angular momentum evolution in the star-disk interaction region. Here, the high velocity component of accretion powered winds is launched and accreting stars are spun down, in defiance of the expected spin-up during magnetospheric accretion. T Tauri stars in the final stage of disk accretion offer a unique opportunity to study the connection between accretion and winds and their relation to stellar spindown. Although spectroscopic indicators of high velocity T Tauri winds have been known for decades, the line of He I 10830 offers a promising new diagnostic to probe the magnetically controlled star-disk interaction and wind-launching region. The high opacity and resonance scattering properties of this line offer a powerful probe of the geometry of both the funnel flow and the inner wind that, together with other atomic and molecular spectral lines covering a wide range of excitation and ionization states, suggests that the magnetic interaction between the star and disk, and the subsequent launching of the inner high velocity wind, is sensitive to the disk accretion rate.

Suzan Edwards

2008-09-21

65

Two young stars in L 43  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical and infrared photometry has been obtained for the two stars (RNO 90 and RNO 91) illuminating reflection nebulae in the small, filamentary dust cloud L 43. Spectrograms of RNO 90 in the blue and red have also been obtained, which show that it is a T Tauri star. Both stars have strong infrared excesses, placing them firmly in the 'dust' position of the H - K, K - L diagram. The absorption reversals superimposed on the Balmer lines from H-alpha to H-delta in RNO 90 display an interesting effect. They appear to move progressively redward from a position near the blue edge of the emission line at H-alpha to a nearly central location at H-delta. L 43 is located near the star-forming end of the Sco OB2 association, but is relatively isolated from the major center of activity, the Rho Oph cloud. There are a large number of similar-looking small clouds in its vicinity, only one of which is known to have an associated T Tauri star (AS 209). The complexity of this, the nearest star-forming region in an OB association, is illustrated.

Herbst, W.; Warner, J. W.

1981-06-01

66

First Results from the Galex-Wise Young Star Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent release of the all-sky WISE catalog has opened up a new frontier in the search for nearby, young, low-mass stars. Over the last few decades, many ~10-100 Myr-old stars have been identified in moving groups located closer than 100 parsecs of the Earth. Initial searches relied on optical identification (such as with Tycho and Hipparcos) and X-ray detection with ROSAT. Recent work has shown that near-IR surveys, like 2MASS, combined with ultraviolet data from GALEX can be used to identify additional members in these moving groups. In particular, this methodology is well suited to searching for low-mass stars, which are generally lacking in moving group member statistics. We present the first results of our work to tie-in the WISE catalog to young, low-mass star searches. We have carried out an all-sky cross correlation between the GALEX and WISE/2MASS databases and identified hundreds of candidate young, low-mass stars. Early spectroscopic results confirm the youthful nature of our candidate stars. This work is supported by NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program award NNX12AH37G to RIT and UCLA and Chilean BASAL and FONDECYT grants to Universidad de Chile.

Rodriguez, David; Zuckerman, B. M.; Kastner, J. H.; Bessell, M. S.; Faherty, J.; Murphy, S. J.; Vican, L.

2013-01-01

67

Instabilities in Very Young Neutron Stars: Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation shows the first 20 milliseconds in the life of a neutron star which is formed in a Type II supernova. After an initial collapse phase, the neutron star becomes unstable to convection. The resulting convective motions destroy the spherical symmetry of the star and rapidly mix the inner regions. In addition, the neutrino flux from the neutron star will be non-spherical and will be significantly enhanced by the convective motions. This may have major implications for the Type II supernova mechanism. The calculation was performed using the Piecewise-Parabolic Method for hydrodynamics. The computational grid contained 300 zones in radius and 200 zones in angle. The inner 200 zones in radius were uniformly spaced, ranging from the inner boundary at 25 km to 175 km. The outer 100 zones were non-uniformly spaced and stretched to 2000 km. Only the inner 200 zones are plotted. The inner boundary was treated as a hard sphere. At the outer boundary, zero gradients for all the variables were assumed. Periodic boundary conditions were used along the sides of the grid. The following sequence shows the density evolution for 20 milliseconds after the shock stalls. The density is plotted on a log scale. Values range from 10^9 gm-cm^3 at the outer boundary to 1.4 x 10^12 gm-cm^3 at the inner boundary.

Pamela ONeil

1994-02-12

68

Instabilities in Very Young Neutron Stars: Temperature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation shows the first 20 milliseconds in the life of a neutron star which is formed in a Type II supernova. After an initial collapse phase, the neutron star becomes unstable to convection. The resulting convective motions destroy the spherical symmetry of the star and rapidly mix the inner regions. In addition, the neutrino flux from the neutron star will be non-spherical and will be significantly enhanced by the convective motions. This may have major implications for the Type II supernova mechanism. The calculation was performed using the Piecewise-Parabolic Method for hydrodynamics. The computational grid contained 300 zones in radius and 200 zones in angle. The inner 200 zones in radius were uniformly spaced, ranging from the inner boundary at 25 km to 175 km. The outer 100 zones were non-uniformly spaced and stretched to 2000 km. Only the inner 200 zones are plotted. The inner boundary was treated as a hard sphere. At the outer boundary, zero gradients for all the variables were assumed. Periodic boundary conditions were used along the sides of the grid. The following sequence shows the temperature structure for 20 milliseconds after the shock stalls. The minimum temperature is approximately 1.35 MeV. The maximum temperature varies from 6 MeV at the beginning of the calculation to 10 MeV at the later times.

Pamela ONeil

1994-02-12

69

Late-Type Stars in Young Open Clusters Duncan C. Foster  

E-print Network

Late-Type Stars in Young Open Clusters by Duncan C. Foster Armagh Observatory B.A. (TCD) 1994-type stars, this thesis presents a study of two young open clusters, IC2602 and Stock 2. This thesis attempts in the Faculty of Science School of Mathematics and Physics 1997 #12;Abstract Late-Type Stars in Young Open

70

The Beta Pictoris Phenomenon in Young Stars With Accreting Gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program Hae2BPIC resulted in usable ISO spectra of three young, Herbig Ae stars: HR 5999 (A7e, t=0.6 Myr), SV Cep (al-2e, t=1-3 Myr), and MW Vul (Al-2e, t=1-3 Myr). While too small a sample to pursue our original goal of surveying the silicate emission in these young, protoplanetary disk systems, comparison of these data with ground-based IR spectra, and published ISO observations of other HAe stars (especially the posters at PPIV) reveals the following: The known binary stars in the sample show signatures of partially crystal line silicate features by t=0.6 Myr, at an epoch when ostensibly single Herbig Ae stars have substantially stronger silicate emission dominated by amorphous grains. The known binary stars also show deficits in the optically thick continuum flux relative to coeval single stars. Comparison of ISO spectra indicates that the flux deficit seen in WD 163296 over 10-100 microns relative to AB Aur reflects a real deficit of material interior to 300.

Grady, Carol A.

1999-01-01

71

Evolution of the central stars of young planetary nebulae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: The evolution of central stars of planetary nebulae was so far documented in just a few cases. However, spectra collected a few decades ago may provide a good reference for studying the evolution of central stars using the emission line fluxes of their nebulae. We investigated evolutionary changes of the [O iii] 5007 Å line flux in the spectra of planetary nebulae. Methods: We compared nebular fluxes collected during a decade or longer. We used literature data and newly obtained spectra. A grid of cloudy models was computed using existing evolutionary models, and the models were compared with the observations. Results: An increase of the [O iii] 5007 Å line flux is frequently observed in young planetary nebulae hosting H-rich central stars. The increasing nebular excitation is the response to the increasing temperature and hardening radiation of the central stars. We did not observe any changes in the nebular fluxes in the planetary nebulae hosting late-type Wolf-Rayet (WR) central stars. This may indicate a slower temperature evolution (which may stem from a different evolutionary status) of late-[WR] stars. Conclusions: In young planetary nebulae with H-rich central stars, the evolution can be followed using optical spectra collected during a decade or longer. The observed evolution of H-rich central stars is consistent with the predictions of the evolutionary models provided in the literature. Late-[WR] stars possibly follow a different evolutionary path. Reduced spectra from the Torun and SAAO observatories are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/573/A65

Hajduk, M.; van Hoof, P. A. M.; Zijlstra, A. A.

2015-01-01

72

Star and planet formation in young stellar clusters Die meisten Sterne in unserer Milchstrae wer-  

E-print Network

Star and planet formation in young stellar clusters Die meisten Sterne in unserer MilchstraÃ?e wer such as Orion demonstrated that most of the young stars there are found in dense aggregates or clusters around binary stars and in dense clusters will evolve quite differently to those around single stars

73

Search for OB stars running away from young star clusters. I. NGC 6611  

E-print Network

N-body simulations have shown that the dynamical decay of the young ( ? 1 Myr) Orion Nebula cluster could be responsible for the loss of at least half of its initial content of OB stars. This result suggests that other young stellar systems could also lose a significant fraction of their massive stars at the very beginning of their evolution. To confirm this expectation, we used the Mid-Infrared Galactic Plane Survey (completed by the Midcourse Space Experiment satellite) to search for bow shocks around a number of young (clusters and OB associations. We discovered dozens of bow shocks generated by OB stars running away from these stellar systems, supporting the idea of significant dynamical loss of OB stars. In this paper, we report the discovery of three bow shocks produced by O-type stars ejected from the open cluster NGC 6611 (M16). One of the bow shocks is associated with the O9.5Iab star HD165319, which was suggested to be one of “the best examples for isolated Galactic high-mass star formation ” (de Wit et al. 2005). Possible implications of our results for the origin of field OB stars are discussed.

V. V. Gvaramadze; D. J. Bomans

2008-01-01

74

Progressive Star Formation in the Young SMC Cluster NGC 602  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NGC 602 is a young stellar cluster located in a peripheral region of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) known as the wing. Far from the main body of the galaxy and abutting the Magellanic Bridge, the SMC's wing is characterized by low gas and stellar content. With deep optical imaging from the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have discovered an extensive pre-main-sequence (PMS) population, with stellar masses in the range 0.6-3 Msolar. These low-mass PMS stars formed coevally with the central cluster about 4 Myr ago. Spitzer IRAC images of the same region also reveal a population of young stellar objects, some of which are still embedded in nebular material and most of which likely formed even more recently than the young stars detected with HST ACS imaging. We infer that star formation started in this region ~ 4 Myr ago with the formation of the central cluster and gradually propagated toward the outskirts where star formation is presently ongoing.

Carlson, Lynn Redding; Sabbi, E.; Sirianni, M.; Hora, J. L.; Nota, A.; Meixner, M.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Oey, M. S.; Pasquali, A.; Smith, L. J.; Tosi, M.; Walterbos, R.

2007-08-01

75

A multiwavelength study of young stars in the Elephant Trunk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a multiwavelength study of young stars in IC 1396A, ``the Elephant Trunk Nebula''. Our targets are selected combining optical, near-infrared and mid-infrared photometry. Near-infrared and optical spectroscopy are used to confirm their youth and to derive spectral types for these objects, showing that they are early to mid-M stars, and that our sample includes some of the lowest-mass objects reported so far in the region. The photometric and spectroscopic information is used to construct the spectral energy distributions and to study the properties of the stars (mass, age, accretion, disks, spatial location). The implications for the triggered star formation picture are discussed.

López Martí, B.; Bayo, A.; Morales Calderón, M.; Barrado, D.

2013-05-01

76

Building dwarf galaxies out of merged young star clusters  

E-print Network

Young star clusters in interacting galaxies are often found in groups or clusters of star clusters containing up to 100 single clusters. In our project we study the future fate of these clusters of star clusters. We find that the star clusters merge on time scales of a few dynamical crossing times of the super-cluster. The resulting merger object has similarities with observed dwarf ellipticals (dE). Furthermore, if destructive processes like tidal heating, dynamical friction or interaction with disc or bulge of the parent galaxy are taken into account our merger objects may evolve into objects resembling dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph), without the need of a high dark matter content.

M. Fellhauer

2001-06-22

77

Young Stars Emerge from Orion's Head  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows infant stars 'hatching' in the head of the hunter constellation, Orion. Astronomers suspect that shockwaves from a supernova explosion in Orion's head, nearly three million years ago, may have initiated this newfound birth

The region featured in this Spitzer image is called Barnard 30. It is located approximately 1,300 light-years away and sits on the right side of Orion's 'head,' just north of the massive star Lambda Orionis.

Wisps of red in the cloud are organic molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These molecules are formed anytime carbon-based materials are burned incompletely. On Earth, they can be found in the sooty exhaust from automobile and airplane engines. They also coat the grills where charcoal-broiled meats are cooked.

This image shows infrared light captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Light with wavelengths of 8 and 5.8 microns (red and orange) comes mainly from dust that has been heated by starlight. Light of 4.5 microns (green) shows hot gas and dust; and light of 3.6 microns (blue) is from starlight.

2007-01-01

78

Investigating star formation in the young open cluster NGC 6383  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: By studying young open clusters, the mechanisms important for star formation over several Myr can be examined. For example, accretion rate as a function of rotational velocity can be investigated. Similarly, sequential star formation triggered by massive stars with high mass-loss rates can be studied in detail. Aims: We identified and characterized probable members of NGC 6383, as well as determined cluster parameters. Methods: New Strömgren uvby CCD photometry, obtained by us, is presented. This new data, together with Johnson UBV and 2MASS data in the NIR, was used to investigate characteristics of pre- as well as zero age main sequence cluster members. Results: We present Strömgren uvby CCD photometry for 272 stars in the field of NGC 6383 and derive its reddening, E(b-y) = 0.21(4) mag, as well as distance, d = 1.7(3) kpc from the Sun. Several stars with NIR excess and objects in the domain of the classical Herbig Ae/Be and T Tauri stars were detected. Two previously known variables were identified as rapidly-rotating PMS stars. The field population is clearly separated from the probable members in the color-magnitude diagram. Conclusions: . NGC 6383 is a young open cluster, with an age of less than 4 Myr, undergoing continuous star formation. True pre-main sequence members might be found down to absolute magnitudes of +6 mag, with a variety of rotational velocities and stellar activities. Based on observations at ESO-La Silla (Proposal 073.C-0144). Data table is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/462/157

Paunzen, E.; Netopil, M.; Zwintz, K.

2007-01-01

79

Theory of jets from young stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple equations are derived for the long-distance propagation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) jets. Solutions of these equations are fitted to two observed jets providing estimates of the fast magnetosonic speeds (V(f)) and the distances of the fast magnetosonic points. The relation of the jet properties at large distances to a complete family of MHD jet solutions is discussed, and it is shown that there is one key dimensionless parameter, B. The dependences of the fast magnetosonic speed and of the fluxes of mass, energy, momentum, and angular momentum of the jet on B are discussed. For B larger than a critical value (about 0.45), the central star spins down, while for smaller values it spins up. For increasing from the critical value, V(f) increases while the mass and momentum fluxes of the jet decrease.

Lovelace, R. V. E.; Romanova, M. M.; Contopoulos, J.

1993-01-01

80

Ring-like features around young B stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We investigate the nature of two young intermediate mass stars namely IRAS20293+3952 (I20293) and IRAS05358+3843 (I05358), which display clearly defined H2 emission rings. Methods: High resolution deconvolution of finely sampled 3.6-8.0 ?m Spitzer-IRAC images are carried out. Continuum-subtracted 2.122 ?m H2 1-0 S(1) narrow-band images of both targets and HK band spectrum of two main stars in I20293 are presented. The spectral energy distibutions (SED) of the stars enclosed in the H2 rings are constructed using photometry from the literature and combining with newly obtained Spitzer-MIPS 70 ?m photometry. The SEDs are modelled using a grid of radiative transfer models to obtain estimates of the star, disk and envelope physical parameters. Results: The images reveal ring-like structures surrounding isolated young B-type stars. The modelling attributes a mass and age of ~7 ?m and ~0.1 Myr, respectively, to both young stars, in agreement with other observational indicators. The HK band spectra of I20293 display the Brackett series of HI recombination lines, which appears to correspond exclusively to the young star inside this IRAS source. The ring around I20293 appears to be a single well-defined ellipse with inner parts shining brightly in the Spitzer broad band images and outer parts displaying strong H2 emission. In the source I05358, at least two ring's are found, one circumscribing the other. The emission in the Spitzer bands and the H2 emission are mostly coincident for the inner ring. The outer ring is visible partly in the Spitzer bands and partly in H2 emission. The rings in both the sources, I20293 and I05358, have diameters of ~25 000-30 000 AU. The envelope sizes estimated by the SED modelling are consistent with the size of the rings estimated using the imaging data. The spectrum of the H2 ring in I20293 is suggestive of fluorescent excitation. In the source I05358, the inner ring displays a combination of PAH and H2 line emission with excess PAH emission closer to the star.

Kumar, M. S. N.; Velusamy, T.; Davis, C. J.; Varricatt, W. P.; Dewangan, L. K.

2010-09-01

81

New Insights from Aperiodic Variability of Young Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly all young stars are variable, with the variability traditionally divided into two classes: periodic variables and aperiodic or "irregular" variables. Periodic variables have been studied extensively, typically using periodograms, while aperiodic variables have received much less attention due to a lack of standard statistical tools. However, aperiodic variability can serve as a powerful probe of young star accretion physics and inner circumstellar disk structure. For my dissertation, I analyzed data from a large-scale, long-term survey of the nearby North America Nebula complex, using Palomar Transient Factory photometric time series collected on a nightly or every few night cadence over several years. This survey is the most thorough exploration of variability in a sample of thousands of young stars over time baselines of days to years, revealing a rich array of lightcurve shapes, amplitudes, and timescales. I have constrained the timescale distribution of all young variables, periodic and aperiodic, on timescales from less than a day to ~100 days. I have shown that the distribution of timescales for aperiodic variables peaks at a few days, with relatively few (˜15%) sources dominated by variability on tens of days or longer. My constraints on aperiodic timescale distributions are based on two new tools, magnitude- vs. time-difference (Delta m-Deltat) plots and peak-finding plots, for describing aperiodic lightcurves; this thesis provides simulations of their performance and presents recommendations on how to apply them to aperiodic signals in other time series data sets. In addition, I have measured the error introduced into colors or SEDs from combining photometry of variable sources taken at different epochs. These are the first quantitative results to be presented on the distributions in amplitude and time scale for young aperiodic variables, particularly those varying on timescales of weeks to months.

Findeisen, Krzysztof

82

HOT WHITE DWARF SHINES IN YOUNG STAR CLUSTER  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dazzling 'jewel-box' collection of over 20,000 stars can be seen in crystal clarity in this NASA Hubble Space Telescope image, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The young (40 million year old) cluster, called NGC 1818, is 164,000 light-years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a satellite galaxy of our Milky Way. The LMC, a site of vigorous current star formation, is an ideal nearby laboratory for studying stellar evolution. In the cluster, astronomers have found a young white dwarf star, which has only very recently formed following the burnout of a red giant. Based on this observation astronomers conclude that the red giant progenitor star was 7.6 times the mass of our Sun. Previously, astronomers have estimated that stars anywhere from 6 to 10 solar masses would not just quietly fade away as white dwarfs but abruptly self-destruct in torrential explosions. Hubble can easily resolve the star in the crowded cluster, and detect its intense blue-white glow from a sizzling surface temperature of 50,000 degrees Fahrenheit. IMAGE DATA Date taken: December 1995 Wavelength: natural color reconstruction from three filters (I,B,U) Field of view: 100 light-years, 2.2 arc minutes TARGET DATA Name: NGC 1818 Distance: 164,000 light-years Constellation: Dorado Age: 40 million years Class: Rich star cluster Apparent magnitude: 9.7 Apparent diameter: 7 arc minutes Credit: Rebecca Elson and Richard Sword, Cambridge UK, and NASA (Original WFPC2 image courtesy J. Westphal, Caltech) Image files are available electronically via the World Wide Web at: http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/1998/16 and via links in http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/latest.html or http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pictures.html. GIF and JPEG images are available via anonymous ftp to oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo/GIF/9816.GIF and /pubinfo/JPEG/9816.jpg.

2002-01-01

83

The Search for Young Planetary Systems And the Evolution of Young Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Interferometer Mission (SIM) will provide a census of planetary systems by con- ducting a broad survey of 2,000 stars that will be sensitive to the presence of planets with masses as small as approx. 15 Earth masses (1 Uranus mass) and a deep survey of approx. 250 of the nearest, stars with a mass limit of approx.3 Earth masses. The broad survey will include stars spanning a wide range of ages, spectral types, metallicity, and other important parameters. Within this larger context, the Young Stars and Planets Key Project will study approx. 200 stars with ages from 1 Myr to 100 Myr to understand the formation and dynamical evolution of gas giant planets. The SIM Young Stars and Planets Project will investigate both the frequency of giant planet formation and the early dynamical history of planetary systems. We will gain insight into how common the basic architecture of our solar system is compared with recently discovered systems with close-in giant planets by examining 200 of the nearest (less than 150 pc) and youngest (1-100 Myr) solar-type stars for planets. The sensitivity of the survey for stars located 140 pc away is shown in the planet mass-separation plane. We expect to find anywhere from 10 (assuming that only the presently known fraction of stars. 5-7%, has planets) to 200 (all young stars have planets) planetary systems. W-e have set our sensitivity threshold to ensure the detection of Jupiter-mass planets in the critical orbital range of 1 to 5 AU. These observations, when combined with the results of planetary searches of mature stars, will allow us to test theories of planetary formation and early solar system evolution. By searching for planets around pre-main sequence stars carefully selected to span an age range from 1 to 100 Myr, we will learn a t what epoch and with what frequency giant planets are found at the water-ice snowline where they are expected to form. This will provide insight into the physical mechanisms by which planets form and migrate from their place of birth, and about their survival rate. With these data in hand, we will provide data, for the first time, on such important questions as: What processes affect the formation and dynamical evolution of planets? When and where do planets form? What is initial mass distribution of planetary systems around young stars? How might planets be destroyed? What is the origin of the eccentricity of planetary orbits? What is the origin of the apparent dearth of companion objects between planets and brown dwarfs seen in mature stars? The observational strategy is a compromise between the desire to extend the planetary mass function as low as possible and the essential need to build up sufficient statistics on planetary occurrence. About half of the sample will be used to address the "where" and "when" of planet formation. We will study classical T Tauri stars (cTTs) which have massive accretion disks and post- accretion, weak-lined T Tauri stars (wTTs). Preliminary estimates suggest the sample will consist of approx. 30% cTTs and approx. 70% wTTs, driven in part by the difficulty of making accurate astrometric measurements toward objects with strong variability or prominent disks.

Beichman, Charles A.; Boden, Andrew; Ghez, Andrea; Hartman, Lee W.; Hillenbrand, Lynn; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Simon, Michael J.; Stauffer, John R.; Velusamy, Thangasamy

2004-01-01

84

Misaligned protoplanetary disks in a young binary star system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many extrasolar planets follow orbits that differ from the nearly coplanar and circular orbits found in our Solar System; their orbits may be eccentric or inclined with respect to the host star's equator, and the population of giant planets orbiting close to their host stars suggests appreciable orbital migration. There is at present no consensus on what produces such orbits. Theoretical explanations often invoke interactions with a binary companion star in an orbit that is inclined relative to the planet's orbital plane. Such mechanisms require significant mutual inclinations between the planetary and binary star orbital planes. The protoplanetary disks in a few young binaries are misaligned, but often the measurements of these misalignments are sensitive only to a small portion of the inner disk, and the three-dimensional misalignment of the bulk of the planet-forming disk mass has hitherto not been determined. Here we report that the protoplanetary disks in the young binary system HK Tauri are misaligned by 60 to 68 degrees, such that one or both of the disks are significantly inclined to the binary orbital plane. Our results demonstrate that the necessary conditions exist for misalignment-driven mechanisms to modify planetary orbits, and that these conditions are present at the time of planet formation, apparently because of the binary formation process.

Jensen, Eric L. N.; Akeson, Rachel

2014-07-01

85

Young alpha-enriched giant stars in the solar neighbourhood  

E-print Network

We derive age constraints for 1639 red giants in the APOKASC sample for which seismic parameters from Kepler, as well as effective temperatures, metallicities and [{\\alpha}/Fe] values from APOGEE DR12 are available. We investigate the relation between age and chemical abundances for these stars, using a simple and robust approach to obtain ages. We first derive stellar masses using standard seismic scaling relations, then determine the maximum possible age for each star as function of its mass and metallicity, independently of its evolutionary stage. While the overall trend between maximum age and chemical abundances is a declining fraction of young stars with increasing [{\\alpha}/Fe], at least 14 out of 241 stars with [{\\alpha}/Fe]>0.13 are younger than 6 Gyr. Five stars with [{\\alpha}/Fe]>0.2 have ages below 4 Gyr. We examine the effect of modifications in the standard seismic scaling relations, as well as the effect of very low helium fractions, but these changes are not enough to make these stars as old a...

Martig, Marie; Aguirre, Victor Silva; Hekker, Saskia; Mosser, Benoit; Elsworth, Yvonne; Bovy, Jo; Stello, Dennis; Anders, Friedrich; García, Rafael A; Tayar, Jamie; Rodrigues, Thaíse S; Basu, Sarbani; Carrera, Ricardo; Ceillier, Tugdual; Chaplin, William J; Chiappini, Cristina; Frinchaboy, Peter M; García-Hernández, D A; Hearty, Fred R; Holtzman, Jon; Johnson, Jennifer A; Mathur, Savita; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Miglio, Andrea; Nidever, David; Pinsonneault, Marc; Schiavon, Ricardo P; Schneider, Donald P; Serenelli, Aldo; Shetrone, Matthew; Zamora, Olga

2014-01-01

86

Is the Galactic center populated with young star clusters?  

E-print Network

We study the evolution and observability of young and compact star clusters near the Galactic center, such as the Arches cluster and the Quintuplet. The star clusters are modeled with a combination of techniques; using direct N-body, integration to calculate the motions of all stars and detailed stellar and binary evolution to follow the evolution of the stars. The modeled star clusters dissolve within 10 to 60 million years in the tidal field of the Galaxy. The projected stellar density in the modeled clusters drops within 5% to 70% of the lifetime to a level comparable to the projected background density towards the Galactic center. And it will be very hard to distinguished these clusters at later age among the background stars. This effect is more severe for clusters at larger distance from the Galactic center but in projection at the same distance. Based on these arguments we conclude that the Galactic center easily hides 10 to 40 clusters with characteristics similar to the Arches and the Quintuplet cluster.

Simon F. Portegies Zwart

2000-06-29

87

Star formation in hosts of young radio galaxies  

E-print Network

We present near ultraviolet imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys, targeting young radio galaxies (Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum and Compact Steep Spectrum sources), in search of star formation regions in their hosts. We find near UV light which could be the product of recent star formation in eight of the nine observed sources. However, observations at other wavelengths and colors are needed to definitively establish the nature of the observed UV light. In the CSS sources 1443+77 and 1814--637 the near UV light is aligned with and is co-spatial with the radio source, and we suggest that in these sources the UV light is produced by star formation triggered and/or enhanced by the radio source.

A. Labiano; C. P. O'Dea; P. D. Barthel; W. H. de Vries; S. A. Baum

2005-12-02

88

Observation of light echoes around very young stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: The goal of the paper is to present new results on light echoes from young stellar objects. Methods: Broad band CCD images were obtained over three months at one-to-two week intervals for the field of NGC 6726, using the large field-of-view remotely-operated telescope on top of Cerro Burek. Results: We detected scattered light echoes around two young, low-amplitude, irregular variable stars. Observations revealed not just one, but multiple light echoes from brightness pulses of the T Tauri star S CrA and the Herbig Ae/Be star R CrA. Analysis of S CrA's recurring echoes suggests that the star is located 138 ± 16 pc from Earth, making these the closest echoes ever detected. The environment that scatters the stellar light from S CrA is compatible with an incomplete dust shell or an inclined torus some 10 000 AU in radius and containing ~2 × 10-3 M? of dust. The cause of such concentration at ~10 000 AU from the star is unknown. It could be the remnant of the envelope from which the star formed, but the distance of the cloud is remarkably similar to the nominal distance of the Oort cloud to the Sun, leading us to also speculate that the dust (or ice) seen around S CrA might have the same origin as the Solar System Oort cloud. Movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org, http://www.iaa.es/~ortiz/animacion1.avi, and http://www.iaa.es/~ortiz/S-animation.gif

Ortiz, J. L.; Sugerman, B. E. K.; de La Cueva, I.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Duffard, R.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Melita, M.; Morales, N.

2010-09-01

89

Structure, stratigraphy, and eruption dynamics of a young tuff ring: Hanauma Bay, O'ahu, Hawai'i  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hanauma Bay-Koko Head complex is one of several young volcanic landforms along the Koko fissure, in southeastern O'ahu. The Hanauma Bay region of the complex comprises two nested tuff rings, inner and outer Hanauma Bay, and multiple smaller vents. The internal structure of the inner tuff ring, well exposed due to subsequent breaching by the ocean and wave erosion, indicates that it formed during a minimum of five distinct phases of deposition that produced five mappable units. Significant inward collapses generated major unconformities that separate the units exposed in the inner wall. The planes of failure are cut by narrow steep-walled, locally overhung channels and gullies, suggesting that the collapse events were each followed by short time breaks during which the deposits were eroded by rainfall runoff. Within each pyroclastic unit, there are many local slump scars and unconformities, suggesting that minor instability of the inner wall was a near-constant feature. From bedding sags and surge bed forms, it is apparent that the vent shifted at least twice during tuff ring growth. Ballistic blocks in the youngest unit indicate that the eruption overlapped in time with a separate eruption to the north, most likely to be that of the Kahauloa tuff ring 880 m away.

Rottas, K. M.; Houghton, B. F.

2012-09-01

90

ROTATIONAL MODULATION OF X-RAY EMISSION IN ORION NEBULA YOUNG STARS E. Flaccomio,1  

E-print Network

ROTATIONAL MODULATION OF X-RAY EMISSION IN ORION NEBULA YOUNG STARS E. Flaccomio,1 G. Micela,1 S-ray­emitting plasma in a sample of young Orion Nebula Cluster stars by modulation of their X-ray light curves due-ray­bright stars with known rotational periods. We search for X-ray modulation using the Lomb Normalized

Royer, Dana

91

Young Stars Poised for Production of Rocky Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VLT Interferometer Studies the Inner Region of Circumstellar Discs [1] Summary One of the currently hottest astrophysical topics - the hunt for Earth-like planets around other stars - has just received an important impetus from new spectral observations with the MIDI instrument at the ESO VLT Interferometer (VLTI). An international team of astronomers [2] has obtained unique infrared spectra of the dust in the innermost regions of the proto-planetary discs around three young stars - now in a state possibly very similar to that of our solar system in the making, some 4,500 million years ago. Reporting in this week's issue of the science journal Nature, and thanks to the unequalled, sharp and penetrating view of interferometry, they show that in all three, the right ingredients are present in the right place to start formation of rocky planets at these stars. PR Photo 32a/04: Mid-IR spectrum of the inner disc around the star HD 142527, compared to those of common types of dust. PR Photo 32b/04: Mid-IR spectra of the inner and outer disc regions of three young stars. PR Photo 32c/04: Comparison of mid-IR spectra of various astronomical objects with those of the inner and outer disc regions of three young stars. "Sand" in the inner regions of stellar discs ESO PR Photo 32a/04 ESO PR Photo 32a/04 Mid-IR spectrum of the inner disc around the star HD 142527, compared to those of common types of dust [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 541 pix - 120k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1032 pix - 280k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 32a/04 presents a mid-IR spectrum of the inner region of the protoplanetary disc around the young star HD 142527, as observed with the MIDI instrument at the VLT Interferometer (upper). Below it are shown laboratory spectra of two crystalline minerals as well as of an Interplanetary Dust Particle (IDP; captured in the Earth's upper atmosphere) with hydrated silicates and, at the bottom, a typical telescopic spectrum of dust grains in the interstellar space. The spectral "signatures" of crystalline pyroxene and olivine, i.e. peaks at wavelength 9.2 and 11.3 µm, respectively, are clearly visible in the spectrum of the inner stellar disc, demonstrating the presence of these species in that region of the disc. The Sun was born about 4,500 million years ago from a cold and massive cloud of interstellar gas and dust that collapsed under its own gravitational pull. A dusty disc was present around the young star, in which the Earth and other planets, as well as comets and asteroids were later formed. This epoch is long gone, but we may still witness that same process by observing the infrared emission from very young stars and the dusty protoplanetary discs around them. So far, however, the available instrumentation did not allow a study of the distribution of the different components of the dust in such discs; even the closest known are too far away for the best single telescopes to resolve them. But now, as Francesco Paresce, Project Scientist for the VLT Interferometer and a member of the team from ESO explains, "With the VLTI we can combine the light from two well-separated large telescopes to obtain unprecedented angular resolution. This has allowed us, for the first time, to peer directly into the innermost region of the discs around some nearby young stars, right in the place where we expect planets like our Earth are forming or will soon form". Specifically, new interferometric observations of three young stars by an international team [2], using the combined power of two 8.2-m VLT telescopes a hundred metres apart, has achieved sufficient image sharpness (about 0.02 arcsec) to measure the infrared emission from the inner region of the discs around three stars (corresponding approximately to the size of the Earth's orbit around the Sun) and the emission from the outer part of those discs. The corresponding infrared spectra have provided crucial information about the chemical composition of the dust in the discs and also about the average grain size. These trailblazing observations show that the inner par

2004-11-01

92

Stellar Content and Star Formation in Young Clusters Influenced by Massive Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Star Formation (SF) in extreme environment is always challenging and can be significantly different from that in quiet environments. This study presents the comprehensive multi-wavelength (optical, NIR, MIR and radio) observational analysis of three Galactic starforming regions associated with H II regions/young clusters and located at > 2 kpc, which are found to be evolving under the influence of massive stars within their vicinity. The candidate massive stars, young stellar objects, their mass, age, age spread, the form of K-band Luminosity Function (KLF), Initial Mass Function (IMF) and a possible formation history of each region are studied. The major results on Sh2-252, an extended H II region that appears to be undergoing multiple episodes of SF, are highlighted. Our analysis shows that all the regions are undergoing complex SF activity and the new generation of stars in each region seem to be an outcome of the influence by the presence of massive stars within them. SF process in these regions are likely to be multi-fold and the results suggest that multiple modes of triggering mechanism and hierarchial modes of SF are a common phenomena within young clusters.

Jose, J.

2014-09-01

93

Abundance Pattern of Metal-Rich Stars from 14 Old and 24 Young Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The metallicities and abundance ratios, [X/Fe], of 12 elements—C, Na, Mg, Si, S, Ca, Ti, Cr, Ni, Y, Zr, and Ce—are determined for 14 old and 24 young metal-rich stars based on high resolution, high S/N spectra obtained with the HIDES spectrograph attached to the 1.88 m telescope of Okayama Astrophysical Observatory (Okayama, Japan). The results show that there is no any significant difference in the [X/Fe] versus [Fe/H] trend for these elements between the two groups of stars. This is consistent with the kinematics of the two groups of stars being similar to that of the thin disk. In connection with the abundance analysis, we found that iron abundances from Fe II lines are generally higher than those from Fe I lines for cool metal-rich stars. In particular, the [S/Fe] ratio strongly depends on stellar temperature. In view of this, the chemical evolution of the element sulfur can only be traced by selecting solar-type stars within a critically narrow temperature range. Inspecting a large sample of metal-rich stars, we found that young metal-rich stars generally have kinematics similar to that of the local thin disk, while old metal-rich stars show two different kinematic distributions, one with V LSR ~ -10kms-1 and the other with V LSR ~ -50kms-1. Abundances of this new population of old metal-rich stars with a slight lag in the Galactic rotation have already been investigated by the present authors. We compared the abundance patterns for the three groups of metal-rich stars, and did not find any significant difference in abundance ratios for the elements investigated. These results indicate an inhomogeneous metallicity enhancement but similar nucleosynthesis history for the Galactic evolution of the thin disk from the beginning to the present.

Chen, Y. Q.; Zhao, G.; Izumiura, H.; Zhao, J. K.; Liu, Y. J.; Honda, S.; Ohkubo, M.

2008-02-01

94

Discovery of solar system-size halos around young stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near-infrared speckle interferometric observations of five pre-main-sequence stars reveal a core-halo structure around two of these stars: HL Tau and R Mon. The halo light distribution is shown to arise from scattered light from small circumstellar particles. Halo sizes of 320 x 200 AU (alpha x delta FWHM) and 1300 x 1300 AU are deduced for HL Tau and R Mon, respectively, and the halo light is substantially bluer than the stellar light. The minimum mass of small particles in the scattering regions is comparable to the earth's mass in HL Tau and ten times greater in R Mon. Mass loss from the stars is almost certainly insufficient to produce the halo matter. The halos probably consist of relatively slowly moving matter bound gravitationally to the stars. From the size and mass of the circumstellar matter, it appears likely that these halos are in the early stage in the formation of planet-forming disks around the young stars.

Beckwith, S.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Zuckerman, B.; Dyck, H. M.

1984-01-01

95

Evolution of the central stars of young planetary nebulae  

E-print Network

The evolution of central stars of planetary nebulae was so far documented in just a few cases. However, spectra collected a few decades ago may provide a good reference for studying the evolution of central stars using the emission line fluxes of their nebulae. We investigated evolutionary changes of the [OIII] 5007 A line flux in the spectra of planetary nebulae. We compared nebular fluxes collected during a decade or longer. We used literature data and newly obtained spectra. A grid of Cloudy models was computed using existing evolutionary models, and the models were compared with the observations. An increase of the [OIII] 5007 A line flux is frequently observed in young planetary nebulae hosting H-rich central stars. The increasing nebular excitation is the response to the increasing temperature and hardening radiation of the central stars. We did not observe any changes in the nebular fluxes in the planetary nebulae hosting late-type Wolf-Rayet (WR) central stars. This may indicate a slower temperature e...

Hajduk, Marcin; Zijlstra, Albert A

2014-01-01

96

HUNTING FOR YOUNG DISPERSING STAR CLUSTERS IN IC 2574  

SciTech Connect

Dissolving stellar groups are very difficult to detect using traditional surface photometry techniques. We have developed a method to find and characterize non-compact stellar systems in galaxies where the young stellar population can be spatially resolved. By carrying out photometry on individual stars, we are able to separate the luminous blue stellar population from the star field background. The locations of these stars are used to identify groups by applying the HOP algorithm, which are then characterized using color-magnitude and stellar density radial profiles to estimate age, size, density, and shape. We test the method on Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys archival images of IC 2574 and find 75 dispersed stellar groups. Of these, 20 highly dispersed groups are good candidates for dissolving systems. We find few compact systems with evidence of dissolution, potentially indicating that star formation in this galaxy occurs mostly in unbound clusters or groups. These systems indicate that the dispersion rate of groups and clusters in IC 2574 is at most 0.45 pc Myr{sup -1}. The location of the groups found with HOP correlate well with H I contour map features. However, they do not coincide with H I holes, suggesting that those holes were not created by star-forming regions.

Pellerin, Anne [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Meyer, Martin M. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, CRAWLEY WA 6009 (Australia); Calzetti, Daniella [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Harris, Jason, E-mail: apellerin@mta.ca, E-mail: martin.meyer@uwa.edu.au, E-mail: calzetti@astro.umass.edu, E-mail: jharris@30doradus.org [Illumina, Inc., 25861 Industrial Blvd, Hayward, CA 94545 (United States)

2012-12-01

97

Multiplicity among Young Brown Dwarfs and Very Low Mass Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a near-infrared adaptive optics imaging survey of 31 young brown dwarfs and very low mass (VLM) stars, 28 of which are in the Chamaeleon I star-forming region, using the ESO Very Large Telescope. We resolve the suspected 0.16'' (~26 AU) binary Cha H? 2 and present two new binaries, Hn 13 and CHXR 15, with separations of 0.13'' (~20 AU) and 0.30'' (~50 AU), respectively; the latter is one of the widest VLM systems known. We find a binary frequency of 11+9-6%, thus confirming the trend for a lower binary frequency with decreasing mass. By combining our work with previous surveys, we arrive at the largest sample of young VLM objects (72) with high angular resolution imaging to date. Its multiplicity fraction is in statistical agreement with that for VLM objects in the field. Furthermore, we note that many field stellar binaries with lower binding energies and/or wider cross sections have survived dynamical evolution and that statistical models suggest tidal disruption by passing stars is unlikely to affect the binary properties of our systems. Thus, we argue that there is no significant evolution of multiplicity with age among brown dwarfs and VLM stars in OB and T associations between a few megayears to several gigayears. Instead, the observations so far suggest that VLM objects are either less likely to be born in fragile multiple systems than solar-mass stars or such systems are disrupted very early. We dedicate this paper to the memory of our coauthor, Eduardo Delgado-Donate, who died in a hiking accident in Tenerife earlier this year.

Ahmic, Mirza; Jayawardhana, Ray; Brandeker, Alexis; Scholz, Alexander; van Kerkwijk, Marten H.; Delgado-Donate, Eduardo; Froebrich, Dirk

2007-12-01

98

The dynamical evolution of a young star cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations show that the Trapezium Cluster in Orion is at most 1 Myr old, very dense, and containing about six OB stars at its centre. About 50 per cent or more of the cluster stars are binary systems. It may be expanding rapidly due to very recent gas blow-out, or it may be near virial equilibrium, or in cold collapse. The dynamics of the cluster is interesting because (i) it may be too young for dynamical evolution to have established the observed degree of mass segregation, and (ii) the binary population may still be young enough not to have been affected significantly by dynamical evolution. If both are true, then we have evidence that massive stars form at the centres of rich embedded clusters and that the binary proportion varies with star-forming conditions. A number of N-body calculations of model, binary-rich Trapezium Clusters have been performed using Aarseth's Nbody5 programme (Kroupa, Petr & McCaughrean 1998). Here, attention is focused on models in which the star formation efficiency was 50 per cent with instantaneous mass loss. It is found that the model central density and velocity dispersion agree with the observational constraints if expansion is only about 6x10^4 yr old. Additionally, the observed binary proportion constrains the primordial proportion to have been significantly less than in Taurus--Auriga. However, if variation of the birth binary proportion with gas cloud parameters has been detected can only be verified if the cluster can be shown to be expanding rapidly.

Kroupa, P.

99

The variable stars of the young LMC cluster NGC 2164  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present search of the LMC cluster NGC 2164 for variable stars has uncovered one new member classical Cepheid variable with 3.772-day period; attention is also given to photometry for a previously unknown field overtone Cepheid variable with 3.4626-day period, and the 10.6878-day period HV 12078, which may be a member of the young NGC 2156 cluster. The clear separation of fundamental and overtone pulsators in the period-luminosity-color relation of known LMC cluster Cepheids establishes that the NGC 2164 member is a true overtone.

Welch, Douglas L.; Mateo, Mario; Olszewski, Edward W.; Fischer, Philippe; Takamiya, Marianne

1993-01-01

100

Star Cluster Ecology: VII The evolution of young dense star clusters containing primordial binaries  

E-print Network

We study the first 100Myr of the evolution of isolated star clusters initially containing 144179 stars, including 13107 (10%) primordial hard binaries. Our calculations include the effects of both stellar and binary evolution. Gravitational interactions among the stars are computed by direct N-body integration using high precision GRAPE-6 hardware. The evolution of the core radii and central concentrations of our simulated clusters are compared with the observed sample of young (about 100Myr) star clusters in the large Magellanic cloud. Even though our simulations start with a rich population of primordial binaries, core collapse during the early phase of the cluster evolution is not prevented. Throughout the simulations, the fraction of binaries remains roughly constant (about 10%). Due to the effects of mass segregation the mass function of intermediate-mass main-sequence stars becomes as flat as $\\alpha=-1.8$ in the central part of the cluster (where the initial Salpeter mass function had $\\alpha=-2.35$). About 6--12% of the neutron stars were retained in our simulations; the fraction of retained black holes is 40--70%. In each simulation about three neutron stars become members of close binaries with a main-sequence companion. Such a binary will eventually become an x-ray binary, when the main-sequence star starts to fill its Roche lobe. Black holes are found more frequently in binaries; in each simulated cluster we find about 11 potential x-ray binaries containing a black hole. Abstract abbreviated....

Simon Portegies Zwart; Steve McMillan; Jun Makino

2006-09-27

101

Late-type stars members of young stellar kinematic groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have compiled a catalog of late-type stars (F5-M) member of representative young disk stellar kinematic groups: the Local Association (Pleiades moving group, 20 - 150 Myr), Ursa Mayor group (Sirius supercluster, 300 Myr), and Hyades supercluster (600 Myr). Other moving groups as IC 2391 supercluster (35 Myr) and Castor Moving Group (200 Myr) have been also included. Stars have been selected from previously established member of stellar kinematic groups based in photometric and kinematic properties as well as from candidates based in other criteria as their level of chromospheric activity, rotation rate, lithium abundance. Precise measurements of proper motions and parallaxes taken from Hipparcos Catalogue, and published radial velocity measurements are used to calculate Galactic space motions (U, V, W) in order to determine the membership of the selected stars to the different stellar kinematic groups. In addition to kinematic properties we also give for each star photometric, spectroscopic and physical properties as well as information about activity indicators and Li abundance. Some chromospherically active binaries results to be also members of some of these stellar kinematic groups.

Montes, D.; Latorre, A.; Fernández-Figueroa, M. J.

102

Young Star May Be Belching Spheres of Gas, Astronomers Say  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A young star more than 2,000 light-years away in the constellation Cepheus may be belching out spheres of gas, say astronomers who observed it with the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope. Not only is the star ejecting spheres of gas, the researchers say, but it also may be ejecting them repeatedly, phenomena not predicted by current theories of how young stars shed matter. Cepheus A star-forming region with blowups of detail In order to remain stable while accumulating matter, young stars have to throw off some of the infalling material to avoid "spinning up" so fast they would break apart, according to current theories. Infalling matter forms a thin spinning disk around the core of the new star, and material is ejected in twin "jets" perpendicular to the plane of the disk. "Twin jets have been seen emerging from many young stars, so we are quite surprised to see evidence that this object may be ejecting not jets, but spheres of gas," said Paul T.P. Ho, an astronomer at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. The research is reported in the May 17 edition of the scientific journal Nature. The astronomers observed a complex star-forming region in Cepheus and found an arc of water molecules that act like giant celestial amplifiers to boost the strength of radio signals at a frequency of 22 GHz. Such radio-wave amplifiers, called masers, show up as bright spots readily observed with radio telescopes. "With the great ability of the VLBA to show fine detail, we could track the motions of these maser spots over a period of weeks, and saw that this arc of water molecules is expanding at nearly 20,000 miles per hour," said Ho. "This was possible because we could detect detail equivalent to seeing Lincoln's nose on a penny in Los Angeles from the distance of New York," Ho added. "These observations pushed the tremendous capabilities of the VLBA and of modern computing power to their limits. This is an extremely complex observational project," said Luis F. Rodriguez, of Mexico's National Autonomous University. The arc of water masers can be fit to a nearly-perfect circle to within one part in a thousand. That, the researchers say, means that the water vapor in the arc most likely is part of a complete sphere. "The arc we see fits a circle so well that it is unlikely that any geometry other than that of a sphere would produce it," Ho said. The sphere would be about 1.5 times the size of the Solar System. Because the arc, and presumably the sphere of which it is part, is so thin and so uniform, the researchers say that it came from a single, short-lived ejection. In addition, other evidence suggests that the sphere from an earlier ejection now is being overtaken by a newer spherical bubble that took only about 33 years after being ejected to reach its observed size. "We now have at least one case, we believe, in which a young star has repeatedly ejected mass spherically in short bursts," Guillem Anglada, of the Institute of Astrophysics of Andalucia (CSIC), in Granada, Spain, said. "In light of our current understanding of star formation, we don't yet understand how this can happen, so we have an exciting new scientific challenge. It is surprising that nature can maintain such perfect symmetry, especially since the environment around the young star must be so varied. This appears to be a triumph of order over chaos," he added. The researchers, in addition to Rodriguez, Ho and Anglada, are: Jose M. Torrelles, Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC)-Spanish Research Council (CSIC), Spain; Nimesh A. Patel and Lincoln Greenhill, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; Jose F. Gomez, Laboratory for Space Astrophysics and Theoretical Physics of the National Institute for Aerospace Technology, Madrid, Spain; Salvador Curiel and Jorge Canto, of Mexico's National Autonomous University; and Guido Garay, Department of Astronomy of the University of Chile. The VLBA is part of the Natio

2001-05-01

103

Young Photodissociation Complexes in NGC 6822: Stars and PDRs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I examine Photodissociation Region (PDR) properties in relation to stellar populations in three regions of NGC 6822. This Local Group dwarf galaxy has a metallicity less than half Solar and lies 490kpc away. It is close enough that stellar populations are resolved as are nebular structures of evolving young HII regions; we can see that these regions are being driven by O/B stars. We model the radiation field directly from the stellar content and find that it matches the radiation structure determined from far-infrared (FIR) line ratios from Herschel/PACS spectral maps (in [CII], [OI] 63micron, and [OIII] 88micron) and derived total FIR maps from dust spectral energy distribution fitting. This allows us to constrain the radiation and density structure of the PDR. Finally, with mid-IR [SIII] line ratios, we map the ionized gas density. At this distance, Spitzer images are insufficient to confirm continuing star formation in these regions via the identification of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs), but the evolutionary picture and ISM density distribution indicate that we are likely to find YSOs with the advent of JWST.

Carlson, Lynn; Dwarf Galaxy Survey Team

2014-01-01

104

JET FORMATION FROM MASSIVE YOUNG STARS: MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS VERSUS RADIATION PRESSURE  

SciTech Connect

Observations indicate that outflows from massive young stars are more collimated during their early evolution compared to later stages. Our paper investigates various physical processes that impact the outflow dynamics, i.e., its acceleration and collimation. We perform axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations particularly considering the radiation pressure exerted by the star and the disk. We have modified the PLUTO code to include radiative forces in the line-driving approximation. We launch the outflow from the innermost disk region (r < 50 AU) by magnetocentrifugal acceleration. In order to disentangle MHD effects from radiative forces, we start the simulation in pure MHD and later switch on the radiation force. We perform a parameter study considering different stellar masses (thus luminosity), magnetic flux, and line-force strength. For our reference simulation-assuming a 30 M{sub Sun} star-we find substantial de-collimation of 35% due to radiation forces. The opening angle increases from 20 Degree-Sign to 32 Degree-Sign for stellar masses from 20 M{sub Sun} to 60 M{sub Sun }. A small change in the line-force parameter {alpha} from 0.60 to 0.55 changes the opening angle by {approx}8 Degree-Sign . We find that it is mainly the stellar radiation that affects the jet dynamics. Unless the disk extends very close to the star, its force is too small to have much impact. Essentially, our parameter runs with different stellar masses can be understood as a proxy for the time evolution of the star-outflow system. Thus, we have shown that when the stellar mass (thus luminosity) increases with age, the outflows become less collimated.

Vaidya, Bhargav; Porth, Oliver [Member of the International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics at the University of Heidelberg (IMPRS-HD) and the Heidelberg Graduate School of Fundamental Physics (HGSFP). (Germany); Fendt, Christian; Beuther, Henrik, E-mail: vaidya@mpia.de, E-mail: fendt@mpia.de [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-11-20

105

Absolute parameters of young stars - I. U Ophiuci  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out an investigation of the early-type multiple star U Oph. We have used new high-resolution spectroscopy with the High Efficiency and Resolution Canterbury University Large Echelle Spectrograph (HERCULES) and 1-m McLellan Telescope of the University of Canterbury at Mt John University Observatory and literature-sourced optical and ultraviolet photometry. We applied the local reduction package [HERCULES Reduction Software Package (HRSP)] and other software to the spectroscopic data to find radial velocities. Information limit optimization techniques (ILOT) utilizing physically realistic fitting functions were applied to these data to yield new sets of absolute parameters: M1 = 5.13, M2 = 4.56 (+/-2 per cent); R1 = 3.41, R2 = 3.08 (+/-1 per cent); for the early-type eclipsing binary that dominates the system. We have combined times-of-minima photometry with other data for the triple system that makes up ADS 10428A, utilizing the wide orbit of Wolf et al. as well as HIPPARCOS astrometry of U Oph. ILOT techniques applied to the astrometric orbit yield a mass of the third star as 0.83Msolar. We estimate an age of the system of around 30-40Myr, from the isochrones of Bertelli, results given by Vaz, Andersen & Claret, as well as our own tests with an updated version of Paczy?ski's stellar modelling code. This age and other details are consistent with a possible origin in Gould's Belt. Such information for this, and comparable young multiple star systems, may help to clarify general properties of star formation and the subtle interactions of stars and their environment.

Budding, E.; Inlek, G.; Demircan, O.

2009-02-01

106

Abundance Pattern of Metal-Rich Stars from 14 Old and 24 Young Stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metallicities and abundance ratios, [X\\/Fe], of 12 elements---C, Na, Mg, Si, S, Ca, Ti, Cr, Ni, Y, Zr, and Ce---are determined for 14 old and 24 young metal-rich stars based on high resolution, high S\\/N spectra obtained with the HIDES spectrograph attached to the 1.88 m telescope of Okayama Astrophysical Observatory (Okayama, Japan). The results show that there is

Y. Q. Chen; G. Zhao; H. Izumiura; J. K. Zhao; Y. J. Liu; S. Honda; M. Ohkubo

2008-01-01

107

Investigating Young Stars Near Earth with GALEX, WISE & 2MASS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past dozen years the existence within 100 pc of Earth of various youthful moving groups has become evident. The ages of these groups span the range 10-200 million years, an era of stellar evolution not easy to study with more distant stars. This era is also a critical time in the formation of rocky planets. Probably most interesting from an observational perspective is the unique role such stars play now and will play in the future in the direct imaging of gas-rich planets, such as those that orbit HR 8799 and beta Pictoris. Most nearby stellar group members with spectral types as late as early-M have been identified or confirmed by virtue of their coronal activity and, hence, relatively large X-ray fluxes in the ROSAT all-sky survey. The survey at UV wavelengths by the GALEX satellite -- in tandem with the infrared 2MASS and WISE catalogs -- now enables us to push on down to discovery of young, chromospherically active, mid-M type stars; these are very numerous and play an important role in all of the stellar and planetary research mentioned above. This work is supported by NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program award NNX12AH37G to RIT and UCLA.

Zuckerman, Ben M.; Rodriguez, D.; Kastner, J. H.; Darling, S.; Principe, D.; Montez, R.; Diaz, M.; Vican, L.

2013-01-01

108

YoungStar in Wisconsin: An Initial Progress Report as of July 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

YoungStar is a program of the Department of Children and Families (DCF) created to improve the quality of child care for Wisconsin children. YoungStar is designed to: (1) Evaluate and rate the quality of care given by child care providers; (2) Help parents choose the best child care for their kids; (3) Support providers with tools and training to…

Edie, Dave

2011-01-01

109

YoungStar in Milwaukee County: An Initial Progress Report as of July 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

YoungStar is a program of the Department of Children and Families (DCF) created to improve the quality of child care for Wisconsin children. YoungStar is designed to: (1) Evaluate and rate the quality of care given by child care providers; (2) Help parents choose the best child care for their kids; (3) Support providers with tools and training to…

Edie, Dave

2011-01-01

110

Astrophysics of Young Star Binaries in the Taurus Star Forming Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes our studies of the individual components of young star binaries. Most stars are found in multiple systems; thus binaries are important to characterize and understand, both as a common mode for star formation and for their suitability for planet formation. We observed each component in 16 systems, located in the nearby Taurus-Auriga star forming region, using low-resolution (R=760) infrared spectroscopy and photometry. We detected photospheric absorption lines and were able to determine the spectral type, extinction, K-band excess, and luminosity for each component. We estimated the masses and ages by locating each star on the HR Diagram and comparing their positions with theoretical models. The extinction was greater for the secondary components in ~80% of the systems. For two thirds of the systems, the K-band excess of the primary components dominates that of their counterparts. A majority of the systems exhibit Brackett gamma emission at 2.16 microns, which implies that at least one star in these pairs is surrounded by an actively accreting circumstellar disk.

Johns, Paula; Prato, L. A.; Greene, T. P.

2013-01-01

111

FAST STAR, SLOW STAR; OLD STAR, YOUNG STAR: SUBGIANT ROTATION AS A POPULATION AND STELLAR PHYSICS DIAGNOSTIC  

SciTech Connect

Stellar rotation is a strong function of both mass and evolutionary state. Missions such as Kepler and CoRoT provide tens of thousands of rotation periods, drawn from stellar populations that contain objects at a range of masses, ages, and evolutionary states. Given a set of reasonable starting conditions and a prescription for angular momentum loss, we address the expected range of rotation periods for cool field stellar populations (?0.4-2.0 M{sub ?}). We find that cool stars fall into three distinct regimes in rotation. Rapid rotators with surface periods less than 10 days are either young low-mass main sequence (MS) stars, or higher mass subgiants which leave the MS with high rotation rates. Intermediate rotators (10-40 days) can be either cool MS dwarfs, suitable for gyrochronology, or crossing subgiants at a range of masses. Gyrochronology relations must therefore be applied cautiously, since there is an abundant population of subgiant contaminants. The slowest rotators, at periods greater than 40 days, are lower mass subgiants undergoing envelope expansion. We identify additional diagnostic uses of rotation periods. There exists a period-age relation for subgiants distinct from the MS period-age relations. There is also a period-radius relation that can be used as a constraint on the stellar radius, particularly in the interesting case of planet host stars. The high-mass/low-mass break in the rotation distribution on the MS persists onto the subgiant branch, and has potential as a diagnostic of stellar mass. Finally, this set of theoretical predictions can be compared to extensive datasets to motivate improved modeling.

Van Saders, Jennifer L.; Pinsonneault, Marc H., E-mail: vansaders@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

2013-10-20

112

Where to Find Young Bright Stars in Geosciences: GGD, NSU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geology and Geophysics Department (GGD) of Novosibirsk State University (NSU) can be regarded as infant, because it was founded in 1962. On the other hand, if to judge by what have been done - it is not only full-fledged, but well-known department. The unique location and specific educational and scientific traditions make GGD a famous school not only in Siberia, but in Russia, and all over the world. What are the tips to prepare bright stars in geosciences? 1.NSU is located in Academgorodok (Novosibirsk scientific center), unique place in Siberia, where more than 20 scientific institutions are located. This makes the University different from other schools in Russia. Famous Russian scientists, including members of RAS, together with foreign professors give lectures and seminars for NSU students. 2.The bright star hunting starts far below the NSU level. Each year in April there is a special event in Academgorodok -`Geologic Olympiad', where children of all Russian regions, as well as ex-Soviet republics are gathered together to submit their papers, to discuss most interesting geoscience problems and to win prizes for their knowledge. The youngest stars happen to be only 6-7 years old. The event is sponsored by NSU, UIGGM, and the Ministry of Natural Resources. The brightest geostars are grown from `Geologic Olympiad' participants. 3.There is special physics-mathematical high school in Academgorodok. Each summer this school gathers young stars from farthest Siberian and Far East regions and gives classes and seminars in mathematics, physics, chemistry and geology. As the result the most talented children become the students of this school (for two years). The school in turn supplies GGD with the students. 4.NSU has the study curriculum different from other universities in Russia. That is why the entrance examinations are much more difficult as compared to other schools and are taken in July (a month earlier then at other universities). However the entrance examinations are based on free competition and education at GGD is free. For example, to become a student of oil and gas geochemistry a young star should win a competition between nine young persons. 5.GGD scientific research program starts from course paper (second year of study), the next steps being Bachelor's and Master's dissertations and postgraduate course. The scientific advisors are most famous scientists from Academgorodok. Moreover, the GGD students have a possibility to take unique exclusive electives of most modern fields of science. 6.GGD is equipped by a good computer class and SGG workstation. Most computers were granted by Schlumberger, as a sign that best graduates in geosciences in Russia are from GGD NSU. So the students have free Internet access as well as they can use online web educational resources of GGD. The educational system of GGD does not use a conception `to teach something', but the conception `to teach how to learn'. At GGD a tutor has 5-6 students. For some electives and specialties there is one student - one tutor system. GGD students are able to have field practice in all Siberian and Far East regions, huge territory with unique geology. The NSU educational system is flexible enough, so that the graduates are able to adapt to any interdisciplinary science and can successfully work in other fields. The graduators work not only in oil companies and scientific institutions in Russia, but in such companies as Schlumberger, Halliburton, Shell, Total, De Beers, and others. The brightest GGD stars are even head-hunted. The NSU slogan is `WE WILL NOT MAKE YOU SMARTER, WE WILL TEACH YOU HOW TO THINK!'

Rakhmenkoulova, I. F.; Sharapov, V. N.

2004-12-01

113

Analysis of star-disk interaction in young stellar systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results of the study of star-disk interaction in the classical T Tauri star V354 Mon, a member of the young stellar cluster NGC 2264. As part of an international campaign of observations of NGC 2264 organized from December 2011 to February 2012, high resolution photometric and spectroscopic data of this object were obtained simultaneously with the Chandra, CoRoT and Spitzer satellites, and ground-based telescopes, such as CFHT and ESO/VLT. The optical and infrared light curves of V354 Mon show periodic brightness minima that vary in depth and width every 5.21 days rotational cycle. We found evidence that the H? emission line profile changes according to the period of photometric variations, indicating that the same phenomenon causes both modulations. Such correlation was also identified in a previous observational campaign on the same object, where we concluded that material non-uniformly distributed in the inner part of the disk is the main cause of the photometric modulation. This assumption is supported by the fact that the system is seen at high inclination. It is believed that this distortion of the inner part of the disk results from the dynamical interaction between the stellar magnetosphere, inclined with respect to the rotation axis, and the circumstellar disk, as also observed in the classical T Tauri star AA Tau, and predicted by magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations. A model of occultation by circumstellar material was applied to the photometric data in order to determine the parameters of the obscuring material during both observational campaigns, thus providing an investigation of its stability on a timescale of a few years. We also studied V422 Mon, a classical T Tauri star with photometric variations similar to those of V354 Mon at optical wavelengths, but with a distinct behavior in the infrared. The mechanism that produces such a difference is investigated, testing the predictions of magnetospheric accretion models.

Fonseca, Nathalia N. J.; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Bouvier, Jérôme

2014-08-01

114

Accretion-Driven Physics on the Young Star BP Tauri  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose 600 ks with LETG/ACIS-S on the accreting young star BP Tau to study its X-ray emission physics. Our Chandra Large Program on TW Hya has resulted in definitive evidence for accretion, a puzzle over the soft X-ray emission producing O VII emission, and correlations between X-ray and optical signatures related to accretion. Spectral diagnostics from He-like Ne IX constrain all the properties of a simple accretion model, which incorporates the geometrical constraints provided by line-based absorption diagnostics. This deep Chandra spectrum is needed to determine the impact of accretion on a more typical accreting system with different orientation. We will also conduct a campaign to obtain optical photometry, spectroscopy, and spectropolarimetry (for magnetic topology maps).

Brickhouse, Nancy

2013-09-01

115

Fossil magnetic field of accretion disks of young stars  

E-print Network

We elaborate the model of accretion disks of young stars with the fossil large-scale magnetic field in the frame of Shakura and Sunyaev approximation. Equations of the MHD model include Shakura and Sunyaev equations, induction equation and equations of ionization balance. Magnetic field is determined taking into account ohmic diffusion, magnetic ambipolar diffusion and buoyancy. Ionization fraction is calculated considering ionization by cosmic rays and X-rays, thermal ionization, radiative recombinations and recombinations on the dust grains. Analytical solution and numerical investigations show that the magnetic field is coupled to the gas in the case of radiative recombinations. Magnetic field is quasi-azimuthal close to accretion disk inner boundary and quasi-radial in the outer regions. Magnetic field is quasi-poloidal in the dusty "dead" zones with low ionization degree, where ohmic diffusion is efficient. Magnetic ambipolar diffusion reduces vertical magnetic field in 10 times comparing to the frozen-i...

Dudorov, A E

2014-01-01

116

Infrared observations of young stars. VI - A 2- to 4-micron search for molecular features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narrow-band spectrophotometric observations between 2 and 4 microns are presented of 21 T Tau and early-type young stars. Virtually all the stars are characterized by smooth featureless continua. The extremely young star HL Tau has an absorption feature centered at 3.1 microns which is well matched by extinction from 30 micrograms\\/sq cm of pure ice. Particle radii are less than

M. Cohen

1975-01-01

117

StarChild: A Learning Center for Young Astronomers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The StarChild website, a service of the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC)/NASA, offers a wealth of information on space science for young astronomers and teachers who are searching for space science activities for young learners. Each of these major topics are covered in an age appropriate manner, either for Level 1 or Level 2 learners: Solar System, Universe, Space Stuff, and a Glossary. Links are provided between Level 1 and Level 2 versions of pages so that differences in difficulty can be easily compared. The basics of the Solar System and Universe are covered, as well as human endeavors in Space Stuff, such as astronauts, space wardrobes, space travel, space probes, the Hubble Space Telescope, and Who's Who in Space. Difficult words are linked from the text to a glossary. Questions are posed after many of the textual explanations and interactive activities can be accessed within each topic. The activities can be used via the Web or with pencil and paper. Links are provided to other educational space science sites.

Joyce Dejoie

118

Star Formation Ecology: YSO Outflow Feedback in Young Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energetic outflows associated with young stellar objects exert a strong effect on their parent molecular clouds. The dynamics of this interaction is yet to be well understood. In particular the role of jets and outflows in powering cloud turbulence, modifying the star formation efficiency (SFE) and/or disrupting the parent clouds remains unclear. Spitzer images of young clusters have provided new views of jet-cloud interactions that can help resolve these critical issues. In this proposal we seek to continue a highly successful (cycle 2) theory program to explore theoretical issues of jet-cloud interactions, turbulence and cloud disruption. Our research relies on 3-D Adaptive Mesh Refinement hydrodynamic and MHD simulations developed in house, in concert with Spitzer databases and other complementary observations. The team we have assembled includes computational and analytic theorists (Frank, Blackman) as well as observers who have worked closely with existing Spitzer Datasets (Bally, Quillen, Pipher, Gutermuth) The work funded through the previous TR program revealed fundamentally new aspects of YSO outflow feedback on parent cloud cores including the importance of the temporal evolution of outflow power. In this proposal we seek to extend the understanding gained in those studies to address specific questions on the nature and efficacy of outflow feedback in real systems.

Frank, Adam; Bally, John; Blackman, Eric; Gutermuth, Robert; Pipher, Judy; Quillen, Alice

2007-05-01

119

Resolved photometry of extragalactic young massive star clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We present colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of young massive star clusters in several galaxies located well beyond the Local Group. The richness of these clusters allows us to obtain large samples of post-main sequence stars and test how well the observed CMDs are reproduced by canonical stellar isochrones. Methods: We use imaging of seven clusters in the galaxies NGC 1313, NGC 1569, NGC 1705, NGC 5236 and NGC 7793 obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope and carry out PSF-fitting photometry of individual stars in the clusters. The clusters have ages in the range ~(5-50) × 106 years and masses of ~105 M?-106 M?. Although crowding prevents us from obtaining photometry in the inner regions of the clusters, we are still able to measure up to 30-100 supergiant stars in each of the richest clusters. The resulting CMDs and luminosity functions are compared with photometry of artificially generated clusters, designed to reproduce the photometric errors and completeness as realistically as possible. Results: In agreement with previous studies, our CMDs show no clear gap between the H-burning main sequence and the He-burning supergiant stars, contrary to predictions by common stellar isochrones. In general, the isochrones also fail to match the observed number ratios of red-to-blue supergiant stars, although the difficulty of separating blue supergiants from the main sequence complicates this comparison. In several cases we observe a large spread (1-2 mag) in the luminosities of the supergiant stars that cannot be accounted for by observational errors. We find that this spread can be reproduced by including an age spread of ~(10-30) × 106 years in the models. However, age spreads cannot fully account for the observed morphology of the CMDs and other processes, such as the evolution of interacting binary stars, may also play a role. Conclusions: Colour-magnitude diagrams can be successfully obtained for massive star clusters out to distances of at least 4-5 Mpc. Comparing such CMDs with models based on canonical isochrones we find several areas of disagreement. One interesting possibility is that an age spread of up to ~30 Myr may be present in some clusters. The data presented here may provide useful constraints on models for single and/or binary stellar evolution. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under the NASA contract NAS 5-26555Tables 4-10 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/532/A147

Larsen, S. S.; de Mink, S. E.; Eldridge, J. J.; Langer, N.; Bastian, N.; Seth, A.; Smith, L. J.; Brodie, J.; Efremov, Yu. N.

2011-08-01

120

SpS1-Measuring magnetic fields on young stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

T Tauri stars (TTSs) are young (~few Myr) late type stars that have only recently emerged from their natal molecular cloud material to become visible at optical wavelengths. It is now generally accepted that accretion of circumstellar disk material onto the surface of a TTS is controlled by a strong stellar magnetic field (e.g. see review by Bouvier et al. 2007). The stellar field appears critical for explaining the rotational properties of TTSs (Bouvier et al. 2007, Herbst et al. 2007) and may also play a critical role in driving the outflows seen from many of these sources (e.g. Shang et al. 2007, Mohanty & Shu 2008). As a result, there is a great deal of interest in measuring the magnetic field properties of TTSs (e.g. Johns-Krull 2007, Donati et al. 2008). In particular, disk locking theories predict that an equilibrium is established where the disk is trunctated at or close to corotation and the stellar rotation rate depends only on the (assumed) dipolar magnetic field strength, the stellar mass, radius, and the mass accretion rate in the disk (see Bouvier et al. 2007).

Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Valenti, Jeff A.

2010-11-01

121

Time-monitoring observations of Br? emission from young stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present multiple epochs of near-infrared spectroscopy for a sample of 25 young stars, including T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be, and FU Ori objects. Using the FSPEC instrument on the Bok 90-inch telescope, we obtained K-band spectra of the Br? transition of hydrogen, with a resolution of ?3500. Epochs were taken over a span of >1 yr, sampling time-spacings of roughly 1 d, 1 month, and 1 yr. The majority of our targets show Br? emission, and in some cases these are the first published detections. Time variability is seen in approximately half of the targets showing Br? emission. We compare the observed variability with expectations for rotationally modulated accretion on to the central stars and time-variable continuum emission or extinction from matter in the inner disc. Our observations are not entirely consistent with models of rotationally modulated magnetospheric accretion. Further monitoring, over a larger number of epochs, will facilitate more quantitative constraints on variability time-scales and amplitudes, and a more conclusive comparison with theoretical models.

Eisner, J. A.; Rieke, G. H.; Rieke, M. J.; Flaherty, K. M.; Stone, J. M.; Arnold, T. J.; Cortes, S. R.; Cox, E.; Hawkins, C.; Cole, A.; Zajac, S.; Rudolph, A. L.

2015-02-01

122

Discovery of a luminous white dwarf in a young star cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

E-print Network

We have identified a candidate 1-2 x 10^5 year old luminous white dwarf in NGC 1818, a young star cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This discovery strongly constrains the boundary mass M_c at which stars stop forming neutron stars and start forming white dwarfs, to M_c > 7.6 Msun.

Rebecca A. W. Elson; Steinn Sigurdsson; Jarrod Hurley; Melvyn B. Davies; Gerard F. Gilmore

1998-03-19

123

Pulsating B-type stars in the young open cluster h Persei (NGC 869)  

E-print Network

We announce the discovery of six Beta Cephei stars and many other variable stars in the young open cluster h Persei (NGC 869). The cluster seems to be very rich in variable B-type stars, similarly to its twin, Chi Persei (NGC 884).

A. Majewska-Swierzbinowicz; A. Pigulski; R. Szabo; Z. Csubry

2007-11-10

124

Rotation of Jets from Young Stars: New Clues from the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report findings from the first set of data in a current survey to establish conclusively whether jets from young stars rotate. We observed the bipolar jets from the T Tauri stars TH 28 and RW Aur and the blueshifted jet from T Tauri star LkHalpha 321, using the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Forbidden emission lines show distinct and

Deirdre Coffey; Francesca Bacciotti; Jens Woitas; Thomas P. Ray; Jochen Eislöffel

2004-01-01

125

Anatomy of a Young Massive Star Cluster: NGC 1569-B  

E-print Network

We present new H-band echelle spectra, obtained with the NIRSPEC spectrograph at Keck II, for the massive star cluster "B" in the nearby dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 1569. From spectral synthesis and equivalent width measurements we obtain abundances and abundance patterns. We derive an Fe abundance of [Fe/H]=-0.63+/-0.08, a super-solar [alpha/Fe] abundance ratio of +0.31+/-0.09, and an O abundance of [O/H]=-0.29+/-0.07. We also measure a low 12C/13C = 5+/-1 isotopic ratio. Using archival imaging from the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board HST, we construct a colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) for the cluster in which we identify about 60 red supergiant (RSG) stars, consistent with the strong RSG features seen in the H-band spectrum. The mean effective temperature of these RSGs, derived from their observed colours and weighted by their estimated H-band luminosities, is 3790 K, in excellent agreement with our spectroscopic estimate of Teff = 3800+/-200 K. From the CMD we derive an age of 15-25 Myr, slightly older than previous estimates based on integrated broad-band colours. We derive a radial velocity of -78+/-3 km/s and a velocity dispersion of 9.6+/-0.3 km/s. In combination with an estimate of the half-light radius of 0.20"+/-0.05" from the HST data, this leads to a dynamical mass of (4.4+/-1.1)E5 Msun. The dynamical mass agrees very well with the mass predicted by simple stellar population models for a cluster of this age and luminosity, assuming a normal stellar IMF. The cluster core radius appears smaller at longer wavelengths, as has previously been found in other extragalactic young star clusters.

S. S. Larsen; L. Origlia; J. P. Brodie; J. S. Gallagher III

2007-10-02

126

Mid-Infrared Imaging of Massive Young Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation of massive stars is a poorly understood process. Detailed observations of high-luminosity young stellar objects (YSOs), often embedded in dusty envelopes, could provide valuable clues to their origin. Imaging in the mid-infrared allows us to investigate the multiplicity of sources, characterize the immediate circumstellar material, and connect the overall structure of the YSO environment on both large and small scales. Here we present subarcsecond-resolution mid-infrared images of nine young stellar objects: AFGL 961, AFGL 2136, AFGL 4176, AFGL 7009S, G343.126, I17441, M8E-IR, S269-IRS2, and W33A. The observations were obtained in two runs using the Thermal Infrared Multi-Mode Instrument (TIMMI2) on the European Southern Observatory's 3.6-meter telescope in La Silla, Chile. Each target, with the exception of AFGL 4176, has observations at both 11.9 microns and Q-band. M8E-IR was also observed at 8.9 and 9.8 microns, while AFGL 961 and S269-IRS2 were imaged at 4.6 microns as well. We present photometry and contour plots to show the infrared morphology of each target, several of which reveal multiple sources and/or diffuse nebulosity. For example, we find that M8E-IR has six separate sources clustered around the central point source. In addition to I17441's central point source, there are three fainter sources as well as a large bow-shaped nebulosity. We detect four point sources toward AFGL 961 and extended diffuse mission associated with S269-IRS2. We discuss the relation between our mid-infrared images of these YSOs and previously available data on their near-infrared morphology, silicate features, and CO outflows.

Billmeier, R. R.; Jayawardhana, R.; Marengo, M.; Mardones, D.; Alves, J.

2003-12-01

127

`Tail-end' Bondi-Hoyle accretion in young star clusters: Implications for disks, planets, and stars  

E-print Network

Young stars orbiting in the gravitational potential well of forming star clusters pass through the cluster's dense molecular gas and can experience Bondi-Hoyle accretion from reservoirs outside their individual protostellar cloud cores. Accretion can occur for several million years after the stars form, but before the cluster disperses. This accretion is predominantly onto the disk and not the star. N-body simulations of stars orbiting in three young model clusters containing 30, 300, and 3000 stars are presented. The simulations include the gravitational potential of the molecular gas which smoothly disperses over time. The clusters have a star formation efficiency of 33% and a radius of 0.22 pc. We find that the disks surrounding solar-mass stars in the N=30 cluster accretes ~0.01 M_sol (~1 minimum-mass solar nebula, MMSN) per Myr. The accretion rate scales as M^2.1 for stars of mass M. The accretion rate is ~5 times lower for N=3000 cluster, due to its higher stellar velocities and higher temperature. The Bondi-Hoyle accretion rates onto the disks are several times lower than accretion rates observed directly onto young stars (e.g., Muzerolle et al 2005): these two accretion rates follow the same M^2 behavior and may be related. The accreted disk mass is large enough that it may have a substantial and unappreciated effect on disk structure and the formation of planetary systems. We discuss a variety of implications of this process, including its effect on metallicity differences between cluster stars, compositional differences between a star and its disk, the formation of terrestrial and gas-giant planets, and isotopic anomalies observed in our Solar System.

Henry B. Throop; John Bally

2008-04-03

128

ROTATIONAL PERIODS OF VERY YOUNG BROWN DWARFS AND VERY LOW MASS STARS IN CHAMAELEON I1  

E-print Network

ROTATIONAL PERIODS OF VERY YOUNG BROWN DWARFS AND VERY LOW MASS STARS IN CHAMAELEON I1 V. Joergens May 20 ABSTRACT We have studied the photometric variability of very young brown dwarfs and very low periods in the Gunn i and R bands for the three M6.5­M7 type brown dwarf candidates Cha H 2, Cha H 3

Joergens, Viki

129

A Survey for Young Spectroscopic Binary K7-M4 Stars in Ophiuchus  

E-print Network

This paper describes a high-resolution, infrared spectroscopic survey of young, low-mass stars designed to identify and characterize pre-main-sequence spectroscopic binaries. This is the first large infrared radial velocity survey of very young stars to date. The frequency and mass ratio distribution of the closest, low-mass binaries bear directly on models of stellar, brown dwarf, and planetary mass companion formation. Furthermore, spectroscopic binaries can provide mass ratios and ultimately masses, independent of assumptions, needed to calibrate models of young star evolution. I present the initial results from observations of a uniform sample of 33 T Tauri M stars in the Ophiuchus molecular cloud. The average mass of this sample is less than that of other young star radial velocity surveys of similar scope by a factor of ~2. Almost every star was observed at 3-4 epochs over 3 years with the 10 meter Keck II telescope and the facility infrared spectrometer NIRSPEC. An internal precision of 0.43 km/s was obtained with standard cross-correlation calibration techniques. Four of the targets are newly discovered spectroscopic binaries, one of which is located in a sub-arcsecond, hierarchical quadruple system. Three other sub-arcsecond visual binaries were also serendipitously identified during target acquisition. The spectroscopic multiplicity of the sample is comparable to that of earlier type, pre-main-sequence objects. Therefore, there is no dearth of young, low-mass spectroscopic binary stars, at least in the Ophiuchus region.

L. Prato

2006-11-20

130

The luminosity function of young star clusters: implications for the maximum mass and luminosity of clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a method to relate a possible truncation of the star cluster mass function at the high mass end to the shape of the cluster luminosity function (LF). We compare the observed LFs of five galaxies containing young star clusters with synthetic cluster population models with varying initial conditions. The LF of the SMC, the LMC and NGC 5236

Mark Gieles; Soeren Larsen; Nate Bastian; I. T. Stein

2006-01-01

131

Spectral Energy Distributions of Young Stars in IC 348: The Role of Disks in Angular Momentum Evolution of Young, Low-mass Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical work suggests that a young star's angular momentum content and rotation rate may be strongly influenced by magnetic interactions with its circumstellar disk. A generic prediction of these "disk-locking" theories is that a disk-locked star will be forced to co-rotate with the Keplerian angular velocity of the inner edge of the disk; that is, the disk's inner-truncation radius should equal its co-rotation radius. These theories have also been interpreted to suggest a gross correlation between young stars' rotation periods and the structural properties of their circumstellar disks, such that slowly rotating stars possess close-in disks that enforce the star's slow rotation, whereas rapidly rotating stars possess anemic or evacuated inner disks that are unable to brake the stars and instead the stars spin up as they contract. To test these expectations, we model the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 33 young stars in IC 348 with known rotation periods and infrared excesses indicating the presence of circumstellar disks. For each star, we match the observed SED, typically sampling 0.6-8.0 ?m, to a grid of 200,000 pre-computed star+disk radiative transfer models, from which we infer the disk's inner-truncation radius. We then compare this truncation radius to the disk's co-rotation radius, calculated from the star's measured rotation period. We do not find obvious differences in the disk truncation radii of slow rotators versus rapid rotators. This holds true both at the level of whether close-in disk material is present at all, and in analyzing the precise location of the inner disk edge relative to the co-rotation radius among the subset of stars with close-in disk material. One interpretation is that disk locking is unimportant for the IC 348 stars in our sample. Alternatively, if disk locking does operate, then it must operate on both the slow and rapid rotators, potentially producing both spin-up and spin-down torques, and the transition from the disk-locked state to the disk-released state must occur more rapidly than the stellar contraction timescale.

Le Blanc, Thompson S.; Covey, Kevin R.; Stassun, Keivan G.

2011-08-01

132

AGE AND MASS STUDIES FOR YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS IN M31 FROM SEDS-FIT  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present photometry for young star clusters in M31, which are selected from Caldwell et al. These star clusters have been observed as part of the Beijing-Arizona-Taiwan-Connecticut (BATC) Multicolor Sky Survey from 1995 February to 2008 March. The BATC images including these star clusters are taken with 15 intermediate-band filters covering 3000-10000 A. Combined with photometry in the GALEX far- and near-ultraviolet, broadband UBV RI, SDSS ugriz, and infrared JHK{sub s} of Two Micron All Sky Survey, we obtain their accurate spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from 1538 to 20000 A. We derive these star clusters' ages and masses by comparing their SEDs with stellar population synthesis models. Our results are in good agreement with previous determinations. The mean value of age and mass of young clusters (<2 Gyr) is about 385 Myr and 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }, respectively. There are two distinct peaks in the age distribution, a highest peak at age {approx}60 Myr and a secondary peak around 250 Myr, while the mass distribution shows a single peak around 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }. A few young star clusters have two-body relaxation times greater than their ages, indicating that those clusters have not been well dynamically relaxed and therefore have not established the thermal equilibrium. There are several regions showing aggregations of young star clusters around the 10 kpc ring and the outer ring, indicating that the distribution of the young star clusters is well correlated with M31's star-forming regions. The young massive star clusters (age {<=}100 Myr and mass {>=}10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }) show apparent concentration around the ring splitting region, suggesting a recent passage of a satellite galaxy (M32) through M31 disk.

Wang Song; Ma Jun; Fan Zhou; Wu Zhenyu; Zhang Tianmeng; Zou Hu; Zhou Xu, E-mail: majun@nao.cas.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

2012-12-01

133

Clarifying Our View of Milky Way Massive Young Star Clusters with Adaptive Optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present Keck laser guide star adaptive optics (AO) observations of the massive young star clusters W51 G48.9-0.3 and W49A Cluster 1 in an effort to test the universality of the initial mass function (IMF) in extreme star forming environments. High-precision AO astrometry over a 1 year time baseline is successfully used to separate cluster members from contaminating field objects

Jessica R. Lu; A. M. Ghez; N. McCrady; S. Yelda

2011-01-01

134

Problems in the evolution of young stars in open clusters and associations - Perspectives of future work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses several observational problems relative to young stars which cannot find an easy solution in the context of classical stellar models. The study of the effects of convective overshooting and opacity enhancement in the region of CNO ionization performed by Bertelli et al. (1984) in the domain of massive stars is extended to the range of intermediate mass stars. Several preliminary results are presented and compared with the observational information.

Bertelli, G.; Bressan, A. G.; Chiosi, C.; Nasi, E.

135

Discovery at Young Star Hints Magnetism Common to All Cosmic Jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have found the first evidence of a magnetic field in a jet of material ejected from a young star, a discovery that points toward future breakthroughs in understanding the nature of all types of cosmic jets and of the role of magnetic fields in star formation. Throughout the Universe, jets of subatomic particles are ejected by three phenomena: the supermassive black holes at the cores of galaxies, smaller black holes or neutron stars consuming material from companion stars, and young stars still in the process of gathering mass from their surroundings. Previously, magnetic fields were detected in the jets of the first two, but until now, magnetic fields had not been confirmed in the jets from young stars. "Our discovery gives a strong hint that all three types of jets originate through a common process," said Carlos Carrasco-Gonzalez, of the Astrophysical Institute of Andalucia Spanish National Research Council (IAA-CSIC) and the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The astronomers used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to study a young star some 5,500 light-years from Earth, called IRAS 18162-2048. This star, possibly as massive as 10 Suns, is ejecting a jet 17 light-years long. Observing this object for 12 hours with the VLA, the scientists found that radio waves from the jet have a characteristic indicating they arose when fast-moving electrons interacted with magnetic fields. This characteristic, called polarization, gives a preferential alignment to the electric and magnetic fields of the radio waves. "We see for the first time that a jet from a young star shares this common characteristic with the other types of cosmic jets," said Luis Rodriguez, of UNAM. The discovery, the astronomers say, may allow them to gain an improved understanding of the physics of the jets as well as of the role magnetic fields play in forming new stars. The jets from young stars, unlike the other types, emit radiation that provides information on the temperatures, speeds, and densities within the jets. This information, combined with the data on magnetic fields, can improve scientists' understanding of how such jets work. "In the future, combining several types of observations could give us an overall picture of how magnetic fields affect the young star and all its surroundings. This would be a big advance in understanding the process of star formation," Rodriguez said. Carrasco-Gonzalez and Rodriguez worked with Guillem Anglada and Mayra Osorio of the Astrophysical Institute of Andalucia, Josep Marti of the University of Jaen in Spain, and Jose Torrelles of the University of Barcelona. The scientists reported their findings in the November 26 edition of Science.

2010-11-01

136

Stellar encounters involving massive stars in young clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We model collisions between pre-main-sequence stars using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. Assuming that all collisions lead to simple mergers, we use derived merger cross-sections to calculate the time-scale to make a 50-Msolar star by collisions within the core of a stellar cluster as a function of stellar number density. We show that a 50-Msolar star may be produced in this manner within 106 yr beginning with a cluster core of 200 1-Msolar stars within a radius of 0.0025 pc. Encounters between one high-mass star and one low-mass star tend to result in the tidal shredding of the latter, producing a massive disc around the former. This disc spreads viscously and provided a much larger target than any star for subsequent collisions. If a star strikes the disc, it is likely to be captured, and so forms a binary with the other star. Subsequent encounters between the binary and single stars lead either to exchanges or to the formation of merged objects. The inclusion of this effect leads to a significant reduction in the time taken to produce a 50-Msolar star. We also consider the role played by primordial binaries. We show that the time-scale required to produce a 50-Msolar star decreases with increasing binary fraction. We find that the number of primordial binaries is reduced by encounters. The core of a cluster must therefore contain a very high binary fraction initially if a large fraction of the massive stars are to be contained within binaries when the 50-Msolar star is produced.

Davies, Melvyn B.; Bate, Matthew R.; Bonnell, Ian A.; Bailey, Vernon C.; Tout, Christopher A.

2006-08-01

137

Life and Death of Young Dense Star Clusters near the Galactic Center  

E-print Network

We discuss the structural change and degree of mass segregation of young dense star clusters within about 100pc of the Galactic center. In our calculations, which are performed with GRAPE-6, the equations of motion of all stars and binaries are calculated accurately but the external potential of the Galaxy is solved (semi)analytically. The simulations are preformed to model the Arches star cluster. We find that star clusters with are less strongly perturbed by the tidal field and dynamical friction are much stronger affected by mass segregation; resulting in a significant pile-up of massive stars in the cluster center. At an age of about 3.5Myr more than 90 per cent of the stars more massive than ~10Msun are concentrated within the half-mass radius of the surviving cluster. Star clusters which are strongly perturbed by the tidal field of the parent Galaxy are much less affected by mass segregation.

Simon Portegies Zwart; Stephen McMillan; Holger Baumgardt

2004-03-05

138

Reconstructing the Initial Relaxation Time of Young Star Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud: The Evolution of Star Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reconstruct the initial two-body relaxation time at the half mass radius for a sample of young ? 300 Myr star clusters in the Large Magellanic cloud. We achieve this by simulating star clusters with 12288 to 131072 stars using direct N-body integration. The equations of motion of all stars are calculated with high precision direct N-body simulations which include the effects of the evolution of single stars and binaries. We find that the initial relaxation times of the sample of observed clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud ranges from about 200 Myr to about 2 Gyr. The reconstructed initial half-mass relaxation times for these clusters have a much narrower distribution than the currently observed distribution, which ranges over more than two orders of magnitude.

Portegies Zwart, S. F.; Chen, H.-C.

2008-06-01

139

ACCRETION RATES ON PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS IN THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6530  

SciTech Connect

It is well accepted that during the star formation process, material from a protoplanetary disk is accreted onto the central object during the first {approx}1-5 Myr. Different authors have published measurements of accretion rates for young low- and intermediate-mass stars in several nearby star-forming regions (SFRs). Due to its somewhat larger distance, the SFR M8 (the Lagoon Nebula) has not been studied to the same extent, despite its abundant population of young stellar objects. We have obtained optical band low-resolution spectra of a sample of pre-main-sequence stars in the open cluster NGC 6530 located in the aforementioned nebulae using the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph at Gemini-South in multi-object mode. Spectra cover the H{sub {alpha}} emission line used to measure the accretion rate, following the method presented by Natta et al. The observed spectral characteristics are fully consistent with pre-main-sequence stars, showing lithium absorption lines, which are very common in young stellar objects, as well as prominent and broad H{sub {alpha}} emission lines, indicating a T Tauri evolutionary stage. This work presents the first determinations of mass accretion rates of young stellar objects in the open cluster NGC 6530, confirming that they are classical T Tauri stars going through the accretion phase. These observations contribute to a better understanding of the stellar content and evolutionary phase of the very active Lagoon Nebula SFR.

Gallardo, Jose; Del Valle, Luciano; Ruiz, Maria Teresa, E-mail: gallardo@das.uchile.cl, E-mail: ldelvall@das.uchile.cl, E-mail: mtruiz@das.uchile.cl [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile)

2012-01-15

140

Open Clusters as Laboratories: The Angular Momentum Evolution of Young Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The core group concentrated on three primary research topics: (1) ROSAT observation of the coronal activity of low mass stars in young open clusters; (2) the determination of stellar ages and the determination of the timescale for dissipation of circumstellar disks around young stars; and (3) the determination of rotation velocities of low mass stars in young open cluster and the inferred angular momentum evolution of low mass stars. With accurate ages for the clusters, we can then derive an independent estimate of the timescale for debris disks to dissipate. As the second half of that project, we are using the Caltech/UC/NASA Keck telescopes to obtain spectra of brown dwarf candidates in a number of nearby, young open clusters, from which we can determine new and accurate cluster ages. The final primary program that we have addressed was the determination of rotational velocities for low mass stars in our target open clusters. Our group has obtained rotational velocities for a large number of stars in several open clusters during this LTSA program, and we have published the results in several papers. One particularly time-consuming aspect of our program was the development of a database of the photometry and rotational velocities for nearby open clusters, which we have made available to the community.

Stauffer, John R.

1998-01-01

141

Young stars of low mass in the Gum nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations are presented for four recently formed stars in the vicinity of the Gum nebula which are heavily obscured by surrounding dust and are associated with small reflection nebulae. HH46 is the only currently active star of the sample, and it is found to have a spectral type in the range of late G-early K, with superimposed emission lines of H-alpha, Ca II, Fe I, Fe II, and weak He I at near zero velocities. It is suggested that the observed scenario of low-mass stars in an older massive star environment may be analogous to the circumstances surrounding the birth of the sun.

Graham, J. A.; Heyer, Mark H.

1989-01-01

142

Young stars of low mass in the Gum nebula  

SciTech Connect

Observations are presented for four recently formed stars in the vicinity of the Gum nebula which are heavily obscured by surrounding dust and are associated with small reflection nebulae. HH46 is the only currently active star of the sample, and it is found to have a spectral type in the range of late G-early K, with superimposed emission lines of H-alpha, Ca II, Fe I, Fe II, and weak He I at near zero velocities. It is suggested that the observed scenario of low-mass stars in an older massive star environment may be analogous to the circumstances surrounding the birth of the sun. 53 refs.

Graham, J.A.; Heyer, M.H. (Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-06-01

143

Analysis of the changing brightness of stars in nearby young stellar clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present initial results of a photometric variability study of 19 stars in the TW Hydrae Association (TWA). TWA is a stellar moving group made up of young (10 Myr) dispersed stars moving across the sky. By studying individual brightness variations we hope to learn more about intermediate periods of stellar formation. We have identified 19 stars in the TWA in our data set of irregularly spaced, photometric observations of the southern sky obtained over the past 4 years with KELT-South, the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope located in Sutherland, South Africa. We will present light curves of these stars and assess their photometric variability.

Rolen, Emily; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Weintraub, David A.; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan; KELT-South Science Team

2015-01-01

144

On the Nature of the Peculiar Hot Star in the Young LMC Cluster NGC1818  

E-print Network

The blue star reported in the field of the young LMC cluster NGC1818 by Elson et al. (1998) has the wrong luminosity and radius to be a "luminous white dwarf" member of the cluster. In addition, unless the effective temperature quoted by the authors is a drastic underestimate, the luminosity is much too low for it to be a cluster member in the post-AGB phase. Other possibilities, including that of binary evolution, are briefly discussed. However, the implication that the massive main sequence turnoff stars in this cluster can produce white dwarfs (instead of neutron stars) from single-star evolution needs to be reconsidered.

James Liebert

1999-01-21

145

X-ray Census of Young Low-Mass Stars Candidates Associated with Gomez's Hamburger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gomez's Hamburger is a bipolar nebula discovered in 1985 in front of the Galactic bulge that was believed to be a proto-planetary nebula, i.e., illuminated by a post-AGB star. This interpretation was recently challenged by millimetric observations that unveiled a spectacular CO disk in keplerian rotation around an intermediate-mass star. Gomez's Hamburger is a pre main-sequence intermediate-mass star with a circumstellar disk seen edge-on, located at about 300 pc. We propose a 17 ks observation with Chandra ACIS-I to select in X-rays the young low-mass star candidates associated with this object.

Grosso, Nicolas

2009-09-01

146

PHAT Youths: Metallicity Gradient of M31 using Young Stars in the PHAT Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many recent studies have revealed metallicity gradients across galaxies, which are used as important constraints for models of chemical evolution. Existing observations of young stellar metallicities in M31 consist of spectroscopic studies (Zurita & Bresolin 2012; Sanders et al. 2012), which were limited to tens to hundreds of measurements of HII regions.We present photometric metallicity measurements of tens of thousands of young main sequence stars in M31 using multi-band photometry from the Panchromactic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT). We use UV and optical photometry of young massive main sequence stars to determine the extinction and metallicities of each individual star using isochrone fitting. We then use these measurements to examine metallicity gradients within Andromeda.

Deich, Alex; Seth, Anil

2015-01-01

147

A NEW METHOD TO IDENTIFY NEARBY, YOUNG, LOW-MASS STARS  

SciTech Connect

We describe a new method to identify young, late-type stars within {approx}150 pc of the Earth that employs visual or near-infrared (NIR) data and the GALEX GR4/5 database. For spectral types later than K5, we demonstrate that the ratio of GALEX near-ultraviolet to visual and NIR emission is larger for stars with ages between 10 and 100 Myr than for older, main-sequence stars. A search in regions of the sky encompassing the TW Hya and Scorpius-Centaurus Associations has returned 54 high-quality candidates for follow up. Spectroscopic observations of 24 of these M1-M5 objects reveal Li 6708 A absorption in at least 17 systems. Because GALEX surveys have covered a significant fraction of the sky, this methodology should prove valuable for future young star studies.

Rodriguez, David R.; Zuckerman, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bessell, M. S. [Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Kastner, Joel H., E-mail: drodrigu@astro.ucla.edu [Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

2011-02-01

148

Detection of X-ray emission from the young low-mass star Rossiter 137B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rst 137B, a close M-dwarf companion to the active K-star HD 36705, has been detected in a High Resolution Image in the Einstein Observatory Archive. The X-ray surface fluxes (0.2-4 keV) from both stars are close to the empirical saturation level, F(x)/F(bol) of about 0.001, defined by rapid rotators and very young stars. This supports the earlier results of the youthfulness of the system. This young couple is an excellent subject for studies of dependence of early evolution on stellar mass. Rst 137B is one of the latest spectral types and thus lowest-mass premain-sequence stars yet detected as an X-ray source.

Vilhu, O.; Linsky, J. L.

1987-01-01

149

Serendipitous Chandra X-ray Spectroscopy of GALEX Nearby Young-Star Survey (GALNYSS) Candidates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 2000 candidate young (age 10-100 Myr) low-mass stars within ~100 pc of Earth have been identified by the Galex Nearby Young-Star Survey (GALNYSS), via the combination of ultraviolet (Galex) and near-IR (WISE and 2MASS) photometry and kinematic data. Among these candidates, we find more than a dozen objects for which serendipitous archival Chandra X-ray observations are available. The spectral types for these objects, if stellar, range from early- to mid-M. Hence, this serendipitously observed subsample affords the opportunity to study the X-ray emission characteristics of young stars at the low-mass end of the stellar mass spectrum. We present preliminary results of spectral analysis, including estimates of plasma temperature, intervening absorption, and intrinsic X-ray luminosities, for these Chandra X-ray counterparts to GALNYSS candidates. These results will be used both to confirm young, late-type star status and to investigate the evolution of magnetic (coronal) activity in stars whose masses potentially range from a few tenths of a solar mass down to near the H-burning limit. This work is supported by NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program award NNX12AH37G to RIT and UCLA and Chilean FONDECYT grant 3130520 to Universidad de Chile.

Kastner, Joel H.; Baum, N.; Principe, D.; Rodriguez, D.

2014-01-01

150

A KINEMATIC AND PHOTOMETRIC STUDY OF THE GALACTIC YOUNG STAR CLUSTER NGC 7380  

SciTech Connect

We present proper motions, radial velocities, and a photometric study of the Galactic open cluster NGC 7380, which is associated with prominent emission nebulosity and dark molecular clouds. On the basis of the sample of highly probable member stars, the star cluster is found to be at a distance of 2.6 {+-} 0.4 kpc, has an age of around 4 Myr, and a physical size of {approx}6 pc across with a tidal structure. The binary O-type star DH Cep is a member of the cluster in its late stage of clearing the surrounding material, and may have triggered the ongoing star formation in neighboring molecular clouds which harbor young stars that are coeval and comoving with, but not gravitationally bound by, the star cluster.

Chen, W. P.; Chen, C. W. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Pandey, A. K.; Sharma, Saurabh [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Manora Peak, Nainital 263 129, Uttaranchal (India); Chen Li [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Sperauskas, J. [Astronomical Observatory of Vilnius University (Lithuania); Ogura, K. [Department for Natural Sciences, Kokugakuin University, Higashi, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8440 (Japan); Chuang, R. J. [Department of Statistics and Information Science, Fu Jen University, Taiwan (China); Boyle, R. P. [Vatican Observatory Research Group, Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2011-09-15

151

On the origin of young stars at the Galactic center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The center of our Galaxy is home to a massive black hole, Sgr A*, and a nuclear star cluster containing stellar populations of various ages. While the late type stars may be too old to have retained memory of their initial orbital configuration, and hence formation mechanism, the kinematics of the early type stars should reflect their original distribution. In this contribution we present a new statistic which uses directly-observable kinematic stellar data to infer orbital parameters for stellar populations, and is capable of distinguishing between different origin scenarios. We use it on a population of B-stars in the Galactic center that extends out to large radii (˜0.5 pc) from the massive black hole. We find that the high K-magnitude population (?15 M?) form an eccentric distribution, suggestive of a Hills binary-disruption origin.

Madigan, Ann-Marie; Pfuhl, Oliver; Levin, Yuri; Gillessen, Stefan; Genzel, Reinhard; Perets, Hagai B.

2014-05-01

152

Magnetic Cycles in a Convective Dynamo Simulation of a Young Solar-type Star  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young solar-type stars rotate rapidly and many are magnetically active; some\\u000aundergo magnetic cycles similar to the 22-year solar activity cycle. We conduct\\u000asimulations of dynamo action in rapidly rotating suns with the 3D MHD anelastic\\u000aspherical harmonic (ASH) code to explore dynamo action achieved in the\\u000aconvective envelope of a solar-type star rotating at 5 times the current solar

Benjamin P. Brown; Mark S. Miesch; Matthew K. Browning; Allen Sacha Brun; Juri Toomre

2011-01-01

153

Magnetic Cycles in a Convective Dynamo Simulation of a Young Solar-type Star  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young solar-type stars rotate rapidly and many are magnetically active. Some appear to undergo magnetic cycles similar to the 22 yr solar activity cycle. We conduct simulations of dynamo action in rapidly rotating suns with the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic anelastic spherical harmonic (ASH) code to explore dynamo action achieved in the convective envelope of a solar-type star rotating at five times

Benjamin P. Brown; Mark S. Miesch; Matthew K. Browning; Allan Sacha Brun; Juri Toomre

2011-01-01

154

Some Results of Magnetic Field Measurements in Young Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of magnetic field measurements in CTTSs BP Tau and RW Aur are presented. Geometry and time variability of global magnetic field of these stars are discussed. Based on our observations and on the B|| measurements available to date, we argue that, in the case of BP Tau, at least in the He I 5876 line formation region, the magnetic field of the star is not stationary and can be restructured in a time of the order of several hours.

Smirnov, Daniil A.; Chuntonov, G. A.; Lamzin, Sergei A.

2007-08-01

155

Microwave H2O emission from young stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

H2O emission has been detected from the Ae or Be stars HD 250550, LkH-alpha 234, and LkH-alpha 198. Comparison of the H2O velocity with that of associated interstellar CO indicates that the H2O originates in an infall region, possibly the contracting parent cloud. H2O emission has also been detected in OH 205.1-14.1, and OH source near the T Tauri star LkH-alpha 308.

Schwartz, P. R.; Buhl, D.

1975-01-01

156

STAR FORMATION AND YOUNG STELLAR CONTENT IN THE W3 GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUD  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we have carried out an in-depth analysis of the young stellar content in the W3 giant molecular cloud (GMC). The young stellar object (YSO) population was identified and classified in the Infrared Array Camera/Multiband Imaging Photometer color-magnitude space according to the 'Class' scheme and compared to other classifications based on intrinsic properties. Class 0/I and II candidates were also compared to low-/intermediate-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars selected through their colors and magnitudes in the Two Micron All Sky Survey. We find that a reliable color/magnitude selection of low-mass PMS stars in the infrared requires prior knowledge of the protostar population, while intermediate-mass objects can be more reliably identified. By means of the minimum spanning tree algorithm and our YSO spatial distribution and age maps, we investigated the YSO groups and the star formation history in W3. We find signatures of clustered and distributed star formation in both triggered and quiescent environments. The central/western parts of the GMC are dominated by large-scale turbulence likely powered by isolated bursts of star formation that triggered secondary star formation events. Star formation in the eastern high-density layer (HDL) also shows signs of quiescent and triggered stellar activity, as well as extended periods of star formation. While our findings support triggering as a key factor for inducing and enhancing some of the major star-forming activity in the HDL (e.g., W3 Main/W3(OH)), we argue that some degree of quiescent or spontaneous star formation is required to explain the observed YSO population. Our results also support previous studies claiming a spontaneous origin for the isolated massive star(s) powering KR 140.

Rivera-Ingraham, Alana [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Martin, Peter G. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Polychroni, Danae [INAF-IFSI, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); Moore, Toby J. T. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom)

2011-12-10

157

Star Formation and Young Stellar Content in the W3 Giant Molecular Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we have carried out an in-depth analysis of the young stellar content in the W3 giant molecular cloud (GMC). The young stellar object (YSO) population was identified and classified in the Infrared Array Camera/Multiband Imaging Photometer color-magnitude space according to the "Class" scheme and compared to other classifications based on intrinsic properties. Class 0/I and II candidates were also compared to low-/intermediate-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars selected through their colors and magnitudes in the Two Micron All Sky Survey. We find that a reliable color/magnitude selection of low-mass PMS stars in the infrared requires prior knowledge of the protostar population, while intermediate-mass objects can be more reliably identified. By means of the minimum spanning tree algorithm and our YSO spatial distribution and age maps, we investigated the YSO groups and the star formation history in W3. We find signatures of clustered and distributed star formation in both triggered and quiescent environments. The central/western parts of the GMC are dominated by large-scale turbulence likely powered by isolated bursts of star formation that triggered secondary star formation events. Star formation in the eastern high-density layer (HDL) also shows signs of quiescent and triggered stellar activity, as well as extended periods of star formation. While our findings support triggering as a key factor for inducing and enhancing some of the major star-forming activity in the HDL (e.g., W3 Main/W3(OH)), we argue that some degree of quiescent or spontaneous star formation is required to explain the observed YSO population. Our results also support previous studies claiming a spontaneous origin for the isolated massive star(s) powering KR 140.

Rivera-Ingraham, Alana; Martin, Peter G.; Polychroni, Danae; Moore, Toby J. T.

2011-12-01

158

Analysis of MOST light curves of five young stars in Taurus-Auriga and Lupus~3 Star Forming Regions  

E-print Network

Continuous photometric observations of five young stars obtained by the MOST satellite in 2009 and 2010 in the Taurus and Lupus star formation regions are presented. Using light curve modelling under the assumption of internal invariability of spots, we obtained small values of the solar-type differential-rotation parameter (k=0.0005-0.009) for three spotted weak-line T Tau stars, V410 Tau, V987 Tau and Lupus 3-14; for another spotted WTTS, Lupus 3-48, the data are consistent with a rigidly rotating surface (k=0). Three flares of similar rise (4 min 30 sec) and decay (1 h 45 min) times were detected in the light curve of Lupus 3-14. The brightness of the classical T Tau star RY Tau continuously decreased over 3 weeks of its observations with a variable modulation not showing any obvious periodic signal.

Siwak, Michal; Matthews, Jaymie M; Kuschnig, Rainer; Guenther, David B; Moffat, Anthony F J; Sasselov, Dimitar; Weiss, Werner W

2011-01-01

159

The Dispersal of Young Stars and the Greater Sco-Cen Association  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review topics related to the dispersal of young stars from their birth-sites, and focus in particular on the entourage of young stars related to the ongoing star-formation event in the Sco-Cen OB association. We conduct a follow-up kinematic study to that presented in Mamajek, Lawson, & Feigelson (2000; ApJ 544, 356) amongst nearby, isolated, young stars. In addition to the eta Cha and TW Hya groups, we find several more intriguing Sco-Cen outlier candidates: most notably ? Pic, PZ Tel, HD 199143, and HD 100546. We discuss the connection between Sco-Cen and the southern ``150 pc Conspiracy'' molecular clouds, and in particular, Corona Australis. The kinematic evidence suggests that many of the nearby, isolated ~10 Myr-old stars were born near Sco-Cen during the UCL and LCC starbursts 10-15 Myr ago. We hypothesize that these stars inherited 5-10 km/s velocities moving away from Sco-Cen, either through molecular cloud turbulence, or through formation in molecular clouds associated with the expanding Sco-Cen superbubbles (e.g. Loop I).

Mamajek, E. E.; Feigelson, E. D.

160

Gravitational Slingshot of Young Massive Stars in Orion  

E-print Network

The Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) is the nearest region of massive star formation and thus a crucial testing ground for theoretical models. Of particular interest amongst the ONC's ~1000 members are: \\theta^1 Ori C, the most massive binary in the cluster with stars of masses 38 and 9 msun (Kraus et al. 2009); the Becklin-Neugebauer (BN) object, a 30 km/s runaway star of ~8 msun (Tan 2004); and the Kleinmann-Low (KL) nebula protostar, a highly-obscured, ~15 msun object still accreting gas while also driving a powerful, apparently ``explosive' outflow (Allen & Burton 1993). The unusual behavior of BN and KL is much debated: How did BN acquire its high velocity? How is this related to massive star formation in the KL nebula? Here we report the results of a systematic survey using ~10^7 numerical experiments of gravitational interactions of the \\theta1C and BN stars. We show that dynamical ejection of BN from this triple system at its observed velocity leaves behind a binary with total energy and eccentricity ma...

Chatterjee, Sourav

2012-01-01

161

M-dwarf Rapid Rotators and the Detection of Relatively Young Multiple M-Star Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have searched the Kepler light curves of ~3900 M-star targets for evidence of periodicities that indicate, by means of the effects of starspots, rapid stellar rotation. Several analysis techniques, including Fourier transforms, inspection of folded light curves, "sonograms," and phase tracking of individual modulation cycles, were applied in order to distinguish the periodicities due to rapid rotation from those due to stellar pulsations, eclipsing binaries, or transiting planets. We find 178 Kepler M-star targets with rotation periods, P rot, of <2 days, and 110 with P rot < 1 day. Some 30 of the 178 systems exhibit two or more independent short periods within the same Kepler photometric aperture, while several have 3 or more short periods. Adaptive optics imaging and modeling of the Kepler pixel response function for a subset of our sample support the conclusion that the targets with multiple periods are highly likely to be relatively young physical binary, triple, and even quadruple M star systems. We explore in detail the one object with four incommensurate periods all less than 1.2 days, and show that two of the periods arise from one of a close pair of stars, while the other two arise from the second star, which itself is probably a visual binary. If most of these M-star systems with multiple periods turn out to be bound M stars, this could prove a valuable way discovering young hierarchical M-star systems; the same approach may also be applicable to G and K stars. The ~5% occurrence rate of rapid rotation among the ~3900 M star targets is consistent with spin evolution models that include an initial contraction phase followed by magnetic braking, wherein a typical M star can spend several hundred Myr before spinning down to periods longer than 2 days.

Rappaport, S.; Swift, J.; Levine, A.; Joss, M.; Sanchis-Ojeda, R.; Barclay, T.; Still, M.; Handler, G.; Oláh, K.; Muirhead, P. S.; Huber, D.; Vida, K.

2014-06-01

162

The internal velocity dispersions of three young star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radial velocities of 11 to 37 stars have been measured in each of three rich young star clusters in the LMC: NGC 1866, NGC 2164, and NGC 2214. A thorough analysis of the observational errors and contamination by field stars is presented along with a new method to assign confidence limits to the velocity dispersions. Limits are set to the central densities, total masses, and mass-to-light ratios of the clusters, and the question of whether they have unbound halos is addressed. From the small velocity dispersion and large radial extent of NGC 1866, it is inferred that the cluster is not yet tidally limited by the LMC.

Lupton, Robert H.; Fall, S. Michael; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Elson, Rebecca A. W.

1989-01-01

163

An Investigation of Three Methods for Determining Young Star Spectral Types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an investigation of several spectral typing techniques applied to 6 young, low-mass binary systems in the Taurus star-forming region (2 Myr). Spectra of resolution ~2000 were taken in the K band at Keck II using NIRC2 in grism spectroscopy mode where adaptive optics allowed us to resolve subarcsecond separations. We tested three different methods to determine spectral type to compare and contrast the strengths and weaknesses of each method. First, we used fits to standard star spectra to determine spectral types, extinctions, and K-band excesses. This method resulted in anomalously high extinctions not supported in the literature. It was also often difficult to distinguish between best fits. Second, we used the equivalent width ratios of IRTF SpeX standards to determine linear relationships onto which we plotted the equivalent width ratios of our sample stars. This method was complicated by low signal to noise in weak lines and the presence of significant circumstellar material around some of our sample of young stars, which may have inconsistently veiled and skewed our results. Third, we used K-band spectral indices and solar metallicity models to infer effective temperatures for our sample. This promising approach, applicable for the M-type stars in our sample, yields effective temperatures of several hundred degrees Kelvin lower than the other methods. Our main goal in this work is to highlight the uncertainties inherent in the typical procedures used for determining young star spectral types and encourage a concerted effort to define a more accurate and precise approach to the measurement of pre-main sequence effective temperature. Temperature is a fundamental stellar property without which our calibration of young star evolution, and by inference planet formation, is highly uncertain, even in the face of precisely measured stellar masses.

Bruhns, Sara; Prato, Lisa A.

2015-01-01

164

GRAVITATIONAL SLINGSHOT OF YOUNG MASSIVE STARS IN ORION  

SciTech Connect

The Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) is the nearest region of massive star formation and thus a crucial testing ground for theoretical models. Of particular interest among the ONC's {approx}1000 members are: {theta}{sup 1} Ori C, the most massive binary in the cluster with stars of masses 38 and 9 M{sub Sun }; the Becklin-Neugebauer (BN) object, a 30 km s{sup -1} runaway star of {approx}8 M{sub Sun }; and the Kleinmann-Low (KL) nebula protostar, a highly obscured, {approx}15 M{sub Sun} object still accreting gas while also driving a powerful, apparently 'explosive' outflow. The unusual behavior of BN and KL is much debated: How did BN acquire its high velocity? How is this related to massive star formation in the KL nebula? Here, we report the results of a systematic survey using {approx}10{sup 7} numerical experiments of gravitational interactions of the {theta}{sup 1}C and BN stars. We show that dynamical ejection of BN from this triple system at its observed velocity leaves behind a binary with total energy and eccentricity matching those observed for {theta}{sup 1}C. Five other observed properties of {theta}{sup 1}C are also consistent with it having ejected BN and altogether we estimate that there is only a {approx}< 10{sup -5} probability that {theta}{sup 1}C has these properties by chance. We conclude that BN was dynamically ejected from the {theta}{sup 1}C system about 4500 years ago. BN then plowed through the KL massive star-forming core within the last 1000 years causing its recently enhanced accretion and outflow activity.

Chatterjee, Sourav; Tan, Jonathan C., E-mail: s.chatterjee@astro.ufl.edu, E-mail: jt@astro.ufl.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

2012-08-01

165

Gravitational waves from hot young rapidly rotating neutron stars Benjamin J. Owen,1  

E-print Network

Gravitational waves from hot young rapidly rotating neutron stars Benjamin J. Owen,1 Lee Lindblom,1 cluster could be detected by the LIGO and VIRGO gravitational wave detectors when they reach their ``en of gravitational wave signal by the laser interferometer gravita- tional wave detectors such as LIGO 5 , VIRGO 6

Lindblom, Lee

166

MAD Science Demonstration Proposal Young massive star clusters in the Carina Nebula  

E-print Network

MAD Science Demonstration Proposal Young massive star clusters in the Carina Nebula Investigators MPIA Heidelberg henning@mpia.de Abstract: The Carina Nebula (NGC 3372) is a very spectacular feature in the central part of the Carina Nebula. The high-mass population of Trumpler 16, the older of the two, includes

Liske, Jochen

167

A Dynamical Origin for Early Mass Segregation in Young Star Clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some young star clusters show a degree of mass segregation that is inconsistent with the effects of standard two-body relaxation from an initially unsegregated system without substructure, in virial equilibrium, and it is unclear whether current cluster formation models can account for this degree of initial segregation in clusters of significant mass. We show that mergers of small clumps that

Steve McMillan; Enrico Vesperini; Simon Portegies Zwart

2008-01-01

168

VizieR Online Data Catalog: Magnetic activity of 6 young solar stars. II (Messina+, 2003)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following tables contain the results of the periodogram analysis performed on the photometric data of six young solar analogues plus the additional LQ Hya star. The following data are listed: first and last observing HJD, number of observing nights, rotational period, uncertainty on the rotational period, False Alarm Probability (FAP) (7 data files).

Messina, S.; Guinan, E. F.

2003-09-01

169

COOL YOUNG STARS IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE: {beta} PICTORIS AND AB DORADUS MOVING GROUP CANDIDATES  

SciTech Connect

As part of our continuing effort to identify new, low-mass members of nearby, young moving groups (NYMGs), we present a list of young, low-mass candidates in the northern hemisphere. We used our proven proper-motion selection procedure and ROSAT X-ray and GALEX-UV activity indicators to identify 204 young stars as candidate members of the {beta} Pictoris and AB Doradus NYMGs. Definitive membership assignment of a given candidate will require a measurement of its radial velocity and distance. We present a simple system of indices to characterize the young candidates and help prioritize follow-up observations. New group members identified in this candidate list will be high priority targets for (1) exoplanet direct imaging searches, (2) the study of post-T-Tauri astrophysics, (3) understanding recent local star formation, and (4) the study of local galactic kinematics. Information available now allows us to identify eight likely new members in the list. Two of these, a late-K and an early-M dwarf, we find to be likely members of the {beta} Pic group. The other six stars are likely members of the AB Dor moving group. These include an M dwarf triple system, and three very cool objects that may be young brown dwarfs, making them the lowest-mass, isolated objects proposed in the AB Dor moving group to date.

Schlieder, Joshua E.; Simon, Michal [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Lepine, Sebastien, E-mail: michal.simon@stonybrook.edu, E-mail: schlieder@mpia-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: lepine@amnh.org [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

2012-04-15

170

High molecular gas fractions in normal massive star-forming galaxies in the young Universe.  

PubMed

Stars form from cold molecular interstellar gas. As this is relatively rare in the local Universe, galaxies like the Milky Way form only a few new stars per year. Typical massive galaxies in the distant Universe formed stars an order of magnitude more rapidly. Unless star formation was significantly more efficient, this difference suggests that young galaxies were much more molecular-gas rich. Molecular gas observations in the distant Universe have so far largely been restricted to very luminous, rare objects, including mergers and quasars, and accordingly we do not yet have a clear idea about the gas content of more normal (albeit massive) galaxies. Here we report the results of a survey of molecular gas in samples of typical massive-star-forming galaxies at mean redshifts of about 1.2 and 2.3, when the Universe was respectively 40% and 24% of its current age. Our measurements reveal that distant star forming galaxies were indeed gas rich, and that the star formation efficiency is not strongly dependent on cosmic epoch. The average fraction of cold gas relative to total galaxy baryonic mass at z = 2.3 and z = 1.2 is respectively about 44% and 34%, three to ten times higher than in today's massive spiral galaxies. The slow decrease between z approximately 2 and z approximately 1 probably requires a mechanism of semi-continuous replenishment of fresh gas to the young galaxies. PMID:20148033

Tacconi, L J; Genzel, R; Neri, R; Cox, P; Cooper, M C; Shapiro, K; Bolatto, A; Bouché, N; Bournaud, F; Burkert, A; Combes, F; Comerford, J; Davis, M; Schreiber, N M Förster; Garcia-Burillo, S; Gracia-Carpio, J; Lutz, D; Naab, T; Omont, A; Shapley, A; Sternberg, A; Weiner, B

2010-02-11

171

Spin Evolution of Accreting Young Stars. II. Effect of Accretion-powered Stellar Winds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model for the rotational evolution of a young, solar-mass star interacting magnetically with an accretion disk. As in a previous paper (Paper I), the model includes changes in the star's mass and radius as it descends the Hayashi track, a decreasing accretion rate, and a prescription for the angular momentum transfer between the star and disk. Paper I concluded that, for the relatively strong magnetic coupling expected in real systems, additional processes are necessary to explain the existence of slowly rotating pre-main-sequence stars. In the present paper, we extend the stellar spin model to include the effect of a spin-down torque that arises from an accretion-powered stellar wind (APSW). For a range of magnetic field strengths, accretion rates, initial spin rates, and mass outflow rates, the modeled stars exhibit rotation periods within the range of 1-10 days in the age range of 1-3 Myr. This range coincides with the bulk of the observed rotation periods, with the slow rotators corresponding to stars with the lowest accretion rates, strongest magnetic fields, and/or highest stellar wind mass outflow rates. We also make a direct, quantitative comparison between the APSW scenario and the two types of disk-locking models (namely, the X-wind and Ghosh & Lamb type models) and identify some remaining theoretical issues for understanding young star spins.

Matt, Sean P.; Pinzón, Giovanni; Greene, Thomas P.; Pudritz, Ralph E.

2012-01-01

172

SPIN EVOLUTION OF ACCRETING YOUNG STARS. II. EFFECT OF ACCRETION-POWERED STELLAR WINDS  

SciTech Connect

We present a model for the rotational evolution of a young, solar-mass star interacting magnetically with an accretion disk. As in a previous paper (Paper I), the model includes changes in the star's mass and radius as it descends the Hayashi track, a decreasing accretion rate, and a prescription for the angular momentum transfer between the star and disk. Paper I concluded that, for the relatively strong magnetic coupling expected in real systems, additional processes are necessary to explain the existence of slowly rotating pre-main-sequence stars. In the present paper, we extend the stellar spin model to include the effect of a spin-down torque that arises from an accretion-powered stellar wind (APSW). For a range of magnetic field strengths, accretion rates, initial spin rates, and mass outflow rates, the modeled stars exhibit rotation periods within the range of 1-10 days in the age range of 1-3 Myr. This range coincides with the bulk of the observed rotation periods, with the slow rotators corresponding to stars with the lowest accretion rates, strongest magnetic fields, and/or highest stellar wind mass outflow rates. We also make a direct, quantitative comparison between the APSW scenario and the two types of disk-locking models (namely, the X-wind and Ghosh and Lamb type models) and identify some remaining theoretical issues for understanding young star spins.

Matt, Sean P. [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/Irfu Universite Paris-Diderot CNRS/INSU, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pinzon, Giovanni [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Greene, Thomas P. [NASA Ames Research Center, M.S. 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States); Pudritz, Ralph E., E-mail: sean.matt@cea.fr, E-mail: thomas.p.greene@nasa.gov, E-mail: gapinzone@unal.edu.co, E-mail: pudritz@physics.mcmaster.ca [Physics and Astronomy Department, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

2012-01-20

173

Workshop on Physics of Accretion Disks Around Compact and Young Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the two-day Workshop on Physics of Accretion Disks Around Compact and Young Stars was to bring together workers on accretion disks in the western Gulf region (Texas and Louisiana). Part 2 presents the workshop program, a list of poster presentations, and a list of workshop participants. Accretion disks are believed to surround many stars. Some of these disks form around compact stars, such as white dwarfs, neutron stars, or black holes that are members of binary systems and reveal themselves as a power source, especially in the x-ray and gamma regions of the spectrum. On the other hand, protostellar disks are believed to be accretion disks associated with young, pre-main-sequence stars and manifest themselves mostly in infrared and radio observations. These disks are considered to be a natural outcome of the star formation process. The focus of this workshop included theory and observations relevant to accretion disks around compact objects and newly forming stars, with the primary purpose of bringing the two communities together for intellectual cross-fertilization. The nature of the workshop was exploratory, to see how much interaction is possible between distinct communities and to better realize the local potential in this subject. A critical workshop activity was identification and documentation of key issues that are of mutual interest to both communities.

Liang, E (editor); Stepinski, T. F. (editor)

1995-01-01

174

Acneiform facial eruptions  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To summarize clinical recognition and current management strategies for four types of acneiform facial eruptions common in young women: acne vulgaris, rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE Many randomized controlled trials (level I evidence) have studied treatments for acne vulgaris over the years. Treatment recommendations for rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis are based predominantly on comparison and open-label studies (level II evidence) as well as expert opinion and consensus statements (level III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Young women with acneiform facial eruptions often present in primary care. Differentiating between morphologically similar conditions is often difficult. Accurate diagnosis is important because treatment approaches are different for each disease. CONCLUSION Careful visual assessment with an appreciation for subtle morphologic differences and associated clinical factors will help with diagnosis of these common acneiform facial eruptions and lead to appropriate management. PMID:15856972

Cheung, Melody J.; Taher, Muba; Lauzon, Gilles J.

2005-01-01

175

A runaway collision in a young star cluster as the origin of the brightest supernova.  

PubMed

Supernova SN 2006gy in the galaxy NGC 1260 is the most luminous recorded. Its progenitor might have been a very massive (>100 Mo, where is the mass of the Sun) star, but that interpretation is incompatible with hydrogen in the spectrum of the supernova; stars >40 Moare believed to have shed their hydrogen envelopes several hundred thousand years before the explosion. Alternatively, the progenitor might have arisen from the merger of two massive stars. Here we show that the collision frequency of massive stars in a dense and young cluster (of the kind to be expected near the centre of a galaxy) is sufficient to provide a reasonable chance that SN 2006gy resulted from such a bombardment. If this is the correct explanation, then we predict that when the supernova fades (in a year or so) a dense cluster of massive stars will become visible at the site of the explosion. PMID:18004377

Portegies Zwart, Simon F; van den Heuvel, Edward P J

2007-11-15

176

A Wide-Field Census of Young Stars in NGC 6334  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NGC 6334 is a giant molecular cloud with high far-infrared luminosity and a complex history of star formation located approximately 1.6 kpc away in the plane of the Milky Way Galaxy. We have obtained and analyzed near- and mid-infrared observations using deep J,H,K observation and Spitzer and Herschel datasets of this region which uncovered over 2,000 young stars nestled within the intricate structure of the cloud complex. We have used this YSO census to estimate the overall rate and efficiency of star formation in this region. By comparing these with other Galactic star forming regions and other galaxies, we have identified NGC 6334 as a potential "mini-starburst" with SFE > 0.15 and ?SFR > 40 M? Myr-1 pc2. We have also compared the YSO population to the previously identified cold dust clumps and filaments to search for the youngest clusters and massive stars within this region.

Willis, Sarah; Marengo, M.; Allen, L.; Fazio, G. G.; Smith, H. A.

2013-06-01

177

X-Ray Spectroscopy of Nearby Young Stars in the TW Association  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve our understanding of X-ray emitting regions of T Tauri stars (TTS) we are conducting an X-ray spectroscopic study of the TW Hya Association (TWA). X-ray spectra of TWA stars provide plasma diagnostics that yield insights into the origin of X-ray emission from young stars and are diagnostic of accretion processes. The co-evolutionary population of 10 Myr-old TTS, their proximity, and their lack of X-ray absorbing cloud material make the TWA well suited to X-ray spectroscopy. Here, our focus is on a binary TTS system, TWA-19AB, the only TWA system known to include a G-star, important for determining the role of mass in pre-main-sequence X-ray emission. The close (40") K7 companion will provide an X-ray spectrum of a weakly accreting star similar to TW Hya itself.

Canizares, Claude

2009-09-01

178

Instabilities in Very Young Neutron Stars: Electron Fraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation shows the first 20 milliseconds in the life of a neutron star which is formed in a Type II supernova. After an initial collapse phase, the neutron star becomes unstable to convection. The resulting convective motions destroy the spherical symmetry of the star and rapidly mix the inner regions. In addition, the neutrino flux from the neutron star will be non-spherical and will be significantly enhanced by the convective motions. This may have major implications for the Type II supernova mechanism. The calculation was performed using the Piecewise-Parabolic Method for hydrodynamics. The computational grid contained 300 zones in radius and 200 zones in angle. The inner 200 zones in radius were uniformly spaced, ranging from the inner boundary at 25 km to 175 km. The outer 100 zones were non-uniformly spaced and stretched to 2000 km. Only the inner 200 zones are plotted. The inner boundary was treated as a hard sphere. At the outer boundary, zero gradients for all the variables were assumed. Periodic boundary conditions were used along the sides of the grid. The following sequence shows the mixing of composition which results from the convective motions. The variable plotted is the electron fraction Ye, which ranges from 0.2 to 0.5.

Pamela ONeil

1994-02-12

179

Structure of young star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface brightness profiles presented for 10 rich star clusters in the LMC extend over 8-10 mag in surface brightness, and to radii of 4 arcmin. The crossing times are shorter than the ages of the clusters, and the two-body relaxation times, except in a few of the cores, are noted to be significantly longer than the ages; the clusters

Rebecca A. W. Elson; S. Michael Fall; Kenneth C. Freeman

1987-01-01

180

Stellar Masses in the Mysterious Young Triple Star System AS 205  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of accurate absolute mass measurements for young, low-mass pre-main sequence stars is problematic for the calibration of stellar evolutionary track models. An on-going program to increase the sample of young star masses begins with mass ratio measurements in spectroscopic binaries. By the end of its 5-year duration, the GAIA all-sky mission will provide new astrometric measurements for young spectroscopic binaries down to separations of tens of microarcseconds, yielding absolute masses for double-lined systems. We obtain mass ratios by taking high-resolution spectra of young double-lined spectroscopic binaries over a few epochs to construct a radial velocity versus phase diagram. For the young spectroscopic binary AS 205B, using eight of our own spectra supplied by the CSHELL instrument on the IRTF at Mauna Kea, plus one from the literature, we estimate a period of approximately 140 days, an eccentricity of 0.7, and a mass-ratio of 0.5. This spectroscopic system comprises the secondary in a 1.4'' visual binary in which both the A and B components are surrounded by optically thick, actively accreting disks, making AS 205B a member of that rare class of young spectroscopic binaries with a primordial circumbinary disk.

Encalada, Frankie; Rosero, Viviana A.; Prato, Lisa A.; Bruhns, Sara

2015-01-01

181

Discovering young stars in the Gum 31 region with infrared observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The Gum 31 bubble, which contains the stellar cluster NGC 3324, is a poorly studied young region close to the Carina Nebula. Aims: We are aiming to characterise the young stellar and protostellar population in and around Gum 31 and to investigate the star-formation process in this region. Methods: We identified candidate young stellar objects from Spitzer, WISE, and Herschel data. Combining these, we analysed the spectral energy distributions of the candidate young stellar objects. With density and temperature maps obtained from Herschel data and comparisons to a collect-and-collapse scenario for the region we are able to further constrain the characteristics of the region as a whole. Results: We find 661 candidate young stellar objects from WISE data; 91 protostar candidates are detected through Herschel observations in a 1.0° × 1.1° area. Most of these objects are found in small clusters or are well aligned with the H II bubble. We also identify the sources of Herbig-Haro jets. The infrared morphology of the region suggests that it is part of the larger Carina Nebula complex. Conclusions: The location of the candidate young stellar objects on the rim of the H II bubble is suggestive of their being triggered according to a collect-and-collapse scenario, which agrees well with the observed parameters of the region. Some candidate young stellar objects are found in the heads of pillars, which indicates radiative triggering of star formation. All in all, we find evidence that in the region different mechanisms of triggered star formation are at work. Correcting the number of candidate young stellar objects for contamination, we find ~600 young stellar objects in Gum 31 above our completeness limit of about 1 M?. Extrapolating the initial mass function down to 0.1 M?, we estimate a total population of ~5000 young stars for the region. This work is based in part on data collected by Herschel, an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA, and on data observed by VISTA (ESO run number 088.C-0117(A)), an ESO survey telescope developed by a consortium of 18 universities in the United Kingdom, led by Queen Mary, University of London.Tables 1-3 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Ohlendorf, H.; Preibisch, T.; Gaczkowski, B.; Ratzka, T.; Ngoumou, J.; Roccatagliata, V.; Grellmann, R.

2013-04-01

182

SIM PlanetQuest Key Project Precursor Observations to Detect Gas Giant Planets Around Young Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a review of precursor observing programs for the SIM PlanetQuest Key project devoted to detecting Jupiter mass planets around young stars. In order to ensure that the stars in the sample are free of various sources of astrometric noise that might impede the detection of planets, we have initiated programs to collect photometry, high contrast images, interferometric data and radial velocities for stars in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. We have completed a high contrast imaging survey of target stars in Taurus and the Pleiades and found no definitive common proper motion companions within one arcsecond (140 AU) of the SIM targets. Our radial velocity surveys have shown that many of the target stars in Sco-Cen are fast rotators and a few stars in Taurus and the Pleiades may have sub-stellar companions. Interferometric data of a few stars in Taurus show no signs of stellar or sub-stellar companions with separations of <5 mas. The photometric survey suggests that approximately half of the stars initially selected for this program are variable to a degree (1(sigma) >0.1 mag) that would degrade the astrometric accuracy achievable for that star. While the precursor programs are still a work in progress, we provide a comprehensive list of all targets ranked according to their viability as a result of the observations taken to date. By far, the observable that removes the most targets from the SIM-YSO program is photometric variability.

Tanner, Angelle; Beichman, Charles; Akeson, Rachel; Ghez, Andrea; Grankin, Konstantin N.; Herbst, William; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Huerta, Marcos; Konopacky, Quinn; Metchev, Stanimir; Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Prato, L.; Simon, Michal

2008-01-01

183

Magnetohydrodynamic processes in strongly magnetized young neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the early evolution of a neutron star with a very strong magnetic field (B >= 4 x 10^13 G) that occupies a significant fraction of the core volume. The electrical conductivity of the core matter is a strong function of the magnetic field, therefore the evolution of magnetized neutron stars (magnetars) may well be different from that of ordinary radiopulsars. We consider magnetohydrodynamic processes in the core for two possible models of nuclear matter, with normal and superfluid neutrons. In the case of the normal matter, an enhancement of the resistivity perpendicular to the magnetic field can result in rapid field decay during the early evolutionary stage. If neutrons are in the superfluid state, we find that the Hall effect can lead to oscillatory behaviour of the magnetic field. This oscillatory behaviour is caused by the generation of large-scale helicoid modes resulting from non-linear coupling between the different field components.

Urpin, V.; Shalybkov, D.

1999-04-01

184

A Spitzer Study of Dusty Disks around Nearby, Young Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained Spitzer Space Telescope MIPS (Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer) observations of 39 A- through M-type dwarfs, with estimated ages between 12 and 600 Myr; IRAC observations for a subset of 11 stars; and follow-up CSO SHARC II 350 ?m observations for a subset of two stars. None of the objects observed with IRAC possess infrared excesses at 3.6-8.0 ?m however, seven objects observed with MIPS possess 24 and/or 70 ?m excesses. Four objects (? Phe, HD 92945, HD 119124, and AU Mic), with estimated ages 12-200 Myr, possess strong 70 ?m excesses, >=100% larger than their predicted photospheres, and no 24 ?m excesses, suggesting that the dust grains in these systems are cold. One object (HD 112429) possesses moderate 24 and 70 ?m excesses with a color temperature, Tgr=100 K. Two objects (?1 Lib and HD 177724) possess such strong 24 ?m excesses that their 12, 24, and 70 ?m fluxes cannot be self-consistently modeled using a modified blackbody despite a 70 ?m excess >2 times greater than the photosphere around ?1 Lib. The strong 24 ?m excesses may be the result of emission in spectral features, as observed toward the Hale-Bopp star HD 69830.

Chen, C. H.; Patten, B. M.; Werner, M. W.; Dowell, C. D.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Song, I.; Stauffer, J. R.; Blaylock, M.; Gordon, K. D.; Krause, V.

2005-12-01

185

Determining the Locations of Brown Dwarfs in Young Star Clusters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brown dwarfs are stellar objects with masses less than 0.08 times that of the Sun that are unable to sustain nuclear fusion. Because of the lack of fusion, they are relatively cold, allowing the formation of methane and water molecules in their atmospheres. Brown dwarfs can be detected by examining stars' absorption spectra in the near-infrared to see whether methane and water are present. The objective of this research is to determine the locations of brown dwarfs in Rho Ophiuchus, a star cluster that is only 1 million years old. The cluster was observed in four filters in the near-infrared range using the Wide-Field Infra-Red Camera (WIRC) on the 100" DuPont Telescope and Persson's Auxiliary Nasymith Infrared Camera (PANIC) on the 6.5-m Magellan Telescope. By comparing the magnitude of a star in each of the four filters, an absorption spectrum can be formed. This project uses standard astronomical techniques to reduce raw frames into final images and perform photometry on them to obtain publishable data. Once this is done, it will be possible to determine the locations and magnitudes of brown dwarfs within the cluster.

Porter, Lauren A.

2005-01-01

186

THE NEARBY, YOUNG, ISOLATED, DUSTY STAR HD 166191  

SciTech Connect

We report an in-depth study of the F8-type star HD 166191, identified in an ongoing survey for stars exhibiting infrared emission above their expected photospheres in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer all-sky catalog. The fractional IR luminosity measured from 3.5 to 70 ?m is exceptionally high (L{sub IR}/L{sub bol} ? 10%). Near-diffraction-limited imaging observations with the T-ReCS Si filter set on the Gemini South telescope and adaptive optics imaging with the NIRC2 Lp filter on the Keck II telescope confirmed that the excess emission coincides with the star. Si-band images show a strong solid-state emission feature at ?10 ?m. Theoretical evolutionary isochrones and optical spectroscopic observations indicate a stellar age in the range 10-100 Myr. The large dust mass seen in HD 166191's terrestrial planet zone is indicative of a recent collision between planetary embryos or massive ongoing collisional grinding associated with planet building.

Schneider, Adam; Song, Inseok; Hufford, Tara [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Melis, Carl [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Zuckerman, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bessell, Mike [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Hinkley, Sasha, E-mail: aschneid@physast.uga.edu, E-mail: song@physast.uga.edu, E-mail: tara@physast.uga.edu, E-mail: cmelis@ucsd.edu, E-mail: ben@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: bessell@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: shinkley@astro.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2013-11-01

187

New Models for Wolf-Rayet and O Star Populations in Young Starbursts  

E-print Network

Using the latest stellar evolution models, theoretical stellar spectra, and a compilation of observed emission line strengths from Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, we construct evolutionary synthesis models for young starbursts. We explicitly distinguish between the various WR subtypes (WN, WC, WO), and we treat O and Of stars separately. We provide detailed predictions of UV and optical emission line strengths for both the WR stellar lines and the major nebular hydrogen and helium emission lines, as a function of several input parameters related to the starburst episode. We also derive the theoretical frequency of WR-rich starbursts. We then discuss: nebular HeII 4686 emission, the contribution of WR stars to broad Balmer line emission, techniques used to derive the WR and O star content from integrated spectra, and explore the implications of the formation of WR stars through mass transfer in close binary systems in instantaneous bursts. The observational features predicted by our models allow a detailed quantitative determination of the massive star population in a starburst region (particularly in so-called "WR galaxies") from its integrated spectrum and provide a means of deriving the burst properties (e.g., duration, age) and the parameters of the initial mass function of young starbursts. (Abridged abstract)

Daniel Schaerer; William D. Vacca

1997-11-12

188

PRECISE HIGH-CADENCE TIME SERIES OBSERVATIONS OF FIVE VARIABLE YOUNG STARS IN AURIGA WITH MOST  

SciTech Connect

To explore young star variability on a large range of timescales, we have used the MOST satellite to obtain 24 days of continuous, sub-minute cadence, high-precision optical photometry on a field of classical and weak-lined T Tauri stars (TTSs) in the Taurus-Auriga star formation complex. Observations of AB Aurigae, SU Aurigae, V396 Aurigae, V397 Aurigae, and HD 31305 reveal brightness fluctuations at the 1%-10% level on timescales of hours to weeks. We have further assessed the variability properties with Fourier, wavelet, and autocorrelation techniques, identifying one significant period per star. We present spot models in an attempt to fit the periodicities, but find that we cannot fully account for the observed variability. Rather, all stars exhibit a mixture of periodic and aperiodic behavior, with the latter dominating stochastically on timescales less than several days. After removal of the main periodicity, periodograms for each light curve display power-law trends consistent with those seen for other young accreting stars. Several of our targets exhibited unusual variability patterns not anticipated by prior studies, and we propose that this behavior originates with the circumstellar disks. The MOST observations underscore the need for investigation of TTS light variations on a wide range of timescales in order to elucidate the physical processes responsible; we provide guidelines for future time series observations.

Cody, Ann Marie; Tayar, Jamie; Hillenbrand, Lynne A. [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Matthews, Jaymie M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Kallinger, Thomas, E-mail: amc@ipac.caltech.edu [Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria)

2013-03-15

189

Young Stars in an Old Bulge: A Natural Outcome of Internal Evolution in the Milky Way  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The center of our disk galaxy, the Milky Way, is dominated by a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge. Numerous studies of the bulge based on stellar photometry have concluded that the bulge stars are exclusively old. The perceived lack of young stars in the bulge strongly constrains its likely formation scenarios, providing evidence that the bulge is a unique population that formed early and separately from the disk. However, recent studies of individual bulge stars using the microlensing technique have reported that they span a range of ages, emphasizing that the bulge may not be a monolithic structure. In this Letter we demonstrate that the presence of young stars that are located predominantly nearer to the plane is expected for a bulge that has formed from the disk via dynamical instabilities. Using an N-body+ smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation of a disk galaxy forming out of gas cooling inside a dark matter halo and forming stars, we find a qualitative agreement between our model and the observations of younger metal-rich stars in the bulge. We are also able to partially resolve the apparent contradiction in the literature between results that argue for a purely old bulge population and those that show a population comprised of a range in ages; the key is where to look.

Ness, M.; Debattista, Victor P.; Bensby, T.; Feltzing, S.; Roškar, R.; Cole, D. R.; Johnson, J. A.; Freeman, K.

2014-06-01

190

The expansion of massive young star clusters - observation meets theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Most stars form as part of a star cluster. The most massive clusters in the Milky Way exist in two groups - loose and compact clusters - with significantly different sizes at the end of the star formation process. After their formation, both types of clusters expand up to a factor 10-20 within the first 20 Myr of their development. Gas expulsion at the end of the star formation process is usually regarded as the only possible process that can lead to such an expansion during this early period of development. Aims: We investigate the effect of gas expulsion by a direct comparison between numerical models and observed clusters and concentrate on clusters with masses >103M?. For these clusters the initial conditions before gas expulsion, the characteristic cluster development, its dependence on cluster mass, and the star formation efficiency (SFE) are investigated. Methods: We performed N-body simulations of the cluster expansion process after gas expulsion and compared the results with observations. Results: We find that the expansion processes of the observed loose and compact massive clusters are driven by completely different physical processes. As expected, the expansion of loose massive clusters is largely driven by the gas loss due to the low SFE of ~30%. One new revelation is that all the observed massive clusters of this group seem to have a very similar size of 1-3 pc at the onset of expansion. It is demonstrated that compact clusters have a much higher effective SFE of 60-70% and are as a result much less affected by gas expulsion. Their expansion is mainly driven by stellar ejections caused by interactions between the cluster members. The reason ejections are so efficient in driving cluster expansion is that they occur dominantly from the cluster centre and over an extended period of time. During the first 10 Myr the internal dynamics of loose and compact clusters thus differ fundamentally. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Pfalzner, Susanne; Kaczmarek, Thomas

2013-11-01

191

Evidence for Warped Disks of Young Stars in the Galactic Center  

E-print Network

The central parsec around the super-massive black hole in the Galactic Center hosts more than 100 young and massive stars. Outside the central cusp (R~1") the majority of these O and Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars reside in a main clockwise system, plus a second, less prominent disk or streamer system at large angles with respect to the main system. Here we present the results from new observations of the Galactic Center with the AO-assisted near-infrared imager NACO and the integral field spectrograph SINFONI on the ESO/VLT. These include the detection of 27 new reliably measured WR/O stars in the central 12" and improved measurements of 63 previously detected stars, with proper motion uncertainties reduced by a factor of four compared to our earlier work. We develop a detailed statistical analysis of their orbital properties and orientations. Half of the WR/O stars are compatible with being members of a clockwise rotating system. The rotation axis of this system shows a strong transition as a function of the projected distance from SgrA*. The main clockwise system either is either a strongly warped single disk with a thickness of about 10 degrees, or consists of a series of streamers with significant radial variation in their orbital planes. 11 out of 61 clockwise moving stars have an angular separation of more than 30 degrees from the clockwise system. The mean eccentricity of the clockwise system is 0.36+/-0.06. The distribution of the counter-clockwise WR/O star is not isotropic at the 98% confidence level. It is compatible with a coherent structure such as stellar filaments, streams, small clusters or possibly a disk in a dissolving state. The observed disk warp and the steep surface density distribution favor in situ star formation in gaseous accretion disks as the origin of the young stars.

H. Bartko; F. Martins; T. K. Fritz; R. Genzel; Y. Levin; H. B. Perets; T. Paumard; S. Nayakshin; O. Gerhard; T. Alexander; K. Dodds-Eden; F. Eisenhauer; S. Gillessen; L. Mascetti; T. Ott; G. Perrin; O. Pfuhl; M. J. Reid; D. Rouan; A. Sternberg; S. Trippe

2009-03-17

192

A M2FS Spectroscopic Study of Low-mass Young Stars in Orion OB1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surveys of pre-main sequence stars in the ~4-10 Myr range provide a window into the decline of the accretion phase of stars and the formation of planets. Nearby star clusters and stellar associations allow for the study of these young stellar populations all the way down to the lowest mass members. One of the best examples of nearby 4-10 Myr old stellar populations is the Orion OB1 association. The CIDA Variability Survey of Orion OB1 (CVSO - Briceño et al. 2001) has used the variability properties of low-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars to identify hundreds of K and M-type stellar members of the Orion OB1 association, a number of them displaying IR-excess emission and thought to be representative of more evolved disk-bearing young stars. Characterizing these young, low-mass objects using spectroscopy is integral to understanding the accretion phase in young stars. We present preliminary results of a spectroscopic survey of candidate and confirmed Orion OB1 low-mass members taken during November 2014 and February 2014 using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber Spectrograph (M2FS), a PI instrument on the Magellan Clay Telescope (PI: M. Matteo). Target fields located in the off-cloud regions of Orion were identified in the CVSO, and observed using the low and high-resolution modes of M2FS. Both low and high-resolution spectra are needed in order to confirm membership and derive masses, ages, kinematics and accretion properties. Initial analysis of these spectra reveal many new K and M-type members of the Orion OB1 association in these low extinction, off-cloud areas. These are the more evolved siblings of the youngest stars still embedded in the molecular clouds, like those in the Orion Nebula Cluster. With membership and spectroscopic indicators of accretion we are building the most comprehensive stellar census of this association, enabling us to derive a robust estimate of the fraction of young stars still accreting at a various ages, a key constraint for the end of accretion and the formation of giant planets.

Kaleida, Catherine C.; Briceno, Cesar; Calvet, Nuria; Mateo, Mario L.; Hernandez, Jesus

2015-01-01

193

Young open clusters in the Galactic star forming region NGC 6357  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. NGC 6357 is an active star forming region with very young massive open clusters. These clusters contain some of the most massive stars in the Galaxy and strongly interact with nearby giant molecular clouds. Aims: We study the young stellar populations of the region and of the open cluster Pismis 24, focusing on their relationship with the nearby giant molecular clouds. We seek evidence of triggered star formation "propagating" from the clusters. Methods: We used new deep JHKs photometry, along with unpublished deep Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared photometry, complemented with optical HST/WFPC2 high spatial resolution photometry and X-ray Chandra observations, to constrain age, initial mass function, and star formation modes in progress. We carefully examine and discuss all sources of bias (saturation, confusion, different sensitivities, extinction). Results: NGC 6357 hosts three large young stellar clusters, of which Pismis 24 is the most prominent. We found that Pismis 24 is a very young (~1-3 Myr) open cluster with a Salpeter-like initial mass function and a few thousand members. A comparison between optical and infrared photometry indicates that the fraction of members with a near-infrared excess (i.e., with a circumstellar disk) is in the range 0.3-0.6, consistent with its photometrically derived age. We also find that Pismis 24 is likely subdivided into a few different subclusters, one of which contains almost all the massive members. There are indications of current star formation triggered by these massive stars, but clear age trends could not be derived (although the fraction of stars with a near-infrared excess does increase towards the Hii region associated with the cluster). The gas out of which Pismis 24 formed must have been distributed in dense clumps within a cloud of less dense gas ~1 pc in radius. Conclusions: Our findings provide some new insight into how young stellar populations and massive stars emerge, and evolve in the first few Myr after birth, from a giant molecular cloud complex. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 63.L-0717.Tables 1 and 2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/573/A95Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Massi, F.; Giannetti, A.; Di Carlo, E.; Brand, J.; Beltrán, M. T.; Marconi, G.

2015-01-01

194

SIM PlanetQuest Key Project Precursor Observations to Detect Gas Giant Planets Around Young Stars  

E-print Network

We present a review of precursor observing programs for the SIM PlanetQuest Key project devoted to detecting Jupiter mass planets around young stars. In order to ensure that the stars in the sample are free of various sources of astrometric noise that might impede the detection of planets, we have initiated programs to collect photometry, high contrast images, interferometric data and radial velocities for stars in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. We have completed a high contrast imaging survey of target stars in Taurus and the Pleiades and found no definitive common proper motion companions within one arcsecond (140 AU) of the SIM targets. Our radial velocity surveys have shown that many of the target stars in Sco-Cen are fast rotators and a few stars in Taurus and the Pleiades may have sub-stellar companions. Interferometric data of a few stars in Taurus show no signs of stellar or sub-stellar companions with separations of 0.1 mag) that would degrade the astrometric accuracy achievable for that star. While the precursor programs are still a work in progress, we provide a comprehensive list of all targets ranked according to their viability as a result of the observations taken to date. By far, the observable that moves the most targets from the SIM-YSO program is photometric variability.

Angelle Tanner; Charles Beichman; Rachel Akeson; Andrea Ghez; Konstantin N. Grankin; William Herbst; Lynne Hillenbrand; Marcos Huerta; Quinn Konopacky; Stanimir Metchev; Subhanjoy Mohanty; L. Prato; Michal Simon}

2007-05-25

195

Investigating the circumstellar environments of young stars with the PROMPT polarimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed and built a prototype imaging polarimeter for use on the PROMPT robotic telescopes located at the Cerro Tololo International Observatory. The polarimeter uses a Fresnel rhomb and wollaston prism to image two orthogonal polarization states onto a single CCD chip, with an image field of view of 10x4.5 arcmin. Using the polarimeter, we have investigated the circumstellar regions of 11 Herbig Ae/Be stars, and done extensive follow-up observations of 3 stars of interest: KK Oph, a well-studied star with previously limited polarimetric data; NX Pup, a star known to vary photometrically but with previously unknown polarimetric variability; and SS7344, a star with very limited previous photometric data and no prior polarimetric data. We have found polarimetric and photometric variations in KK Oph and NX Pup that are consistent with models of dust obscuration. Both KK Oph and NX Pup show an increase in polarization accompanied by a decrease in visual magnitude and a reddening. However, neither star shows the "blueing" at deep minima and maximum polarization characteristic of the UXor classification of stars. We have demonstrated that SS7344 has an intrinsic polarization, but does not display the photometric and polarimetric variations expected from a young star with an evolving circumstellar environment, indicating that this object either has a disk seen in an orientation that has little inclination, or one with no appreciable puffed-up inner rim.

Moran, Jane A.

196

Young, Star Forming Regions in NGC 3994 and NGC 3995  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NGC 3991, NGC 3994, and NGC 3995 comprise a small group of interacting galaxies. Groundbased images indicate significantly distorted morphology in NGC 3991 and NGC 3995, while NGC 3994 appears to be a normal, inclined spiral. Spectra of NGC 3991 and NGC 3995 have features typical of strong HII regions. NGC 3994 is a LINER. All three galaxies have strong ultraviolet emission and have been observed with IUE (Kinney, et al. 1993). As part of an investigation of star formation in interacting galaxies, we have obtained ultraviolet and visible images of the central regions of NGC 3994 and 3995 with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on HST. Imaging was obtained in two ultraviolet (FUV-MAMA+F25QTZ, NUV-MAMA+F25CN182) and one visible (CCD+F28X50LP) band. Individual star forming knots (at HST resolution) have been identified in both galaxies. In NGC 3994 star-forming knots are found tracing the spiral arms. Results from ground based spectroscopy indicate nuclear reddening of E(B-V) ~ 0.3- 0.4, suggesting that the lack of UV-bright knots in the center is real and not due to extinction. The knots in NGC 3995 have a distorted, 'hook shaped' distribution. The knots are typically 12 - 45 pc in diameter (FWHM), with observed FUV fluxes of approximately 10-17 to 10-16 ergs cm-2sec-1 Å-1. We compare our imaging and spectroscopy data to current starburst models to constrain knot ages and masses. Knot characteristics as a function of location in the galaxy will also be discussed. This work has been supported in part by NASA, under contract NAS5-31231, and through the Nevada Space Grant Consortium.

Weistrop, D.; Eggers, D.; Stone, A.; Nelson, C. H.; Bachilla, R.

2000-12-01

197

Uncovering the Properties of Young Neutron Stars and their Surrounding Supernova Remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This five-year grant involves the study of young neutron stars, particularly those in supernova remnants.In the fourth year of this program, the following studies have been undertaken in support of this effort: 1.CTA 1: Following up on our ROSAT and ASCA studies of this SNR, we obtained observations with the XMM-Newton observatory to investigate the central compact source and surrounding nebula. 2. 3C 58: Based upon our earlier Chandra observations, we submitted a successful Chandra Large Project proposal for a 350 ks observation of this young neutron star and its wind nebula. 3. G347.3 - - 0.5: Our Chandra observations of portions of this SNR were aimed at studying the nonthermal X-ray emission from the remnant shell. 4. Chandra Survey for Compact Objects in Supernova Remnants: We have formed a collaboration to carry out an extensive search for young neutron stars in nearby supernova remnants. Using X-ray observations from an approved Chandra Large Project, as well as from additional approved XMM observations, we are investigating a volume-limited sample of SNRs for which there is currently no evidence of associated neutron stars.

Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Slane, Patrick O.

2004-01-01

198

StarChild: A Learning Center for Young Astronomers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's well known High Energy Astrophysics Learning Center has created an astronomy site just for kids. StarChild, still under construction at this time, contains sections on the solar system, the universe, and "space stuff" (astronauts, space travel, and the Hubble Space Telescope, among others). It also includes a glossary with brief explanations of astronomy-related terms. The site is intensively graphical, includes QuickTime and .avi movies, and is intended for the 4-14 year age group. Content is written at two reading levels, with level two available now, and level one due by December.

Dejoie, Joyce.; Truelove, Elizabeth.

1996-01-01

199

DD 13 - A very young and heavily reddened early O star in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper investigates the Large Magellanic Cloud star DD 13, which is likely the major ionizing source of the nebula N159A. New optical spectroscopy and new estimates of the broadband photometric properties of DD 13 are obtained. A spectral type of O3-O6 V, E(B-V) = 0.64, and M(V) = -6.93 is found. The spectral type cannot be more precisely defined due to contamination of the spectral data by nebular emission, obliterating the important He I classification lines. These results, plus a published estimate of the Lyman continuum photon injection rate into N159A, suggest that DD 13 actually consists of about 2-4 young, early O stars still enshrouded by their natal dust cloud. The star DD 13 may be a younger example of the type of tight cluster represented by the LMC 'star' Sk-66 deg 41, recently revealed to be composed of six or more components.

Conti, Peter S.; Fitzpatrick, Edward L.

1991-01-01

200

Empirical Limits on Radial Velocity Planet Detection for Young Stars  

E-print Network

We report initial results from our long term search using precision radial velocities for planetary-mass companions located within a few AU of stars younger than the Sun. Based on a sample of >150 stars, we define a floor in the radial velocity scatter, sigma_RV, as a function of the chromospheric activity level R'_{HK}. This lower bound to the jitter, which increases with increasing stellar activity, sets the minimum planet mass that could be detected. Adopting a median activity-age relationship reveals the astrophysical limits to planet masses discernable via radial velocity monitoring, as a function of stellar age. Considering solar-mass primaries having the mean jitter-activity level, when they are younger than 100 / 300 / 1000 Myr, the stochastic jitter component in radial velocity measurements restricts detectable companion masses to > 0.3 / 0.2 / 0.1 M_Jupiter. These numbers require a large number -- several tens -- of radial velocity observations taken over a time frame longer than the orbital period....

Hillenbrand, Lynne; Marcy, Geoffrey; Barenfeld, Scott; Fischer, Debra; Howard, Andrew

2014-01-01

201

TWA: Case Studies in Disk Evolution, Outflows, and Binary Properties of Young Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All of the young star-forming regions are distant (d > 120 pc), making it difficult to resolve structure on the scale of disks ( ˜ 10-100 AU) and jets (? AU). Furthermore, examining these structures around low-mass objects is especially prohibitive since these objects are intrinsically faint. However, recent identification of the nearby, young ( ˜10; Myr) TW Hydrae Association (TWA) has ameliorated this situation. With only 24 systems, the TWA offers unique case studies at a critical time in disk evolution and planet-building processes. We have searched for additional low-mass members using the 2MASS database, and we present our current results, including three new members.

Looper, Dagny; Burgasser, A.; Rayner, J.; Bochanski, J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Mamajek, E.

2009-12-01

202

Late-type members of young stellar kinematic groups - I. Single stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the first paper of a series aimed at studying the properties of late-type members of young stellar kinematic groups. We concentrate our study on classical young moving groups such as the Local Association (Pleiades moving group, 20-150Myr), IC 2391 supercluster (35Myr), Ursa Major group (Sirius supercluster, 300Myr), and Hyades supercluster (600Myr), as well as on recently identified groups such as the Castor moving group (200Myr). In this paper we compile a preliminary list of single late-type possible members of some of these young stellar kinematic groups. Stars are selected from previously established members of stellar kinematic groups based on photometric and kinematic properties as well as from candidates based on other criteria such as their level of chromospheric activity, rotation rate and lithium abundance. Precise measurements of proper motions and parallaxes taken from the Hipparcos Catalogue, as well as from the Tycho-2 Catalogue, and published radial velocity measurements are used to calculate the Galactic space motions (U, V, W) and to apply Eggen's kinematic criteria in order to determine the membership of the selected stars to the different groups. Additional criteria using age-dating methods for late-type stars will be applied in forthcoming papers of this series. A further study of the list of stars compiled here could lead to a better understanding of the chromospheric activity and their age evolution, as well as of the star formation history in the solar neighbourhood. In addition, these stars are also potential search targets for direct imaging detection of substellar companions.

Montes, D.; López-Santiago, J.; Gálvez, M. C.; Fernández-Figueroa, M. J.; De Castro, E.; Cornide, M.

2001-11-01

203

Probing the circumstellar environments of very young low-mass stars using water masers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The VLA is used to search nearby very young low-mass stars for water maser emission. The sample consists of 26 low-luminosity IRAS sources embedded in dense molecular cores, a class of sources suspected to be newly forming low-mass stars on the order of a few hundred thousand years old. Three sources were detected. High spatial resolution maps show the region of maser emission is generally confined to an area smaller than about 0.5 arcsec near the star, and the velocities of individual components span intervals ranging from 20 to 40 km/s. It is inferred from the fact that the maser velocities are too large to be due to gravitational motions in at least two of the sources that the masers are associated with the winds from the young low-mass stars. A comparison of the high spatial resolution maser data to lower-resolution CO data shows no evidence for higher collimation close to the star; the stellar wind cavity appears to have similar collimation at 10 exp 15 cm as at 10 exp 7 to 10 exp 18 cm.

Terebey, S.; Vogel, S. N.; Myers, P. C.

1992-01-01

204

A Near-infrared Study of the Obscured, Young, Massive Star Cluster, Mercer 23  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the physical parameters and investigate the high-mass stellar content of the infrared star cluster Mercer 23, situated near the Galactic plane (l=53.772, b=+0.164). Our analysis is based on new Baade/PANIC JHK imaging of Mercer 23 and ISAAC/VLT moderate resolution (R 4000) spectroscopy of the brightest cluster members in the H- and K-bands. The cluster age is determined from isochrone main-sequence (MS) and pre-MS fitting. We derive stellar parameters for eight of the stellar members, using a full non-LTE modeling of the obtained spectra. Mercer 23 is a very young cluster, with age of t=2-4 Myr. The cluster suffers reddening of E(J-Ks)=1.35, Av = 7.2 mag. The derived distance is d=6.5 +/- 0.2 kpc. Our spectral modeling allows us to conclude that the three most luminous member are evolved, highly massive stars: a WR star, and two mid-O supergiant stars, based on their derived luminosity. Mercer 23, is not a super-massive cluster, such as those recently recognized to exist in the Milky Way. However, its mass estimate of 4-6 x 103 Msun puts it in the unique class of young, very massive Galactic clusters hosting WR stars.

Hanson, Margaret M.; Kurtev, R.; Borissova, J.; Georgiev, L.; Ivanov, V. D.; Hillier, D. J.; Minniti, D.

2010-05-01

205

The IMF and Internal Kinematics of the Massive Young Star Cluster, Westerlund 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most massive young star cluster known in the Milky Way, Westerlund 1, represents a far more extreme environment for star formation than nearby, well-studied, and lower-mass star forming regions such as Taurus and Orion. We propose to construct a complete photometric and kinematic census of Westerlund 1 in order to identify cluster members down to 0.1 solar masses, precisely determine the initial mass function (IMF), and measure the internal kinematic structure of the cluster. With these measurements, we will test whether the IMF is universal, as may be the case for nearby lower-mass star forming regions, or favors high-mass star formation, as has been suggested theoretically and from some observational results. We will observe Wd 1 with WFC3-IR, which is the only instrument capable of delivering high spatial resolution, a well-characterized and stable PSF, and a wide field of view at infrared wavelengths. We exploit WFC3's capabilities to cover the full extent of the cluster with photometry, to correct for variable extinction and derive stellar masses, and with proper motions, to distinguish between cluster members and contaminating field stars. Our proposed observations of Westerlund 1 will help determine whether the star formation process, and the emergent stellar mass distribution, varies with initial cloud conditions.

Lu, Jessica

2014-10-01

206

YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS AND TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION IN THE VULPECULA OB ASSOCIATION  

SciTech Connect

The Vulpecula OB association, Vul OB1, is a region of active star formation located in the Galactic plane at 2.3 kpc from the Sun. Previous studies suggest that sequential star formation is propagating along this 100 pc long molecular complex. In this paper, we use Spitzer MIPSGAL and GLIMPSE data to reconstruct the star formation history of Vul OB1, and search for signatures of past triggering events. We make a census of young stellar objects (YSOs) in Vul OB1 based on IR color and magnitude criteria, and we rely on the properties and nature of these YSOs to trace recent episodes of massive star formation. We find 856 YSO candidates, and show that the evolutionary stage of the YSO population in Vul OB1 is rather homogeneous-ruling out the scenario of propagating star formation. We estimate the current star formation efficiency to be {approx}8%. We also report the discovery of a dozen pillar-like structures, which are confirmed to be sites of small scale triggered star formation.

Billot, N.; Latter, W. [NASA Herschel Science Center, IPAC, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S.; Guieu, S.; Shenoy, S.; Paladini, R., E-mail: nbillot@ipac.caltech.ed [Spitzer Science Center, IPAC, MS 220-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2010-04-01

207

Young Stellar Objects and Triggered Star Formation in the Vulpecula OB Association  

E-print Network

The Vulpecula OB association, VulOB1, is a region of active star formation located in the Galactic plane at 2.3 kpc from the Sun. Previous studies suggest that sequential star formation is propagating along this 100 pc long molecular complex. In this paper, we use Spitzer MIPSGAL and GLIMPSE data to reconstruct the star formation history of VulOB1, and search for signatures of past triggering events. We make a census of Young Stellar Objects (YSO) in VulOB1 based on IR color and magnitude criteria, and we rely on the properties and nature of these YSOs to trace recent episodes of massive star formation. We find 856 YSO candidates, and show that the evolutionary stage of the YSO population in VulOB1 is rather homogeneous - ruling out the scenario of propagating star formation. We estimate the current star formation efficiency to be ~8 %. We also report the discovery of a dozen pillar-like structures, which are confirmed to be sites of small scale triggered star formation.

Billot, N; Carey, S; Guieu, S; Shenoy, S; Paladini, R; Latter, W

2010-01-01

208

Main-sequence Stars Masquerading as Young Stellar Objects in the Central Molecular Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In contrast to most other galaxies, star formation rates in the Milky Way can be estimated directly from young stellar objects (YSOs). In the central molecular zone the star formation rate calculated from the number of YSOs with 24 ?m emission is up to an order of magnitude higher than the value estimated from methods based on diffuse emission (such as free-free emission). Whether this effect is real or whether it indicates problems with either or both star formation rate measures is not currently known. In this paper, we investigate whether estimates based on YSOs could be heavily contaminated by more evolved objects such as main-sequence stars. We present radiative transfer models of YSOs and of main-sequence stars in a constant ambient medium which show that the main-sequence objects can indeed mimic YSOs at 24 ?m. However, we show that in some cases the main-sequence models can be marginally resolved at 24 ?m, whereas the YSO models are always unresolved. Based on the fraction of resolved MIPS 24 ?m sources in the sample of YSOs previously used to compute the star formation rate, we estimate the fraction of misclassified "YSOs" to be at least 63%, which suggests that the star formation rate previously determined from YSOs is likely to be at least a factor of three too high.

Koepferl, Christine M.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Morales, Esteban F. E.; Johnston, Katharine G.

2015-01-01

209

A newly discovered young massive star cluster at the far end of the Galactic Bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a near-infrared study of the candidate star cluster Mercer 81, located at the centre of the G338.4+0.1 H II region and close to the TeV gamma-ray source HESS 1640-465. Using Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS imaging and VLT/ISAAC spectroscopy, we have detected a compact and highly reddened cluster of stars, although the bright stars in the centre of the field are in fact foreground objects. The cluster contains nine stars with strong P? emission, one of which we identify as a Wolf-Rayet (WR) star, as well as an A-type supergiant. The line-of-sight extinction is very large, AV˜ 45, illustrating the challenges of locating young star clusters in the Galactic plane. From a quantitative analysis of the WR star, we argue for a cluster age of 3.7? Myr, and, assuming that all emission-line stars are WR stars, a cluster mass of ?104 M?. A kinematic analysis of the cluster's surrounding H II region shows that the cluster is located in the Galactic disc at a distance of 11 ± 2 kpc. This places the cluster close to where the far end of the Bar intersects the Norma spiral arm. This cluster, as well as the nearby cluster [DBS2003]179, represents the first detections of active star cluster formation at this side of the Bar, in contrast to the near side which is well known to have recently undergone a ˜106 M? starburst episode.

Davies, Ben; de La Fuente, Diego; Najarro, Francisco; Hinton, Jim A.; Trombley, Christine; Figer, Donald F.; Puga, Elena

2012-01-01

210

The Mass Function of Young Star Clusters in the "Antennae" Galaxies.  

PubMed

We determine the mass function of young star clusters in the merging galaxies known as the "Antennae" (NGC 4038/9) from deep images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on the refurbished Hubble Space Telescope. This is accomplished by means of reddening-free parameters and a comparison with stellar population synthesis tracks to estimate the intrinsic luminosity and age, and hence the mass, of each cluster. We find that the mass function of the young star clusters (with ages less, similar160 Myr) is well represented by a power law of the form psi&parl0;M&parr0;~M-2 over the range 104 less, similarM less, similar106 M middle dot in circle. This result may have important implications for our understanding of the origin of globular clusters during the early phases of galactic evolution. PMID:10577944

Zhang; Fall

1999-12-20

211

Formation of massive black holes through runaway collisions in dense young star clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A luminous X-ray source is associated with MGG 11-a cluster of young stars ~200pc from the centre of the starburst galaxy M 82 (refs 1, 2). The properties of this source are best explained by invoking a black hole with a mass of at least 350 solar masses (350Msolar), which is intermediate between stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. A nearby

Simon F. Portegies Zwart; Holger Baumgardt; Piet Hut; Junichiro Makino; Stephen L. W. McMillan

2004-01-01

212

Dynamical masses of young star clusters in NGC 4038\\/4039  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to estimate the masses of the compact, young star clusters in the merging galaxy pair, NGC 4038\\/4039 (``the Antennae''), we have obtained medium and high resolution spectroscopy using ISAAC on VLT-UT1 and UVES on VLT-UT2 of five such clusters. The velocity dispersions were estimated using the stellar absorption features of CO at 2.29 mu m and metal absorption

Sabine Mengel; M. D. Lehnert; Niranjan Thatte; Reinhard Genzel

2002-01-01

213

A dynamical origin for early mass segregation in young star clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some young star clusters show a degree of mass segregation that is\\u000ainconsistent with the effects of standard two-body relaxation from an initially\\u000aunsegregated system without substructure, in virial equilibrium, and it is\\u000aunclear whether current cluster formation models can account for this degree of\\u000ainitial segregation in clusters of significant mass. In this Letter we\\u000ademonstrate that mergers of

Stephen L. W. McMillan; Enrico Vesperini; Simon F. Portegies Zwart

2006-01-01

214

The Mass Function of Young Star Clusters in the ``Antennae'' Galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determine the mass function of young star clusters in the merging galaxies the ``Antennae'' (NGC 4038\\/39) from deep images taken with the WFPC2 on the refurbished Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This is accomplished by means of reddening-free parameters and a comparison with stellar population synthesis tracks to estimate the intrinsic luminosity and age and hence the mass of each

Qing Zhang; S. Michael Fall

1999-01-01

215

Radiation-driven Warping of Circumbinary Disks around Eccentric Young Star Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a warping instability of a geometrically thin, non-self-gravitating, circumbinary disk around young binary stars on an eccentric orbit. Such a disk is subject to both the tidal torques due to a time-dependent binary potential and the radiative torques due to radiation emitted from each star. The tilt angle between the circumbinary disk plane and the binary orbital plane is assumed to be very small. We find that there is a radius within/beyond which the circumbinary disk is unstable to radiation-driven warping, depending on the disk density and temperature gradient indices. This marginally stable warping radius is very sensitive to viscosity parameters, a fiducial disk radius and the temperature measured there, the stellar luminosity, and the disk surface density at a radius where the disk changes from optically thick to thin for the irradiation from the central stars. On the other hand, it is insensitive to the orbital eccentricity and binary irradiation parameter, which is a function of the binary mass ratio and luminosity of each star. Since the tidal torques can suppress the warping in the inner part of the circumbinary disk, the disk starts to be warped in the outer part. While the circumbinary disks are most likely to be subject to the radiation-driven warping on an AU to kilo-AU scale for binaries with young massive stars more luminous than 104 L ?, the radiation-driven warping does not work for those around young binaries with the luminosity comparable to the solar luminosity.

Hayasaki, Kimitake; Sohn, Bong Won; Okazaki, Atsuo T.; Jung, Taehyun; Zhao, Guangyao; Naito, Tsuguya

2014-12-01

216

Cool Young Stars in the Northern Hemisphere: Beta Pictoris and AB Doradus Moving Group Candidates  

E-print Network

As part of our continuing effort to identify new, low-mass members of nearby, young moving groups (NYMGs), we present a list of young, low-mass candidates in the northern hemisphere. We used our proven proper motion selection procedure and ROSAT-X-ray and GALEX-UV activity indicators to identify 204 young stars as candidate members of the Beta Pictoris and AB Doradus NYMGs. Definitive membership assignment of a given candidate will require a measurement of its radial velocity and distance. We present a simple system of indices to characterize the young candidates and help prioritize follow up observations. New group members identified in this candidate list will be high priority targets for: 1) exoplanet direct imaging searches, 2) the study of post-T-Tauri astrophysics, 3) understanding recent local star formation, and 4) the study of local galactic kinematics. Information available now allows us to identify 8 likely new members in the list. Two of these, a late-K and an early-M dwarf, we find to be likely m...

Schlieder, Joshua E; Simon, Michal

2012-01-01

217

Galex-selected Nearby Young Stars: X-ray Counterparts and Potential New eps Cha Members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are searching the GALEX (UV) and 2MASS+WISE (infrared) sky survey data for nearby young, low-mass stars. We select candidates on the basis of proper motions (PMs), infrared colors and magnitudes, and UV excesses that are all indicative of young M dwarfs within ~100 pc of Earth. Here, we describe the preliminary results of searches of available ROSAT, XMM, and Chandra archival data for X-ray detections that might establish high levels of coronal activity and, hence, help confirm the youth of UV/IR/PM-selected candidates. We also present an analysis of candidate young stars in the vicinity of the ~7-Myr-old epsilon Chamaeleonis Association, in an effort to identify possible new members (and companions to known members) of this young stellar group. Support for this work was provided in part by the National Science Foundation under a Research Experience for Undergraduates program grant (PHY-1062874) to RIT and by NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program award NNX12AH37G to RIT and UCLA.

Diaz, Mariangelly; Rodriguez, D.; Darling, S.; Principe, D.; Kastner, J. H.; Montez, R.; Zuckerman, B. M.

2013-01-01

218

VizieR Online Data Catalog: IC 2391 and Argus young stars (de Silva+, 2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the possible connection between the open cluster IC 2391 and the unbound Argus association identified by the search for associations containing young stars survey. In addition to common kinematics and ages between these two systems, here we explore their chemical abundance patterns to confirm if the two substructures shared a common origin. We carry out a homogeneous high-resolution elemental abundance study of eight confirmed members of IC 2391 as well as six members of the Argus association using UVES spectra. We derive spectroscopic stellar parameters and abundances for Fe, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Ni and Ba. All stars in the open cluster and Argus association were found to share similar abundances with the scatter well within the uncertainties, where [Fe/H]=-0.04+/-0.03 for cluster stars and [Fe/H]=-0.06+/-0.05 for Argus stars. Effects of overionization/excitation were seen for stars cooler than roughly 5200K as previously noted in the literature. Also, enhanced Ba abundances of around 0.6dex were observed in both systems. The common ages, kinematics and chemical abundances strongly support the fact that the Argus association stars originated from the open cluster IC 2391. Simple modelling of this system finds this dissolution to be consistent with two-body interactions. (4 data files).

de Silva, G. M.; D'Orazi, V.; Melo, C.; Torres, C. A. O.; Gieles, M.; Quast, G. R.; Sterzik, M.

2014-01-01

219

Elemental abundances of low-mass stars in the young clusters 25 Orionis and ? Orionis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We aim to derive the chemical pattern of the young clusters 25 Orionis and ? Orionis through homogeneous and accurate measurements of elemental abundances. Methods: We present flames/uves observations of a sample of 14 K-type targets in the 25 Ori and ? Ori clusters. We measured their radial velocities to confirm cluster membership. We derived stellar parameters and abundances of Fe, Na, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Ni using the code MOOG. Results: All 25 Ori stars are confirmed cluster members without evidence of binarity; in ? Ori we identify one non member and one possible single-lined binary star. We find an average metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.05 ± 0.05 for 25 Ori, where the error is the 1? standard deviation from the average. The ? Ori members have a mean Fe abundance value of 0.01 ± 0.01. The other elements show close-to-solar ratios and no star-to-star dispersion. Conclusions: Our results, along with previous metallicity determinations in the Orion complex, show a small but detectable dispersion in the [Fe/H] distribution of the complex. This appears to be compatible with large-scale star formation episodes and initial nonuniformity in the precloud medium. We show that, as expected, the abundance distribution of star-forming regions is consistent with the chemical pattern of the Galactic thin disk. Based on flames observations collected at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). Program 082.D-0796(A).

Biazzo, K.; Randich, S.; Palla, F.; Briceño, C.

2011-06-01

220

Search for Pre-Main-Sequence Stars in the Young Galactic Cluster NGC 6910  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photometric CCD UBV measurements have been obtained in the field of the young Cygnus cluster NGC 6910. The observations reach down to magnitude V~=18 for 206 stars measured in all three UBV bands, uncovering the region of the color-magnitude diagram where pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars are expected. The transformation of our instrumental magnitudes to the standard system is discussed on the basis of two different sets of standard stars: 22 stars from six fields in the Landolt catalogs and 48 stars with published photoelectric photometry in common with ours in the four clusters observed in this campaign. The latter set is preferred, since it enables the effect of systematic errors in the U-B colors to be minimized. The adopted cluster parameters are E(B-V)=1.02+/-0.13, V0-MV=11.2+/-0.2, and age=(6.5+/-3)x106 yr. The search for PMS cluster members on the basis of the calculated color excess and distance modulus results in the proposed membership for 11 PMS stars of spectral types from A to G.

Delgado, Antonio J.; Alfaro, Emilio J.

2000-04-01

221

The Einstein survey of the young stars in the Orion Nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orion Nebula is the best studied site of recent star formation in the Galaxy. The complete Einstein Observatory survey of the Orion Nebula covering a 2 deg x 2 deg region centered on the Trapezium is reported. An X-ray mosaic is presented for the Nebula along with a complete X-ray catalogue for this very young cluster. Approximately 150 distinct sources were found in this 4 sq deg region; spectral types and colors were obtained for about 1/2 of the optical counterparts of these sources. Comparison of the variability of the Orion X-ray sources with those found in the Rho Ophiuchi cloud leads to the conclusion that the Orion sources' variability is also likely to result from continual flaring activities. Eleven new late B stars associated with X-ray emission far exceeding that expected from early type stars were discovered. The X-rays may originate from pre-main sequence companions to these stars; a T-Tauri star of the same age would have the correct L sub x. Comparison of the solar type stars in Orion with those in the Pleiades, the Hyades, and the field suggests that the decay of activity with age is most appropriately described by an exponential, rather than a power law fit.

Zoonematkermani, S.; Caillault, J.-P.

1987-01-01

222

The effect of magnetic fields on the formation of circumstellar discs around young stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present first results of our simulations of magnetic fields in the formation of single and binary stars using a recently developed method for incorporating Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) into the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. An overview of the method is presented before discussing the effect of magnetic fields on the formation of circumstellar discs around young stars. We find that the presence of magnetic fields during the disc formation process can lead to significantly smaller and less massive discs which are much less prone to gravitational instability. Similarly in the case of binary star formation we find that magnetic fields, overall, suppress fragmentation. However these effects are found to be largely driven by magnetic pressure. The relative importance of magnetic tension is dependent on the orientation of the field with respect to the rotation axis, but can, with the right orientation, lead to a dilution of the magnetic pressure-driven suppression of fragmentation.

Price, Daniel J.; Bate, Matthew R.

2007-10-01

223

Young star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud: NGC 1805 and NGC 1818  

E-print Network

We present colour-magnitude diagrams for two rich (~10^4 Msun) Large Magellanic Cloud star clusters with ages ~10^7 years, constructed from optical and near-infrared data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. These data are part of an HST project to study LMC clusters with a range of ages. In this paper we investigate the massive star content of the young clusters, and determine the cluster ages and metallicities, paying particular attention to Be star and blue straggler populations and evidence of age spreads. We compare our data to detailed stellar population simulations to investigate the turn-off structure of ~25 Myr stellar systems, highlighting the complexity of the blue straggler phenomenon.

R. A. Johnson; S. F. Beaulieu; G. F. Gilmore; J. Hurley; B. X. Santiago; N. R. Tanvir; R. A. W. Elson

2000-12-18

224

Sizes and Shapes of Young, Massive Star Clusters in M83  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using HST imaging, the surface brightness profiles of individual star clusters in nearby galaxies can be resolved, in that clusters are clearly more extended than the stellar PSF. Previous studies of the sizes and shapes of star clusters find little variation with cluster age, mass, or galaxy environment. We use observations from seven pointings on M83 from HST/WFC3 programs GO/DD-11360 (PI O'Connell) and GO-12513 (PI Blair) to obtain a large sample of young, massive star clusters. We measure the half-light radii and power-law indices of the EFF light profile (Elson, Fall, & Freeman 1987) of these clusters using the galfit software package (Peng et al. 2002). We present our results on the relationships between cluster size, shape, age, mass, and environment in the disk of M83.

Ryon, Jenna E.; Bastian, Nate; Adamo, Angela; Silva-Villa, Esteban; Gallagher, John S.

2015-01-01

225

Chandra Observations of a Young Embedded Magnetic B Star in the p Ophiuchus Cloud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports the analysis of two Chandra X-ray observations of the young magnetic B star rho Ophiuchus S1. X-ray emission from the star was detected in both observations. The average flux is almost the same in both, but during each observation the flux shows significant time variations by a factor of two on timescales of 20-40 ksec. Each spectrum can be fit by either an absorbed power law model with a photon index of approx. -3 or a thin-thermal plasma model with a temperature of approx. 2 keV and an extremely low metal abundance (approx. less than 0.1 solar). The spectrum of the first observation has an apparent line feature at about 6.8 keV, which likely corresponds to highly ionized iron K alpha. In contrast, the spectrum of the second observation shows an anomalous edge absorption component at E approx. 1 keV. The continuum emission and log (L(sub X)/L(sub bol)) approx. -6 are similar to those of young intermediate-mass stars (Herbig Ae/Be stars) although the presence of the magnetic field inferred from the detection of non-thermal radio emission has drawn an analogy between rho Ophiuchus S1 and magnetic chemically peculiar (MCP) stars. If the X-ray emission is thermal, the highest plasma temperature observed is too high to be explained by the conventional theories of magnetic stars, and favors some kind of magnetic dynamo activity, while if the emission is nonthermal, it might be related to mass infall. The 6.8 keV line and 4 keV edge features are marginal but they give important information near the stellar body if they are real. Their physical interpretation is discussed.

Hamaguchi, Kenji; Imanishi, Kensuke

2002-01-01

226

Evolution of X-ray emission from young massive star clusters  

E-print Network

The evolution of X-ray emission from young massive star clusters is modeled, taking into account the emission from the stars as well as from the cluster wind. It is shown that the level and character of the soft (0.2-10 keV) X-ray emission change drastically with cluster age and are tightly linked with stellar evolution. Using the modern X-ray observations of massive stars we show that the correlation between bolometric and X-ray luminosity known for single O stars also holds for O+O and O+Wolf-Rayet (WR) binaries. The diffuse emission originates from the cluster wind heated by the kinetic energy of stellar winds and supernova explosions. To model the evolution of the cluster wind, the mass and energy yields from a population synthesis are used as input to a hydrodynamic model. It is shown that in a very young clusters the emission from the cluster wind is low. When the cluster evolves, WR stars are formed. Their strong stellar winds power an increasing X-ray emission of the cluster wind. Subsequent supernova explosions pump the level of diffuse emission even higher. Clusters at this evolutionary stage may have no X-ray bright stellar point sources, but a relatively high level of diffuse emission. A supernova remnant may become a dominant X-ray source, but only for a short time interval of a few thousand years. We retrieve and analyse Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of six massive star clusters located in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Our model reproduces the observed diffuse and point-source emission from these LMC clusters, as well as from the Galactic clusters Arches, Quintuplet and NGC 3603.

L. M. Oskinova

2005-05-25

227

Discovering young stars in the Gum 31 region with infrared observations  

E-print Network

Context. The Gum 31 bubble containing the stellar cluster NGC 3324 is a poorly-studied young region close to the Carina Nebula. Aims. We are aiming to characterise the young stellar and protostellar population in and around Gum 31 and to investigate the star-formation process in this region. Methods. We identify candidate young stellar objects from Spitzer, WISE, and Herschel data. Combining these, we analyse the spectral energy distributions of the candidate young stellar objects. With density and temperature maps obtained from Herschel data and comparisons to a 'collect and collapse' scenario for the region we are able to further constrain the characteristics of the region as a whole. Results. 661 candidate young stellar objects are found from WISE data, 91 protostar candidates are detected through Herschel observations in a 1.0 deg x 1.1 deg area. Most of these objects are found in small clusters or are well aligned with the H II bubble. We also identify the sources of Herbig-Haro jets. The infrared morpho...

Ohlendorf, Henrike; Gaczkowski, Benjamin; Ratzka, Thorsten; Ngoumou, Judith; Roccatagliata, Veronica; Grellmann, Rebekka

2013-01-01

228

The INfrared Survey of Young Nebulous Clusters (IN-SYNC): Surveying the Dynamics and Star Formation Histories of Young Clusters with APOGEE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young clusters are the most prolific sites of star formation in the Milky Way, but demographic studies indicate that relatively few of the Milky Way's stellar clusters persist as bound structures for 100 Myrs or longer. Uniform & precise measurements of the stellar populations and internal dynamics of these regions are difficult to obtain, however, particularly for extremely young clusters whose optical visibility is greatly hampered by their parental molecular cloud. The INfrared Survey of Young Nebulous Clusters (IN-SYNC), an SDSS-III ancillary science program, leverages the stability and multiplex capability of the APOGEE spectrograph to obtain high resolution spectra at near-infrared wavelengths, where photospheric emission is better able to penetrate the dusty shrouds that surround sites of active star formation. We summarize our recent measurements of the kinematics and stellar populations of IC 348 and NGC 1333, two young clusters in the Perseus Molecular Cloud, and of the members of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and L1641 filament in the Orion molecular complex. These measurements highlight the dynamically 'warm' environment within these young clusters, and suggest a range of stellar radii within these quasi-single-age populations. We close with a preview of plans for continuing this work as part of the APOGEE-2 science portfolio: self-consistent measurements of the kinematics and star formation histories for clusters spanning a range of initial conditions and ages will provide a opportunity to disentangle the mechanisms that drive the formation and dissolution of sites of active star formation.

Covey, Kevin R.; Cottaar, Michiel; Foster, Jonathan B.; Da Rio, Nicola; Tan, Jonathan; Meyer, Michael; Nidever, David L.; Flaherty, Kevin M.; Arce, Hector G.; Rebull, Luisa M.; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Hearty, Fred R.; Majewski, Steven R.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Stassun, Keivan; Wilson, John C.; Zasowski, Gail

2015-01-01

229

Polarization, jets, and the distribution of circumstellar dust around T Tauri stars and other young infrared sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available linear polarization data and information about jets and bipolar outflows observed near T Tauri stars and other young infrared objects are used in conjunction with polarization models to discuss the distribution of circumstellar dust grains around these stars. Two general cases are investigated: (1) axially symmetric distributions of spherical grains and (2) nonspherical grains aligned preferentially in some direction.

Pierre Bastien

1987-01-01

230

KEPLER-63b: A GIANT PLANET IN A POLAR ORBIT AROUND A YOUNG SUN-LIKE STAR  

E-print Network

We present the discovery and characterization of a giant planet orbiting the young Sun-like star Kepler-63 (KOI-63, m [subscript Kp] = 11.6, T [subscript eff] = 5576 K, M [star] = 0.98 M [subscript ?]). The planet transits ...

Marcy, Geoffrey W.

231

StarPals International Young Astronomers' Network Collaborative Projects for IYA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

StarPals is a nascent non-profit organization with the goal of providing opportunities for international collaboration between students of all ages within space science research. We believe that by encouraging an interest in the cosmos, the one thing that is truly Universal, from a young age, students will not only further their knowledge of and interest in science but will learn valuable teamwork and life skills. The goal is to foster respect, understanding and appreciation of cultural diversity among all StarPals participants, whether students, teachers, or mentors. StarPals aims to inspire students by providing opportunities in which, more than simply visualizing themselves as research scientists, they can actually become one. The technologies of robotic telescopes, videoconferencing, and online classrooms are expanding the possibilities like never before. In honor of IYA2009, StarPals would like to encourage 400 schools to participate on a global scale in astronomy/cosmology research on various concurrent projects. We will offer in-person or online workshops and training sessions to teach the teachers. We will be seeking publication in scientific journals for some student research. For our current project, the Double Stars Challenge, students use the robotic telescopes to take a series of four images of one of 30 double stars from a list furnished by the US Naval Observatory and then use MPO Canopus software to take distance and position angle measurements. StarPals provides students with hands-on training, telescope time, and software to complete the imaging and measuring. A paper will be drafted from our research data and submitted to the Journal of Double Star Observations. The kids who participate in this project may potentially be the youngest contributors to an article in a vetted scientific journal. Kids rapidly adapt and improve their computer skills operating these telescopes and discover for themselves that science is COOL!

Kingan, Jessi

2008-09-01

232

Search for associations containing young stars (SACY). V. Is multiplicity universal? Tight multiple systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Dynamically undisrupted, young populations of stars are crucial in studying the role of multiplicity in relation to star formation. Loose nearby associations provide us with a great sample of close (<150 pc) pre-main sequence (PMS) stars across the very important age range (?5-70 Myr) to conduct such research. Aims: We characterize the short period multiplicity fraction of the search for associations containing young stars (SACY) sample, accounting for any identifiable bias in our techniques and present the role of multiplicity fractions of the SACY sample in the context of star formation. Methods: Using the cross-correlation technique we identified double-lined and triple-lined spectroscopic systems (SB2/SB3s), in addition to this we computed radial velocity (RV) values for our subsample of SACY targets using several epochs of Fiber-fed Extended Range Optical Spectrograph (FEROS) and Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) data. These values were used to revise the membership of each association that was then combined with archival data to determine significant RV variations across different data epochs characteristic of multiplicity; single-lined multiple systems (SB1). Results: We identified seven new multiple systems (SB1s: 5, SB2s: 2). We find no significant difference between the short period multiplicity fraction (Fm) of the SACY sample and that of close star-forming regions (?1-2 Myr) and the field (Fm ? 10%). These are seen both as a function of age and as a function of primary mass, M1, in the ranges P [1:200 day] and M2 [0.08 M?-M1], respectively. Conclusions: Our results are consistent with the picture of universal star formation, when compared to the field and close star-forming regions (SFRs). We comment on the implications of the relationship between increasing multiplicity fraction with the primary mass within the close companion range in relation to star formation. Based on observations obtained using the instruments FEROS at La Silla (ESO 1.5 m and MPG/ESO 2.2 m) UVES at VLT (ESO 8 m).Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgTables C.1, C.2 and D.1 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/568/A26

Elliott, P.; Bayo, A.; Melo, C. H. F.; Torres, C. A. O.; Sterzik, M.; Quast, G. R.

2014-08-01

233

Be phenomenon in open clusters: Results from a survey of emission-line stars in young open clusters  

E-print Network

Emission-line stars in young open clusters are identified to study their properties, as a function of age, spectral type and their evolutionary state. 207 open star clusters were observed using slitless spectroscopy method and 157 emission stars were identified in 42 clusters. We have found 54 new emission-line stars in 24 open clusters, out of which 19 clusters are found to house emission stars for the first time. About 20% clusters harbour emission stars. The fraction of clusters housing emission stars is maximum in both the 0--10 and 20--30 Myr age bin ($\\sim$ 40% each) and in the other age bins, this fraction ranges between 10% -- 25%, upto 80 Myr. We have used optical colour magnitude diagram (CMD) along with Near-IR Colour-Colour diagram (NIR CCDm) to classify the emission stars into Classical Be (CBe) stars and Herbig Be (HBe) stars. Most of the emission stars in our survey belong to CBe class ($\\sim$ 92%) while a few are HBe stars ($\\sim$ 6%) and HAe stars ($\\sim$1%). The CBe stars are located all along the MS in the optical CMDs of clusters of all ages, which indicates that the Be phenomenon is unlikely due to core contraction near the turn-off. Most of the clusters which contain emission stars are found in Cygnus, Perseus & Monoceros region of the Galaxy, which are locations of active star formation. The distribution of CBe stars as a function of spectral type shows peaks at B1-B2 and B6-B7. Our results indicate there could be two mechanisms responsible for the CBe phenomenon. Some are born CBe stars (fast rotators), as indicated by their presence in clusters younger than 10 Myr. Some stars evolve to CBe stars, as indicates by the enhancement in the fraction of clusters with CBe stars in the 20-30 Myr age bin.

Blesson Mathew; Annapurni Subramaniam; Bhuwan Chandra Bhatt

2008-04-09

234

VizieR Online Data Catalog: Old MS stars in young moving groups (Lopez-Santiago+, 2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rosat All Sky Survey (RASS) and 2MASS counterparts of 556 stars possible members of the young moving groups: Local Association, Ursa Major Moving Group, Hyades Supercluster, Castor Moving Group, and IC 2391 Supercluster and other young stars from Montes et al. (2001MNRAS.328...45M). For each star equatorial coordinates, parallax, visual magnitude, V-I colour, 2MASS id., J, H, and K magnitudes, RASS id., X-ray count-rate in the ROSAT energy band, the two hardness-ratio in the RASS, and X-ray luminosity in the ROSAT energy band are given. (1 data file).

Lopez-Santiago, J.; Micela, G.; Montes, D.

2009-03-01

235

Diffraction-Limited Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy of Outflows from Young Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the inital results of an ongoing program to study stellar outflows using the OSIRIS integral field spectrograph and adaptive optics at Keck Observatory. Bipolar jets from young stars play crucial roles in angular momentum transfer away from protoplanetary disks and the excitation of molecular cloud turbulence, but their underlying physical mechanism remains uncertain. High angular resolution observations near jets' origins, now obtainable using integral field spectroscopy and adaptive optics, allow us to measure their structure and kinematics in detail, providing information on velocities, collimation, proper motion, and physical conditions within these jets. Our multi-epoch Keck LGSAO OSIRIS plus Gemini GMOS observations of the jet from the Herbig Ae star LkHa 233 now provide the most detailed picture yet of an outflow from an intermediate-mass star. We also present data on outflows from several additional sources, including T Tauri stars, the FU Ori star Parsamian 21 and the enigmatic BP Psc. This work was supported by the Center for Adaptive Optics, an NSF Science and Technology Center, and the NSF Astronomy & Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship Program.

Perrin, Marshall D.; Graham, J. R.; Macintosh, B. A.

2007-12-01

236

Commissioning COSMOS: Detection of Lithium in Young Stars in Lupus 3 through Multi-Object Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

COSMOS, a multi-object spectrograph and imager, is a new instrument on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. In order to demonstrate the instrument's operations during commissioning, we used COSMOS, its red grism and three custom slit masks to conduct a spectroscopic survey of the star-forming core of the Lupus 3 dark cloud in an effort to detect the presence of Lithium in the T Tauri stars that have been previously identified in that region. We detected the Li I 6708 Angstrom resonance transition in several (but not all) stars that were observed, consistent with prior studies that have observed Lithium in other young stars at the center of the Lupus 3 dark cloud and in other star-forming regions. These results also demonstrate the ability of COSMOS to significantly reduce the time required to complete spectroscopic surveys, relative to single-object instruments.Lackey was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

Lackey, Kyle; Briceno, Cesar; Elias, Jonathan H.

2015-01-01

237

Amplification and stability of magnetic fields and dynamo effect in young A stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is concerned with the early evolution of magnetic fields and differential rotation of intermediate-mass stars which may evolve into Ap stars. We report on simulations of the interplay of differential rotation and magnetic fields, the stability limits and non-linear evolution of such configurations, and the prospects of dynamo action from the unstable cases. The axisymmetric problem delivers a balance between field amplification and back-reaction of the magnetic field on the differential rotation. The non-axisymmetric case involves also the Tayler instability of the amplified toroidal fields. We consider limits for field amplification and apply these to young A stars. Apart from its application to Ap stars, the instability is scrutinized for the fundamental possibility of a dynamo. We are not looking for a dynamo as an explanation for the Ap star phenomenon. The kinetic helicity is concentrated near the tangent cylinder of the inner sphere of the computational domain and is negative in the Northern hemisphere. This appears to be a ubiquitous effect not special to the Tayler instability. The latter is actually connected with a positive current helicity in the bulk of the spherical shell giving rise to a small, but non-vanishing ?-effect in non-linear evolution of the instability.

Arlt, R.; Rüdiger, G.

2011-03-01

238

VizieR Online Data Catalog: Late-type stars members of young groups (Montes+, 2001)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the first paper of a series aimed at studying the properties of late-type members of young stellar kinematic groups. We concentrate our study on classical young moving groups such as the Local Association (Pleiades moving group, 2-150Myr), IC 2391 supercluster (35Myr), Ursa Major group (Sirius supercluster, 300Myr), and Hyades supercluster (600Myr), as well as on recently identified groups such as the Castor moving group (200Myr). In this paper we compile a preliminary list of single late-type possible members of some of these young stellar kinematic groups. Stars are selected from previously established members of stellar kinematic groups based on photometric and kinematic properties as well as from candidates based on other criteria such as their level of chromospheric activity, rotation rate and lithium abundance. Precise measurements of proper motions and parallaxes taken from the Hipparcos Catalogue, as well as from the Tycho-2 Catalogue, and published radial velocity measurements are used to calculate the Galactic space motions (U, V, W) and to apply Eggen's kinematic criteria in order to determine the membership of the selected stars to the different groups. (2 data files).

Montes, D.; Lopez-Santiago, J.; Galvez, M. C.; Fernandez-Figueroa, M. J.; de Castro, E.; Cornide, M.

2001-10-01

239

FLAMES spectroscopy of low-mass stars in the young clusters ? Ori and ? Ori  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We performed a detailed membership selection and studied the accretion properties of low-mass stars in the two apparently very similar young (1-10 Myr) clusters ? Ori and ? Ori. Methods: We observed 98 and 49 low-mass (0.2-1.0 M?) stars in ? Ori and ? Ori respectively, using the multi-object optical spectrograph FLAMES at the VLT, with the high-resolution (R˜ 17 000) HR15N grating (6470-6790 Å). We used radial velocities, Li and H? to establish cluster membership and H? and other optical emission lines to analyze the accretion properties of members. Results: We identified 65 and 45 members of the ? Ori and ? Ori clusters, respectively, and discovered 16 new candidate binary systems. We also measured rotational broadening for 20 stars and estimated the mass accretion rates in 25 stars of the ? Ori cluster, finding values between 10-11 and 10-7.7~M? yr-1 and in 4 stars of the ? Ori cluster, finding values between 10-11 and 10-10.1~M? yr-1. Comparing our results with the infrared photometry obtained by the Spitzer satellite, we find that the fraction of stars with disks and the fraction of active disks is larger in the ? Ori cluster (52±9% and 78±16%) than in ? Ori (28±8% and 40±20%). Conclusions: The different disk and accretion properties of the two clusters could be due either to the effect of the high-mass stars and the supernova explosion in the ? Ori cluster or to different ages of the cluster populations. Further observations are required to draw a definitive conclusion. Based on Data collected at the ESO Very Large Telescope, Paranal Observatory, Chile [programs 074.D-0136(A) and 076.C-0125(A)]. Tables 1, 2 and 4-7 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Sacco, G. G.; Franciosini, E.; Randich, S.; Pallavicini, R.

2008-09-01

240

Angular momentum regulation in low-mass young stars surrounded by accretion disks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From study of a sample of 34 T Tauri stars with photometrically derived rotation periods and spectral types later than KS, we find that the observed periods appear to be related to the presence or absence of an accretion disk. Those stars which we infer to be surrounded by accretion disks have rotation periods P(rot) over 4 days with a most probable P(rot) of about 8.5 days, while those stars which lack accretion disk signatures cover a wide range of P(rot) from 1.5 to 16 days, including a significant number of objects with P(rot) less than 4 days. This suggests the possibility that the 'initial' angular momentum of a star is not established until it dissipates its circumstellar accretion disk. During the disk accretion phase, the stellar angular velocity appears to be regulated at a low value, countering the tendency of the star to spin up both from contraction toward the main sequence and from the accretion of inner disk material of high specific angular momentum. When the accretion disk is dissipated, this regulation mechanism will cease to function. At this point, the star is no longer maintained at a low angular velocity, but is 'free' to conserve its angular momentum, and thus to increase its angular velocity in response to contraction and changes in moment of inertia. This hypothesis, combined with a spread in disk dispersal time scales, provides a context for explaining the observed distribution of stellar rotational velocities for stars on the ZAMS in young clusters.

Edwards, Suzan; Strom, Stephen E.; Hartigan, Patrick; Strom, Karen M.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Herbst, William; Attridge, Joanne; Merrill, K. M.; Probst, Ron; Gatley, Ian

1993-01-01

241

Be phenomenon in open clusters: Results from a survey of emission-line stars in young open clusters  

E-print Network

Emission-line stars in young open clusters are identified to study their properties, as a function of age, spectral type and their evolutionary state. 207 open star clusters were observed using slitless spectroscopy method and 157 emission stars were identified in 42 clusters. We have found 54 new emission-line stars in 24 open clusters, out of which 19 clusters are found to house emission stars for the first time. Rich clusters like NGC 7419, NGC 663, h & ? Persei, NGC 2345 are also rich in emission-line stars while other clusters contain a few emission stars. About 20 % clusters harbour emission stars. The fraction of clusters housing emission stars is maximum in both the 0–10 and 20–30 Myr age bin ( ? 40 % each) and in the other age bins, this fraction ranges between 10 % – 25%, upto 80 Myr. Most of them belong to spectral type earlier than B5, even though there are appreciable number of late-type emission stars. We have used optical colour magnitude diagram (CMD) along with Near-IR Colour-Colour diagram (NIR CCDm) to classify the emission stars into Classical Be (CBe) stars and Herbig Be (HBe) stars. Most of the emission stars in our survey belong to CBe class ( ? 92%)

Blesson Mathew; Annapurni Subramaniam; Bhuwan Ch; Ra Bhatt

242

Bolometric temperature and young stars in the Taurus and Ophiuchus complexes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We calculated bolometric temperature (T(sub bol)) and luminosity (L(sub bol)) for 128 young stellar objects (YSOs) in Taurus, 74 in the Ophiuchus 'core', and 33 in the Ophiuchus 'off-core' region. We have constructed the bolometric luminosity-temperature (BLT) diagram, the log-log plot of L(sub bol) versus T(sub bol), for the three samples. T(sub bol) is defined as the temperature of a blackbody having the same frequency as the observed continuum spectrum. It measures the redness (or coldness) of an astronomical source. The BLT diagram is analogous to the H-R diagram and allows for a direct and quantitative comparison of YSOs at a wide variety of evolutionary states, ranging from the most deeply embedded stars to T Tauri stars nearly on the main sequence. We found (1) T(sub bol) increases monotonically from embedded sources (approximately 60-500 K) to classical T Tauri stars (approximately 1000-3000 K) to weak-line T Tauri stars (approximately 2000-5000 K); (2) T(sub bol) correlates reasonably well with the age inferred from the evolutionary models of pre-main-sequence stars and protostars for embedded 'protostars' and weak-line T Tauri stars. There is no significant correlation for the classical T Tauri stars. These results can be understood in terms of dissipation of circumstellar dust envelope and disk during the early stages of stellar evolution. Sources in the three regions have different distributions in the BLT diagram. The Ophiuchus core has the highest fraction of cold sources among the three regions. These cold sources are also more luminous than the YSOs in the other regions. The Ophiuchus off-core sample is dominated by the more evolved pre-main-sequence stars. The Taurus sources have distributions intermediate in L(sub bol), T(sub bol), and age between the Ophiuchus core and off-core distributions. These may suggest differences in the star formation history, and possibly in the stellar masses and mass accretion rates in these star-forming regions.

Chen, H.; Myers, P. C.; Ladd, E. F.; Wood, D. O. S.

1995-01-01

243

NEAR-INFRARED VARIABILITY IN YOUNG STARS IN CYGNUS OB7  

SciTech Connect

We present the first results from a 124 night J, H, K near-infrared monitoring campaign of the dark cloud L 1003 in Cygnus OB7, an active star-forming region. Using three seasons of UKIRT observations spanning 1.5 years, we obtained high-quality photometry on 9200 stars down to J = 17 mag, with photometric uncertainty better than 0.04 mag. On the basis of near-infrared excesses from disks, we identify 30 pre-main-sequence stars, including 24 which are newly discovered. We analyze those stars and find that the NIR excesses are significantly variable. All 9200 stars were monitored for photometric variability; among the field star population, {approx}160 exhibited near-infrared variability (1.7% of the sample). Of the 30 young stellar objects (YSOs), 28 of them (93%) are variable at a significant level. Of the 30 YSOs, twenty-five have near-infrared excess consistent with simple disk-plus-star classical T Tauri models. Nine of these (36%) drift in color space over the course of these observations and/or since Two Micron All Sky Survey observations such that they cross the boundary defining the NIR excess criteria; effectively, they have a transient near-infrared excess. Thus, time-series JHK observations can be used to obtain a more complete sample of disk-bearing stars than single-epoch JHK observations. About half of the YSOs have color-space variations parallel to either the classical T Tauri star locus or a hybrid track which includes the dust reddening trajectory. This indicates that the NIR variability in YSOs that possess accretion disks arises from a combination of variable extinction and changes in the inner accretion disk: either in accretion rate, central hole size, and/or the inclination of the inner disk. While some variability may be due to stellar rotation, the level of variability on the individual stars can exceed a magnitude. This is a strong empirical suggestion that protoplanetary disks are quite dynamic and exhibit more complex activity on short timescales than is attributable to rotation alone or captured in static disk models.

Rice, Thomas S. [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wolk, Scott J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Aspin, Colin [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 N Aohoku Pl, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

2012-08-10

244

Creeping eruption  

MedlinePLUS

... burrow into your skin. They cause an intense inflammatory response that leads to a rash and severe itching. Creeping eruption is more common in countries with warm climates. In the United States, the southeast has the highest rates of infection. ...

245

A COMPREHENSIVE GALEX ULTRAVIOLET CATALOG OF STAR CLUSTERS IN M31 AND A STUDY OF THE YOUNG CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

We present a comprehensive catalog of 700 confirmed star clusters in the field of M31 compiled from three major existing catalogs. We detect 418 and 257 star clusters in Galaxy Evolution Explorer near-ultraviolet and far-ultraviolet (FUV) imaging, respectively. Our final catalog includes photometry of star clusters in up to 16 passbands ranging from FUV to NIR as well as ancillary information such as reddening, metallicity, and radial velocities. In particular, this is the most extensive and updated catalog of UV-integrated photometry for M31 star clusters. Ages and masses of star clusters are derived by fitting the multi-band photometry with model spectral energy distribution (SED); UV photometry enables more accurate age estimation of young clusters. Our catalog includes 182 young clusters with ages less than 1 Gyr. Our estimated ages and masses of young clusters are in good agreement with previously determined values in the literature. The mean age and mass of young clusters are about 300 Myr and 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }, respectively. We found that the compiled [Fe/H] values of young clusters included in our catalog are systematically lower (by more than 1 dex) than those from recent high-quality spectroscopic data and our SED-fitting result. We confirm that most of the young clusters' kinematics shows systematic rotation around the minor axis and association with the thin disk of M31. The young cluster distribution exhibits a distinct peak in the M31 disk around 10-12 kpc from the center and follows a spatial distributions similar to other tracers of disk structure such as OB stars, UV star-forming regions, and dust. Some young clusters also show concentration around the ring splitting regions found in the southern part of the M31 disk and most of them have systematically younger (<100 Myr) ages. Considering the kinematical properties and spatial distribution of young clusters, they might be associated with the well-known 10 kpc star formation ring structure in the M31 disk. Consequently, we suggest that various properties of young clusters in M31 might be in line with the scenarios that a satellite galaxy had passed through the disk of M31 less than few hundred million years ago.

Kang, Yongbeom; Rey, Soo-Chang; Lee, Kyungsook; Kim, YoungKwang [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Bianchi, Luciana [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sohn, Sangmo Tony, E-mail: ybkang@cnu.ac.kr, E-mail: screy@cnu.ac.kr [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2012-04-01

246

The relevance of the IUE results on young stars for Earth's paleoatmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using the latest IUE results for seven T Tauri stars, which are believed to represent the young Sun and a detailed photochemical chemical model of the paleoatmosphere, the vertical distribution of Oxygen and Ozone in the early atmosphere was calculated. The calculations indicate that the surface Oxygen mixing ratio is as much as six orders of magnitude larger than previously estimated, but appears low enough for the formation of amino acids via the Urey-Miller type of experiments. It is believed that the quantification of the oxygen level in the Earth's paleoatmosphere presented can reconcile the demands of both biological and geological considerations.

Canuto, V. M.; Levine, J. S.; Augustsson, T. R.; Imhoff, C. L.; Giampap, M. S.

1982-01-01

247

Economic Development Activities at the Young - Rainey Science, Technology, & Research (STAR) Center  

SciTech Connect

Project mission was to mitigate the adverse economic effects of closing the U.S. Department of Energy's Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida. This project was to facilitate the physical renovation of the plant and to help maintain and create jobs for the employees that worked at the plant when DOE terminated its operations. It also included finding and attracting high technology, industrial manufacturing and related firms to utilize the space and high tech equipment to remain at the plant. Stakeholders included the affected plant employees, local government and related public organizations, and businesses and universities in the Tampa Bay Florida area. The $17.6 million funded for this project helped produce 2,780 jobs at the Young - Rainey STAR Center at an average cost of $6,328. Rental income from STAR Center tenants and third party cash input amounted to approximately $66 million over the project period of 13.3 years.

Paul S. Sacco; Carl Smeigh; John Caponiti, Jr.

2008-06-30

248

A circumstellar molecular gas structure associated with the massive young star Cepheus A-HW 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the detection via VLA-D observations of ammonia of a circumstellar high-density molecular gas structure toward the massive young star related to the object Cepheus A-HW 2, a firm candidate for the powering source of the high-velocity molecular outflow in the region. We suggest that the circumstellar molecular gas structure could be related to the circumstellar disk previously suggested from infrared, H2O, and OH maser observations. We consider as a plausible scenario that the double radio continuum source of HW 2 could represent the ionized inner part of the circumstellar disk, in the same way as proposed to explain the double radio source in L1551. The observed motions in the circumstellar molecular gas can be produced by bound motions (e.g., infall or rotation) around a central mass of about 10-20 solar masses (B0.5 V star or earlier).

Torrelles, Jose M.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Canto, Jorge; Ho, Paul T. P.

1993-01-01

249

Disks, Young Stars, and Radio Waves: The Quest for Forming Planetary Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kant and Laplace suggested the Solar System formed from a rotating gaseous disk in the 18th century, but convincing evidence that young stars are indeed surrounded by such disks was not presented for another 200 years. As we move into the 21st century the emphasis is now on disk formation, the role of disks in star formation, and on how planets form in those disks. Radio wavelengths play a key role in these studies, currently providing some of the highest-spatial-resolution images of disks, along with evidence of the growth of dust grains into planetesimals. The future capabilities of EVLA and ALMA provide extremely exciting prospects for resolving disk structure and kinematics, studying disk chemistry, directly detecting protoplanets, and imaging disks in formation.

Chandler, C. J.; Shepherd, D. S.

2008-08-01

250

Spots and plages on a young main-sequence solar-type star: HD 206860  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The young solar type star HD 206860 is known to be a photometric variable with emission in the core of Ca ii H & K lines, several times more intense than the Sun when observed as a star. The photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of HD 206860 from near contemporaneous observations at Serra La Nave (Catania, Italy) and at the Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP, France) shows that chromospheric spectral-line flux and photometric variations follow the same period (4.74 days). From Strömgren photometry and Ca ii and H? chromospheric emission clearly anti-correlated variations have been found. This result suggests that spots and plages in this single solar-type star are spatially associated, as frequently observed for the largest sun-spot groups and for some very active RS CVn systems. A spot/plage model applied to the observed flux curves allows a crude reconstruction of the 3D structure of the external atmosphere of this star. Based on observations collected at the Observatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France, and at the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Italy

Frasca, A.; Freire Ferrero, R.; Marilli, E.; Catalano, S.

2000-12-01

251

NEW BROWN DWARF COMPANIONS TO YOUNG STARS IN SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS  

SciTech Connect

We present the discoveries of three faint companions to young stars in the Scorpius-Centaurus region, imaged with the NICI instrument on Gemini South. We have confirmed all three companions through common proper motion tests. Follow-up spectroscopy has confirmed two of them, HIP 65423 B and HIP 65517 B, to be brown dwarfs, while the third, HIP 72099 B, is more likely a very low mass star just above the hydrogen burning limit. The detection of wide companions in the mass range of {approx}40-100 M{sub jup} complements previous work in the same region, reporting detections of similarly wide companions with lower masses, in the range of {approx}10-30 M{sub jup}. Such low masses near the deuterium burning limit have raised the question of whether those objects formed like planets or stars. The existence of intermediate objects as reported here could represent a bridge between lower-mass companions and stellar companions, but in any case demonstrate that mass alone may not provide a clear-cut distinction for the formation of low-mass companions to stars.

Janson, Markus [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Jayawardhana, Ray; Bonavita, Mariangela [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Girard, Julien H. [European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile); Lafreniere, David [Department of Physics, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Gizis, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Brandeker, Alexis, E-mail: janson@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

2012-10-10

252

Infrared spectroscopy of a brown dwarf companion candidate near the young star GSC 08047-00232 in Horologium  

E-print Network

We present infrared H- and K-band spectra of a companion candidate 3" north of the young star GSC 08047-00232, a probable member of the nearby young Horologium association. From previously obtained JHK-band colors and the magnitude difference between primary and companion candidate, the latter could well be substellar (Neuh"auser et al. 2003) with the spectral type being roughly M7-L9 from the JHK colors (Chauvin et al. 2003). With the H- and K-band spectra now obtained with ISAAC at the VLT, the spectral type of the companion candidate is found to be M6-9.5. Assuming the same age and distance as for the primary star (~35 Myrs, 50 to 85 pc), this yields a mass of ~25 Jupiter masses for the companion, hence indeed substellar. After TWA-5 B and HR 7329 B, this is the third brown dwarf companion around a nearby (up to 100 pc) young (up to 100 Myrs) star. A total of three confirmed brown dwarf companions (any mass, separation above 50 AU) around 79 stars surveyed in three young nearby associations corresponds to a frequency of 6 \\pm 4 % (with a correction for missing companions which are almost on the same line-of-sight as the primary star instead of being separated well), consistent with the expectation, if binaries have the same mass function as field stars. Hence, it seems that there is no brown dwarf desert at wide separations.

Ralph Neuhaeuser; Eike Guenther

2004-03-05

253

STAR FORMATION AND YOUNG POPULATION OF THE H II COMPLEX Sh2-294  

SciTech Connect

The Sh2-294 H II region ionized by a single B0V star features several infrared excess sources, a photodissociation region, and also a group of reddened stars at its border. The star formation scenario in this region seems to be quite complex. In this paper, we present follow-up results of Sh2-294 H II region at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 {mu}m observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), coupled with H{sub 2} (2.12 {mu}m) observation, to characterize the young population of the region and to understand its star formation history. We identified 36 young stellar object (YSO, Class I, Class II, and Class I/II) candidates using IRAC color-color diagrams. It is found that Class I sources are preferentially located at the outskirts of the H II region and associated with enhanced H{sub 2} emission; none of them are located near the central cluster. Combining the optical to mid-infrared (MIR) photometry of the YSO candidates and using the spectral energy distribution fitting models, we constrained stellar parameters and the evolutionary status of 33 YSO candidates. Most of them are interpreted by the model as low-mass (<4 M{sub Sun }) YSOs; however, we also detected a massive YSO ({approx}9 M{sub Sun }) of Class I nature, embedded in a cloud of visual extinction of {approx}24 mag. Present analysis suggests that the Class I sources are indeed a younger population of the region relative to Class II sources (age {approx} 4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} yr). We suggest that the majority of the Class I sources, including the massive YSOs, are second-generation stars of the region whose formation is possibly induced by the expansion of the H II region powered by a {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} yr B0 main-sequence star.

Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Chauhan, N.; Jose, J. [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Nainital 263129 (India); Ojha, D. K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Pandey, B., E-mail: manash.samal@oamp.fr [Physics Department, D.S.B. Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital 263129 (India)

2012-08-10

254

Triggered Star Formation and Young Stellar Population in Bright-rimmed Cloud SFO 38  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the young stellar population in and around SFO 38, one of the massive globules located in the northern part of the Galactic H II region IC 1396, using the Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations (3.6-24 ?m), and followed up with ground-based optical photometric and spectroscopic observations. Based on the IRAC and MIPS colors and H? emission, we identify ~45 young stellar objects (Classes 0/I/II) and 13 probable pre-main-sequence candidates. We derive the spectral types (mostly K- and M-type stars), effective temperatures, and individual extinction of the relatively bright and optically visible Class II objects. Most of the Class II objects show variable H? emission as well as optical and near-infrared photometric variability, which confirm their "youth." Based on optical photometry and theoretical isochrones, we estimate the spread in stellar ages to be between 1 and 8 Myr with a median age of 3 Myr and a mass distribution of 0.3-2.2 M sun with a median value around 0.5 M sun. Using the width of the H? emission line measured at 10% peak intensity, we derive the mass accretion rates of individual objects to be between 10-10 and 10-8 M sun yr-1. From the continuum-subtracted H? line image, we find that the H? emission of the globule is not spatially symmetric with respect to the O-type ionizing star HD 206267, and the interstellar extinction toward the globule is also anomalous. We clearly detect an enhanced concentration of YSOs closer to the southern rim of SFO 38 and identify an evolutionary sequence of YSOs from the rim to the dense core of the cloud, with most of the Class II objects located at the bright rim. The YSOs appear to be aligned along two different directions toward the O6.5V type star HD 206267 and the B0V type star HD 206773. This is consistent with the Radiation Driven Implosion (RDI) model for triggered star formation. Further, the apparent speed of sequential star formation is consistent with the speed of propagation of shocks in dense globules as derived from numerical simulations of RDI.

Choudhury, Rumpa; Mookerjea, Bhaswati; Bhatt, H. C.

2010-07-01

255

On the association of young star clusters and their parental clouds: a statistical fractal analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of 21 young star clusters aiming to characterize their association to dense clouds. The structure of the clouds was evaluated by means of the Q statistical fractal analysis, designed to compare their geometric structure with the spatial distribution of the cluster members. The sample was selected from the study by Santos-Silva and Gregorio-Hetem (2012, A&A, 547, A107) that evaluated the radial density profile of the stellar superficial distribution of the young clusters. The fractal dimension and other statistical parameters of most of the sample indicate that there is a good cloud-cluster correlation, when compared to other works based on an artificial distribution of points (Lomax et al. 2011, MNRAS, 412, 627). As presented in a previous work (Fernandes et al. 2012, A&A, 541, A95 ), the cluster NGC 6530 is the only object of our sample that presents anomalous statistical behaviour. The fractal analysis shows that this cluster has a centrally concentrated distribution of stars that differs from the substructures found in the density distribution of the cloud projected in the A_{V} map, suggesting that the original cloud geometry was changed by the cluster formation.

Hetem, A.; Gregorio-Hetem, J.; Fernandes, B.; Santos-Silva, T.

2014-10-01

256

Young Stellar Objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud Star-forming Region N206  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present analysis of the energetic star-forming region Henize 206 (N206) located near the southern edge of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) based on photometric data from the Spitzer Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE-LMC; IRAC 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0 ?m and MIPS 24 ?m), Infrared Survey Facility near-infrared survey (J, H, K s ), and the Magellanic Clouds Photometric Survey (MCPS UBVI) covering a wavelength range of 0.36-24 ?m. Young stellar object (YSO) candidates are identified based upon their location in infrared color-magnitude space and classified by the shapes of their spectral energy distributions in comparison with a pre-computed grid of YSO models. We identify 116 YSO candidates: 102 are well characterized by the YSO models, predominately Stage I, and 14 may be multiple sources or young sources with transition disks. Careful examination of the individual sources and their surrounding environment allows us to identify a factor of ~14.5 more YSO candidates than have already been identified. The total mass of these well-fit YSO candidates is ~520 M sun. We calculate a current star formation rate of 0.27 × 10-1 M sun yr-1 kpc-2. The distribution of YSO candidates appears to follow shells of neutral material in the interstellar medium.

Romita, Krista Alexandra; Carlson, Lynn Redding; Meixner, M.; Sewi?o, M.; Whitney, B.; Babler, B.; Indebetouw, R.; Hora, J. L.; Meade, M.; Shiao, B.

2010-09-01

257

YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR-FORMING REGION N206  

SciTech Connect

We present analysis of the energetic star-forming region Henize 206 (N206) located near the southern edge of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) based on photometric data from the Spitzer Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE-LMC; IRAC 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0 {mu}m and MIPS 24 {mu}m), Infrared Survey Facility near-infrared survey (J, H, K{sub s}), and the Magellanic Clouds Photometric Survey (MCPS UBVI) covering a wavelength range of 0.36-24 {mu}m. Young stellar object (YSO) candidates are identified based upon their location in infrared color-magnitude space and classified by the shapes of their spectral energy distributions in comparison with a pre-computed grid of YSO models. We identify 116 YSO candidates: 102 are well characterized by the YSO models, predominately Stage I, and 14 may be multiple sources or young sources with transition disks. Careful examination of the individual sources and their surrounding environment allows us to identify a factor of {approx}14.5 more YSO candidates than have already been identified. The total mass of these well-fit YSO candidates is {approx}520 M{sub sun}. We calculate a current star formation rate of 0.27 x 10{sup -1} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}. The distribution of YSO candidates appears to follow shells of neutral material in the interstellar medium.

Romita, Krista Alexandra; Meixner, M.; Sewilo, M.; Shiao, B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD (United States); Carlson, Lynn Redding [Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD (United States); Whitney, B. [Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO (United States); Babler, B.; Meade, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Indebetouw, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Hora, J. L., E-mail: k.a.romita@gmail.co, E-mail: carlson@stsci.ed, E-mail: bwhitney@spacescience.or, E-mail: brian@sal.wisc.ed, E-mail: remy@virginia.ed, E-mail: jhora@cfa.harvard.ed [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)

2010-09-20

258

IS THE YOUNG STAR CLUSTER NGC 376 DISSOLVING IN THE FIELD OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD?  

SciTech Connect

We use deep images acquired with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope in the filters F555W and F814W to characterize the properties of NGC 376, a young star cluster located in the wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud. Using isochrone fitting we derive for NGC 376 an age of 28 {+-} 7 Myr, in good agreement with previous studies. The high spatial resolution ACS data allow us to determine the center of gravity of the cluster and to construct extended surface brightness and radial density profiles. Neither of these profiles can be fitted with a theoretical model, suggesting that the cluster is not in virial equilibrium. Considering the young age of the cluster, we speculate that the distortion of the radial profiles may be the result of the rapid gas dispersal that follows the initial phase of star formation (SF). The cluster shows clear evidence of dynamical mass segregation. From the properties of the radial profiles and the present-day mass function we conclude that NGC 376 appears to have already lost nearly 90% of its initial stellar mass, probably as a consequence of the sudden gas dispersal that follows the early phase of SF.

Sabbi, E.; Nota, A.; Smith, L. J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tosi, M.; Cignoni, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127, Bologna (Italy); Gallagher, J., E-mail: sabbi@stsci.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2011-09-20

259

Young stars in old galaxies - surprising discovery with the world's leading telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Do elliptical galaxies only contain old stars? One of the challenges of modern astronomy is to understand how galaxies - large systems of stars, gas and dust - form and evolve. When did most of the stars in the Universe form? Did this happen at a very early stage, within a few billion years of the Big Bang? Have a significant number of the stars we now observe formed much more recently? Spectacular collisions between galaxies take place all the time, triggering the formation of thousands or even millions of stars. However, when looking at the Universe as a whole, most of its stars are found in elliptical galaxies whose overall appearance has so far led us to believe that they, and their stars and as well, are old. These elliptical galaxies do shine with the diffuse, reddish glow normally associated with stars that are many thousand million years old. However, what is the underlying mix of stars that produces this elderly appearance? Could a significant number of much younger stars be 'hiding' among the older ones? Detailed observations with the world's premier telescopes have now cast new light on this central question about the behaviour of some of the major building blocks of the Universe. Cosmic paleonthology To break the stellar 'cocktail' in elliptical galaxies down into its different constituents, a team of European and American astronomers observed massive stellar clusters in and around nearby galaxies. These "globular" clusters, so called because of their shape, exist in large numbers around all observed galaxies and form a kind of 'skeleton' within their host galaxies. These 'bones' receive an imprint for every episode of star formation they undergo. By reading the ages of the globular clusters in a galaxy, it is possible to identify the past epoch(s) of active star formation in a galaxy. Reading the imprints and deducing the distribution of ages of the globular clusters, astronomers can reveal when many of the stars in elliptical galaxies formed. This is similar to the way a palaeontologist uses the skeletons of dinosaurs to deduce information about the era in which they lived. A surprising discovery The team combined images of a number of galaxies from Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 with infrared images obtained from the multi-mode ISAAC instrument on the 8.2m VLT Antu telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). To their great surprise, they discovered that many of the globular clusters in one of these galaxies, NGC 4365, a member of the large Virgo cluster of galaxies, were only a few thousand million years old, much younger than most of the other stars in this galaxy (roughly 12 thousand million years old). The astronomers were able to identify three major groups of stellar clusters. There is an old population of clusters of metal-poor stars, some clusters of old but metal-rich stars and now, seen for the first time, a population of clusters with young and metal-rich stars. These results have been fully confirmed by spectroscopic observations made with another of the world's giant telescopes, the 10-metre Keck on Hawaii. "It is a great pleasure to see two projects wholly or partly funded by Europe - VLT and Hubble - work in concert to produce such an important scientific result", says Piero Benvenuti, ESA Hubble Project Scientist. "The synergy between the most advanced ground and space telescopes continues to prove its effectiveness, paving the way to impressive new discoveries that would not otherwise be possible." The discovery of young globular clusters within old galaxies is surprising since the stars in the giant elliptical galaxies were until now believed to have formed during a single period early in the history of the Universe. It is now clear that some of the galaxies may be hiding their true nature and have indeed experienced much more recent periods of major star formation. Notes for editors This press release is issued in coordination between ESA and ESO. The Hubble Space Telescope project is an international cooperation between ESA and NASA. The te

2002-06-01

260

Hubble space telescope observations of young star clusters in NGC-4038/4039, 'the antennae' galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New, high-resolution images of the disks of NGC 4038/4039 obtained with the Wide Field Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are presented. NGC 4038/4039, nicknamed The Antennae, is a prototypical example of a pair of colliding galaxies believed to be at an early stage of a merger. Down to the limiting magnitude of V approximately 23 mag, the HST images reveal a population of over 700 blue pointlike objects within the disks. The mean absolute magnitude of these objects is M(sub V) = -11 mag, with the brightest objects reaching M(sub V) approximately -15. Their mean apparent color indices ar U - V = -0.7 mag and V - 1 = 0.8 mag on the Johnson UVI passband system, while their mean indices corrected for internal reddening are (u - v)(sub 0) = -1.0 mag and (V - I(sub 0) = 0.5. Their mean effective radius, determined from slightly resolved images, is 18 pc (for H(sub 0) = 50 km/s /Mpc). Based on their luminosities and resolution, most of these objects cannot be individual stars, but are likely young compact star clusters. The brighter ones are similar to the objects found in NGC 1275 and NGC 7252, which appear to be young globular clusters formed during recent galazy mergers. Based on their U - V and V - I colors, the brightest, bluest clusters of NGC 4038/4039 appear to be less than 10 Myr old. Most of these bright clusters are relatively tightly clustered themselves, with typically a dozen individual clusters belonging to a complex identified as a giant H II region from ground-based observations. The cluster luminosity function (LF) is approximately a power law, phi(L)dL proportional to L(exp -1.78+/-0.05)dL, with no hint of a turnover at fainter magnitudes. This power-law shape agrees with the LF of Magellanic Cloud clusters and Galactic open clusters, but differs from the LF of old globular cluster systems that is typically Gaussian with a Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of approximately 3 mag. Besides the blue clusters, we also find about a dozen extremely red objects with V - I greater than 3.0. The highest number density of these red objects is found in the SE quadrant, where star formation appears to be most recent. We propose that these objects may be very young star clusters still embedded in their placental dust cocoons.

Whitmore, Bradley C.; Schweizer, Francois

1995-01-01

261

A Wide-field near- and Mid-infrared Census of Young Stars in NGC 6334  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a study of the rate and efficiency of star formation in the NGC 6334 star-forming region. We obtained observations at J, H, and Ks taken with the NOAO Extremely Wide-Field Infrared Imager and combined them with observations taken with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope at wavelengths = 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 ?m. We also analyzed previous observations taken at 24 ?m using the Spitzer MIPS camera as part of the MIPSGAL survey. We have produced a point source catalog with >700, 000 entries. We have identified 2283 young stellar object (YSO) candidates, 375 Class I YSOs, and 1908 Class II YSOs using a combination of existing IRAC-based color classification schemes that we have extended and validated to the near-IR for use with warm Spitzer data. We have identified multiple new sites of ongoing star formation activity along filamentary structures extending tens of parsecs beyond the central molecular ridge of NGC 6334. By mapping the extinction, we derived an estimate for the gas mass, 2.2 × 105 M ?. The heavy concentration of protostars along the dense filamentary structures indicates that NGC 6334 may be undergoing a "mini-starburst" event with ?SFR > 8.2 M ? Myr-1 pc-2 and SFE > 0.10. We have used these estimates to place NGC 6334 in the Kennicutt-Schmidt diagram to help bridge the gap between observations of local low-mass star-forming regions and star formation in other galaxies.

Willis, S.; Marengo, M.; Allen, L.; Fazio, G. G.; Smith, H. A.; Carey, S.

2013-12-01

262

The masses of young stars: CN as a probe of dynamical masses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We attempt to determine the masses of single or multiple young T Tauri and HAeBe stars from the rotation of their Keplerian disks. Methods: We used the IRAM PdBI interferometer to perform arcsecond resolution images of the CN N = 2-1 transition with good spectral resolution. Integrated spectra from the 30 m radiotelescope show that CN is relatively unaffected by contamination from the molecular clouds. Our sample includes 12 sources, among which isolated stars like DM Tau and MWC 480 are used to demonstrate the method and its accuracy. We derive the dynamical mass by fitting a disk model to the emission, a process giving M/D, the mass-to-distance ratio. We also compare the CN results with higher resolution CO data, that are however affected by contamination. Results: All disks are found in nearly perfect Keplerian rotation. We determine accurate masses for 11 stars, in the mass range 0.5 to 1.9 M?. The remaining one, DG Tau B, is a deeply embedded object for which CN emission partially arises from the outflow. With previous determinations, this leads to 14 (single) stars with dynamical masses. Comparison with evolutionary tracks, in a distance independent modified HR diagram, show good overall agreement (with one exception, CW Tau), and indicate that measurement of effective temperatures are the limiting factor. The lack of low mass stars in the sample does not allow to distinguish between alternate tracks. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Guilloteau, S.; Simon, M.; Piétu, V.; Di Folco, E.; Dutrey, A.; Prato, L.; Chapillon, E.

2014-07-01

263

Rotational modulation of X-ray emission in Orion Nebula young stars  

E-print Network

We investigate the spatial distribution of X-ray emitting plasma in a sample of young Orion Nebula Cluster stars by modulation of their X-ray light-curves due to stellar rotation. The study, part of the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP), is made possible by the exceptional length of the observation: 10 days of ACIS integration during a time span of 13 days, yielding a total of 1616 detected sources in the 17x17 arcmin field of view. We here focus on a subsample of 233 X-ray-bright stars with known rotational periods. We search for X-ray modulation using the Lomb Normalized Periodogram method. X-ray modulation related to the rotation period is detected in at least 23 stars with periods between 2 and 12 days and relative amplitudes ranging from 20% to 70%. In 16 cases, the X-ray modulation period is similar to the stellar rotation period while in seven cases it is about half that value, possibly due to the presence of X-ray emitting structures at opposite stellar longitudes. These results constitute the largest sample of low mass stars in which X-ray rotational modulation has been observed. The detection of rotational modulation indicates that the X-ray emitting regions are distributed inhomogeneneously in longitude and do not extend to distances significantly larger than the stellar radius. Modulation is observed in stars with saturated activity levels (L_X/L_bol ~ 10^(-3)) showing that saturation is not due to the filling of the stellar surface with X-ray emitting regions.

E. Flaccomio; G. Micela; S. Sciortino; E. D. Feigelson; W. Herbst; F. Favata; F. R. Harnden Jr.; S. D. Vrtilek

2005-06-08

264

STIS Spectroscopy of Young Star Clusters in "The Antennae" Galaxies (NGC 4038/4039)  

E-print Network

Long-slit spectra of several dozen young star clusters have been obtained at three positions in the Antennae galaxies with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and its 52"x0.2" slit. Based on H-alpha emission-line measurements, the average cluster-to-cluster velocity dispersion in 7 different cluster aggregates ("knots") is gas in the disks of typical spiral galaxies suggests that the triggering mechanism for the formation of young massive compact clusters ("super star clusters") is unlikely to be high velocity cloud-cloud collisions. On the other hand, models where preexisting giant molecular clouds in the disks of spiral galaxies are triggered into cluster formation are compatible with the observed low velocity dispersions. These conclusions are consistent with those reached by Zhang et al. (2001) based on comparisons between the positions of the clusters and the velocity and density structure of the nearby interstellar medium. We find evidence for systematically lower values of the line ratios [NII]/H-alpha and [SII]/H-alpha in the bright central regions of some of the knots, relative to their outer regions. This suggests that the harder ionizing photons are used up in the regions nearest the clusters, and the diffuse ionized gas farther out is photoionized by 'leakage' of the leftover low-energy photons. The low values of the [SII]/H-alpha line ratio, typically [SII]/H-alphagas is an additional indication that high velocity cloud-cloud collisions are not playing a major role in the formation of the young clusters.

Bradley C. Whitmore; Diane Gilmore; C. Leitherer; S. Michael Fall; Rupali Chandar; William P. Blair; Francois Schweizer; Qing Zhang; Bryan W. Miller

2005-07-29

265

Direct Imaging of Jupiter and Saturn-mass planets in wide orbit around nearby young stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent discovery of planetary-mass objects on very wide orbits (hundreds of AU and more) around young stars (e.g. Naud et al. 2014) demonstrates that planets can be found even with arcsecond-level resolution imaging. These massive ( 10MJup) companions are likely formed in-situ via hierarchical collapse and it is not yet known whether this mechanism can form lighter objects. However, dynamical modelling of young planetary systems (Veras et al. 2009) and the relatively large fraction of massive planets in eccentric orbits found by radial velocity surveys suggest that a few percent of planetary systems should host planets, comparable in mass to Jupiter and Saturn, on orbits wide enough to be imaged as isolated objects. We propose to obtain deep IRAC observations combined with J-band imaging gathered by our team to search for such planets around all known nearby young stars (< 70 pc, < 120Myr; 172 stellar systems). This survey will be sensitive to planets down to the mass of Jupiter for all systems and down to the mass of Saturn for 80 of them. Planets lighter than 2MJup are much too faint in the near-infrared to be identified from the ground; Spitzer is the only facility where such a survey can be undertaken. This survey is a unique opportunity to bring direct imaging in a new era with the detection of analogs to our own Solar System Giants, is complementary to the work done on the ground with high-contrast imagers such as GPI and Sphere, and is critical to identify new planets that will be optimally characterized with JWST.

Artigau, Etienne; Lafreniere, David; Baron, Frederique; Malo, Lison; Doyon, Rene; Beichman, Charles; Delorme, Philippe; Rameau, Julien; Janson, Markus; Gagne, Jonathan; Naud, Marie-Eve; Albert, Loic

2014-12-01

266

NGC 2782: A Merger Remnant with Young Stars in its Gaseous Tidal Tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have searched for young star-forming regions around the merger remnant NGC 2782. By using GALEX FUV and NUV imaging and HI data we found seven UV sources, located at distances greater than 26 kpc from the center of NGG 2782, and coinciding with its western HI tidal tail. These regions were resolved in several smaller systems when Gemini/GMOS r-band images were used. We compared the observed colors to stellar population synthesis models and we found that these objects have ages of l to ll11yr and masses ranging from 10(exp 3.9) to l0(exp 4.6) Solar Mass. By using Gemini/GMOS spectroscopic data we confirm memberships and derive high metallicities for three of the young regions in the tail (12+log(O/H)=8.74+/-0.20, 8.81+/-0.20 and 8.78+/-0.20). These metallicities are similar to the value presented by the nuclear region of NGG 2782 and also similar to the value presented for an object located close to the main body of NGG 2782. The high metallicities measured for the star-forming regions in the gaseous tidal tail of NGG 2782 could be explained if they were formed out of highly enriched gas which was once expelled from the center of the merging galaxies when the system collided. An additional possibility is that the tail has been a nursery of a few generations of young stellar systems which ultimately polluted this medium with metals, further enriching the already pre-enriched gas ejected to the tail when the galaxies collided.

Torres-Flores, S.; de Oliveira, C. Mendes; de Mello, D. F.; Scarano, S. Jr.; Urrutia-Viscarra, R.

2012-01-01

267

Orion in a New Light - VISTA exposes high-speed antics of young stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Orion Nebula reveals many of its hidden secrets in a dramatic image taken by ESO's new VISTA survey telescope. The telescope's huge field of view can show the full splendour of the whole nebula and VISTA's infrared vision also allows it to peer deeply into dusty regions that are normally hidden and expose the curious behaviour of the very active young stars buried there. VISTA - the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy - is the latest addition to ESO's Paranal Observatory (eso0949). It is the largest survey telescope in the world and is dedicated to mapping the sky at infrared wavelengths. The large (4.1-metre) mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors make VISTA a unique instrument. This dramatic new image of the Orion Nebula illustrates VISTA's remarkable powers. The Orion Nebula [1] is a vast stellar nursery lying about 1350 light-years from Earth. Although the nebula is spectacular when seen through an ordinary telescope, what can be seen using visible light is only a small part of a cloud of gas in which stars are forming. Most of the action is deeply embedded in dust clouds and to see what is really happening astronomers need to use telescopes with detectors sensitive to the longer wavelength radiation that can penetrate the dust. VISTA has imaged the Orion Nebula at wavelengths about twice as long as can be detected by the human eye. As in the many visible light pictures of this object, the new wide field VISTA image shows the familiar bat-like form of the nebula in the centre of the picture as well as the fascinating surrounding area. At the very heart of this region lie the four bright stars forming the Trapezium, a group of very hot young stars pumping out fierce ultraviolet radiation that is clearing the surrounding region and making the gas glow. However, observing in the infrared allows VISTA to reveal many other young stars in this central region that cannot be seen in visible light. Looking to the region above the centre of the picture, curious red features appear that are completely invisible except in the infrared. Many of these are very young stars that are still growing and are seen through the dusty clouds from which they form. These youthful stars eject streams of gas with typical speeds of 700 000 km/hour and many of the red features highlight the places where these gas streams collide with the surrounding gas, causing emission from excited molecules and atoms in the gas. There are also a few faint, red features below the Orion Nebula in the image, showing that stars form there too, but with much less vigour. These strange features are of great interest to astronomers studying the birth and youth of stars. This new image shows the power of the VISTA telescope to image wide areas of sky quickly and deeply in the near-infrared part of the spectrum. The telescope is just starting to survey the sky and astronomers are anticipating a rich harvest of science from this unique ESO facility. Notes [1] The Orion Nebula lies in the sword of the famous celestial hunter and is a favourite target both for casual sky watchers and astrophysicists alike. It is faintly visible to the unaided eye and appeared to early telescopic observers as a small cluster of blue-white stars surrounded by a mysterious grey-green mist. The object was first described in the early seventeenth century although the identity of the discoverer is uncertain. The French comet-hunter Messier made an accurate sketch of its main features in the mid-eighteenth century and gave it the number 42 in his famous catalogue. He also allocated the number 43 to the smaller detached region just above the main part of the nebula. Later William Herschel speculated that the nebula might be "the chaotic material of future suns" and astronomers have since discovered that the mist is indeed gas glowing under the fierce ultraviolet light from young hot stars that have recently formed there. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the

2010-02-01

268

The Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-Ray: Mid-infrared Observations and Catalogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spitzer IRAC observations and stellar photometric catalogs are presented for the Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in the Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX). MYStIX is a multiwavelength census of young stellar members of 20 nearby (d < 4 kpc), Galactic, star-forming regions that contain at least one O star. All regions have data available from the Spitzer Space Telescope consisting of GLIMPSE or other published catalogs for 11 regions and results of our own photometric analysis of archival data for the remaining 9 regions. This paper seeks to construct deep and reliable catalogs of sources from the Spitzer images. Mid-infrared study of these regions faces challenges of crowding and high nebulosity. Our new catalogs typically contain fainter sources than existing Spitzer studies, which improves the match rate to Chandra X-ray sources that are likely to be young stars, but increases the possibility of spurious point-source detections, especially peaks in the nebulosity. IRAC color-color diagrams help distinguish spurious detections of nebular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission from the infrared excess associated with dusty disks around young stars. The distributions of sources on the mid-infrared color-magnitude and color-color diagrams reflect differences between MYStIX regions, including astrophysical effects such as stellar ages and disk evolution.

Kuhn, Michael A.; Povich, Matthew S.; Luhman, Kevin L.; Getman, Konstantin V.; Busk, Heather A.; Feigelson, Eric D.

2013-12-01

269

OUTFLOWS AND YOUNG STARS IN ORION'S LARGE COMETARY CLOUDS L1622 AND L1634  

SciTech Connect

New observations of protostellar outflows associated with young stars in two of Orion's outlying cometary clouds, L1622 and L1634, are presented. The H{alpha} surface brightness of the bright rims are used to argue that both clouds are located at a distance of about 400 pc in the interior of the Orion superbubble where they are illuminated by Orion's massive stars. Spitzer IRAC and MIPS images reveal 28 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs). Combined with the 14 spectroscopically confirmed T Tauri stars, there are at least 34 YSOs in L1622. Narrow-band images have led to the identification of about a dozen shock complexes in L1622. At least six belong to a highly collimated externally irradiated, bipolar jet, HH 963, that is powered by a low-luminosity Class II YSO located outside the projected edge of the L1622 dark cloud. However, the sources of most shocks remain unclear. The Spitzer/IRAC images reveal a compact, highly obscured, S-symmetric outflow brightest in the 4.5 {mu}m images. A faint [S II] counter part, HH 962, is associated with the western end of this flow which appears to be powered by an obscured source in the L1622 cloud interior. The currently identified sample of YSOs implies a star formation efficiency of about 4% for L1622. The L1634 cloud contains nine YSOs and three outflows, including the well known HH 240/241 system. A new flow, HH 979, is powered by the embedded YSO IRS7 in L1634 and crosses the eastern lobe of the HH 240 outflow. Spitzer/IRAC images show 4.5 {mu}m emission indicating molecular shocks from the Herbig-Haro objects closest to IRS 7. A YSO embedded in a condensation located 5' north of HH 240/241 is identified in the Spitzer images. This source drives an irradiated outflow, HH 980, whose lobes emerge into the ionized environment of the Orion-Eridanus superbubble interior. The star formation efficiency of L1634 is estimated to be about 3%.

Bally, John [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, UCB 389 CASA, Boulder CO 80309-0389 (United States); Walawender, Josh; Reipurth, Bo [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, HI (United States); Megeath, S. Thomas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, OH (United States)], E-mail: John.Bally@colorado.edu, E-mail: joshw@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: megeath@physics.utoledo.edu

2009-04-15

270

Stochastic background of gravitational waves generated by a cosmological population of young, rapidly rotating neutron stars  

E-print Network

We estimate the spectral properties of the stochastic background of gravitational radiation emitted by a cosmological population of hot, young, rapidly rotating neutron stars. Their formation rate as a function of redshift is deduced from an observation-based determination of the star formation history in the Universe, and the gravitational energy is assumed to be radiated during the spin-down phase associated to the newly discovered r-mode instability. We calculate the overall signal produced by the ensemble of such neutron stars, assuming various cosmological backgrounds. We find that the spectral strain amplitude has a maximum $\\approx (2-4)\\times 10^{-26} {Hz}^{-1/2}$, at frequencies $\\approx (30-60)$ Hz, while the corresponding closure density, $h^2 \\Omega_{GW}$, has a maximum amplitude plateau of $\\approx (2.2-3.3) \\times 10^{-8}$ in the frequency range $(500-1700)$ Hz. We compare our results with a preliminary analysis done by Owen et al. (1998), and discuss the detectability of this background.

Valeria Ferrari; Sabino Matarrese; Raffaella Schneider

1998-06-26

271

Stellar contents and star formation in the young cluster Stock 18  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out deep (V ˜ 21 mag) UBVRI photometric study of the star cluster Stock 18. These along with archival Infrared data have been used to derive the basic cluster parameters and also to study the star formation processes in and around the cluster region. The distance to the cluster is derived as 2.8 ± 0.2 kpc while its age is estimated as 6.0 ± 2.0 Myr. Present study indicates that interstellar reddening is normal in the direction of the cluster. The mass function slope is found to be -1.37 ± 0.27 for the mass range 1 < M/ M? < 11.9. There is no evidence found for the effect of mass segregation in main-sequence stars of the cluster. A young stellar population with age between 1-2 Myr have been found in and around the cluster region. The presence of IRAS and AKARI sources with MSX intensity map also show the youth of the Sh2-170 region.

Bhatt, Himali; Sagar, Ram; Pandey, J. C.

2012-02-01

272

A New Method for Measuring Metallicities of Young Super Star Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate how the metallicities of young super star clusters (SSC) can be measured using novel spectroscopic techniques in the J-band. The near-infrared flux of SSCs older than ~6 Myr is dominated by tens to hundreds of red supergiant stars. Our technique is designed to harness the integrated light of that population and produces accurate metallicities for new observations in galaxies above (M83) and below (NGC 6946) solar metallicity. In M83 we find [Z] = +0.28 ± 0.14 dex using a moderate resolution (R ~ 3500) J-band spectrum and in NGC 6496 we report [Z] = -0.32 ± 0.20 dex from a low resolution spectrum of R ~ 1800. Recently commissioned low resolution multiplexed spectrographs on the Very Large Telescope (KMOS) and Keck (MOSFIRE) will allow accurate measurements of SSC metallicities across the disks of star-forming galaxies up to distances of 70 Mpc with single night observation campaigns using the method presented in this paper.

Gazak, J. Zachary; Davies, Ben; Bastian, Nate; Kudritzki, Rolf; Bergemann, Maria; Plez, Bertrand; Evans, Chris; Patrick, Lee; Bresolin, Fabio; Schinnerer, Eva

2014-06-01

273

Near-IR Variability of Young Stars in Orion OB1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results of a multi-epoch near-IR study of a sample of 137 T Tauri stars (TTS) in the Orion OB1 association, belonging to the ~10 Myr old 25 Ori cluster and the 4 Myr old OB1b subassociation. We used the NEWFIRM near-IR wide field imager on the Kitt Peak 4m telescope to obtain data in the JHKs bands for up to 10 epochs spanning 22 days during Oct.-Nov. 2012. We find that on average, that TTS in the 25 Ori cluster vary with amplitudes of ~0.1mag in J and H, and ~0.06 mag in Ks. Among the interesting cases is a Classical T Tauri star in this region with a large variation in all three bands, with J=0.63mag, H=0.39mag and Ks=0.35mag, which we speculate could originate in the innermost region of the disk surrounding this young star.

Contreras, Alexander; Briceno, Cesar

2015-01-01

274

CLOSE STELLAR ENCOUNTERS IN YOUNG, SUBSTRUCTURED, DISSOLVING STAR CLUSTERS: STATISTICS AND EFFECTS ON PLANETARY SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Both simulations and observations indicate that stars form in filamentary, hierarchically clustered associations, most of which disperse into their galactic field once feedback destroys their parent clouds. However, during their early evolution in these substructured environments, stars can undergo close encounters with one another that might have significant impacts on their protoplanetary disks or young planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of the early evolution of dissolving, substructured clusters with a wide range of properties, with the aim of quantifying the expected number and orbital element distributions of encounters as a function of cluster properties. We show that the presence of substructure both boosts the encounter rate and modifies the distribution of encounter velocities compared to what would be expected for a dynamically relaxed cluster. However, the boost only lasts for a dynamical time, and as a result the overall number of encounters expected remains low enough that gravitational stripping is unlikely to be a significant effect for the vast majority of star-forming environments in the Galaxy. We briefly discuss the implications of this result for models of the origin of the solar system, and of free-floating planets. We also provide tabulated encounter rates and orbital element distributions suitable for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation in a clustered environment.

Craig, Jonathan; Krumholz, Mark R., E-mail: krumholz@ucolick.org [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2013-06-01

275

Interacting supernovae and supernova impostors. SN 2007sv: the major eruption of a massive star in UGC 5979  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of the photometric and spectroscopic monitoring campaign of the transient SN 2007sv. The observables are similar to those of Type IIn supernovae, a well-known class of objects whose ejecta interact with pre-existing circumstellar material (CSM). The spectra show a blue continuum at early phases and prominent Balmer lines in emission; however, the absolute magnitude at the discovery of SN 2007sv (MR = -14.25 ± 0.38) indicate it to be most likely a supernova impostor. This classification is also supported by the lack of evidence in the spectra of very high velocity material as expected in supernova ejecta. In addition, we find no unequivocal evidence of broad lines of ?- and/or Fe-peak elements. The comparison with the absolute light curves of other interacting objects (including Type IIn supernovae) highlights the overall similarity with the prototypical impostor SN 1997bs. This supports our claim that SN 2007sv was not a genuine supernova, and was instead a supernova impostor, most likely similar to the major eruption of a luminous blue variable.

Tartaglia, L.; Pastorello, A.; Taubenberger, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Maund, J. R.; Benetti, S.; Boles, T.; Bufano, F.; Duszanowicz, G.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Harutyunyan, A.; Hermansson, L.; Höflich, P.; Maguire, K.; Navasardyan, H.; Smartt, S. J.; Taddia, F.; Turatto, M.

2015-02-01

276

Direct imaging search for planets around low-mass stars and spectroscopic characterization of young exoplanets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low--mass stars between 0.1--0.6 M? are the most abundant members our galaxy and may be the most common sites of planet formation, but little is known about the outer architecture of their planetary systems. We have carried out a high-contrast adaptive imaging search for gas giant planets between 1--13 MJup around 122 newly identified young M dwarfs in the solar neighborhood ( ? 35 pc). Half of our targets are younger than 145 Myr, and 90% are younger than 580 Myr. After removing 39 resolved stellar binaries, our homogeneous sample of 83 single young M dwarfs makes it the largest imaging search for planets around low--mass stars to date. Our H- and K- band coronagraphic observations with Subaru/HiCIAO and Keck/NIRC2 achieve typical contrasts of 9--13 mag and 12--14 mag at 100, respectively, which corresponds to limiting masses of ˜1--10 M Jup at 10--30 AU for most of our sample. We discovered four brown dwarfs with masses between 25--60 MJup at projected separations of 4--190 AU. Over 100 candidate planets were discovered, nearly all of which were found to be background stars from follow-up second epoch imaging. Our null detection of planets nevertheless provides strong statistical constraints on the occurrence rate of giant planets around M dwarfs. Assuming circular orbits and a logarithmically-flat power law distribution in planet mass and semi--major axis of the form d 2N=(dloga dlogm) infinity m0 a0, we measure an upper limit (at the 95% confidence level) of 8.8% and 12.6% for 1--13 MJup companions between 10--100 AU for hot start and cold start evolutionary models, respectively. For massive gas giant planets in the 5--13 M Jup range like those orbiting HR 8799, GJ 504, and beta Pictoris, we find that fewer than 5.3% (7.8%) of M dwarfs harbor these planets between 10--100 AU for a hot start (cold start) formation scenario. Our best constraints are for brown dwarf companions; the frequency of 13--75 MJup companions between (de--projected) physical separations of 10--100 AU is 2.1+2.1-1.2 %. Altogether, our results show that gas giant planets, especially massive ones, are rare in the outskirts of M dwarf planetary systems. If disk instability is a viable way to form planets, our constraints for the most common type of star imply that overall it is an inefficient mechanism.

Bowler, Brendan Peter

277

Investigating the borderline between a young star cluster and a small stellar association: a test case with Bochum 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: Usually, a loose stellar distribution can be classified as an OB stellar group, an association, or a young open cluster. We compare data with the typical OB association Vul OB1. Aims: Here, we discuss the nature of Bochum 1, a typical example of an object affected by the above classification problem. Methods: Field-decontaminated 2MASS photometry is used to analyse colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and stellar radial density profiles (RDPs) of the structures present in the region of Bochum 1. Results: The field-decontaminated CMD of Bochum 1 shows main sequence (MS) and pre-main sequence (PMS) stars. We report two new small angular-size, compact young clusters and one embedded cluster in the area of Bochum 1. Vul OB1 harbours the young open cluster NGC 6823 and the very compact embedded cluster Cr 404. The Vul OB1 association includes the H II region Sh2-86, and its stellar content is younger (?3 Myr) than that of Bochum 1 (?9 Myr), which shows no gas emission. Bochum 1 harbours one of the newly found compact clusters as its core. The RDP of Bochum 1 is irregular and cannot be fitted by a King-like profile, which suggests significant erosion or dispersion of stars from a primordial cluster. Similarly to Bochum 1, the decontaminated CMD of NGC 6823 presents conspicuous MS and PMS sequences. Taken separately, RDPs of MS and PMS stars follow a King-like profile. The core shows an excess density of MS stars that mimics the profile of a post-core collapse cluster. At such a young age, it can be explained by an excess of stars formed in the prominent core. Conclusions: The present study suggests that Bochum 1 is a star cluster fossil remain that might be dynamically evolving into an OB association. Bochum 1 may be a missing link connecting early star cluster dissolution with the formation of low-mass OB associations.

Bica, E.; Bonatto, C.; Dutra, C. M.

2008-10-01

278

Deep Near-Infrared Surveys and Young Brown Dwarf Populations in Star-Forming Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are currently conducting three kinds of IR surveys of star forming regions (SFRs) in order to seek for very low-mass young stellar populations. First is a deep JHKs-bands (simultaneous) survey with the SIRIUS camera on the IRSF 1.4m or the UH 2.2m telescopes. Second is a very deep JHKs survey with the CISCO IR camera on the Subaru 8.2m telescope. Third is a high resolution companion search around nearby YSOs with the CIAO adaptive optics coronagraph IR camera on the Subaru. In this contribution, we describe our SIRIUS camera and present preliminary results of the ongoing surveys with this new instrument.

Tamura, M.; Naoi, T.; Oasa, Y.; Nakajima, Y.; Nagashima, C.; Nagayama, T.; Baba, D.; Nagata, T.; Sato, S.; Kato, D.; Kurita, M.; Sugitani, K.; Itoh, Y.; Nakaya, H.; Pickles, A.

2003-06-01

279

Mass segregation in young compact star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud: II. Mass Functions  

E-print Network

We review the complications involved in the conversion of stellar luminosities into masses and apply a range of mass-to-luminosity relations to our Hubble Space Telescope observations of the young LMC star clusters NGC 1805 and NGC 1818. Both the radial dependence of the mass function (MF) and the dependence of the cluster core radii on mass indicate clear mass segregation in both clusters at radii r = 30'' have significantly steeper slopes. We estimate that while the NGC 1818 cluster core is between ~5 and ~30 crossing times old, the core of NGC 1805 is likely $\\lesssim 3-4$ crossing times old. However, since strong mass segregation is observed out to ~6 Rcore and ~3 Rcore in NGC 1805 and NGC 1818, respectively, it is most likely that significant primordial mass segregation was present in both clusters, particularly in NGC 1805.

R. de Grijs; G. F. Gilmore; R. A. Johnson; A. D. Mackey

2001-11-15

280

Infrared emission from young stars in the nucleus of M82  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New observational and analytical techniques were used to obtain high-resolution NIR and FIR profiles of the luminous peculiar galaxy M82. The strongest NIR emission is found to be coincident with the dynamical center of the galaxy; a secondary NIR source, a factor of two fainter than the nucleus, is located 10 deg to the southewest. Simultaneous 40-micron and 100-micron profiles of M82 reveal an asymmetric distribution, with peak FIR emission diplaced about 5 arcsec to the west of center, and a plateau of emission extending about 5 arcsec to the east. The best positional determination indicates that the peak FIR emission from M82 is coincident with a cluster of young stars located to the southwest of the galactic nucleus at a projected distance of 10 arcsec (150 pc).

Joy, Marshall; Lester, Daniel F.; Harvey, Paul M.

1987-01-01

281

Gemini GMOS\\/IFU spectroscopy of NGC 1569 - I. Mapping the properties of a young star cluster and its environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present Gemini-North GMOS\\/IFU observations of a young star cluster and its environment near the centre of the dwarf irregular starburst galaxy NGC 1569. This forms part of a larger and ongoing study of the formation and collimation mechanisms of galactic winds, including three additional IFU pointings in NGC 1569 covering the base of the galactic wind which are analysed

M. S. Westmoquette; K. M. Exter; L. J. Smith; J. S. Gallagher

2007-01-01

282

Spectroscopic characterization of X-ray emitting young stars associated with the Sh 2-296 nebula  

E-print Network

We studied a sample of stars associated with the Sh 2-296 nebula, part of the reflection nebulae complex in the region of Canis Major (CMa R1). Our sample corresponds to optical counterparts of X-ray sources detected from observations with the XMM-Newton satellite, which revealed dozens of possible low-mass young stars not yet known in this region. A sample of 58 young star candidates were selected based on optical spectral features, mainly H{\\alpha} and lithium lines, observed with multi-objects spectroscopy performed by the Gemini South telescope. Among the candidates, we find 41 confirmed T Tauri and 15 very likely young stars. Based on the H{\\alpha} emission, the T Tauri stars were distinguished between classical (17%) and weak-lined (83%), but no significant difference was found in the age and mass distribution of these two classes. The characterization of the sample was complemented by near- and mid-infrared data, providing an estimate of ages and masses from the comparison with pre-main-sequence evolut...

Fernandes, B; Montmerle, T; Rojas, G

2015-01-01

283

How Do Astronomers Know That? Educating Teachers, Students & the Public on HOW You Discover Young Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every day amazing astronomical facts are taught to thousands of curious people. Students learn them in the classroom. Museum visitors hear them in a Planetarium show or lecture. When it’s time for questions, many intuitively ask, “how do you know that?” NITARP helps close this gap in astronomy education. NITARP stands for NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program. NITARP brings together an astronomer with a small group of teachers and students to do real astronomical research. After the year long program is completed, the education and experiences gained the teachers are brought back to their classrooms and museums across America. Our NITARP group researched apparent infrared (IR) excesses to identify Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). Our science results are presented in a companion paper, Novatne et al, at this AAS conference. We concentrated our search in the Bright Rimmed Cloud (BRC) 27, located in the constellation Canis Major. Our main focus was to use data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), along with other archived infrared data such as Spitzer and 2MASS. Thus, our NITARP group was called C-WAYS—standing for Cool, WISE and Young Stars. In this poster, we present our educational plan to connect real science by astronomers to educators, students, and ultimately our communities.

Bonadurer, Robert; Piper, M.; French, D.; Barge, J.; Novatne, L. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Ali, B.; Laher, R.; Armstrong, J.

2013-01-01

284

A Pulsation Search Among Young Brown Dwarfs and Very Low Mass Stars  

E-print Network

In 2005, Palla & Baraffe proposed that brown dwarfs (BDs) and very low mass stars (VLMSs; <0.1 solar masses) may be unstable to radial oscillations during the pre-main-sequence deuterium burning phase. With associated periods of 1-4 hours, this potentially new class of pulsation offers unprecedented opportunities to probe the interiors and evolution of low-mass objects in the 1-15 million year age range. Following up on reports of short-period variability in young clusters, we designed a high-cadence photometric monitoring campaign to search for deuterium-burning pulsation among a sample of 348 BDs and VLMSs in the four young clusters $\\sigma$ Orionis, Chamaeleon I, IC 348, and Upper Scorpius. In the resulting light curves we achieved sensitivity to periodic signals of amplitude several millimagnitudes, on timescales from 15 minutes to two weeks. Despite the exquisite data quality, we failed to detect any periodicities below seven hours. We conclude that D-burning pulsations are not able to grow to obs...

Cody, Ann Marie

2014-01-01

285

A Pulsation Search among Young Brown Dwarfs and Very-low-mass Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2005, Palla & Baraffe proposed that brown dwarfs (BDs) and very-low-mass stars (VLMSs; < 0.1 solar masses) may be unstable to radial oscillations during the pre-main-sequence deuterium burning phase. With associated periods of one to four hours, this potentially new class of pulsation offers unprecedented opportunities to probe the interiors and evolution of low-mass objects in the 1-15 million year age range. Following up on reports of short-period variability in young clusters, we designed a high-cadence photometric monitoring campaign to search for deuterium-burning pulsation among a sample of 348 BDs and VLMSs in the four young clusters ? Orionis, Chamaeleon I, IC 348, and Upper Scorpius. In the resulting light curves we achieved sensitivity to periodic signals of amplitude several millimagnitudes, on timescales from 15 minutes to two weeks. Despite the exquisite data quality, we failed to detect any periodicities below seven hours. We conclude that D-burning pulsations are not able to grow to observable amplitudes in the early pre-main sequence. In spite of the nondetection, we did uncover a rich set of variability behavior—both periodic and aperiodic—on day to week timescales. We present new compilations of variable sources from our sample, as well as three new candidate cluster members in Chamaeleon I.

Cody, Ann Marie; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

2014-12-01

286

Revealing the Chamaeleon: Young, low-mass stars surrounding eta and epsilon Chamaeleontis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep southern sky surrounding the Chamaeleon dark clouds is abundant with pre-main sequence stars of various ages. Because of their youth (5-10 Myr) and proximity (d~100 pc), members of the open cluster eta Chamaeleontis and the nearby epsilon Chamaeleontis Association are ideal laboratories to study the formation and evolution of extrasolar planetary systems. To better understand their role as potential planet hosts, this thesis explores the formation, dynamical evolution, accretion and disk properties of both groups' low-mass members. The notable lack of low-mass stars in the young open cluster eta Cha has long been puzzling. Two possible explanations have been suggested; a top-heavy initial mass function or dynamical evolution, which preferentially ejected the low-mass members. Previous efforts to find these stars several degrees from the cluster core have been unsuccessful. By undertaking a wider (95 sq deg) photometric and proper motion survey with extensive follow-up spectroscopy, we have identified eight low-mass stars that were ejected from eta Cha over the past 5-10 Myr. Comparison with recent simulations shows our results are consistent with a dynamical origin for the current configuration of the cluster, without the need to invoke an initial mass function deficient in low-mass objects. Two of the dispersed members exhibited strong, variable H-alpha emission during our observations, including a star which had an event suggestive of accretion from a circumstellar disk. New infrared photometry confirms the presence of the disk. This star demonstrates that infrequent, episodic accretion can continue at low levels long after most disks around `old' pre-main sequence stars have dissipated. Another two confirmed non-members are slightly older than the cluster, but are only 42 arcseconds apart and share similar kinematics and distances. We show that they almost certainly form a wide (4000-6000 AU) ~10 Myr-old binary at 100-150 pc. The system is one of the widest pre-main sequence binaries known. Its isolation and dynamical fragility put strong constraints on any birthplace and mode of formation, which we propose was in a turbulent gas filament in the vicinity of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB Association. In addition to eta Cha, we have also examined membership of the unbound epsilon Cha Association, which lies some 10 degrees to the east and has a similar age, distance and kinematics. The two groups were almost certainly born in the outer regions of Sco-Cen only a few million years apart. Many members of epsilon Cha have been proposed in the decade since its discovery. After considering the kinematics of candidates from the literature, we have confirmed 11 further stars as likely members. Many new members possess infrared spectral energy distributions attributable to circumstellar disks, including four stars with strong H-alpha and forbidden emission which are actively accreting material.

Murphy, S. J.

2012-01-01

287

A survey for low mass spectroscopic binary stars in the young clusters around sigma Orionis and lambda Orionis  

E-print Network

We have obtained multi-epoch, high-resolution spectroscopy of 218 candidate low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the young clusters around sigma Ori and lambda Ori. We find that 196 targets are cluster members based on their radial velocity, the equivalent width of their NaI 8200 lines and the spectral type from their TiO band strength. We have identified 11 new binary stars among the cluster members based on their variable radial velocity and an additional binary from the variation in its line width and shape. The sample covers the magnitude range Ic=14-18.9 (mass =~ 0.55-0.03 Msun), but all of the binary stars are brighter than Ic=16.6 (mass =~ 0.12Msun) and 10 are brighter than Ic=15.5 (mass =~ 0.23Msun). There is a significant lack of spectroscopic binaries in our sample at faint magnitudes even when we account for the decrease in sensitivity with increasing magnitude. We can reject the hypothesis that the fraction of spectroscopic binaries is a uniform function of Ic magnitude with more than 99% confidence. The spectroscopic binary fraction for stars more massive than about 0.1Msun (Ic spectroscopic binary fraction for very low mass (VLM) stars (mass spectroscopic binaries among young VLM stars and brown dwarfs when compared to more massive stars in the same star-forming region. This implies a difference in the total binary fraction between VLM stars and BDs compared to more massive stars or a difference in the distribution of semi-major axes, or both. (Abridged)

P. F. L. Maxted; R. D. Jeffries; J. M. Oliveira; T. Naylor; R. J. Jackson

2008-01-23

288

Periodic Disk Eclipsing Stars: A New Class of Variable Young Stellar Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the discovery of 92.6 day periodic near-infrared flu variability for the Class I T Tauri star YLW 16A. Our data are from the 2MASS Calibration Point Source Working Database and constitute 1582 observations in J, H and Ks of a field in Rho Ophiuchus used to calibrate the 2MASS All-Sky Survey. We identify a light curve that brightens from a quiescent faint state by 0.4 mag for only 20% of the period. The long period cannot be explained by stellar rotation. We propose that YLW 16A is a triple YSO system, with an inner binary orbital period of 92.6 days. We postulate that we are observing a component of the binary being eclipsed by a circumbinary disk with respect to our line of site. YLW 16A joins WL 4 and KH-15D as a third member of a new class of disk-eclipsing young stars. Both YLW 16A and WL 4 have been identified to have tertiary companions with projected separations of 20--50 AU. We propose that the tertiary companion can warp the inner circumbinary disk to produce the disk eclipses. We present NIRSPEC observations of WL 4 that suggest three distinct radial velocity components, and present a model SED for YLW 16A. These systems will be useful in investigating terrestrial-zone YSO disk properties and dynamics at 1 Myr.

Plavchan, Peter; Laohakunakorn, N.; Seifahrt, A.; Staplefeldt, K.; Gee, A. H.

2010-01-01

289

Suitability of North Star Ambulatory Assessment in young boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to establish the suitability of the North Star Ambulatory Assessment for use in young boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We studied 147 typically developing and 144 boys affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy between the ages of 3 and 5 years. More than 85% of the typically developing boys by the age of 4 years had full scores on all the items with total scores ?33/34. Before the age of 4 years more than 15% of the typically developing boys did not achieve full scores on all the items. Some items, such as standing on one leg, showed significant improvement with age. In contrast, other activities were rarely achieved even in the older boys. Even if there was a progressive increase in scores with age, both total and individual item scores in Duchenne were still far from those obtained in the typically developing children of the same age. Our findings suggest that the North Star Ambulatory Assessment can be reliably used at least from the age of 4 years. Longitudinal natural history data studies are needed to assess possible changes over time and the possible effect of early steroids. PMID:25454732

De Sanctis, Roberto; Pane, Marika; Sivo, Serena; Ricotti, Valeria; Baranello, Giovanni; Frosini, Silvia; Mazzone, Elena; Bianco, Flaviana; Fanelli, Lavinia; Main, Marion; Corlatti, Alice; D'Amico, Adele; Colia, Giulia; Scalise, Roberta; Palermo, Concetta; Alfonsi, Chiara; Tritto, Giovanna; Romeo, Domenico M; Graziano, Alessandra; Battini, Roberta; Morandi, Lucia; Bertini, Enrico; Muntoni, Francesco; Mercuri, Eugenio

2015-01-01

290

Exocomets in the disk of two young A-type stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical spectra of the 20 Myrs old A-type stars ? Pictoris and HD172555 have been collected between 2003 and 2011 with the HARPS instrument installed at the La Silla 3.6m telescope. In the two stellar absorption lines composing the Ca II doublet at 3950 Å, we observed for these two targets narrow and doppler-shifted variable absorption features, which in the case of ? Pictoris were known to occur since 1987. These transient signals are interpreted by the passage of orbiting evaporating bodies in front of the stellar disk, or transits of exocomets. We collected 493 individual detections of independent exocomets around ? Pictoris allowing us to perform an unprecedented statistical studies of their physical properties (Kiefer et al. 2014a). Moreover, we report the detection of 4 transits of exocomets in front of the young A-type star HD172555; thus promoting this system as the second with simultaneous detection of exocomet transits in both lines of the Ca II doublet (Kiefer et al. 2014b).

Kiefer, F.; Lecavelier des Etangs, A.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

2014-12-01

291

Magnetic Cycles in a Convective Dynamo Simulation of a Young Solar-type Star  

E-print Network

Young solar-type stars rotate rapidly and many are magnetically active; some undergo magnetic cycles similar to the 22-year solar activity cycle. We conduct simulations of dynamo action in rapidly rotating suns with the 3D MHD anelastic spherical harmonic (ASH) code to explore dynamo action achieved in the convective envelope of a solar-type star rotating at 5 times the current solar rotation rate. Striking global-scale magnetic wreaths appear in the midst of the turbulent convection zone and show rich time-dependence. The dynamo exhibits cyclic activity and undergoes quasi-periodic polarity reversals where both the global-scale poloidal and toroidal fields change in sense on a roughly 1500 day time scale. These magnetic activity patterns emerge spontaneously from the turbulent flow and are more organized temporally and spatially than those realized in our previous simulations of the solar dynamo. We assess in detail the competing processes of magnetic field creation and destruction within our simulations tha...

Brown, Benjamin P; Brun, Allen Sacha; Toomre, Juri

2011-01-01

292

Discovery of young, isolated planetary mass objects in the final sigma Orionis star cluster.  

PubMed

We present the discovery by optical and near-infrared imaging of an extremely red, low-luminosity population of isolated objects in the young, nearby stellar cluster around the multiple, massive star final sigma Orionis. The proximity (352 parsecs), youth (1 million to 5 million years), and low internal extinction make this cluster an ideal site to explore the substellar domain from the hydrogen mass limit down to a few Jupiter masses. Optical and near-infrared low-resolution spectroscopy of three of these objects confirms the very cool spectral energy distribution (atmospheric effective temperatures of 1700 to 2200 kelvin) expected for cluster members with masses in the range 5 to 15 times that of Jupiter. Like the planets of the solar system, these objects are unable to sustain stable nuclear burning in their interiors, but in contrast they are not bound to stars. This new kind of isolated giant planet, which apparently forms on time scales of less than a few million years, offers a challenge to our understanding of the formation processes of planetary mass objects. PMID:11021788

Zapatero Osorio, M R; Béjar, V J; Martín, E L; Rebolo, R; Barrado y Navascués, D; Bailer-Jones, C A; Mundt, R

2000-10-01

293

On the time dependence of differential rotation in young late-type stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for the angular momentum transfer within the convection zone of a rapidly rotating star is introduced and applied to the analysis of recent observations of temporal fluctuations of the differential rotation on the young late-type stars AB Doradus (AB Dor) and LQ Hydrae (LQ Hya). Under the hypothesis that the mean magnetic field produced by the stellar dynamo rules the angular momentum exchanges and that the angular velocity depends only on the distance s from the rotation axis and the time, the minimum azimuthal Maxwell stress |BsB?|, averaged over the convection zone, is found to range from ~0.04 to ~0.14T2. If the poloidal mean magnetic field Bs is of the order of 0.01T, as indicated by the Zeeman-Doppler imaging maps of those stars, then the azimuthal mean field B? can reach an intensity of several teslas, which significantly exceeds equipartition with the turbulent kinetic energy. Such strong fields can account also for the orbital period modulation observed in cataclysmic variables and RS Canum Venaticorum systems with a main-sequence secondary component. Moreover, the model allows us to compute the kinetic energy dissipation rate during the maintenance of the differential rotation. Only in the case of the largest surface shear observed on LQ Hya may the dissipated power exceed the stellar luminosity, but the lack of a sufficient statistic on the occurrence of such episodes of large shear does not allow us to estimate their impact on the energy budget of the convection zone.

Lanza, Antonino F.

2006-12-01

294

Hotspots and a clumpy disc: variability of brown dwarfs and stars in the young ?Ori cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of accretion discs around stars and brown dwarfs in the ?Ori cluster (age 3Myr) are studied based on near-infrared (IR) time series photometry supported by mid-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We monitor ~30 young low-mass sources over eight nights in the J and K band using the duPont telescope at Las Campanas. We find three objects showing variability with J-band amplitudes >=0.5mag five additional objects exhibit low-level variations. All three highly variable sources have been previously identified as highly variable; thus, we establish the long-term nature of their flux changes. The light curves contain periodic components with time-scales of ~0.5-8d, but have additional irregular variations superimposed - the characteristic behaviour for classical T Tauri stars. Based on the colour variability, we conclude that hotspots are the dominant cause of variations in two objects (#19 and #33), including one likely brown dwarf, with spot temperatures in the range of 6000-7000K. For the third one (#2), a brown dwarf or very low-mass star, inhomogeneities at the inner edge of the disc are the likely origin of variability. Based on mid-IR data from Spitzer, we confirm that the three highly variable sources are surrounded by circum-(sub)-stellar discs. They show typical SEDs for T Tauri-like objects. Using SED models, we infer an enhanced scaleheight in the disc for the object #2, which favours the detection of disc inhomogeneities in light curves and is thus consistent with the information from variability. In the ?Ori cluster, about every fifth accreting low-mass object shows persistent high-level photometric variability. We demonstrate that estimates for fundamental parameters in such objects can be significantly improved by determining the extent and origin of the variations.

Scholz, A.; Xu, X.; Jayawardhana, R.; Wood, K.; Eislöffel, J.; Quinn, C.

2009-09-01

295

YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN LYNDS 1641: DISKS, ACCRETION, AND STAR FORMATION HISTORY  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Lynds 1641 (L1641) cloud using multi-wavelength data including Spitzer, WISE, the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and XMM covering {approx}1390 YSOs across a range of evolutionary stages. In addition, we targeted a sub-sample of YSOs for optical spectroscopy with the MMT/Hectospec and the MMT/Hectochelle. We use these data, along with archival photometric data, to derive spectral types, extinction values, masses, ages, and accretion rates. We obtain a disk fraction of {approx}50% in L1641. The disk frequency is almost constant as a function of stellar mass with a slight peak at log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) Almost-Equal-To -0.25. The analysis of multi-epoch spectroscopic data indicates that the accretion variability of YSOs cannot explain the two orders of magnitude of scatter for YSOs with similar masses. Forty-six new transition disk (TD) objects are confirmed in this work, and we find that the fraction of accreting TDs is lower than for optically thick disks (40%-45% versus 77%-79%, respectively). We confirm our previous result that the accreting TDs have a median accretion rate similar to normal optically thick disks. We confirm that two star formation modes (isolated versus clustered) exist in L1641. We find that the diskless YSOs are statistically older than the YSOs with optically thick disks and the TD objects have a median age that is intermediate between those of the other two populations. We tentatively study the star formation history in L1641 based on the age distribution and find that star formation started to be active 2-3 Myr ago.

Fang Min [Purple Mountain Observatory and Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, 210008 Nanjing (China); Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Flaherty, Kevin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Van Boekel, Roy; Henning, Thomas [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora, E-mail: mfang@pmo.ac.cn [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

2013-07-01

296

Eruptive xanthomas  

PubMed Central

Xanthomas are localized lipid deposits in the skin, tendons and subcutaneous tissue associated with lipid abnormality. The hyperlipidemia responsible for this disorder can be caused by a primary genetic defect, a secondary disorder, or both. That kind of skin exanthema may be the first signal of cardiovascular risk. We present a 24-year-old woman with a skin eruption that had appeared a few months earlier. PMID:24494004

Zaczkiewicz, Andrzej; Placek, Waldemar

2013-01-01

297

X-shooter spectroscopy of young stellar objects. V. Slow winds in T Tauri stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disks around T Tauri stars are known to lose mass, as best shown by the profiles of the forbidden emission lines of low-ionization species. At least two separate kinematic components have been identified, one characterized by velocity shifts of tens to hundreds of km s-1 (HVC) and one with a much lower velocity of a few km s-1 (LVC). The HVC are convincingly associated to the emission of jets, but the origin of the LVC is still unknown. In this paper we analyze the forbidden line spectrum of a sample of 44 mostly low-mass young stars in Lupus and ? Ori observed with the X-shooter ESO spectrometer. We detect forbidden line emission of O i, O ii, S ii, N i, and N ii, and characterize the line profiles as LVC, blueshifted HVC, and redshifted HVC. We focus our study on the LVC. We show that there is a good correlation between line luminosity and both Lstar and the accretion luminosity (or the mass accretion rate) over a large interval of values (Lstar~ 10-2-1 L?; Lacc~ 10-5-10-1 L?; ?acc~ 10-11 - 10-7 M?/yr). The lines show the presence of a slow wind (Vpeak< 20 km s-1) that is dense (nH> 108 cm-3), warm (T ~ 5000-10 000 K), mostly neutral. We estimate the mass of the emitting gas and provide a value for the maximum volume it occupies. Both quantities increase steeply with the stellar mass, from ~ 10-12 M? and ~0.01 AU3 for Mstar~ 0.1 M?, to ~ 3 × 10-10 M? and ~1 AU3 for Mstar~ 1 M?, respectively. These results provide quite stringent constraints to wind models in low-mass young stars, that need to be explored further. Based on observations collected at the European Souther Observatory at Paranal, under programs 084.C-0269(A), 085.C-0238(A), 086.C-0173(A), 087.C-0244(A) and 089.C-0143(A).Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Natta, A.; Testi, L.; Alcalá, J. M.; Rigliaco, E.; Covino, E.; Stelzer, B.; D'Elia, V.

2014-09-01

298

X-Ray Emission from Young Stellar Objects in the ? Chamaeleontis Group: The Herbig Ae Star HD 104237 and Associated Low-Mass Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Chandra HETGS observations of the Herbig Ae star HD 104237 and the associated young stars comprising lower mass stars, in the 0.15-1.75 Msolar mass range, in their pre-main-sequence phase. The brightest X-ray source in the association is the central system harboring the Herbig Ae primary and a K3 companion. Its X-ray variability indicates modulation possibly on timescales of the rotation period of the Herbig Ae star, and this would imply that the primary significantly contributes to the overall emission. The spectrum of the Herbig Ae+K3 system shows a soft component significantly more pronounced than in other K-type young stars. This soft emission is reminiscent of the unusually soft spectra observed for the single Herbig Ae stars HD 163296 and AB Aur, and therefore we tentatively attribute it to the Herbig Ae of the binary system. The HETGS spectrum shows strong emission lines corresponding to a wide range of plasma temperatures. The He-like triplet of Mg XI and Ne IX suggests the presence of plasma at densities of about 1012 cm-3, possibly indicating an accretion-related X-ray production mechanism. The analysis of the zeroth-order spectra of the other sources indicates X-ray emission characteristics typical of pre-main-sequence stars of similar spectral type, with the exception of the T Tauri HD 104237-D, whose extremely soft emission is very similar to the emission of the classical T Tauri star TW Hya and suggests X-ray production by shocked accreting plasma.

Testa, Paola; Huenemoerder, David P.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Ishibashi, Kazunori

2008-11-01

299

Tentative Evidence for Relativistic Electrons Generated by the Jet of the Young Sun-like Star DG Tau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synchrotron emission has recently been detected in the jet of a massive protostar, providing further evidence that certain jet formation characteristics for young stars are similar to those found for highly relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei. We present data at 325 and 610 MHz taken with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope of the young, low-mass star DG Tau, an analog of the Sun soon after its birth. This is the first investigation of a low-mass young stellar object at such low frequencies. We detect emission with a synchrotron spectral index in the proximity of the DG Tau jet and interpret this emission as a prominent bow shock associated with this outflow. This result provides tentative evidence for the acceleration of particles to relativistic energies due to the shock impact of this otherwise very low-power jet against the ambient medium. We calculate the equipartition magnetic field strength B min ? 0.11 mG and particle energy E min ? 4 × 1040 erg, which are the minimum requirements to account for the synchrotron emission of the DG Tau bow shock. These results suggest the possibility of low energy cosmic rays being generated by young Sun-like stars.

Ainsworth, Rachael E.; Scaife, Anna M. M.; Ray, Tom P.; Taylor, Andrew M.; Green, David A.; Buckle, Jane V.

2014-09-01

300

Evolution of dynamo-generated magnetic fields in accretion disks around compact and young stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geometrically thin, optically thick, turbulent accretion disks are believed to surround many stars. Some of them are the compact components of close binaries, while the others are throught to be T Tauri stars. These accretion disks must be magnetized objects because the accreted matter, whether it comes from the companion star (binaries) or from a collapsing molecular cloud core (single young stars), carries an embedded magnetic field. In addition, most accretion disks are hot and turbulent, thus meeting the condition for the MHD turbulent dynamo to maintain and amplify any seed field magnetic field. In fact, for a disk's magnetic field to persist long enough in comparison with the disk viscous time it must be contemporaneously regenerated because the characteristic diffusion time of a magnetic field is typically much shorter than a disk's viscous time. This is true for most thin accretion disks. Consequently, studying magentic fields in thin disks is usually synonymous with studying magnetic dynamos, a fact that is not commonly recognized in the literature. Progress in studying the structure of many accretion disks was achieved mainly because most disks can be regarded as two-dimensional flows in which vertical and radial structures are largely decoupled. By analogy, in a thin disk, one may expect that vertical and radial structures of the magnetic field are decoupled because the magnetic field diffuses more rapidly to the vertical boundary of the disk than along the radius. Thus, an asymptotic method, called an adiabatic approximation, can be applied to accretion disk dynamo. We can represent the solution to the dynamo equation in the form B = Q(r)b(r,z), where Q(r) describes the field distribution along the radius, while the field distribution across the disk is included in the vector function b, which parametrically depends on r and is normalized by the condition max (b(z)) = 1. The field distribution across the disk is established rapidly, while the radial distribution Q(r) evolves on a considerably longer timescale. It is this evolution that is the subject of this paper.

Stepinski, Tomasz F.

1994-01-01

301

OBSERVED LUMINOSITY SPREAD IN YOUNG CLUSTERS AND FU Ori STARS: A UNIFIED PICTURE  

SciTech Connect

The idea that non-steady accretion during the embedded phase of protostar evolution can produce the observed luminosity spread in the Herzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD) of young clusters has recently been called into question. Observations of FU Ori, for instance, suggest an expansion of the star during strong accretion events, whereas the luminosity spread implies a contraction of the accreting objects, decreasing their radiating surface. In this paper, we present a global scenario based on calculations coupling episodic accretion histories derived from numerical simulations of collapsing cloud prestellar cores of various masses and subsequent protostar evolution. Our calculations show that, assuming an initial protostar mass M{sub i} {approx} 1 M{sub Jup}, typical of the second Larson's core, both the luminosity spread in the HRD and the inferred properties of FU Ori events (mass, radius, accretion rate) can be explained by this scenario, providing two conditions. First, there must be some variation within the fraction of accretion energy absorbed by the protostar during the accretion process. Second, the range of this variation should increase with increasing accretion burst intensity and thus with the initial core mass and final star mass. The numerical hydrodynamics simulations of collapsing cloud prestellar cores indeed show that the intensity of the accretion bursts correlates with the mass and initial angular momentum of the prestellar core. Massive prestellar cores with high initial angular momentum are found to produce intense bursts characteristic of FU Ori-like events. Our results thus suggest a link between the burst intensities and the fraction of accretion energy absorbed by the protostar, with some threshold in the accretion rate, of the order of 10{sup -5} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, delimitating the transition from 'cold' to 'hot' accretion. Such a transition might reflect a change in the accretion geometry with increasing accretion rate, i.e., a transition from magnetospheric or thin-disk to thick-disk accretion, or in the magnetospheric interaction between the star and the disk. Conversely, the luminosity spread can also be explained by a variation of the initial protostar mass within the {approx}1-5 M{sub Jup} range, although it is unclear for now whether such a spread among the second Larson's core can be produced during the prestellar core second collapse. This unified picture confirms the idea that early accretion during protostar and proto-brown dwarf formation/evolution can explain the observed luminosity spread in young clusters without invoking any significant age spread, and that the concept of a well-defined birthline does not apply for low-mass objects. Finally, we examine the impact of accretion on the determination of the initial mass function in young clusters.

Baraffe, I.; Chabrier, G. [Astrophysics Group, University of Exeter, EX4 4QL Exeter (United Kingdom); Vorobyov, E., E-mail: i.baraffe@ex.ac.uk, E-mail: eduard.vorobiev@univie.ac.at, E-mail: gilles.chabrier@ens-lyon.fr [Institute of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Vienna A-1180 (Austria)

2012-09-10

302

A Search for Very Low-mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in the Young sigma Orionis Cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a CCD-based photometric survey covering 870 sq. arcmin in a young\\u000astellar cluster around the young multiple star sigma Orionis. Our survey\\u000alimiting R, I, and Z magnitudes are 23.2, 21.8, and 21.0, respectively. From\\u000aour colour-magnitude diagrams, we have selected 49 faint objects, which\\u000asmoothly extrapolate the photometric sequence defined by more massive known\\u000amembers. Adopting the

V. J. S. Bejar; M. R. Zapatero Osorio; R. Rebolo

1999-01-01

303

Hot Organic Molecules Toward a Young Low-Mass Star: A Look at Inner Disk Chemistry  

E-print Network

Spitzer Space Telescope spectra of the low mass young stellar object (YSO) IRS 46 (L_bol ~ 0.6 L_sun) in Ophiuchus reveal strong vibration-rotation absorption bands of gaseous C2H2, HCN, and CO2. This is the only source out of a sample of ~100 YSO's that shows these features and the first time they are seen in the spectrum of a solar-mass YSO. Analysis of the Spitzer data combined with Keck L- and M-band spectra gives excitation temperatures of > 350 K and abundances of 10(-6)-10(-5) with respect to H2, orders of magnitude higher than those found in cold clouds. In spite of this high abundance, the HCN J=4-3 line is barely detected with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, indicating a source diameter less than 13 AU. The (sub)millimeter continuum emission and the absence of scattered light in near-infrared images limits the mass and temperature of any remnant collapse envelope to less than 0.01 M_sun and 100 K, respectively. This excludes a hot-core type region as found in high-mass YSO's. The most plausible origin of this hot gas rich in organic molecules is in the inner (<6 AU radius) region of the disk around IRS 46, either the disk itself or a disk wind. A nearly edge-on 2-D disk model fits the spectral energy distribution (SED) and gives a column of dense warm gas along the line of sight that is consistent with the absorption data. These data illustrate the unique potential of high-resolution infrared spectroscopy to probe organic chemistry, gas temperatures and kinematics in the planet-forming zones close to a young star.

F. Lahuis; E. F. van Dishoeck; A. C. A. Boogert; K. M. Pontoppidan; G. A. Blake; C. P. Dullemond; N. J. Evans II; M. R. Hogerheijde; J. K. Joergensen; J. E. Kessler-Silacci; C. Knez

2005-11-29

304

Eruptive collagenomas.  

PubMed

A 24-year-old woman presented with hypopigmented papules of the abdomen that had been present for four years without a family history of similar cutaneous findings or associated medical problems. Histopathologic features confirmed the diagnosis of a connective-tissue nevus that was composed of collagen. Eruptive collagenomas are a rare form of acquired collagenomas, which are characterized by the sudden appearance of asymptomatic papules and nodules on the lower trunk and extremities; the lesions are composed of haphazardly arranged collagen fibers. The pathogenesis is unknown, lesions are persistent, and therapeutic options have not been reported. PMID:21163154

Batra, Priya; Loyd, Aaron; Patel, Rishi; Walters, Ruth; Stein, Jennifer A

2010-01-01

305

THE FIRST X-SHOOTER OBSERVATIONS OF JETS FROM YOUNG STARS  

SciTech Connect

We present the first pilot study of jets from young stars conducted with X-shooter, on the ESO/Very Large Telescope. As it offers simultaneous, high-quality spectra in the range 300-2500 nm, X-shooter is uniquely important for spectral diagnostics in jet studies. We chose to probe the accretion/ejection mechanisms at low stellar masses examining two targets with well-resolved continuous jets lying on the plane of the sky: ESO-HA 574 in Chameleon I and Par-Lup3-4 in Lupus III. The mass of the latter is close to the sub-stellar boundary (M{sub *} = 0.13 M{sub sun}). A large number of emission lines probing regions of different excitation are identified, position-velocity diagrams are presented, and mass outflow/accretion rates are estimated. Comparison between the two objects is striking. ESO-HA 574 is a weakly accreting star for which we estimate a mass accretion rate of log ( M-dot{sub acc}) = -10.8{+-}0.5 (in M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}), yet it drives a powerful jet with M-dot{sub out} {approx} 1.5-2.7 x 10{sup -9} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. These values can be reconciled with a magneto-centrifugal jet acceleration mechanism assuming that the presence of the edge-on disk severely depresses the luminosity of the accretion tracers. In comparison, Par-Lup3-4, with stronger mass accretion ( log ( M-dot{sub acc}) = -9.1{+-}0.4 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}), drives a low-excitation jet with about M-dot{sub out} {approx} 3.2 x 10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} in both lobes. Despite the low stellar mass, M-dot{sub out}/ M-dot{sub acc} for Par-Lup3-4 is at the upper limit of the range usually measured for young objects, but still compatible with a steady magneto-centrifugal wind scenario if all uncertainties are considered.

Bacciotti, F.; Randich, S. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Whelan, E. T. [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de l'Observatoire de Grenoble, UMR 5521 du CNRS, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France); Alcala, J. M. [INAF-Osservatorio di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli (Italy); Nisini, B. [INAF-Osservatorio di Roma, Via di Frascati 33, 00040, Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Podio, L. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands); Stelzer, B. [INAF-Osservatorio di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo (Italy); Cupani, G. [INAF-Osservatorio di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, 34143 Trieste (Italy)

2011-08-20

306

Mass and period limits on the ringed companion transiting the young star J1407  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The young (˜16 Myr) pre-main-sequence star in Sco-Cen 1SWASP J140747.93-394542.6, hereafter referred to as J1407, underwent a deep eclipse in 2007 April, bracketed by several shallower eclipses in the surrounding 54 d. This has been interpreted as the first detection of an eclipsing ring system circling a substellar object (dubbed J1407b). We report on a search for this companion with Sparse Aperture Mask imaging and direct imaging with both the UT4 VLT and Keck telescopes. Radial velocity measurements of J1407 provide additional constraints on J1407b and on short period companions to the central star. Follow-up photometric monitoring using the Panchromatic Robotic Optical Monitoring and Polarimetry Telescopes (PROMPT)-4 and ROAD observatories during 2012-2014 has not yielded any additional eclipses. Large regions of mass-period space are ruled out for the companion. For circular orbits the companion period is constrained to the range 3.5-13.8 yr (a ? 2.2-5.6 au), and stellar masses (>80MJup) are ruled out at 3? significance over these periods. The complex ring system appears to occupy more than 0.15 of its Hill radius, much larger than its Roche radius and suggesting a ring structure in transition. Further, we demonstrate that the radial velocity of J1407 is consistent with membership in the Upper Cen-Lup subgroup of the Sco-Cen association, and constraints on the rotation period and projected rotational velocity of J1407 are consistent with a stellar inclination of i? ? 68° ± 10°.

Kenworthy, M. A.; Lacour, S.; Kraus, A.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Mamajek, E. E.; Scott, E. L.; Ségransan, D.; Ireland, M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Reichart, D. E.; Haislip, J. B.; LaCluyze, A. P.; Moore, J. P.; Frank, N. R.

2015-01-01

307

Young Stars in Orion May Solve Mystery of Our Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists may have to give the Sun a little more credit. Exotic isotopes present in the early Solar System--which scientists have long-assumed were sprinkled there by a powerful, nearby star explosion--may have instead been forged locally by our Sun during the colossal solar-flare tantrums of its baby years. The isotopes--special forms of atomic nuclei, such as aluminum-26, calcium-41, and beryllium-10--can form in the X-ray solar flares of young stars in the Orion Nebula, which behave just like our Sun would have at such an early age. The finding, based on observations by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, has broad implications for the formation of our own Solar System. Eric Feigelson, professor of astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State, led a team of scientists on this Chandra observation and presents these results in Washington, D.C., today at a conference entitled "Two Years of Science with Chandra". "The Chandra study of Orion gives us the first chance to study the flaring properties of stars resembling the Sun when our solar system was forming," said Feigelson. "We found a much higher rate of flares than expected, sufficient to explain the production of many unusual isotopes locked away in ancient meteorites. If the young stars in Orion can do it, then our Sun should have been able to do it too." Scientists who study how our Solar System formed from a collapsed cloud of dust and gas have been hard pressed to explain the presence of these extremely unusual chemical isotopes. The isotopes are short-lived and had to have been formed no earlier than the creation of the Solar System, some five billion years ago. Yet these elements cannot be produced by a star as massive as our Sun under normal circumstances. (Other elements, such as silver and gold, were created long before the creation of the solar system.) The perplexing presence of these isotopic anomalies, found in ancient meteoroids orbiting the Earth, led to the theory that a supernova explosion occurred very close to the Solar System's progenitor gas cloud, simultaneously triggering its collapse and seeding it with short-lived isotopes. Solar flares could produce such isotopes, but the flares would have to be hundreds of thousands of times more powerful and hundreds of times more frequent than those our Sun generates. Enter the stars in the Orion Nebula. This star-forming region has several dozen new stars nearly identical to our Sun, only much younger. Feigelson's team used Chandra to study the flaring in these analogs of the early Sun and found that nearly all exhibit extremely high levels of X-ray flaring--powerful and frequent enough to forge many of the kinds of isotopes found in the ancient meteorites from the early solar system. "This is a very exciting result for space X-ray astronomy," said Donald Clayton, Centennial Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Clemson University. "The Chandra Penn State team has shown that stellar-flare acceleration produces radioactive nuclei whether we want them or not. Now the science debate can concentrate on whether such irradiation made some or even all of the extinct radioactivities that were present when our solar system was formed, or whether some contamination of our birth molecular cloud by external material is also needed." "This is an excellent example of how apparently distant scientific fields, like X-ray astronomy and the origins of solar systems, can in fact be closely linked," said Feigelson. The Orion observation was made with Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, which was conceived and developed for NASA by Penn State and Massachusetts Institute of Technology under the leadership of Gordon Garmire, the Evan Pugh Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics at Penn State. The Penn State observation team includes Pat Broos, James Gaffney, Gordon Garmire, Leisa Townsley and Yohko Tsuboi. Collaborators also include Lynne Hillenbrand of CalTech and Steven Pravdo of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Background: Isotopes are atoms whose nuclei have d

2001-09-01

308

Spitzer View of Young Massive Stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud H II Complexes. II. N 159  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The H II complex N 159 in the Large Magellanic Cloud is used to study massive star formation in different environments, as it contains three giant molecular clouds (GMCs) that have similar sizes and masses but exhibit different intensities of star formation. We identify candidate massive young stellar objects (YSOs) using infrared photometry, and model their spectral energy distributions to constrain mass and evolutionary state. Good fits are obtained for less evolved Type I, I/II, and II sources. Our analysis suggests that there are massive embedded YSOs in N 159B, a maser source, and several ultracompact H II regions. Massive O-type YSOs are found in GMCs N 159-E and N 159-W, which are associated with ionized gas, i.e., where massive stars formed a few Myr ago. The third GMC, N 159-S, has neither O-type YSOs nor evidence of previous massive star formation. This correlation between current and antecedent formation of massive stars suggests that energy feedback is relevant. We present evidence that N 159-W is forming YSOs spontaneously, while collapse in N 159-E may be triggered. Finally, we compare star formation rates determined from YSO counts with those from integrated H? and 24 ?m luminosities and expected from gas surface densities. Detailed dissection of extragalactic GMCs like the one presented here is key to revealing the physics underlying commonly used star formation scaling laws.

Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Indebetouw, Remy; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Testor, Gérard; Heitsch, Fabian; Seale, Jonathan P.; Meixner, Margaret; Sewilo, Marta

2010-10-01

309

Young massive star clusters in the era of the Hubble Space Telescope  

E-print Network

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has been instrumental in the discovery of large numbers of extragalactic young massive star clusters (YMCs), often assumed to be proto-globular clusters (GCs). As a consequence, the field of YMC formation and evolution is thriving, generating major breakthroughs as well as controversies on annual (or shorter) time-scales. Here, I review the long-term survival chances of YMCs, hallmarks of intense starburst episodes often associated with violent galaxy interactions. In the absence of significant external perturbations, the key factor determining a cluster's long-term survival chances is the shape of its stellar initial mass function (IMF). It is, however, not straightforward to assess the IMF shape in unresolved extragalactic YMCs. I also discuss the latest progress in worldwide efforts to better understand the evolution of entire cluster populations, predominantly based on HST observations, and conclude that there is an increasing body of evidence that GC formation appears to be continuing until today; their long-term evolution crucially depends on their environmental conditions, however.

Richard de Grijs

2007-06-13

310

The evolution of the composition of a young star cluster ejecta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have computed with a fine time grid the evolution of the elemental abundances of He, C, N and O ejected by young (t < 20Myr) and massive (M = 10^{6} M_{?} coeval stellar cluster with a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) over a wide range of initial abundances. Our computations incorporate the mass loss from massive stars (M ?0 M_{?}) during their wind phase including the Wolf-Rayet phase and the ejecta from the core collapse supernovae. We find that during the Wolf-Rayet phase (t < 5 Myr) the cluster ejecta composition suddenly becomes vastly overabundant in N for all initial abundances and in He, C, and O for initial abundances higher than 1/5^{th} Solar. The C and O abundance in the cluster ejecta can reach over 50 times the solar value with important consequences for the chemical and hydro-dynamical evolution of the surrounding ISM. To see the whole tables and results see Moll{á} & Terlevich (2012, MNRAS, 425, 1696).

Mollá, M.; Terlevich, R.

2013-05-01

311

Gemini GMOS\\/IFU spectroscopy of NGC 1569 - I: Mapping the properties of a young star cluster and its environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Abridged] We present Gemini-North GMOS\\/IFU observations of a young star\\u000acluster (cluster 10) and its environment near the centre of the dwarf irregular\\u000astarburst galaxy NGC 1569. This forms part of a larger and on-going study of\\u000athe formation and collimation mechanisms of galactic winds, including three\\u000aadditional IFU pointings in NGC 1569 covering the base of the galactic wind

M. S. Westmoquette; K. M. Exter; L. J. Smith; J. S. Gallagher III

2007-01-01

312

Evolutionary models for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs: Uncertainties and limits at very young ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyse pre-Main Sequence evolutionary tracks for low mass stars with masses m <= 1.4 Msun based on the Baraffe et al. (\\\\cite{Bar98}) input physics. We also extend the recent Chabrier et al. (2000) evolutionary models based on dusty atmosphere to young brown dwarfs down to one mass of Jupiter. We analyse current theoretical uncertainties due to molecular line lists,

I. Baraffe; G. Chabrier; F. Allard; P. H. Hauschildt

2002-01-01

313

Constraining globular cluster formation through studies of young massive clusters - IV. Testing the fast rotating massive star scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the leading models for the formation of multiple stellar populations within globular clusters is the `fast rotating massive star' (FRMS) scenario, where the ejecta of rapidly rotating massive stars is mixed with primordial material left over from the star formation process, to form a second generation of stars within the decretion discs of the high-mass stars. A requirement of this model, at least in its current form, is that young massive (i.e. proto-globular) clusters are not able to eject the unused gas and dust from the star formation process from the cluster for 20-30 Myr after the formation of the first generation of stars, i.e. the cluster remains embedded within the gas cloud in which it forms. Here, we test this prediction by performing a literature search for young massive clusters in nearby galaxies, which have ages less than 20 Myr that are not embedded. We report that a number of such clusters exist, with masses near or significantly above 106 M?, with ages between a few Myr and ˜15 Myr, suggesting that even high-mass clusters are able to clear any natal gas within them within a few Myr after formation. Additionally, one cluster, Cluster 23 in ESO 338-IG04, has a metallicity below that of some Galactic globular clusters that have been found to host multiple stellar populations, mitigating any potential effect of differences in metallicity in the comparison. The clusters reported here are in contradiction to the expectations of the FRMS scenario, at least in its current form.

Bastian, N.; Hollyhead, K.; Cabrera-Ziri, I.

2014-11-01

314

Magnetic activity and differential rotation in the very young star KIC 8429280  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We present a spectroscopic and photometric analysis of the rapid rotator KIC 8429280, discovered by ourselves as a very young star and observed by the NASA Kepler mission, designed to determine its activity level, spot distribution, and differential rotation. Methods: We use ground-based data, such as high-resolution spectroscopy and multicolor broad-band photometry, to derive stellar parameters (vsini, spectral type, Teff, log g, and [Fe/H]), and we adopt a spectral subtraction technique to highlight the strong chromospheric emission in the cores of hydrogen H? and Ca ii H&K and infrared triplet (IRT) lines. We then fit a robust spot model to the high-precision Kepler photometry spanning 138 days. Model selection and parameter estimation is performed in a Bayesian manner using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Results: We find that KIC 8429280 is a cool (K2 V) star with an age of about 50 Myr, based on its lithium content, that has passed its T Tau phase and is spinning up approaching the ZAMS on its radiative track. Its high level of chromospheric activity is clearly indicated by the strong radiative losses in Ca ii H&K and IRT, H?, and H? lines. Furthermore, its Balmer decrement and the flux ratio of Ca ii IRT lines imply that these lines are mainly formed in optically-thick regions similar to solar plages. The analysis of the Kepler data uncovers evidence of at least seven enduring spots. Since the star's inclination is rather high - nearly 70° - the assignment of the spots to either the northern or southern hemisphere is not unambiguous. We find at least three solutions with nearly the same level of residuals. Even in the case of seven spots, the fit is far from being perfect. Owing to the exceptional precision of the Kepler photometry, it is not possible to reach the noise floor without strongly enhancing the degrees of freedom and, consequently, the non-uniqueness of the solution. The distribution of the active regions is such that the spots are located around three latitude belts, i.e. around the star's equator and around ± (50°-60°), with the high-latitude spots rotating slower than the low-latitude ones. The equator-to-pole differential rotation d? ? 0.27 rad d-1 is at variance with some recent mean-field models of differential rotation in rapidly rotating main-sequence stars, which predict a much smaller latitudinal shear. Our results are consistent with the scenario of a higher differential rotation, which changes along the magnetic cycle, as proposed by other models. Based on public Kepler data, on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque del los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, and on observations collected at the Catania Astrophysical Observatory (Italy).

Frasca, A.; Fröhlich, H.-E.; Bonanno, A.; Catanzaro, G.; Biazzo, K.; Molenda-?akowicz, J.

2011-08-01

315

Dynamic Young Stars and their Disks: A Temporal View of NGC 2264 with Spitzer and CoRoT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variability is a signature feature of young stars. Among the well known light curve phenomena are periodic variations attributed to surface spots and irregular changes associated with accretion or circumstellar disk material. While decades of photometric monitoring have provided a framework for classifying young star variability, we still know surprisingly little about its underlying mechanisms and connections to the surrounding disks. In the past few years, dedicated photometric monitoring campaigns from the ground and space have revolutionized our view of young stars in the time domain. We present a selection of optical and infrared time series from several recent campaigns, highlighting the Coordinated Synoptic Investigation of NGC 2264 ("CSI 2264")- a joint30-day effort with the Spitzer, CoRoT, and MOST telescopes. The extraordinary photometric precision, high cadence, and long time baseline of these observations is now enabling correlation of variability properties at very different wavelengths, corresponding to locations from the stellar surface to the inner 0.1 AU of the disk. We present some results of the CSI 2264 program, including new classes of optical/infrared behavior. Further efforts to tie observed variability features to physical models will provide insights into the inner disk environment at a time when planet formation may be underway. Based on data from the Spitzer and CoRoT missions. The CoRoT space mission was developed and is operated by the French space agency CNES, with participation of ESA-s RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain.

Cody, Ann Marie; Stauffer, John; Bouvier, Jèrôme

2014-01-01

316

CLOSE COMPANIONS TO YOUNG STARS. I. A LARGE SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY IN CHAMAELEON I AND TAURUS-AURIGA  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a multiplicity survey of 212 T Tauri stars in the Chamaeleon I and Taurus-Auriga star-forming regions, based on high-resolution spectra from the Magellan Clay 6.5 m telescope. From these data, we achieved a typical radial velocity (RV) precision of {approx}80 m s{sup -1} with slower rotators yielding better precision, in general. For 174 of these stars, we obtained multi-epoch data with sufficient time baselines to identify binaries based on RV variations. We identified eight close binaries and four close triples, of which three and two, respectively, are new discoveries. The spectroscopic multiplicity fractions we find for Chamaeleon I (7%) and Taurus-Auriga (6%) are similar to each other, and to the results of field star surveys in the same mass and period regime. However, unlike the results from imaging surveys, the frequency of systems with close companions in our sample is not seen to depend on primary mass. Additionally, we do not find a strong correlation between accretion and close multiplicity. This implies that close companions are not likely the main source of the accretion shut down observed in weak-lined T Tauri stars. Our results also suggest that sufficient RV precision can be achieved for at least a subset of slowly rotating young stars to search for hot Jupiter planets.

Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Brandeker, Alexis; Van Kerkwijk, Marten H.; Jayawardhana, Ray, E-mail: nguyen@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: mhvk@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: rayjay@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: dcnguyen@pas.rochester.edu, E-mail: duy.nguyen@astro.su.se, E-mail: alexis@astro.su.se [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

2012-02-01

317

A "diamond-ring" star: the unusual morphologic structure of a young (multiple?) object  

E-print Network

We have observed IRAS06468-0325 obtaining optical and infrared images through IJHKs and L' filters, K-band low-resolution spectroscopy, together with millimetre line observations of CO and CS. IRAS06468-0325 has a very unusual and enigmatic morphology with two components: a bright, close to point-like source (the diamond) and a sharp-edge ring-like structure (the ring). The source is not detected in the optical, at wavelengths shorter than the I-band. The diamond is seen in all the imaging bands observed. The ring-like structure in IRAS06468-0325 is clearly seen in the I, J, H, and Ks. It is not detected in the L'-band image. Infrared colours of the diamond are compatible with excess circumstellar emission and a young stellar nature. A strongly non-gaussian and moderately bright CO(1-0) and {13}CO(2-1) lines are seen towards IRAS06468-0325, at v_{LSR} of 30.5 km s{-1} (corresponding to a kinematic distance of 3 kpc). Very weak C{18}O(2-1) and CS(2-1) lines were detected. K-band spectra of the diamond and of the ring are similar both in the slope of the continuum and in the presence of lines supporting the idea that the ring is reflected light from the diamond. With the current data, a few different scenarios are possible to explain the morphology of this object. However, the available data seem to favour that the morphology of IRAS06468-0325 correspond to a young stellar multiple system in a transient stage where a binary co-exists with a circumbinary disc, similar to the case of GG Tau. In this case, the sharpness of the well-defined ring may be due to tidal truncation from dynamic interactions between components in a binary or multiple stellar system. IRAS06468-0325 may be an important rare case that illustrates a short-lived stage of the process of binary or multiple star formation.

Joao L. Yun; Jose M. Torrelles; Nuno C. Santos

2007-04-24

318

Dynamics and multiplicity of brown dwarfs and young, low mass stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis addresses the formation and evolution of very low mass (VLM) stellar objects using their multiplicity and dynamics. First, we surveyed thirteen VLM [Special characters omitted.] objects in the Taurus star-forming region using near-infrared speckle imaging techniques on the W.M. Keck 10 m telescope. Of these thirteen, five were found to be binary. These new systems have properties that differ significantly from older field VLM binaries in that the young systems have wider separations and lower mass ratios, supporting the idea that VLM binaries undergo significant dynamical evolution ~5-10 Myr after their formation. Second, we present a pilot study for our dynamics work in which we completed a five year monitoring campaign of the close binary TWA 5Aab in the TW Hydrae association, using speckle and adaptive optics on the Keck telescopes. Our observations allowed us to determine this system's astrometric orbit. We calculate a total mass of 0.71 ± 0.14 [Special characters omitted.] (D/44 pc) 3 for this system. Finally, we present the results of a 3 year monitoring program of a sample of 26 VLM field binaries using both astrometric and spectroscopic data obtained in conjunction with the laser guide star adaptive optics system on the Keck telescope. By combining astrometry and spectroscopy, degeneracies in orbital parameters can be resolved and individual component masses can be obtained. We present relative orbits for 15 of these systems, which allow us to derive the total system mass. In addition, we find the absolute orbits for 6 systems in our sample, which allows us to derive individual masses. We compare our dynamical mass measurements to the predictions of theoretical evolutionary models and find that there are systematic discrepancies, where both models considered either underpredict or overpredict the correct mass. The discrepancies are a function of spectral type, with late M through mid L systems tending to have their masses underpredicted, while one T type system has its mass overpredicted. These discrepancies imply that either the temperatures predicted by evolutionary and atmosphere models are inconsistent for an object of a given mass, or the mass-radius relationship or cooling timescales predicted by the evolutionary models are incorrect.

Konopacky, Quinn Morgan

319

MAGNETIC CYCLES IN A CONVECTIVE DYNAMO SIMULATION OF A YOUNG SOLAR-TYPE STAR  

SciTech Connect

Young solar-type stars rotate rapidly and many are magnetically active. Some appear to undergo magnetic cycles similar to the 22 yr solar activity cycle. We conduct simulations of dynamo action in rapidly rotating suns with the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic anelastic spherical harmonic (ASH) code to explore dynamo action achieved in the convective envelope of a solar-type star rotating at five times the current solar rotation rate. We find that dynamo action builds substantial organized global-scale magnetic fields in the midst of the convection zone. Striking magnetic wreaths span the convection zone and coexist with the turbulent convection. A surprising feature of this wreath-building dynamo is its rich time dependence. The dynamo exhibits cyclic activity and undergoes quasi-periodic polarity reversals where both the global-scale poloidal and toroidal fields change in sense on a roughly 1500 day timescale. These magnetic activity patterns emerge spontaneously from the turbulent flow and are more organized temporally and spatially than those realized in our previous simulations of the solar dynamo. We assess in detail the competing processes of magnetic field creation and destruction within our simulations that contribute to the global-scale reversals. We find that the mean toroidal fields are built primarily through an {Omega}-effect, while the mean poloidal fields are built by turbulent correlations which are not well represented by a simple {alpha}-effect. During a reversal the magnetic wreaths propagate toward the polar regions, and this appears to arise from a poleward propagating dynamo wave. As the magnetic fields wax and wane in strength and flip in polarity, the primary response in the convective flows involves the axisymmetric differential rotation which varies on similar timescales. Bands of relatively fast and slow fluid propagate toward the poles on timescales of roughly 500 days and are associated with the magnetic structures that propagate in the same fashion. In the Sun, similar patterns are observed in the poleward branch of the torsional oscillations, and these may represent poleward propagating magnetic fields deep below the solar surface.

Brown, Benjamin P. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States); Miesch, Mark S. [High Altitude Observatory, NCAR, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Browning, Matthew K. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S3H8 (Canada); Brun, Allan Sacha [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/Irfu Universite Paris-Diderot CNRS/INSU, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Toomre, Juri, E-mail: bpbrown@astro.wisc.edu [JILA and Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)

2011-04-10

320

X-Ray Modeling of Very Young Early-Type Stars in the Orion Trapezium: Signatures of Magnetically Confined Plasmas and Evolutionary Implications  

E-print Network

The Orion Trapezium is one of the youngest and closest star-forming regions within our Galaxy. With a dynamic age of ~3 × 10[superscript 5] yr, it harbors a number of very young hot stars, which likely are on the zero-age ...

Schulz, Norbert S.

321

NEAR-INFRARED VARIABILITY AMONG YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE STAR FORMATION REGION CYGNUS OB7  

SciTech Connect

We present an analysis of near-infrared time-series photometry in J, H, and K bands for about 100 epochs of a 1 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 1 Degree-Sign region of the Lynds 1003/1004 dark cloud in the Cygnus OB7 region. Augmented by data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we identify 96 candidate disk bearing young stellar objects (YSOs) in the region. Of these, 30 are clearly Class I or earlier. Using the Wide-Field Imaging Camera on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, we were able to obtain photometry over three observing seasons, with photometric uncertainty better than 0.05 mag down to J Almost-Equal-To 17. We study detailed light curves and color trajectories of {approx}50 of the YSOs in the monitored field. We investigate the variability and periodicity of the YSOs and find the data are consistent with all YSOs being variable in these wavelengths on timescales of a few years. We divide the variability into four observational classes: (1) stars with periodic variability stable over long timescales, (2) variables which exhibit short-lived cyclic behavior, (3) long-duration variables, and (4) stochastic variables. Some YSO variability defies simple classification. We can explain much of the observed variability as being due to dynamic and rotational changes in the disk, including an asymmetric or changing blocking fraction, changes to the inner disk hole size, as well as changes to the accretion rate. Overall, we find that the Class I:Class II ratio of the cluster is consistent with an age of <1 Myr, with at least one individual, wildly varying source {approx}100, 000 yr old. We have also discovered a Class II eclipsing binary system with a period of 17.87 days.

Wolk, Scott J.; Rice, Thomas S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Aspin, Colin [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

2013-08-20

322

Rotational Velocities for B0-B3 Stars in Seven Young Clusters: Further Study of the Relationship between Rotation Speed and Density in Star-Forming Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a study aimed at assessing the differences in the distribution of rotation speeds N(vsini) among young (1-15 Myr) B stars spanning a range of masses 6 Msolar>1 Msolar pc-3) ensembles that will survive as rich, bound stellar clusters for ages well in excess of 108 yr. Our results demonstrate (1) that independent of environment, the rotation rates for stars in this mass range do not change by more than 0.1 dex over ages t~1 to ~15 Myr; and (2) that stars formed in high-density regions lack the cohort of slow rotators that dominate the low-density regions and young field stars. We suggest that the differences in N(vsini) between low- and high-density regions may reflect a combination of initial conditions and environmental effects: (1) the higher turbulent speeds that characterize molecular gas in high-density, cluster-forming regions; and (2) the stronger UV radiation fields and high stellar densities that characterize such regions. Higher turbulent speeds may lead to higher time-averaged accretion rates during the stellar assembly phase. In the context of stellar angular momentum regulation via ``disk-locking,'' higher accretion rates lead to both higher initial angular momenta and evolution-driven increases in surface rotation rates as stars contract from the birth line to the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS). Stronger UV radiation fields and higher densities may lead to shorter disk lifetimes in cluster-forming regions. If so, B stars formed in dense clusters are more likely to be ``released'' from their disks early during their pre-main-sequence lifetimes and evolve into rapid rotators as they conserve angular momentum and spin up in response to contraction. By contrast, the majority of their brethren in low-density, association-forming regions can retain their disks for much or all of their pre-main-sequence lifetimes, are ``locked'' by their disks to rotate at constant angular speed, and lose angular momentum as they contract toward the ZAMS, and thus arrive on the ZAMS as relatively slowly rotating stars.

Wolff, S. C.; Strom, S. E.; Dror, D.; Venn, K.

2007-03-01

323

GAS SURFACE DENSITY, STAR FORMATION RATE SURFACE DENSITY, AND THE MAXIMUM MASS OF YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS IN A DISK GALAXY. I. THE FLOCCULENT GALAXY M 33  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the relationship between maximum cluster mass M{sub max} and surface densities of total gas ({Sigma}{sub gas}), molecular gas ({Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}}), and star formation rate ({Sigma}{sub SFR}) in the flocculent galaxy M 33, using published gas data and a catalog of more than 600 young star clusters in its disk. By comparing the radial distributions of gas and most massive cluster masses, we find that M{sub max}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sup 4.7{+-}0.4}{sub gas}, M{sub max}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sup 1.3{+-}0.1}{sub H{sub 2}}, and M{sub max}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sup 1.0{+-}0.1}{sub SFR}. We rule out that these correlations result from the size of the sample; hence, the change of the maximum cluster mass must be due to physical causes.

Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A.; Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel, E-mail: r.gonzalez@crya.unam.mx [Argelander Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

2012-12-20

324

Jupiter Eruptions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for high resolution image of Nature Cover

Detailed analysis of two continent-sized storms that erupted in Jupiter's atmosphere in March 2007 shows that Jupiter's internal heat plays a significant role in generating atmospheric disturbances. Understanding these outbreaks could be the key to unlock the mysteries buried in the deep Jovian atmosphere, say astronomers.

This visible-light image is from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope taken on May 11, 2007. It shows the turbulent pattern generated by the two plumes on the upper left part of Jupiter.

Understanding these phenomena is important for Earth's meteorology where storms are present everywhere and jet streams dominate the atmospheric circulation. Jupiter is a natural laboratory where atmospheric scientists study the nature and interplay of the intense jets and severe atmospheric phenomena.

According to the analysis, the bright plumes were storm systems triggered in Jupiter's deep water clouds that moved upward in the atmosphere vi gorously and injected a fresh mixture of ammonia ice and water about 20 miles (30 kilometers) above the visible clouds. The storms moved in the peak of a jet stream in Jupiter's atmosphere at 375 miles per hour (600 kilometers per hour). Models of the disturbance indicate that the jet stream extends deep in the buried atmosphere of Jupiter, more than 60 miles (approximately100 kilometers) below the cloud tops where most sunlight is absorbed.

2008-01-01

325

Bruck 88 : a young star cluster with an old age resemblance in the outskirts of the Small Magellanic Cloud  

E-print Network

We present spectroscopic and photometric results for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) cluster Bruck 88. From the comparison of the cluster integrated spectrum with template cluster spectra we found that the Milky Way globular cluster template spectra are the ones which best resemble it. However, the extracted cluster colour magnitude diagram reveals that Bruck 88 is a young cluster (log(t) = 8.1 +- 0.1). The derived cluster age is compatible with the presence of a Bright Red Giant (BRG) star located ~ 2.6 arcsec in the sky from the cluster centre. We serendipitously observed HW 33, a star cluster located ~ 3 arcmin to the south-east from Bruck 88. We obtained for the cluster the same age than Bruck 88 and surprisingly, a BRG star located within the cluster radius also appears to be compatible with the cluster age. We estimated the MK type of the BRG star in the Bruck 88 field to be in the range G9 II/Ib - K1 III. By combining the spectrum of a star within this MK type range with a 100-150 Myr template cluster...

Piatti, Andrés E

2014-01-01

326

Young Stars near Earth: The Octans-Near Association and Castor Moving Group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All cataloged stellar moving groups and associations with ages <=100 Myr and within 100 pc of Earth have Galactic space motions (UVW) situated in a "good box" with dimensions ~20 km s-1 on a side. Torres et al. defined the Octans Association as a group of 15 stars with age "20 Myr?" and located ~140 pc from Earth, but with average V space velocity -3.6 km s-1 that is well outside of the good box. We present a list of 14 Hipparcos star systems within 100 pc of Earth that we call "Octans-Near"; these systems have UVW similar to those of the much more distant Octans Association. The Octans-Near stars have apparent ages between about 30 and 100 Myr and their relationship to the Octans Association stars is unclear. Six additional star systems have UVW similar to those of Octans-Near stars and likely ages <=200 Myr. These six systems include the late-type binary star EQ Peg—6.2 pc from Earth with likely age <=100 Myr and thus likely to be the nearest known pre-main sequence star system. The UVW of stars in a previously proposed ~200 Myr old Castor moving group are not too dissimilar from the UVW of Octans-Near stars. However, stars in the Castor group—if it exists at all—are mostly substantially older than 200 Myr and thus generally can readily be distinguished from the much younger Octans-Near stars.

Zuckerman, B.; Vican, Laura; Song, Inseok; Schneider, Adam

2013-11-01

327

Young Stellar Objects and Triggered Star Formation in The Vulpecula OB Association  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vulpecula OB association, Vul OB1, is a region of active star formation located in the Galactic plane at 2.3 kpc from the Sun. Previous studies suggest that sequential star formation is propagating along this 100 pc long molecular complex. In this paper, we use Spitzer MIPSGAL and GLIMPSE data to reconstruct the star formation history of Vul OB1, and

N. Billot; A. Noriega-Crespo; S. Carey; S. Guieu; S. Shenoy; R. Paladini; W. Latter

2010-01-01

328

An Extraordinary Cluster of Massive Young Stars in the Milky Way's Nucleus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mass distribution of newborn stars is key to the evolution of galaxies, as it determines whether a galaxy's interstellar medium is funneled predominantly into dim, long-lived, low-mass stars, as is the case in normal galactic disks, or into bright, short-lived, massive stars, as is perhaps the case in starburst nuclei.

Serabyn, E.; Shupe, D.; Figer, D. F.

1998-01-01

329

Star-formation rates from young-star counts and the structure of the ISM across the NGC346/N66 complex in the SMC  

E-print Network

The rate at which interstellar gas is converted into stars, and its dependence on environment, is one of the pillars on which our understanding of the visible Universe is build. We present a comparison of the surface density of young stars (Sigma_*) and dust surface density (Sigma_d) across NGC346 (N66) in 115 independent pixels of 6x6 pc^2. We find a correlation between Sigma_* and Sigma_d with a considerable scatter. A power law fit to the data yields a steep relation with an exponent of 2.6+-0.2. We convert Sigma_d to gas surface density (Sigma_g) and Sigma_* to star formation rate (SFR) surface densities (Sigma_SFR), using simple assumptions for the gas-to-dust mass ratio and the duration of star formation. The derived total SFR (4+-1 10^-3 M_sun/yr) is consistent with SFR estimated from the Ha emission integrated over the Ha nebula. On small scales the Sigma_SFR derived using Ha systematically underestimates the count-based Sigma_SFR, by up to a factor of 10. This is due to ionizing photons escaping the ...

Hony, S; Galliano, F; Galametz, M; Cormier, D; Chen, C -H R; Dib, S; Hughes, A; Klessen, R S; Roman-Duval, J; Smith, L; Bernard, J -P; Bot, C; Carlson, L; Gordon, K; Indebetouw, R; Lebouteiller, V; Lee, M -Y; Madden, S C; Meixner, M; Oliveira, J; Rubio, M; Sauvage, M; Wu, R

2015-01-01

330

THE GEMINI NICI PLANET-FINDING CAMPAIGN: DISCOVERY OF A MULTIPLE SYSTEM ORBITING THE YOUNG A STAR HD 1160  

SciTech Connect

We report the discovery of two low-mass companions to the young A0V star HD 1160 at projected separations of 81 {+-} 5 AU (HD 1160 B) and 533 {+-} 25 AU (HD 1160 C) by the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. Very Large Telescope images of the system taken over a decade for the purpose of using HD 1160 A as a photometric calibrator confirm that both companions are physically associated. By comparing the system to members of young moving groups and open clusters with well-established ages, we estimate an age of 50{sup +50}{sub -40} Myr for HD 1160 ABC. While the UVW motion of the system does not match any known moving group, the small magnitude of the space velocity is consistent with youth. Near-IR spectroscopy shows HD 1160 C to be an M3.5 {+-} 0.5 star with an estimated mass of 0.22{sup +0.03}{sub -0.04} M{sub Sun }, while NIR photometry of HD 1160 B suggests a brown dwarf with a mass of 33{sup +12}{sub -9} M{sub Jup}. The very small mass ratio (0.014) between the A and B components of the system is rare for A star binaries, and would represent a planetary-mass companion were HD 1160 A to be slightly less massive than the Sun.

Nielsen, Eric L.; Liu, Michael C.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Bowler, Brendan; Kraus, Adam; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Biller, Beth A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Hayward, Thomas L. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Boss, Alan [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, N.W., Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Tecza, Matthias; Clarke, Fraser [Department of Astronomy, University of Oxford, DWB, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Close, Laird M.; Hartung, Markus; Males, Jared R.; Skemer, Andrew J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Reid, I. Neill [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Alencar, Silvia H. P. [Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, 30270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); and others

2012-05-01

331

The Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign: Discovery of a Multiple System Orbiting the Young A Star HD 1160  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of two low-mass companions to the young A0V star HD 1160 at projected separations of 81 ± 5 AU (HD 1160 B) and 533 ± 25 AU (HD 1160 C) by the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. Very Large Telescope images of the system taken over a decade for the purpose of using HD 1160 A as a photometric calibrator confirm that both companions are physically associated. By comparing the system to members of young moving groups and open clusters with well-established ages, we estimate an age of 50+50 - 40 Myr for HD 1160 ABC. While the UVW motion of the system does not match any known moving group, the small magnitude of the space velocity is consistent with youth. Near-IR spectroscopy shows HD 1160 C to be an M3.5 ± 0.5 star with an estimated mass of 0.22+0.03 - 0.04 M ?, while NIR photometry of HD 1160 B suggests a brown dwarf with a mass of 33+12 - 9 M Jup. The very small mass ratio (0.014) between the A and B components of the system is rare for A star binaries, and would represent a planetary-mass companion were HD 1160 A to be slightly less massive than the Sun.

Nielsen, Eric L.; Liu, Michael C.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Biller, Beth A.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Boss, Alan; Bowler, Brendan; Kraus, Adam; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Tecza, Matthias; Chun, Mark; Clarke, Fraser; Close, Laird M.; Ftaclas, Christ; Hartung, Markus; Males, Jared R.; Reid, I. Neill; Skemer, Andrew J.; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Burrows, Adam; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabethe; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane; Kuchner, Marc; Thatte, Niranjan; Toomey, Douglas W.

2012-05-01

332

ON THE DYNAMICAL FORMATION OF VERY YOUNG, X-RAY EMITTING BLACK HOLE BINARIES IN DENSE STAR CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

We recently discovered a population of very young ({tau} {approx}< 6-8 Myr), X-ray emitting black hole binaries (BHBs) in the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 4449. These BHBs are located within or near to very young star clusters, indicating that they form within the clusters, but that some fraction are dynamically ejected. Here we present results from a suite of N-body simulations of N = 16,384 ({approx}6000 M{sub Sun }) star clusters, similar to the masses of BHB hosts in NGC 4449, through the first 10 Myr of their lives. Our goal is to determine whether dynamical interactions are responsible for the observed population of BHBs in NGC 4449. Our simulations span a wide range of initial size and density profiles, both with and without primordial mass segregation, testing both realistic initial conditions and extreme ones. We find that clusters without primordial mass segregation only dynamically produce BHBs within 10 Myr when they are extremely compact and centrally concentrated. Preliminary results that include primordial binaries support this conclusion. The introduction of strong primordial mass segregation, however, greatly increases the rapidity with which the binaries form, although these are still not tight enough that they will emit X-rays. We conclude that X-ray emitting BHBs are unlikely to form dynamically in clusters of this mass under realistic conditions. Instead, they probably originate from binaries that contain two massive stars with small orbital separations, which are present from the cluster's birth.

Garofali, Kristen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Converse, Joseph M.; Chandar, Rupali; Rangelov, Blagoy, E-mail: garofal4@msu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

2012-08-10

333

Kinds of Volcanic Eruptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this site, different kinds of eruptions are compared with Hawaiian eruptions. Students will learn that volcanoes can erupt from vents on their summits or flanks, eruptions interact with water in submarine environments as new islands form beneath glaciers and in crater lakes, and volcanic eruptions can be classified by the character of the eruption, including the following types: basaltic flood, Hawaiian, Strombolian, Vulcanian, Peleean, Plinian, rhyolitic flood, ultravulcanian, gas, and fumarolic. As a result of this lesson, students will be able to recognize summit and flank eruptions, know the types of water-related eruptions, and describe different types of volcanic eruptions. The site contains seven activities that range in grade level from kindergarten to grade twelve, and a virtual fieldtrip to Crater Rim Drive.

334

Neutron Star Population Dynamics. II. Three-dimensional Space Velocities of Young Pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use astrometric, distance, and spindown data on pulsars to (1) estimate three-dimensional velocity components, birth distances from the Galactic plane, and ages of individual objects; (2) determine the distribution of space velocities and the scale height of pulsar progenitors; (3) test spindown laws for pulsars; (4) test for correlations between space velocities and other pulsar parameters; and (5) place empirical requirements on mechanisms than can produce high-velocity neutron stars. Our approach incorporates measurement errors, uncertainties in distances, deceleration in the Galactic potential, and differential Galactic rotation. We focus on a sample of proper motion measurements of young (<10 Myr) pulsars whose trajectories may be accurately and simply modeled. This sample of 49 pulsars excludes millisecond pulsars and other objects that may have undergone accretion-driven spinup. We estimate velocity components and birth z distance on a case-by-case basis assuming that the actual age equals the conventional spindown age for a braking index n = 3, no torque decay, and birth periods much shorter than present-day periods. Every sample member could have originated within 0.3 kpc of the Galactic plane while still having reasonable present-day peculiar radial velocities. For the 49 object sample, the scale height of the progenitors is ~0.13 kpc, and the three-dimensional velocities are distributed in two components with characteristic speeds of 175+19-24 km s-1 and 700+300-132 km s-1, representing ~86% and ~14% of the population, respectively. The sample velocities are inconsistent with a single-component Gaussian model and are well described by a two-component Gaussian model but do not require models of additional complexity. From the best-fit distribution, we estimate that about 20% of the known pulsars will escape the Galaxy, assuming an escape speed of 500 km s-1. The best-fit, dual-component model, if augmented by an additional, low-velocity (<50 km s-1) component, tolerates, at most, only a small extra contribution in number, less than 5%. The best three-component models do not show a preference for filling in the probability distribution at speeds intermediate to 175 and 700 km s-1 but are nearly degenerate with the best two-component models. We estimate that the high-velocity tail (>1000 km s-1) may be underrepresented (in the observed sample) by a factor ~2.3 owing to selection effects in pulsar surveys. The estimates of scale height and velocity parameters are insensitive to the explicit relation of chronological and spindown ages. A further analysis starting from our inferred velocity distribution allows us to test spindown laws and age estimates. There exist comparably good descriptions of the data involving different combinations of braking index and torque decay timescale. We find that a braking index of 2.5 is favored if torque decay occurs on a timescale of ~3 Myr, while braking indices ~4.5 +/- 0.5 are preferred if there is no torque decay. For the sample as a whole, the most probable chronological ages are typically smaller than conventional spindown ages by factors as large as 2. We have also searched for correlations between three-dimensional speeds of individual pulsars and combinations of spin period and period derivative. None appears to be significant. We argue that correlations identified previously between velocity and (apparent) magnetic moment reflect the different evolutionary paths taken by young, isolated (nonbinary), high-field pulsars and older, low-field pulsars that have undergone accretion-driven spinup. We conclude that any such correlation measures differences in spin and velocity selection in the evolution of the two populations and is not a measure of processes taking place in the core collapse that produces neutron stars in the first place. We assess mechanisms for producing high-velocity neutron stars, including disruption of binary systems by symmetric supernovae and neutrino, baryonic, or electromagnetic rocket effects during or shortly after the supernova. The l

Cordes, J. M.; Chernoff, David F.

1998-09-01

335

A survey for low-mass spectroscopic binary stars in the young clusters around ? Orionis and ? Orionis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained multi-epoch, high-resolution spectroscopy of 218 candidate low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (BDs) in the young clusters around ? Ori and ? Ori. We find that 196 targets are cluster members based on their radial velocity, the equivalent width of their NaI8200 lines and the spectral type from their TiO band strength. We have identified 11 new binary stars among the cluster members based on their variable radial velocity and an additional binary from the variation in its linewidth and shape. Of these, six are double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2) where the components of the binary are of comparable brightness. The others are single-lined binaries (SB1) in which the companion is faint or the spectra of the stars are blended. There are three narrow-lined SB1 binaries in our sample for which the companion is more than 2.5 mag fainter than the primary. This suggests that the mass ratio distribution for the spectroscopic binaries in our sample is broad but that there may be a peak in the distribution near q = 1. The sample covers the magnitude range IC = 14-18.9 (mass ~0.55-0.03Msolar), but all of the binary stars are brighter than IC = 16.6 (mass ~0.12Msolar) and 10 are brighter than IC = 15.5 (mass ~0.23Msolar). There is a significant lack of spectroscopic binaries in our sample at faint magnitudes even when we account for the decrease in sensitivity with increasing magnitude. We can reject the hypothesis that the fraction of spectroscopic binaries is a uniform function of IC magnitude with more than 99 per cent confidence. The spectroscopic binary fraction for stars more massive than about 0.1Msolar (IC < 16.9) is fbright = 0.095+0.012-0.028. The 90 per cent confidence upper limit to the spectroscopic binary fraction for very low-mass (VLM) stars (mass <0.1Msolar) and BDs is ffaint < 7.5 per cent. The hypothesis that fbright and ffaint are equal can be rejected with 90 per cent confidence. The average detection probability for our survey is 50 per cent or more for binaries with separations up to 0.28au for stars with IC < 16.9 and 0.033au for the fainter stars in our sample. We conclude that we have found strong evidence for a change in the fraction of spectroscopic binaries among young VLM stars and BDs when compared to more massive stars in the same star-forming region. This implies a difference in the total binary fraction between VLM stars and BDs compared to more massive stars or a difference in the distribution of semimajor axes, or both.

Maxted, P. F. L.; Jeffries, R. D.; Oliveira, J. M.; Naylor, T.; Jackson, R. J.

2008-04-01

336

POPULATION SYNTHESIS OF YOUNG ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS: THE EFFECT OF FALLBACK DISK ACCRETION AND MAGNETIC FIELD EVOLUTION  

SciTech Connect

The spin evolution of isolated neutron stars (NSs) is dominated by their magnetic fields. The measured braking indices of young NSs show that the spin-down mechanism due to magnetic dipole radiation with constant magnetic fields is inadequate. Assuming that the NS magnetic field is buried by supernova fallback matter and re-emerges after accretion stops, we carry out a Monte Carlo simulation of the evolution of young NSs, and show that most of the pulsars have braking indices ranging from –1 to 3. The results are compatible with the observational data of NSs associated with supernova remnants. They also suggest that the initial spin periods of NSs might occupy a relatively wide range.

Fu, Lei; Li, Xiang-Dong, E-mail: lixd@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2013-10-01

337

Age-Related Observations of Low Mass Pre-Main and Young Main Sequence Stars (Invited Review)  

E-print Network

This overview summarizes the age dating methods available for young sub-solar mass stars. Pre-main sequence age diagnostics include the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram, spectroscopic surface gravity indicators, and lithium depletion; asteroseismology is also showing recent promise. Near and beyond the zero-age main sequence, rotation period or vsini and activity (coronal and chromospheric) diagnostics along with lithium depletion serve as age proxies. Other authors in this volume present more detail in each of the aforementioned areas. Herein, I focus on pre-main sequence HR diagrams and address the questions: Do empirical young cluster isochrones match theoretical isochrones? Do isochrones predict stellar ages consistent with those derived via other independent techniques? Do the observed apparent luminosity spreads at constant effective temperature correspond to true age spreads? While definitive answers to these questions are not provided, some methods of progression are outlined.

Lynne A. Hillenbrand

2008-12-06

338

Spectral and Structure Modeling of Low and High Mass Young Stars Using a Radiative Trasnfer Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectroscopy data from space telescopes (ISO, Spitzer, Herchel) shows that in addition to dust grains (e.g. silicates), there is also the presence of the frozen molecular species (astrophysical ices, such as H _{2}O, CO, CO _{2}, CH _{3}OH) in the circumstellar environments. In this work we present a study of the modeling of low and high mass young stellar objects (YSOs), where we highlight the importance in the use of the astrophysical ices processed by the radiation (UV, cosmic rays) comes from stars in formation process. This is important to characterize the physicochemical evolution of the ices distributed by the protostellar disk and its envelope in some situations. To perform this analysis, we gathered (i) observational data from Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) related with low mass protostar Elias29 and high mass protostar W33A, (ii) absorbance experimental data in the infrared spectral range used to determinate the optical constants of the materials observed around this objects and (iii) a powerful radiative transfer code to simulate the astrophysical environment (RADMC-3D, Dullemond et al, 2012). Briefly, the radiative transfer calculation of the YSOs was done employing the RADMC-3D code. The model outputs were the spectral energy distribution and theoretical images in different wavelengths of the studied objects. The functionality of this code is based on the Monte Carlo methodology in addition to Mie theory for interaction among radiation and matter. The observational data from different space telescopes was used as reference for comparison with the modeled data. The optical constants in the infrared, used as input in the models, were calculated directly from absorbance data obtained in the laboratory of both unprocessed and processed simulated interstellar samples by using NKABS code (Rocha & Pilling 2014). We show from this study that some absorption bands in the infrared, observed in the spectrum of Elias29 and W33A can arises after the ices around the protostars were processed by the radiation comes from central object. In addition, we were able also to compare the observational data for this two objects with those obtained in the modeling. Authors would like to thanks the agencies FAPESP (JP#2009/18304-0 and PHD#2013/07657-5).

Robson Rocha, Will; Pilling, Sergio

339

An Icy Kuiper-Belt Around the Young Solar-Type Star HD 181327  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

HD 181327 is a young Main Sequence F5/F6 V star belonging to the Beta Pictoris moving group (age approx 12 Myr). It harbors an optically thin belt of circumstellar material at approx90 AU, presumed to result from collisions in a populat.ion of unseen planetesimals. Aims. We aim to study the dust properties in the belt in great details, and to constrain the gas-to-dust ratio. Methods. We obtained far-IR photometric observations of HD 181327 with the PACS instrument onboard the Herschel Space Observatory, complemented by new 3.2 nun observations carried with the ATCA array. The geometry of the belt is constrained with newly reduced HST /NICMOS scattered light images that break the degeneracy between the disk geometry and the dust properties. We then use the radiative transfer code GRaTer to compute a large grid of dust models, and we apply a Bayesian inference method to identify the grain models that best reproduce the SED. We attempt to detect the oxygen and ionized carbon fine-structure lines with Herschel/PACS spectroscopy, providing observables to our photochemical code ProDiMo. Results. The HST observations confirm that the dust is confined in a narrow belt. The continuum is detected with Herschel/PACS completing nicely the SED in the far-infrared. The disk is marginally resolved with both PACS and ATCA. A medium integration of the gas spectral lines only provides upper limits on the [OI] and [CII] line fluxes. We show that the HD 181327 dust disk consists of micron-sized grains of porous amorphous silicates and carbonaceous material surrounded by an import.ant layer of ice for a total dust mass of approx 0.05 stellar Mass. We discuss evidences that the grains consists of fluffy aggregates. The upper limits on the gas atomic lines do not provide unambiguous constraints: only if the PAH abundance is high, the gas mass must be lower than approx 17 Stellar Mass Conclusions. Despite the weak constraints on the gas disk, the age of HD 181327 and the properties of the dust disk suggest that it has passed the stage of gaseous planets formation. The dust reveals a population of icy planetesimals, similar to the primitive Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt, that may be a source for the future delivery of water and volatiles onto forming terrestrial planets.

Lebreton, J.; Augereau, J.-C.; Thi, W.-F.; Roberge, A.; Donaldson, J.; Schneider, G.; Maddison, S. T.; Menard, F.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Mathews, G. S.; Kamp, I.; Pinte, C.; Dent, W. R. F.; Barrado, D.; Duchene, G.; Gonzalez, J.-F.; Grady, C. A.; Meeus, G.; Pantin, E.; Williams, J. P.; Woitke, P.

2011-01-01

340

An Icy Kuiper Belt Around the Young Solar-type Star HD 181327  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Context. HD 181327 is a young main sequence F5/F6 V star belonging to the Beta Pictoris moving group (age approx.. 12 Myr). It harbors an optically thin belt of circumstellar material at radius approx.. 90 AU, presumed to result from collisions in a population of unseen planetesimals. Aims. We aim to study the dust properties in the belt in details, and to constrain the gas-to-dust ratio. Methods. We obtained far-infrared photometric observations of HD 181327 with the PACS instrument onboard the Herschel Space Observatory, complemented by new 3.2 mm observations carried with the ATCA array. The geometry of the belt is constrained with newly reduced HST/NICMOS scattered light images that allow the degeneracy between the disk geometry and the dust properties to be broken. We then use the radiative transfer code GRaTeR to compute a large grid of models, and we identify the grain models that best reproduce the spectral energy distribution (SED) through a Bayesian analysis. We attempt to detect the oxygen and ionized carbon fine-structure lines with Herschel/PACS spectroscopy, providing observables to our photochemical code ProDiMo. Results. The HST observations confirm that the dust is confined in a narrow belt. The continuum is detected with Herschel/PACS completing nicely the SED in the far-infrared. The disk is marginally resolved with both PACS and ATCA. A medium integration of the gas spectral lines only provides upper limits on the [OI] and [CII] line fluxes.We show that the HD 181327 dust disk consists of micron-sized grains of porous amorphous silicates and carbonaceous material surrounded by an important layer of ice, for a total dust mass of approx.. 0.05 Solar Mass (in grains up to 1 mm). We discuss evidences that the grains consists of fluffy aggregates. The upper limits on the gas atomic lines do not provide unambiguous constraints: only if the PAH abundance is high, the gas mass must be lower than approx. 17 Solar Mass. Conclusions. Despite the weak constraints on the gas disk, the age of HD 181327 and the properties of the dust disk suggest that it has passed the stage of gaseous planets formation. The dust reveals a population of icy planetesimals, similar to the primitive Edgeworth-Kuiper belt, that may be a source for the future delivery of water and volatiles onto forming terrestrial planets.

Lebreton, J.; Augereau, J.-C.; Thi, W.-F.; Roberge, A.; Donaldson, J; Schneider, G.; Maddison, S. T.; Menard, F.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Matthews, G. S.; Kamp, I.; Pinte, C.; Dent, W. R. F.; Barrado, D.; Duchene, G.; Gonzalez, J.-F.; Grady C. A.; Meeus,G.; Pantin, E.; Williams, J. P.; Woitke, P.

2012-01-01

341

Connecting Flares and Transient Mass Loss Events in Active Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the ramification of associating the energetics of extreme stellar magnetic reconnection events with transient stellar mass loss in a stellar analogy with solar eruptive events. We establish energy partitions relative to the total bolometric radiated flare energy for different observed components of stellar flares, and show that there is rough agreement for these values between solar and stellar flares. We apply an equipartition between the bolometric radiated flare energy and kinetic energy in an accompanying mass ejection, seen in solar eruptive events and expected from reconnection, so that an observed distribution of flare frequency with energy in a particular waveband can be used to estimate the amount of transient mass loss. This approach is supported by a good correspondence between observational flare signatures on high flaring rate stars and the Sun, which suggests a common physical origin. If the frequent and extreme flares that young solar-like stars and low-mass stars experience are accompanied by transient mass loss in the form of coronal mass ejections, then their cumulative effect may be large. We find that for young solar-like stars and active M dwarfs the total mass lost due to transient ejections of mass as part of magnetic eruptive events can have significant implications for the stars themselves and potentially for planet formation, disk evolution, exoplanet habitability, and dispersal into the ISM.

Osten, Rachel A.; Wolk, Scott J.

2015-01-01

342

Limits of detection in debris disks around young stars with NaCo/Sparse Aperture Masking observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the formation and evolution of solar systems and planets formations in the stars neighbourhood, we need to obtain information of their state at different time of their evolution. Here, we focus on debris disks around young stars aged of ten to few tens of Myr, we analyze NaCo/Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM) observations in the L' band (3.8 ?m) of eight objects (beta Pictoris, AU Mic, 49 Ceti, eta Tel, Fomalhaut, G Lupi, HD182327 and HR8799). The aim is to get limits of detection about the mass of the debris orbiting around their stars. The SAM technique consists in transforming a single telescope into a Fizeau interferometer using a non redundant mask inserted in a pupil plane of the instrument. The analysis of the observations was completed with the sparse aperture mode pipeline. Interference fringes are fitted to obtain complex visibilities of the object, then the closure phases are calibrated and evaluated. Finally, a map of the detection limits is obtained as it is related to the closure phases previously estimated. In order to obtain an estimation of the mass corresponding to the luminosity measured with the reduction pipeline we are using theoretical isochrones interpolated into synthetic color tables. The results are maps of detection limits in unit of Jupiter Mass in a range of up to 450 mas around the stars.

Gauchet, L.; Lacour, S.

2014-09-01

343

YOUNG STARS NEAR EARTH: THE OCTANS-NEAR ASSOCIATION AND CASTOR MOVING GROUP  

SciTech Connect

All cataloged stellar moving groups and associations with ages ?100 Myr and within 100 pc of Earth have Galactic space motions (UVW) situated in a 'good box' with dimensions ?20 km s{sup –1} on a side. Torres et al. defined the Octans Association as a group of 15 stars with age '20 Myr?' and located ?140 pc from Earth, but with average V space velocity –3.6 km s{sup –1} that is well outside of the good box. We present a list of 14 Hipparcos star systems within 100 pc of Earth that we call {sup O}ctans-Near{sup ;} these systems have UVW similar to those of the much more distant Octans Association. The Octans-Near stars have apparent ages between about 30 and 100 Myr and their relationship to the Octans Association stars is unclear. Six additional star systems have UVW similar to those of Octans-Near stars and likely ages ?200 Myr. These six systems include the late-type binary star EQ Peg—6.2 pc from Earth with likely age ?100 Myr and thus likely to be the nearest known pre-main sequence star system. The UVW of stars in a previously proposed ?200 Myr old Castor moving group are not too dissimilar from the UVW of Octans-Near stars. However, stars in the Castor group—if it exists at all—are mostly substantially older than 200 Myr and thus generally can readily be distinguished from the much younger Octans-Near stars.

Zuckerman, B.; Vican, Laura [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Song, Inseok [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States); Schneider, Adam, E-mail: ben@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: lvican@ucla.edu, E-mail: song@uga.edu, E-mail: Adam.Schneider@Utoledo.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

2013-11-20

344

Do All Stars Form in Clusters?: Masses and Ages of Young Supergiants in Andromeda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently it is not understood whether seemingly isolated stars formed in situ or were ejected from star clusters as runaway stars. Previous studies determined the origins of isolated stars by measuring their velocities, but past research was limited to OB stars in the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds due to the difficulty of computing velocities of distant objects. This study proposed an innovative velocity test to statistically determine whether six seemingly isolated BA-type supergiants in Andromeda are runaways. We calculated the minimum relative transverse velocity needed for each supergiant to travel to its current location from the nearest open cluster. By comparing the minimum velocity with Andromeda’s known velocity dispersion, a statistical measure of the stars’ actual velocities, we determined whether the star had the necessary velocity to be a runaway. Minimum velocity was computed from the age of the star, which was calculated from its effective temperature and surface gravity. To compute effective temperature and surface gravity, we applied three new techniques based on Balmer absorption features. The results suggest that all six supergiants had the necessary velocities to be runaways. Although the proposed velocity test is a statistical assessment, it offers a valuable new tool for future investigation of isolated stars beyond the Milky Way and its satellites. This research was supported by the Science Internship Program (SIP) at UCSC, the National Science Foundation, NASA, and Palomar Observatory.

Choudhury, Zareen; Debs, C.; Kirby, E. N.; Guhathakurta, P.

2013-01-01

345

XMM-Newton investigations of the Lambda Orionis star-forming region (XILO). I. The young cluster Collinder 69  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. This is the first paper of a series devoted to the Lambda Orionis star-forming region, Orion's Head, from the X-ray perspective. Our final aim is to provide a comprehensive view of this complex region, which includes several distinct associations and dark clouds. Aims: We aim to uncover the population of the central, young star cluster Collinder 69, and in particular those diskless Class III objects not identified by previous surveys based on near- and mid-infrared searches, and to establish the X-ray luminosity function for the association. Methods: We have combined two exposures taken with the XMM-Newton satellite with an exhaustive data set of optical, near- and mid-infrared photometry to assess the membership of the X-ray sources based on different color-color and color-magnitude diagrams, as well as other properties, such as effective temperatures, masses and bolometric luminosities derived from spectral energy distribution fitting and comparison with theoretical isochrones. The presence of circumstellar disks is discussed using mid-infrared photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope. Results: With an X-ray flux limit of ~ 5 × 10-15 erg/cm2/s we detected a total of 164 X-ray sources, of which 66 are probable and possible cluster members. A total of 16 are newly identified probable members plus another three possible new members. The two XMM-Newton pointings east and west of the cluster center have allowed us to verify the heterogeneous spatial distribution of young stars, which is probably related to the large scale structure of the region. The disk fraction of the X-ray detected cluster sample (complete down to ~ 0.3 M_?) is very low, close to 10%, in remarkable contrast to the low-mass stellar and substellar population (mostly undetected in X-rays) where the disk fraction reaches about 50%. The X-ray luminosity function of Collinder 69 in different mass bins provides support for an age of several Myr when compared with other well known young associations. Conclusions: The X-ray properties of the young stars in Collinder 69 resemble those found in other young stellar associations, with saturation at log(Lx/Lbol) ~ -3 and low fractional X-ray luminosities for stars with M ? 2 M_?. With our improved cluster census we confirm previous reports on the untypically low disk fraction compared to other clusters of several Myr age. The different disk fractions of X-ray detected (essentially solar-like) and undetected (mostly low-mass stars and brown dwarfs) members can be understood as a consequence of a mass-dependence of the time-scale for disk evolution. Tables 3-6, 8, 9 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Barrado, D.; Stelzer, B.; Morales-Calderón, M.; Bayo, A.; Huélamo, N.; Stauffer, J. R.; Hodgkin, S.; Galindo, F.; Verdugo, E.

2011-02-01

346

Volcanic Eruptions and Hazards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive resource adapted from the National Park Service explains the difference between explosive or effusive (lava pours from a vent onto the ground) volcanic eruptions, and describes the hazards associated with each type of eruption.

2010-10-15

347

Modeling Accretion and Ejection Phenomena Around Young Stars: A Numerical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter presents an overview of models based on time-dependent numerical simulations of the central regions of accreting\\u000a T Tauri stars. The focus is put on magnetohydrodynamical studies of the launching mechanism of T Tauri jets (disk–winds, stellar\\u000a winds, magnetospheric ejections) and of the magnetic star–disk interaction.

Claudio Zanni

2010-01-01

348

On the absence of young white dwarf companions to five technetium stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A search for hot companions to five stars of type MS and S has been carried out using the IUE satellite. No hot companions were detected for the MS stars HR 85, 4647, 6702, and 8062, and the S star HR 8714. Limits on the luminosities of possible white dwarf companions provide lower limits of 2-5x10 to the 8th yr to the ages of any degenerate companions. All five stars exhibit strong Tc I lines, and the presence of technetium, with a half-life of 2.1x10 to the 5th yr, signifies recent nucleosynthesis. The limits on the ages of possible white dwarf companions that are equal to or greater than 1000 half-lives of Tc exclude the possibility that the s-process elemental enhancement seen in these MS and S stars resulted from mass transfer from a more highly evolved companion (as is probably the mechanism by which barium stars are created). These MS and S stars represent a sample of true thermally pulsing asymptotic giant-branch stars.

Smith, Verne V.; Lambert, David L.

1987-01-01

349

X-ray spectral and timing characteristics of the stars in the young open cluster IC 2391  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present X-ray spectral and timing analysis of members of the young open cluster IC 2391 observed with the XMM-Newton observatory. We detected 99 X-ray sources by analysing the summed data obtained from MOS1, MOS2 and pn detectors of the EPIC camera; 24 of them are members, or probable members, of the cluster. Stars of all spectral types have been detected, from the early-types to the late-M dwarfs. Despite the capability of the instrument to recognize up to 3 thermal components, the X-ray spectra of the G, K and M members of the cluster are well described with two thermal components (at kT1 ˜ 0.3-0.5 keV and kT2 ˜ 1.0-1.2 keV respectively) while the X-ray spectra of F members require only a softer 1-T model. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test applied to the X-ray photon time series shows that approximately 46% of the members of IC 2391 are variable with a confidence level >99%. The comparison of our data with those obtained with ROSAT/PSPC, nine years earlier, and ROSAT/HRI, seven years earlier, shows that there is no evidence of significant variability on these time scales, suggesting that long-term variations due to activity cycles similar to that on the Sun are not common, if present at all, among these young stars.

Marino, A.; Micela, G.; Peres, G.; Pillitteri, I.; Sciortino, S.

2005-01-01

350

An Assessment of HR Diagram Constraints on Ages and Age Spreads in Star-Forming Regions and Young Clusters  

E-print Network

Pre-main sequence evolutionary theory is not well-calibrated to observations. With care, the observed quantities can be converted into effective temperature and luminosity (i.e. the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram) which the theoretical calculations also predict as a function of stellar mass and age. For a sample of nearby young stellar clusters and associations ranging in age from 100 Myr, we have tested the loci of luminosity as a function of effective temperature against various sets of predicted pre-main sequence isochrones. As we found in Hillenbrand & White (2004) which tested stellar masses, here for the stellar ages there are two conclusions: some evolutionary calculations fare better than others in reproducing the empirical sequences, and systematic differences between all pre-main sequence evolutionary calculations and the data are apparent. We also simulate hypothetical clusters of varying star formation history and compare the resulting HR diagram predictions to observed clusters. Our efforts are directed towards quantitative assessment of **apparent** luminosity spreads in star forming regions and young clusters, which are often erroneously interpreted as **true** luminosity spreads indicative of **true** age spreads.

Lynne A. Hillenbrand; Amber Bauermeister; Russel J. White

2007-03-26

351

Search for x ray emitting young stars outside of massive molecular clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project is intended to determine whether X-ray surveys of the sky can uncover previously unrecognized populations of pre-main sequence stars outside of large well-known star forming regions. X-ray observations of large regions such as the Taurus-Auriga complex, Orion molecular cloud, Ophiuchi and Chamaeleon clouds had revealed that low mass pre-main sequence emit X-rays 10(exp 2)-10(exp 4) above main sequence levels, and that X-ray surveys select a large population of 'weak' T Tauri stars that are not easily found in traditional optical and infrared surveys. The present project sought to find 'weak' T Tauri stars around smaller and more distant molecular clouds. X-ray surveys potentially could elucidate the star forming capabilities of small clouds, which are not well understood.

Feigelson, Eric D.

1991-01-01

352

The star fish twins: Two young planetary nebulae with extreme multipolar morphology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present alpha images of two objects, He 2-47 and M1-37, obtained during a Hubble Space Telescope imaging survey of young planetary nebulae (PNs) selected on the basis of their low-excitation characteristics.

Sahai, R.

2000-01-01

353

Old Stars in Young Clusters: Lithium-depleted Low-Mass Stars of the Orion Nebula Cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured lithium in a sample of low-mass stars (~0.1-0.3 Msolar) of the Orion Nebula cluster. We find evidence for significant Li depletion in four high-probability members, corresponding to nuclear ages between ~15 and 30 Myr. In two cases, there is excellent agreement between the mass and age based on models of Li burning and those derived from the H-R

F. Palla; S. Randich; Ya. V. Pavlenko; E. Flaccomio; R. Pallavicini

2007-01-01

354

An unbiased infrared H2 search for embedded flows from young stars in Orion A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of outflows, often in the form of well-collimated jets, is a phenomenon commonly associated with the birth of young stars. Emission from shock-excited molecular hydrogen at near-infrared wavelengths is one of the signposts of the presence of such an outflow, and generally can be observed even if the flow is obscured at optical wavelengths. In this thesis, I present the results of an unbiased, sensitive, wide-field search for flows from protostellar objects in the v=1-0 S(1) line at a wavelength of 2.12 ?m, covering a 1 square degree area of the Orion A giant molecular cloud. Further data covering a wide wavelength range are used to search for the driving sources of the flows. The aim of this work is to obtain a sample of outflows which is free from biases as far as possible, to derive the typical properties of the outflows, to search for evolutionary trends, and to examine the impact of outflows on the ambient cloud. The first result from this survey is that outflows are indeed common in star forming regions: more than 70 candidate jets are identified. Most of them have a fairly ill-defined morphology rather than a regular or symmetric structure, which is interpreted to be due to the turbulent, clumpy ambient medium into which the jets are propagating. The jets are randomly oriented. In particular, no alignment of the jets with the large scale ambient magnetic field is found, suggesting that the spin and symmetry axis in a protostellar object is determined by random, turbulent motions in the cloud. Candidate driving sources are identified for 49 jets, and their evolutionary stage and bolometric luminosity is estimated. The jet lengths and H2 luminosities evolve as a function of the age of the driving source: the jets grow quickly from zero length to a size of a few parsec and then slowly shorten again. The jets are very luminous early on and fade during the protostellar evolution. The evolution in length and H2 luminosity is attributed to an early phase of strong accretion, which subsequently decreases. The shortening of the jets with time requires the presence of a continuous deceleration of the jets. A simple model of the simultaneous evolution of a protostar, its circumstellar environment, and its outflow ( Smith 2000 ) can reproduce the measured values of H2 luminosity and driving source luminosity under the assumption of a strong accretion plus high ejection efficiency phase early in the protostellar evolution. Tatematsu et al. (1993) found 125 dense cloud cores in the survey area. The jet driving sources are found to have formed predominantly in quiet cores with a low ratio of internal kinetic energy to gravitational potential energy; these are the cores with higher masses. The cores which are associated with jets have on average larger linewidths than cores without jets. This is due to the preferred presence of jets in more massive cores, which generally have larger linewidths. There is no evidence for additional internal motions excited by the interaction of the jets with the cores. The jet H2 luminosity and the core linewidth (as predicted by theory) are related, if Class 0 and Class I jets are considered separately; the relation lies at higher values of the H2 luminosity for the Class 0 jets than for Class I jets. This also suggests a time evolution of the accretion rate, with a strong peak early on and a subsequent decay. Finally, the impact of a protostellar jet population on a molecular cloud is considered. Under the conservative assumption of strict forward momentum conservation, the jets appear to fail to provide sufficient momentum to replenish decaying turbulence on the scales of a giant molecular cloud and on the scales of molecular cloud cores. At the intermediate scales of molecular clumps with sizes of a few parsec and masses of a few hundred solar masses, the jets provide enough momentum in a short enough time to potentially replenish turbulence and thus might help to stabilize the clump against further collapse.

Stanke, Thomas

2000-07-01

355

An unbiased infrared H2 search for embedded flows from young stars in Orion A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of outflows, often in the form of well-collimated jets, is a phenomenon commonly associated with the birth of young stars. Emission from shock-excited molecular hydrogen at near-infrared wavelengths is one of the signposts of the presence of such an outflow, and generally can be observed even if the flow is obscured at optical wavelengths. In this thesis, I present the results of an unbiased, sensitive, wide-field search for flows from protostellar objects in the H2 v=1-0 S(1) line at a wavelength of 2.12 µm, covering a 1 square degree area of the Orion A giant molecular cloud. Further data covering a wide wavelength range are used to search for the driving sources of the flows. The aim of this work is to obtain a sample of outflows which is free from biases as far as possible, to derive the typical properties of the outflows, to search for evolutionary trends, and to examine the impact of outflows on the ambient cloud. The first result from this survey is that outflows are indeed common in star forming regions: more than 70 candidate jets are identified. Most of them have a fairly ill-defined morphology rather than a regular or symmetric structure, which is interpreted to be due to the turbulent, clumpy ambient medium into which the jets are propagating. The jets are randomly oriented. In particular, no alignment of the jets with the large scale ambient magnetic field is found, suggesting that the spin and symmetry axis in a protostellar object is determined by random, turbulent motions in the cloud. Candidate driving sources are identified for 49 jets, and their evolutionary stage and bolometric luminosity is estimated. The jet lengths and H2 luminosities evolve as a function of the age of the driving source: the jets grow quickly from zero length to a size of a few parsec and then slowly shorten again. The jets are very luminous early on and fade during the protostellar evolution. The evolution in length and H2 luminosity is attributed to an early phase of strong accretion, which subsequently decreases. The shortening of the jets with time requires the presence of a continuous deceleration of the jets. A simple model of the simultaneous evolution of a protostar, its circumstellar environment, and its outflow (Smith 2000) can reproduce the measured values of H2 luminosity and driving source luminosity under the assumption of a strong accretion plus high ejection efficiency phase early in the protostellar evolution. Tatematsu et al. (1993) found 125 dense cloud cores in the survey area. The jet driving sources are found to have formed predominantly in quiet cores with a low ratio of internal kinetic energy to gravitational potential energy; these are the cores with higher masses. The cores which are associated with jets have on average larger linewidths than cores without jets. This is due to the preferred presence of jets in more massive cores, which generally have larger linewidths. There is no evidence for additional internal motions excited by the interaction of the jets with the cores. The jet H2 luminosity and the core linewidth (as predicted by theory) are related, if Class 0 and Class I jets are considered separately; the relation lies at higher values of the H2 luminosity for the Class 0 jets than for Class I jets. This also suggests a time evolution of the accretion rate, with a strong peak early on and a subsequent decay. Finally, the impact of a protostellar jet population on a molecular cloud is considered. Under the conservative assumption of strict forward momentum conservation, the jets appear to fail to provide sufficient momentum to replenish decaying turbulence on the scales of a giant molecular cloud and on the scales of molecular cloud cores. At the intermediate scales of molecular clumps with sizes of a few parsec and masses of a few hundred solar masses, the jets provide enough momentum in a short enough time to potentially replenish turbulence and thus might help to stabilize the clump against further collapse. Gasausströmungen, oft in der Form hoch kollimierter Jets, sind ein allg

Stanke, Thomas

2001-04-01

356

The formation of Lyman alpha fluorescent H2 lines in protoplanetary disks surrounding young solar mass stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to carry out a theoretical study of the formation of the H2 UV lines created by Lyman alpha fluorescence in protoplanetary disks around solar mass stars. We will use irradiated accretion disks models in which the dust and gas temperatures, as well as the hydrostatic density structure and corresponding chemistry is solved self-consistently, using as input realistic high energy fields, and observed ranges of accretion luminosities. We will include gas opacities in addition to dust to calculate the transfer of high energy radiation, which will enable us to model the gas disk inside the dust destruction radius where a substantial contribution to the flux of the H2 lines arises. The models will also include effects of dust settling by varying the vertical and radial distribution of the dust, which will have a direct effect on the the penetration of high energy radiation with implications for the gas temperature structure, the chemistry, and the strength of the H2 fluorescent lines. We will create a dedicated website with predicted H2 fluorescent line luminosities for a set of models covering ranges of stellar and accretion parameters typical of accreting solar mass stars and different degrees of dust settling. Our study will support efforts of the Ultraviolet Initiative of Cycle 22 by providing the community with the best means to interpret the FUV COS and STIS H2 spectra of young accreting stars.

Calvet, Nuria

2014-10-01

357

From Stars to Super-Planets: The Low-Mass IMF in the Young Cluster IC348  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigate the low-mass population of the young cluster IC348 down to the deuterium-burning limit, a fiducial boundary between brown dwarf and planetary mass objects, using a new and innovative method for the spectral classification of late-type objects. Using photometric indices, constructed from HST/NICMOS narrow-band imaging, that measure the strength of the 1.9 micron water band, we determine the spectral type and reddening for every M-type star in the field, thereby separating cluster members from the interloper population. Due to the efficiency of our spectral classification technique, our study is complete from approximately 0.7 solar mass to 0.015 solar mass. The mass function derived for the cluster in this interval, dN/d log M alpha M(sup 0.5), is similar to that obtained for the Pleiades, but appears significantly more abundant in brown dwarfs than the mass function for companions to nearby sun-like stars. This provides compelling observational evidence for different formation and evolutionary histories for substellar objects formed in isolation vs. as companions. Because our determination of the IMF is complete to very low masses, we can place interesting constraints on the role of physical processes such as fragmentation in the star and planet formation process and the fraction of dark matter in the Galactic halo that resides in substellar objects.

Najita, Joan R.; Tiede, Glenn P.; Carr, John S.

2000-01-01

358

Oscillations of hot, young neutron stars: Gravitational wave frequencies and damping times  

E-print Network

We study how the frequencies and damping times of oscillations of a newly born, hot proto-neutron star depend on the physical quantities which characterize the star quasi-stationary evolution which follows the bounce. Stellar configurations are modeled using a microscopic equation of state obtained within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock, nuclear many-body approach, extended to the finite-temperature regime. We discuss the mode frequency behaviour as function of the lepton composition, and of the entropy gradients which prevail in the interior of the star. We find that, in the very early stages, gravitational wave emission efficiently competes with neutrino processes in dissipating the star mechanical energy residual of the gravitational collapse.

G. F. Burgio; V. Ferrari; L. Gualtieri; H. J. Schulze

2011-06-14

359

Star warriors: The young scientists who are inventing the weaponry of space  

SciTech Connect

Broad's account of a week spent at Livermore nuclear lab in California offers a picture of the breakthrough weaponry-their theoretical origins and technology-that gave rise to the President's ''Star Wars'' proposal.

Broad, W.J.

1985-01-01

360

Young Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in IC 348  

Microsoft Academic Search

I present new results from a continuing program to identify and characterize\\u000athe low-mass stellar and substellar populations in the young cluster IC 348\\u000a(1-10~Myr). Optical spectroscopy has revealed young objects with spectral types\\u000aas late as M8.25. The intrinsic J-H and H-K colors of these sources are\\u000adwarf-like, whereas the R-I and I-J colors appear intermediate between the\\u000acolors

K. L. Luhman

1999-01-01

361

Triggering of solar magnetic eruptions on various size scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar eruption that produces a coronal mass ejection (CME) together with a flare is driven by the eruption of a closed-loop magnetic arcade that has a sheared-field core. Before eruption, the sheared core envelops a polarity inversion line along which cool filament material may reside. The sheared-core arcade erupts when there is a breakdown in the balance between the confining downward-directed magnetic tension of the overall arcade field and the upward-directed force of the pent-up magnetic pressure of the sheared field in the core of the arcade. What triggers the breakdown in this balance in favor of the upward-directed force is still an unsettled question. We consider several eruption examples, using imaging data from the SoHO, TRACE and Hinode satellites, and other sources, along with information about the magnetic field of the erupting regions. In several cases, observations of large-scale eruptions, where the magnetic neutral line spans ˜ few ×10,000 km, are consistent with magnetic flux cancelation being the trigger to the eruption's onset, even though the amount of flux canceled is only ˜ few percent of the total magnetic flux of the erupting region. In several other cases, an initial compact (small size-scale) eruption occurs embedded inside of a larger closed magnetic loop system, so that the smaller eruption destabilizes and causes the eruption of the much larger system. In this way, small-scale eruptive events can result in eruption of much larger-scale systems. This work was funded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate thought the Living With a Star Targeted Research and Technology Program, the Supporting Research and Program, and the Hinode project.

Sterling, Alphonse

362

Embedded stellar populations towards young massive star formation regions - I. G305.2+0.2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present deep, wide field J, H and Ks images taken with Infrared Imager and Spectrometer 2 (IRIS2) on the Anglo-Australian Telescope, towards the massive star formation region G305.2+0.2. Combined with 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0 ?m data from the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) survey on the Spitzer Space Telescope, we investigate the properties of the embedded stellar populations. After removing contamination from foreground stars, we separate the sources based on their infrared (IR) colour. Strong extended emission in the GLIMPSE images hampers investigation of the most embedded sources towards the known sites of massive star formation. However, we find a sizeable population of IR excess sources in the surrounding region free from these completeness effects. Investigation reveals the recent star formation activity in the region is more widespread than previously known. Stellar density plots show the embedded cluster in the region, G305.24+0.204, is offset from the dust emission. We discuss the effect of this cluster on the surrounding area and argue it may have played a role in triggering sites of star formation within the region. Finally, we investigate the distribution of IR excess sources towards the cluster, in particular their apparent lack towards the centre compared with its immediate environs.

Longmore, S. N.; Maercker, M.; Ramstedt, S.; Burton, M. G.

2007-10-01

363

VizieR Online Data Catalog: POPSTAR models. III. Young star clusters (Garcia-Vargas+, 2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

table6.zip includes all the files listed in list.dat and available individually in the subdirectory "models". We have calculated the colours of a system composed of two populations: one older than 100Myr (log{tau}(yr)>=8.00) and one younger than this same limit (log{tau}<8.00). The stellar mass of the young population in this model grid takes the same values as in the SSP models: 0.12, 0.20, 0.40, 0.60, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 x105M?. For each model or composite system, we assume an old stellar population with a mass on the zero time main sequence defined by a factor F=Mold/Myoung. We have taken 6 possible values for this grid, F=0, 1, 10, 100, 1000 and 5000. Colours are computed by using the total luminosity emitted by both the old population and the young stellar population, including the emission lines contribution and the nebular continuum. We have obtained a table for each old stellar population defined by its age and metallicity, where all possible combinations with the young stellar population (scanning the grid in mass, age and metallicity of the young cluster) are included. table6.zip is a zip file with all these tables (198 files, 33 ages for each of the six metallicities). See section 4 for further explanations. (6 data files).

Garcia-Vargas, M. L.; Molla, M.; Martin-Manjon, M. L.

2013-07-01

364

The Young, Massive, Star Cluster Sandage-96 After the Explosion of Supernova 2004dj in NGC 2403  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bright Type II-plateau supernova (SN) 2004dj occurred within the young, massive stellar cluster Sandage-96 in a spiral arm of NGC 2403. New multiwavelength observations obtained with several ground-based and space-based telescopes were combined to study the radiation from Sandage-96 after SN 2004dj faded away. Sandage-96 started to dominate the flux in the optical bands starting from 2006 September (~800 days after explosion). The optical fluxes are equal to the pre-explosion ones within the observational uncertainties. An optical Keck spectrum obtained ~900 days after explosion shows the dominant blue continuum from the cluster stars shortward of 6000 Å as well as strong SN nebular emission lines redward. The integrated spectral energy distribution (SED) of the cluster has been extended into the ultraviolet region by archival XMM-Newton and new Swift observations, and compared with theoretical models. The outer parts of the cluster have been resolved by the Hubble Space Telescope, allowing the construction of a color-magnitude diagram (CMD). The fitting of the cluster SED with theoretical isochrones results in cluster ages distributed between 10 and 40 Myr, depending on the assumed metallicity and the theoretical model family. The isochrone fitting of the CMDs indicates that the resolved part of the cluster consists of stars having a bimodal age distribution: a younger population at ~10-16 Myr and an older one at ~32-100 Myr. The older population has an age distribution similar to that of the other nearby field stars. This may be explained with the hypothesis that the outskirts of Sandage-96 are contaminated by stars captured from the field during cluster formation. The young age of Sandage-96 and the comparison of its pre and postexplosion SEDs suggest 12 lsim M prog lsim 20 M sun as the most probable mass range for the progenitor of SN 2004dj. This is consistent with, but perhaps slightly higher than, most of the other Type II-plateau SN progenitor masses determined so far.

Vinkó, J.; Sárneczky, K.; Balog, Z.; Immler, S.; Sugerman, B. E. K.; Brown, P. J.; Misselt, K.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Kun, M.; Klagyivik, P.; Foley, R. J.; Filippenko, A. V.; Csák, B.; Kiss, L. L.

2009-04-01

365

The large amplitude outburst of the young star HBC 722 in NGC 7000/IC 5070, a new FU Orionis candidate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The investigations of the photometric and spectral variability of PMS stars are essential to a better understanding of the early phases of stellar evolution. We are carrying out a photometric monitoring program of some fields of active star formation. One of our targets is the dark cloud region between the bright nebulae NGC 7000 and IC 5070. Aims: We report the discovery of a large amplitude outburst from the young star HBC 722 (LkH? 188 G4) located in the region of NGC 7000/IC 5070. On the basis of photometric and spectroscopic observations, we argue that this outburst is of the FU Orionis type. Methods: We gathered photometric and spectroscopic observations of the object both in the pre-outburst state and during a phase of increase in its brightness. The photometric BVRI data (Johnson-Cousins system) that we present were collected from April 2009 to September 2010. To facilitate transformation from instrumental measurements to the standard system, fifteen comparison stars in the field of HBC 722 were calibrated in the BVRI bands. Optical spectra of HBC 722 were obtained with the 1.3-m telescope of Skinakas Observatory (Crete, Greece) and the 0.6-m telescope of Schiaparelli Observatory in Varese (Italy). Results: The pre-outburst photometric and spectroscopic observations of HBC 722 show both low amplitude photometric variations and an emission-line spectrum typical of T Tau stars. The observed outburst started before May 2010 and reached its maximum brightness in September 2010, with a recorded ?V ~ 4.7m amplitude. Simultaneously with the increase in brightness the color indices changed significantly and the star became appreciably bluer. The light curve of HBC 722 during the period of rise in brightness is similar to the light curves of the classical FUors - FU Ori and V1057 Cyg. The spectral observations during the time of increase in brightness showed significant changes in both the profiles and intensity of the spectral lines. Only H? remained in emission, while the H?, Na I 5890/5896, Mg I triplet 5174, and Ba II 5854/6497 lines were in strong absorption.

Semkov, E. H.; Peneva, S. P.; Munari, U.; Milani, A.; Valisa, P.

2010-11-01

366

Two Remarkable Spectroscopic Categories of Young O Stars from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey  

E-print Network

The spectral and spatial characteristics of two special categories of O stars found in the VFTS dataset are presented. One of them comprises very rapid rotators, including several more extreme than any previously known. These objects are distributed around the peripheries of the main 30 Doradus clusters, suggesting a runaway nature for which their radial velocities already provide preliminary supporting evidence. The other category consists of a large number of Vz stars, previously hypothesized on spectroscopic grounds to be on or very near the ZAMS. Their distribution is the inverse of that of the rapid rotators: the Vz are strongly concentrated to the ionizing clusters, plus a newly recognized band of recent and current star formation to the north, which provides strong circumstantial evidence for their extreme youth.

Walborn, Nolan R; Taylor, William D; Simon-Diaz, Sergio; Evans, Christopher J

2011-01-01

367

Two Remarkable Spectroscopic Categories of Young O Stars from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectral and spatial characteristics of two special categories of O stars found in the VFTS dataset are presented. One of them comprises very rapid rotators, including several more extreme than any previously known. These objects are distributed around the peripheries of the main 30 Doradus clusters, suggesting a runaway nature for which their radial velocities already provide preliminary supporting evidence. The other category consists of a large number of Vz stars, previously hypothesized on spectroscopic grounds to be on or very near the ZAMS. Their distribution is the inverse of that of the rapid rotators: the Vz are strongly concentrated to the ionizing clusters, plus a newly recognized band of recent and current star formation to the north, which provides strong circumstantial evidence for their extreme youth.

Walborn, N. R.; Sana, H.; Taylor, W. D.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Evans, C. J.

2012-12-01

368

A very young star forming region detected by the ISOPHOT Serendipity Survey  

E-print Network

We present a multi-wavelength study of the star forming region ISOSS J 20298+3559, which was identified by a cross-correlation of cold compact sources from the 170 micron ISOPHOT Serendipity Survey (ISOSS) database coinciding with objects detected by the MSX, 2MASS and IRAS infrared surveys. ISOSS J 20298+3559 is associated with a massive dark cloud complex (M ~ 760 M$_{\\odot}$) and located in the Cygnus X giant molecular cloud. We derive a distance of 1800 pc on the basis of optical extinction data. The low average dust temperature (T ~ 16 K) and large mass (M ~ 120 M$_{\\odot}$) of the dense inner part of the cloud, which has not been dispersed, indicates a recent begin of star formation. The youth of the region is supported by the early evolutionary stage of several pre- and protostellar objects discovered across the regio n: I) Two candidate Class 0 objects with masses of 8 and 3.5 M$_{\\odot}$, II) a gravitationally bound, cold (T ~ 12 K) and dense (n(H$_{2}$) \\~ 2 x 10$^{5}$ cm$^{-3}$) cloud core with a mass of 50 M$_{\\odot}$ and III) a Herbig B2 star with a mass of 6.5 M$_{\\odot}$ and a bolometric luminosity of 2200 L$_{\\odot}$, showing evidence for ongoing accretion and a stellar age of less than 40000 years. The dereddened SED of the Herbig star is well reproduced by an accretion disc + star model. The externally heated cold cloud core is a good candidate for a massive pre-protostellar object. The star formation efficiency in the central cloud region is about 14 %.

O. Krause; D. Lemke; L. V. Toth; U. Klaas; M. Haas; M. Stickel; R. Vavrek

2002-09-15

369

IUE observations of the chromospheric activity-age relation in young solar-type stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultraviolet data obtained with the IUE spacecraft are presented for a dozen solar-type stars in the field. The stars are of spectral type F6 V - G1 V; on the basis of their high Li content, they range in age from 0.1 to 2.8 Gyr. The evolution of transition regions and chromospheric emission with stellar age is studied along with the surface distribution of magnetically active regions as revealed by rotational modulation of UV emission line fluxes.

Simon, T.; Boesgaard, A. M.

1982-01-01

370

Direct imaging of bridged twin protoplanetary disks in a young multiple star.  

PubMed

Studies of the structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks are important for understanding star and planet formation. Here we present the direct image of an interacting binary protoplanetary system. Both circumprimary and circumsecondary disks are resolved in the near-infrared. There is a bridge of infrared emission connecting the two disks and a long spiral arm extending from the circumprimary disk. Numerical simulations show that the bridge corresponds to gas flow and a shock wave caused by the collision of gas rotating around the primary and secondary stars. Fresh material streams along the spiral arm, consistent with the theoretical scenarios in which gas is replenished from a circummultiple reservoir. PMID:19965388

Mayama, Satoshi; Tamura, Motohide; Hanawa, Tomoyuki; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Ishii, Miki; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Suto, Hiroshi; Naoi, Takahiro; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Nishiyama, Shogo; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Hayashi, Masahiko

2010-01-15

371

An HST\\/WFPC2 survey of bright young clusters in M31. I. VdB0, a massive star cluster seen at t ~= 25 Myr  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: We introduce our imaging survey of possible young massive globular clusters in M31 performed with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We obtained shallow (to B˜ 25) photometry of individual stars in 20 candidate clusters. We present here details of the data reduction pipeline that is being applied to all the

S. Perina; P. Barmby; M. A. Beasley; M. Bellazzini; J. P. Brodie; D. Burstein; J. G. Cohen; L. Federici; F. Fusi Pecci; S. Galleti; P. W. Hodge; J. P. Huchra; M. Kissler-Patig; T. H. Puzia; J. Strader

2009-01-01

372

The massive Class I eruptive variable V723 Carinae and its neighbour Car I-125  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-IR observations from 1993 to 2014 of V723 Carinae confirm this to be a young eruptive variable embedded in the Car I PDR/dust cloud in NGC 3372. In 1993, it was fainter than 16.6 in JHK and went into outburst before 2003, reaching K ? 12.9 in 2004. Since then, V723 Car has suffered erratic flux variations of up to ?K = 2 in time-scales of years. The variations are also evident into the mid-infrared. The H - K index shows correlation with K, though the ratio ?K/?(H - K) differs from that expected from dust extinction. The 1.91 to 2.48 ?m spectrum of V723 Car shows emission lines of H2 and also Br?, as well as 2.3-2.4 ?m CO overtone bandheads. The system is extremely red (H - K ? 4), with mid- and far-IR colours of a Class I object. The fitted parameters of Robitaille et al.'s model to the 1.6-850 ?m spectral energy distribution of V723 Car indicate a system composed of a 10 M? central star with a 5.6 × 10-3 M? disc and a 1.6 × 103 M? envelope with AV ˜ 55 of extinction. The total luminosity of the system is about 4 × 103 L?. V723 Car is the most luminous, most massive, most deeply embedded, and possibly the youngest of all the young eruptive variables known. Evidence is provided of a 5000 au-long jet of shocked gas extending to opposite sides of the star. The infrared properties of a nearby 10 L? Class I young stellar object, Car I-125, are also described, with variations in K typical of Herbig Ae/Be stars. Its near-IR spectrum is featureless except for bright Br? line emission.

Tapia, Mauricio; Roth, Miguel; Persi, Paolo

2015-02-01

373

First Keck Nulling Observations of a Young Stellar Object: Probing the Circumstellar Environment of the Herbig Ae Star MWC325  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the first N-band nulling plus K- and L-band V(sup 2) observations of a young stellar object, MWC 325, taken with the 85 m baseline Keck Interferometer. The Keck nuller was designed for the study of faint dust signatures associated with debris disks, but it also has a unique capability for studying the temperature and density distribution of denser disks found around young stellar objects. Interferometric observations of MWC 325 at K, L, and N encompass a factor of five in spectral range and thus, especially when spectrally dispersed within each band, enable characterization of the structure of the inner disk regions where planets form. Fitting our observations with . geometric models such as a uniform disk or a Gaussian disk show that the apparent size increases 'monotonically with wavelength in the 2-12/Lm wavelength region, confirming the widely held assumption based on radiative transfer models, now with spatially resolved measurements over a broad wavelength range, that disks are extended with a temperature gradient. The effective size is a factor of about 1.4 and 2.2 larger in the L band and N band, respectively, compared to that in the K band. The existing interferometric measurements and the spectral energy distribution can be reproduced by a flat disk or a weakly shadowed nearly flat disk model, with only slight flaring in the outer regions of the disk, consisting of representative "sub-micron" (0.1 micron) and "micron" (2 micron) grains of a 50:50 ratio of silicate and graphite. This is in marked contrast io the disks previously found in other Herbig Ae/Be stars, suggesting a wide variety in the disk properties among Herbig Ae/Be stars.

Ragland, S.; Ohnaka, K.; Hillenbrand, L.; Ridgway, S. T.; Colavita, M. M.; Akeson, R. L.; Cotton, W.; Danchi, W. C.; Hrynevich, M.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Traub, W. A.

2012-01-01

374

First Keck Nulling Observations of a Young Stellar Object: Probing the Circumstellar Environment of the Herbig Ae star MWC 325  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the first N-band nulling plus K- and L-band V(sup 2) observations of a young stellar object, MWC325, taken with the 85 m baseline Keck Interferometer. The Keck nuller was designed for the study of faint dust signatures associated with debris disks, but it also has a unique capability for studying the temperature and density distribution of denser disks found around young stellar objects. Interferometric observations of MWC 325 at K, L and N encompass a factor of five in spectral range and thus, especially when spectrally dispersed within each band, enable characterization of the structure of the inner disk regions where planets form. Fitting our observations with geometric models such as a uniform disk or a Gaussian disk show that the apparent size increases monotonically with wavelength in the 2-12 micrometer wavelength region, confirming the widely held assumption based on radiative transfer models, now with spatially resolved measurements over broad wavelength range, that disks are extended with a temperature gradient. The effective size is a factor of about 1.3 and 2 larger in the Lband and N-band, respectively, compared to that in the K-band. The existing interferometric measurements and the spectral energy distribution can be reproduced by a flat disk or a weakly shadowed nearly flat-disk model, with only slight flaring in the outer regions of the disk, consisting of representative "sub-micron" (0.1 micron) and "micron" (2 micron) grains of a 50:50 ratio of silicate and graphite. This is marked contrast with the disks previously found in other Herbig Ae/Be stars suggesting a wide variety in the disk properties among Herbig Ae/Be stars.

Ragland, S.; Ohnaka, K.; Hillenbrand, L.; Ridgway, S. T.; Colavita, M. M.; Akeson, R. L.; Cotton, W.; Danichi, W. C.; Hrynevych, M.; Milan-Gabet, R.; Traub, W. A.

2012-01-01

375

ERRATUM: ``CHANDRA HETGS MULTIPHASE SPECTROSCOPY OF THE YOUNG MAGNETIC O STAR 1  

E-print Network

-Z elements, this omission led us to underestimate the intercombination line strength from our model is an O5.5 V star with radius R % 10:6 R and effective temperature TeA % 40;000 K. This new calibration:0. The net effect of the corrected model and lower effective temperature is to place the X

Cohen, David

376

Magnetic Cycles in a Wreath-Building Dynamo Simulation of a Young Solar-type Star  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stars like the Sun build global-scale magnetic fields though dynamo processes in their convection zones. There, global-scale plasma motions couple with rotation and likely drive cycles of magnetic activity, though the exact processes at work in solar and stellar dynamos remain elusive. Observations of younger suns indicate that they rotate quite rapidly, have strong magnetic fields at their surfaces, and

Benjamin Brown; M. S. Miesch; M. K. Browning; A. S. Brun; N. J. Nelson; J. Toomre

2011-01-01

377